## N-Valued Refined Neutrosophic Logic and Its Applications to Physics

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

In this paper we present a short history of logics: from particular cases of 2-symbol or numerical
valued logic to the general case of n-symbol or numerical valued logic. We show generalizations
of 2-valued Boolean logic to fuzzy logic, also from the Kleene’s and Lukasiewicz’ 3-symbol
valued logics or Belnap’s 4-symbol valued logic to the most general n-symbol or numerical
valued refined neutrosophic logic. Two classes of neutrosophic norm (n-norm) and neutrosophic
conorm (n-conorm) are defined. Examples of applications of neutrosophic logic to physics are
listed in the last section.
Similar generalizations can be done for n-Valued Refined Neutrosophic Set, and respectively n-
Valued Refined Neutrosopjhic Probability.

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

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### Submission history

[v1] 2013-09-05 20:36:23

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