## Proof of no Johnson Noise at Zero Temperature

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Gunnar Niklasson, Claes-Goran Granqvist

The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise of a resistance are the sum of Nyquist's classical Johnson noise equations and a (quantum) zero-point term with power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. At zero temperature, the classical Nyquist term vanishes however the zero-point term produces non-zero noise voltage and current. We show that the claim of zero-point noise directly contradicts to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. As a consequence, the Johnson noise must be zero at zero temperature, which is in accordance with Nyquist's original formula. Further investigation shows that the Callen-Welton derivation has conceptual errors such as neglecting phonon scattering, disregarding the Pauli principle during calculating the transition probabilities and using bosonic (linear oscillator) energies leading to the zero-point noise artifact. Following Kleen's proposal, the possible origin of the heterodyne (Koch - van Harlingen - Clark) experimental results are also discussed in terms of Heffner theory of quantum noise of frequency/phase-sensitive linear amplifiers. Experiments that failed to see the zero-point noise term are also mentioned.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Refuted on arXiv

**Download:** **PDF**

### Submission history

[v1] 2015-06-01 23:30:26

[v2] 2015-06-02 12:03:23

[v3] 2015-06-06 18:27:04

[v4] 2015-06-30 21:49:34

**Unique-IP document downloads:** 163 times

Vixra.org is a pre-print repository rather than a journal. Articles hosted may not yet have been verified by peer-review and should be treated as preliminary.
In particular, anything that appears to include financial or legal advice or proposed medical treatments should be treated with due caution.
Vixra.org will not be responsible for any consequences of actions that result from any form of use of any documents on this website.

**Add your own feedback and questions here:**

*You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.*

*
*