## Proof of no Johnson Noise at Zero Temperature

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Gunnar Niklasson, Claes-Goran Granqvist

The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise of a resistance are the sum of Nyquist's classical Johnson noise equations and a (quantum) zero-point term with power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. At zero temperature, the classical Nyquist term vanishes however the zero-point term produces non-zero noise voltage and current. We show that the claim of zero-point noise directly contradicts to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. As a consequence, the Johnson noise must be zero at zero temperature, which is in accordance with Nyquist's original formula. Further investigation shows that the Callen-Welton derivation has conceptual errors such as neglecting phonon scattering, disregarding the Pauli principle during calculating the transition probabilities and using bosonic (linear oscillator) energies leading to the zero-point noise artifact. Following Kleen's proposal, the possible origin of the heterodyne (Koch - van Harlingen - Clark) experimental results are also discussed in terms of Heffner theory of quantum noise of frequency/phase-sensitive linear amplifiers. Experiments that failed to see the zero-point noise term are also mentioned.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Refuted on arXiv

**Download:** **PDF**

### Submission history

[v1] 2015-06-01 23:30:26

[v2] 2015-06-02 12:03:23

[v3] 2015-06-06 18:27:04

[v4] 2015-06-30 21:49:34

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