Authors: Stanislav Dolgopolov
Analyzing the exchange energy of two conduction electrons in a crystal at many-body approach we find that the exchange energy may be negative and, thus, the singlet state may be favorable. A full overlap in the real space of the wave functions of two conduction electrons leads to a deeper exchange energy. Thus the exchange interaction causes a bond between two conduction electrons in the real space. The singlet bond is possible because the singlet electrons are in average closer to positive ions than single electrons. If conduction electrons, before the pairing, are put on the Fermi surface in the momentum space, then every pair may exist permanently in time. The motion of conduction electrons in the crystal may prevent the formation of Cooper pairs, because the kinetic energy of the motion is usually larger than the binding energy in the pair. Conduction electrons as standing waves have zero momenta, hence their momenta are synchronous; therefore the formation of Cooper pairs is more probable than in case of non-zero momenta. The approach of standing waves explains the inverse isotope effect and many other facts about superconductors. Considering the electronic pairs as bosons we find that the further necessary condition for superconductivity is the non-zero temperature of the Bose-Einstein-Condensation.
Comments: 9 Pages. in the version 2 added experimental facts confirming the theory
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