Physical Properties of Stars and Stellar Dynamics

Authors: Yuri Heymann

The present study is an investigation of stellar physics based on observables such as mass, luminosity, radius, and photosphere temperature. We collected a dataset of these characteristics for 360 stars, and diagramed the relationships between their characteristics and their type (white dwarf, red dwarf, main sequence star, giant, supergiant, hypergiant, Wolf-Rayet, carbon star, etc.). For stars dominated by radiation pressure in the photosphere which follow the Eddington luminosity, we computed the opacity and cross section to photon flux per hydrogen nuclei in the photosphere. We considered the Sun as an example of star dominated by gas pressure in the photosphere, and estimated the density of the solar photosphere using limb darkening and assuming the adiabatic gradient of a monoatomic gas. We then estimated the cross section per hydrogen nuclei in the plasma of the solar photosphere, which we found to be about 2.66\e{-28} \, m^2, whereas the cross section of neutral hydrogen as given by the Bohr model is 8.82\e{-21} \, m^2. This result suggests that the electrons and protons in the plasma are virtually detached. Hence, a hydrogen plasma may be represented as a gas mixture of electrons and protons. If the stellar photosphere was made of large hydrogen atoms or ions such as the ones we find in gases, its surface would evaporate due to the high temperatures.

Comments: 15 Pages. Accepted for publication in Progress in Physics

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Submission history

[v1] 2016-12-26 11:48:47
[v2] 2017-01-14 04:18:08

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