Quantum Physics

   

Quantum State Tomography

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum state tomography is the process of reconstructing – or more precisely completely characterizing – the quantum state of an object as it is emitted by its source, before a possible measurement or interaction with the environment takes place. [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17]

Comments: 38 Pages.

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[v1] 2017-02-03 04:44:49

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