**Authors:** Shuang-Ren Zhao

In electromagnetic theory and quantum theory, there are superposition principle. The author found that there are 5 different kinds of superpositions. The superposition principles have some differences. The research about these differences is a key to open the the door of many physical difficulties. For example the particle and wave duality problem, and to judge which interpretation of the quantum mechanics is a correct one. The first two superposition principles are the superpositions with and without the test charges. The slight different superposition principles are the superposition with a retarded wave alone and the superposition with the advanced wave alone. According to theory of this author, the emitter sends the retarded wave, the absorber sends the advance wave. Hence, normal electromagnetic field actually is consist of retarded wave and advanced wave. This two wave together become the normal electromagnetic field. This kind of electromagnetic field can be seen approximately as retarded wave, this kind wave also has its own superposition. This kind of superposition is also different with the superposition when we consider the retarded wave and also the advanced wave. In this article this author will discuss the differences of these different situations of superpositions. This author will also discuss the different physical result with a few different superposition principles. In this article this author will prove only when the self-energy principle is accept, all kinds of superposition can be accept. Otherwise only the superposition with test charge or the superposition with only one kind wave either retarded waves or advanced waves can be accepted. Hence, the discussion about the superposition also support the concept of the self-energy principle which means there must exist the time reversal waves. That also means the waves do not collapse but collapse back. Wave collapse means collapse to target of the wave, for example, the retarded wave will collapse to a absorber and the advanced wave will collapse to a emitter. Wave collapse back means the retarded wave sent from emitter will collapse back to emitter; The advanced wave sent from the absorber will collapse back to an absorber. Hence, one purpose of this article is to clarify the superposition principles, and another purpose is to support this author's electromagnetic field theory which is started from two new axioms the self-energy principle and the mutual energy principle.

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

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[v1] 2018-11-25 23:16:10

[v2] 2018-11-27 22:27:44

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