Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Dirac sought a relativistic quantum free-particle Hamiltonian that imposes space-time symmetry on the Schroedinger equation in configuration representation; he ignored the Lorentz covariance of energy-momentum. Dirac free-particle velocity therefore is momentum-independent, breaching relativity basics. Dirac also made solutions of his equation satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation via requirements imposed on its operators. Dirac particle speed is thereby fixed to the unphysical value of c times the square root of three, and anticommutation requirements prevent four observables, including the components of velocity, from commuting when Planck's constant vanishes, a correspondence-principle breach responsible for Dirac free-particle spontaneous acceleration (zitterbewegung) that diverges in the classical limit. Nonrelativistic Pauli theory contrariwise is physically sensible, and its particle rest-frame action can be extended to become Lorentz invariant. The consequent Lagrangian yields the corresponding closed-form relativistic Hamiltonian when magnetic field is absent, otherwise a successive-approximation regime applies.
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