Relativity and Cosmology


A New Theoretical Framework of Absolute and Relative Motion, the Speed of Light, Electromagnetism and Gravity

Authors: Henok Tadesse

In this paper, a new theoretical framework for absolute motion and the speed of light is presented. The new theoretical framework consists of two parts: 1. Constancy of phase velocity of light 2. Apparent Source Theory. The theory of constancy of phase velocity of light is a consequence of non-existence of the ether. Thus the phase velocity of light in vacuum is always constant c, irrespective of absolute or relative motion of the light source, the observer and the mirror, for uniform or accelerated motions. The constancy of phase velocity of light leads to a new Exponential Doppler Effect of light: f ' = f eV/c and λ' = λe -V/c , which fulfills the constant phase velocity condition : f ' λ ' = f eV/cλe-V/c = f λ = c . The Exponential Doppler Effect theory can also explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment. The Michelson-Morley disproved the ether hypothesis but failed to detect absolute motion, which was decisively detected by the Silvertooth experiment, in combination with the NASA CMBR anisotropy experiment. Absolute motion is not motion relative to the ether. According to Apparent Source Theory, the effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the point of light emission relative to an inertial observer, in the reference frame of an absolutely moving inertial observer. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in point of light emission relative to the observer/detector will create only a small fringe shift for the same reason that an actual/physical change in the source position ( actual change in point of light emission ) will result only in a small fringe shift. This is the small fringe shift observed in the original Michelson-Morley experiment and in the Miller experiments. A profound prediction of Apparent Source Theory regarding the phenomenon of stellar aberration is that the apparent change in star position in not in the same direction as the observer's velocity, but in the opposite direction ! Thus, an observer in absolute motion needs to tilt his telescope backwards, not forward, to see star light. A formulation of Apparent Source Theory for a non-inertial observer is also presented. For a non-inertial observer/detector, the light speed experiment is analyzed based on the following principle. An imaginary inertial observer is assumed who will be at the same point and moving with the same velocity as the instantaneous velocity of the real accelerating observer at the instant of light detection. In other words, the real accelerating observer and the imaginary inertial observer will detect the light at the same point in space, simultaneously, while moving with the same instantaneous velocity. This general formulation of Apparent Source Theory is applied to analyze the Sagnac effect. The Sagnac effect is shown to be an acceleration effect, not an absolute motion effect. Apparent Source Theory is also applied to static electric, magnetic and gravitational sources. A qualitative analysis of Mercury perihelion advance is presented. It is proposed that magnetic field is a form of electric field as described by Weber's formula for electrostatic force between two charges. Weber's formula, which is a modification of Coulomb's formula, is adopted and combined with Apparent Source Theory, which may explain all electromagnetic phenomenon. Analogous Weber's formula for gravitation, which is a modification of Newton's law of gravitation, might solve some of the outstanding problems in physics, such as dark matter, dark energy and Pioneer anomaly.

Comments: 76 Pages.

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Submission history

[v1] 2019-06-12 07:58:02
[v2] 2019-06-17 03:22:41

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