# Artificial Intelligence

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2018 - 1801(4)

## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[425] viXra:1801.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 07:03:26

### FastNet: An Efficient Architecture for Smart Devices

Authors: John Olafenwa, Moses Olafenwa

Inception and the Resnet family of Convolutional Neural Network architectures have broken records in the past few years, but recent state of the art models have also incurred very high computational cost in terms of training, inference and model size. Making the deployment of these models on Edge devices, impractical. In light of this, we present a new novel architecture that is designed for high computational efficiency on both GPUs and CPUs, and is highly suited for deployment on Mobile Applications, Smart Cameras, Iot devices and controllers as well as low cost drones. Our architecture boasts competitive accuracies on standard datasets even outperforming the original Resnet. We present below the motivation for this research, the architecture of the network, single test accuracies on CIFAR 10 and CIFAR 100, a detailed comparison with other well-known architectures and link to an implementation in Keras.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[424] viXra:1801.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 11:34:24

### Bayesian Transfer Learning for Deep Networks

Authors: J. Wohlert, A. M. Munk, S. Sengupta, F. Laumann

We propose a method for transfer learning for deep networks through Bayesian inference, where an approximate posterior distribution q(w|θ) of model parameters w is learned through variational approximation. Utilizing Bayes by Backprop we optimize the parameters θ associated with the approximate distribution. When performing transfer learning we consider two tasks; A and B. Firstly, an approximate posterior q_A(w|θ) is learned from task A which is afterwards transferred as a prior p(w) → q_A(w|θ) when learning the approximate posterior distribution q_B(w|θ) for task B. Initially, we consider a multivariate normal distribution q(w|θ) = N (µ, Σ), with diagonal covariance matrix Σ. Secondly, we consider the prospects of introducing more expressive approximate distributions - specifically those known as normalizing flows. By investigating these concepts on the MNIST data set we conclude that utilizing normalizing flows does not improve Bayesian inference in the context presented here. Further, we show that transfer learning is not feasible using our proposed architecture and our definition of task A and task B, but no general conclusion regarding rejecting a Bayesian approach to transfer learning can be made.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[423] viXra:1801.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-06 00:20:25

### Fruit Recognition from Images Using Deep Learning

Authors: Horea Muresan, Mihai Oltean

In this paper we introduce a new, high-quality, dataset of images containing fruits. We also present the results of some numerical experiment for training a neural network to detect fruits. We discuss the reason why we chose to use fruits in this project by proposing a few applications that could use this kind of neural network.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[422] viXra:1801.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 06:09:53

### Taking Advantage of BiLSTM Encoding to Handle Punctuation in Dependency Parsing: A Brief Idea

Authors: Matteo Grella

In the context of the bidirectional-LSTMs neural parser (Kiperwasser and Goldberg, 2016), an idea is proposed to initialize the parsing state without punctuation-tokens but using them for the BiLSTM sentence encoding. The relevant information brought by the punctuation-tokens should be implicitly learned using the errors of the recurrent contributions only.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[421] viXra:1712.0659 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-29 06:21:14

### TDBF: Two Dimensional Belief Function

Authors: Yangxue Li; Yong Deng

How to efﬁciently handle uncertain information is still an open issue. Inthis paper, a new method to deal with uncertain information, named as two dimensional belief function (TDBF), is presented. A TDBF has two components, T=(mA,mB). The ﬁrst component, mA, is a classical belief function. The second component, mB, also is a classical belief function, but it is a measure of reliability of the ﬁrst component. The deﬁnition of TDBF and the discounting algorithm are proposed. Compared with the classical discounting model, the proposed TDBF is more ﬂexible and reasonable. Numerical examples are used to show the efﬁciency of the proposed method.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[420] viXra:1712.0654 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-29 11:33:39

### Partitioned Singular Value Decomposition to Digital Image Encryption

Authors: Reza Nazarian

Image encryption means a set of automated techniques which turn original images, known as input images, into cipher or encrypted image. A vast amount of digital images produced by social media and newspapers makes image encryption as an imperative toolset to the community. This paper implements a manifold learning-based method and examines its efficacy to digital image encryption. A list of experimental studies is performed to ensure the accuracy and general performance of the proposed method.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[419] viXra:1712.0647 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-28 23:25:34

### A Total Uncertainty Measure for D Numbers Based on Belief Intervals

Authors: Xinyang Deng, Wen Jiang

As a generalization of Dempster-Shafer theory, the theory of D numbers is a new theoretical framework for uncertainty reasoning. Measuring the uncertainty of knowledge or information represented by D numbers is an unsolved issue in that theory. In this paper, inspired by distance based uncertainty measures for Dempster-Shafer theory, a total uncertainty measure for a D number is proposed based on its belief intervals. The proposed total uncertainty measure can simultaneously capture the discord, and non-specificity, and non-exclusiveness involved in D numbers. And some basic properties of this total uncertainty measure, including range, monotonicity, generalized set consistency, are also presented.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[418] viXra:1712.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-18 08:50:22

### Just Keep it in Mind: Information is a Complex Notion with Physical and Semantic Information Staying for Real and Imaginary Parts of the Expression

Authors: Emanuel Diamant
Comments: 3 Pages. Presented at the IS4SI 2017 Summit, Information Theory Section, Gothenburg, Sweden, 12–16 June 2017

Shannon’s Information was devised to improve the performance of a data communication channel. Since then, the situation has changed drastically and today a more generally applicable and suitable definition of information is urgently required. To meet this demand, I have proposed a definition of my own. According to it, information is a complex notion with Physical and Semantic information staying for Real and Imaginary parts of the term. The scientific community has very unfriendly accepted this idea. But without a better solution for the problem of: 1) intron-exon partition in genes, 2) information flow in neuronal networks, 3) memory creation and potentiation in brains, 4) thoughts and thinking materialization in human heads, and 5) the undeniable shift from Computational (that is, data processing based) approach to Cognitive (that is, information processing based) approach in the field of scientific research, they would be forced to admit one day that something worthy is in this new definition.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[417] viXra:1712.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-18 09:05:26

### Shannon's Definition of Information is Obsolete and Inadequate. it is Time to Embrace Kolmogorov’s Insights on the Matter

Authors: Emanuel Diamant
Comments: 3 Pages. Presented at the 2016 ICSEE International Conference, Eilat, Israel, 16 – 18 November 2016.

Information Theory, as developed by Claude Shannon in 1948, was about the communication of messages as electronic signals via a transmission channel. Only physical properties of the signal and the channel have been taken into account. While the meaning of the message has been ignored totally. Such an approach to information met very well the requirements of a data communication channel. But recent advances in almost all sciences put an urgent demand for meaningful information inclusion into the body of a communicated message. To meet this demand, I have proposed a new definition of information. In this definition, information is seen as a complex notion composed of two inseparable parts: Physical information and Semantic information. Classical informations such as Shannon, Fisher, Renyi, Kolmogorov’s complexity, and Chaitin’s algorithmic information – they are all physical information variants. Semantic information is a new concept and it desires to be properly studied, treated, and used.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[416] viXra:1712.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 23:33:47

### Predicting Yelp Star Reviews Based on Network Structure with Deep Learning

Authors: Luis Perez

In this paper, we tackle the real-world problem of predicting Yelp star-review rating based on business features (such as images, descriptions), user features (average previous ratings), and, of particular interest, network properties (which businesses has a user rated before). We compare multiple models on different sets of features -- from simple linear regression on network features only to deep learning models on network and item features. In recent years, breakthroughs in deep learning have led to increased accuracy in common supervised learning tasks, such as image classification, captioning, and language understanding. However, the idea of combining deep learning with network feature and structure appears to be novel. While the problem of predicting future interactions in a network has been studied at length, these approaches have often ignored either node-specific data or global structure. We demonstrate that taking a mixed approach combining both node-level features and network information can effectively be used to predict Yelp-review star ratings. We evaluate on the Yelp dataset by splitting our data along the time dimension (as would naturally occur in the real-world) and comparing our model against others which do no take advantage of the network structure and/or deep learning.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[415] viXra:1712.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 23:41:37

### The Effectiveness of Data Augmentation in Image Classification using Deep Learning

Authors: Luis Perez, Jason Wang

In this paper, we explore and compare multiple solutions to the problem of data augmentation in image classification. Previous work has demonstrated the effectiveness of data augmentation through simple techniques, such as cropping, rotating, and flipping input images. We artificially constrain our access to data to a small subset of the ImageNet dataset, and compare each data augmentation technique in turn. One of the more successful data augmentations strategies is the traditional transformations mentioned above. We also experiment with GANs to generate images of different styles. Finally, we propose a method to allow a neural net to learn augmentations that best improve the classifier, which we call neural augmentation. We discuss the successes and shortcomings of this method on various datasets.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[414] viXra:1712.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 23:43:11

### Gaussian Processes for Crime Prediction

Authors: Luis Perez, Alex Wang

The ability to predict crime is incredibly useful for police departments, city planners, and many other parties, but thus far current approaches have not made use of recent developments of machine learning techniques. In this paper, we present a novel approach to this task: Gaussian processes regression. Gaussian processes (GP) are a rich family of distributions that are able to learn functions. We train GPs on historic crime data to learn the underlying probability distribution of crime incidence to make predictions on future crime distributions.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[413] viXra:1712.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-16 00:36:46

### Reinforcement Learning with Swingy Monkey

Authors: Luis Perez, Aidi Zhang, Kevin Eskici

This paper explores model-free, model-based, and mixture models for reinforcement learning under the setting of a SwingyMonkey game \footnote{The code is hosted on a public repository \href{https://github.com/kandluis/machine-learning}{here} under the prac4 directory.}. SwingyMonkey is a simple game with well-defined goals and mechanisms, with a relatively small state-space. Using Bayesian Optimization \footnote{The optimization took place using the open-source software made available by HIPS \href{https://github.com/HIPS/Spearmint}{here}.} on a simple Q-Learning algorithm, we were able to obtain high scores within just a few training epochs. However, the system failed to scale well after continued training, and optimization over hundreds of iterations proved too time-consuming to be effective. After manually exploring multiple approaches, the best results were achieved using a mixture of $\epsilon$-greedy Q-Learning with a stable learning rate,$\alpha$, and $\delta \approx 1$ discount factor. Despite the theoretical limitations of this approach, the settings, resulted in maximum scores of over 5000 points with an average score of $\bar{x} \approx 684$ (averaged over the final 100 testing epochs, median of $\bar{m} = 357.5$). The results show an continuing linear log-relation capping only after 20,000 training epochs.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[412] viXra:1712.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-16 00:38:28

### Multi-Document Text Summarization

Authors: Luis Perez, Kevin Eskici

We tackle the problem of multi-document extractive summarization by implementing two well-known algorithms for single-text summarization -- {\sc TextRank} and {\sc Grasshopper}. We use ROUGE-1 and ROUGE-2 precision scores with the DUC 2004 Task 2 data set to measure the performance of these two algorithms, with optimized parameters as described in their respective papers ($\alpha =0.25$ and $\lambda=0.5$ for Grasshopper and $d=0.85$ for TextRank). We compare these modified algorithms to common baselines as well as non-naive, novel baselines and we present the resulting ROUGE-1 and ROUGE-2 recall scores. Subsequently, we implement two novel algorithms as extensions of {\sc GrassHopper} and {\sc TextRank}, each termed {\sc ModifiedGrassHopper} and {\sc ModifiedTextRank}. The modified algorithms intuitively attempt to maximize'' diversity across the summary. We present the resulting ROUGE scores. We expect that with further optimizations, this unsupervised approach to extractive text summarization will prove useful in practice.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[411] viXra:1712.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 08:17:06

### A New Divergence Measure for Basic Probability Assignment and Its Applications in Extremely Uncertain Environments

Authors: Liguo Fei, Yong Hu, Yong Deng, Sankaran Mahadevan

Information fusion under extremely uncertain environments is an important issue in pattern classification and decision-making problem. Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (D-S theory) is more and more extensively applied to information fusion for its advantage to deal with uncertain information. However, the results opposite to common sense are often obtained when combining the different evidences using Dempster’s combination rules. How to measure the difference between different evidences is still an open issue. In this paper, a new divergence is proposed based on Kullback-Leibler divergence in order to measure the difference between different basic probability assignments (BPAs). Numerical examples are used to illustrate the computational process of the proposed divergence. Then the similarity for different BPAs is also defined based on the proposed divergence. The basic knowledge about pattern recognition is introduced and a new classification algorithm is presented using the proposed divergence and similarity under extremely uncertain environments, which is illustrated by a small example handling robot sensing. The method put forward is motivated by desperately in need to develop intelligent systems, such as sensor-based data fusion manipulators, which need to work in complicated, extremely uncertain environments. Sensory data satisfy the conditions 1) fragmentary and 2) collected from multiple levels of resolution.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[410] viXra:1712.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 08:59:01

### Environmental Impact Assessment Using D-Vikor Approach

Authors: Liguo Fei, Yong Deng

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an open and important issue depends on factors such as social, ecological, economic, etc. Due to human judgment, a variety of uncertainties are brought into the EIA process. With regard to uncertainty, many existing methods seem powerless to represent and deal with it effectively. A new theory called D numbers, because of its advantage to handle uncertain information, is widely used to uncertainty modeling and decision making. VIKOR method has its unique advantages in dealing with multiple criteria decision making problems (MCDM), especially when the criteria are non-commensurable and even conflicting, it can also obtain the compromised optimal solution. In order to solve EIA problems more effectively, in this paper, a D-VIKOR approach is proposed, which expends the VIKOR method by D numbers theory. In the proposed approach, assessment information of environmental factors is expressed and modeled by D numbers. And a new combination rule for multiple D numbers is defined. Subjective weights and objective weights are considered in VIKOR process for more reasonable ranking results. A numerical example is conducted to analyze and demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed D-VIKOR approach.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[409] viXra:1712.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 11:45:00

### Large Scale Traffic Surveillance :Vehicle Detection and Classification Using Cascade Classifier and Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Shaif Chowdhury

In this Paper, we are presenting a traffic surveillance system for detection and classification of vehicles in large scale videos. Vehicle detection is crucial part of Road safety. There are lots of different intelligent systems proposed for traffic surveillance. The system presented here is based on two steps, a descriptor of the image type haar-like, and a classifier type convolutional neural networks. A cascade classifier is used to extract objects rapidly and a neural network is used for final classification of cars. In case of Haar Cascades, the learning of the system is performed on a set of positive images (vehicles) and negative images (non-vehicle), and the test is done on another set of scenes. For the second, we have used faster R-CNN architecture. The cascade classifier gives faster processing time and Neural Network is used to increase the detection rate.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[408] viXra:1712.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 22:28:48

### DS-Vikor: a New Methodology for Supplier Selection

Authors: Liguo Fei, Yong Deng, Yong Hu

How to select the optimal supplier is an open and important issue in supply chain management (SCM), which needs to solve the problem of assessment and sorting the potential suppliers, and can be considered as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. Experts’ assessment play a very important role in the process of supplier selection, while the subjective judgment of human beings could introduce unpredictable uncertainty. However, existing methods seem powerless to represent and deal with this uncertainty effectively. Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (D- S theory) is widely used to uncertainty modeling, decision making and conflicts management due to its advantage to handle uncertain information. The VIKOR method has a great advantage to handle MCDM problems with non-commensurable and even conflicting criteria, and to obtain the compromised optimal solution. In this paper, a DS- VIKOR method is proposed for the supplier selection problem which expends the VIKOR method by D-S theory. In this method, the basic probability assignment (BPA) is used to denote the decision makers’ assessment for suppliers, Deng entropy weight-based method is defined and applied to determine the weights of multi-criteria, and VIKOR method is used for getting the final ranking results. An illustrative example under real life is conducted to analyze and demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed DS-VIKOR method.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[407] viXra:1712.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 06:52:57

### Adaptively Evidential Weighted Classifier Combination

Authors: Liguo Fei, Bingyi Kang, Van-Nam Huynh, Yong Deng

Classifier combination plays an important role in classification. Due to the efficiency to handle and fuse uncertain information, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is widely used in multi-classifiers fusion. In this paper, a method of adaptively evidential weighted classifier combination is presented. In our proposed method, the output of each classifier is modelled by basic probability assignment (BPA). Then, the weights are determined adaptively for individual classifier according to the uncertainty degree of the corresponding BPA. The uncertainty degree is measured by a belief entropy, named as Deng entropy. Discounting-and-combination scheme in D-S theory is used to calculate the weighted BPAs and combine them for the final BPA for classification. The effectiveness of the proposed weighted combination method is illustrated by numerical experimental results.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[406] viXra:1712.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 09:10:57

### Finding The Next Term Of Any Time Series Type Or Non Time Series Type Sequence Using Total Similarity & Dissimilarity {Version 6} ISSN 1751-3030.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given time series type or non-time series type sequence.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[405] viXra:1712.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 14:07:08

### Topological Clustering as a Method of Control for Certain Critical-Point Sensitive Systems

Authors: Martin J. Dudziiak
Comments: 6 Pages. submitted to CoDIT 2018 (Thessaloniki, Greece, April 2018)

New methods can provide more sensitive modeling and more reliable control, through use of dynamically-alterable local neighborhood clusters comprised of of the state-space parameters most disposed to be influential in non-linear systemic changes. Particular attention is directed to systems with extreme non-linearity and uncertainty in measurement and in control communications (e.g., micro-scalar, remote and inaccessible to real-time control). An architecture for modeling based upon topological similarity mapping principles is introduced as an alternative to classical Turing machine models including new “quantum computers.”
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[404] viXra:1712.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-03 19:12:51

### The Intelligence Quotient of the Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Dimiter Dobrev
Comments: 15 Pages. Bulgarian. Serdica Journal of Computing.

To say which programs are AI, it's enough to run an exam and recognize for AI those programs that passed the exam. The exam grade will be called IQ. We cannot say just how big the IQ has to be in order one program to be AI, but we will choose one specific value. So our definition of AI will be any program whose IQ is above this specific value. This idea has already been realized in [1], but here we will repeat this construction by bringing some improvements.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[403] viXra:1711.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-30 18:22:54

### Okay, Google: a Preliminary Evaluation of the Robustness of Scholar Metrics

Authors: H Qadrawxu-Korbau, D Smith, K Beryllium

Google Scholar provides a number of metrics often used as proxies for scientific productivity. It is, however, possible to consciously manipulate Scholar metrics, for instance via copious self-citation or upload of fake papers to indexed websites. Here, we post a paper on vixra, a preprint forum, and arbitrarily cite a completely random study to evaluate whether Scholar will count this submission toward the overall citation count of that study. We publish no results, as the publication of the paper is, in this case, the experiment.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[402] viXra:1711.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-30 02:13:24

### Multi-Scalar Multi-Agent Control for Optimization of Dynamic Networks Operating in Remote Environment

Authors: Martin Dudziak

Multi-agent control systems have demonstrated effectiveness in a variety of physical applications including cooperative robot networks and multi-target tracking in high-noise network and group environments. We introduce the use of multi-scalar models that extend cellular automaton regional neighborhood comparisons and local voting measures based upon stochastic approximation in order to provide more efficient and time-sensitive solutions to non-deterministic problems. The scaling factors may be spatial, temporal or in other semantic values. The exercising of both cooperative and competitive functions by the devices in such networks offers a method for optimizing system parameters to reduce search, sorting, ranking and anomaly evaluation tasks. Applications are illustration for a group of robots assigned different tasks in remote operating environments with highly constrained communications and critical fail-safe conditions.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[401] viXra:1711.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-26 23:19:36

### Finding The Next Term Of Any Time Series Type Sequence Using Total Similarity & Dissimilarity {Version 5} ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given time series type sequence.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[400] viXra:1711.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-27 05:14:34

### Finding The Next Term Of Any Sequence Using Total Similarity & Dissimilarity {Version 5}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given sequence.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[399] viXra:1711.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-26 01:39:24

### Move the Tip to the Right a Language Based Computeranimation System in Box2d

Authors: Frank Schröder

Not only “robots need language”, but sometimes a human-operator too. To interact with complex domains, he needs a vocabulary to init the robot, let him walk and grasping objects. Natural language interfaces can support semi-autonomous and fully-autonomous systems on both sides. Instead of using neural networks, the language grounding problem can be solved with object-oriented programming. In the following paper a simulation of micro-manipulation under a microscope is given which is controlled with a C++ script. The small vocabulary consists of init, pregrasp, grasp and place.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[398] viXra:1711.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-22 02:30:08

### A Survey on Evolutionary Computation: Methods and Their Applications in Engineering

Authors: Morteza Husainy Yar, Vahid Rahmati, Hamid Reza Dalili Oskouei

Evolutionary computation is now an inseparable branch of artificial intelligence and smart methods based on evolutional algorithms aimed at solving different real world problems by natural procedures involving living creatures. It's based on random methods, regeneration of data, choosing by changing or replacing data within a system such as personal computer (PC), cloud, or any other data center. This paper briefly studies different evolutionary computation techniques used in some applications specifically image processing, cloud computing and grid computing. These methods are generally categorized as evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence. Each of these subfields contains a variety of algorithms and techniques which are presented with their applications. This work tries to demonstrate the benefits of the field by presenting the real world applications of these methods implemented already. Among these applications is cloud computing scheduling problem improved by genetic algorithms, ant colony optimization, and bees algorithm. Some other applications are improvement of grid load balancing, image processing, improved bi-objective dynamic cell formation problem, robust machine cells for dynamic part production, integrated mixed-integer linear programming, robotic applications, and power control in wind turbines.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[397] viXra:1711.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-20 22:14:32

### Finding The Next Term Of Any Given Sequence Using Total Similarity & Dissimilarity {Version 3} ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given sequence.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[396] viXra:1711.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-21 00:18:32

### One Step Evolution Of Any Real Positive Number {Version 2}

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of One Step Evolution Of Any Real Positive Number.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[395] viXra:1711.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-20 02:12:39

### Finding The Next Term Of Any Given Sequence Using Total Similarity & Dissimilarity. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given sequence.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[394] viXra:1711.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-20 02:43:10

### Ontology Engineering for Robotics

Authors: Frank Schröder

Ontologies are a powerfull alternative to reinforcement learning. They store knowledge in a domain-specific language. The best-practice for implementing ontologies is a distributed version control system which is filled manually by programmers.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[393] viXra:1711.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-20 05:21:55

### Finding The Next Term Of Any Given Sequence Using Total Similarity & Dissimilarity {New} ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given sequence.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[392] viXra:1711.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-12 09:29:57

### Strengths and Potential of the SP Theory of Intelligence in General, Human-Like Artificial Intelligence

Authors: J Gerard Wolff

This paper first defines "general, human-like artificial intelligence" (GHLAI) in terms of five principles. In the light of the definition, the paper summarises the strengths and potential of the "SP theory of intelligence" and its realisation in the "computer model", outlined in an appendix, in three main areas: the versatility of the SP system in aspects of intelligence; its versatility in the representation of diverse kinds of knowledge; and its potential for the seamless integration of diverse aspects of intelligence and diverse kinds of knowledge, in any combination. There are reasons to believe that a mature version of the SP system may attain full GHLAI in diverse aspects of intelligence and in the representation of diverse kinds of knowledge.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[391] viXra:1711.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-11 03:38:23

### Revisit Fuzzy Neural Network: Demystifying Batch Normalization and ReLU with Generalized Hamming Network

Authors: Lixin Fan
Comments: 10 Pages. NIPS 2017 publication.

We revisit fuzzy neural network with a cornerstone notion of generalized hamming distance, which provides a novel and theoretically justified framework to re-interpret many useful neural network techniques in terms of fuzzy logic. In particular, we conjecture and empirically illustrate that, the celebrated batch normalization (BN) technique actually adapts the “normalized” bias such that it approximates the rightful bias induced by the generalized hamming distance. Once the due bias is enforced analytically, neither the optimization of bias terms nor the sophisticated batch normalization is needed. Also in the light of generalized hamming distance, the popular rectified linear units (ReLU) can be treated as setting a minimal hamming distance threshold between network inputs and weights. This thresholding scheme, on the one hand, can be improved by introducing double-thresholding on both positive and negative extremes of neuron outputs. On the other hand, ReLUs turn out to be non-essential and can be removed from networks trained for simple tasks like MNIST classification. The proposed generalized hamming network (GHN) as such not only lends itself to rigorous analysis and interpretation within the fuzzy logic theory but also demonstrates fast learning speed, well-controlled behaviour and state-of-the-art performances on a variety of learning tasks.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[390] viXra:1711.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-11 04:14:07

### Revisit Fuzzy Neural Network: Bridging the Gap Between Fuzzy Logic and Deep Learning

Authors: Lixin Fan
Comments: 75 Pages. bridging the gap between symbolic versus connectionist.

This article aims to establish a concrete and fundamental connection between two important fields in artificial intelligence i.e. deep learning and fuzzy logic. On the one hand, we hope this article will pave the way for fuzzy logic researchers to develop convincing applications and tackle challenging problems which are of interest to machine learning community too. On the other hand, deep learning could benefit from the comparative research by re-examining many trail-and-error heuristics in the lens of fuzzy logic, and consequently, distilling the essential ingredients with rigorous foundations. Based on the new findings reported in [38] and this article, we believe the time is ripe to revisit fuzzy neural network as a crucial bridge between two schools of AI research i.e. symbolic versus connectionist [93] and eventually open the black-box of artificial neural networks.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[389] viXra:1711.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-08 06:37:55

### Total Intra Similarity And Dissimilarity Measure For The Values Taken By A Parameter Of Concern. {Version 1}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the ‘Total Intra Similarity And Dissimilarity Measure For The Values Taken By A Parameter Of Concern’. The advantage of such a measure is that using this measure we can clearly distinguish the contribution of Intra aspect variation and Inter aspect variation when both are bound to occur in a given phenomenon of concern. This measure provides the same advantages as that provided by the popular F-Statistic measure.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[388] viXra:1711.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-07 03:26:43

### Dysfunktionale Methoden der Robotik

Authors: Frank Schröder

Bei der Realisierung von Robotik-Projekten kann man eine ganze Menge verkehrt machen. Damit sind nicht nur kalte Lötstellen oder abstürzende Software gemeint, sondern sehr viel grundsätzlichere Dinge spielen eine Rolle. Um Fehler zu vermeiden, muss man sich zunächst einmal mit den Failure-Patterns näher auseinandersetzen, also jenen Entwicklungsmethoden, nach denen man auf gar keinen Fall einen Roboter bauen und wie die Software möglichst nicht funktionieren sollte.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[387] viXra:1711.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-06 20:27:28

### Not Merely Memorization in Deep Networks: Universal Fitting and Specific Generalization

Authors: Xiuyi Yang

We reinterpret the training of convolutional neural nets(CNNs) with universal classification theorem(UCT). This theory implies any disjoint datasets can be classified by two or more layers of CNNs based on ReLUs and rigid transformation switch units(RTSUs) we propose here, this explains why CNNs could memorize noise and real data. Subsequently, we present another fresh new hypothesis that CNN is insensitive to some variant from input training data example, this variant relates to original training input by generating functions. This hypothesis means CNNs can generalize well even for randomly generated training data and illuminates the paradox Why CNNs fit real and noise data and fail drastically when making predictions for noise data. Our findings suggest the study about generalization theory of CNNs should turn to generating functions instead of traditional statistics machine learning theory based on assumption that the training data and testing data are independent and identically distributed(IID), and apparently IID assumption contradicts our experiments in this paper.We experimentally verify these ideas correspondingly.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[386] viXra:1711.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-07 01:52:12

### Theory Of Universal Evolution Along Prime Basis (Time Like) ISSN 1751-3030.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of Evolution.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[385] viXra:1711.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-07 02:22:45

### Theory Of Universal Evolution Along Prime Basis (Time Like) {Version 2} ISSN 1751-3030.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of Evolution.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[384] viXra:1711.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-02 23:51:41

### Dynamic Thresholding For Linear Binary Classifiers. {Version 2} ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the Thresholding for Linear Binary Classifiers.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[383] viXra:1711.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-02 06:05:21

### Dynamic Thresholding For Linear Binary Classifiers. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the Thresholding for Linear Binary Classifiers.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[382] viXra:1710.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-31 23:50:38

### Scheme For Finding The Next Term Of A Sequence Based On Evolution. {Version 7}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the next term of a sequence based on Evolution.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[381] viXra:1710.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-27 04:13:49

### Scheme For Finding The Next Term Of A Sequence Based On Evolution. {Version 6}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the next term of a sequence based on Evolution.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[380] viXra:1710.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-25 03:57:32

### Scheme For Finding The Next Term Of A Sequence Based On Evolution {File Closing Version 2}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the next term of a sequence based on Evolution.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[379] viXra:1710.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-25 23:47:37

### Scheme For Finding The Next Term Of A Sequence Based On Evolution {File Closing Version 3}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the next term of a sequence based on Evolution.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[378] viXra:1710.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-26 01:24:46

### Scheme For Finding The Next Term Of A Sequence Based On Evolution {File Closing Version 4}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the next term of a sequence based on Evolution.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[377] viXra:1710.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-26 03:56:28

### Scheme For Finding The Next Term Of A Sequence Based On Evolution {File Closing Version 5}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the next term of a sequence based on Evolution.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[376] viXra:1710.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-24 04:45:19

### Scheme For Finding The Next Term Of A Sequence Based On Evolution {File Closing Version 1}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the next term of a sequence based on Evolution.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[375] viXra:1710.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-23 23:14:04

### The Average Computed In Primes Basis {File Closing Version 2}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the average of a sequence in Primes Basis.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[374] viXra:1710.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-23 06:21:13

### The Average Computed In Primes Basis {File Closing Version 1}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the average of a sequence in Primes Basis.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[373] viXra:1710.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-23 00:38:01

### Universe’s Way Of Recursively Finding The Next Term Of Any Sequence {File Closing Version 3}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of Universe’s Way Of Recursively Finding The Next Term Of Any Sequence.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[372] viXra:1710.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 23:07:44

### The Recursive Future Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure. {File Closing Version 4}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[371] viXra:1710.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-12 10:42:50

### Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

Authors: Advances in the Collective Interface

A byproduct of 2AI.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[370] viXra:1710.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-12 11:12:18

### Advances in the Collective Interface

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

A byproduct of 2AI.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[369] viXra:1710.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-01 06:54:11

### Nature-Like Technology for Communication Network Selfactualization in the Mode Advancing Real-Time

Authors: Popov Boris

In order to provide control system operation in real-time mode, communication system should operate in the mode advancing real-time that can be achieved only by means of providing the communication system with mechanism for network structure forward adaptation to the variations in the user query topics and rates as well as their self-actualization. A technique for developing such nature-like technology that is based on fundamental natural inertia phenomenon and widespread symbiotic cooperation, distinguished by building-up (developing) resources being used, is proposed.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[368] viXra:1709.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-26 13:26:47

### A Suggestion on CLIPS/JIProlog/JNNS/ImageJ/Java Agents/JikesRVM Based Analysis of Cryo-EM/TEM/SEM Images Using HDF5 Image Format – Some Interesting & Feasible Implementations of Expert Systems to Understand Nano- Bio Material Systems and EM

Authors: D.N.T.Kumar
Comments: 7 Pages. Prolog/NN/Expert Systems/JikesRVM/Informatics/EM/Cryo-EM/TEM/SEM/Material Science/Java Agents/Nanotechnology.

In this short communication the importance of expert systems based imaging framework to probe Cryo-EM images is presented from a practical implementation point of view. Neural Networks or NN are an excellent tool to probe various domains of science and technology. Cryo-EM Technique holds bright future based on the application of NN.Prolog-NN based algorithms could form a powerful informatics and computational framework for researching the challenges of nano-bio Applications. Further,it is useful and important to study the behavior of NN in domains where knowledge does not exist, i.e to use the models to make bold predictions which form the basis for Cryo-EM Image Processing tasks and the discovery of new nano-bio phenomena.Indeed, the performance of NN is most useful to researchers in domains where the modeling and predicting “uncertainty” is known to be the greatest factor. All the methods presented here are also applicable to TEM/SEM/other EM Image Processing tasks as well.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[367] viXra:1709.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-26 13:33:02

### Kernel Principal Component Analysis as Mathematical Tool In Processing Cryo- EM Images – A Suggestion Using Kernel Based Data Processing Techniques in a Java Virtual Machine(JVM) Environment.

Authors: D.N.T.Kumar
Comments: 7 Pages. A Suggestion Using Kernel Based Data Processing Techniques in a Java Virtual Machine(JVM) Environment.

In this short communication,it was proposed to highlight some novel methodologies to probe,process and compute Cryo-EM Images in a unique way by using an open source Kernel-PCA and by interfacing the KERNEL-PCA via Java Matlab Interface(JMI) – JikesRVM system or any other Java Virtual Machine(JVM).The main reason to design and develop this kind of computing approach is to utilize the features of Java based technologies for futuristic applications in the promising and demanding domains of CRYO-EM Imaging in the nano-bio domains.This is one of the pioneering research topics in this domain with a lot of promise.Image de-noising and novelty detection paves the way and holds the key for better Cryo-EM image processing.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[366] viXra:1709.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-26 11:50:52

### How Does the ai Understand What's Going on

Authors: Dimiter Dobrev

Most researchers regard AI as a static function without memory. This is one of the few articles where AI is seen as a device with memory. When we have memory, we can ask ourselves: "Where am I?", and "What is going on?" When we have no memory, we have to assume that we are always in the same place and that the world is always in the same state.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[365] viXra:1709.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 05:35:00

### Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based On Cosine Similarity-RF

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[364] viXra:1709.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 05:49:31

### Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based On Cosine Similarity-RF {Version 2}

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[363] viXra:1709.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 00:01:00

### The Recursive Future Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure. {File Closing Version 2}. ISSN 1751-3030

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[362] viXra:1709.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 20:34:58

### Exact Map Inference in General Higher-Order Graphical Models Using Linear Programming

Authors: Ikhlef Bechar

This paper is concerned with the problem of exact MAP inference in general higher-order graphical models by means of a traditional linear programming relaxation approach. In fact, the proof that we have developed in this paper is a rather simple algebraic proof being made straightforward, above all, by the introduction of two novel algebraic tools. Indeed, on the one hand, we introduce the notion of delta-distribution which merely stands for the difference of two arbitrary probability distributions, and which mainly serves to alleviate the sign constraint inherent to a traditional probability distribution. On the other hand, we develop an approximation framework of general discrete functions by means of an orthogonal projection expressing in terms of linear combinations of function margins with respect to a given collection of point subsets, though, we rather exploit the latter approach for the purpose of modeling locally consistent sets of discrete functions from a global perspective. After that, as a first step, we develop from scratch the expectation optimization framework which is nothing else than a reformulation, on stochastic grounds, of the convex-hull approach, as a second step, we develop the traditional LP relaxation of such an expectation optimization approach, and we show that it enables to solve the MAP inference problem in graphical models under rather general assumptions. Last but not least, we describe an algorithm which allows to compute an exact MAP solution from a perhaps fractional optimal (probability) solution of the proposed LP relaxation.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[361] viXra:1709.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 08:11:16

### Quantum Thinking Machines

Authors: George Rajna

Category: Artificial Intelligence

[360] viXra:1709.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 06:46:27

### Analyzing Huge Volumes of Data

Authors: George Rajna

Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[359] viXra:1709.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 10:30:45

### AI is Reinforcing Stereotypes

Authors: George Rajna

Following the old saying that "knowledge is power", companies are seeking to infer increasingly intimate properties about their customers as a way to gain an edge over their competitors. [27] Researchers from Human Longevity, Inc. (HLI) have published a study in which individual faces and other physical traits were predicted using whole genome sequencing data and machine learning. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[358] viXra:1709.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 06:47:26

### Mergeable Nervous Robots

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the Université libre de Bruxelles have developed self-reconfiguring modular robots that can merge, split and even self-heal while retaining full sensorimotor control. [29] A challenging brain technique called whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology or whole-cell recording (WCR) is a procedure so delicate and complex that only a handful of humans in the whole world can do it. [28] ComText allows robots to understand contextual commands such as, " Pick up the box I put down. " [27] McMaster and Ryerson universities today announced the Smart Robots for Health Communication project, a joint research initiative designed to introduce social robotics and artificial intelligence into clinical health care. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[357] viXra:1709.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 20:53:40

### Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller for Velocity Control of an Electro Hydraulic Servo System

Authors: Zohreh Alzahra Sanai Dashti, Milad Gholami, Masoud Hajimani
Comments: 7 Pages. IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR - JEEE) e - ISSN: 2278 - 1676,p - ISSN: 2320 - 3331, Volume 12, Issue 4 Ver. I I (Jul. – Aug. 2017), PP 29 - 35

In this paper, a biologically motivated controller based on mammalian limbic system called Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC) is used for velocity control of an Electro Hydraulic Servo System (EHSS) in presence of flow nonlinearities, internal friction and noise. It is shown that this technique can be successfully used to stabilize any chosen operating point of the system with noise and without noise. All derived results are validated by computer simulation of a nonlinear mathematical model of the system. The controllers which introduced have big range for control the system. We compare BELBIC controller results with feedbacks linearization, backstepping and PID controller.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[356] viXra:1709.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 20:56:32

### Design & Implementation of Fuzzy Parallel Distributed Compensation Controller for Magnetic Levitation System

Authors: Milad Gholami, Zohreh Alzahra Sanai Dashti, Masoud Hajimani
Comments: 9 Pages. IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR - JEEE) e - ISSN : 2278 - 1676,p - ISSN: 2320 - 3331, Volume 12, Issue 4 Ver. I I (Jul. – Aug. 2017), PP 20 - 28

This study applies technique parallel distributed compensation (PDC) for position control of a Magnetic levitation system. PDC method is based on nonlinear Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model. It is shown that this technique can be successfully used to stabilize any chosen operating point of the system. All derived results are validated by experimental and computer simulation of a nonlinear mathematical model of the system. The controllers which introduced have big range for control the system.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[355] viXra:1709.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 07:51:38

### Machine Learning Monitoring Air Quality

Authors: George Rajna

UCLA researchers have developed a cost-effective mobile device to measure air quality. It works by detecting pollutants and determining their concentration and size using a mobile microscope connected to a smartphone and a machine-learning algorithm that automatically analyzes the images of the pollutants. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[354] viXra:1709.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 06:02:53

### A New Semantic Theory of Nature Language

Authors: Kun Xing

Formal Semantics and Distributional Semantics are two important semantic frameworks in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Cognitive Semantics belongs to the movement of Cognitive Linguistics, which is based on contemporary cognitive science. Each framework could deal with some meaning phenomena, but none of them fulfills all requirements proposed by applications. A unified semantic theory characterizing all important language phenomena has both theoretical and practical significance; however, although many attempts have been made in recent years, no existing theory has achieved this goal yet. This article introduces a new semantic theory that has the potential to characterize most of the important meaning phenomena of natural language and to fulfill most of the necessary requirements for philosophical analysis and for NLP applications. The theory is based on a unified representation of information, and constructs a kind of mathematical model called cognitive model to interpret natural language expressions in a compositional manner. It accepts the empirical assumption of Cognitive Semantics, and overcomes most shortcomings of Formal Semantics and of Distributional Semantics. The theory, however, is not a simple combination of existing theories, but an extensive generalization of classic logic and Formal Semantics. It inherits nearly all advantages of Formal Semantics, and also provides descriptive contents for objects and events as fine-gram as possible, descriptive contents which represent the results of human cognition.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[353] viXra:1709.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 13:34:21

### Robots Understand Brain Function

Authors: George Rajna

A challenging brain technique called whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology or whole-cell recording (WCR) is a procedure so delicate and complex that only a handful of humans in the whole world can do it. [28] ComText allows robots to understand contextual commands such as, " Pick up the box I put down. " [27] McMaster and Ryerson universities today announced the Smart Robots for Health Communication project, a joint research initiative designed to introduce social robotics and artificial intelligence into clinical health care. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[352] viXra:1709.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 07:16:28

### Identification of Individuals

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers from Human Longevity, Inc. (HLI) have published a study in which individual faces and other physical traits were predicted using whole genome sequencing data and machine learning. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[351] viXra:1709.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 07:32:22

### Analyzing the Monotonicity of Belief Interval Based Uncertainty Measures in Belief Function Theory

Authors: Xinyang Deng, Shiyu Wang, Yong Deng

Measuring the uncertainty of pieces of evidence is an open issue in belief function theory. A rational uncertainty measure for belief functions should meet some desirable properties, where monotonicity is an very important property. Recently, measuring the total uncertainty of a belief function based on its associated belief intervals becomes a new research idea and have attracted increasing interest. Several belief interval based uncertainty measures have been proposed for belief functions. In this paper, we summarize the properties of these uncertainty measures and especially investigate whether the monotonicity is satisfied by the measures. This study provide a comprehensive comparison to these belief interval based uncertainty measures and is very useful for choosing the appropriate uncertainty measure in the practical applications.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[350] viXra:1709.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-05 04:26:06

### On the Dual Nature of Logical Variables and Clause-Sets

Authors: Elnaserledinellah Mahmood Abdelwahab

This paper describes the conceptual approach behind the proposed solution of the 3SAT problem recently published in [Abdelwahab 2016]. It is intended for interested readers providing a step-by-step, mostly informal explanation of the new paradigm proposed there completing the picture from an epistemological point of view with the concept of duality on center-stage. After a brief introduction discussing the importance of duality in both, physics and mathematics as well as past efforts to solve the P vs. NP problem, a theorem is proven showing that true randomness of input-variables is a property of algorithms which has to be given up when discrete, finite domains are considered. This insight has an already known side effect on computation paradigms, namely: The ability to de-randomize probabilistic algorithms. The theorem uses a canonical type of de-randomization which reveals dual properties of logical variables and Clause-Sets. A distinction is made between what we call the syntactical Container Expression (CE) and the semantic Pattern Expression (PE). A single sided approach is presumed to be insufficient to solve anyone of the dual problems of efficiently finding an assignment validating a 3CNF Clause-Set and finding a 3CNF-representation for a given semantic pattern. The deeply rooted reason, hereafter referred to as The Inefficiency Principle, is conjectured to be the inherent difficulty of translating one expression into the other based on a single-sided perspective. It expresses our inability to perceive and efficiently calculate complementary properties of a logical formula applying one view only. It is proposed as an alternative to the commonly accepted P≠NP conjecture. On the other hand, the idea of algorithmically using information deduced from PE to guide the instantiation of variables in a resolution procedure applied on a CE is as per [Abdelwahab 2016] able to provide an efficient solution to the 3SAT-problem. Finally, linking de-randomization to this positive solution has various well-established and important consequences for probabilistic complexity classes which are shown to hold.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[349] viXra:1709.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 07:01:40

### Understanding Robots

Authors: George Rajna

ComText allows robots to understand contextual commands such as, " Pick up the box I put down. " [27] McMaster and Ryerson universities today announced the Smart Robots for Health Communication project, a joint research initiative designed to introduce social robotics and artificial intelligence into clinical health care. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[348] viXra:1709.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 10:31:26

### Computing, Cognition and Information Compression

Authors: J Gerard Wolff

This article develops the idea that the storage and processing of information in computers and in brains may often be understood as information compression. The article first reviews what is meant by information and, in particular, what is meant by redundancy, a concept which is fundamental in all methods for information compression. Principles of information compression are described. The major part of the article describes how these principles may be seen in a range of observations and ideas in computing and cognition: the phenomena of adaptation and inhibition in nervous systems; 'neural' computing; the creation and recognition of 'objects' and 'classes'in perception and cognition; stereoscopic vision and random-dot stereograms; the organisation of natural languages; the organisation of grammars; the organisation of functional, structured, logic and object-oriented computer programs; the application and de-referencing of identifiers in computing; retrieval of information from databases; access and retrieval of information from computer memory; logical deduction and resolution theorem proving; inductive reasoning and probabilistic inference; parsing; normalisation of databases.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[347] viXra:1709.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 06:49:15

### Simple Chess Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the University of St Andrews have thrown down the gauntlet to computer programmers to find a solution to a "simple" chess puzzle which could, in fact, take thousands of years to solve and net a $1m prize. [11] It appears that we are approaching a unique time in the history of man and science where empirical measures and deductive reasoning can actually inform us spiritually. Integrated Information Theory (IIT)-put forth by neuroscientists Giulio Tononi and Christof Koch-is a new framework that describes a way to experimentally measure the extent to which a system is conscious. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology. Category: Artificial Intelligence [346] viXra:1708.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-31 14:55:22 ### AI Analyzes Gravitational Lenses Authors: George Rajna Comments: 25 Pages. Researchers from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have for the first time shown that neural networks - a form of artificial intelligence - can accurately analyze the complex distortions in spacetime known as gravitational lenses 10 million times faster than traditional methods. [16] By listening to the acoustic signal emitted by a laboratory-created earthquake, a computer science approach using machine learning can predict the time remaining before the fault fails. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] Category: Artificial Intelligence [345] viXra:1708.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 12:48:09 ### Earthquake Machine Learning Authors: George Rajna Comments: 23 Pages. By listening to the acoustic signal emitted by a laboratory-created earthquake, a computer science approach using machine learning can predict the time remaining before the fault fails. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] Category: Artificial Intelligence [344] viXra:1708.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 08:55:08 ### Artificial Intelligence Cyber Attacks Authors: George Rajna Comments: 24 Pages. The next major cyberattack could involve artificial intelligence systems. [13] Steve was a security robot employed by the Washington Harbour center in the Georgetown district of the US capital. [12] Combining the intuition of humans with the impartiality of computers could improve decision-making for organizations, eventually leading to lower costs and better profits, according to a team of researchers. [11] A team researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [343] viXra:1708.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-27 07:40:31 ### Security Robots Authors: George Rajna Comments: 22 Pages. Combining the intuition of humans with the impartiality of computers could improve decision-making for organizations, eventually leading to lower costs and better profits, according to a team of researchers. [11] A team researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [342] viXra:1708.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 22:13:50 ### Routing Games Over Time with Fifo Policy Authors: Anisse Ismaili Comments: 16 Pages. Submission to conference WINE 2017 on August 2nd. We study atomic routing games where every agent travels both along its decided edges and through time. The agents arriving on an edge are first lined up in a \emph{first-in-first-out} queue and may wait: an edge is associated with a capacity, which defines how many agents-per-time-step can pop from the queue's head and enter the edge, to transit for a fixed delay. We show that the best-response optimization problem is not approximable, and that deciding the existence of a Nash equilibrium is complete for the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Then, we drop the rationality assumption, introduce a behavioral concept based on GPS navigation, and study its worst-case efficiency ratio to coordination. Category: Artificial Intelligence [341] viXra:1708.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 13:23:16 ### Computers Improve Decision Making Authors: George Rajna Comments: 20 Pages. Combining the intuition of humans with the impartiality of computers could improve decision-making for organizations, eventually leading to lower costs and better profits, according to a team of researchers. [11] A team researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [340] viXra:1708.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 10:02:18 ### AI that can Understand Us Authors: George Rajna Comments: 47 Pages. Computing pioneer Alan Turing's most pertinent thoughts on machine intelligence come from a neglected paragraph of the same paper that first proposed his famous test for whether a computer could be considered as smart as a human. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Category: Artificial Intelligence [339] viXra:1708.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-20 09:31:39 ### Artificial Intelligence Revolution Authors: George Rajna Comments: 45 Pages. Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] Category: Artificial Intelligence [338] viXra:1708.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 14:27:54 ### Machine-Learning Device Authors: George Rajna Comments: 24 Pages. In what could be a small step for science potentially leading to a breakthrough, an engineer at Washington University in St. Louis has taken steps toward using nanocrystal networks for artificial intelligence applications. [16] Physicists have applied the ability of machine learning algorithms to learn from experience to one of the biggest challenges currently facing quantum computing: quantum error correction, which is used to design noise-tolerant quantum computing protocols. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Category: Artificial Intelligence [337] viXra:1708.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 01:32:34 ### Machine Learning Quantum Error Correction Authors: George Rajna Comments: 23 Pages. Physicists have applied the ability of machine learning algorithms to learn from experience to one of the biggest challenges currently facing quantum computing: quantum error correction, which is used to design noise-tolerant quantum computing protocols. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch - the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Category: Artificial Intelligence [336] viXra:1708.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 06:17:08 ### Organismic Learning Authors: George Rajna Comments: 24 Pages. A new computing technology called "organismoids" mimics some aspects of human thought by learning how to forget unimportant memories while retaining more vital ones. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] Category: Artificial Intelligence [335] viXra:1708.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 13:16:12 ### Adaptive Plant Propagation Algorithm for Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problem Authors: Sayan Nag Comments: 11 Pages. Optimization problems in design engineering are complex by nature, often because of the involvement of critical objective functions accompanied by a number of rigid constraints associated with the products involved. One such problem is Economic Load Dispatch (ED) problem which focuses on the optimization of the fuel cost while satisfying some system constraints. Classical optimization algorithms are not sufficient and also inefficient for the ED problem involving highly nonlinear, and non-convex functions both in the objective and in the constraints. This led to the development of metaheuristic optimization approaches which can solve the ED problem almost efficiently. This paper presents a novel robust plant intelligence based Adaptive Plant Propagation Algorithm (APPA) which is used to solve the classical ED problem. The application of the proposed method to the 3-generator and 6-generator systems shows the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm. A comparative study with another state-of-the-art algorithm (APSO) demonstrates the quality of the solution achieved by the proposed method along with the convergence characteristics of the proposed approach. Category: Artificial Intelligence [334] viXra:1708.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 17:11:22 ### Meta Mass Function Authors: Yong Deng Comments: 11 Pages. In this paper, a meta mass function (MMF) is presented. A new evidence theory with complex numbers is developed. Different with existing evidence theory, the new mass function in complex evidence theory is modelled as complex numbers and named as meta mass function. The classical evidence theory is the special case under the condition that the mass function is degenerated from complex number as real number. Category: Artificial Intelligence [333] viXra:1708.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 04:30:39 ### Holistic Unique Clustering. {File Clsoing Version 4} ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 3 Pages. In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space. Category: Artificial Intelligence [332] viXra:1708.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 10:30:43 ### Machine Learning for Discovery Authors: George Rajna Comments: 22 Pages. Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. Category: Artificial Intelligence [331] viXra:1708.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 10:54:39 ### Future Search Engines Authors: George Rajna Comments: 25 Pages. The outcome is the result of two powerful forces in the evolution of information retrieval: artificial intelligence—especially natural language processing—and crowdsourcing. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] Category: Artificial Intelligence [330] viXra:1708.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 23:22:10 ### Similarity Measure Of Any Two Vectors Of Same Size Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 2 Pages. In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method of finding a Generalized Similarity Measure between two Vectors of the same size. Category: Artificial Intelligence [329] viXra:1708.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 06:42:09 ### Holistic Unique Clustering. ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 2 Pages. In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space. Category: Artificial Intelligence [328] viXra:1708.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 04:36:45 ### A Generalized Similarity Measure {File Closing Version 3} ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 2 Pages. In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method of finding a Generalized Similarity Measure between two Vectors or Matrices or Higher Dimensional Data of different sizes. Category: Artificial Intelligence [327] viXra:1707.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 02:17:51 ### The Recursive Future Equation And The Recursive Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure. {File Closing Version-2} Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 3 Pages. In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Equation and Recursive Past Equation to find one Step Future Element or a one Step Past Element of a given Time Series data Set. Category: Artificial Intelligence [326] viXra:1707.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-29 07:23:01 ### Machine Learning and Deep Learning Authors: George Rajna Comments: 27 Pages. Deep learning and machine learning both offer ways to train models and classify data. This article compares the two and it offers ways to help you decide which one to use. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [325] viXra:1707.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 06:35:21 ### The Recursive Future Equation And The Recursive Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure. {Future} Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 2 Pages. In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Equation and Recursive Past Equation to find one Step Future Element or a one Step Past Element of a given Time Series data Set. Category: Artificial Intelligence [324] viXra:1707.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 02:20:32 ### Finding The Optimal Number ‘K’ In The K-Means Algorithm Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 2 Pages. In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method to find the Optimal Number ‘K’ in the K-Means Algorithm. Category: Artificial Intelligence [323] viXra:1707.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 05:05:13 ### Humanize Artificial Intelligent Authors: George Rajna Comments: 41 Pages. Google recently launched PAIR, an acronym of People + AI Research, in an attempt to increase the utility of AI and improve human to AI interaction. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] Category: Artificial Intelligence [322] viXra:1707.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 06:01:57 ### Using the Appropriate Norm In The K-Nearest Neighbours Analysis. ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 1 Page. In this research Technical Note, the author has detailed a novel technique of finding the distance metric to be used for any given set of points. Category: Artificial Intelligence [321] viXra:1707.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 06:40:54 ### A Generalized Similarity Measure {File Closing Version 2} ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 2 Pages. In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method of finding a Generalized Similarity Measure between two Vectors or Matrices or Higher Dimensional Data of different sizes. Category: Artificial Intelligence [320] viXra:1707.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 05:49:20 ### A Generalized Similarity Measure ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 2 Pages. In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method of finding a Generalized Similarity Measure between two Vectors or Matrices or Higher Dimensional Data of different sizes. Category: Artificial Intelligence [319] viXra:1707.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 01:50:21 ### Multi Class Classification Using Holistic Non-Unique Clustering {File Closing Version 8}. ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 3 Pages. In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space. Category: Artificial Intelligence [318] viXra:1707.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 04:55:42 ### Multi Class Classification Using Holistic Non-Unique Clustering ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 1 Page. In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space. Category: Artificial Intelligence [317] viXra:1707.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 05:30:10 ### Multi Class Classification Using Holistic Non-Unique Clustering. {File Closing Version 7} ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 1 Page. In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space. Category: Artificial Intelligence [316] viXra:1707.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 01:20:46 ### Modification To The Scaling Aspect In Gower’s Scheme Of Calculating Similarity Coefficient Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 1 Page. In this research technical Note the author have presented a tiny modification to the Numeric Variables Scaling Aspect In Gower’s Scheme of calculating Similarity Coefficient. Category: Artificial Intelligence [315] viXra:1707.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 02:34:27 ### Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based On Cosine Similarity Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 2 Pages. In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity. Category: Artificial Intelligence [314] viXra:1707.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 01:12:07 ### Theoretical Materials Authors: George Rajna Comments: 49 Pages. University have created the first general-purpose method for using machine learning to predict the properties of new metals, ceramics and other crystalline materials and to find new uses for existing materials, a discovery that could save countless hours wasted in the trial-and-error process of creating new and better materials. [28] As machine learning breakthroughs abound, researchers look to democratize benefits. [27] Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Category: Artificial Intelligence [313] viXra:1707.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 01:25:24 ### Multi Class Classification Using Holistic Non-Unique Clustering Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 2 Pages. In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space. Category: Artificial Intelligence [312] viXra:1707.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 02:29:17 ### A Novel Type Of Time Series Type Forecasting Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 3 Pages. In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel Time series type of forecasting. Category: Artificial Intelligence [311] viXra:1707.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 04:48:06 ### A Novel Type Of Time Series Type Forecasting. {File Closing Version 1} Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 3 Pages. In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel Time series type of forecasting. Category: Artificial Intelligence [310] viXra:1707.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:23:03 ### Holistic Non-Unique Clsutering. {File Closing Version 1} ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 2 Pages. In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of points in N Space. Category: Artificial Intelligence [309] viXra:1707.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:44:57 ### Holistic Non-Unique Clsutering. {File Closing Version 2} ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 2 Pages. In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space. Category: Artificial Intelligence [308] viXra:1707.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 08:51:43 ### Seeing All The Clusters Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 1 Page. In this technical note the author has presented a novel method to find all the clusters (overlapping and non-unique) formed by a given set of points. Category: Artificial Intelligence [307] viXra:1707.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 08:58:23 ### Seeing All Clusters Formed By A Given Set Of Points (File Closing Version) ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 1 Page. In this research investigation, the author has presented a novel technique to find all Clusters that may be overlapping to some extent. Category: Artificial Intelligence [306] viXra:1707.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 06:54:24 ### Holistic Non-Unique Clsutering. ISSN 1751-3030 Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 1 Page. In this technical note, the author has presented a novel scheme of Holistic Non-Unique Clustering. Category: Artificial Intelligence [305] viXra:1707.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 22:47:02 ### Using the Appropriate Norm In The K-Nearest Neighbours Analysis Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 1 Page. In this Technical Note the author has presented and alternative to the use of L2 Norm for Nearness Analysis in K-Nearest Neighbours Algorithm. Category: Artificial Intelligence [304] viXra:1707.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 04:24:01 ### Inner Workings of Neural Networks Authors: George Rajna Comments: 33 Pages. Neural networks learn to perform computational tasks by analyzing large sets of training data. But once they've been trained, even their designers rarely have any idea what data elements they're processing. [20] Researchers from Disney Research, Pixar Animation Studios, and the University of California, Santa Barbara have developed a new technology based on artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning that eliminates this noise and thereby enables production-quality rendering at much faster speeds. [19] Now, one group reports in ACS Nano that they have developed an artificial synapse capable of simulating a fundamental function of our nervous system— the release of inhibitory and stimulatory signals from the same "pre-synaptic" terminal. [18] Researchers from France and the University of Arkansas have created an artificial synapse capable of autonomous learning, a component of artificial intelligence. [17] Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip Category: Artificial Intelligence [303] viXra:1706.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 12:07:02 ### Convolutional Neural Network Authors: George Rajna Comments: 31 Pages. Researchers from Disney Research, Pixar Animation Studios, and the University of California, Santa Barbara have developed a new technology based on artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning that eliminates this noise and thereby enables production-quality rendering at much faster speeds. [19] Now, one group reports in ACS Nano that they have developed an artificial synapse capable of simulating a fundamental function of our nervous system— the release of inhibitory and stimulatory signals from the same "pre-synaptic" terminal. [18] Researchers from France and the University of Arkansas have created an artificial synapse capable of autonomous learning, a component of artificial intelligence. [17] Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] Category: Artificial Intelligence [302] viXra:1706.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 09:17:30 ### Artificial Synapse for AI Authors: George Rajna Comments: 30 Pages. Now, one group reports in ACS Nano that they have developed an artificial synapse capable of simulating a fundamental function of our nervous system— the release of inhibitory and stimulatory signals from the same "pre-synaptic" terminal. [18] Researchers from France and the University of Arkansas have created an artificial synapse capable of autonomous learning, a component of artificial intelligence. [17] Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Category: Artificial Intelligence [301] viXra:1706.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 08:35:27 ### Quantum Machine Learning Computer Hybrids Authors: George Rajna Comments: 28 Pages. Creative Destruction Lab, a technology program affiliated with the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management in Toronto, Canada hopes to nurture numerous quantum learning machine start-ups in only a few years. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [300] viXra:1706.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 10:31:28 ### Weak AI, Strong AI and Superintelligence Authors: George Rajna Comments: 29 Pages. Should we fear artificial intelligence and all it will bring us? Not so long as we remember to make sure to build artificial emotional intelligence into the technology, according to the website The School of Life. [16] Creative Destruction Lab, a technology program affiliated with the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management in Toronto, Canada hopes to nurture numerous quantum learning machine start-ups in only a few years. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries - how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms - has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [299] viXra:1706.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 02:34:26 ### Brain-Inspired Supercomputing Authors: George Rajna Comments: 48 Pages. IBM and the Air Force Research Laboratory are working to develop an artificial intelligence-based supercomputer with a neural network design that is inspired by the human brain. [28] Researchers have built a new type of "neuron transistor"—a transistor that behaves like a neuron in a living brain. [27] Research team led by Professor Hoi-Jun Yoo of the Department of Electrical Engineering has developed a semiconductor chip, CNNP (CNN Processor), that runs AI algorithms with ultra-low power, and K-Eye, a face recognition system using CNNP. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Category: Artificial Intelligence [298] viXra:1706.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 06:57:24 ### AI and Robots can Help Patients Authors: George Rajna Comments: 45 Pages. McMaster and Ryerson universities today announced the Smart Robots for Health Communication project, a joint research initiative designed to introduce social robotics and artificial intelligence into clinical health care. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] Category: Artificial Intelligence [297] viXra:1706.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 10:02:53 ### Neuron Transistor Authors: George Rajna Comments: 45 Pages. Researchers have built a new type of "neuron transistor"—a transistor that behaves like a neuron in a living brain. [27] Research team led by Professor Hoi-Jun Yoo of the Department of Electrical Engineering has developed a semiconductor chip, CNNP (CNN Processor), that runs AI algorithms with ultra-low power, and K-Eye, a face recognition system using CNNP. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] Category: Artificial Intelligence [296] viXra:1706.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 04:15:18 ### Artificial Intelligence Health Revolution Authors: George Rajna Comments: 43 Pages. Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] Category: Artificial Intelligence [295] viXra:1706.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 04:54:30 ### K-Eye Face Recognition System Authors: George Rajna Comments: 45 Pages. A research team led by Professor Hoi-Jun Yoo of the Department of Electrical Engineering has developed a semiconductor chip, CNNP (CNN Processor), that runs AI algorithms with ultra-low power, and K-Eye, a face recognition system using CNNP. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] Category: Artificial Intelligence [294] viXra:1706.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 06:05:08 ### Computers Reason Like Humans Authors: George Rajna Comments: 40 Pages. Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] Category: Artificial Intelligence [293] viXra:1706.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:02:47 ### Deep Learning with Light Authors: George Rajna Comments: 37 Pages. Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Category: Artificial Intelligence [292] viXra:1706.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 11:45:22 ### Neural Networks and Quantum Entanglement Authors: George Rajna Comments: 39 Pages. Specifying a number for each connection and mathematically forgetting the hidden neurons can produce a compact representation of many interesting quantum states, including states with topological characteristics and some with surprising amounts of entanglement. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] Category: Artificial Intelligence [291] viXra:1706.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-14 08:06:29 ### Robot Write and Play its own Music Authors: George Rajna Comments: 38 Pages. A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology’s impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [290] viXra:1706.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 07:47:04 ### Classical and Quantum Machine Learning Authors: George Rajna Comments: 35 Pages. Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Category: Artificial Intelligence [289] viXra:1705.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-28 12:05:57 ### Using Student Learning Based on Fluency for the Learning Rate in a Deep Convolutional Neural Network Authors: Abien Fred Agarap Comments: 23 Pages. This is a proposal for mathematically determining the learning rate to be used in a deep supervised convolutional neural network (CNN), based on student fluency. The CNN model shall be tasked to imitate how students play the game “Packet Attack”, a form of gamification of information security awareness training, and learn in the same rate as the students did. The student fluency shall be represented by a mathematical function constructed using natural cubic spline interpolation, and its derivative shall serve as the learning rate for the CNN model. If proven right, the results will imply a more human-like rate of learning by machines. Category: Artificial Intelligence [288] viXra:1705.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 03:53:34 ### Artificial Intelligence by Quantum Computing Authors: George Rajna Comments: 34 Pages. We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] Category: Artificial Intelligence [287] viXra:1705.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 19:18:05 ### Verifying the Validity of a Conformant Plan is co-NP-Complete Authors: Alban Grastien, Enrico Scala Comments: 3 Pages. The purpose of this document is to show the complexity of verifying the validity of a deterministic conformant plan. We concentrate on a simple version of the conformant planning problem (i.e., one where there is no precondition on the actions and where all conditions are defined as sets of positive or negative facts) in order to show that the complexity does not come from solving a single such formula. Category: Artificial Intelligence [286] viXra:1705.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 09:43:28 ### Rematch of Man vs Machine Authors: George Rajna Comments: 32 Pages. It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [285] viXra:1705.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 10:06:56 ### Google Latest Tech Tricks Authors: George Rajna Comments: 31 Pages. Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Category: Artificial Intelligence [284] viXra:1705.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 03:07:04 ### A Novel Pandemonium Architecture Based on Visual Topological Invariants and Mental Matching Descriptions Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters Comments: 13 Pages. A novel daemon-based architecture is introduced to elucidate some brain functions, such as pattern recognition during human perception and mental interpretation of visual scenes. By taking into account the concepts of invariance and persistence in topology, we introduce a Selfridge pandemonium variant of brain activity that takes into account a novel feature, namely, extended feature daemons that, in addition to the usual recognition of short straight as well as curved lines, recognize topological features of visual scene shapes, such as shape interior, density and texture. A series of transformations can be gradually applied to a pattern, in particular to the shape of an object, without affecting its invariant properties, such as its boundedness and connectedness of the parts of a visual scene. We also introduce another Pandemonium implementation: low-level representations of objects can be mapped to higher-level views (our mental interpretations), making it possible to construct a symbolic multidimensional representation of the environment. The representations can be projected continuously to an object that we have seen and continue to see, thanks to the mapping from shapes in our memory to shapes in Euclidean space. A multidimensional vista detectable by the brain (brainscapes) results from the presence of daemons (mind channels) that detect not only ordinary views of the shapes in visual scenes, but also the features of the shapes. Although perceived shapes are 3-dimensional (3+1 dimensional, if we include time), shape features (volume, colour, contour, closeness, texture, and so on) lead to n-dimensional brainscapes, We arrive at 5 as a minimum shape feature space, since every visual shape has at least a contour in space-time. We discuss the advantages of our parallel, hierarchical model in pattern recognition, computer vision and biological nervous system’s evolution. Category: Artificial Intelligence [283] viXra:1705.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 04:25:18 ### Popular Routes Discovery Authors: Tal Ben Yakar Comments: 6 Pages. Finding the optimal driving route has attracted considerable attention in recent years, the problem sounds simple however different companies these days, taxi alternatives companies like Uber and Via trying to find what is the best route to drive find it as a very challenging problem. Ridesharing and maps companies like HERE, navigation companies like waze and public transportation companies like moovit and others. AI robots in addition, need to have the ability to route in the optimal manner. In this work we formulate the problem of finding optimal routes as an optimization problem and come up with a neat, low memory and fast solution to the problem using machine learning algorithms. Category: Artificial Intelligence [282] viXra:1705.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 12:43:05 ### Democratize Artificial Intelligence Authors: George Rajna Comments: 29 Pages. Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] Category: Artificial Intelligence [281] viXra:1705.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-05 09:20:09 ### Incorrect Moves and Testable States Authors: Dimiter Dobrev Comments: 17 Pages. How do we describe the invisible? Let’s take a sequence: input, output, input, output ... Behind this sequence stands a world and the sequence of its internal states. We do not see the internal state of the world, but only a part of it. To describe that part which is invisible, we will use the concept of ‘incorrect move’ and its generalization ‘testable state’. Thus, we will reduce the problem of partial observability to the problem of full observability. Category: Artificial Intelligence [280] viXra:1705.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-04 04:17:51 ### Rotation Invariance Neural Network Authors: Shiyuan.Li Comments: 7 Pages. Rotation invariance and translate invariance have great values in image recognition. In this paper, we bring a new architecture in convolutional neural network (CNN) to achieve rotation invariance and translate invariance in 2-D symbol recognition. We can also get the position and orientation of the 2-D symbol by the network to achieve detection purpose for multiple non-overlap target. Human being have the ability look at an object by one glance and remember it, we also can use this architecture to achieve this one shot learning. Category: Artificial Intelligence [279] viXra:1705.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-02 21:38:43 ### Obstacle Detection and Pathfinding for Mobile Robots Authors: Murat Arslan Comments: 116 Pages. In this thesis, obstacle detection via image of objects and then pathfinding problems of NAO humanoid robot is considered. NAO's camera is used to capture the images of world map. The captured image is processed and classified into two classes; area with obstacles and area without obstacles. For classification of images, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used. After classification the map of world is obtained as area with obstacles and area without obstacles. This map is input for path finding algorithm. In the thesis A* path finding algorithm is used to find path from the start point to the goal. The aim of this work is to implement a support vector machine based solution to robot guidance problem, visual path planning and obstacle avoidance. The used algorithms allow to detect obstacles and find an optimal path. The thesis describe basic steps of navigation of mobile robots. Category: Artificial Intelligence [278] viXra:1704.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 06:56:36 ### Artificial Synapse Authors: George Rajna Comments: 29 Pages. Researchers from France and the University of Arkansas have created an artificial synapse capable of autonomous learning, a component of artificial intelligence. [17] Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] Category: Artificial Intelligence [277] viXra:1704.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 03:14:10 ### Digital Assistant Authors: George Rajna Comments: 29 Pages. Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [276] viXra:1704.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 11:14:37 ### 3D Printed Dancing Humanoid Robot “Buddy” for Homecare Authors: Akshay Potnuru, Mohsen Jafarzadeh, Yonas Tadesse Comments: 6 Pages. This paper describes a 3D printed humanoid robot that can perform dancing and demonstrate human-like facial expressions to expand humanoid robotics in entertainment and at the same time to have an assistive role for children and elderly people. The humanoid is small and has an expressive face that is in a comfort zone for a child or an older person. It can maneuver in a day care or home care environment using its wheeled base. This paper discusses on the capabilities of the robot to carry and handle small loads like pills, common measurement tools such as pressure and temperature measurement units. The paper also discusses the use of IP camera for color identification and an Arduino based audio system to synchronize music with dance movements of the robot. Category: Artificial Intelligence [275] viXra:1704.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 11:21:17 ### Humanoid Robot Path Planning with Fuzzy Markov Decision Processes‏ Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Amirreza Kosari, Mohsen Jafarzadeh Comments: 11 Pages. In contrast to the case of known environments, path planning in unknown environments, mostly for humanoid robots, is yet to be opened for further development. This is mainly attributed to the fact that obtaining thorough sensory information about an unknown environment is not functionally or economically applicable. This study alleviates the latter problem by resorting to a novel approach through which the decision is made according to fuzzy Markov decision processes (FMDP), with regard to the pace. The experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method. Category: Artificial Intelligence [274] viXra:1704.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 19:23:44 ### Design and Motion Control of Bioinspired Humanoid Robot Head from Servo Motors Toward Artificial Muscles Authors: Yara Almubarak, Yonas Tadesse Comments: 9 Pages. The potential applications of humanoid robots in social environments, motivates researchers to design, and control biomimetic humanoid robots. Generally, people are more interested to interact with robots that have similar attributes and movements to humans. The head is one of most important part of any social robot. Currently, most humanoid heads use electrical motors, pneumatic actuators, and shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actuation. Electrical and pneumatic actuators take most of the space and would cause unsmooth motions. SMAs are expensive to use in humanoids. Recently, in many robotic projects, Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) artificial muscles are used as linear actuators which take up little space compared to the motors. In this paper, we will demonstrate the designing process and motion control of a robotic head with TCP muscles. Servo motors and artificial muscles are used for actuating the head motion, which have been controlled by a cost efficient ARM Cortex-M7 based development board. A complete comparison between the two actuators is presented. Category: Artificial Intelligence [273] viXra:1704.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 01:40:24 ### Formula Analyzer: Find the Formula by Parameters Authors: Artur Eduardovich Sibgatullin Comments: 27 Pages. MIT License, https://figshare.com/articles/Formula_analyzer_Find_the_formula_by_parameters/4880012 Let it be a formula, e.g.: x + y^2 - z = r. It is usually necessary to find a parameter’s value by knowing others’ ones. However, let’s set another problem to find the formula itself, knowing only its parameters. The solution of such a problem we call reverse computing. For that we'll create an algorithm and accomplish it as a program code. Category: Artificial Intelligence [272] viXra:1704.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-09 11:21:19 ### Automatic Speech Recognition Authors: George Rajna Comments: 27 Pages. The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [271] viXra:1704.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 11:26:30 ### Toward Self-Govern and Self-Protected Data: a Proposal Authors: Kasra Madadipouya Comments: 3 Pages. Unpublished research proposal We live in an era of an explosion of data. The rate of generating data has been increased significantly in the last few years especially by popularization of Web 2.0. In addition to that, our surrounding environments are becoming more dynamics and rapidly emerging as computing systems morph from monolithic and closed entities into globally disaggregated collaborating entities which require sensitive data sharing. As an instance content owners lose full control of their data once it is given away to consumers and hence data can be unlimitedly copied, access, modified and redistributed without data owner awareness. Category: Artificial Intelligence [270] viXra:1704.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 11:40:51 ### Machine Learning Chip Authors: George Rajna Comments: 23 Pages. Google has said the TPU beat Nvidia and Intel. Let's explain that. There is so much to explain. TPU stands for Tensor Processing Unit. This is described by a Google engineer as "an entirely new class of custom machine learning accelerator." [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. Category: Artificial Intelligence [269] viXra:1704.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 08:49:50 ### Visualizing Scientific Big Data Authors: George Rajna Comments: 32 Pages. Humans are visual creatures: our brain processes images 60,000 times faster than text, and 90 percent of information sent to the brain is visual. Visualization is becoming increasingly useful in the era of big data, in which we are generating so much data at such high rates that we cannot keep up with making sense of it all. In particular, visual analytics—a research discipline that combines automated data analysis with interactive visualizations—has emerged as a promising approach to dealing with this information overload. [18] Neural networks are commonly used today to analyze complex data – for instance to find clues to illnesses in genetic information. Ultimately, though, no one knows how these networks actually work exactly. [17] Hey Siri, how's my hair?" Your smartphone may soon be able to give you an honest answer, thanks to a new machine learning algorithm designed by U of T Engineering researchers Parham Aarabi and Wenzhi Guo. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] Category: Artificial Intelligence [268] viXra:1704.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 09:15:46 ### Electronic Synapses Artificial Brain Authors: George Rajna Comments: 33 Pages. Researchers from the CNRS, Thales, and the Universities of Bordeaux, Paris-Sud, and Evry have created an artificial synapse capable of learning autonomously. They were also able to model the device, which is essential for developing more complex circuits. [19] Humans are visual creatures: our brain processes images 60,000 times faster than text, and 90 percent of information sent to the brain is visual. Visualization is becoming increasingly useful in the era of big data, in which we are generating so much data at such high rates that we cannot keep up with making sense of it all. In particular, visual analytics—a research discipline that combines automated data analysis with interactive visualizations—has emerged as a promising approach to dealing with this information overload. [18] Neural networks are commonly used today to analyze complex data – for instance to find clues to illnesses in genetic information. Ultimately, though, no one knows how these networks actually work exactly. [17] Hey Siri, how's my hair?" Your smartphone may soon be able to give you an honest answer, thanks to a new machine learning algorithm designed by U of T Engineering researchers Parham Aarabi and Wenzhi Guo. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] Category: Artificial Intelligence [267] viXra:1703.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-24 10:36:41 ### Parallel Computation and Brain Function Authors: George Rajna Comments: 26 Pages. Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [266] viXra:1703.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-07 09:36:39 ### Human Readable Feature Generation for Natural Language Corpora Authors: Tomasz Dryjanski Comments: 4 Pages. This paper proposes an alternative to the Paragraph Vector algorithm, generating fixed-length vectors of human-readable features for natural language corpora. It extends word2vec retaining its other advantages like speed and accuracy, hence its proposed name is doc2feat. Extracted features are presented as lists of words with their proximity to the particular feature, allowing interpretation and manual annotation. By parameter tuning focus can be made on grammatical aspects of the corpus language, making it useful for linguistic applications. The algorithm can run on variable-length pieces of texts, and provides insight into what features are relevant for text classification or sentiment analysis. The corpus does not have to, and in specific cases should not be, preprocessed with stemming or stop-words removal. Category: Artificial Intelligence [265] viXra:1703.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-06 13:57:49 ### Quantum Machine Learning to Infinite Dimensions Authors: George Rajna Comments: 27 Pages. Physicists have developed a quantum machine learning algorithm that can handle infinite dimensions—that is, it works with continuous variables (which have an infinite number of possible values on a closed interval) instead of the typically used discrete variables (which have only a finite number of values). [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [264] viXra:1703.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-02 05:44:53 ### Controlling a Robot Using a Wearable Device (MYO) Authors: Mithileysh Sathiyanarayanan, Tobias Mulling, Bushra Nazir Comments: 6 Pages. IJEDR, 2015, Vol 3, Issue 3 There is a huge demand for military robots in almost all the countries which comes under the field of human computer interaction and artificial intelligence. There are many different ways of operating a robot: self controlled, automatic controlled etc. Also, gesture controlled operation mode is on the rise. This acted as our motivation to develop a gesture controlled robot using MYO armband. The word ‘MYO’ has created a buzz in the technological world by its astonishing features and its utility in various fields. Its introduction as a armband that can wrap around our arm to control robots with our movements and gestures has opened new wide doors of its experimentation with robotics. This independently working gesture recognition system does not rely on any external sensors (motion capturing system) as it has its sensors embedded in itself which recognizes the gesture commands and acts accordingly. This armband can be worn by soldiers to operate robots to fight against enemies. This work in progress paper illustrates an existing robot designed by us, which can be controlled by hand gestures using a wearable device called as MYO. We would like to investigate more on this and implement, such that the robot can be interfaced with a MYO armband for a successful control. Category: Artificial Intelligence [263] viXra:1703.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-02 05:49:01 ### Leap Motion Device for Gesture Controlling an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (Robot) Authors: Mithileysh Sathiyanarayanan, Tobias Mulling, Bushra Nazir Comments: 10 Pages. IJEDR, 2016, Vol 4, Issue 4 A new scope of human-computer interaction utilizes the algorithms of computer vision and image processing for detecting the gesture, understanding its objective and making it meaningful for the computer to understand and then interact with the humans. The recent introduction of "Leap Motion" is a big revolution in the field of gesture control technology. Using gesture control mode in the field of robotics is also on the rise. This acted as our motivation to develop a gesture controlled robot using a Leap Motion Device that can sense human hands above it and to keep a track of them and aid in navigation. This independently working gesture recognition system does not rely on any external sensors (motion capturing system) as it has its sensors embedded in itself which recognizes the gesture commands and acts accordingly. The soldiers need not wear any physical device on their body (unlike Kinect and/or MYO Armband) to operate robots to fight against enemies. This work in progress paper illustrates an existing robot designed by us, which can be controlled by hand gestures using a non-wearable (touchless) device called as Leap Motion. Category: Artificial Intelligence [262] viXra:1702.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-23 18:45:36 ### Some General Results On Overfitting In Machine Learning Authors: Antony Van der Mude Comments: 13 Pages. Overfitting has always been a problem in machine learning. Recently a related phenomenon called “oversearching” has been analyzed. This paper takes a theoretical approach using a very general methodology covering most learning paradigms in current use. Overfitting is defined in terms of the “expressive accuracy” of a model for the data, rather than “predictive accuracy”. The results show that even if the learner can identify a set of best models, overfitting will cause it to bounce from one model to another. Overfitting is ameliorated by having the learner bound the search space, and bounding is equivalent to using an accuracy (or bias) more restrictive than the problem accuracy. Also, Ramsey’s Theorem shows that every data sequence has an situation where either consistent overfitting or underfitting is unavoidable. We show that oversearching is simply overfitting where the resource used to express a model is the search space itself rather than a more common resource such as a program that executes the model. We show that the smallest data sequence guessing a model defines a canonical resource. There is an equivalence in the limit between any two resources to express the same model space, but it may not be effectively computable. Category: Artificial Intelligence [261] viXra:1702.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-22 09:32:33 ### Quantum Artificial Biomimetics Authors: George Rajna Comments: 26 Pages. Quantum biomimetics consists of reproducing in quantum systems certain properties exclusive to living organisms. Researchers at University of the Basque Country have imitated natural selection, learning and memory in a new study. The mechanisms developed could give quantum computation a boost and facilitate the learning process in machines. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [260] viXra:1702.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-18 07:11:56 ### New Materials from Small Data Authors: George Rajna Comments: 22 Pages. Finding new functional materials is always tricky. But searching for very specific properties among a relatively small family of known materials is even more difficult. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. Category: Artificial Intelligence [259] viXra:1702.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-18 02:21:36 ### A.i. Music Duet Authors: George Rajna Comments: 27 Pages. An artificial intelligence experiment has emerged of the most enjoyable kind: It is called "A.I. Duet." [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [258] viXra:1702.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-12 10:31:13 ### Human Motion and Language Authors: George Rajna Comments: 26 Pages. Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [257] viXra:1702.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-10 09:42:04 ### Artificial Neural Network Authors: George Rajna Comments: 25 Pages. A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [256] viXra:1702.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-07 10:15:12 ### Complex Neutrosophic Soft Set Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali, Ganeshsree Selvachandran Comments: 6 Pages. In this paper, we propose the complex neutrosophic soft set model, which is a hybrid of complex fuzzy sets,neutrosophic sets and soft sets. The basic set theoretic operations and some concepts related to the structure of this model are introduced, and illustrated. An example related to a decision making problem involving uncertain and subjective information is presented, to demonstrate the utility of this model. Category: Artificial Intelligence [255] viXra:1702.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 08:18:01 ### Visualize Complex Learning Processes Authors: George Rajna Comments: 29 Pages. Neural networks are commonly used today to analyze complex data – for instance to find clues to illnesses in genetic information. Ultimately, though, no one knows how these networks actually work exactly. [17] Hey Siri, how's my hair?" Your smartphone may soon be able to give you an honest answer, thanks to a new machine learning algorithm designed by U of T Engineering researchers Parham Aarabi and Wenzhi Guo. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Category: Artificial Intelligence [254] viXra:1702.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 08:56:06 ### First Passage Under Restart Authors: George Rajna Comments: 31 Pages. Discovering the ways in which many seemingly diverse phenomena are related is one of the overarching goals of scientific inquiry, since universality often allows an insight in one area to be extended to many other areas. [18] Neural networks are commonly used today to analyze complex data – for instance to find clues to illnesses in genetic information. Ultimately, though, no one knows how these networks actually work exactly. [17] Hey Siri, how's my hair?" Your smartphone may soon be able to give you an honest answer, thanks to a new machine learning algorithm designed by U of T Engineering researchers Parham Aarabi and Wenzhi Guo. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries - how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms - has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [253] viXra:1701.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-22 21:33:04 ### The Relationship Between Agents and Link-Level Acknowledgements Using Mugwump Authors: Thomas Lambert Comments: 8 Pages. In recent years, much research has been devoted to the improvement of architecture; unfortunately, few have explored the emulation of the World Wide Web. In fact, few biologists would disagree with the deployment of evolutionary programming. While this discussion is never a confirmed intent, it is derived from known results. Mugwump, our new framework for hash tables [28], is the solution to all of these challenges. Category: Artificial Intelligence [252] viXra:1701.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-21 11:05:33 ### AI Systems See the World as Humans Authors: George Rajna Comments: 38 Pages. A Northwestern University team developed a new computational model that performs at human levels on a standard intelligence test. This work is an important step toward making artificial intelligence systems that see and understand the world as humans do. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24] Category: Artificial Intelligence [251] viXra:1701.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-17 20:03:50 ### Intelligence of Crowd. Authors: Michail Zak Comments: 17 Pages. A new class of dynamical systems with a preset type of interference of probabilities is introduced. It is obtained from the extension of the Madelung equation by replacing the quantum potential with a specially selected feedback from the Liouville equation. It has been proved that these systems are different from both Newtonian and quantum systems, but they can be useful for modeling spontaneous collective novelty phenomena when emerging outputs are qualitatively different from the weighted sum of individual inputs. Formation of language and fast decision-making process as potential applications of the probability interference is discussed. Category: Artificial Intelligence [250] viXra:1701.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 14:14:27 ### Optimal Control Via Self-Generated Stochasticity. Authors: Michail Zak Comments: 19 Pages. Stochastic approach to maximization of a functional constrained by governing equation of a controlled system is introduced and discussed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is the following: represent the functional to be maximized as a limit of a probability density governed by the appropriately selected Liouville equation. Then the corresponding ODE become stochastic, and that sample of the solution which has the largest value will have the highest probability to appear in ODE simulation. Application to optimal control is discussed. Two limitations of optimal control theory - local maxima and possible instability of the optimal solutions - are removed. Special attention is paid to robot motion planning. Category: Artificial Intelligence [249] viXra:1612.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-30 06:29:12 ### Applications of Machine Learning in Estimating the Minimum Distance of Approach of an NEO Authors: Jayant Mehra Comments: 15 Pages, 6 Figures, 5 Tables Although the current detection techniques have been able to calculate the minimum distance to which a Near Earth Object (NEO) can approach Earth for thousands of NEOs, there are millions of yet undiscovered NEOs which could pose a threat to Planet Earth. An NEO is considered highly dangerous if the minimum distance between it and the centre of the Earth is less than 0.03 AU. However, only a handful NEOs have been detected prior to entering this danger zone. The immense task of asteroid hunting by conventional techniques is further complicated by a high number of false positives and false negatives. In this report, machine learning algorithms are written to predict the minimum distance upto which an NEO can approach the planet and classify NEOs as whether they are in the danger zone or no based on their physical characteristics. In section 4 of the study, an Artificial Neural Network based on the backpropagation algorithm and a Logistic Classification based on Unconstrained Minimisation using the fminunc function are employed to classify NEOs with an accuracy of 92% and 90% respectively. In section 5 of the report, the Levenberg - Marquardt Algorithm based on an Artificial Neural Network is employed to calculate the minimum distance with a regression R value of 0.79 (Value of 1 being the maximum). All the algorithmic systems developed have low false positive and false negative rates Category: Artificial Intelligence [248] viXra:1612.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-26 10:03:47 ### Advance Artificial Super-Intelligence Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey Comments: 3 Pages. From FL to AL. Category: Artificial Intelligence [247] viXra:1612.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-21 07:33:22 ### Spintronics-Based Artificial Intelligence Authors: George Rajna Comments: 45 Pages. Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels. Category: Artificial Intelligence [246] viXra:1612.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 09:03:13 ### Neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence Authors: George Rajna Comments: 37 Pages. Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24] Category: Artificial Intelligence [245] viXra:1612.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 09:45:02 ### Doctor of Philosophy Thesis in Military Informatics (Openphd) :Lethal Autonomy of Weapons is Designed And/or Recessive Authors: Nyagudi Musandu Nyagudi Comments: 1 Page. By way of Prior Publications, Practice and Contribution My original contribution to knowledge is : Any weapon that exhibits intended and/or untended lethal autonomy in targeting and interdiction – does so by way of design and/or recessive flaw(s) in its systems of control – any such weapon is capable of war-fighting and other battle-space interaction in a manner that its Human Commander does not anticipate. A lethal autonomous weapons is therefore independently capable of exhibiting positive or negative recessive norms of targeting in its perceptions of Discrimination between Civilian and Military Objects, Proportionality of Methods and Outcomes, Feasible Precaution before interdiction and its underlying Concepts of Humanity. This marks the completion of an Open PhD ( #openphd ) project done in sui generis form. Category: Artificial Intelligence [244] viXra:1612.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 10:53:08 ### Memory Architecture for AI Authors: George Rajna Comments: 44 Pages. The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] Category: Artificial Intelligence [243] viXra:1612.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 05:48:31 ### Machine Learning of 2-D Materials Authors: George Rajna Comments: 22 Pages. Machine learning, a field focused on training computers to recognize patterns in data and make new predictions, is helping doctors more accurately diagnose diseases and stock analysts forecast the rise and fall of financial markets. And now materials scientists have pioneered another important application for machine learning—helping to accelerate the discovery and development of new materials. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. Category: Artificial Intelligence [242] viXra:1612.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 12:28:36 ### Machine Learning Breakthroughs Authors: George Rajna Comments: 47 Pages. Machine Learning Breakthroughs As machine learning breakthroughs abound, researchers look to democratize benefits. [27] Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] Category: Artificial Intelligence [241] viXra:1612.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 07:17:06 ### Machine-Learning and Human Neurology Authors: George Rajna Comments: 44 Pages. Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] Category: Artificial Intelligence [240] viXra:1612.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 12:44:05 ### Computer Learns by Watching Video Authors: George Rajna Comments: 28 Pages. In recent years, computers have gotten remarkably good at recognizing speech and images: Think of the dictation software on most cellphones, or the algorithms that automatically identify people in photos posted to Facebook. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [239] viXra:1611.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 10:44:26 ### Kannada Spell Checker with Sandhi Splitter Authors: Akshatha A N, Chandana G Upadhyaya, Rajashekara Murthy S Comments: Number of pages is 7 Spelling errors are introduced in text either during typing, or when the user does not know the correct phoneme or grapheme. If a language contains complex words like sandhi where two or more morphemes join based on some rules, spell checking becomes very tedious. In such situations, having a spell checker with sandhi splitter which alerts the user by flagging the errors and providing suggestions is very useful. A novel algorithm of sandhi splitting is proposed in this paper. The sandhi splitter can split about 7000 most common sandhi words in Kannada language used as test samples. The sandhi splitter was integrated with a Kannada spell checker and a mechanism for generating suggestions was added. A comprehensive, platform independent, standalone spell checker with sandhi splitter application software was thus developed and tested extensively for its efficiency and correctness. A comparative analysis of this spell checker with sandhi splitter was made and results concluded that the Kannada spell checker with sandhi splitter has an improved performance. It is twice as fast, 200 times more space efficient, and it is 90% accurate in case of complex nouns and 50% accurate for complex verbs. Such a spell checker with sandhi splitter will be of foremost significance in machine translation systems, voice processing, etc. This is the first sandhi splitter in Kannada and the advantage of the novel algorithm is that, it can be extended to all Indian languages. Category: Artificial Intelligence [238] viXra:1611.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 08:10:08 ### Minds for Machine Intelligence Authors: George Rajna Comments: 42 Pages. Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons. Category: Artificial Intelligence [237] viXra:1611.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 08:47:27 ### New AI Algorithm Learns Beyond its Training Authors: George Rajna Comments: 27 Pages. Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [236] viXra:1611.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 11:18:04 ### Deng Entropy in Hyper Power Set and Super Power Set Authors: Bingyi Kang, Yong Deng Comments: 18 Pages. Deng entropy has been proposed to handle the uncertainty degree of belief function in Dempster-Shafer framework very recently. In this paper, two new belief entropies based on the frame of Deng entropy for hyper-power sets and super-power sets are respectively proposed to measure the uncertainty degree of more uncertain and more flexible information. Directly, the new entropies based on the frame of Deng entropy in hyper-power sets and super-power sets can be used in the application of DSmT. Category: Artificial Intelligence [235] viXra:1611.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 04:10:17 ### A Variable Order Hidden Markov Model with Dependence Jumps Authors: Anastasios Petropoulos, Stelios Xanthopoulos, Sotirios P. Chatzis Comments: 14 Pages. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a popular approach for modeling sequential data, typically based on the assumption of a first- or moderate-order Markov chain. However, in many real-world scenarios the modeled data entail temporal dynamics the patterns of which change over time. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a novel HMM formulation, treating temporal dependencies as latent variables over which inference is performed. Specifically, we introduce a hierarchical graphical model comprising two hidden layers: on the first layer, we postulate a chain of latent observation-emitting states, the temporal dependencies between which may change over time; on the second layer, we postulate a latent first-order Markov chain modeling the evolution of temporal dynamics (dependence jumps) pertaining to the first-layer latent process. As a result of this construction, our method allows for effectively modeling non-homogeneous observed data, where the patterns of the entailed temporal dynamics may change over time. We devise efficient training and inference algorithms for our model, following the expectation-maximization paradigm. We demonstrate the efficacy and usefulness of our approach considering several real-world datasets. As we show, our model allows for increased modeling and predictive performance compared to the alternative methods, while offering a good trade-off between the resulting increases in predictive performance and computational complexity. Category: Artificial Intelligence [234] viXra:1611.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 07:13:04 ### Finding Patterns in Corrupted Data Authors: George Rajna Comments: 29 Pages. A team, including researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, has created a new set of algorithms that can efficiently fit probability distributions to high-dimensional data. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [233] viXra:1611.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 04:50:24 ### Machines Learn by Simply Observing Authors: George Rajna Comments: 28 Pages. It is now possible for machines to learn how natural or artificial systems work by simply observing them, without being told what to look for, according to researchers at the University of Sheffield. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [232] viXra:1611.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 05:46:51 ### Social Emotions Test for Artificial Intelligence Authors: George Rajna Comments: 29 Pages. New evidence from brain studies, including cognitive psychology and neurophysiology research, shows that the emotional assessment of every object, subject, action or event plays an important role in human mental processes. And that means that if we want to create human-like artificial intelligence, we must make it emotionally responsive. But how do we know that such intelligence actually experiences real, human-like emotions? [17] It is now possible for machines to learn how natural or artificial systems work by simply observing them, without being told what to look for, according to researchers at the University of Sheffield. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries - how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms - has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [231] viXra:1611.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 06:46:28 ### AI System Surfs Web to Improve its Performance Authors: George Rajna Comments: 31 Pages. Of the vast wealth of information unlocked by the Internet, most is plain text. The data necessary to answer myriad questions—about, say, the correlations between the industrial use of certain chemicals and incidents of disease, or between patterns of news coverage and voter-poll results—may all be online. But extracting it from plain text and organizing it for quantitative analysis may be prohibitively time consuming. [18] New evidence from brain studies, including cognitive psychology and neurophysiology research, shows that the emotional assessment of every object, subject, action or event plays an important role in human mental processes. And that means that if we want to create human-like artificial intelligence, we must make it emotionally responsive. But how do we know that such intelligence actually experiences real, human-like emotions? [17] It is now possible for machines to learn how natural or artificial systems work by simply observing them, without being told what to look for, according to researchers at the University of Sheffield. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries - how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms - has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [230] viXra:1611.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 04:07:06 ### Brain-Inspired Device Authors: George Rajna Comments: 39 Pages. New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information. Category: Artificial Intelligence [229] viXra:1611.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 03:33:30 ### Quantitative Prediction of Electoral Vote for United States Presidential Election in 2016 Authors: Gang Xu Comments: 8 Pages. This work was originally completed by October 22, 2016. The manuscript draft was prepared on November 7, 2016. In this paper I am reporting the quantitative prediction of the electoral vote for United States presidential election in 2016. This quantitative prediction was based on the Google Trends (GT) data that is publicly available on the internet. A simple heuristic statistical model is applied to analyzing the GT data. This is intended to be an experiment for exploring the plausible dependency between the GT data and the electoral vote result of US presidential elections. The model's performance has also been tested by comparing the predicted results and the actual electoral votes in 2004, 2008 and 2012. For the year 2016, the Google Trends data projects that Mr. Trump will win the white house in landslide. This paper serves as a document to put this exploratory experiment in real test, since the actual election result can be compared to the prediction after tomorrow (November 8, 2016). Category: Artificial Intelligence [228] viXra:1611.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 06:27:49 ### Neuromorphic Processor Authors: George Rajna Comments: 22 Pages. Toshiba advances deep learning with extremely low power neuromorphic processor. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [227] viXra:1611.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 08:20:12 ### Machine Learning for Cancer Treatment Authors: George Rajna Comments: 28 Pages. Physicians have long used visual judgment of medical images to determine the course of cancer treatment. A new program package from Fraunhofer researchers reveals changes in images and facilitates this task using deep learning. The experts will demonstrate this software in Chicago from November 27 to December 2 at RSNA, the world's largest radiology meeting. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries - how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms - has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [226] viXra:1611.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 06:49:11 ### Transforming, Self-Learning Software Authors: George Rajna Comments: 27 Pages. Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [225] viXra:1610.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 02:33:09 ### Machine-Learning Decision Rationales Authors: George Rajna Comments: 28 Pages. Researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) have devised a way to train neural networks so that they provide not only predictions and classifications but rationales for their decisions. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [224] viXra:1610.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 04:02:16 ### Machine Learning Understand Materials Authors: George Rajna Comments: 21 Pages. Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. Category: Artificial Intelligence [223] viXra:1610.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 21:31:21 ### Fuzzy Evidential Influence Diagram Evaluation Algorithm Authors: Haoyang Zheng, Yong Deng Comments: 38 Pages. Fuzzy influence diagrams (FIDs) are one of the graphical models that combines the qualitative and quantitative analysis to solve decision-making problems. However, FIDs use an incomprehensive evaluation criteria to score nodes in complex systems, so that many different nodes got the same score, which can not reflect their differences. Based on fuzzy set and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory, this paper changes the traditional evaluation system and modifies corresponding algorithm, in order that the influence diagram can more effectively reflect the true situation of the system, and get more practical results. Numerical examples and the real application in supply chain financial system are used to show the efficiency of the proposed influence diagram model. Category: Artificial Intelligence [222] viXra:1610.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 05:16:26 ### Artificial Intelligence Replaces Judges and Lawyers Authors: George Rajna Comments: 20 Pages. An artificial intelligence method developed by University College London computer scientists and associates has predicted the judicial decisions of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) with 79% accuracy, according to a paper published Monday, Oct. 24 in PeerJ Computer Science. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. Category: Artificial Intelligence [221] viXra:1610.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 04:05:52 ### An Information Volume Measure Authors: Yong Deng Comments: 8 Pages. How to measure the volume of uncertainty information is an open issue. Shannon entropy is used to represent the uncertainty degree of a probability distribution. Given a generalized probability distribution which means that the probability is not only assigned to the basis event space but also the power set of event space. At this time, a so called meta probability space is constructed. A new measure, named as Deng entropy, is presented. The results show that, compared with existing method, Deng entropy is not only better from the aspect of mathematic form, but also has the significant physical meaning. Category: Artificial Intelligence [220] viXra:1610.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 11:35:59 ### New Data Algorithms Authors: George Rajna Comments: 28 Pages. Last year, MIT researchers presented a system that automated a crucial step in big-data analysis: the selection of a "feature set," or aspects of the data that are useful for making predictions. The researchers entered the system in several data science contests, where it outperformed most of the human competitors and took only hours instead of months to perform its analyses. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [219] viXra:1610.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-15 16:49:11 ### Band Gap Estimation Using Machine Learning Techniques Authors: Anantha Natarajan S, R Varadhan, Ezhilvel ME Comments: 3 Pages. The purpose of this study is to build machine learning models to predict the band gap of binary compounds, using its known properties like molecular weight, electronegativity, atomic fraction and the group of the constituent elements in the periodic table. Regression techniques like Linear, Ridge regression and Random Forest were used to build the model. This model can be used by students and researchers in experiments involving unknown band gaps or new compounds. Category: Artificial Intelligence [218] viXra:1610.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 14:04:33 ### Google DeepMind Neural Networks Authors: George Rajna Comments: 24 Pages. A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [217] viXra:1610.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-10 12:21:47 ### Neuro-Inspired Analog Computer Authors: George Rajna Comments: 23 Pages. Researchers have developed a neuro-inspired analog computer that has the ability to train itself to become better at whatever tasks it performs. [13] A small, Santa Fe, New Mexico-based company called Knowm claims it will soon begin commercializing a state-of-the-art technique for building computing chips that learn. Other companies, including HP HPQ-3.45% and IBM IBM-2.10% , have already invested in developing these so-called brain-based chips, but Knowm says it has just achieved a major technological breakthrough that it should be able to push into production hopefully within a few years. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [216] viXra:1610.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 00:22:44 ### Belief Reliability Analysis and Its Application Authors: Haoyang Zheng, Likang Yin, Tian Bian, Yong Deng Comments: 24 Pages. In reliability analysis, Fault Tree Analysis based on evidential networks is an important research topic. However, the existing EN approaches still remain two issues: one is the final results are expressed with interval numbers, which has a relatively high uncertainty to make a final decision. The other is the combination rule is not used to fuse uncertain information. These issues will greatly decrease the efficiency of EN to handle uncertain information. To address these open issues, a new methodology, called Belief Reliability Analysis, is presented in this paper. The combination methods to deal with series system, parallel system, series-parallel system as well as parallel-series system are proposed for reliability evaluation. Numerical examples and the real application in servo-actuation system are used to show the efficiency of the proposed Belief Reliability Analysis methodology. Category: Artificial Intelligence [215] viXra:1610.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 04:31:32 ### Associative Broadcast Neural Network Authors: Aleksei Morozov Comments: 3 Pages. Associative broadcast neural network (ABNN) is an artificial neural network inspired by a hypothesis of broadcasting of neuron's output pattern in a biological neural network. Neuron has wire connections and ether connections. Ether connections are electrical. Wire connections provide a recognition functionality. Ether connections provide an association functionality. Category: Artificial Intelligence [214] viXra:1610.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 13:53:10 ### A New Belief Entropy: Possible Generalization of Deng Entropy, Tsallis Entropy and Shannon Entropy Authors: Bingyi Kang, Yong Deng Comments: 15 Pages. Shannon entropy is the mathematical foundation of information theory, Tsallis entropy is the roots of nonextensive statistical mechanics, Deng entropy was proposed to measure the uncertainty degree of belief function very recently. In this paper, A new entropy H was proposed to generalize Deng entropy, Tsallis entropy and Shannon entropy. The new entropy H can be degenerated to Deng entropy, Tsallis entropy, and Shannon entropy under different conditions, and also can maintains the mathematical properity of Deng entropy, Tsallis entropy and Shannon entropy. Category: Artificial Intelligence [213] viXra:1609.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 07:22:05 ### Artificial Intelligence Discover New Materials Authors: George Rajna Comments: 20 Pages. With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. Category: Artificial Intelligence [212] viXra:1609.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 19:25:33 ### Revision on Fuzzy Artificial Potential Field for Humanoid Robot Path Planning in Unknown Environment Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Amirreza Kosari, Mohsen Jafarzadeh Comments: 10 Pages. Path planning in a completely known environment has been experienced various ways. However, in real world, most humanoid robots work in unknown environments. Robots' path planning by artificial potential field and fuzzy artificial potential field methods are very popular in the field of robotics navigation. However, by default humanoid robots lack range sensors; thus, traditional artificial potential field approaches needs to adopt themselves to these limitations. This paper investigates two different approaches for path planning of a humanoid robot in an unknown environment using fuzzy artificial potential (FAP) method. In the first approach, the direction of the moving robot is derived from fuzzified artificial potential field whereas in the second one, the direction of the robot is extracted from some linguistic rules that are inspired from artificial potential field. These two introduced trajectory design approaches are validated though some software and hardware in the loop simulations and the experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approaches in humanoid robot real-time trajectory planning problems. Category: Artificial Intelligence [211] viXra:1609.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 11:19:00 ### War Algorithm Accountability Authors: Dustin A. Lewis, Gabriella Blum, Naz K. Modirzadeh Comments: 244 Pages. Compendium on Accountability issues as pertains to Lethal Autonomous Weapons Category: Artificial Intelligence [210] viXra:1609.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 12:00:18 ### Five Hundred Deep Learning Papers, Graphviz and Python Authors: Daniele Ettore Ciriello Comments: 13 Pages. I invested days creating a graph with PyGraphviz to repre- sent the evolutionary process of deep learning’s state of the art for the last twenty-five years. Through this paper I want to show you how and what I obtained. Category: Artificial Intelligence [209] viXra:1609.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 04:54:56 ### Deep Neural Networks Authors: George Rajna Comments: 23 Pages. Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [208] viXra:1608.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:48:59 ### A Comparison of the Generalized minC Combination and the Hybrid DSm Combination Rules Authors: Milan Daniel Comments: 18 Pages. A generalization of the minC combination to DSm hyper-power sets is presented. Both the special formulas for static fusion or dynamic fusion without non-existential constraints and the quite general formulas for dynamic fusion with non-existential constraints are included. Examples of the minC combination on several different hybrid DSm models are presented. A comparison of the generalized minC combination with the hybrid DSm rule is discussed and explained on examples. Category: Artificial Intelligence [207] viXra:1608.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 12:45:56 ### Search for Dynamical Origin of Social Networks Authors: Michail Zak Comments: 33 Pages. The challenge of this work is to re-define the concept of intelligent agent as a building block of social networks by presenting it as a physical particle with additional non-Newtonian properties. The proposed model of an intelligent agent described by a system of ODE coupled with their Liouville equation has been introduced and discussed. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as superposition, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that the proposed model can be linked to mathematical models of livings as well as to models of AI. The model is presented in two modifications. The first one is illustrated by the discovery of a stochastic attractor approached by the social network; as an application, it was demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to the corresponding system of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. It was emphasized that evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying micro- dynamics supports a “violent reputation” of the power-law statistics. The second modification of the model of social network associated with a decision-making process and applied to solution of NP-complete problems known as being unsolvable neither by classical nor by quantum algorithms. The approach is illustrated by solving a search in unsorted database in polynomial time by resonance between external force representing the address of a required item and the response representing the location of this item. Category: Artificial Intelligence [206] viXra:1608.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-18 14:02:36 ### Neuromorphic Architecture Authors: George Rajna Comments: 28 Pages. In the future, level-tuned neurons may help enable neuromorphic computing systems to perform tasks that traditional computers cannot, such as learning from their environment, pattern recognition, and knowledge extraction from big data sources. [19] IBM scientists have created randomly spiking neurons using phase-change materials to store and process data. This demonstration marks a significant step forward in the development of energy-efficient, ultra-dense integrated neuromorphic technologies for applications in cognitive computing. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. Category: Artificial Intelligence [205] viXra:1608.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 22:08:41 ### Edge Based Grid Super-Imposition for Crowd Emotion Recognition Authors: Amol S Patwardhan Comments: 6 Pages. Numerous automatic continuous emotion detection system studies have examined mostly use of videos and images containing individual person expressing emotions. This study examines the detection of spontaneous emotions in a group and crowd settings. Edge detection was used with a grid of lines superimposition to extract the features. The feature movement in terms of movement from the reference point was used to track across sequences of images from the color channel. Additionally the video data capturing was done on spontaneous emotions invoked by watching sports events from group of participants. The method was view and occlusion independent and the results were not affected by presence of multiple people chaotically expressing various emotions. The edge thresholds of 0.2 and grid thresholds of 20 showed the best accuracy results. The overall accuracy of the group emotion classifier was 70.9%. Category: Artificial Intelligence [204] viXra:1608.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 22:15:06 ### Human Activity Recognition Using Temporal Frame Decision Rule Extraction Authors: Amol Patwardhan Comments: 4 Pages. Activities of humans and their recognition has many practical and real world applications such as safety, security, surveillance, humanoid assistive robotics and intelligent simulation systems. Numerous human action and emotion recognition systems included analysis of position and geometric features and gesture based co-ordinates to detect actions. There exits additional data and information in the movement and motion based features and temporal and time-sequential series of image and video frames which can be leveraged to detect and extract a certain actions, postures, gestures and expressions. This paper uses dynamic, temporal, time-scale dependent data to compare with decision rules and templates for activity recognition. The human shape boundaries and silhouette is extracted using geometric co-ordinate and centroid model across multiple frames. The extracted shape boundary is transformed to binary state using eigen space mapping and parameter dependent canonical transformation in 3D space dimension. The image blob data frames are down sampled using activity templates to a single candidate reference frame. This candidate frame was compared with the decision rule driven model to associate with an activity class label. The decision rule driven and activity templates method produced 64% recognition accuracy indicating that the method was feasible for recognizing human activities. Category: Artificial Intelligence [203] viXra:1608.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 02:57:31 ### Watson Doctor Authors: George Rajna Comments: 19 Pages. Watson correctly diagnoses woman after doctors were stumped. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. Category: Artificial Intelligence [202] viXra:1608.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 08:00:47 ### Combining Infinity Number Of Neural Networks Into One Authors: Bo Tian Comments: 17 Pages. One of the important aspects of a neural network is its generalization property, which is measured by its ability to make correct prediction on unseen samples. One option to improve generalization is to combine results from multiple networks, which is unfortunately a time-consuming process. In this paper, a new approach is presented to combine infinity number of neural networks in analytic way to produce a small, fast and reliable neural network. Category: Artificial Intelligence [201] viXra:1607.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 21:28:15 ### Active Appearance Model Construction: Implementation notes Authors: Nikzad Babaii Rizvandi, Wilfried Philips, Aleksandra Pizurica Comments: 7 Pages. Active Appearance Model (AAM) is a powerful object modeling technique and one of the best available ones in computer vision and computer graphics. This approach is however quite complex and various parts of its implementation were addressed separately by different researchers in several recent works. In this paper, we present systematically a full implementation of the AAM model with pseudo codes for the crucial steps in the construction of this model. Category: Artificial Intelligence [200] viXra:1607.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 21:29:15 ### Active Appearance Model (Aam) from Theory to Implementation Authors: Nikzad Babaii Rizvandi, Aleksandra Pizˇurica, Wilfried Philips Comments: 4 Pages. Active Appearance Model (AAM) is a kind of deformable shape descriptors which is widely used in computer vision and computer graphics. This approach utilizes statistical model obtained from some images in training set and gray-value information of the texture to fit on the boundaries of a new image. In this paper, we describe a brief implementation, apply the method on hand object and finally discuss its performance in compare to Active Shape Model(ASM). Our experiments shows this method is more sensitive to the initialization and slower than ASM. Category: Artificial Intelligence [199] viXra:1607.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:30:52 ### Pattern Recognition and Learning in Bistable Cam Networks Authors: Vladimir Chinarov, Martin Dudziak, Yuri Kyrpach Comments: 12 Pages. The present study concerns the problem of learning, pattern recognition and computational abilities of a homogeneous network composed from coupled bistable units. New possibilities for pattern recognition may be realized due to the developed technique that permits a reconstruction of a dynamical system using the distributions of its attractors. In both cases the updating procedure for the coupling matrix uses the minimization of least-mean-square errors between the applied and desired patterns. Category: Artificial Intelligence [198] viXra:1607.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 02:49:14 ### Indian Buffet Process Deep Generative Models Authors: Sotirios P. Chatzis Comments: 16 Pages. Deep generative models (DGMs) have brought about a major breakthrough, as well as renewed interest, in generative latent variable models. However, an issue current DGM formulations do not address concerns the data-driven inference of the number of latent features needed to represent the observed data. Traditional linear formulations allow for addressing this issue by resorting to tools from the field of nonparametric statistics: Indeed, nonparametric linear latent variable models, obtained by appropriate imposition of Indian Buffet Process (IBP) priors, have been extensively studied by the machine learning community; inference for such models can been performed either via exact sampling or via approximate variational techniques. Based on this inspiration, in this paper we examine whether similar ideas from the field of Bayesian nonparametrics can be utilized in the context of modern DGMs in order to address the latent variable dimensionality inference problem. To this end, we propose a novel DGM formulation, based on the imposition of an IBP prior. We devise an efficient Black-Box Variational inference algorithm for our model, and exhibit its efficacy in a number of semi-supervised classification experiments. In all cases, we use popular benchmark datasets, and compare to state-of-the-art DGMs. Category: Artificial Intelligence [197] viXra:1607.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 14:54:48 ### Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Oversets, Neutrosophic Undersets, and Neutrosophic Offsets Authors: Florentin Smarandache Comments: 4 Pages. We have proposed since 1995 the existence of degrees of membership of an element with respect to a neutrosophic set to also be partially or totally above 1 (overmembership), and partially or totally below 0 (undermembership) in order to better describe our world problems [published in 2007]. Category: Artificial Intelligence [196] viXra:1606.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 08:36:33 ### Neutrosophic Overset, Neutrosophic Underset, and Neutrosophic Offset. Similarly for Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off- Logic, Probability, and Statistics Authors: Florentin Smarandache Comments: 168 Pages. Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off-Set and -Logic were defined for the first time by Smarandache in 1995 and published in 2007. They are totally different from other sets/logics/probabilities. He extended the neutrosophic set respectively to Neutrosophic Overset {when some neutrosophic component is > 1}, Neutrosophic Underset {when some neutrosophic component is < 0}, and to Neutrosophic Offset {when some neutrosophic components are off the interval [0, 1], i.e. some neutrosophic component > 1 and other neutrosophic component < 0}. This is no surprise with respect to the classical fuzzy set/logic, intuitionistic fuzzy set/logic, or classical/imprecise probability, where the values are not allowed outside the interval [0, 1], since our real-world has numerous examples and applications of over-/under-/off-neutrosophic components. Example of Neutrosophic Offset. In a given company a full-time employer works 40 hours per week. Let’s consider the last week period. Helen worked part-time, only 30 hours, and the other 10 hours she was absent without payment; hence, her membership degree was 30/40 = 0.75 < 1. John worked full-time, 40 hours, so he had the membership degree 40/40 = 1, with respect to this company. But George worked overtime 5 hours, so his membership degree was (40+5)/40 = 45/40 = 1.125 > 1. Thus, we need to make distinction between employees who work overtime, and those who work full-time or part-time. That’s why we need to associate a degree of membership strictly greater than 1 to the overtime workers. Now, another employee, Jane, was absent without pay for the whole week, so her degree of membership was 0/40 = 0. Yet, Richard, who was also hired as a full-time, not only didn’t come to work last week at all (0 worked hours), but he produced, by accidentally starting a devastating fire, much damage to the company, which was estimated at a value half of his salary (i.e. as he would have gotten for working 20 hours that week). Therefore, his membership degree has to be less that Jane’s (since Jane produced no damage). Whence, Richard’s degree of membership, with respect to this company, was - 20/40 = - 0.50 < 0. Consequently, we need to make distinction between employees who produce damage, and those who produce profit, or produce neither damage no profit to the company. Therefore, the membership degrees > 1 and < 0 are real in our world, so we have to take them into consideration. Then, similarly, the Neutrosophic Logic/Measure/Probability/Statistics etc. were extended to respectively Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off-Logic, -Measure, -Probability, -Statistics etc. [Smarandache, 2007]. Category: Artificial Intelligence [195] viXra:1606.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 08:42:46 ### Operators on Single-Valued Neutrosophic Oversets, Neutrosophic Undersets, and Neutrosophic Offsets Authors: Florentin Smarandache Comments: 5 Pages. We have defined Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off-Set and Logic for the first time in 1995 and published in 2007. During 1995-2016 we presented them to various national and international conferences and seminars. These new notions are totally different from other sets/logics/probabilities. We extended the neutrosophic set respectively to Neutrosophic Overset {when some neutrosophic component is > 1}, to Neutrosophic Underset {when some neutrosophic component is < 0}, and to Neutrosophic Offset {when some neutrosophic components are off the interval [0, 1], i.e. some neutrosophic component > 1 and other neutrosophic component < 0}. This is no surprise since our real-world has numerous examples and applications of over-/under-/off-neutrosophic components. Category: Artificial Intelligence [194] viXra:1606.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 19:29:46 ### Self-Controlled Dynamics Authors: Michail Zak Comments: 26 Pages. A new class of dynamical system described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation has been introduced and discussed. These systems called self-controlled, or self-supervised since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of livings as well as to models of AI. The central point of this paper is the application of the self-controlled systems to NP-complete problems known as being unsolvable neither by classical nor by quantum algorithms. The approach is illustrated by solving a search in unsorted database in polynomial time by resonance between external force representing the address of a required item and the response representing location of this item. Category: Artificial Intelligence [193] viXra:1606.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:41:17 ### Universal Natural Memory Embedding -3 (AI) Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 18 Pages. In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’. Category: Artificial Intelligence [192] viXra:1606.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:30:51 ### Universal Natural Memory Embedding - Part Two Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 14 Pages. In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’. Category: Artificial Intelligence [191] viXra:1606.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 00:17:24 ### Universal Natural Memory Embedding - I Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi Comments: 14 Pages. In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Natural Memory Embedding’. Category: Artificial Intelligence [190] viXra:1605.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-29 02:24:48 ### Syllabic Networks: Measuring the Redundancy of Associative Syntactic Patterns Authors: Bradly Alicea Comments: 6 Pages. 3 figures, 1 table The self-organization and diversity inherent in natural and artificial language can be revealed using a technique called syllabic network decomposition. The topology of such networks are determined by a series of linguistic strings which are broken apart at critical points and then linked together in a non-linear fashion. Small proof-of-concept examples are given using words from the English language. A criterion for connectedness and two statistical parameters for measuring connectedness are applied to these examples. To conclude, we will discuss some applications of this technique, ranging from improving models of speech recognition to bioinformatic analysis and recreational games. Category: Artificial Intelligence [189] viXra:1605.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-18 06:12:00 ### The Algorithm of the Thinking Machine Authors: Dimiter Dobrev Comments: 13 Pages. Represented at 12 of May 2016 at Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Sofia. Throughout my life I’ve tried to answer the question "What is AI?" and write the program that is AI. I’ve already known the answer to the question "What is AI?" for 16 years now but the AI algorithm has eluded me. I’ve come up with individual fragments but something has always been missing to put the puzzle together. Finally, I gathered all the missing pieces and I can introduce you to this algorithm. That is, in this article you will find a sufficiently detailed description of the algorithm of the AI. That sounds so audacious that probably you won’t believe me. Frankly, even I do not fully believe myself. I’ll believe it only when someone writes a program executing this algorithm and when I see that this program actually works. Even if you don’t manage to believe in the importance of this article, I hope that you will like it. Category: Artificial Intelligence [188] viXra:1605.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-16 10:25:46 ### Artificial Intelligence Replaces Physicists Authors: George Rajna Comments: 19 Pages. The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. Category: Artificial Intelligence [187] viXra:1605.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-12 08:13:31 ### Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Based on D Numbers and Topsis Authors: Tian Bian, Haoyang Zheng, Likang Yin, Yong Deng, Sankaran Mahadevand Comments: 39 Pages. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used technique for assessing the risk of potential failure modes in designs, products, process, system or services. One of the main problems of FMEA is to deal with a variety of assessments given by FMEA team members and sequence the failure modes according to the degree of risk factors. The traditional FMEA using risk priority number (RPN) which is the product of occurrence (O), severity (S) and detection (D) of a failure to determine the risk priority ranking order of failure modes. However, it will become impractical when multiple experts give different risk assessments to one failure mode, which may be imprecise or incomplete or the weights of risk factors is inconsistent. In this paper, a new risk priority model based on D numbers, and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is proposed to evaluate the risk in FMEA. In the proposed model, the assessments given by FMEA team members are represented by D numbers, a method can effectively handle uncertain information. TOPSIS method, a novel multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method is presented to rank the preference of failure modes respect to risk factors. Finally, an application of the failure modes of rotor blades of an aircraft turbine is provided to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Category: Artificial Intelligence [186] viXra:1603.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-27 16:51:16 ### A Review of Theoretical and Practical Challenges of Trusted Autonomy in Big Data Authors: Hussein A. Abbass, George Leu, Kathryn Merrick Comments: 32 Pages. Despite the advances made in artificial intelligence, software agents, and robotics, there is little we see today that we can truly call a fully autonomous system. We conjecture that the main inhibitor for advancing autonomy is lack of trust. Trusted autonomy is the scientific and engineering field to establish the foundations and ground work for developing trusted autonomous systems (robotics and software agents) that can be used in our daily life, and can be integrated with humans seamlessly, naturally and efficiently. In this paper, we review this literature to reveal opportunities for researchers and practitioners to work on topics that can create a leap forward in advancing the field of trusted autonomy. We focus the paper on the `trust' component as the uniting technology between humans and machines. Our inquiry into this topic revolves around three sub-topics: (1) reviewing and positioning the trust modelling literature for the purpose of trusted autonomy; (2) reviewing a critical subset of sensor technologies that allow a machine to sense human states; and (3) distilling some critical questions for advancing the field of trusted autonomy. The inquiry is augmented with conceptual models that we propose along the way by recompiling and reshaping the literature into forms that enables trusted autonomous systems to become a reality. The paper offers a vision for a Trusted Cyborg Swarm, an extension of our previous Cognitive Cyber Symbiosis concept, whereby humans and machines meld together in a harmonious, seamless, and coordinated manner. Category: Artificial Intelligence [185] viXra:1603.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-23 10:04:45 ### Conditional Deng Entropy, Joint Deng Entropy and Generalized Mutual Information Authors: Haoyang Zheng, Yong Deng Comments: 16 Pages. Shannon entropy, conditional entropy, joint entropy and mutual information, can estimate the chaotic level of information. However, these methods could only handle certain situations. Based on Deng entropy, this paper introduces multiple new entropy to estimate entropy under multiple interactive uncertain information: conditional Deng entropy is used to calculate entropy under conditional basic belief assignment; joint Deng entropy could calculate entropy by applying joint basic belief assignment distribution; generalized mutual information is applied to estimate the uncertainty of information under knowing another information. Numerical examples are used for illustrating the function of new entropy in the end. Category: Artificial Intelligence [184] viXra:1602.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-27 04:26:26 ### Biomolecular Parallel Computer Authors: George Rajna Comments: 16 Pages. A study published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reports a new parallel-computing approach based on a combination of nanotechnology and biology that can solve combinatorial problems. [9] The substance that provides energy to all the cells in our bodies, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), may also be able to power the next generation of supercomputers. The discovery opens doors to the creation of biological supercomputers that are about the size of a book. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [183] viXra:1602.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-27 02:11:05 ### Biological Supercomputers Authors: George Rajna Comments: 15 Pages. The substance that provides energy to all the cells in our bodies, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), may also be able to power the next generation of supercomputers. The discovery opens doors to the creation of biological supercomputers that are about the size of a book. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [182] viXra:1602.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-24 08:03:56 ### IBM Watson Emotion Analysis Authors: George Rajna Comments: 17 Pages. IBM today announced new and expanded cognitive APIs for developers that enhance Watson's emotional and visual senses, further extending the capabilities of the industry's largest and most diverse set of cognitive technologies and tools. [8] The pursuit of an understanding of the base machinery of the mind led early researchers to anatomical exhaustion. With neuroscience now in the throes of molecular mayhem and a waning biochemical bliss, physics is spicing things up with a host of eclectic quantum, spin, and isotopic novelties. While increases in electron spin content have been linked to anesthetic effects, nuclear spins have recently been implicated in a more rarefied and subtle phenomenon— neural quantum processing. [7] The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with " Spooky Activation at Distance " formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word's associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology. Category: Artificial Intelligence [181] viXra:1602.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-23 01:09:01 ### Computer Quantum Experiments Authors: George Rajna Comments: 17 Pages. Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. Category: Artificial Intelligence [180] viXra:1602.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-18 19:28:27 ### Quantum Decision-Maker Authors: Michail Zak Comments: 24 Pages. A QRN simulating human decision making process is introduced. It consists of quantum recurrent nets generating stochastic processes which represent the motor dynamics, and of classical neural nets describing evolution of probabilities of these processes which represent the mental dynamics. The autonomy of the decision making process is achieved by a feedback from mental to motor dynamics which changes the stochastic matrix based upon the probability distributions. This feedback replaces an unavailable external information by an internal knowledgebase stored in the mental model in the form of probability distributions. As a result, the coupled motor-mental dynamics is described by a nonlinear version of Markov chains which can decrease entropy without an external source of information. Applications to common sense based decisions as well as to evolutionary games are discussed. Category: Artificial Intelligence [179] viXra:1602.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-18 21:11:43 ### Quantum Model of Emerging Grammars Authors: Michail Zak Comments: 7 Pages. A special class of quantum recurrent nets (QRNs) simulating Markov chains with absorbing states is introduced. The absorbing states are exploited for pattern recognition: each class of patterns is attracted to a unique absorbing state. Due to quantum interference of patterns, each combination of patterns acquires its own meaning: it is attracted to a certain combination of absorbing states which is dierent from those of individual attractions. This fundamentally new eect can be interpreted as formation of a grammar, i.e., a set of rules assigning certain meaning to dierent combinations of patterns. It appears that there exists a class of unitary operators in which each member gives rise to a dierent arti®cial language with associated grammar. Category: Artificial Intelligence [178] viXra:1602.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-18 22:38:51 ### Quantum-Inspired Teleportation. Authors: Michail.Zak Comments: 11 Pages. Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. A special class of situations when such transmissions are useful is outlined. Application of such a quantum-inspired teleportation, i.e. instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances for security of communications is discussed. Similarities and differences between quantum systems and quantum-classical hybrids are emphasized. Category: Artificial Intelligence [177] viXra:1602.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-18 04:36:09 ### Neuromorphic Computing Authors: George Rajna Comments: 16 Pages. In the field of neuromorphic engineering, researchers study computing techniques that could someday mimic human cognition. Electrical engineers at the Georgia Institute of Technology recently published a "roadmap" that details innovative analog-based techniques that could make it possible to build a practical neuromorphic computer. [9] How does the brain-a lump of 'pinkish gray meat'-produce the richness of conscious experience, or any subjective experience at all? Scientists and philosophers have historically likened the brain to contemporary information technology, from the ancient Greeks comparing memory to a 'seal ring in wax,' to the 19th century brain as a 'telegraph switching circuit,' to Freud's subconscious desires 'boiling over like a steam engine,' to a hologram, and finally, the computer. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology. Category: Artificial Intelligence [176] viXra:1602.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-06 10:58:18 ### Critical Review, Vol. 11, 2015 Authors: Many Authors Comments: 141 Pages. Papers on neutrosophic set and logic Category: Artificial Intelligence [175] viXra:1602.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-06 11:02:58 ### Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 10, 2015 Authors: Many Authors Comments: 107 Pages. Collection of papers on neutrosophics. Category: Artificial Intelligence [174] viXra:1601.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-04 06:27:06 ### Do People Leave in Matrix? Information, Entropy, Time and Cellular-Automata Authors: Janis Belov Comments: 6 Pages. The paper proves that we leave in Matrix. We show that Matrix was built by the creator. By this we solve the question how everything is built. We prove that the creator is infinite Turing machine or infinite Cellular-automaton. We show that Universe is Cellular-automaton or Turing machine too. And everything in the Universe is built as Cellular-automaton. We show that our Universe was created by “vegetative birth” from another Universe. In other words, there is an infinite Life Tree that is actually the creator itself. In other words, we show that everything is only Information, i.e. the creator. We show that there is no Time, moreover Time is the creator. So, the time is reversible. The arrow of time depends on Information entropy: if entropy increases – people leave in one world, if the entropy does not increase, in other words, no lost of information occurs – people step by step become closer to another world – the world where the creator is sensed directly. Someone can call the creator of Matrix – God. We would like to recall that Immanuel Kant tried to prove the existence of God but He did not succeed. The main reason for this is that he searched for a proof outside His own mind or His own conscience. Also, he did not take into consideration any evolutionary processes. The given paper tries to fill some gaps and show another way in understanding the reality. It is based on the existing science. In the paper we use mathematical methods in creating scientific concepts. The results are presented in the form Definition – Theorem to present them in a straightforward way. The immediate consequences of the obtained results are so that in studying the reality it is enough to develop Number Theory, Poetry, Art and other Sciences that are based on the Nature and Inner World of a person. We also give a simple solution for Yang-Mills Mass gap problem: there is no time and mass has no sense since it was invented artificially as an approximation of reality. Category: Artificial Intelligence [173] viXra:1512.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-02 01:27:54 ### Ontology, Evolving Under the Influence of the Facts Authors: Aleksey A. Demidov Comments: 34 Pages. We propose an algebraic approach to building ontologies which capable of evolution under the influence of new facts and which have some internal mechanisms of validation. For this purpose we build a formal model of the interactions of objects based on cellular automata, and find out the limitations on transactions with objects imposed by this model. Then, in the context of the formal model, we define basic entities of the model of knowledge representation: concepts, samples, properties, and relationships. In this case the formal limitations are induced into the model of knowledge representation in a natural way. Category: Artificial Intelligence [172] viXra:1511.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-17 06:02:52 ### Which is the Best Belief Entropy? Authors: Liguo Fei, Yong Deng, Sankaran Mahadevan Comments: 4 Pages. In this paper, many numerical examples are designed to compare the existing different belief functions with the new entropy, named Deng entropy. The results illustrate that, among the existing belief entropy functions,Deng entropy is the best alternative due to its reasonable properties. Category: Artificial Intelligence [171] viXra:1511.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-17 06:09:55 ### Measure Divergence Degree of Basic Probability Assignment Based on Deng Relative Entropy Authors: Liguo Fei, Yong Deng Comments: 15 Pages. Dempster Shafer evidence theory (D-S theory) is more and more extensively applied to information fusion for the advantage dealing with uncertain information. However, the results opposite to common sense are often obtained when combining the different evidence using the Dempster’s combination rules. How to measure the divergence between different evidence is still an open issue. In this paper, a new relative entropy named as Deng relative entropy is proposed in order to measure the divergence between different basic probability assignments (BPAs). The Deng relative entropy is the generalization of Kullback-Leibler Divergence because when the BPA is degenerated as probability, Deng relative entropy is equal to Kullback-Leibler Divergence. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed Deng relative entropy. Category: Artificial Intelligence [170] viXra:1511.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-11 13:10:20 ### Robots and Computers 'Consciousness' Authors: George Rajna Comments: 22 Pages. Imagine a world where "thinking" robots were able to care for the elderly and people with disabilities. This concept may seem futuristic, but exciting new research into consciousness could pave the way for the creation of intuitive artificial intelligence. [13] A small, Santa Fe, New Mexico-based company called Knowm claims it will soon begin commercializing a state-of-the-art technique for building computing chips that learn. Other companies, including HP HPQ -3.45% and IBM IBM -2.10% , have already invested in developing these so-called brain-based chips, but Knowm says it has just achieved a major technological breakthrough that it should be able to push into production hopefully within a few years. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [169] viXra:1511.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-02 18:50:19 ### Can a Mobile Game Teach Computer Users to Thwart Phishing Attacks? Authors: Nalin Asanka Gamagedara Arachchilage, Steve Love, Carsten Maple Comments: 11 Pages. Usable Security Phishing is an online fraudulent technique, which aims to steal sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and online banking details from its victims. To prevent this, anti-phishing education needs to be considered. This research focuses on examining the effectiveness of mobile game based learning compared to traditional online learning to thwart phishing threats. Therefore, a mobile game prototype was developed based on the design introduced by Arachchilage and Cole [3]. The game design aimed to enhance avoidance behaviour through motivation to thwart phishing threats. A website developed by Anti-Phishing Work Group (APWG) for the public Anti-phishing education initiative was used as a traditional web based learning source. A think-aloud experiment along with a pre- and post-test was conducted through a user study. The study findings revealed that the participants who played the mobile game were better able to identify fraudulent web sites compared to the participants who read the website without any training. Category: Artificial Intelligence [168] viXra:1510.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:26:16 ### Embedded System for Waste Management using Fuzzy Logic Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian Comments: 6 Pages. The non-degradable wastes such as plastic are a big threat for the environment. Hence an embedded system for Automation in splitting up, disposal and recycling of wastes is the best solution. The entire process is done with Artificial intelligence. The A.I. is provided with the help of Fuzzy logic. In this paper, all the common wastes such as Ferrous & its compounds, Paper, Plastic, Polythene, E-wastes, Bio-degradable wastes, etc. are considered. The input wave is given for detecting the type of wastes. By using the IF …THEN… ELSE condition it is processed. The image processing has been implemented to check the material. This paper provides the entire design of the embedded system, the entire logic for the automation with the required IF…THEN….ELSE... codes. The automation used in this paper eliminates a significant amount of entire manual work. Category: Artificial Intelligence [167] viXra:1510.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-03 02:54:50 ### Nonextensive Deng Entropy Authors: Yong Deng Comments: 9 Pages. In this paper, a generalized Tsallis entropy, named as Nonextensive Deng entropy, is presented. When the basic probability assignment is degenerated as probability, Nonextensive Deng entropy is identical to Tsallis entropy. Category: Artificial Intelligence [166] viXra:1509.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-18 04:00:41 ### Lie Detection System with Voice Using Bidirectional Associative Memory Algorithm Authors: Bustami; Fadlisyah; Nurdania Delemunte Comments: 07 Pages. Figures :04 Tables : 03, IJCAT.org, Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2015 Lie detection through voice can be detected using the algorithm bidirectional associative memory. This system is a branch of sound processing that can be used to identify the type of sound lies use some verbs like go, roads and move. This study uses an algorithm bidirectional associative memory for the process and the introduction of lie detection training through the sound use of bidirectional associative memory. The system was tested by simulating the training data and test data to generate a percentage of voice recognition and classification of these lies. Experiments performed with several changes in parameter values to obtain the best percentage of recognition and classification. The highest level of recognition contained in the verb "go" with up to 90%. Results of this research is a sound that indicated not indicated lies and deceit in the form of values are classified according to the type of sound that is known from the results of calculations of energy use bidirectional associative memory. Category: Artificial Intelligence [165] viXra:1509.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-13 20:01:24 ### The Maximum Deng Entropy Authors: Bingyi Kang, Yong Deng Comments: 17 Pages Dempster Shafer evidence theory has widely used in many applications due to its advantages to handle uncertainty. Deng entropy, has been proposed to measure the uncertainty degree of basic probability assignment in evidence theory. It is the generalization of Shannon entropy since that the BPA is degenerated as probability, Deng entropy is identical to Shannon entropy. However, the maximal value of Deng entropy has not been disscussed until now. In this paper, the condition of the maximum of Deng entropy has been disscussed and proofed, which is usefull for the application of Deng entropy. Category: Artificial Intelligence [164] viXra:1509.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-07 18:59:16 ### A Cognitive Architecture for Human-Like and Personable ai Authors: Arvind Chitra Rajasekaran Comments: 4 Pages. In this article we will introduce a cognitive architecture for creating a more human like and personable artificial intelligence. Recent works such as those by Marvin Minsky, Google DeepMind and cognitive models like AMBR, DUAL that aim to propose/discover an approach to commonsense AI have been promising, since they show that human intelligence can be emulated with a divide and conquer approach on a machine. These frameworks work with an universal model of the human mind and do not account for the variability between human beings. It is these differences between human beings that make communication possible and gives them a sense of identity. Thus, this work, despite being grounded in these methods, will differ in hypothesizing machines that are diverse in their behavior compared to each other and have the ability to express a dynamic personality like a human being. To achieve such individuality in machines, we characterize the various aspects that can be dynamically programmed onto a machine by its human owners. In order to ensure this on a scale parallel to how humans develop their individuality, we first assume a child-like intelligence in a machine that is more malleable and which then develops into a more concrete, mature version. By having a set of tunable inner parameters called aspects which respond to external stimuli from their human owners, machines can achieve personability. The result of this work would be that we will not only be able to bond with the intelligent machines and relate to them in a friendly way, we will also be able to perceive them as having a personality, and that they have their limitations. Just as each human being is unique, we will have machines that are unique and individualistic. We will see how they can achieve intuition, and a drive to find meaning in life, all of which are considered aspects unique to the human mind. Category: Artificial Intelligence [163] viXra:1509.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-05 10:41:32 ### Startup Breakthrough in Brain-like Computing Authors: George Rajna Comments: 21 Pages. A small, Santa Fe, New Mexico-based company called Knowm claims it will soon begin commercializing a state-of-the-art technique for building computing chips that learn. Other companies, including HP HPQ -3.45% and IBM IBM -2.10% , have already invested in developing these so-called brain-based chips, but Knowm says it has just achieved a major technological breakthrough that it should be able to push into production hopefully within a few years. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer. Category: Artificial Intelligence [162] viXra:1508.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-17 14:52:18 ### Themes of Futurism and AI in the Novel BlindSight Authors: Andrew Nassif Comments: 5 Pages. Andrew Nassif reviews the novel BlindSight and how it shows themes of modern Trans-humanism, Futurism, and Artificial Intelligence, as well as its symbolic references in terms of philosophy and human empathy. He reviews it through a philosopher, a physicist, a researcher, and a literary analyst point of view. Category: Artificial Intelligence ## Replacements of recent Submissions [45] viXra:1711.0265 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-27 03:16:15 ### Revisit Fuzzy Neural Network: Bridging the Gap Between Fuzzy Logic and Deep Learning Authors: Lixin Fan Comments: 76 Pages. This article aims to establish a concrete and fundamental connection between two important elds in artificial intelligence i.e. deep learning and fuzzy logic. On the one hand, we hope this article will pave the way for fuzzy logic researchers to develop convincing applications and tackle challenging problems which are of interest to machine learning community too. On the other hand, deep learning could benefit from the comparative research by re-examining many trail-and-error heuristics in the lens of fuzzy logic, and consequently, distilling the essential ingredients with rigorous foundations. Based on the new findings reported in [41] and this article, we believe the time is ripe to revisit fuzzy neural network as a crucial bridge between two schools of AI research i.e. symbolic versus connectionist [101] and eventually open the black-box of artificial neural networks. Category: Artificial Intelligence [44] viXra:1711.0265 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-17 16:28:38 ### Revisit Fuzzy Neural Network: Bridging the Gap Between Fuzzy Logic and Deep Learning Authors: Lixin Fan Comments: 76 Pages. This article aims to establish a concrete and fundamental connection between two important fields in artificial intelligence i.e. deep learning and fuzzy logic. On the one hand, we hope this article will pave the way for fuzzy logic researchers to develop convincing applications and tackle challenging problems which are of interest to machine learning community too. On the other hand, deep learning could benefit from the comparative research by re-examining many trail-and-error heuristics in the lens of fuzzy logic, and consequently, distilling the essential ingredients with rigorous foundations. Based on the new findings reported in [38] and this article, we believe the time is ripe to revisit fuzzy neural network as a crucial bridge between two schools of AI research i.e. symbolic versus connectionist [93] and eventually open the black-box of artificial neural networks. Category: Artificial Intelligence [43] viXra:1710.0324 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-09 05:34:27 ### New Sufficient Conditions of Signal Recovery with Tight Frames Via$l_1$-Analysis Authors: Jianwen Huang, Jianjun Wang, Feng Zhang, Wendong Wang Comments: 18 Pages. The paper discusses the recovery of signals in the case that signals are nearly sparse with respect to a tight frame$D$by means of the$l_1$-analysis approach. We establish several new sufficient conditions regarding the$D$-restricted isometry property to ensure stable reconstruction of signals that are approximately sparse with respect to$D$. It is shown that if the measurement matrix$\Phi$fulfils the condition$\delta_{ts}<t/(4-t)$for$0<t<4/3$, then signals which are approximately sparse with respect to$D$can be stably recovered by the$l_1$-analysis method. In the case of$D=I$, the bound is sharp, see Cai and Zhang's work \cite{Cai and Zhang 2014}. When$t=1$, the present bound improves the condition$\delta_s<0.307$from Lin et al.'s reuslt to$\delta_s<1/3$. In addition, numerical simulations are conducted to indicate that the$l_1\$-analysis method can stably reconstruct the sparse signal in terms of tight frames.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[42] viXra:1709.0108 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-10 08:24:10

### A New Semantic Theory of Nature Language

Authors: Kun Xing

Formal Semantics and Distributional Semantics are two important semantic frameworks in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Cognitive Semantics belongs to the movement of Cognitive Linguistics, which is based on contemporary cognitive science. Each framework could deal with some meaning phenomena, but none of them fulfills all requirements proposed by applications. A unified semantic theory characterizing all important language phenomena has both theoretical and practical significance; however, although many attempts have been made in recent years, no existing theory has achieved this goal yet. This article introduces a new semantic theory that has the potential to characterize most of the important meaning phenomena of natural language and to fulfill most of the necessary requirements for philosophical analysis and for NLP applications. The theory is based on a unified representation of information, and constructs a kind of mathematical model called cognitive model to interpret natural language expressions in a compositional manner. It accepts the empirical assumption of Cognitive Semantics, and overcomes most shortcomings of Formal Semantics and of Distributional Semantics. The theory, however, is not a simple combination of existing theories, but an extensive generalization of classic logic and Formal Semantics. It inherits nearly all advantages of Formal Semantics, and also provides descriptive contents for objects and events as fine-gram as possible, descriptive contents which represent the results of human cognition.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[41] viXra:1611.0211 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-01 04:59:33

### A Variable Order Hidden Markov Model with Dependence Jumps

Authors: Anastasios Petropoulos, Stelios Xanthopoulos, Sotirios P. Chatzis

Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a popular approach for modeling sequential data, typically based on the assumption of a first- or moderate-order Markov chain. However, in many real-world scenarios the modeled data entail temporal dynamics the patterns of which change over time. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a novel HMM formulation, treating temporal dependencies as latent variables over which inference is performed. Specifically, we introduce a hierarchical graphical model comprising two hidden layers: on the first layer, we postulate a chain of latent observation-emitting states, the temporal dependencies between which may change over time; on the second layer, we postulate a latent first-order Markov chain modeling the evolution of temporal dynamics (dependence jumps) pertaining to the first-layer latent process. As a result of this construction, our method allows for effectively modeling non-homogeneous observed data, where the patterns of the entailed temporal dynamics may change over time. We devise efficient training and inference algorithms for our model, following the expectation-maximization paradigm. We demonstrate the efficacy and usefulness of our approach considering several real-world datasets. As we show, our model allows for increased modeling and predictive performance compared to the alternative methods, while offering a good trade-off between the resulting increases in predictive performance and computational complexity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[40] viXra:1611.0211 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-14 08:01:26

### A Variable Order Hidden Markov Model with Dependence Jumps

Authors: Anastasios Petropoulos, Stelios Xanthopoulos, Sotirios P. Chatzis

Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a popular approach for modeling sequential data, typically based on the assumption of a first- or moderate-order Markov chain. However, in many real-world scenarios the modeled data entail temporal dynamics the patterns of which change over time. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a novel HMM formulation, treating temporal dependencies as latent variables over which inference is performed. Specifically, we introduce a hierarchical graphical model comprising two hidden layers: on the first layer, we postulate a chain of latent observation-emitting states, the temporal dependencies between which may change over time; on the second layer, we postulate a latent first-order Markov chain modeling the evolution of temporal dynamics (dependence jumps) pertaining to the first-layer latent process. As a result of this construction, our method allows for effectively modeling non-homogeneous observed data, where the patterns of the entailed temporal dynamics may change over time. We devise efficient training and inference algorithms for our model, following the expectation-maximization paradigm. We demonstrate the efficacy and usefulness of our approach considering several real-world datasets. As we show, our model allows for increased modeling and predictive performance compared to the alternative methods, while offering a good trade-off between the resulting increases in predictive performance and computational complexity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[39] viXra:1611.0211 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-14 04:26:58

### A Variable Order Hidden Markov Model with Dependence Jumps

Authors: Anastasios Petropoulos, Stelios Xanthopoulos, Sotirios P. Chatzis

Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a popular approach for modeling sequential data, typically based on the assumption of a first- or moderate-order Markov chain. However, in many real-world scenarios the modeled data entail temporal dynamics the patterns of which change over time. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a novel HMM formulation, treating temporal dependencies as latent variables over which inference is performed. Specifically, we introduce a hierarchical graphical model comprising two hidden layers: on the first layer, we postulate a chain of latent observation-emitting states, the temporal dependencies between which may change over time; on the second layer, we postulate a latent first-order Markov chain modeling the evolution of temporal dynamics (dependence jumps) pertaining to the first-layer latent process. As a result of this construction, our method allows for effectively modeling non-homogeneous observed data, where the patterns of the entailed temporal dynamics may change over time. We devise efficient training and inference algorithms for our model, following the expectation-maximization paradigm. We demonstrate the efficacy and usefulness of our approach considering several real-world datasets. As we show, our model allows for increased modeling and predictive performance compared to the alternative methods, while offering a good trade-off between the resulting increases in predictive performance and computational complexity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[38] viXra:1610.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-16 08:51:52

Authors: Aleksei Morozov

Associative broadcast neural network (aka Ether Neural Network) is an artificial neural network inspired by a hypothesis of broadcasting of neuron's output pattern in a biological neural network. Neuron has wire connections and ether connections. Ether connections are electrical. Wire connections provide a recognition functionality. Ether connections provide an association functionality.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[37] viXra:1607.0073 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-08 06:55:14

### Indian Buffet Process Deep Generative Models

Authors: Sotirios P. Chatzis

Deep generative models (DGMs) have brought about a major breakthrough, as well as renewed interest, in generative latent variable models. However, an issue current DGM formulations do not address concerns the data-driven inference of the number of latent features needed to represent the observed data. Traditional linear formulations allow for addressing this issue by resorting to tools from the field of nonparametric statistics: Indeed, nonparametric linear latent variable models, obtained by appropriate imposition of Indian Buffet Process (IBP) priors, have been extensively studied by the machine learning community; inference for such models can been performed either via exact sampling or via approximate variational techniques. Based on this inspiration, in this paper we examine whether similar ideas from the field of Bayesian nonparametrics can be utilized in the context of modern DGMs in order to address the latent variable dimensionality inference problem. To this end, we propose a novel DGM formulation, based on the imposition of an IBP prior. We devise an efficient Black-Box Variational inference algorithm for our model, and exhibit its efficacy in a number of semi-supervised classification experiments. In all cases, we use popular benchmark datasets, and compare to state-of-the-art DGMs.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[36] viXra:1607.0073 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-08 03:07:07

### Indian Buffet Process Deep Generative Models

Authors: Sotirios P. Chatzis

Deep generative models (DGMs) have brought about a major breakthrough, as well as renewed interest, in generative latent variable models. However, an issue current DGM formulations do not address concerns the data-driven inference of the number of latent features needed to represent the observed data. Traditional linear formulations allow for addressing this issue by resorting to tools from the field of nonparametric statistics: Indeed, nonparametric linear latent variable models, obtained by appropriate imposition of Indian Buffet Process (IBP) priors, have been extensively studied by the machine learning community; inference for such models can been performed either via exact sampling or via approximate variational techniques. Based on this inspiration, in this paper we examine whether similar ideas from the field of Bayesian nonparametrics can be utilized in the context of modern DGMs in order to address the latent variable dimensionality inference problem. To this end, we propose a novel DGM formulation, based on the imposition of an IBP prior. We devise an efficient Black-Box Variational inference algorithm for our model, and exhibit its efficacy in a number of semi-supervised classification experiments. In all cases, we use popular benchmark datasets, and compare to state-of-the-art DGMs.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[35] viXra:1607.0073 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-07 10:41:19

### Indian Buffet Process Deep Generative Models

Authors: Sotirios P. Chatzis

Deep generative models (DGMs) have brought about a major breakthrough, as well as renewed interest, in generative latent variable models. However, an issue current DGM formulations do not address concerns the data-driven inference of the number of latent features needed to represent the observed data. Traditional linear formulations allow for addressing this issue by resorting to tools from the field of nonparametric statistics: Indeed, nonparametric linear latent variable models, obtained by appropriate imposition of Indian Buffet Process (IBP) priors, have been extensively studied by the machine learning community; inference for such models can been performed either via exact sampling or via approximate variational techniques. Based on this inspiration, in this paper we examine whether similar ideas from the field of Bayesian nonparametrics can be utilized in the context of modern DGMs in order to address the latent variable dimensionality inference problem. To this end, we propose a novel DGM formulation, based on the imposition of an IBP prior. We devise an efficient Black-Box Variational inference algorithm for our model, and exhibit its efficacy in a number of semi-supervised classification experiments. In all cases, we use popular benchmark datasets, and compare to state-of-the-art DGMs.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[34] viXra:1607.0073 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-07 08:09:10

### Indian Buffet Process Deep Generative Models

Authors: Sotirios P. Chatzis

Deep generative models (DGMs) have brought about a major breakthrough, as well as renewed interest, in generative latent variable models. However, an issue current DGM formulations do not address concerns the data-driven inference of the number of latent features needed to represent the observed data. Traditional linear formulations allow for addressing this issue by resorting to tools from the field of nonparametric statistics: Indeed, nonparametric linear latent variable models, obtained by appropriate imposition of Indian Buffet Process (IBP) priors, have been extensively studied by the machine learning community; inference for such models can been performed either via exact sampling or via approximate variational techniques. Based on this inspiration, in this paper we examine whether similar ideas from the field of Bayesian nonparametrics can be utilized in the context of modern DGMs in order to address the latent variable dimensionality inference problem. To this end, we propose a novel DGM formulation, based on the imposition of an IBP prior. We devise an efficient Black-Box Variational inference algorithm for our model, and exhibit its efficacy in a number of semi-supervised classification experiments. In all cases, we use popular benchmark datasets, and compare to state-of-the-art DGMs.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[33] viXra:1607.0073 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-07 07:08:00

### Indian Buffet Process Deep Generative Models

Authors: Sotirios P. Chatzis

Deep generative models (DGMs) have brought about a major breakthrough, as well as renewed interest, in generative latent variable models. However, an issue current DGM formulations do not address concerns the data-driven inference of the number of latent features needed to represent the observed data. Traditional linear formulations allow for addressing this issue by resorting to tools from the field of nonparametric statistics: Indeed, nonparametric linear latent variable models, obtained by appropriate imposition of Indian Buffet Process (IBP) priors, have been extensively studied by the machine learning community; inference for such models can been performed either via exact sampling or via approximate variational techniques. Based on this inspiration, in this paper we examine whether similar ideas from the field of Bayesian nonparametrics can be utilized in the context of modern DGMs in order to address the latent variable dimensionality inference problem. To this end, we propose a novel DGM formulation, based on the imposition of an IBP prior. We devise an efficient Black-Box Variational inference algorithm for our model, and exhibit its efficacy in a number of semi-supervised classification experiments. In all cases, we use popular benchmark datasets, and compare to state-of-the-art DGMs.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32] viXra:1606.0272 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-24 16:47:04

### Self-Controlled Dynamics

Authors: Michail Zak

A new class of dynamical system described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation has been introduced and discussed. These systems called self-controlled, or self-supervised since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non- Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of livings as well as to models of AI. The central point of this paper is the application of the self-controlled systems to NP-complete problems known as being unsolvable neither by classical nor by quantum algorithms. The approach is illustrated by solving a search in unsorted database in polynomial time by resonance between external force representing the address of a required item and the response representing location of this item.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31] viXra:1606.0272 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-24 15:46:24

### Self-Controlled Dynamics

Authors: Michail Zak

A new class of dynamical system described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation has been introduced and discussed. These systems called self-controlled, or self-supervised since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non- Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of livings as well as to models of AI. The central point of this paper is the application of the self-controlled systems to NP-complete problems known as being unsolvable neither by classical nor by quantum algorithms. The approach is illustrated by solving a search in unsorted database in polynomial time by resonance between external force representing the address of a required item and the response representing location of this item.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[30] viXra:1605.0190 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-20 08:36:35

### The Algorithm of the Thinking Machine

Authors: Dimiter Dobrev
Comments: 15 Pages. Represented at 12 of May, 2016 at Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Sofia.

In this article we consider the questions 'What is AI?' and 'How to write a program that satisfies the definition of AI?' It deals with the basic concepts and modules that must be at the heart of this program. The most interesting concept that is discussed here is the concept of abstract signals. Each of these signals is related to the result of a particular experiment. The abstract signal is a function that at any time point returns the probability the corresponding experiment to return true.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29] viXra:1509.0088 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-08 18:58:24

### Cognitive Architecture for Personable and Human-Like ai :A Perspective

Authors: Arvind Chitra Rajasekaran