# All Submission Categories

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(58) - 0703(50) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(1) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)
2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)
2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(48) - 0908(110) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(52)
2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(52) - 1003(264) - 1004(138) - 1005(110) - 1006(67) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(61) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)
2011 - 1101(99) - 1102(55) - 1103(118) - 1104(82) - 1105(40) - 1106(59) - 1107(51) - 1108(48) - 1109(56) - 1110(69) - 1111(109) - 1112(83)
2012 - 1201(97) - 1202(76) - 1203(89) - 1204(90) - 1205(106) - 1206(89) - 1207(97) - 1208(220) - 1209(95) - 1210(154) - 1211(135) - 1212(138)
2013 - 1301(170) - 1302(140) - 1303(193) - 1304(147) - 1305(181) - 1306(201) - 1307(148) - 1308(138) - 1309(186) - 1310(237) - 1311(160) - 1312(197)
2014 - 1401(180) - 1402(139) - 1403(839) - 1404(244) - 1405(319) - 1406(170) - 1407(201) - 1408(212) - 1409(216) - 1410(179) - 1411(458) - 1412(233)
2015 - 1501(224) - 1502(208) - 1503(238) - 1504(208) - 1505(208) - 1506(199) - 1507(196) - 1508(342) - 1509(252) - 1510(445) - 1511(268) - 1512(426)
2016 - 1601(340) - 1602(328) - 1603(354) - 1604(317) - 1605(272) - 1606(300) - 1607(463) - 1608(393) - 1609(377) - 1610(348) - 1611(386) - 1612(388)
2017 - 1701(527) - 1702(292) - 1703(289) - 1704(351) - 1705(392) - 1706(405) - 1707(393) - 1708(451) - 1709(389) - 1710(303) - 1711(379) - 1712(581)
2018 - 1801(385) - 1802(389) - 1803(555) - 1804(436) - 1805(483) - 1806(419) - 1807(491) - 1808(567) - 1809(528) - 1810(437) - 1811(454) - 1812(429)
2019 - 1901(419) - 1902(451) - 1903(501) - 1904(530) - 1905(566) - 1906(520) - 1907(374)

## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[30276] viXra:1907.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 07:19:39

### Un Millón de Precisiones en Torno a pi

Comments: 29 Pages. On how to calculate the digits of Pi

Category: Number Theory

[30275] viXra:1907.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 08:59:16

### Clarification on the Proof of Goldbach's Strong Conjecture by Unique Path Method

Authors: Sitangsu Maitra

A definition and a proof are added to the proof of Goldbach's strong conjecture by unique path. It is an extension of the article (link http://viXra.Org/abs/1907.0276 by the same author.
Category: Number Theory

[30274] viXra:1907.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 09:02:28

### Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers at Aarhus University in Denmark has recently carried out a study exploring supersolidity in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), states of matter in which separate atomscooled to near absolute zero unite into a single quantum mechanical entity. [16] An international team of researchers has successfully produced a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in space for the first time. [15] Researchers at UCM and CSS have encountered a partial violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a quantum system known as Hofstadter lattice. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30273] viXra:1907.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 09:20:45

### Quantum Chromodynamics Simulations

Authors: George Rajna

Over the last few decades, the exponential increase in computer power and accompanying increase in the quality of algorithms has enabled theoretical and particle physicists to perform more complex and precise simulations of fundamental particles and their interactions. [26] A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[30272] viXra:1907.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 09:35:10

### Cracks in Magnetic Mirrors

Authors: George Rajna

Referred to as 'magnetic mirrors', these devices have been known to be a relatively easy way to confine plasma since the 1950s, but they have also proven to be inherently leaky. [44] If you're not a plasma physicist, exploding electrical wires underwater may sound like a bad idea. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[30271] viXra:1907.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 10:42:33

### Refutation of Bounded Homomorphisms and Finitely Generated Fiber Products of Lattices

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate two equations for the standard method for constructing subdirect products, which are not tautologous. Hence the conjecture of bounded homomorphisms and finitely generated fiber products of lattices is refuted. These form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[30270] viXra:1907.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 11:46:11

### Nature Notifies us of the Importance of the Cosmological Constant and the Fine-Stucture Constant in a Strange Way

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages. Submission is on the 19th to note the Cosmological Constant: also 11 (Apollo 11), 12, and 13 (bad luck)

Abstract: The 2-digit Cosmological Constant 0.19 is duplicated in reverse order to form the 4-digit Z boson 91.19: the 4-digit bottom quark 4.180 can be similarly presented in 41.08 form to notify us of the importance of c/alpha
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30269] viXra:1907.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 11:08:36

### The Allais Effect – Coincidence Between Newtonian and Lesagian Gravity?

Authors: Raymond H Gallucci

This paper reviews the alleged Allais Effect, i.e., anomalous behavior of pendulums or gravimeters sometimes observed during a total solar eclipse. With the Moon in a direct line between the Earth and Sun, the potential for an additional gravitational perturbation is examined as a possible contributor to the effect. Both a classical Newtonian “attractive” gravitational approach and one based on a “pushing” gravitational concept first introduced around Newton’s time by Fatio and LeSage are examined. Results indicate that both yield surprisingly equivalent results – a possible explanation, or part of one; or merely a coincidence?
Category: Astrophysics

[30268] viXra:1907.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 13:30:00

### The Quantization of Time

Authors: Uta Volkenborn, Heinz Volkenborn

In the present work it will be shown, that time is not an additional dimension of space, as the specific theory of relativity demands, but an indeterminate unity of future, present and past that takes effect within the dimension of space.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[30267] viXra:1907.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 14:15:53

### The Goldbach Theorem

Comments: 33 Pages. The Goldbach's strong conjeture has been proved

Abstract The proof of Goldbach’s strong conjecture is presented, built on the foundations of the theory of gap, which, when combined with certain criteria about the existence of prime numbers in successions, gives us the evidence cited. In reality, We have proof a more general statement in relation to that attributed to Goldbach. As result, it is proved how a even number is the sum of two odd primes, of infinite ways and as a corollary, the conjecture about of the twin primes is also proof.
Category: Number Theory

[30266] viXra:1907.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 20:14:16

### Why Jupiter Diameter =142984 Km? (Part No.3)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous

This Paper discusses and proves the following hypothesis: Light Is An Essential Player In The Matter Creation Process
Category: Astrophysics

[30265] viXra:1907.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 22:02:59

### Chord Time and Space

Authors: Li xiaohong

:Humans have two sets of space-time expressions: reference system space-time and chord time-space, simply put: reference system space-time from the clock, ruler and other external reference system, chord space-time from the discrete spectrum, string (opening string, closed string, non-line string), usually, science, physics using the reference system of space-time, music, painting using chord space-time. Chord time and space is the semantic expression of chord language, music expression time, painting expression space, both have discrete spectral forms (chord, tone, scale, etc.), mathematically each other as an inverse mirror, can be converted by chord value formula. Chord language produces semantic expressions of time, space, life, spirit, etc. in music, painting, meridian (chinese ancient medical theory) and so on. The basic forms are: quantum discrete spectrum, string (open, closed, non-line string), symmetry, mirroring and other physical, mathematical (geometric) features. There have been thousands of years of historical accumulation, with a certain universality, consensus, easy to observe, verification.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30264] viXra:1907.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 23:10:10

### DNA Sequencing Using Higher Order Logic[hol] & Stochastic Processes as Mathematical Tools Towards Next Generation/hi-End Bio-Informatics R&D Frameworks in the Context of [ Opal/byte Code Engineering/scala/java/jikesrvm( RVM-Research Virtual Machine )

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 5 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

DNA Sequencing Using Higher Order Logic[HOL] & Stochastic Processes as Mathematical Tools towards Next Generation/Hi-End Bio-Informatics R&D Frameworks in the Context of [ OPAL/Byte Code Engineering/Scala/Java/JikesRVM( RVM-Research Virtual Machine ) /JavaVirtual Machine/Metascala-Scala JVM/IoT/HPC Heterogeneous Computing Environments ] [ Scala/Java/JVM based Languages – The Next BIG Thing in IoT/HPC/Bio-informatics/BIGDATA Revolution – Advanced Software Architecture R&D ]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[30263] viXra:1907.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 01:13:50

### X-ray Mapping of Magnesium

Authors: George Rajna

A world-first study led by Monash University has discovered a technique and phenomenon that can be used for creating stronger, lightweight magnesium alloys that could improve structural integrity in the automobile and aerospace industries. [36] In a new study published Aug. 17 in Nature Communications, Nemsak, Fadley, Schneider and colleagues demonstrate the use of new techniques in X-ray spectroscopy to illuminate the internal structure of manganese-doped gallium arsenide. [35] With the publication of the first experimental measurements performed at the facility, the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) has passed another critical milestone since its launch in September 2017. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30262] viXra:1907.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 01:45:58

### Silicon Nanoparticles Against Cancer

Authors: George Rajna

Russian scientists from Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, G.G. Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances of the Russian Academy, together with their European colleagues, have come up with a unique way of using silicon nanoparticles for oncological diagnostics. [23] Researchers at Oregon State University have developed an improved technique for using magnetic nanoclusters to kill hard-to-reach tumors. [22] MIT researchers have now come up with a novel way to prevent fibrosis from occurring, by incorporating a crystallized immunosuppressant drug into devices. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[30261] viXra:1907.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 02:41:03

### 2-D Perovskite Materials

Authors: George Rajna

A new class of 2-D perovskite materials with edges that are conductive like metals and cores that are insulating was found by researchers who said these unique properties have applications in solar cells and nanoelectronics. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30260] viXra:1907.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 02:57:25

### Catanenas Molecular Trefoil Knot

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Japan has developed a way to create catenanes and a molecular trefoil knot out of para-connected benzene rings. [30] Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have devised a new process for using nano-particles to build powerful lasers that are more efficient and safer for your eyes. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30259] viXra:1907.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 04:00:40

### Resolving the Discrepancy Between Direct and Inverse Cosmic Distance Ladder Through a New Cosmological Model

Authors: Vincenzo Peluso

A new cosmological model is presented, which derives from a new physics within a theory of everything. It introduces, beyond radiation and baryonic matter, a unique and new ingredient, which is the substance of the universe, and which can be assimilated to the cold dark matter of the standard cosmology. The new model, although profoundly different from the ΛCDM model, exhibits the same metric and an almost identical distance scale. So it shares the same chronology and the same theory of nucleosynthesis, but solves the problem of the horizon, the fatness of space and the homogeneity of the distribution of matter in a natural way, without having to resort to an additional theory like that of inflation and without dark energy. Eventually it resolves the tension between the direct and the inverse cosmic distance ladder.
Category: Astrophysics

[30258] viXra:1907.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 04:05:58

### Quantum Interference in Information Technology

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists from the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, in collaboration with the University of Oxford and NIST, have shown that quantum interference enables processing of large sets of data faster and more accurately than with standard methods. [27] Over the last few decades, the exponential increase in computer power and accompanying increase in the quality of algorithms has enabled theoretical and particle physicists to perform more complex and precise simulations of fundamental particles and their interactions. [26] A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30257] viXra:1907.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 04:41:17

### The Present and the Future of the World Economy

Authors: Ilyas Oskembekov

This work is a continuation of the conversation about the qualitative heterogeneity of money, but already in the scale of the world economy. The features of this phenomenon, its sources of existence and the negative impact on the state of the world economy are considered on the model of the world economic system. The possibility of creating a new efficient world economic system with a qualitatively homogeneous money supply is shown.
Category: Economics and Finance

[30256] viXra:1907.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 05:59:35

### Smoking Gun Physics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

In this paper, we wonder whether the idea of virtual particles, gauge bosons and/or force-carrying particles in general, might be superfluous. It seems to resemble 19th century aether theory: perhaps we don’t need it. The implication is clear: if that’s the case, then we also don’t need gauge theory and/or quantum field theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30255] viXra:1907.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 07:16:12

### Refutation of Shallow Embedding in Martin-Löf Type Theory

Authors: Colin James III

In Martin-Löf type theory (MLTT), we evaluate shallow embedding as the following conjecture: “if we add the rewrite rule ∀x. f x (not x) = true, the expression f true false will not be rewritten to true, since it does not rigidly match the not x on the left hand side”. The conjecture is not tautologous, hence refuting shallow embedding in MLTT and forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[30254] viXra:1907.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 08:11:09

### On the Possible Mathematical Connections Between Some Equations of the ‘Black Hole Entropy and Soft Hair’, Black Hole Physics, Ramanujan’s Class Invariants and Mock Theta Functions

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli

In the present research thesis, we have obtained various and interesting mathematical connections between some equations of the ‘Black Hole Entropy and Soft Hair’, the fundamental last paper of S.W. Hawking, mathematics and physics of Black Hole, Ramanujan’s Class Invariants and Mock Theta Functions
Category: Mathematical Physics

[30253] viXra:1907.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 08:45:00

### Graphene Superconductor More Tune

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have developed a graphene device that's thinner than a human hair but has a depth of special traits. [29] Scientists at HZB have found evidence that double layers of graphene have a property that may let them conduct current completely without resistance. [28] US researchers studying high-temperature cuprate superconductors outside the superconducting regime have used cutting-edge X-ray scattering to detect long-predicted-but never previously observed-excitations called plasmons perpendicular to the material's atomic planes. [27] Using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) techniques, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory discovered a new quantum criticality in a superconducting material, leading to a greater understanding of the link between magnetism and unconventional superconductivity. [26] Improving these devices could mean more powerful computers, better detectors of disease and technological advances scientists can't even predict yet. [25] Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30252] viXra:1907.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 12:55:28

### Difference Cordial Labeling of the Graphs Related to Duplication of an Edge or Vertex of a Cycle and Total Graph

Authors: A. Sugumaran, V. Mohan

Abstract. A difference cordial labeling of a graph G is a bijective function f from V(G) onto {1, 2, 3, ⋯ , |V(G)|} such that each edge uv is assigned the label 1 if |f(u) – f(v)| = 1, and the label 0 otherwise, satisfying the condition that the number of edges labeled with 1 and the number of edges labeled with 0 differ by at most 1. A graph with difference cordial labeling is called a difference cordial graph. In this paper we proved that the umbrella graph U(m, n), duplication of a vertex by an edge in a cycle Cn, duplication of an edge by a vertex in a cycle Cn and the total graph of a path Pn are difference cordial graphs.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[30251] viXra:1907.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 12:51:16

### Nano-Particles of Fiber Lasers

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have devised a new process for using nano-particles to build powerful lasers that are more efficient and safer for your eyes. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30250] viXra:1907.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 13:26:35

### Endoscopy Breakthrough Discovery

Authors: George Rajna

Carnegie Mellon University's Assistant Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) Maysam Chamanzar and ECE Ph.D. student Matteo Giuseppe Scopelliti today published research that introduces a novel technique which uses ultrasound to noninvasively take optical images through a turbid medium such as biological tissue to image body's organs. [25] Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne have now discovered how a protein called LMI1 can control leaf growth and shape. [24]
Category: Physics of Biology

[30249] viXra:1907.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 13:40:11

### Electrical Gating Effects

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists have visualised the electronic structure in a microelectronic device for the first time, opening up opportunities for finely-tuned high performance electronic devices. [30] Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have devised a new process for using nano-particles to build powerful lasers that are more efficient and safer for your eyes. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30248] viXra:1907.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 16:35:58

### Natural Numbers and Their Square Roots Expressed by Constant Phi and 1

Authors: Harry K. Hahn

All natural numbers ( 1, 2, 3,…) can be calculated only by using constant Phi (ϕ) and 1. I have found a way to express all natural numbers and their square roots with simple algebraic terms, which are only based on Phi (ϕ) and 1. Further I have found a rule to calculate all natural numbers >10 and their square roots with the help of a general algebraic term. The constant Pi (π) can also be expressed only by using constant Phi and 1 ! It seems that the irrationality of Pi (π) is fundamentally based on the constant Phi and 1, in the same way as the irrationality of all irrational square roots, and all natural numbers seems to be based on constant Phi & 1 ! This is an interesting discovery because it allows to describe many basic geometrical objects like the Platonic Solids only with Phi & 1 ! The result of this discovery may lead to a new base of number theory. Not numbers like 1, 2, 3,… and constants like Pi (π) are the base of number theory ! It seems that only the constant Phi and the base unit 1 ( which shouldn’t be considered as a number ! ) form the base of mathematics and geometry. And constant Phi and the base unit 1 must be considered as the fundamental „space structure constants“ of the real physical world !
Category: Number Theory

[30247] viXra:1907.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 16:41:14

### The Ordered Distribution of Natural Numbers on the Square Root Spiral

Authors: Harry K. Hahn
Comments: 35 pages, 17 figures, 3 tables

Natural numbers divisible by the same prime factor lie on defined spiral graphs which are running through the Square Root Spiral (also named as the Spiral of Theodorus or Wurzel Spirale or Einstein Spiral). Prime Numbers also clearly accumulate on such spiral graphs. And the square numbers 4, 9, 16, 25, 36,... form a highly three-symmetrical system of three spiral graphs, which divides the square-root-spiral into three equal areas. A mathematical analysis shows that these spiral graphs are defined by quadratic polynomials. Fibonacci number sequences also play a part in the structure of the Square Root Spiral. Fibonacci Numbers divide the Square Root Spiral into areas and angle sectors with constant proportions. These proportions are linked to the golden mean (or golden section), which behaves as a self-avoiding-walk-constant in the lattice-like structure of the square root spiral.
Category: Number Theory

[30246] viXra:1907.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 16:44:28

### The Distribution of Prime Numbers on the Square Root Spiral

Authors: Harry K. Hahn
Comments: 44 pages, 26 figures, 7 tables

Prime Numbers clearly accumulate on defined spiral graphs,which run through the Square Root Spiral. These spiral graphs can be assigned to different spiral-systems, in which all spiral-graphs have the same direction of rotation and the same -second difference- between the numbers, which lie on these spiral-graphs. A mathematical analysis shows, that these spiral graphs are caused exclusively by quadratic polynomials. For example the well known Euler Polynomial x2+x+41 appears on the Square Root Spiral in the form of three spiral-graphs, which are defined by three different quadratic polynomials. All natural numbers,divisible by a certain prime factor, also lie on defined spiral graphs on the Square Root Spiral (or Spiral of Theodorus, or Wurzelspirale). And the Square Numbers 4, 9, 16, 25, 36 even form a highly three-symmetrical system of three spiral graphs, which divides the square root spiral into three equal areas. Fibonacci number sequences also play a part in the structure of the Square Root Spiral. With the help of the Number-Spiral, described by Mr. Robert Sachs, a comparison can be drawn between the Square Root Spiral and the Ulam Spiral. The shown sections of his study of the number spiral contain diagrams, which are related to my analysis results, especially in regards to the distribution of prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[30245] viXra:1907.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 16:47:59

### About the Logic of the Prime Number Distribution

Authors: Harry K. Hahn
Comments: 29 pages, 10 figures, 6 tables

There are two basic number sequences which play a major role in the prime number distribution. The first Number Sequence SQ1 contains all prime numbers of the form 6n+5 and the second Number Sequence SQ2 contains all prime numbers of the form 6n+1. All existing prime numbers seem to be contained in these two number sequences, except of the prime numbers 2 and 3. Riemanns Zeta Function also seems to indicate, that there is a logical connection between the mentioned number sequences and the distribution of prime numbers. This connection is indicated by lines in the diagram of the Zeta Function, which are formed by the points s where the Zeta Function is real. Another key role in the distribution of the prime numbers plays the number 5 and its periodic occurrence in the two number sequences SQ1 and SQ2. All non-prime numbers in SQ1 and SQ2 are caused by recurrences of these two number sequences with increasing wave-lengths in themselves, in a similar fashion as Overtones (harmonics) or Undertones derive from a fundamental frequency. On the contrary prime numbers represent spots in these two basic Number Sequences SQ1 and SQ2 where there is no interference caused by these recurring number sequences. The distribution of the non-prime numbers and prime numbers can be described in a graphical way with a -Wave Model- (or Interference Model) -- see Table 2.
Category: Number Theory

[30244] viXra:1907.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 16:53:39

### The Distribution of Natural Numbers Divisible by 2, 3, 5, 11, 13 and 17 on the Square Root Spiral

Authors: Harry K. Hahn

The natural numbers divisible by the Prime Factors 2, 3, 5, 11, 13 and 17 lie on defined spiral graphs, which run through the Square Root Spiral. A mathematical analysis shows, that these spiral graphs are defined by specific quadratic polynomials. Basically all natural number which are divisible by the same prime factor lie on such spiral graphs. And these spiral graphs can be assigned to a certain number of Spiral Graph Systems, which have a defined spatial orientation to each other. This document represents a supplementation to my detailed introduction study to the Square Root Spiral, and it contains the missing diagrams and analyses, showing the distribution of the natural numbers divisible by 2, 3, 5, 11, 13 and 17 on the Square Root Spiral. My introduction study to the Square Root Spiral can also be found in this archive. The title of this study : The ordered distribution of the natural numbers on the Square Root Spiral.
Category: Number Theory

[30243] viXra:1907.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 17:25:01

### Quadrature Rules for C^0 and C^1 Splines, a Recipe

Authors: Helmut Ruhland

Closed formulae for Gaussian or optimal, 1-parameter quadrature rules in a compact interval [a, b] with non uniform, asymmetric subintervals, arbitrary number of nodes per subinterval for the spline classes S2N, 0 and S2N+1, 1, i.e. even and odd degree are presented. Also rules for the 2 missing spline classes S2N-1, 0 and S2N, 1 (the so called “1/2-rules”), i.e. odd and even degree are presented. These quadrature rules are explicit in the sense, that they compute the nodes and their weights in the first/last boundary subinterval and, via a recursion the other nodes/weights, parsing from the first/last subinterval to the “middle” of the interval. These closed formulae are based on the semi-classical Jacobi type orthogonal polynomials.
Category: General Mathematics

[30242] viXra:1907.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 18:18:45

### Some Questions of Modern Science About the Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30241] viXra:1907.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 20:59:13

### Presenting Flow-Gravity: the Accelerating Flow of a Real Something Into the Inside of Masses, as Gravitys Mechanism

Authors: Natan A Cerqueira

> Pure thought brought up and developed an idea that should have emerged in the pre-relativity time: Isnt the “wind of space”, in Earths surface, what we call gravity? The flow of a real something, vertical at the surface, pointed towards the planets center, and put to accelerate by the convergence of the trajectories (funneling). > The idea found no contradictons, and is actually endorsed by general relativity, because a non-solid can only present a geometry precisely when flowing and being funneled; “*space flow” instead of “curved space” did not imply in any compromise to equations or experimental tests. > Reflections on the idea naturally led to an all-encompassing mechanical model of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30240] viXra:1907.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 01:22:08

### Magnetic Liquid Droplets

Authors: George Rajna

Inventors of centuries past and scientists of today have found ingenious ways to make our lives better with magnets-from the magnetic needle on a compass to magnetic data storage devices and even MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) body scan machines. [31] McHenry's group, in collaboration with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), NASA Glenn Research Center, and North Carolina State University, are designing a two and half kilowatt motor that weighs less than two and half kilograms. [30] Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have been attracting a lot of attention recently. This is because of the increased demand for faster, longer-lasting and lower-energy IT systems, and the need for higher data storage capacity. [29] Researchers have discovered that using an easily made combination of materials might be the way to offer a more stable environment for smaller and safer data storage, ultimately leading to miniature computers. [28] demonstrated an original layout of a prototype of multiresonator broadband quantum-memory interface. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30239] viXra:1907.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 01:37:46

### Molecular Computers

Authors: George Rajna

This could be a step toward molecular computing-building circuits up from molecules rather than carving them out of silicon as a way to max out Moore's Law and make the most powerful conventional computers possible. [37] From books to floppy disks to magnetic memory, technologies to store information continue to improve. Yet threats as simple as water and as complex as cyberattacks can still corrupt our records. [36] Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have come up with a way to manipulate tungsten diselenide (WSe2)-a promising two-dimensional material-to further unlock its potential to enable faster, more efficient computing, and even quantum information processing and storage. [35] The human brain has amazing capabilities making it in many ways more powerful than the world's most advanced computers. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30238] viXra:1907.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 05:56:43

### The Black Hole in M87 (Eht2017) May Provide Evidence for a Poincare Dodecahedral Space Universe

Authors: Harry K. Hahn

The M87 (EHT2017) black hole images indicate a dodecahedral structure of the gravitational singularity. One feature in the fiducial image sequence caught my eye and forced me to write this paper here ! It‘s the apparent existence of 5 knots in the ring-structure and the nearly symmetrical pentagonal-shape of the black hole shadow ! In Paper IV it is written that the current image reconstructions and visibility-domain analyses are not able to confirm or reject the reality of the “knots” seen in the images, and these features should therefore be interpreted with caution. But if these knots turn out to be real and stable, then we may look at a gravitational singularity which indicates a more complex universe then expected ! The pentagonal ring structure may indicate a Poincare Dodecahedral Space ( PDS ) structure of our universe, and a dodecahedral shaped gravitational singularity ( black hole ) in the center of M87. The images may provide evidence for the underlying universal theory of our universe Albert Einstein was searching for. I.V. Volovich describes the construction of a universal physical theory based on pure numbers as fundamental entities. And I want to show the importance of number 5 for the distribution of primes and non-primes as a base for this theory. With the help of another study with title: Phase spaces in Special Relativity : Towards eliminating gravitational singularities - a way was found to express (calculate) all natural numbers and their square roots only by using the constant Phi (ϕ) and number 1. An algebraic term found by Mr Peter Danenhower in this study made this possible. With the formulas which I have found it‘s possible to express all natural numbers and their square roots only with Phi & 1 ! This is an interesting discovery because it also allows to describe most ( maybe all ) geometrical objects only with Phi & 1. The constant Pi (π) can also be expressed only by using the constant Phi and 1 ! The result of this discovery may lead to a new base of number theory. Not numbers like 1, 2, 3,…. and constants like Pi (π) etc. may form base of number theory ! Only the constant Phi and the base unit 1 (which shouldn’t be considered as a number) may form the base of mathematics and geometry. This will certainly also have an impact on physics ! And eventually it will lead to an universal mathematical and physical theory !
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30237] viXra:1907.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 08:20:15

### Largest Dark Matter Experiment

Authors: George Rajna

Most of the remaining components needed to fully assemble an underground dark matter-search experiment called LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) arrived at the project's South Dakota home during a rush of deliveries in June. [27] Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[30236] viXra:1907.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 08:27:21

### Two Cubic Equations and pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito

This note presents some formulas for Pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[30235] viXra:1907.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 08:31:03

### On: Z*z*z-7*z*z+3*z-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito

We give a formula for Pi.
Category: Number Theory

[30234] viXra:1907.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 09:22:34

### X-Ray Telescope Study Dark Universe

Authors: George Rajna

A long-awaited German-Russian telescope to survey the X-ray sky in unprecedented detail was successfully launched from Kazakhstan's Baikonur Cosmodrome on 13 July. [28] Most of the remaining components needed to fully assemble an underground dark matter-search experiment called LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) arrived at the project's South Dakota home during a rush of deliveries in June. [27] Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[30233] viXra:1907.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 10:13:05

### Rydberg Quantum Simulators

Authors: George Rajna

The three-year Rydberg Quantum Simulators (RYSQ) project was set up to capitalize on the versatility of Rydberg atoms in order to address a variety of quantum simulations. [38] Using lasers, U.S. and Austrian physicists have coaxed ultracold strontium atoms into complex structures unlike any previously seen in nature. [37] A team of researchers has now presented this state of matter in the journal Physical Review Letters. The theoretical work was done at TU Wien (Vienna) and Harvard University, the experiment was performed at Rice University in Houston (Texas). [36] The old question, whether quantum systems show recurrences, can finally be answered: Yes, they do-but the concept of recurrence has to be slightly redefined. [35] Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information-known as qubits-that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30232] viXra:1907.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 10:22:50

### The Mystery of Nature Discovered

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents the discovery of an error in physics, which has been for over two hundred years passed on to next generations as an irrefutable truth. This error concerns the law of conservation of energy.
Category: Classical Physics

[30231] viXra:1907.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 10:20:16

### Non-Interactive Mechanics

Authors: Nishant kumar sharma

The theory of new type of particles called non-intractable particles, these are the particles which attend every mass state in universe, These Particle Explains The Contraction Of Fermions In Fermi-Dirac Statics These Particles Moves In Straight Line And Remain Same In Quantum ,Classical And Relativistic Systems, with it defining the statistic of Non-Intractable particles, The relation Of Particle-Matter Union N+M = 0 ,the equations of Non-Interactive Mechanics, For Matter Particle Relation And Nucleus Energy , Mass , Radius Detection , Ramanujan Entering The Way By Which Non-Intractable Particles Emit, Ramanujan Effect Way Of Exchange Of Particles By Matter. structure of Nucleus and Atom according to Non-Interactive Mechanics, proof of Dirac Particle-Antiparticle theory, Nishant Effect -The process by which Non-Interactive particles react with matter And Need Of Improvement In Equations Where Mass Is Mentioned Such As N+M In Place Of M Only. with this the proofs of Nishant effect 1. Linear harmonic oscillator 2. Plank’s Quantum Hypothesis 3. Mass- energy relation E=mc^2 4.Non-Intractable Particles 20817.22 m/sec Faster Than The Detected velocity of light 5. The Relativistic relation E^2=P^2C^2+m^2c^4 , A Proof Of Equations where Mass Is Mentioned Should Be Written As E = (N+M) C^2.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[30230] viXra:1907.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 10:51:30

### Anticipated Nuclear Experiment

Authors: George Rajna

The precise determination of the neutron skin of lead (or how far the neutrons stick out from the protons in the nucleus) tells us about the equation of state (EOS) of neutron matter. [38] Matter is composed of chemical elements mainly created in stars via nuclear reactions and complex nuclear reaction networks. [37] These particles are produced by stellar flares or by shock waves driven by magnetic events in the stellar corona. [36] Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[30229] viXra:1907.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 11:07:43

### Serendipity Quantum Photonic

Authors: George Rajna

During her research on measuring light wavelengths using this photonic chip, Caterina Taballione of the University of Twente came across yet another application serendipitously-by sending single photons through the system instead of continuous light, the optical components can perform quantum operations, as well. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30228] viXra:1907.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 13:12:47

### Testing the Number of Space-Time Dimensions by the 5.9 Years Repeated Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiments

Authors: E Koorambas

Abstract. The basic motive of the five dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory is the unification of gravity and electromagnetism. A feature of these theories was the relation between the electromagnetic coupling e2, and gravitational coupling GN and the radius of the fifth dimension Rc. The radius of the fifth dimension Rc is thus fixed by the elementary electric charge. From the known value of the elementary charge, we find that Rc is of the order of the Planck length. Based on The five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory, we show that if the observed harmonic pattern of the laboratory-measured values of GN is due to some environmental or theoretical errors, these errors must also affect the elementary electric charge e. We calculate the values of fundamental electric charge e predicted by 3+1 and 4+1 dimensional space-time model respectively. We find that in the case of 4+1 the fundamental electric charge e values are oscillated with the 5.9 year LOD oscillation cycle, while in the case of 3+1 spacetime dimensions the fundamental electric charge e is constant and perfect fitted to the straight line. Furthermore, we propose that the number of space-time dimensions can be reveal by the 5,9years repeated Millikan’s oil drop experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[30227] viXra:1907.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 13:48:01

### Spherical Solution of Classical Quantum Gravity

Authors: Sangwha Yi

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s gravity field equation, we discover the spherical solution of the classical quantum gravity. The careful point is that this theory is different from the other quantum theory. This theory is made by the Einstein’s classical field equation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30226] viXra:1907.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 00:28:51

### Cosmological Concepts Astrophysical Extension of Non Interactive Mechanisms

Authors: Nishant kumar sharma

Non-Interactive Mechanics Which Is Evaluated From Fermi-Dirac Statistics And The Formulation Is Based On The Contraction Of Fermions. By using the rules of non-interactive mechanics Defining The condition for creating a zero space And Infinity Space, condition for space creation and it’s formula With Satisfying The Condition , condition for appearance of time With Satisfying The Condition Theoretically And Experimentally ,varies types of systems For The Movement Of Class Zero Particles, Atmamoul medium for the movement of Class Zero particles , concept of Para-Kans. concepts of app. Stable systems (planets ,Stars) ,concept of consciousness, Gravitation The Emergent Phenomena From Non-Intractable Particles , How Newton To Einstein We Are On The Correct Path Of Gravitation And How Einstein Was Right About Cosmological Constant Even When Universe Is Expanding And Why We Need An Extension To Understand Gravitation Correctly, What Is Gravitation And How It Originate , Types Of Gravitation And Gravitational Waves, The Test About Contracting Gravitation That Could Be or May Be already detected In Ligo, The Equations To Describe The Behavior Of Gravitation, The Combined Field Equation Of Gravitation For Expanding And Contraction Nature With Satisfying The Equation, Conditions To Find Graviton.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30225] viXra:1907.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 00:38:31

### Law Of Gravitation For Non-Intractable Particles

Authors: Nishant kumar sharma

In This Manuscript We Will Study About The Gravitation Formula Of Non-Interactive Formula Which Will Be Derived From The Sir Isaac Newton’s Gravitation Formula ,Then By Using Non-Interactive Mechanics We Will Study How The Gravitation Formula Of Non-Interactive Mechanics Shows Sir Newton’s Laws Of Motion, Here We Will Discuss First Law , Second Law And Third Law ,Then We Will Study Non-Interactive Particles Are The First Force And Work Of Each Action. why Graviton Should Be A Non-Interactive Particle. Why Any Mass State Can’t Be In Rest In Universe According To Classical And Non-Interactive Mechanics. The Free Movement Of Non-Intractable Particles In Universe Existence Of Non-Intractable Particles In Space And Solar System.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30224] viXra:1907.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 01:02:45

### Two-Qubit Gate

Authors: George Rajna

A group of scientists led by 2018 Australian of the Year Professor Michelle Simmons have achieved the first two-qubit gate between atom qubits in silicon-a major milestone on the team's quest to build an atom-scale quantum computer. [48] In a recent study, researchers at the University of Colorado have resolved phonon Fock states in the spectrum of a superconducting qubit coupled to a multimode acoustic cavity. [47] "Our bacterially produced graphene material will lead to far better suitability for product development," Meyer says. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30223] viXra:1907.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 01:16:19

### Sketches On Polysigns And Other Arithmetics Operators

Authors: Kujonai

A compilation of drawings sprung during a email exchanging with T. Golden, author of the Polysigns numbers. It must be mentioned that he accepts only some of the concepts presented here. Although we do share some common ground while talking about Polysigns and/or "simplexogonal" arithmetics, we do have some differences in the approach. In anycase, it is required some understanding of the Polysign Notation to fully appreciate the drawings. A few important bits arose as a direct consequence of the interaction and some are presented here, in a rather highly informal way.
Category: Algebra

[30222] viXra:1907.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 03:16:38

### Lin's Helicopter a New Type of Helicopter Which Can Fly Faster

Authors: Zhixian Lin

This file proposed a new type of helicopter which can fly faster than a traditional helicopter. It is a coaxial helicopter, but its rotor blades can be used as fixed wings also, and I named this rotor blades Coaxial Wing. It is very easy to switch between vertical flight mode and horizontal flight mode, and it can be switched in seconds. In the horizontal flight mode, it is equal to a fixed wing biplane. In the vertical flight mode, it is a coaxial helicopter. It has both the advantages of fixed-wing aircrafts and helicopters.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[30221] viXra:1907.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 04:45:50

### Is the Weak Force a Force?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages includes title page.

In our previous paper, we explored the epistemological foundation of quantum chromodynamics: what concepts and models are we using, and what does Occam’s Razor Principle has to say about that? In this paper we do the same for the weak force. We think the force concept should not be applied to the analysis of decay or disintegration processes. The idea of W and/or Z bosons mediating the weak force makes even less sense. W/Z bosons should be thought of as debris: transient or resonant matter. We suggest the whole idea of bosons mediating forces resembles 19th century aether theory: we don’t need it. The implication is clear: if that’s the case, then we also don’t need gauge theory and/or quantum field theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30220] viXra:1907.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 05:42:48

### The Physics Behind Yellow Stone Volcano Eruption

Authors: B. Ravi Sankar
Comments: 5 Pages. 26-07 - 2026 is the judgement day. The Yellowstone volcano will erupt and the world will end. It is an apocalypse.

The physics behind any super volcano eruption is explained in this paper. It is to be noted that the physics behind the eruption is only explained here not the exact time of eruption. There exists a method called time series prediction in computer science algorithms and using modern day computers, one can predict the exact time of eruption provided the site earthquake/temperature/eruption history and which is beyond the scope of this paper. The spin velocity of earth at the equator is nowhere derived in the literature, but it is a measured quantity due to the spacecraft industry. In this paper, the spin velocity of earth at the equator is derived for the first time. The earth spin axis is tilted by 23.50 due to which we are having seasons. The tilted axis is not fixed or stationary. It precesses and makes a cone as viewed from north or south pole with a period of 26500 years. This precession is due to multi-body gravitational interaction in solar system which can be solved only numerically using modern day computers. Nutation is not considered in this paper. The precession of earth is opposite to the spin of of earth, due to which the earth de￾celerates. The deceleration is not a continuous function of time. It decelerates once in 26500 years. This deceleration causes energy to be accumulated beneath earth crust. An exact figure of how much energy the yellow stone volcano will erupt is given in joules. This ac￾cumulated energy erupts once in 26500 years and we call it as super volcano eruption. In the context of this paper it is yellow stone volcano located in USA. But geologists are claiming that a super volcano erupts only once in around 8 lakh years without proper scientific reasoning. Already due to global warming the yellow stone volcano had become active. The eruption can be prevented if we start producing food items like wheat,rice,apple etc. in factories. If we do that, farmlands can be planted with trees and hence a 20 centigrade reduction in temperature will prevent any volcano eruption. In order to produce crop items in factory, we need surplus of electric energy. This is possible if and only CERN achieves nuclear fusion reactions on a grand scale and also global scientist should come forward to work on pico-electronics to produce crops in factories. Otherwise it is going to be an apocalypse or doomsday/judgment day.
Category: Geophysics

[30219] viXra:1907.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 06:58:12

### A Polynomial Time and Non-Heuristic Solution for NP-Complete Problems (Clique, TSP & Sudoku)(P=NP)

Authors: John Archie Gillis

The present article takes a novel approach to solving NP-Complete problems and provides steps that a computational device and software program can follow to accurately solve NP-class problems without the use of heuristics or brute force methods. The present methods are fast and accurate if utilized properly. The paper states that the solution to solving the P vs NP question (and our ability to design algorithms to solve such problems efficiently) lies in a novel method presented for searching, filtering, combining and structuring data, which describes a novel method for breaking specific problems into logical groupings that the present inventor (John Archie Gillis) has defined as collaborative variables. They utilize novel binary representations/conversions, so that one can more easily and quickly determine selected and desired informational outputs. Many have stated that a solution to this problem will create the world’s first trillionaire as it addresses many pattern-matching and optimization problems that are of great practical interest, such as determining the optimal arrangement of transistors on a silicon chip, developing accurate financial-forecasting models, or analyzing protein-folding behaviour in a cell. Since all the NP-complete optimization problems become easy with the present methods, everything will be much more efficient. Transportation of all forms can now also be scheduled optimally to move people and goods around quicker and cheaper. Manufacturers can improve their production to increase speed and create less waste. Developments in vision recognition, language comprehension, translation and many other learning tasks will now become much simpler as well. It is felt that by utilizing the systems of the present invention in numerous fields, that the present paper will have profound implications for mathematics, cryptography, algorithm research, artificial intelligence, game theory, internet packet routing, multimedia processing, philosophy, economics and many other fields.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[30218] viXra:1907.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 08:34:28

### Bohr's Complementarity and Afshar's Experiment: Non-Dualistic Study at the Single-Quantum Level

Authors: C Ravi Kumar, N Gurappa

Using a newly proposed wave-particle non-dualistic interpretation' of the quantum formalism, Bohr's principle of complementarity is analyzed in the context of the single-slit diffraction and the Afshar's experiments - at the single-quantum level. The fundamental flaw in the Afshar's argument is explicitly pointed out.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30217] viXra:1907.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 10:26:22

### Charge Asymmetry in Top-Quark Pairs

Authors: George Rajna

This allowed ATLAS to detect and measure an unprecedented number of events involving top-antitop quark pairs, providing ATLAS physicists with a unique opportunity to gain insight into the top quark's properties. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28] The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[30216] viXra:1907.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 10:40:26

### Majorana Photons

Authors: George Rajna

Alfano and his research team are claiming another breakthrough with a new super-class of photons dubbed "Majorana photons." [34] As mysterious as the Italian scientist for which it is named, the Majorana particle is one of the most compelling quests in physics. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30215] viXra:1907.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 10:57:35

### Artificial Intelligence Design Metamaterials

Authors: George Rajna

Metamaterials are artificial materials engineered to have properties not found in naturally occurring materials, and they are best known as materials for invisibility cloaks often featured in sci-fi novels or games. [24] The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data-with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time. [23] Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have demonstrated that deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, can discern and enhance microscopic details in photos taken by smartphones. [22] Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[30214] viXra:1907.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 12:21:41

Authors: George Rajna

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos-the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe-have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[30213] viXra:1907.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 12:39:27

### Limitations in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna

A new study from the University of Utah found that in fact, when the insulating layers are as thin as 16 quintuple atomic layers across, the top and bottom metallic surfaces begin to influence each other and destroy their metallic properties. [35] Hailed as a pioneer by Photonics Media for his previous discoveries of supercontinuum and Cr tunable lasers, City College of New York Distinguished Professor of Science and Engineering Robert R. Alfano and his research team are claiming another breakthrough with a new super-class of photons dubbed "Majorana photons." [34] As mysterious as the Italian scientist for which it is named, the Majorana particle is one of the most compelling quests in physics. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30212] viXra:1907.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 16:32:52

### Why Jupiter Diameter =142984 km (Part 2)? (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous

This Paper discusses the following hypothesis: ("2A" are needed for "1B") The Previous Rule Controls The Solar Planets Basic Data Hypothesis Explanation It tells – all basic solar planets data are created based on the previous rule – we need 2 Equal Values to interact with 1 different Value… Example (No. 1) Solar Planets Diameters Total = 2 Jupiter Diameters + 1 Saturn Diameter How To Understand The Previous Idea: Solar Group Is One Trajectory of Energy – Each Planet Is A Point On It a.The Planet Matter (Mass) is Created of Energy (E=mc2 supports that) b.The Planet Orbital Distance (Space) is Created of Energy (Hypothesis) Solar Group can be similar to one machine each plant is a gear in it (or one body and each planet is a member of this same body) The Solar Group is Created from only One Energy The Solar Planets and their orbital distances are created depending on Each Other The basic solar planets data are created based on this rule ("2A" for "1B")
Category: Astrophysics

[30211] viXra:1907.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 16:39:05

### Optimization of Production and Animal Transit in an Integrated Crop-Livestock System with no-Tillage

Authors: Vinicius Teixeira do Nascimento, Angel Ramon Sanchez Delgado, Sergio Drumond Ventura

Nowadays integrated crop-livestock production systems have been presented as a viable and sustainable alternative in economic, social and environmental terms. This work develops and implements a mixed integer programming model (MIXP) that represents or simulates numerically the optimum operational conditions of an integrated crop-livestock system with no-tillage (iCLS-NT), including animal transit. For the computational implementation of the model, data on the fitness of the live weight gain of each animal of the herd considered, in each period and area of the (iCLS-NT), (confinement, pasture and annual crop), as well as marginal net income of each crop and the costs per unit of food considered. In order to test the validity of the developed mathematical model, data were randomly generated. To solve each MIXP, we used the solver INTLINPROG in the software MATLAB. Thus, after the computational implementation, it was verified that the program meets all restrictions imposed, maximizes the weight gain of each animal, provides the best selection of annual crops and minimizes feeding costs in the confinement area.
Category: General Mathematics

[30210] viXra:1907.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 16:42:09

### Estudo Taxonômico da Tribo Cassieae (Leguminosae – Caesalpinioideae) no Parque Ecológico Engenheiro Ávidos, Cajazeiras–PB

Authors: Flávio Sousa Souto, Aclébia Alves Quaresma, Rubens Teixeira de Queiroz, Maria do Socorro Pereira

This work consists in a taxonomic study of the Tribe Cassieae in the Engenheiro Ávidos Ecological Park, Cajazeiras - Paraíba, carried out between February/2017 an April/2018. Twelve species were recorded in the area, distributed in two genera: Chamaecrista (6) and Senna (6). Among the species found, we highlight Chamaecrista pilosa, here cited as a new registry for the state of Paraíba and the occurrences of C. amiciella and C. duckeana, endemic species of the Caatinga. Analytical key for species identification, morphological descriptions and complementary information are presented. In this context, the relevant contribution of this study to the knowledge of the flora in the region is evidenced.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30209] viXra:1907.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 16:44:47

### Lista Atualizada da Flora Vascular do Parque Nacional (Parna) Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brasil

The Serra de Itabaiana National Park is located in an ecotone between Atlantic Rainforest and Caatinga biomes. It is one of the main areas of scientific studies in Sergipe. There are works approaching botanical families and listings of vascular flora. However, there is a need to update and compile the lists to better knowledge of the diversity of local flora. Therefore, a checklist was prepared from previous publications and Herbarium database of the Federal University of Sergipe (ASE). In total 124 families and 830 species of vascular plants were recorded distributed between Angiosperm (803 species), Ferns and Lycophytes (26) and Gymnosperms (1). The families of greater richness were: Fabaceae (73 species), Poaceae (65), Cyperaceae (59), Rubiaceae (40) and Asteraceae (36). The most representative habits were herbs (41.2%), shrubs (24.7%) and tree (17.6%). One hundred and seventy species are new occurrences for Sergipe, there is a new species for science, six rare species, three endangered species, nine almost endangered and three vulnerable, in addition there are 80 endemic species of the Atlantic Forest and 13 endemic to the Caatinga.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30208] viXra:1907.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 16:46:52

### Estudo Taxonômico Das Subfamílias Cercidoideae e Detarioideae (Leguminosae) no Parque Ecológico Engenheiro Ávidos, Sertão Paraibano

Authors: Flávio Sousa Souto, Aclébia Alves Quaresma, Anaine Batista Araruna, Rubens Teixeira de Queiroz, Maria do Socorro Pereira

The subfamilies Cercidoideae and Detarioideae represent the basal lineages among the Leguminosae. In this work it is reported the occurrence of three species in the Engenheiro Ávidos Ecological Park, being two members of Cercidoideae, Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong.) Steud. and B. pentandra (Bong.) D. Dietr. and one of Detarioideae, Tamarindus indica L. It is worth mentioning that B. pentandra occurs in Paraíba only in the municipalities that comprise the Sertão mesoregion, while B. cheilantha is distributed in all geographic regions of the state. Tamarindus indica is an exotic species, widely cultivated, due to its food potential. These floristic data are relevant because they contribute to the increase of the knowledge of the vegetal cover in the semiarid.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30207] viXra:1907.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 16:49:57

### Avaliação de Perdas Nos Sistemas Públicos de Abastecimento de água no Estado de Sergipe

Authors: Marcos Luciano Alves Barroso

In recent years, little attention has been paid to investments in maintenance and modernization of the management of public water supply systems in many Brazilian cities. In the State of Sergipe, this fact has resulted in a series of inefficiencies in the supply, among which, the high loss of water, physical and financial for the state concessionaire in several cities stands out. Thus this work seeks to identify a picture of the conditions of water loss management in the public supply systems in the six largest municipalities of the State of Sergipe. The fact is therefore that the concessionaire indicates that the lack of technology that ensures better monitoring of public water supply systems in cities that also do not have modern equipment for the actual measurement of water distributed and consumed. Thus, the work was constructed accounting for information and indicators from the National Sanitation Information System (SNIS) that reveal the situation of cities in Sergipe from 2008 to 2017. They revealed that incentives for more efficient maintenance are limited and, in general, water is treated as a free good, stimulating non-payment and uncontrolled use of it. This situation creates many problems for the maintenance of the concessionaire and service providers, such as the production of water, which in most cases is much higher than necessary, amplifying production costs and providing a significant loss of water production in the physical loss. This represents cost incurred, part of the water is not charged, resulting in losses of billing, that is, the consumer consumes, but does not pay, resulting in costs of production and distribution without inferring revenue.
Category: Economics and Finance

[30206] viXra:1907.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 16:52:37

### Ab Initio Study of the Main Components of Biodiesel Derived from Soybean Oil

Authors: José Agripino de Araújo, Carlos Davidson Pinheiro, Luciano Leal Morais Salles, Albaneide Fernandes Wanderley, Elson Longo

The present study was conducted using the Gaussian 03 computational package to demonstrate properties involving the main molecules of methyl esters derived from fatty acids in soybean oil. The data were analyzed in terms of the energy of the system and Mulliken charges on the atoms investigated. The aim was to address the problem of fossil fuels with regard to environmental impact. Theoretical analysis of the ester molecules resulting from the transesterification reaction with methanol was performed based on the ab initio method using the 6-31G basis set.
Category: Chemistry

[30205] viXra:1907.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 16:55:02

### Primeiro Registro Fóssil de Alligatoridae do Mato Grosso do Sul e O Valor Sistemático Das Rosáceas em Caimaninae

Authors: Caio Fabricio Cezar Geroto, Alessandro Marques de Oliveira, Thais Agrella Janolla

In the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Pleistocene or Holocene vertebrate fossils are dicovered mostly in limestone caves from Serra da Bodoquena. In addition, such fossils commonly belong to large mammals, such as giant sloths, armadillos, glyptodonts, proboscids and large carnivores. However, the occurrence of other vertebrate fossils is scarce. In view of the above, the goal of this work was to perform the first description of Crocodylia fossils from the Formoso River, near the mouth of the Miranda River, in the municipality of Bonito-MS. In addition, some systematic comments were performed. The fossils studied herein are two osteoderms. Although the morphological characteristics of the osteoderms do not allow the identification of their precise position (dorsal or caudal), the results of the comparative analyses by means of linear morphometry are suggestive for the identification of Melanosuchus cf. niger, as well as an indeterminate specimen of Eusuchia. A plausible hypothesis would be to consider a putative case of gigantism in Caiman latirostris Daudin, 1802, whose species is still present in the region. Therefore, the fossils records presented here help us to compose a picture about the structure of the vertebrate communities during the Late Quaternary of Mato Grosso do Sul.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[30204] viXra:1907.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 20:24:43

### Cellular Automaton Graphics(8)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi

Developping a regular polyhedron on a plane, setting discrete coordinates on the development and applying a boundary condition of regular polyhedron to it, we realize a symmetrical graphics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[30203] viXra:1907.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 00:48:31

### Tbe Bird of Genius. !905

Authors: Tomasz Bodziony

This article is going to discuss the story behind of the creation and publication of the article entitled "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" by Albert Einstein that took place in 1905. One can state that it was one of the most important articles in the history of science. A number of astounding coincidences associated with its publication are going to be considered. A theory explaining said events is also going to be presented.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[30202] viXra:1907.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 00:42:37

### Quantum Information Processing Qudits

Authors: George Rajna

Purdue University researchers are among the first to build a gate-what could be a quantum version of a transistor, used in today's computers for processing information-with qudits. [16] Quantum physics has led to new types of sensors, secure data transmission methods and researchers are working toward computers. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30201] viXra:1907.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 00:50:24

### Genius

Authors: Tomasz Bodziony

The article is devoted to the description of amazing and remarkable coincidences connected with the creation of the General Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein in 1915. It also attempts to explain why the contribution of David Hilbert to the creation of the General Theory of Relativity was completely forgotten. Introduction
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[30200] viXra:1907.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 00:52:07

### Einstein Sticks Out His Tongue

Authors: Tomasz Bodziony

This article focuses on the second part of Albert Einstein’s life in the USA after 1933. It is the attempt of the author to approach the life and achievements of Albert Einstein from a different perspective, as well as the encouragement for the reader to form his or her opinion on the matter. Said publication is also the summary of the entire, three-part series of publications relating to Albert Einstein.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[30199] viXra:1907.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 02:38:19

### Miniature Gravitational Wave Detector

Authors: George Rajna

A team of physicists and astronomers from Northwestern University is poised to lead gravitational-wave astronomy into its next evolution. [20] The improvement will see the twin observatories — located near Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana in the US – double their sensitivity to gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[30198] viXra:1907.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 03:03:03

### Mystery of Universe Expansion

Authors: George Rajna

Astronomers have made a new measurement of how fast the universe is expanding, using an entirely different kind of star than previous endeavors. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"-a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[30197] viXra:1907.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 03:13:14

### An Insight Into [ Random Numbers-QRNG-Ai/machine Learning Libraries/mruby/ruby/ruby-Machine Learning/jiprolog ] Interaction Within the Context of Telecom Hardware Configuration & Prevention of Cyber Threats.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 2 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

An Insight into [ Random Numbers-QRNG-AI/Machine Learning Libraries/mruby/Ruby/Ruby-Machine Learning/JIProlog ] interaction within the Context of Telecom Hardware Configuration & Prevention of Cyber Threats. [AI/ML/Randomness/Random Numbers & Challenging Applications in IT/Telecom Domains ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[30196] viXra:1907.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 03:33:09

### Black Plastic Renewable Energy

Authors: George Rajna

Research from Swansea University has found how plastics commonly found in food packaging can be recycled to create new materials like wires for electricity—and could help to reduce the amount of plastic waste in the future. [43] Cheap, flexible and sustainable plastic semiconductors will soon be a reality thanks to a breakthrough by chemists at the University of Waterloo. [42] Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30195] viXra:1907.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 03:48:41

### Magnetite Nanowires Transition

Authors: George Rajna

Magnetite (Fe3O4) is best known as a magnetic iron ore, and is the source of lodestone. It also has potential as a high-temperature resistor in electronics. [44] Research from Swansea University has found how plastics commonly found in food packaging can be recycled to create new materials like wires for electricity—and could help to reduce the amount of plastic waste in the future. [43] Cheap, flexible and sustainable plastic semiconductors will soon be a reality thanks to a breakthrough by chemists at the University of Waterloo. [42]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30194] viXra:1907.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 05:02:05

### Relative Formula(relationship Between e and π Without i)

Authors: Yuji Masuda

This Relative formula shows the relationship between e and π without i.
Category: Number Theory

[30193] viXra:1907.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 05:59:16

### A Note on Jordan Algebras, Three Generations and Exceptional Periodicity

Authors: Carlos Castro

It is shown that the algebra ${{\bf J } }_3 [ { \bf C \otimes O } ] \otimes {\bf Cl(4,C) }$ based on the Exceptional Jordan algebra of the complexified octonions, and the complex Clifford algebra in ${\bf 4D}$, is rich enough to describe all the spinorial degrees of freedom of three generations of fermions in ${\bf 4D}$, and include additional fermionic dark matter candidates. We extend these results to the Magic Star algebras of Exceptional Periodicity developed by Marrani-Rios-Truini and based on the Vinberg cubic ${\bf T }$ algebras which are generalizations of exceptional Jordan algebras. It is found that there is a one-to-one correspondence among the real spinorial degrees of freedom of ${\bf 4}$ generations of fermions in ${\bf 4D}$ with the off-diagonal entries of the spinorial elements of the $pair$ ${\bf T}_3^{ 8, n}, ( {\bf {\bar T}}_3^{ 8, n } )$ of Vinberg matrices at level $n = 2$. These results can be generalized to higher levels $n > 2$ leading to a higher number of generations beyond ${\bf 4 }$. Three $pairs$ of ${\bf T}$ algebras and their conjugates ${\bf {\bar T} }$ were essential in the Magic Star construction of Exceptional Periodicity \cite{Alessio} that extends the ${\bf e}_8$ algebra to ${\bf e}_8^{ (n) }$ with $n$ integer.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[30192] viXra:1907.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 06:07:57

### Dark Energy

Authors: Nishant kumar sharma

In This Manuscript We Described The Dramatic And Strange Behavior Of Particle And Matter Comes Under Dark Energy The Strange Behavior Is Holding Properties To Interchange Their Conditions, And Varies Qualities Of Interchange Of Particle And Matter And Interchange With Mathematical Quantities, Then We Discussed That At Least 10Th Order Dark Energy Is Required To Free And Stable Existence in Universe Then We Shows The Higher Order Dark Energy Of 11th Order , Then There is Description of Cosmic Rays Shower of E10+2.n And E11+2.n Orders At Two Ground Bases (i) 1.38*(10)^(-24) And (ii) 3.3300504*(10)^(-61) ,Then Their Is Discussion About Contraction And Expansion Of Normal Matter Field By The Dark Energy At 14th And 15th Level. Then We Used The Kirchhoff’s Radiation Law To Unite With The Universe Dark Energy And Dark Energy Generator’s Absorption And Emitting Property, Then The Stable State Of Systems For Uniting With The Universal Dark Energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[30191] viXra:1907.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 07:26:53

### CRISP Gene Editing Tools

Authors: George Rajna

A research collaboration between Tufts University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has led to the development of a significantly improved delivery mechanism for the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method in the liver, according to a study published recently in the journal Advanced Materials. [22] Scientists at the University of Kent have developed a new method of determining gene function in a breakthrough that could have major implications for our understanding of the processes of life. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[30190] viXra:1907.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 07:45:04

### Fragmentação Florestal na Área de Proteção Ambiental de Tambaba, Paraíba, Brasil

Authors: Saara Souza Rodrigues, Cleber Salimon, Saulo Roberto de Oliveira Vital

One of the most fragmented ecosystems in Brazil is the Atlantic Rain Forest, due to centuries of deforestation along the coast which holds one of the world’s greatest biodiversity. Landscape metrics and shape can impact on border effect on patterns and processes of a forested ecosystem. In this paper, we map and characterize the forest fragmentation of the Tambaba Environmental Protection Area (APA), on the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil, using landscape metrics to verify the effectiveness of this protected area. We conducted a land cover classification (supervised classification by maximum likelyhood, RapidEye imagery) into two categories (1) forest and (2) non forest. Landscape metrics (number of fragments, total core area, proportion of core area, among others) were calculated using ArcGis extension Patch Analyst. From the APA’s total 11.550 ha, 2.200 ha were classified as forest (19%), distributed in 1.364 fragments of different sizes. Total core area varied from 1.470 (10 m border effect) to 370 ha (50 m border effect), dependending on edge effect distance, which provides a true conservation of only 13 to 3% of the total APA. These results point to the necessity of an intense and rigorous surveillance of the compliance with laws, as well as a rational and participatory management, through the APA’s management council and public agencies, in order to protect the remnant fragments.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30189] viXra:1907.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 07:48:04

### Predation of Dermatonotus Muelleri (Anura, Microhylidae) by Guira Guira (Cuculiformes, Cuculidae) in the Coastline of the Sergipe State, Northeastern Brazil

Authors: Francis Luiz Santos Caldas, Bruno Jackson Melo de Almeida, Rafael Alves dos Santos

Predation can drive significant effect upon the community structure. However, the observation and documentation of this ecological interaction is occasional and yet scarce for many groups. Our goal here is to report the predation of Dermatonotus muelleri (Boettger, 1885) by Guira guira (Gmelin, JF, 1788). Because G. guira diet frequently includes small vertebrates we believe that this species may act as an important regulator of D. muelleri population. This predation report can input insights about the knowledge of interactions of Microhylidae Günther, 1858 (1843) members and others species.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30188] viXra:1907.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 07:47:54

### Shape-Encoded Mobile Micromachines

Authors: George Rajna

In a recent study on Nature Materials, Yunus Alapan and co-workers at the departments of physical intelligence and complex materials in Germany and Switzerland described the dynamic self-assembly of mobile micromachines with desired configurations using preprogrammed physical interactions between structural and motor units. [23] A research collaboration between Tufts University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has led to the development of a significantly improved delivery mechanism for the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method in the liver, according to a study published recently in the journal Advanced Materials. [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[30187] viXra:1907.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 07:52:04

### Occurrence of Amblyomma Sp. (Acari: Ixodidae) in Tropidurus Hispidus (Spix, 1825) (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in Parque Nacional Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil

Lizards are often parasitized by Acari species (mites and ticks). In this study we report the occurrence of a specimen of tick (Amblyomma sp.) parasitizing a juvenile individual of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) in Parque Nacional Serra de Itabaiana (PNSI) in the state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30186] viXra:1907.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 07:53:59

### Aranhas Epígeas de um Fragmento de Mata em área Urbana em Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil

Spiders are indicators of environment quality due fact of been sensible to environment changes. Their adaptions among the environment and their relations between vegetal communities make them have a special role in forest ecosystems. However, this relation makes spiders susceptible to effects of urban process and to defloration and ecosystem fragmentation process. A spider fauna survey was developed using 50 “pitfall traps”, annual sample process begun in 2010 and finished in 2011 (total samples = 600) in an urbanized patch. A total of 1238 individuals were collected, constituting 51 species belonged to 18 families which Zodariidae and Lycosidae were most abundant, and Salticidae and Theridiidae were the richest families. It´s also observed many rare species (Singletons and Doubletons). The richness estimators didn´t exhibit a trend do exhibit an asymptote and the relation between collected species and estimated species, suggesting more samples process also suggests a necessity of develop politics to preserve the local biodiversity.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30185] viXra:1907.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 07:55:39

### Críticas ao “Tree Thinking”: Elucidando O Significado Das Relações Filogenéticas

Authors: Rafael Gomes de Souza

The “Tree Thinking” is regarded as the dominant methodology in current Systematic Biology. However, criticisms of the procedures carried out by it are diverse. Here the criticisms made by Fitzhugh regarding its philosophical basis and the consequences of such modifications are presented and defended. Thus, the present work aims to demonstrate that “Tree Thinking”, as it has been used, is incomplete because it does not recognize that phylogenetic relationships are of the causal type previously summarized in an explanatory sketch (cladogram). In addition, to support such an argument, a discussion on the definition and objectives of Systematic Biology and “Tree Thinking” is provided. As a result, it is possible to observe confusion between classifying and systematizing the knowledge by those who follow "Tree Thinking". In addition, “Tree Thinking” fails to provide causal explanations regarding the origin and fixation of the characteristics studied. In this way, “Tree Thinking” can be considered an incomplete practice within Systematic Biology and, therefore, the application of the proposals of Fitzhugh are recommended.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30184] viXra:1907.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 07:57:45

### New Records and Geographic Distribution Map of Pseudopaludicola Pocoto (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leiuperinae) in Northeastern Brazil

Authors: Charles de Sousa Silva, Igor Joventino Roberto, Robson Waldemar Ávila, Drausio Honorio Morais

We provide new records and an updated geographic distribution map of Pseudopaludicola pocoto Magalhães, Loebmann, Kokubum, Haddad & Garda, 2014 for the Brazilian states of Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco. The present work helps to fill gaps in distribution of this recently described species in Caatinga Biome, which can be useful in future conservation plans.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30183] viXra:1907.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 07:59:27

### O Status Ecológico Das Comunidades de Fungos Coprófilos

Authors: Francisco J. Simões Calaça, Jéssica Conceição Araújo, Solange Xavier-Santos

We discuss the ecological status of coprophilous fungi communities lato sensu, presenting key points to the definition of scientific hypothesis and future studies aiming to understand the ecological factors that modulate the coprophilous lifestyle’s choice by these fungi. We present a new scientific term (copromycodiversity) that better describes the magnitude of this group, considering the comprehensiveness of this fungal group, including the morphological, physiological and ecological diversities to a coprophilous fungi population recorded to a specific geographical region. Furthermore, we raised some questions related to the life cycle of these fungi, taking into account recent studies as well as the traditionally accepted assumption that supports the spore passage through animals’s gut to its growth and development on dung. We expect that future research would best define these communities, avoiding uncertainties about the definition of the coprophilous lifestyle, even that some species would growth on others substrates (fimicolous fungi), but still displaying some connection with its animal host (coprophilia). While we are waiting for future directions, new hypothesis must be planned and tested aiming the predictors that truly modulates the occurrence of coprophilous fungi in different environments.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30182] viXra:1907.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 08:01:27

Authors: Raul Azevedo, Francisco Roberto de Azevedo, Relrison Dias Ramalho, Paulo André Margonari Goldoni, Antonio Domingos Brescovit

The accidents caused by arachnids have increased its frequency along the years and the majority of accidents reports do not contain species identification, contributing to underreporting of data. In Ceará state, specific information about accidents with full notifications or accident description are scarce. In this present study, data about accidents involving spiders and scorpions in Ceará state from 2010 to 2015 period were correlated with geographic distribution based on data from main Brazilian scientific collections of arachnids. An increased number of accidents caused by spiders and scorpions was observed, mainly in 2013 for scorpions, and a constant number of municipalities reported scorpionic accidents to this period. According to Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN, in Ceará state, many cases were credited to Phoneutria sp., Loxosceles sp., and Latrodectus sp., whoever this occurrence is not correlated with their geographic distribution supported on arachnid collections data. Therefore, knowledge on species geographic distribution with public health significance combined with properly notified records can contribute to reduction of accidents numbers and development of politics aimed to public health.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30181] viXra:1907.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 08:02:51

### Integrando Escolas e Universidade em Sergipe: Uma Oficina Temática Sobre Aves no Busão da Ciência do Agreste e do Sertão

Authors: Cleverton da Silva, Ricardo Santos do Carmo

This paper presents results related to the production of one workshop with the theme “Birds: ecosystem functions and services” designed to teach about the functional role of different species of birds in ecosystems. The workshops consider the non-formal education goals and scientific dissemination of the “Science on Wheels: bus of Science of the Agreste and Sertão Project”. The project gathers undergraduates and researchers to promote discussions on scientific topics of biology, chemistry, geography and physics in cities in the state of Sergipe. The Biology workshops focus on the theme of the functions and ecosystem services, which now occupies a central place in the ecology research. In this paper, we present the Science on Wheels Project and discuss the gains in student learning as a result of Biology workshops and advocate more coordination of formal and non-formal forms of scientific education as one of the commitments of universities.
Category: Education and Didactics

[30180] viXra:1907.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 08:04:23

### Jogos Cooperativos: Uma Proposta Inovadora Para O Ensino da Educação Ambiental

Authors: Hugo da Silva Florentino, Laryssa Abílio Oliveira, Francisco José Pegado Abílio

This article describes the experience of construction, implementation and evaluation of a cooperative board game named "RCT Game" based on the Earth Charter. This is a qualitative study, based on an exploratory and descriptive approach. It was developed and validated with students of different levels of education in a public school in the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraiba. The results indicated that the game had a positive evaluation in the acceptance and satisfaction of the students, being an innovative, dynamic and creative proposal to work on environmental education at different levels of education, as it allows to work not only environmental issues but also social, ethical, political, economic, and cultural issues in a cognitive, affective, creative and reflexive way, while promoting the development of knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to build a sustainable society.
Category: Education and Didactics

[30179] viXra:1907.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 08:52:01

### Disproof of the Riemann Hypothesis, Long Version

Authors: Igor Hrnčić

In this manuscript we use the Perron formula to connect zeta evaluated on the root free halfplane to zeta evaluated on the critical strip. This is possible since the Perron formula is of the form f(s)=O f(s+w) with O being an integral operator. The variable s+w is on the root free halfplane, and yet s can be on the critical strip. Hence, the Perron formula serves as a form of a functional equation that connects the critical strip with the root free halfplane. Then, one simply notices that in the Perron formula, the left hand side converges only conditionally, whilst the right hand side converges absolutely. This, of course, cannot be, since the left side of an equation is always equal to the right side. This contradiction when examined in detail disproves the Riemann hypothesis. This method is employed on an arbitrary distribution of zeta roots as well, concluding that zeta has a root arbitrarily close to the vertical line passing through unity.
Category: Number Theory

[30178] viXra:1907.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 11:23:56

### Tolerance Today is a Synonym for Lying!/Толерантность сегодня — это синоним вранья!

Authors: Yana Poplavskaya

Abstract: Yana Poplavskaya exposes the hideous actions of high-ranking people in the field of culture and politics. Their actions lead to a change in people's social awareness. What has been considered bad so far will be considered good./ Аннотация: Яна Поплавская разоблачает отвратительные действия высокопоставленных людей в области культуры и политики. Их действия приводят к изменению общественного сознания людей. То, что до сих пор считалось злом, будет считаться добром.
Category: Social Science

[30177] viXra:1907.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 13:06:05

### (Aap Version 1.0 4 Pages 15.07.2019) an Anti-Abortion Philosophy (Aap)

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi

This paper proposes an anti-abortion philosophy (AAP) containing some definitions, two main principles and some important recommendations (all based on a set of very solid scientific and juridical arguments), which AAP should be implemented in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and all organic laws on Earth, so that humanity to make a great step towards the definition of true high-morality civilization.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[30176] viXra:1907.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 13:29:00

### Bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) from an Area of Caatinga in Southwestern Bahia, Brazil

Authors: Fábio Soares, Patrício Adriano da Rocha, Stephen Ferrari, Thiago Acioli, James Prado Pinto-Sobrinho

The present study provides an inventory of the bat species recorded in the municipality of Caetité, in southwestern Bahia, Brazil. Sixty-eight individuals were captured, belonging to nine species and three families. The Jackknife 1 procedure estimated a species richness of 9.9. The phyllostomid bats were the most abundant, and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) was captured most frequently. Our results are consistent with previous studies conducted in Bahia and the Caatinga, providing data on the local bat community structure. It also highlights the importance of rapid inventories for the understanding of the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30175] viXra:1907.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 13:30:51

### Note on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in a Restinga area of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

Authors: Fábio Soares, Marcela Daher, Raul Perrelli, José Armando Torres Moreno, Stephen Ferrari

Currently, forty-one species of bats are known to occur in the restingas of Brazil. However, most studies on restingas’ bats are limited to the south and southeastern regions of Brazil, leaving the northeastern region with a gap of knowledge. The present article presents data on bats captured in three areas of restinga of the municipality of Tibau do Sul, Rio Grande do Norte, collected from a short-term sampling. Mist nets were used to capture bats near the ground and the water bodies. Were captured 38 individuals of six species and two families: five Phyllostomidae and one Molossidae. The bat Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) was the most abundant species. We present here the first list of bats captured in the restinga area for the Rio Grande do Norte State.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30174] viXra:1907.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 13:32:22

### New Records of Albardia Furcata Van Der Weele, 1903 (Neuroptera, Ascalaphidae, Albardiinae) from Paraíba, with Notes on a Predator Species

Authors: Alessandre Pereira-Colavite, Izabela Souza Braga, Wellington Emanuel dos Santos

New records of the rare owlfly Albardia furcata van der Weele, 1903 are provided from the state of Paraiba, in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest, including four new localities. A referential map is included to the recorded specimens. The first report of the predator fly Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann, 1830) on dead body of A. furcata is registered.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30173] viXra:1907.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 13:33:40

### Papel Das Moscas (Insecta, Diptera) na Entomologia Forense

Authors: Wellington Emanuel dos Santos

This paper presents a brief review of the role of flies (Insecta, Diptera) in Forensic Entomology. Discussions on presence in human cadavers and vertebrate carcasses, Postmortem Interval (PMI) estimations, studies carried out in Brazil and other countries, families of forensic importance and biological, ecological and distribution aspects of the main species are presented.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30172] viXra:1907.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 13:36:23

### Invasão Biológica Por Cryptostegia Madagascariensis: Uma Abordagem Voltada Para Estresses Abióticos

The introduction, accidental or deliberate, of exotic species by different vectors is currently a major global changes, resulting in a number of local and global problems. Although not all introductions of non-native species have negative effects, many of the non-native species can have undesirable effects on biodiversity from the genetic level to the landscape. This work aimed to present the current knowledge on biological invasions by species and particularly on invasive Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Decne. New introductions are made every year around the world and only a small part of these taxa become invasive, yet cause serious damage to ecosystems invaded. The success of weed plants is due to the intrinsic characteristics of these species that ensures the same competitive advantages with native species and the level of disruption in new niches which makes them totally supportive environments to establish new species and the emergence of monodominadas areas. In this context is C. madagascariensis, origin of climbing on the island of Madagascar in Africa, which was introduced in Brazil with ornamental purposes, becoming invasive in natural ecosystems, especially in riparian environments and humid lowlands, in the field of savanna and associated ecosystems.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30171] viXra:1907.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 13:38:03

### Diversity and Community Composition of Marine Mollusks Fauna on a Mainland Island of the Coast of Paraná, Southern Brazil

Authors: Marcos de Vasconcellos Gernet, Eduardo Colley, Elizângela da Veiga Santos, Carlos João Birckolz

Farol Island is a continental island in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Due to its position in relation to the continent, three distinct environmental areas are observed: rocky shore area with open exposure to the sea (A); estuarine area (B); sandy beach area (C). Considering that the continental islands are excellent study models that reproduce the environmental conditions of the coastal zone in a smaller scale, the study aimed at surveying and researching the marine malacofauna on the Farol Island and comparing the diversity and shellfish composition. The sampling method was based on a monthly collection in three locations for two years (2011-2012). The survey found 91 species: 47 Gastropoda, 41 Bivalvia and three Scaphopoda. The highest abundance and species richness prevailed in environmental area A. The greatest equitability was observed in B and the highest dominance in C. There was a predominance of Gastropoda and Bivalvia in A, while the frequency of Scaphopoda did not vary among environments. The species composition of the three classes varied among the three areas. The variation of diversity and species composition in the three environments may be related to the natural characteristics of each side of the island, as salinity and wave action.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30170] viXra:1907.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 13:39:33

### New Records of Two Species of Acanthocarpus Stimpson, 1871 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Calappidae) in Northeastern Brazil

Authors: Flavio de Almeida Alves-Jr., Ângela Ferreira Pereira, Marina de Sá Leitão Câmara de Araújo

The gladiator box crab of the genus Acanthocarpus Stimpson, 1871 has benthonic habits, occurring in continental shelf on gravel or muddy substrates with occurrence in all oceans, especially between 20-522 m depth. In this paper we report the occurrence of Acanthocarpus alexandri Stimpson, 1871 and A. bispinosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1880 from the Potiguar Basin (Rio Grande do Norte), located in the Brazilian northeast and increase the knowledge about the distributional aspects of this species from Brazilian coast.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30169] viXra:1907.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 13:42:16

### Predation of Hemidactylus Mabouia (Sauria: Gekkonidae) by a Vine Snake Oxybelis Aeneus (Serpentes: Colubridae) in an Atlantic Forest Fragment, Northeastern Brazil

Authors: Lissa Dellefrate Franzini, Carmem Karime Bacalháo Pedro, Lucas Barbosa de Queiroga Cavalcanti, Daniel Oliveira Mesquita

Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824) is an arboreal snake species that is widely distributed in the American continent whose diet is composed mainly by vertebrates, such as lizards. Several lizard species have already been reported as prey of this snake, including the alien species Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818). Herein we describe in details a predation event of H. mabouia by O. aeneus, widening our knowledge regarding the natural history of both species to scientific literature.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30168] viXra:1907.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 13:45:40

### Estudo Teórico Sobre as Propriedades Eletrônicas de Nanoestruturas de Carbono e H-BN

Authors: Guilherme Angelo Moreira Bernardo, Mirleide Dantas Lopes, Sérgio André Fontes Azevedo

The study of nanomaterials has consolidated as a new revolution in the scientific environment. Among the most investigated nanostructures currently are the derivatives of carbon and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Graphene for example it is a hexagonal two-dimensional lattice formed only by carbon atoms. In this sense, we investigated the formation energy and the electronic structure of a graphene plane, a h-BN plane, as well as, four nanocones, with disclination of 60° each, two of them derived from graphene and two derived from h-BN. These investigations were made through the SIESTA Code, a free software that uses first-principles methods, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT), as a parameter for its execution. From observations it was possible to identify which nanostructures showed greater stability, depending on the atomic organization of their respective crystal lattices. In the investigated nanomaterials we realized that both the formation energy per atom and the electron density varied noticeably in function of the different atomic arrangements. Regarding the electrical conductivity, the structures researched presented good agreement with the literature, thus reaffirming the applicability of these nanomaterials in electronic devices.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30167] viXra:1907.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 14:34:10

### A Proof of Goldbach's Strong Conjecture

Authors: Sitangsu Maitra

Proof of Goldbach's strong conjecture by unique path in a prime selection system.
Category: Number Theory

[30166] viXra:1907.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 19:29:24

### Efeito de Técnicas de Enriquecimento Ambiental no Comportamento de Leontopithecus Chrysomelas (Kuhl, 1820) (Primates: Callitrichidae)

Authors: Denise Costa Rebouças Lauton, Antônio de Oliveira Costa Neto

Environmental enrichment consists in techniques that modify the captive environment, in order to make it more dynamic. The adoption of the method, often, results in the reduction of abnormal behavior (stereotypies) and expression of a more typical behavioral repertoire. Believing in the effectiveness of environmental enrichment techniques and that it is possible to improve the condition of captives individuals, this work was proposed. There were applied techniques of Physical and Feed enrichment to groups and solitary individuals captives of Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Kuhl, 1820) kept in Tropical Laboratory of Primatology (TLP), of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB). The observations were made in three phases: Control; Enrichment of the Physical; and Nutritional. Individuals presented frequent abnormal behaviors during Control phase, such as pacing and excessive watching, especially the lonely individuals. During the experimental phase, only the act to guard presented significant difference for the family groups (Fr2 = 7.58; gl = 2; p = 0.023). The results show that L. chrysomelas of the TLP seem to be more resistant to change, possibly due to the long period of exposition of these to a conditioned environment to a routine and without stimuli. Aimed to modify this scenario, it is suggested to adopt methods of “routine break” concomitant to the techniques of environmental enrichment.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30165] viXra:1907.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 19:31:38

### Population Structure and Fecundity of Upogebia Omissa (Decapoda: Gebiidea: Upogebiidae) in an Estuarine Region in Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil

Authors: Rafael de Carvalho Santos, Luiz Filipe Santos Silva, Bruna dos Santos, Juliana Menezes Motta, Douglas Fernandes Rodrigues Alves

Upogebiidae mud shrimps are important organisms in soft-bottom communities, where they dig burrows acting as ecosystem engineers. The present study describes some parameters of the population structure and the reproductive biology of the mud shrimp Upogebia omissa. The mud shrimps were sampled in the Vaza-Barris estuarine river, Sergipe State, northeastern Brazil. In laboratory, specimens were sexed and measured for carapace length (CL). Ovigerous females had their total eggs counted. The body size ranged between 3.0 and 12.9 mm CL. Males were significantly smaller than females. The overall sex ratio was 0.34, female-biased (binomial test, P = 0.001). Fecundity ranged from 240 to 2339 eggs per female, and it was significantly affected by the bodysize. The sexual dimorphism evidenced by the mean size of each sex is a common pattern in decapods that incubate eggs, and in that case, fecundity normally varies in function of body size. Finally, we suggest that additional studies are needed, given the ecological importance of these mud shrimps and the scarcity of studies about them.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30164] viXra:1907.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 19:33:27

### Some Pycnogonida (Arthropoda: Chelicerata) from the “Paulo Young” Invertebrate Collection (CIPY) of the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB), Brazil

Authors: Rudá Amorim Lucena, Martin Lindsey Christoffersen

Biodiversity studies are increasingly urgent, due mainly to the speed with which anthropic degredation is affecting the environment, marine localities in particular. Due to these human impacts, part of the marine biota is becoming increasingly unavailable in natural environments. Biological collections thus are of key importance, functioning as data bases for studies in Taxonomy, Systematics and Biogeography, as well as for several applied areas of research. Biological collections in Brazil suffer from lack of financial support, lack of human resources (both technical and scientific) and are difficult to access by the scientific cummunity. The Invertebrate Collection “Paulo Young” (CIPY) contains more than 18.000 identified and numbered samples of several marine invertebrates, from sponges to tunicates. The pycnogonid section, although less numerous than many other animal groups, has been the focus of attention in recent years. Several new species and new records have been reported from Brazil. The aim of the present paper is to disclose the CIPY reference collection, recording the Pycnogonida collection that was not the subject of previous publications.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30163] viXra:1907.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 19:35:41

### Relação Entre Massa Corporal e Taxa Respiratória em Arthropoda de Floresta Atlântica (Paraíba, Brasil)

Authors: Idalio Amaranto, Cleber Ibraim Salimon, Douglas Zeppelini

Respiratory rate studies in arthropods refer to important physiological data, since these animals perform important ecosystem functions and because they are the greatest diversity and abundance of animals present on Earth. This study measures and describes respiratory rates through the emission of CO2, and relates them to the body mass of arthropods. The study was carried out in remnant fragments of coastal Atlantic Forest of Paraíba, Brazil. The research encompasses all living subphyla of arthropods (Crustacea, Chelicerata, Myriapoda and Hexapoda) represented by 705 specimens actively collected and tested through respirometry and measured by Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA). As a result, we observed that among the studied arthropods, Hexapoda and Chelicerata showed higher rates of carbon dioxide emission, while Crustacea and Myriapoda had the lowest rates. Regarding its relationship with body mass, Hexapoda and Crustacea showed higher respiration by specific mass and, in general, all Arthropoda corroborated the pattern described by animal physiology, where body mass and animal respiratory rate are inversely correlated.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30162] viXra:1907.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 19:37:35

### Breve História da Sistemática de Agaricaceae (Fungi) e Distribuição no Brasil

Authors: Felipe Wartchow

The family Agaricaceae belongs to order Agaricales. In general the agaricoid species of this group are characterized by having squamulose pileus. This revision presents a brief history of the systematic of this group and distribution of their agaricoid species in Brazil since from early 19th Century to present days.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30161] viXra:1907.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 19:39:19

### Registro de Olivancillaria Vesica (Gastropoda, Olividae) Sinistrógira no Litoral do Estado do Paraná, Brasil

Authors: Marcos de Vasconcellos Gernet, Carlos Eduardo Belz, Carlos João Birckolz, Elizângela da Veiga Santos

Olivancillaria vesica (Gmelin, 1791) commonly inhabitant beaches in southern and southeastern Brazil, living semi-buried in sandy substrates from the intertidal zone to deeper areas in the sub-littoral. In this work, we report the meeting of a sinistral shell of O. vesica, characteristic that is rare for this species. Its main measurements are: 10.6 mm in height, 5.1 mm in width, 8.1 mm in height of the aperture and 2.1 mm in width of the aperture. It was collected in the municipality of Matinhos, coast of Paraná state, southernern Brazil, in biodetritic gravel.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30160] viXra:1907.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 19:41:56

### First Record of Calycuoniscus Goeldii (Lemos de Castro, 1967) (Oniscidea: Dubioniscidae) for the State of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil

Authors: Vanderley Ferreira Silva Costa, Daniela Correia Grangeiro, Carlos Anderson Soares Bezerra Pereira

The present work provides the first record of Calycuoniscus goeldii (Lemos de Castro, 1967) from the municipality of Picos, state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. In addition, this paper contributes to increase the knowledge about the biodiversity of terrestrial isopods of the state of Piauí and distribution of the family Dubioniscidae in northeastern Brazil.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30159] viXra:1907.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 19:44:04

### Exploração e Utilização do Potencial Madeireiro da Caatinga no Município de Aurora – Estado do Ceará

Authors: Amanda Pereira de Souza, Francisco Carlos Pinheiro da Costa, Rosana Ferreira de Alencar, Silvio Felipe Barbosa Lima

Plant species of the Caatinga have considerable logging and economic potential. This paper addresses the extraction and use of Caatinga wood in the municipality of Aurora (state of Ceará, Brazil) as well as residents’ conceptions regarding the origins and environmental impacts of the exploitation of this resource. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on the origin and the forms of wood used. The data showed that, even when recognizing the risks of these actions, the interviewees extract wood from the Caatinga in a destructive manner, which is used for making furniture, doors, sculptures, instruments and fences as well as for fuel in cooking activities in homes, bakeries and pizzerias. The following species were more cited: Mimosa tenuiflora (jurema-preta), Croton sonderianus (marmeleiro), Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (sabiá), Amburana cearensis (cumaru), Combretum leprosum (mufumbo), Myracrodruon urundeuva (aroeira) and Handroanthus impetiginosus (pau-d’arco). The results point to the need for implementation of actions for the supervision and control of the exploitation of the Caatinga vegetation as well as adequate management guidelines for this important natural resource.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30158] viXra:1907.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 19:46:27

### Guia Ilustrado Dos Echinodermata da Porção Sul do Embaiamento Sul Brasileiro

Authors: Maristela de Lima Bueno, Renata Aparecida dos Santos Alitto, Pablo Damian Borges Guilherme, Maikon Di Domenico, Michela Borges

The present guide describes 57 species of Echinodermata Bruguière, 1791 [ex Klein, 1734] from the southern portion of the Brazilian South Estuary (BSE), which includes the following coasts: the Southern of the State of São Paulo, entire of the State of Paraná and Northern of the State of Santa Catarina. We designed this guide for students and researchers providing a valuable resource for the identification and appreciation of shallow-water echinoderms. The guide describes the general features of the phylum Echinodermata, has a brief presentation of the study area and the techniques of collection and preservation of the specimens. For each class, the main morphological structures are illustrated, followed by the diagnoses of the species recorded in the BSE. Within each class, the species are organized by family, then alphabetically according to genus and species. For each species, we provide diagnoses, photos, geographic distribution and habitat when available in the literature. This work is the first illustrated guide of echinoderms in Brazil and complements the knowledge of biodiversity this group and provide support for future interventions, management and maintenance of the diversity of this wonderful group of marine animals.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30157] viXra:1907.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 19:52:39

### Ocorrência de Dentes Fossilizados de Tubarões em Cascalhos Biodetríticos na Praia Dos Amores, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil

Authors: Marcos de Vasconcellos Gernet, Elizângela da Veiga Santos, Esther Valentina da Veiga de V. Gernet

The coastal plain of Paraná originated in the Quaternary Period from cyclical movements of transgression and marine regression from the Holocene climatic oscillations. The sediments of the coastal plain present dates that vary from Pleistocene to Holocene. Along the coast of Paraná, several points are found that present deposits of biodetritic gravel, with great accumulation of fossiliferous material coming from this geologic period, among them shark teeth. The site chosen for collecting the fossilized teeth was in the gravel bank located in front of the Farol Island, located in the Amores Beach, in the municipality of Matinhos, Paraná. In total, 563 fossilized shark teeth were found, from six different species of two families. These data are very important to better understand this past biodiversity.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30156] viXra:1907.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 19:57:45

### Verificação da Temática Biodiesel no Enem (1998-2017) em Consonância Com Sua Evolução no Contexto Nacional

Authors: Thalyta Pessoa Freire, Geórgia Batista Vieira de Lima, Luciano Leal de Morais Sales

The Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (Enem) was created in 1998 and has undergone two changes since then. It demands from the candidates the articulation of the knowledge learned in high school, relating them with illustrations, to find a resolution to the problems. Among them, the production and use of biodiesel is one of the subjects charged in the matrix of the exam. Therefore, the research sought to understand the profile of the questions about this biofuel, considering its approach, the national context and the presentation of the information about it in the evaluation. From a universe of 1.503 questions (1998 and 2017), nine were selected. Between the editions of 1998 and 2002 there was no direct mention of the biofuel chosen. From 2003 onwards, the exam addresses from the transformation of vegetable oil into biodiesel, through the transesterification reaction, to its use and production policies.
Category: Education and Didactics

[30155] viXra:1907.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 20:00:11

### Otimização de um Pórtico Tridimensional de Concreto Armado

Authors: Halina dos Santos Salles, Paulo Frederico Souza Lomeu, Franciane Conceição Peters, Webe João Mansur

In building design, the designers aim a better and safer project, regarding several structural aspects, besides the reduction of the costs of the inputs. Optimization methods can be used for this purpose without compromising structural safety. Thus, this article aims at the structural optimization by genetic algorithms of reinforced concrete 3D frames. In this study a Genetic Algorithm was developed, containing the specifications for the dimensioning of the structural elements reinforcement. The objective function is formed by the costs of concrete, molds and steel and will be minimized, according to the restrictions of NBR 6118:2014 (Concrete Structures Project - Procedure). The structural model is processed in the Ansys ® software, where discretization occurs through the finite element method, to analyze and obtain the stresses and deformations of the structure. The study consideres design variables: height of beams and columns. The results show that this methodology provided responses consistent when compared to the practice and also surprised with solutions that could be rejected by designers.
Category: General Mathematics

[30154] viXra:1907.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 20:01:49

### Análise Energética e Exergética Para O Ciclo Dual em Motores de Alta Rotação

Authors: Antônio Chicharo Prata Lisboa, Claudia Mazza Dias, Julio Henrique Lopes de Almeida

This work has the purpose of performing the Dual Cycle analysis, suitable for high rotation engines, with the objective of obtaining its Energetic and Exergetic efﬁciencies, as well as quantifying the destruction of exergy in the processes. The results are obtained through parametric studies, which allow the evaluation of the behavior of parameters of interest. The calculations are developed in an open code written in Python® with the support of libraries numpy and scipy.
Category: General Mathematics

[30153] viXra:1907.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 20:04:02

### Conteúdo Volumétrico da água no Solo Via Modelos de Competição Interespecífica

Authors: Wilian Jeronimo dos Santos, Rosane Ferreira de Oliveira, Marcos Bacis Ceddia, Juliana Lima de Almeida

The present work aimed to create a tool that can contribute to the prediction of moisture content in heterogeneous and well-drained plots of soil over a given period of time. To characterise the water balance, which is a criterion for the redistribution of water in the soil, an analogy is made to the competition model in population dynamics. This analogy can be explained by “competition” for water among the different soil compartments. The different layers “compete” with each other for water due to difference in hydraulic potential. In this sense, the model proposed is based on models of interspecific competition. Furthermore, the numerical methodology proposed is characterized to be solved more easily than the traditional and highly non-linear Richards’ equation. Numerical results were compared against simulation results from the Hydrus-1D program.
Category: General Mathematics

[30152] viXra:1907.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 20:05:32

### Resolução de Problemas de Elasticidade Com Carga de Domínio Pelo Método Dos Elementos de Contorno na Formulação de Dupla Reciprocidade

Authors: Carlos Andrés Reyna Vera-Tudela

The Boundary Element Method transforms partial differential equations that govern the problem domain into integral equations involving only contour values after the introduction of weighting functions called fundamental solutions. When the problem studied involves internal loads, such as self weight, one must search for a solution that preserves the philosophy of the method. For this purpose, the Dual Reciprocity technique is used. This work illustrates dual reciprocity with Navier’s equation with a self-weight load term. Numerical results are presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[30151] viXra:1907.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 00:44:30

### Proof that the De Broglie Wavelength of a Moving Electron is Equivalent to the Beat Frequency Wavelength of the Electron Standing Wave’s in and Out Spherical Wave Components.

Authors: Declan Traill

The De Broglie wave that accompanies a moving particle is evidence of the wave nature of matter and is supporting evidence for Quantum Mechanics, yet this phenomenon can also be explained using only Classical Physics and the knowledge that an electron is a spherical standing wave.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30150] viXra:1907.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 01:37:04

### Exploration Coupled Light and Matter

Authors: George Rajna

The group of Prof. Ataç İmamoğlu has now developed a new approach to study nonlinear optical properties of polaritons in strongly correlated electronic states. [41] The researchers harnessed the power of polaritons, particles that blur the distinction between light and matter. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30149] viXra:1907.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 01:41:49

### An Interesting Insight Into Considering & Using Grobner Bases/boolean Rings in the Context of P-Space Involving Smart Devices/iot/hpc/hardware/software/firmware Based Heterogeneous Computing Environments – Towards Next Generation Smart Applications for ci

Authors: N.T.Kumar
Comments: 2 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

An Interesting insight into Considering & Using Grobner Bases/Boolean Rings in the Context of P-SPACE involving Smart Devices/IoT/HPC/Hardware/Software/Firmware based Heterogeneous Computing Environments – Towards Next Generation Smart Applications for Circadian Rhythms [CR] R&D.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[30148] viXra:1907.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 02:36:17

### Modified Dynamics of Massive Bodies in the Graviton Background

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov

The additional deceleration of massive bodies and the redshift of remote objects in the model of low-energy quantum gravity are caused by collisions with gravitons. Some results of numerical modeling of a motion of bodies in the central field by the influence of this additional deceleration are described here. The two peculiarities of modified dynamics take place: an absence of closed orbits and a possibility of the non-planar motion of massive bodies in the central field.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30147] viXra:1907.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 02:36:54

### Quantum Logic Clock

Authors: George Rajna

The quantum logic clock—perhaps best known for showing you age faster if you stand on a stool—has climbed back to the leading performance echelons of the world's experimental atomic clocks. [42] The group of Prof. Ataç İmamoğlu has now developed a new approach to study nonlinear optical properties of polaritons in strongly correlated electronic states. [41] The researchers harnessed the power of polaritons, particles that blur the distinction between light and matter. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30146] viXra:1907.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 03:01:10

### Quantum Computer Fight Cancer

Authors: George Rajna

Case Western Reserve University researchers are working to change that. They have pioneered a new approach called Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting, which uses more sensitive scanning techniques that they expect could detect whether treatments are working after just one dose of chemo. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30145] viXra:1907.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 03:16:01

### Quantum Model of Ferrofluid Motion

Authors: George Rajna

Ferrofluids, with their mesmeric display of shape-shifting spikes, are a favorite exhibit in science shows. These eye-catching examples of magnetic fields in action could become even more dramatic through computational work that captures their motion. [37] Case Western Reserve University researchers are working to change that. They have pioneered a new approach called Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting, which uses more sensitive scanning techniques that they expect could detect whether treatments are working after just one dose of chemo. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30144] viXra:1907.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 03:31:05

### 3-D Quantum Spin Liquid

Authors: George Rajna

There's no known way to prove a three-dimensional "quantum spin liquid" exists, so Rice University physicists and their collaborators did the next best thing: They showed their single crystals of cerium zirconium pyrochlore had the right stuff to qualify as the first possible 3-D version of the long-sought state of matter. [32] With potential roles in quantum computation, high-temperature superconductivity and a range of exotic anyonic states, why quantum spin liquids (QSLs) attract interest is no great mystery. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene-an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike-move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30143] viXra:1907.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 05:37:16

### Refutation of Translation of Implicit Logic (Il) to Explicit Logic (El)

Authors: Colin James III

For translation of implicit logic to explicit logic, using intuitionistic and epistemic logic, seven equations are evaluated, with none tautologous. Two refute the recursive translation of “the intuitionistic truth definition into a syntactic recipe”; three refute “key features of intuitionistic logic in modal terms”; and one refutes “the recursion law after knowledge update [as] the basic dynamic equation of hard information” for public announcement logic (PAL). These form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[30142] viXra:1907.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 05:52:11

### Non-Trivial Zero Point I376.3241

Authors: Toshiro Takami

I found a non-trivial zero point i 376.3241, which has a real part value of 0 and a value other than 0.5 that is 0. This is only real part 0 and imaginary part is not 0. This implies that there may be a near zero point outside of 0.5. It was zeta (0.32669532237383891329 + i 376.3241) = -2.73410 ... 10 ˆ-21-0.399046 ... i. Although it suggests that there may be a zero point other than real part 0.5 nearby, it is judged that the probability is low and search is not performed. We confirmed that it was a mirror image relationship by dividing the non-trivial zero value real values 0.0 to 1.0 by 0.1 in order from i14.1347, the imaginary value of the first non-trivial zero, from i14.1347. That is, the absolute value of the real part increases proportionally as 0.5 is set to 0 and all nontrivial zeros go away from 0.5, but there is a tendency that only nontrivial zero i376.3241 will not. was there. The imaginary part i 376.3241 has a real part 0 at 0.327 other than 0.5.
Category: General Mathematics

[30141] viXra:1907.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 06:04:19

### The Conscious Readiness Potential Ratio Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk

The Benjamin Libet discovery of two different Readiness Potentials (RPI and RPII) and the potential to VETO an act, is reason to suggest the presence of a SuSy multiverse with entanglement down to each quantum. However, Libet did not Notice because he (or his sucessors) did not measure the ratio between RPI and RPII !
Category: Astrophysics

[30140] viXra:1907.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 06:50:24

### Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis 15., Aktualisierte Auflage

Authors: Robert Stach

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Zu dieser Thematik gab es in Russland sehr aufwendige und teure Experimente. Das Ihnen hier vorliegende Manuskript zeigt, dass man mit sehr viel weniger Aufwand bereits am Schreibtisch zu den gleichen Ergebnissen kommen kann.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[30139] viXra:1907.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 08:35:57

### Molecules Change Charge States

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers from IBM Research–Zurich, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company and Universidade de Santiago de Compostela has, for the first time, imaged molecules as they change charge states. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30138] viXra:1907.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 08:57:42

### Explode Molecular Bonds

Authors: George Rajna

"In biology, it turns out that evolution has selected things that are extremely effective at absorbing the energy and not breaking a bond," Leone said. "When something goes wrong in your chemistry is when you see diseases cropping up." [30] A team of researchers from IBM Research-Zurich, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company and Universidade de Santiago de Compostela has, for the first time, imaged molecules as they change charge states. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[30137] viXra:1907.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 09:14:45

### Molecular Motions in Real Time

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers have used ultra-high-speed X-ray pulses to make a high-resolution "movie" of a molecule undergoing structural motions. [31] "In biology, it turns out that evolution has selected things that are extremely effective at absorbing the energy and not breaking a bond," Leone said. "When something goes wrong in your chemistry is when you see diseases cropping up." [30] A team of researchers from IBM Research-Zurich, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company and Universidade de Santiago de Compostela has, for the first time, imaged molecules as they change charge states. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30136] viXra:1907.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 09:24:46

### Análise do Conteúdo de Evolução em Livros Didáticos do Ensino Fundamental Brasileiro

Authors: João Vitor Tomotani1, Rodrigo Brincalepe Salvador

The Theory of Evolution is not only the unifying force in Biology, but also one of the most important scientific concepts ever developed. However, the topic has always been neglected or misrepresented, resulting in a population that do not understand (or outright do not believe in) Evolution. The present work consists in a content analysis of Evolution in Brazilian Middle School textbooks. Its aims included the search for obstacles to the understanding of Evolution, such as: conceptual errors, language problems, “Lamarckism” and Creationism. We conclude that many of these obstacles are indeed present in textbooks, hampering the students’ grasp on Evolution; among these, the gravest is not representing Evolution as Biology’s central theory. Nevertheless, we also observed that it is indeed possible to develop the theme in a coherent manner, without recourse to over-simplifications (“dumbing down”) which may result in conceptual mistakes
Category: Biochemistry

[30135] viXra:1907.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 09:27:54

### First Record of Pallenopsis Fluminensis (Krøyer, 1844) (Pycnogonida: Pallenopsidae) for the Coast of the State of Paraíba (Northeastern Brazil)

Authors: Rudá Amorim Lucena, Silvio Felipe B. Lima, Martin Lindsey Christoffersen

A pycnogonid species classified in the family Pallenopsidae Fry, 1978 and the genus Pallenopsis Wilson, 1881 is recorded in this study for the coast of the state of Paraíba in northeastern Brazil based on the identification of three female specimens collected from the infralittoral zone at depths of 12 to 34 meters. Pallenopsis fluminensis (Krøyer, 1844) is the fourth species of Pycnogonida recorded for the region. To date, only Anoplodactylus batangensis (Helfer, 1938), A. eroticus Stock, 1968 and A. mirim Lucena, Araújo & Christoffersen, 2015 have been recorded for the coast of the state of Paraíba. Pallenopsis fluminensis is diagnosed by a trunk with small setae on the distal border of each segment; proboscis with terminal setae; lateral processes with small setae; palps without setae and reduced to a small knob; chela with many setae, palm 1.5 times longer than wide; ovigers with eight articles on females, articles 5 and 6 subequal and article 8 not much smaller than 7; and tibia 1 without dense cover of the setae. To date, P. fluminensis is the only congener from the Atlantic coast of South America without a dense cover of setae on tibia 1.
Category: Mind Science

[30134] viXra:1907.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 09:30:12

### O Gênero Amanita (Fungi): Sistemática e Distribuição no Brasil

Authors: Felipe Wartchow

This revision presents topic related to the iconic mushrooms belonging to fungal genus Amanita. A brief story regarding to the Systematic and Taxonomy and the distribution of the species in Brazil are also presented.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30133] viXra:1907.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 09:31:50

### Checklist of the Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) from the State of Paraíba, Brazil

Authors: Jéssica Prata, Martin Lindsey Christoffersen

The study presents the first species list for holothurians from the coast of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. The list was made based on the study of specimens deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, Federal University of Paraíba. A total of 16 species from seven families of Holothuroidea were recorded. This paper contributes to the biodiversity studies from the northeast coast of Brazil.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30132] viXra:1907.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 09:33:30

### Lizard Predation Tropidurus Hispidus (Squamata, Tropiduridae) by False Coral Snake Oxyrhopus Trigeminus (Squamata, Dipsadidae) in the Caatinga, in Northeastern Brazil

Authors: Jefferson Simanas Mikalauskas, Daniel Oliveira Santana, Stephen Francis Ferrari

The predation of lizards is rarely observed in the wild, and events involving snakes are scarcer still. Here we document in detail the predation of a lizard (Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825)) by a snake (Oxyrhopus trigeminus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854). Many studies have identified Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 lizards as prey for Brazilian snakes. Thus, this record provides important insights into the natural history of both species, especially O. trigeminus, which are essential for the understanding of their ecology.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30131] viXra:1907.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 09:35:07

### Physical, Biological and Human-Induced Effects on the Reef Fishes of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil

Authors: Paulo Roberto de Medeiros, Ana Maria Alves de Medeiros

Several factors have the potential to influence the distribution and composition of reef fish communities. Amongst the most important are rugosity, wave exposure, substrate cover and human activities. The present study evaluated the influence of these factors on reef fishes from sites following a gradient of human-induced effects on the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, northeast Brazil and determined their relative importance to reef fish ecology. Rugosity did not influence fish richness, but had a positive influence on number of individuals, juveniles and endemic species, whereas benthic cover did not seem to be an important determinant for any fish variable evaluated. These results suggest that availability of shelter (physical protection) is more limiting than availability of food (i.e. benthic cover). Furthermore, water flow showed somewhat low values, but even so, had negative effects on fish numbers. Recreational activities, albeit seemingly non-impacting, had a negative effect on fish abundance with the partially protected site (Atalaia) showing a similar community structure to the unrestricted site (Porto). These results suggest that human presence, even when supervised, may interfere on reef fish structure. Low-impact tourism practices are required especially in partially protected and unprotected areas.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30130] viXra:1907.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 09:45:59

### Machine Learning Butterfly Wings

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers from the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering have created a nanostructure glass that takes inspiration from the wings of the glasswing butterfly to create a new type of glass that is not only very clear across a wide variety of wavelengths and angles, but is also antifogging. [28] Machine learning and automation technologies are gearing up to transform the radiation-therapy workflow while freeing specialist clinical and technical staff to dedicate more time to patient care. [27] Navid Borhani, a research-team member, says this machine learning approach is much simpler than other methods to reconstruct images passed through optical fibers, which require making a holographic measurement of the output. [26]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[30129] viXra:1907.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 10:01:56

### Preventing Colorectal Cancer

Authors: George Rajna

Characterizing a tiny protein—determining its shape and what it does—was the first step taken by Dr. Kirsten Wolthers and her colleagues in their effort to learn more about a very common molecule that is implicated in a wide range of human ailments. [33] An international team of researchers has demonstrated how titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles stimulated by microwaves can be used to selectively kill cancer cells – paving the way for more targeted and less harmful treatment. [32]
Category: Physics of Biology

[30128] viXra:1907.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 10:46:13

### Speakable and Unspeakable in Contemporary Physics :Physics Without Sweeping Infinities Under the Rug

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Adrian Klein, Slobodan Nedic, Yunita Umniyati, Marian Mesina

It is a wide-spread rumor among the Frontiers of physics, that some time “sweeping under the rug” practice has been quite the norm rather than exception. In other words, the leading paradigms have strong tendency to be hailed as the only game in town. For example, renormalization group theory was hailed as cure in order to solve infinity problem in QED theory. A quote from Richard Feynman goes as follows: “What the three Nobel Prize winners did, in the words of Feynman, was "to get rid of the infinities in the calculations. The infinities are still there, but now they can be skirted around . . . We have designed a method for sweeping them under the rug."[1] And Paul Dirac himself also wrote with similar tune: “Hence most physicists are very satisfied with the situation. They say: "Quantum electrodynamics is a good theory, and we do not have to worry about it any more." I must say that I am very dissatisfied with the situation, because this socalled "good theory" does involve neglecting infinities which appear in its equations, neglecting them in an arbitrary way. This is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it turns out to be small—not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it!”[2] Similarly, dark matter and dark energy were elevated as plausible way to solve the crisis in prevalent Big Bang cosmology. That is why we choose a theme here: Speakable and Unspeakable in Contemporary Physics, analogous to J.S. Bell’s book.[3] Similarly we observe similar sweeping under the rug practice in the electromagnetic theory development, in particular what is termed as "longitudinal wave."
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30127] viXra:1907.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 12:24:31

### Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Derivations of Einstein's $e=mc^2$ from Newtonian Laws of Motion \footnote{einstein for the Enthusiasts: Derivations of $e=mc^2$ from Newtonian Laws of Motion

Authors: Zion Elani

This report details the pedestrian derivation of Einstein's famous equation, $E = mc^2$. Through the use of elementary physical quantities of Newtonian mechanics such as distance, force, momentum, velocity and energy, our approach resembles a handling units' method. Further, two other proofs premising on the notion of mass and its dependence on velocity are discussed. These methods prove to be simple and physically intuitive, thus stimulating the amateur enthusiasts to a better understanding of various complex and difficult-to-derive formulas which are otherwise understood at a sophisticated academic level. Pedagogic significance of these methods is further discussed.
Category: Education and Didactics

[30126] viXra:1907.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 13:00:05

### The Physics Magic Number 50 Appears In MHCE8S Theory and Has Been Very Important to Mankind

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page. The Apollo moon flight occurred 50 years ago: I saw the Saturn V take off.

Abstract: The physics magic number 50 appears on MHCE8S theory 2019 flow charts: it was responsible for the metal tin and its useful alloy bronze which led to early great civilizations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30125] viXra:1907.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 00:45:06

### Blueshift and Redshift In Wide Angle Diffraction

Authors: Eric Su

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy bears great similarity to the frequency shift in the Doppler effect. Both blueshift and redshift can be described by the movement of the double-slit interference. In the rest frame of the star, the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen. The intersection of this path and the screen determines how the spectrum is shifted. If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center of the screen. This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center of the screen. This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also resizes proportionally. The spectral shift is caused by the motion of earth in the rest frame of the star while the wavelength of the star light remains constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30124] viXra:1907.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 05:00:32

### DNA Replication at Atom-Level Detail

Authors: George Rajna

Life depends on double-stranded DNA unwinding and separating into single strands that can be copied for cell division. St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have determined at atomic resolution the structure of machinery that drives the process. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9]
Category: Physics of Biology

[30123] viXra:1907.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 05:21:48

### Sun-Induced DNA Damage and Cell Repair

Authors: George Rajna

A team led by a Baylor University researcher has published a breakthrough article that provides a better understanding of the dynamic process by which sunlight-induced DNA damage is recognized by the molecular repair machinery in cells as needing repair. [20] July 15, 2019) Life depends on double-stranded DNA unwinding and separating into single strands that can be copied for cell division. St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have determined at atomic resolution the structure of machinery that drives the process. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11]
Category: Physics of Biology

[30122] viXra:1907.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 06:19:07

### Gene Function Processes of Life

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at the University of Kent have developed a new method of determining gene function in a breakthrough that could have major implications for our understanding of the processes of life. [21] A team led by a Baylor University researcher has published a breakthrough article that provides a better understanding of the dynamic process by which sunlight-induced DNA damage is recognized by the molecular repair machinery in cells as needing repair. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[30121] viXra:1907.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 05:19:01

### Crystal Structure Manipulation

Authors: George Rajna

In a new study now published on Science Advances, Junseong Song and colleagues at the departments of Energy Science, Nanostructure Physics, Environmental Science and Materials Science in the Republic of Korea developed an unprecedented structure of the Zintl phase. [35] TSU physicists, working with scientists from Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Germany and Korea, have discovered new nanomechanical properties of diamonds mined at the Skalnoe deposit of the Popigai astrobleme. [34] A team of scientists are seeking to kick-start a wearable technology revolution by creating flexible fibres and adding acids from red wine. [33] An inexpensive way to make products incorporating nanoparticles-such as high-performance energy devices or sophisticated diagnostic tests-has been developed by researchers. [32] Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum+mechanics/" quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30120] viXra:1907.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 07:04:59

### A New Axiom in Set Theory

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 1 Page. This paper contains an explicit mapping of the real numbers in [0, 1] to the natural numbers.

We define a new axiom in set theory. Any set all of whose elements can be named is a denumerable set. This sets up 1-1 correspondence between the real numbers in the closed interval [0, 1] and the natural numbers.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[30119] viXra:1907.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 07:26:25

### Weyl Fermions Discovered

Authors: George Rajna

A particular kind of elementary particle, the Weyl fermions, were first discovered a few years ago. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30118] viXra:1907.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 07:42:43

### Image of Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna

For the first time ever, physicists have managed to take a photo of a strong form of quantum entanglement called Bell entanglement—capturing visual evidence of an elusive phenomenon which a baffled Albert Einstein once called 'spooky action at a distance'. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30117] viXra:1907.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 08:02:23

### Magnetic Memory Speeds 1000 Times

Authors: George Rajna

Now a method that can potentially reduce energy consumption in magnetic memory devices and improve their speeds is advancing at Purdue University. [31] McHenry's group, in collaboration with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), NASA Glenn Research Center, and North Carolina State University, are designing a two and half kilowatt motor that weighs less than two and half kilograms. [30] Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have been attracting a lot of attention recently. This is because of the increased demand for faster, longer-lasting and lower-energy IT systems, and the need for higher data storage capacity. [29] Researchers have discovered that using an easily made combination of materials might be the way to offer a more stable environment for smaller and safer data storage, ultimately leading to miniature computers. [28]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[30116] viXra:1907.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 08:21:24

### Nanotechnology Delivers Vaccine

Authors: George Rajna

Brazilian and European researchers have demonstrated exactly how a nanotechnology-based compound delivers an oral vaccine against hepatitis B to the immune system. [42] A recent study, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has introduced a novel targeted drug delivery system in the fight against cancer. [41] One day, hospital patients might be able to ingest tiny robots that deliver drugs directly to diseased tissue, thanks to research being carried out at EPFL and ETH Zurich. [40] A team of researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel has now made such cascades in the lab by encapsulating three enzymes and enzyme cofactors in nanoreactors made from metal-organic framework nanoparticles. [39] Researchers have developed a new form of nanoparticle and associated imaging technique that can detect multiple disease biomarkers, including those for breast cancer, found in deep-tissue in the body. [38] Researchers at University of Utah Health developed a proof-of-concept technology using nanoparticles that could offer a new approach for oral medications. [37] Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), extremely high resolution imaging of the molecule-covered surface structures of silver nanoparticles is possible, even down to the recognition of individual parts of the molecules protecting the surface. [36] A fiber optic sensing system developed by researchers in China and Canada can peer inside supercapacitors and batteries to observe their state of charge. [35] The idea of using a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/sound+wave/" sound wave in optical fibers initially came from the team's partner researchers at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Joint research projects should follow. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33]
Category: Physics of Biology

[30115] viXra:1907.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 09:15:06

### The Possibility of Coming to Life Again After Death: Part Two Including Part One

Comments: 1 Page. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to to present the possibility of humans to come to life again after they die and that after spending infinite time.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[30114] viXra:1907.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 10:04:55

### Astronomers Are Trying to Find When and Where They Went Wrong Concerning Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages. 5 screen shots of wikipedia statistics

Using basic Wikipedia page view statistics, it is apparent astronomers are trying to figure out where they went wrong. As well, it is apparent that 2017 was the year for maximum acceptance of the nebular hypothesis, it is now on a downward slide. This is due to it not being a useful hypothesis in explaining any current observation by Kepler, TESS or any space/ground based exoplanet (evolving star) hunter. The replacement theory, stellar metamorphosis, is used to explain to the astronomers why they have gone so wrong for so long.
Category: Astrophysics

[30113] viXra:1907.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 10:26:58

### The Abc Conjecture as Expansion of Powers of Binomials

Authors: Kamal Barghout
Comments: 5 Pages. The manuscript is not to be copied or used in whole or part. The manuscript is copyrighted.

In this note I will show how Beal’s conjecture can be used to study abc conjecture. I will first show how Beal’s conjecture was proved and derive the necessary steps that will lead to further understand the abc conjecture hoping this will aid in proving it. In short, Beal’s conjecture was identified as a univariate Diophantine polynomial identity derived from the binomial identity by expansion of powers of binomials, e.g. the binomial〖 (λx^l+γy^l )〗^n; λ,γ,l,n are positive integers. The idea is that upon expansion and reduction to two terms we can cancel the gcd from the identity equation which leaves the coefficient terms coprime and effectively describes the abc conjecture. To further study the abc terms we need to specifically look for criterion upon which the general property of abc conjecture that states that if the two numbers a and b of the conjecture are divisible by large powers of small primes, a+b tends to be divisible by small powers of large primes which leads to a+b be divisible by large powers of small primes. In this note I only open the door to investigate related possible criterions that may lead to further understand the abc conjecture by expressing it in terms of binomial expansions as Beal’s conjecture was handled.
Category: Number Theory

[30112] viXra:1907.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 10:41:18

### Mass Energy Intake for Vibration and Heat

if two masses collide inelastically the size of the hit masses determine the amount of energy it stores as vibration if the vibration is too much it produces heat any mass that fully occupies a larger volume produces more energy intake
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[30111] viXra:1907.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 12:19:18

### Том Первый: "Диалектика мышления и познания. Рассудок, Разум, Ум."

Authors: Райков Александр Геннадьевич
Comments: 63 Pages. Язык русский. Работа "Том Первый. Диалектика мышления и познания. Рассудок, Разум, Ум" является составной частью "Курса лекций. Всеобъемлющие начала и механизмы действительности" в 3-х томах.

Цель исследований данной работы − собрание всей значимой информации о нейрофизиологических основах функций отражения органами чувств человека действительного мира, устройства и принципа работы полушарий мозга с целью анализа и оценки возможности форм и способов мышления по формированию объективных представлений об источнике, причинах и механизмах мироустройства. Объективной оценки предела познавательной возможности человека. Анализ методологических способов познания, достижений в аналитической философии и недостатков современного инструментального средства научной коммуникации (аппарата современной математики). Выявление необходимых условий построения окончательной эпистемологической модели картины мироздания. Книга содержит изложение фундаментальных проблем познания, подходов к их решению и достижений философской мысли в этой области знания. Дана картина филогенеза (становления и развития) отражательных функций живых существ и человека. Широко освещены нейрофизиологические основы отражательных функций ЦНС и мозга. Приведены сведения о сущности рассудочной (аналитической) и разумной (ассоциативной) форм мышления человека и формировании на основе их взаимодействия диалектического мышления. Проанализирована зависимость используемой методологии исследований от доминирования в работе диалектического ума одной из форм мышления. Определены две теоретико-аналитические отрасли знания, вербальные и символические инструментальные средства которых способны обеспечить построение объективной картины мироздания. Проведён анализ всеобъемлющих законов философии диалектического материализма и состояния операционного аппарата современной математики на их методологическую пригодность для исследования действительности в теоретической форме. Предъявлены требования к математической отрасли с целью приведения математического мышления и его операционного аппарата, играющего роль инструментально-символической базы физически статусной коммуникации в науке, в соответствие объективным качественным и количественным данным о причинно-следственных связях и отношениях пространственно-временных форм материи в процессах их взаимодействия и взаимоперехода друг в друга. Книга даёт концентрированное изложение фундаментальных проблем гносеологии (познания), методов, способов и средств их решения. Расширяет кругозор читателей и резко сокращает сферу предметных изысканий специалистов в области познания источников, причин и механизмов мироустройства. Книга знакомит с методами, способами и приёмами формирования собственного объективно-диалектического мышления. Побуждает к полезным и плодотворным интеллектуальным занятиям. Для широкого круга читателей.
Category: Mind Science

[30110] viXra:1907.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 16:42:16

### Stellar Metamorphosis: The Simon Marius Rule of Brown Dwarf Companions

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 screenshot, 1 illustration of Simon Marius

Every brown dwarf discovered to date has at least 4 large companions orbiting it as can be inferred from circumstantial and direct evidence afforded by the General Theory. These companions can be old moons, dead moons, ones with life like Earth, or less evolved than Earth. This rule is to give insight to how populated our galaxy is, and where attention should be given for astronomical observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[30109] viXra:1907.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 03:02:59

### Corrected Weak Duality Theorem by Way of Refutation of the Strong Duality Theorem

Authors: Colin James III

The equation of the weak duality theorem, (Ax≤b, x≥0) ≤ (A^Ty≥c, y≥0), is confirmed as tautologous. Three proofs of it in the literature are not tautologous. The equation of the strong duality theorem, (Ax≤b, x≥0) = (A^Ty≥c, y≥0), is refuted as not tautologous. These form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4. What follows is the weak duality theorem could just as easily exclude the “or equal to” relation to read (Ax≤b, x≥0) < (A^Ty≥c, y≥0) as the corrected weak duality theorem.
Category: General Mathematics

[30108] viXra:1907.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 10:03:19

### Chebychop: a New Method for Constrained Global Optimization

Authors: John Mark Vincent

A new method for multi-dimensional global optimization is presented. The fundamental idea is to obtain the Chebyshev norm from a set of L_p=norms; an original extrapolation procedure is used to converge to the optimum value, which is identical to the Chebyshev norm. This allows the optima to be efficiently pin-pointed by repeatedly bisecting the domain. Estimates of computational cost indicate that the method is fast.
Category: General Mathematics

[30107] viXra:1907.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 10:13:27

### The Formula to Determine The Size of a (SMBH) Black Hole’s Accretion Disk

Authors: Geo Douglas

In this paper, a new formula to determine the size of the accretion disks at the center of galaxies. The formula starts with Einstein’s field equations and moves to the Schwarzschild radius. From there, following the patterns of nature and the golden ratio, I have configured a precise formula to determine the radius, diameter and circumference of all accretion disks that surround supermassive black holes.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30106] viXra:1907.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 10:29:11

### Perfect Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Harvard University in the United States has now successfully deployed artificial neural networks for image analysis of quantum systems. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30105] viXra:1907.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 10:44:07

### Science Advances in Spite of People Making Mistakes.

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 4 Pages. Einstein's theory works only for v < 0.1c.

Nobel laureates in physics are mostly physicists, who mainly create and defend physics. Einstein never received a Nobel prize for relativity... For nearly 100 years ago have been Nobel Prize winners said: "- The theory of relativity is a mathematical and not a physical theory. - The theory is far from being confirmed experimentally, the results of the solar eclipse expeditions allow other interpretations - The principle of relativity is only valid for mass-dependent movements - The theory of relativity contradicts the fundamental ideas about space and time: the Euclidean space and the usual ideas of time must remain binding. "
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30104] viXra:1907.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 10:54:28

### The Mystery of Nature is Revealed/Открыта тайна природы

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents the discovery of an error in physics, which for over two hundred years has been passed on to the next generation as an inviolable truth. This error concerns the law of conservation of energy./В статье представлено открытие ошибки в физике, которая свыше двухсот лет передается следующим поколениям как ненарушаемая истина. Эта ошибка касается закона сохранения энергии.
Category: Classical Physics

[30103] viXra:1907.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 11:01:13

### Vitamin C Protect Nanomaterial

Authors: George Rajna

In work that could open a floodgate of future applications for a new class of nanomaterials known as MXenes (pronounced "Maxines"), researchers from Texas A&M University have discovered a simple, inexpensive way to prevent the materials' rapid degradation. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30102] viXra:1907.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 11:55:23

### Etymology of the Words House, Smoke, Heap

Authors: A.I.Somsikov

Russian etymology of the connected bush of words.
Category: Linguistics

[30101] viXra:1907.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 18:16:07

### Refutation of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Decision-Making in the Dempster-Shafer Structure

Authors: Colin James III

A pair of intuitionistic fuzzy values (IFVs) are compared and not tautologous, refuting the conjecture of the title and forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[30100] viXra:1907.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 21:02:17

### A Case of Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Which Benzodiazepines Are Effective in Childhood Onset Fluency Disorder

Authors: Toshiro Takami

We experienced cases in which benzodiazepines were successful in childhood onset stuttering disorder. The case was autistic spectrum disorder, and there was a dull articulation while being milder than childhood. Immediately before the high school days ended, cases complicated of social anxiety disorder. Since we visited our hospital, we have prescribed large quantities of benzodiazepines. As in this case, there is a possibility that there are potentially many cases in which benzodiazepines are strongly effective against childhood onset fluency disorder. This implies childhood onset stuttering disorder is unknown partial epilepsy starting from the basal ganglia with no abnormality in brain waves. It is also possible that there may be childhood onset flu-dysfunction as psychogenic nonepileptic seizure.
Category: Mind Science

[30099] viXra:1907.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 23:13:57

### On Non-Trivial Zero Point

Authors: Toshiro Takami

In the Riemann zeta function, when the value of the nontrivial zero is zero, the value of the real part of the function is negative from 0 to 0.5, but the value of the real part of the function is 0.5 to 1 I found it to be positive. We also found that the positive and negative of the imaginary part also interchanged with the real part 0.5. This tendency is seen as a tendency near the non-trivial zero value, but becomes less and less as it deviates from the non-trivial zero value. We present and discuss the case of four non-trivial zero values. This seems to be an important finding and will be announced here.
Category: Number Theory

[30098] viXra:1907.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 01:39:20

### Nanotube Channels Heat into Light

Authors: George Rajna

The ever-more-humble carbon nanotube may be just the device to make solar panels—and anything else that loses energy through heat—far more efficient. [44] When traversing a solid material such as glass, a light wave can deposit part of its energy in a mechanical wave, leading to a color change of the light. [43] Laser-scanning microscopes can be miniaturized to image microenvironments in vivo via inclusion inside optical micromechanical system (MEMS) devices to replace the existing larger components. [42]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30097] viXra:1907.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 02:21:28

### Red Wine to Wearable Technology

Authors: George Rajna

A team of scientists are seeking to kick-start a wearable technology revolution by creating flexible fibres and adding acids from red wine. [33] An inexpensive way to make products incorporating nanoparticles-such as high-performance energy devices or sophisticated diagnostic tests-has been developed by researchers. [32] Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum+mechanics/" quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30096] viXra:1907.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 02:38:23

### Yakutia Diamonds Properties

Authors: George Rajna

TSU physicists, working with scientists from Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Germany and Korea, have discovered new nanomechanical properties of diamonds mined at the Skalnoe deposit of the Popigai astrobleme. [34]A team of scientists are seeking to kick-start a wearable technology revolution by creating flexible fibres and adding acids from red wine. [33] An inexpensive way to make products incorporating nanoparticles-such as high-performance energy devices or sophisticated diagnostic tests-has been developed by researchers. [32] Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum+mechanics/" quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25]
Category: Condensed Matter

[30095] viXra:1907.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 03:56:32

### The Possibility of Coming to Life Again After Death

Comments: 1 Page. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to to present the possibility of humans to come to life again after they die and that after spending infinite time.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[30094] viXra:1907.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 04:22:30

### Testing a Combination of [ AI/ML/IoT/HPC ] Heterogeneous Computing Concepts based on MXNet/Flux in the Context of Cryo-EM Image Processing & Informatics Using [ Julia+JNI+Java+(ImageJ/Fiji)+JikesRVM - Research Virtual Machine ] - A Simple Suggestion

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 5 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

Testing a Combination of [ AI/ML/IoT/HPC ] Heterogeneous Computing Concepts based on MXNet/Flux in the Context of Cryo-EM Image Processing & Informatics Using [ Julia+JNI+Java+(ImageJ/Fiji)+JikesRVM - Research Virtual Machine ] - A Simple Suggestion towards Novel Design of Electron Microscopy(EM) Image Processing Frameworks for better [ Nano-Bio] Informatics R&D. [ Exploring EM Images With Julia +Java – an Interesting ML based Intelligent Approach ] [ Julia - “Walks like python. Runs like C.” ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[30093] viXra:1907.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-11 09:22:55

Authors: George Rajna

"Our bacterially produced graphene material will lead to far better suitability for product development," Meyer says. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[30092] viXra:1907.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-11 10:51:29

### Determining Satisfiability of 3-Sat in Polynomial Time

Authors: Ortho Flint, Asanka Wickramasinghe, Jay Brasse, Chris Fowler
Comments: 41 Pages. The paper has been submitted for peer-review.

In this paper, we provide a polynomial time (and space), algorithm that determines satisfiability of 3-SAT. The complexity analysis for the algorithm takes into account no efficiency and yet provides a low enough bound, that efficient versions are practical with respect to today's hardware. We accompany this paper with a serial version of the algorithm without non-trivial efficiencies (link: polynomial3sat.org).
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[30091] viXra:1907.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-11 12:35:02

### Why Jupiter Diameter =142984 km (Part 2)? (Light Velocity Effect On The Matter Creation)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous

Jupiter Diameter Analysis supports the following hypothesis: The Sun Rays are produced by Planets Motions Energies Total i.e. The Solar Planets Motions Mechanical Waves Are Transferred Into Light Waves From Which The Sun Rays Are Produced. Conclusion The Sun Rays Aren't Produced By Any Nuclear Interactions
Category: Astrophysics

[30090] viXra:1907.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-11 13:59:46

### Quantum Correlation and Spacetime

Authors: George Rajna

These insights may prove useful for the development of future theories unifying quantum mechanics and gravity." [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[11753] viXra:1907.0337 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-18 19:09:46

### Testing the Number of Space-Time Dimensions by the 5.9 Years Repeated Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiments

Authors: E Koorambas

The basic motive of the five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory is the unification of gravity and electromagnetism. A feature of these theories was the relation between the electromagnetic coupling e, and gravitational coupling GN and the radius of the fifth dimension Rc. The radius of the fifth dimension Rc is thus fixed by the elementary electric charge. From the known value of the elementary charge, we find that Rc is of the order of the Planck length. Based on The five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory, we show that if the observed harmonic pattern of the laboratory-measured values of GN is due to some environmental or theoretical errors, these errors must also affect the elementary electric charge e. We calculate the values of fundamental electric charge e predicted by 3+1 and 4+1 dimensional space-time model respectively. We find that in the case of 4+1 the fundamental electric charge e values are oscillated with the 5.9 year LOD oscillation cycle, while in the case of 3+1 spacetime dimensions the fundamental electric charge e is constant and perfect fitted to the straight line. Furthermore, we propose that the number of space-time dimensions can be reveal by the 5,9 years repeated Millikan’s oil drop experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[11752] viXra:1907.0330 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-19 05:53:42

### Is the Weak Force a Force?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

In our previous paper, we explored the epistemological foundation of quantum chromodynamics: what concepts and models are we using, and what does Occam’s Razor Principle has to say about that? In this paper we do the same for the weak force. We think the force concept should not be applied to the analysis of decay or disintegration processes. The idea of W and/or Z bosons mediating the weak force makes even less sense. W/Z bosons should be thought of as debris: transient or resonant matter. We suggest the whole idea of bosons mediating forces resembles 19th century aether theory: we don’t need it. The implication is clear: if that’s the case, then we also don’t need gauge theory and/or quantum field theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11751] viXra:1907.0303 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-19 23:41:18

### Relative Formula (Relationship Between e and π Without i)

Authors: Yuji Masuda

This relative formula shows The relationship between napier number e and π without imaginary unit i.
Category: Number Theory

[11750] viXra:1907.0251 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-17 02:06:12

### Non-Trivial Zero Point I376.3241

Authors: Toshiro Takami

I found a non-trivial zero point i 376.3241, which has a real part value of 0 and a value other than 0.5 that is 0. This is only real part 0 and imaginary part is not 0. This implies that there may be a near zero point outside of 0.5. It was zeta (0.32669532237383891329 + i 376.3241) = -2.73410 ... 10 ˆ-21-0.399046 ... i. Although it suggests that there may be a zero point other than real part 0.5 nearby, it is judged that the probability is low and search is not performed. We confirmed that it was a mirror image relationship by dividing the non-trivial zero value real values 0.0 to 1.0 by 0.1 in order from i14.1347, the imaginary value of the first non-trivial zero, from i14.1347. That is, the absolute value of the real part increases proportionally as 0.5 is set to 0 and all nontrivial zeros go away from 0.5, but there is a tendency that only nontrivial zero i376.3241 will not. was there. The imaginary part i 376.3241 has a real part 0 at 0.327 other than 0.5.
Category: General Mathematics

[11749] viXra:1907.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-17 04:13:28

### The Conscious Readiness Potential Ratio Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk

The Benjamin Libet discovery of two different Readiness Potentials (RPI and RPII) and the potential to VETO an act, is reason to suggest the presence of a SuSy multiverse with entanglement down to each quantum. However, Libet did not Notice, because he (or his successors) did not measure the ratio between RPI and RPII , as a base for the total number of SuSy Universes.
Category: Astrophysics

[11748] viXra:1907.0237 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-18 07:58:46

### New Foundations in the Sciences: Physics Without Sweeping Infinities Under the Rug

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Adrian Klein, Slobodan Nedic, Yunita Umniyati, Marian Mesina

It is widely known among the Frontiers of physics, that “sweeping under the rug” practice has been quite the norm rather than exception. In other words, the leading paradigms have strong tendency to be hailed as the only game in town. For example, renormalization group theory was hailed as cure in order to solve infinity problem in QED theory. For instance, a quote from Richard Feynman goes as follows: “What the three Nobel Prize winners did, in the words of Feynman, was "to get rid of the infinities in the calculations. The infinities are still there, but now they can be skirted around . . . We have designed a method for sweeping them under the rug."[1] And Paul Dirac himself also wrote with similar tune: “Hence most physicists are very satisfied with the situation. They say: "Quantum electrodynamics is a good theory, and we do not have to worry about it any more." I must say that I am very dissatisfied with the situation, because this so-called "good theory" does involve neglecting infinities which appear in its equations, neglecting them in an arbitrary way. This is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it turns out to be small—not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it!”[2] Similarly, dark matter and dark energy were elevated as plausible way to solve the crisis in prevalent Big Bang cosmology.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11747] viXra:1907.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-16 08:10:45

### Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Derivations of Einstein's E=mc² from Newtonian Laws of Motion

Authors: Zion Elani

This report presents a simple derivation of Einstein's famous equation, E=mc². Through the use of elementary physical quantities of Newtonian mechanics such as distance, force, momentum, velocity, and energy, our approach resembles a `handling units' method. Further, two other proofs premising on the notion of mass and its dependence on velocity are discussed. These methods prove to be simple and physically intuitive, thus stimulating the amateur enthusiasts to a better understanding of various complex and difficult-to-derive formulas which are otherwise understood at a sophisticated academic level. Pedagogic significance of these methods is further discussed.
Category: Education and Didactics

[11746] viXra:1907.0234 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-18 00:37:42

### Blueshift and Redshift In Wide Angle Diffraction

Authors: Eric Su

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy bears great similarity to the frequency shift in the Doppler effect. Both blueshift and redshift can be described by the movement of the double-slit interference. In the rest frame of the star, the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen. The intersection of this path and the screen determines how the spectrum is shifted. If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center of the screen. This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center of the screen. This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also resizes proportionally. The spectral shift is caused by the motion of earth in the rest frame of the star while the wavelength of the star light remains constant. The redshift places a maximum limit on the radial velocity of the remote galaxy. The galaxy can not be detected if the earth moves faster than the light in the rest frame of the galaxy. This is dark galaxy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11745] viXra:1907.0234 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-16 23:00:58

### Blueshift and Redshift In Wide Angle Diffraction

Authors: Eric Su

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy bears great similarity to the frequency shift in the Doppler effect. Both blueshift and redshift can be described by the movement of the double-slit interference. In the rest frame of the star, the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen. The intersection of this path and the screen determines how the spectrum is shifted. If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center of the screen. This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center of the screen. This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also resizes proportionally. The spectral shift is caused by the motion of earth in the rest frame of the star while the wavelength of the star light remains constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11744] viXra:1907.0229 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-15 05:55:34

### A New Axiom in Set Theory

Authors: James Edwin Rock