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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[23264] viXra:1804.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 13:24:09

From Insulator to Conductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41] Trapping light with an optical version of a whispering gallery, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a nanoscale coating for solar cells that enables them to absorb about 20 percent more sunlight than uncoated devices. [40]
Category: Condensed Matter

[23263] viXra:1804.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 20:07:58

Video Frame Rate Conversion Based on Spatio-Temporal Smoothness Constrained Multilayer Motion Estimation and Inpainting

Authors: Vikas Ramachandra, Aimei Huang, Truong Q. Nguyen
Comments: 21 Pages.

We explore a new technique for video frame rate up-conversion. A noniterative multilayer motion estimation algorithm is investigated, based on spatio-temporal smoothness constraints. For regions in the interpolated frame which cannot be motion compensated, we use an exemplar based video inpainting algorithm. The proposed approach yields excellent results compared to other previous approaches
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[23262] viXra:1804.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 22:02:08

Тайна крупицы материи \\\\\ Mystery of the Crupitsa of Matter

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 11 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Mystery of the Crupitsa of Matter

Что такое крупица материи? Какую тайну скрывает в себе крупица материи? О чём эта тайна? Какую информацию хранит в себе крупица материи?! Вопросы правильные, вопросы интересные, вопросы по существу. Вот об этом, об ответах на эти вопросы и будет идти речь в настоящей статье. Это ещё одна статья по «Теории Природы» автора. А «Теория Природы» и есть современная материалистическая физика и космология. +++++++++++++++++++++++++ What is a crupitsa (atom) of matter? What secret hides in itself acrupitsa (atom) of matter? What is this secret? What kind of information is stored in a crupitsa (atom) of matter? Questions are correct, interesting questions, questions on the merits. That's about this, the answers to these questions will be discussed in this article. This is another article on "Theory of Nature" by the author. And "Theory of Nature" is modern materialistic physics and cosmology.
Category: Classical Physics

[23261] viXra:1804.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 22:49:49

Gravity and Inertia Are Two Sides of Same Coin

Authors: Krishan Vats
Comments: 2 Pages.

Gravitational mass and inertial mass, have been found quantitatively same in experiments, but they are still considered two different concepts/phenomena in all physics literature. This article puts forth the idea that the two are conceptually same, not different. Therefore they are also always found to be quantitatively same. Which is not a coincidence; It is proposed that gravity and inertia are indeed one and same phenomena. This concept of identical phenomenon is presented to physicists to prove or disprove. For clarifying purpose, same concept is stated multiple times with slightly different wordings.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[23260] viXra:1804.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 12:11:39

Experiment Supports Stoe Model and Rejects the Traditional Model of a Coulomb Field

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of the coulomb field is of vortices in the plenum. An experiment is proposed that forces a spark of electrons to flow outside the volume between a positive--negative electrode pair. This experimental observation rejects the traditional source--sink pair model of the coulomb field and does not reject the STOE model of the coulomb field and the mechanism of electric attraction and repulsion.
Category: Classical Physics

[23259] viXra:1804.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 19:18:22

Refutation of GHZ Experiments © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The expected result for GHZ is supposed to be a contradiction. However the result is not a contradiction, due to one contingency value (falsity) as not contradictory. This means the GHZ experiment is refuted, further supporting previous refutations of Bell's inequality using Meth8/VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23258] viXra:1804.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 20:27:45

Newton’s First Law Revisited

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 7 Pages.

Newton’s first law is expressed in textual form. It states that, unless acted upon by a net unbalanced force, an object will remain at rest, or move uniformly forward in a straight line. Accordingly, “inertial motion” means uniform rectilinear motion, while uniform circular motion is considered to be a noninertial, accelerated motion. This differentiation between the two types of motion has resulted in the aftermath in different analytical treatments of the two types, both in classical and relativistic kinematics. In this short note, we show, based on Newton’s kinematics, that, contrary to the conventional differentiation between rectilinear and circular systems of motion, the two are dynamically equivalent, such that the set of laws describing the dynamics of one system correspond to an identical set of laws describing the dynamics of the second. An immediate corollary for the special case of uniform motion is that Newtonian kinematics are inconsistent with Newton’s first law and are, instead, consistent with Galileo’s definition of inertial motion. To rectify the apparent inconsistency, we propose a natural modification of the first law, which incorporates the case of uniform circular motion. We formulate the modified law textually and mathematically and comment briefly on the implication of our modification to the theory and education of classical and relativistic physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[23257] viXra:1804.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 03:52:47

Machine Learning Protein Dynamics Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

At the University of South Florida, researchers are integrating machine learning techniques into their work studying proteins. [21] Bioinformatics professors Anthony Gitter and Casey Greene set out in summer 2016 to write a paper about biomedical applications for deep learning, a hot new artificial intelligence field striving to mimic the neural networks of the human brain. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses—so-called retrosyntheses—with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[23256] viXra:1804.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 05:09:59

Hybrid Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team of researchers from the National Institute of Informatics (NII) in Tokyo and NTT Basic Research Laboratories (BRL, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation) in Japan have published an explanation of how quantum systems may be able to heat up by cooling down. [19] Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have created a chip on which laser light interacts with a tiny cloud of atoms to serve as a miniature toolkit for measuring. [18] An international collaboration, including researchers from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Royal Holloway, University of London, has successfully demonstrated a quantum coherent effect in a new quantum device made out of continuous superconducting wire – the Charge Quantum Interference Device (CQUID). [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23255] viXra:1804.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 05:38:11

Topological Quantum Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23254] viXra:1804.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 06:46:57

Nuclear Techniques of Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23253] viXra:1804.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 09:26:06

Quasi-Classical Theory of Gravity

Authors: Alexander P. Sobolev
Comments: 28 Pages. 1-28 english, 29-56 russian

The gravitational equations were derived in general relativity (GR) using the assumption of their covariance relative to arbitrary transformations of coordinates. It has been repeatedly expressed an opinion over the past century that such equality of all coordinate systems may not correspond to reality. Nevertheless, no actual verification of the necessity of this assumption has been made to date. The initial equations of a theory of gravity with general covariance restricted due to introduction of the constraint are formulated in the paper. The concept of the entropy density of space-time is defined, the constraint is interpreted from a physical point of view as a sufficient condition for the adiabaticity of the process of evolution of its metric. A basic model of evolution of the Universe is constructed on this basis which consistent with the observational astronomical data but without using of the hypotheses of the existence of a “dark energy”, “dark matter” and “inflatons". It is claimed that the maximum global energy density in the Universe was 64 orders of magnitude smaller the Planckian one, and the entropy density is 18 orders of magnitude higher the value predicted by GR. Keywords: Gravitation, restricted covariance, nonsingular theory, entropy of space-time, evolution of the Universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23252] viXra:1804.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 09:28:47

Herbig Haro Object Mystery Solved by Dual/Triple New Physics Dark Matter Black Hole Pairing, the Origin of Quick Star/Galaxy Formation.

Authors: ieo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages.

Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory. The rigid FORM and Microstructure of elementary particles (rigid strings), is supposed to be the origin of functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new splitting, accelerating and pairing new paradigm Dark Matter Black Hole, (DMBH) seem to be able to convert vacuum particle energy (ZPE) into real plasma which could explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, by so called Galaxy- or Stellar Anchor Black Holes (GABHs respectively SABHs). These Anchor Black Holes can be observed as Herbig Haro ( HH) Hotspots or Bowshocks. Recent observation of two High Energy Cosmic Ray Hotspots, (HECRHs) at solar polar locations, ( Big Dipper and Southern cross) is reason to assume in accord with new physics of Quantum FFF Theory, that these hotspots represents the locations of our Solar Anchor Black Hole (the North-and South SABHs). At the same time in the Quantum FFF model, it is proposed that early Galaxies also are created by dual black hole ( HH) systems being former Big Bang black hole splintered primordial dark matter black holes. They will be called Galaxy Anchor Black Holes ( GABHs) As a consequence, the standard Hot Big Bang with Hot plasma and Hydrogen as the base for everything has to be rejected. Recent observation of a faint galaxy without a dark matter content (NGC 1052 DF2) seems to be created by the star forming capacity even by triple pairing dark matter black hole nuclei of the surrounding globular star clusters assumed to have a triangular topology.
Category: Astrophysics

[23251] viXra:1804.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 09:52:22

Anything Unusual Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. the Nature of Emergence of the Stationary and Moving Funnels Same Are the Power Educations in a Cloak Which Are a Consequence of Climate Change of Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The nature of emergence of the stationary and moving funnels same are the power educations in a cloak which are a consequence of climate change of Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[23250] viXra:1804.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:11:44

Aether Wind Could Probably Exist

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. hiiiii ty!!!!

talks about the propability of aether wind could existthrough the negation of michelson's and morley's experiment
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23249] viXra:1804.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:46:43

To Shed Light on the Eclipse Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. the Exclusive Hypothesis that the Moon is the Comet Rest, "Delivered Water" to Earth, and the Reason of Global Terrestrial Cataclysms, Eliminates the Existing Contradictions of Scientists on the ma

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The exclusive hypothesis that the Moon is the comet rest, "delivered water" to Earth, and the reason of global terrestrial cataclysms, eliminates the existing contradictions of scientists on the matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[23248] viXra:1804.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:48:23

From One Test Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Disk Galaxies do One Turn Approximately for the Same Time Because Have Resulted from Galactic Disintegration of the Universe by Béla Dyry.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Disk galaxies do one turn approximately for the same time because have resulted from galactic disintegration of the Universe by Béla Dyry.
Category: Astrophysics

[23247] viXra:1804.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:49:45

International "RED" Station Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Emergence of Red Fog on Earth and in Space is Logical and Will be Coordinated with Exclusive Hypotheses of on-Stage Performance Group of "NIKI"

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Emergence of red fog on Earth and in space is logical and will be coordinated with exclusive hypotheses of on-stage performance group of "NIKI"
Category: Astrophysics

[23246] viXra:1804.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:03:11

Concerning Relativity Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. in the Universe Everything Concerning Space of Anything, God's Love and Time.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

In the Universe everything concerning space of Anything, God's Love and Time.
Category: Astrophysics

[23245] viXra:1804.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:04:11

Beyond Back Propagation

Authors: Tofara Moyo
Comments: 1 Page.

5 Protea Lane Newton west
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[23244] viXra:1804.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:33:34

Not so Look for Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Astronomers Have Found the Amazing Galaxy Which Doesn't Contain Anti-Matter. All Galaxies in the Universe Have Arisen Owing to Galactic Disintegration of the Universal White Hole.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Astronomers have found the amazing galaxy which doesn't contain anti-matter. All galaxies in the Universe have arisen owing to galactic disintegration of the Universal White Hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[23243] viXra:1804.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:41:28

The Big Illusion of the Big Bang Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Our Universe is Limited and Ordered. Galaxies Have Arisen in the Course of Galactic Disintegration of a Universal White Hole and Move to Suburbs of the Universe.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Our Universe is limited and ordered. Galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of a universal White Hole and move to suburbs of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[23242] viXra:1804.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:44:58

An Algebraic Method for the Application of the Constructive Proof of Classification Theorem for Closed and Connected Surfaces

Authors: Onurcan Bektaş
Comments: 3 Pages.

For a given planar diagram of a closed & connected surface, we establish an algebraic method for cutting and gluing operations on the edges of the diagram. By this, by just manipulating the name of the edges with the given rules, we can determine the type of the surface without having need to draw any diagram.
Category: Topology

[23241] viXra:1804.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 07:12:23

The Natural System of Units of Robert Yusupov***\\\***Натуральная система единиц Роберта Юсупова.

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 46 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Units of the Nature <©> 15 April 2018

This article was conceived as an article devoted to the solution of the question (problem) of natural units. Many people, physicists and philosophers, naturalists were engaged in this problem (question). The names of many researchers remained unknown and forgotten, sunk into oblivion. The Irish physicist G. J. Stoney and the German physicist M. Planck left their mark on the solution of the problem of searching for and finding natural units. The author of this article also has a solution to this problem. This problem was solved by the author in 2013. The article provides a comparison of all three options for solving this problem. The author believes that his decision is the final solution to the problem of natural units. Absolute knowledge is achieved. Absolute truth is known. ++++++++++++++++++ Настоящая статья задумывалась, как статья посвящённая решению вопроса (проблемы) натуральных единиц (природы). Этой проблемой (вопросом) занимались многие люди, физики и философы, естествоиспытатели. Имена многих исследователей остались неизвестными и забытыми, канули в лету. Свой след в решении проблемы поиска и отыскания натуральных единиц (природы) оставили ирландский физик Дж. Стони и немецкий физик М. Планк. Автор настоящей статьи, также имеет своё решение этой проблемы. Эта проблема решена автором в 2013 году. В статье приводится сопоставление всех трёх вариантов решения этой проблемы. Автор считает, что его решение является окончательным решением проблемы натуральных единиц. Достигнуто абсолютное знание. Познана абсолютная истина.
Category: Classical Physics

[23240] viXra:1804.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 08:33:49

Impurity Atoms in Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Condensed Matter

[23239] viXra:1804.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 10:13:09

Gravitation and Cosmology Without Divergences

Authors: Alan M. Kadin
Comments: 6 Pages. Submitted to Gravity Research Foundation, March 2018

The orthodox general theory of relativity (GR) predicts metric divergences, typically when the normalized gravitational potential &phi= -½, giving rise to event horizons. But all standard experimental tests are in the regime where |&phi|<<1/2, suggesting that alternative large-potential extrapolations should be considered. A simple alternative formulation of GR is presented which focuses on gravitational time dilation and length contraction by a factor of (1-&phi), which is always > 1 since &phi < 0. This formulation duplicates the predictions of the orthodox theory for weak potentials with |&phi| << ½, but avoids all divergences for larger values. Furthermore, this suggests “dim stars” rather than black holes, and provides an intuitive picture of large gravitational red shifts in cosmic expansion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23238] viXra:1804.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 10:22:40

Whispering Light Boosts Solar Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Trapping light with an optical version of a whispering gallery, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a nanoscale coating for solar cells that enables them to absorb about 20 percent more sunlight than uncoated devices. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[23237] viXra:1804.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 01:49:53

Coulombic Energy Replaced by Electromagnetic Energy in Bohr’s Theory Makes Atomic Physics Simple and Sensible

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 6 pages

Over a century ago Bohr arrived at the conclusion that the ground state energy of hydrogen is half the Coulombic energy, which is negative. As hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Universe, it implies that the energy of the Universe is predominantly negative. Since this is strange, the author found that on replacing the Coulombic energy by electromagnetic energy, the energy is in fact positive. This modification of Bohr’s theory gave rise to many interesting results, showing that atomic physics is much simpler and more meaningful.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[23236] viXra:1804.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 03:01:38

Black Holes are Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 133 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

Black Holes are Dark Matter. Information is lost in Black Holes. “Black Holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Information is lost in black holes” Adrian Ferent “Our universe will die; Gravitons will change Matter in Dark Matter, inside the Black Holes” Adrian Ferent How Matter is change in Dark Matter by Gravitons: Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction, photon absorption by a Black Hole: E = h × f + a × f + a × ν where a × ν is the negative energy of the graviton ν is the frequency of the interaction graviton. I calculated: the graviton’s energy emitted by black holes is higher than: E = 4.14559 × 105 GeV After n interactions the energy of the photon is: where f is the initial frequency of the photon. Because graviton’s frequency νk > fk the energy E of the photon is higher after each photon-graviton interaction, this means photon’s frequency is much higher and this is the process how Matter is change in Dark Matter inside a Black Hole. “Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole” Adrian Ferent That is why: “Information is lost in Black Holes” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right. Wrong things what you learned about Black Holes, because Gravitons are not present in Einstein’s wrong Gravitation theory! That is why in my view Gerard 't Hooft, Leonard Susskind, Stephen Hawking, Jacob Bekenstein… are wrong regarding Black Holes: Bekenstein and Hawking conjectured that the black hole entropy is directly proportional to the area of the event horizon divided by the Planck area. From the entropy it is possible to use the usual thermodynamic relations to calculate the temperature of black holes. The entropy measures how many such squares, whose side is a Planck length, are there on the surface of a black hole. From here Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind suggested that the information is in fact preserved and is stored on the boundary of a system. After the “The Black Hole War” Gerard 't Hooft, Stephen Hawking and Leonard Susskind agreed that the information is not lost inside a black hole; Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind discovered the holographic principle, the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is entirely contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. They considered a photon falling in a black hole, that will increase the black hole entropy and surface area; the black hole’s mass increases and the photon information is stored on the event horizon. Alice and Bob thought experiments: Alice jumps into a very large black hole, leaving Bob outside the event horizon. Physicists have assumed that Alice won’t notice anything unusual as she crosses the event horizon. Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong because Information is lost in black holes. That is why: “The holographic principle is wrong” Adrian Ferent “My Quantum Gravity theory explains that the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons” Adrian Ferent That is why the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is not contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. What happens when we fall in a Black Hole? “When we fall in a Black Hole, the Gravitons will break our atoms before we get to the event horizon” Adrian Ferent That is why: Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong regarding Alice and Bob thought experiments, because the Gravitons will break the atoms of Alice and Bob, before they get to the event horizon. You learned from your professors, from your books about the temperature of Black Holes! “Because Black Holes are Dark Matter, Black Holes do not have temperature” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with the density greater than Planck density” Adrian Ferent I discovered that Black holes are Dark Matter, I discovered that the Information is lost in Black Holes, I discovered what is the Event Horizon, I explained that the holographic principle is wrong and I discovered what happens when we fall in a Black Hole. 51. I am the first who explained Gravitation 52. I am the first who discovered what happens when we fall in a Black Hole: the Gravitons will break our atoms before we get to the event horizon 53. I am the first who explained that the holographic principle is wrong 54. I am the first who discovered that Black holes are Dark Matter 55. I am the first who explained that Information is lost in black holes 56. I am the first who explained what is the event horizon: the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons 57. I am the first who explained that our universe will die; Gravitons will change Matter in Dark Matter, inside the Black Holes 58. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole 59. I am the first who discovered that Black Holes do not have temperature, because Black Holes are Dark Matter
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23235] viXra:1804.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 05:14:31

Spin-3/2 Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23234] viXra:1804.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 06:51:43

Quantum Entanglement Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23233] viXra:1804.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 07:54:40

Question 447: Some Trigonometric Formulas for the Argument 2npi/13,n=1,2,3,4,5,6.

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents continued radicals and trigonometric formulas for the argument 2npi/13, n=1,2,3,4,5,6.
Category: General Mathematics

[23232] viXra:1804.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 07:57:36

Malmsten's Integral

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with Malmsten's integral.
Category: Number Theory

[23231] viXra:1804.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 07:59:39

Question 449: Some Definite Integrals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 6 Pages.

This note presents some definite integrals.
Category: Number Theory

[23230] viXra:1804.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 10:45:14

On Schrödinger Equations Equivalent to Constant Coefficient Equations

Authors: D. K. K. Adjaï, J. Akande, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 9 pages

This paper shows that the solution of a class of Schrödinger equations may be performed in terms of the solution of the equation of constant coefficients.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[23229] viXra:1804.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 10:48:57

Electron in a Dual State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23228] viXra:1804.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 11:07:43

Superconductive Current of Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers have shown that certain superconductors—materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures—can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23227] viXra:1804.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 11:37:53

OFDM Performance Improvement Based on Active Constellation Extension and Active Interference Cancelation

Authors: SongIl Choe, IlNam Ri, SongChol Dong, IlSok Kim, ChunHo Pak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a transceiver technology able to achieve spectrally efficient and high data rate wireless transmissions. It is also able to transmit in a non-contiguous (NC) fashion by utilizing several separate spectral whitespaces. Cognitive radio systems based on non-contiguous orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (NC-OFDM) is a promising technique that can provide efcient bandwidth utilization for high data rate wireless communication systems under frequency selective fading environments. However, the high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) and large spectrum sidelobe power are the two major limitations at the transmitter side of the NC-OFDM based Cognitive Radio (CR) system, which may significantly reduce the power efficiency and performance of the system. In this paper, we present a joint method for the PAPR reduction and sidelobe suppression based on Active Constellation Extension(ACE) and Active Interference Cancelation(AIC). The key idea of the proposed method is to dynamically extend part of the constellation points on the secondary user (SU) subcarriers based on ACE and add several SC symbols on the primary user (PU) subcarriers based on AIC to generate the appropriate cancelation signal for joint PAPR reduction and sidelobe suppression. Since the convex optimization is computationally complex in nature, a suboptimal method is also proposed whose simulation result shows that there is a significant improvement in terms of PAPR and sidelobe reduction.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[23226] viXra:1804.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 11:48:31

Decoding Dark Energy by using the Mass-Energy Relation

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 1 page

The mysterious phenomenon of dark energy has been explained by me in my previous papers on the basis of molecular diffusion model. In this paper I present an additional proof to further support the molecular diffusion model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23225] viXra:1804.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 13:27:36

The Expanding Universe, Einstein and the Big Bang

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 3 Pages.

In 1917 Einstein developed equations that described an ever-expanding universe. It is the nature of an electromagnetic universe to continually expand, although the term “ever-dilating universe” would be more appropriate given his other work. Later on, after the expansion of the universe was actually discovered, Georges Lemaitre proposed the “Big Bang” theory to account for that expansion rather than viewing it as being in the nature of an electromagnetic universe. So we seem to have two perfectly sensible reasons for the expansion of the Universe. Why?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23224] viXra:1804.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 14:06:25

Imaginary Numbers Are not Tautologous © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The definition of the imaginary number is not tautologous and hence refuted. The definition as rendered is contingent, the value for falsity. While the definition can be coerced to be non-contingent, the value for truthity, it is still not tautologous.
Category: Number Theory

[23223] viXra:1804.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 16:39:04

Vixrapedia.org

Authors: Valdhaorna Istri
Comments: 1 Page.

Announcing a new encyclopedia that does not censor knowledge.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[23222] viXra:1804.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 20:54:58

Circular and Rectilinear Sagnac Effects Are Dynamically Equivalent and Contradictory to Special Relativity Theory

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 12 Pages. This is a pre-print of a paper which will appear in physics essays in June 2018 vol. 31 number 2

The Sagnac effect, named after its discoverer, is the phase shift occurring between two beams of light, traveling in opposite directions along a closed path around a moving object. A special case is the circular Sagnac effect, known for its crucial role in GPS and fiber-optic gyroscopes. It is often claimed that the circular Sagnac effect does not contradict special relativity theory (SRT) because it is considered an accelerated motion, while SRT applies only to uniform, non-accelerated motion. It is further claimed that the Sagnac effect, manifested in circular motion, should be treated in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT). We counter these arguments by underscoring the fact that the dynamics of rectilinear and circular types of motion are completely equivalent, and that this equivalence holds true for both non-accelerated and accelerated motion. With respect to the Sagnac effect, this equivalence means that a uniform circular motion (with constant w) is completely equivalent to a uniform rectilinear motion (with constant v). We support this conclusion by convincing experimental findings, indicating that an identical Sagnac effect to the one found in circular motion, exists in rectilinear uniform motion. We conclude that the circular Sagnac effect is fully explainable in the framework of inertial systems, and that the circular Sagnac effect contradicts special relativity theory and calls for its refutation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23221] viXra:1804.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 01:30:45

Quantum Shift in Light and Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

A team led by Rice University scientists used a unique combination of techniques to observe, for the first time, a condensed matter phenomenon about which others have only speculated. The research could aid in the development of quantum computers. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23220] viXra:1804.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 02:02:00

Did the Emergence of Blood Groups Weed Out Cannibalism? a New Take on a Persistent Conundrum

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is proposed that the emergence of different blood groups – whether in humanoids or their predecessors – served as a strong deterrent to the mixing of blood from different individuals. Cannibalism is the most likely activity in which such mixing would have been inevitable. In fact, the immunological significance of the blood groups may be overblown, as a correspondence between antigen and antibody is not always apparent in them. These conclusions also raise intriguing questions about the consumption of animal meats and blood by humans, with interesting implications for currently held views on diet and disease.
Category: Biochemistry

[23219] viXra:1804.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 05:29:22

New Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Researchers at Aalto University, Finland, have created a Bose-Einstein condensate of light coupled with metal electrons, so-called surface plasmon polaritons. [42] A team led by Rice University scientists used a unique combination of techniques to observe, for the first time, a condensed matter phenomenon about which others have only speculated. The research could aid in the development of quantum computers. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23218] viXra:1804.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 07:33:29

Nuclei Catch Up with Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

In an attosecond study of the H2 molecule, physicists at ETH Zurich found that for light atomic nuclei, as contained in most organic and biological molecules, the correlation between electronic and nuclear motions cannot be ignored. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[23217] viXra:1804.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 08:38:51

A Physical Review on Currency

Authors: Ran Huang
Comments: 14 Pages.

A theoretical self-sustainable economic model is established based on the fundamental factors of production, consumption, reservation and reinvestment, where currency is set as a unconditional credit symbol serving as transaction equivalent and stock means. Principle properties of currency are explored in this ideal economic system. Physical analysis reveals some facts that were not addressed by traditional monetary theory, and several basic principles of ideal currency are concluded: 1. The saving-replacement is a more primary function of currency than the transaction equivalents; 2. The ideal efficiency of currency corresponds to the least practical value; 3. The contradiction between constant face value of currency and depreciable goods leads to intrinsic inflation.
Category: Economics and Finance

[23216] viXra:1804.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 08:58:55

Gravity with Black Hole Shadows

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astrophysicists at Frankfurt, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, and Nijmegen, collaborating in the project BlackHoleCam, answer this question by computing the first images of feeding non-Einsteinian black holes: it is presently hard to tell them apart from standard black holes. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It’s estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[23215] viXra:1804.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 05:07:40

Principle of Independently Established Co-Determinism: Parsimony & Physical Law in Nature: Prescience

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles Brenden
Comments: 111 Pages. A line that terminates in a flat relation is the open consideration of either then projective return two for then in either both of what are empty and the contained; the included of a one contained to a qualitative end.

The principles and foundation of our understanding of the universe are one; to that of the effect of an end found in that of the inquiry of man supported by the sentience of its meaning in all that is; the verifiable true consideration is one word; the eventual ending of a pretense found in that of what is disclosed as fact; as in either of what we so consider the eventual; the end of what is so; is a new beginning in that of life; the future as a world in one; as love; of the incarnation of all that is; the given of life to it’s true form and kind treatment of another; as cooperatively all beings respectfully are endowed with the given of love; the explanation of which is the choice to deliver life upon life as the infinite compassion of which is the release to freedom from constraint; and the given of return of kindness as known for that of kind in meaning; the giving of a people to knowable in all eventualities is explained as the principle of motion of the immobility of the heart to meaning to all of existence to the truth of understanding in principle nature; to the given of what is being; the standing of its continuance only then found in that of the giving of life; by the endowment of one for attention to their and other’s considerations prior to another; as the expressed choice to one’s self; and the forgiveness of all equivalences of people; worlds; and meanings found in the natural laws of this world; the next; and nature of a future yet to be; for then in what is; the given of each; is the endowed of all; and throughout what is creation; every being is dependent on the remainder of all of existence; as no such principle exemplified by purpose can mistreat another; the withholding of which is it’s purpose to continuance in being and the only means of it’s survival; the open difference of which is our inheritance; since as such as one is; all such other given’s of people do require another to support a self; a world; and this given; finally as known; since one self so only remains to exist if and in being as such as all such other supports do; foundationally true as one before another always is. Pertinence has followed in due; to the given of a priorly given know; that what was held is now the free expressed right of a person; as once it had only been them; it is now the truth by the indivisible moment of a truth in passing that all in existence now face the same; as once as they had done an other; of whom so suffered their beings; the new ending in one of a promise they had held from time’s beginning to it’s eternal end; in one given; the only one they had known; as the guarantee they had so granted themselves from the beginning of their wakeful existence.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[23214] viXra:1804.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 06:29:29

A Quantum Physics Jeopardy Problem of a One-Bound-State Double Dirac Delta Potential with a Centrifugal, Angular-Momentum-Like Tail

Authors: Spiros Konstantogiannis
Comments: 19 Pages.

Starting from a simple, one-parameter, symmetric wave function, we derive an attractive double Dirac delta potential with a centrifugal, angular-momentum-like tale, which has only one bound state, the energy of which can be set to zero.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[23213] viXra:1804.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 04:08:13

Gene Editing Medicine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

It's called gene editing, and University of Alberta researchers have just published a game-changing study that promises to bring the technology much closer to therapeutic reality. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8]
Category: Physics of Biology

[23212] viXra:1804.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 04:38:29

Some Considerations on Physical Constants G and α in Light of the Concept of the Net Charged Universe (NCU) [1,2]

Authors: Ulrich Berger
Comments: 8 Pages.

As described previously, the concept of a “Net Charged Universe” (NCU) assumes that the expansion of the universe is driven by a slight excess of positive charge in the universe’s matter. This excess charge comes into being by means of quantum fluctuations at the universe’s horizon. Excess protons experience electrostatic acceleration and therefore gain high relativistic mass, which is the source of the creation of neutral matter at the universe’s horizon. The present article investigates some consequences of that steady creation of space and matter in NCU history. The most important consequences are the following:  The gravitational constant G and the fine structure constant α are not constant but proportional to the historically decreasing mass density of the universe.  The commonality between G and α in terms of this proportionality seems to indicate a deep interdependency between both variables and between their related phenomena, i.e. the gravitational and electromagnetic properties of matter.  The historically decreasing value of G might be the real cause of anomalies of stars’ circling in galaxies, which led to the assumption of “Dark Matter” (DM) by current cosmology.  Because of a possibly holographic emergence of gravitation, newly created matter might immediately show its “gravitational presence” throughout the whole universe. In contrast to that, the “electromagnetic presence” of new matter propagates through space with the speed of light and cannot be immediately experienced in the inner universe. The value of α that varies with time and space can possibly be regarded as a measure for the fraction of all matter that is electromagnetically present at a certain place – e.g. our galaxy.  Calculations on the electromagnetic and the gravitational acceleration of matter in the NCU yield identical mathematical expressions although they were derived here in fully independent ways.  Finally, those expressions do not contain any “constants” like G, α, particle masses, elementary charge etc. – except the speed of light. The electromagnetic and the gravitational acceleration of matter are both controlled solely by geometrical variables, i.e. variable radii. These radii and the equations containing them seem to be the only true fundamentals related to describing and understanding the NCU.  The deep interdependency between G and α (or, say, gravitational and electromagnetic properties of matter) based on the NCU concept revealed here might even point to a path to unification of relativity and quantum theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23211] viXra:1804.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 05:29:00

Lyme Disease and Bee Venom Therapy

Authors: Mit Skolov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract. It is reported about the growing interest in bee venom therapy in the treatment of Lyme disease (borreliosis) in the USA. Key words: Lyme disease, Lyme borreliosis, bee venom therapy, apitoxin therapy, honeybee venom, apitoxin, melittin.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[23210] viXra:1804.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 07:17:58

Small Data Storage, Tinier Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Researchers have discovered that using an easily made combination of materials might be the way to offer a more stable environment for smaller and safer data storage, ultimately leading to miniature computers. [28] Employees of Kazan Federal University and Kazan Quantum Center of Kazan National Research Technical University demonstrated an original layout of a prototype of multiresonator broadband quantum-memory interface. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[23209] viXra:1804.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 08:00:32

Artificial Intelligence Accelerates Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning—a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data—with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time. [23] Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have demonstrated that deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, can discern and enhance microscopic details in photos taken by smartphones. [22] Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[23208] viXra:1804.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 09:25:33

Understanding Random Pixels & Random Numbers in the Context of SEM/TEM/AFM/cryo-Electron Microscopy Image Processing – A Promising Technical Insight into the Interesting World of Randomness & Noisy Images in EM Domains Using a Quantum Device & Image J

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Technical Communication on Quantum Computing & Concepts

A sincere attempt is made to probe EM domains using Randomness & Random Numbers by using a Quantum Device as stated in the above mentioned TITLE of this technical communication.To the best of our knowledge this is indeed a pioneering R&D technical note using a Quantum Device.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23207] viXra:1804.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 11:41:48

Exact Solution of Odes Vector Space Transformationtechnique

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 10 Pages.

This linear algebra technique provides a useful method of obtaining exact solutions to homogeneous linear ordinary differential equations. The Bessel half integer solutions, being long well known, have been used here to verify with confidence the above linear independence technique for solving ordinary differential equations. The Bessel second order LHODE has been used, here, as an example application of this vector space transformation technique. Clearly, it may be used on other non-general elementary second order LHODE, such as the Legendre, Laguerre, Hermite and other second order LHODE's. Using the two linearly independent solutions of a second order linear homogeneous ordinary differential equations insures that the two functions are linearly independent. However, any two linearly independent functions may be used, and the two resulting differential equations need not be the same, as was the case for the Bessel's above. In fact, clearly, the technique may also be used for higher order LHODE's, since there are N linearly independent solutions of an N-th order LHODE there would be an equal number of transformation equations.
Category: General Mathematics

[23206] viXra:1804.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 13:23:50

The Holomorphic Quanta. A Relational Model for Visualizing, Understanding and Teaching Quantum Physics and Relativity

Authors: Theodore J. St. John
Comments: 14 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics is appropriately named because it is mostly about the mechanics used to work probability problems. There must be, and there is a better way to visualize the concepts of quantum physics so that teachers can present a consistent conceptual interpretation. In this paper, we use a graph (i.e. the image of a graphical map) to represent the relationships between space, time and motion but we interpose the linear space-time domain (the moving or relativistic reference frame in the region greater than one) with a logarithmic spatial-temporal frequency domain (the at-rest or quantum reference frame in the region between zero and one). This approach demonstrates space-time equivalence as S=Tc^2, and thereby reveals the de Broglie equations for energy of a quantum particle in exactly the same geometric relation as the total energy relations that include mass-energy equivalence. The model allows one to visualize the particle-wave duality as a change in perspective the same as you can visualize an object both at rest with respect to your classroom yet in motion with respect to the sun, provides a perspective on the meaning of time and the psychological time flux as an eternal process of transformation, reinterprets the speed of light as the speed at which darkness (the absence of information) recedes, and concludes that the solid objects that occupy 3-dimensional expanse of space can be viewed as holomorphic images, materialized by the interaction of fields that gain physical form by their transformation into divergence and curl.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23205] viXra:1804.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 13:35:09

A Clear Trend in the Mass-Radius Relationship Concerning Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Data was obtained from the Kepler Space Telescope and through various media to plot the trend in the mass-radius relationship of stars as they evolve. The trend is that as they lose mass and evolve, they shrink in diameter. This is predicted by stellar metamorphosis, as stellar evolution is planet formation itself.
Category: Astrophysics

[23204] viXra:1804.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 14:31:44

Infinite Product for Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Authors: Mendzina Essomba François
Comments: 10 Pages.

I propose in this article the first infinite products of history for inverse sinusoidal functions
Category: Number Theory

[23203] viXra:1804.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 21:10:15

Dark Matter is Negative Mass

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi
Comments: 10 Pages.

The fundamental properties of negative mass can explain important characteristics of dark matter. 1) additional centripetal effects, 2) explanations derived from fundamental principles about the reason why dark matter does not have electromagnetic interaction, 3) repulsive gravity ensuring almost even distribution and lower interaction of dark matter, 4) accelerating expansion of the universe can be explained with negative mass. Therefore, we should seriously examine the negative mass model.
Category: Astrophysics

[23202] viXra:1804.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 01:03:37

Confusions in Modern Physics.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 3 Pages. New physics.

Some clarifications in the concept of inertia and mass.
Category: Classical Physics

[23201] viXra:1804.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 03:36:16

Some Experiments Against Relativity

Authors: CuiHaiLong
Comments: 4 Pages.

To summarize some of the negative relativity experiments, and to make a reasonable explanation for some of these experiments, mainly to remind people that anti-relativity experiments can be seen everywhere.But people look at the problem with colored eyes and they just ignore it all the time,It also reflects the terrible power of man's faith,Just as believers ignore the myriad anti-religious realities, they remain fanatical about maintaining religion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23200] viXra:1804.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 04:17:29

New Theory of Relativity, Opening of New Laws of Movement in the Moving System.

Authors: Valentín Ibáñez Fernández
Comments: 46 Pages.

A profound analysis of the theory of relativity led to the creation of a new special theory of relativity (STR), in early papers 1-9. The new special theory of relativity 1-3 explained all the fundamental phenomena that occur in mechanical and electromagnetic processes, both in inertial motion systems and in the system in rest. However, the individual expositions in these works did not reveal a complete basic physical-philosophical approach to the description of these phenomena. In this work, these shortcomings is eliminating, and in addition, the shortcomings of Galileo's theory of relativity, based on which errors will made in further studies, Having concluded these studies, the author puts forward both a new theory of relativity and the discovery of new laws of motion in a moving system.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23199] viXra:1804.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 08:39:13

Fine-Structure on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has conducted an ultra-precise measurement of the fine-structure constant, and in so doing, have found evidence that casts doubts on dark photon theory. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23198] viXra:1804.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 08:52:28

Kinetic Analysis of H2S Removal Over Several Mesoporous Metal Mixed Oxides During Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization in a Fixed-Bed Reactor Using the Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 1 Page.

DKM has not considered the detailed characteristic parameters of the solid sorbent in such a microscopic way as unreacted shrinking core model(SCM) or general regression model (GRM) but in a macroscopic way. Therefore, DKM can be extensively applied to the kinetic analysis of noncatalytic heterogeneous reaction or adsorption processes without the requirement of structural property for sorbents.
Category: Chemistry

[23197] viXra:1804.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 09:00:32

Dipolar Molecule

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Harvard Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology Kang-Kuen Ni and colleagues have combined two atoms for the first time into what researchers call a dipolar molecule. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23196] viXra:1804.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 18:31:14

Formula to Get Twin Prime Numbers.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper develops a modified an old and well-known expression for calculating and obtaining all twin prime numbers greater than three. The conditioning (n) will be the key to make the formula work.
Category: Number Theory

[23195] viXra:1804.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 21:56:20

Related to Fermat’s Last Theorem: the Quadratic Formula of the Equation X^(n-1) ∓ X^(n-2)y + X^(n-3)y^(n-2) ∓ … + Y^(n-1)= Z^n(nZ^n) in the Cases N = 3, 5 and 7.

Authors: Quang Nguyen Van
Comments: 4 Pages.

We give some quadratic formulas (including Euler's and Dirichlet's formula) of the equation X^(n-1) ∓ X^(n-2)Y + X^(n-3)Y^(n-2) ∓ … + Y^(n-1) = Z^n(nZ^n) in the cases n = 3, 5 and 7 for finding a solution in integer.
Category: Number Theory

[23194] viXra:1804.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 23:39:36

Why Imaginary Quaternions Bear no Nexus to Reality © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The quaternion of Hamilton is not tautologous.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23193] viXra:1804.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 05:42:10

Quantum Supremacy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23192] viXra:1804.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 06:40:08

Szczególna Teoria Względności (In Polish) ### Special Theory of Relativity (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 150 Pages.

Podręcznik ten przeznaczony jest dla studentów wszystkich uczelni, na których wykładana jest fizyka. Może być przydatny dla nauczycieli fizyki w szkołach średnich. Mam nadzieję, że zostanie wykorzystany również przez zawodowych relatywistów. ### This handbook is intended for students of all universities where physics is taught. It can be useful for physics teachers in secondary schools. I hope that it will also be used by professional relativists.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23191] viXra:1804.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 06:45:03

Ogólna Teoria Względności (In Polish) ### General Theory of Relativity (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 252 Pages.

Podręcznik ten przeznaczony jest dla studentów wszystkich uczelni, na których wykładana jest fizyka. Może być przydatny dla nauczycieli fizyki w szkołach średnich. Mam nadzieję, że zostanie wykorzystany również przez zawodowych relatywistów. ### This handbook is intended for students of all universities where physics is taught. It can be useful for physics teachers in secondary schools. I hope that it will also be used by professional relativists.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23190] viXra:1804.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 06:47:39

Giganci Teorii Względności (In Polish) ### Giants of the Theory of Relativity (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 124 Pages.

Prezentowana encyklopedia zawiera 144 portrety prekursorów, twórców i propagatorów teorii względności oraz informacje o wkładzie wniesionym przez nich w powstanie i rozwój tej dziedziny fizyki. Zamieszczono spis wszystkich prac Einsteina dotyczących szczególnej i ogólnej teorii względności oraz jednolitej teorii pola. ### The presented encyclopedia contains 144 portraits of precursors, creators and propagators of relativity theory, as well as information about their contribution to the rise and development of this field of physics. A list of all Einstein's papers on special and general relativity and a unified field theory is provided.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23189] viXra:1804.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 07:11:54

Elektryczność (In Polish) ### Electricity (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 142 Pages.

E-book "Elektryczność" przeznaczony jest dla studentów wszystkich uczelni, na których wykładana jest fizyka. Może być przydatny dla nauczycieli fizyki w szkołach średnich. Cechą charakterystyczną tej książki jest brak numeracji wzorów. ### The e-book "Electricity" is intended for all students of the university, which taught physics. It can be useful for physics teachers in secondary schools. A characteristic feature of this book is the lack of pattern numbering.
Category: Education and Didactics

[23188] viXra:1804.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 13:45:09

Expansion Tectonics – Is It All Wet?

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe
Comments: 6 Pages.

Expansion Tectonics postulates that the Earth has grown from a much smaller orb over its history, the size once being as low as 1/4 of today's radius at the extreme (more common estimates are around 60% of today's radius). Scientists have also long speculated as to the source of Earth's water, estimated today to be anywhere from 1.5 to 11 times the current volume of the oceans, with a rough agreement around three times today's ocean volume (implying 2/3 today is "within" the Earth). This paper examines some of the implications of Expansion Tectonics in conjunction with a total water volume three times today's ocean volume, with neither an increase in Earth's mass or water volume over time. Speculation at two extremes range from an early "saturated sponge" Earth, where all this water was retained within the Earth, with essentially none at the surface (the more common postulate of Expansion Tectonics) to a complete "waterworld," where all of the water was atop the surface, i.e., none within.
Category: Geophysics

[23187] viXra:1804.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 13:53:22

The Universe Equation

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

If you claim there are particles: there would actually have to be particles.
And that would mean there are about 18 different microscopic things that work flawlessly together -- just like clockwork to make even just one basic atom "gear" set.
If you have larger sized atoms: it would be like throwing more and more gear sets into the clockwork -- but that is ok because no matter what you throw in -- it will still work just fine.
How can an infinity of 18 different things (infinity times 18 different things) just happen to be here, know how work together as a group and also successfully work together as a group(s)?
How is that possible? It isn't...

Stuff cannot be made from what they call "particles."

If there are particles; this is equation of the universe:
Universe = Infinity × {a,b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,o,p,q,t,w,x,y,z}
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[23186] viXra:1804.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 14:33:36

Fractals on Non-Euclidean Metric

Authors: Yeray Cachón Santana
Comments: 11 Pages.

As far as I know, there is no a study on fractals on non euclidean metrics.This paper proposes a first approach method about generating fractals on a non-euclidean metric. The idea is to extend the calculus of fractals on non-euclidean metrics. Using the Riemann metric, there will be defined a non-euclidean modulo of a complex number in order to check the divergence of the series generated by the Mandelbrot set. It also shown that the fractals are not invariant versus rotations. The study will be extended to the quaternions, where is shown that the study of fractals might not be extended to quaternions with a general metric because of the high divergence of the series (a condition in order to generate a fractal is selecting bounded operators). Finally, a Java program will be found as example to show those kind of fractals, where any metric can be defined, so it will be helpful to study those properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[23185] viXra:1804.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 14:37:14

Bipolar Neutrosophic Minimum Spanning Tree

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache, Kifayat Ullah
Comments: 6 Pages. Broumi, Said and Talea, Mohamed and Bakali, Assia and Smarandache, Florentin and Ullah, Kifayat, Bipolar Neutrosophic Minimum Spanning Tree (February 27, 2018). Smart Application and Data Analysis for Smart Cities (SADASC'18). Available at SSRN: https://s

The aim of this article is to introduce a matrix algorithm for finding minimum spanning tree (MST) in the environment of undirected bipolar neutrosophic connected graphs (UBNCG). Some weights are assigned to each edge in the form of bipolar neutrosophic number (BNN). The new algorithm is described by a flow chart and a numerical example by considering some hypothetical graph. By a comparison, the advantage of proposed matrix algorithm over some existing algorithms are also discussed.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[23184] viXra:1804.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 14:59:06

Fermat Conjecture Solution

Authors: Allen C. Conti
Comments: 1 Page. (c) Allen C. Conti 2015-2018

Possible solution to the Fermat Conjecture regarding other exponents satisfying the Pythagorus relationship. Solution uses algebraic substitution, logical deduction and modulus verification.
Category: General Mathematics

[23183] viXra:1804.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 18:08:40

Retract Neutrosophic Crisp System for Gray Scale Image

Authors: A. A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby, Asmaa.M.Nasr
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we aim to develop a new type of neutrosophic crisp set called the retract neutrosophic crisp set and shows a grayscale image in a 2D Cartesian domain with neutrosophic crisp components in the neutrosophic domain. The introduced set is a retraction of any triple structured crisp set. Whereas, the retractset deduced from any neutrosophic crisp set is coincide its corresponding star neutrosophic crisp set defined in by Salama et al. [1]. Hence we construct a new type of neutrosophic crisp topological spaces, called the retract neutrosophic crisp topological space as a retraction of the star neutrosophic topological space. Moreover, we investigate some of its properties.
Category: Topology

[23182] viXra:1804.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 22:52:34

A Conjecture for Objectification of the Content of Consciousness

Authors: Daisuke H. Tanaka, Tsutomu Tanabe
Comments: 38 Pages. 4 figures

The content of consciousness has strictly escaped from scientific approach mainly because it is subjective but not objective. We propose the content of consciousness can become objective in a specific condition. We firstly considered the subjective-objective distinction and found that it was not necessarily black-and-white but was continuously graded. We also found two factors affecting the degree of objectiveness: number of individuals who confirmed the specific subject, and reproducibility to confirm the subject. We stated that the specific content of consciousness could be regarded as objective if it was reproducibly confirmed by multiple individuals. Finally, we raised four neurological premises to test the statement: (1) a content-specific and sufficient neural correlates of consciousness (cssNCC) exists in human brain, (2) a specific cssNCC gives rise to a specific content of consciousness, (3) the cssNCC is sharable among multiple individuals and (4) the cssNCC is spatiotemporally stable enough to manipulate repeatedly.
Category: Mind Science

[23181] viXra:1804.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 01:16:01

Earth’s Mass Overestimated

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 3 Pages.

As method of calculation of Earth’s mass by analysis of movement of the Moon is disproved, mainstream hardly has other method to calculate Earth’s mass. Raw estimate of Earth’s density is possible, using data from vortical celestial mechanics.
Category: Geophysics

[23180] viXra:1804.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 08:27:27

Prototype of Advanced Quantum Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Employees of Kazan Federal University and Kazan Quantum Center of Kazan National Research Technical University demonstrated an original layout of a prototype of multiresonator broadband quantum-memory interface. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23179] viXra:1804.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 09:20:08

Molecular Motor Packs DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[23178] viXra:1804.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 10:43:40

Zastosowanie Teorii Grafów do Analizy Stabilności Stanów Stacjonarnych W Sieciach Reakcji Enzymatycznch [praca Doktorska, 1978] ### Application of Graph Theory to Stability Analysis of Steady States in Enzymatic Reaction Networks [PhD Thesis, 1978]

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 156 Pages. In Polish

Rozpatrywane w tej pracy rodzaje grafów można utworzyć na podstawie równań stechiometrycznych. Główną zaletą metod grafowych jest możliwość uzyskania informacji o stabilności stanów stacjonarnych bez wypisywania w jawnej postaci jakichkolwiek równań. ### The types of graphs considered in this work can be created on the basis of stoichiometric equations. The main advantage of the graph theory methods is the possibility of obtaining information on the stability of steady states without writing out any equations in an explicit form.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[23177] viXra:1804.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 10:45:08

The Conditions, Influences, and Effects Relating to the Concept of a Universal Particle

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 10 Pages.

Abstract At its deepest level informational reality is indivisible. The structure of indivisible reality can only be identified and described by means of predictive algebra. However, divisible informational processes are different measurements to the divisible whole. I refer to these different measurements as being units of the whole. I debate that in the pre-space continuum of irreducible reality that reducible informational processes may appear as the same processes. Furthermore these two processes are inseparable. I suggest that this inseparability is an effect that is informationally representative of the imaginary matrix of reality. It is my opinion that it is impossible to measure the units of reaction between the energy type forces of holistic reality but it is possible to measure the influences and effects of the reaction of these forces. This demonstrates the entangled nature of indivisible and divisible type forces in the matrix of reality. I have described two new particles. One of these particles I have entitled a universal particle and the other a minus particle. I have demonstrated how the properties and effects of the universal particle may have informationally emerged through its relationship with the minus particle. By doing this I demonstrate how the universal particle can transverse all universes and dimensions. This also means it can be seen as the reality particle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[23176] viXra:1804.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 11:07:42

Photon eV = Charge Area V2.0

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 5 Pages. It is Accurate

Universe is a Fractal Aether of Primes using a Fibonacci Geometry
Category: Quantum Physics

[23175] viXra:1804.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 11:17:56

Computers Analyze Brain Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

According to a new study in Cell, it may be possible to teach machines how to pick out features in neurons and other cells that have not been stained or undergone other damaging treatments. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]
Category: Physics of Biology

[23174] viXra:1804.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 13:11:57

Thermodynamics of Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The connection between the two theories is hinted at by a formal curiosity: information theory uses a mathematical term that formally resembles the definition of entropy in thermodynamics. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[23173] viXra:1804.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 15:44:00

Differential Forms for Physics Students

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 13 Pages.

A basic introduction to the calculus of differential forms for undergraduate physics students
Category: Mathematical Physics

[23172] viXra:1804.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 16:36:41

The Planck-Energy is not Fundamental in a Rotating Holographic Universe.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 7 Pages.

This article discards the constant Planck-energy. This will be in service of a rotating vacuum-torus as a new building-stone in a variable vacuum for the benefit of a rotating hologram-universe. The new building-stone hosts all the sub-information for the quantum-information for each emerging not-fundamental Big Bang-universe. This leads to the presentation of a new formula for dimensional variable dark energy. Also a handwritten image shows the author’s velocity-tensor of rotating vacuum, which is combined with an energy of dark force emerged from a dark vacuum particle. He uses his tensor to explain the name of his theory, the Double Torus Theory (DTT) .
Category: Mathematical Physics

[23171] viXra:1804.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 22:04:50

On the Representation Theorem for the Stochastic Differential eq Uations with Fractional Brownian Motion and Jump by Probabili ty Measures Transform

Authors: Kim Ju Gyong,Ju Kwang Son
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we prove Girsanov theorem for fractional Brownian motion and jump measures and consider representation form for the stochastic differential equations in transfer Probability space.
Category: Statistics

[23170] viXra:1804.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 22:14:27

Charge Area of the Electron = Photon ev

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 4 Pages. Charge Area of the electron = photon eV

Charge Area of the electron = photon eV (((((1.352910249E-57 m)^2) / ((1.6161132e-35 m)^2)) / 13) * (((2 * 5)^2) s)) / ((1.6161132e-35 m) / c) = 0.999999981 1 / ((((((1.352910249E-57 m) / hbar) / c) / electron mass) / 2)^0.5) = 6.5248935 m kg / s 1.352910249E-57 m (2 * electron mass * G) / (c^2) = 1.35291025e-57 m (6.6774545e-11 m^3/kg/s^2)/c^2/ (6.52485 kg m/s)/electron mass/5^3 = 1 ((((6.6774545e-11 * (((1/5) m)^3)) / (kg / (s^2))) / (c^2)) / (6.52485 ((kg m) / s))) / (electron mass / (kg^3)) = 0.999999994 s5 1.6161132e-35 (meters / planck length) = 0.9999287396 https://photos.app.goo.gl/hwS73Pg69x76Y5v42 Photon transit channel = https://photos.app.goo.gl/C49aNNCBAEHYd2Ng1 Photon transit channel = 1/((x)^(7)*(y)^(7))^(1/6) http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=1%2F((x)%5E(7)*(y)%5E(7))%5E(1%2F6) KronosPrime@ outlook.com https://sites.google.com/site/fractalprimeuniverse/electron-charge-area
Category: Quantum Physics

[23169] viXra:1804.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 07:17:37

Deep Learning Smartphone Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have demonstrated that deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, can discern and enhance microscopic details in photos taken by smartphones. [22] Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[23168] viXra:1804.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 07:54:40

Scanning Tunneling Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

NIST researchers have pioneered a process that drastically simplifies fabrication of the kind of nanoscale microchip features that may soon form the basis of a quantum computer, among other applications. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Condensed Matter

[23167] viXra:1804.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 01:38:19

On the Mathematics of Special Relativity

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 10 Pages.

It was once said that only three people in the world understood relativity to which Eddington an astronomer/physicist replied “who is the third”. This statement by Einstein was a little forward considering the simplicity of the foundational theory of the paper itself. It may be the case that due to the disingenuous insertion of conditional statements and erroneous assumptions he realized that the paper itself was so erroneous that it may indeed be seen to be incomprehensible to the unguarded reader. It also appears that he was effective in his quest as the number of advocates of Einstein’s special relativity increases daily, who have neither the desire nor inclination to investigate further but rather accept purely on face value Einstein’s assertions. The arduous task of investigation and validation of his theories being left to a small but also increasing number of dedicated independent researchers who refuse to bow to the logical fallacy of appealing to authority.
Category: Astrophysics

[23166] viXra:1804.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 06:43:20

Gravity According to my New Theory of Everything.

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 1 Page. Link to My New Theory of Everything : http://vixra.org/abs/1804.0100

This article aims to explain gravity theoretically according to my new theory of everything.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23165] viXra:1804.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 07:57:22

Quantum Mechanics & Quantum Signal Processing Framework Based Cryo-EM Image Processing Using Higher Order Logic(HOL)/Haskell/Scala/JikesRVM/IoT Environment - An Innovative & Interesting Approach in the Context of Quantum Computing.

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar
Comments: 5 Pages. Technical Communication on Quantum Computing & Concepts

“Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it.” - Niels Bohr. As we all know,cryo-EM Image Processing is proving itself as a useful tool.In this context,we came across interesting and inspirational research papers titled - Quantum approach to Image processing by Mohammad Rastegari and Quantum image processing? by Mario Mastriani.In general,this approach could be applied to any Electron Microscopy Domain/s – SEM/TEM/AFM etc...
Category: Quantum Physics

[23164] viXra:1804.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 11:05:48

Using Two Quantum Channels

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated that using two quantum channels in different orders can enhance a communication network's ability to transmit information—even, counterintuitively, when the channels are identical. [32] In a new paper, however, physicists Flavio Del Santo at the University of Vienna and Borivoje Dakić at the Austrian Academy of Sciences have shown that, in the quantum world, information can travel in both directions simultaneously—a feature that is forbidden by the laws of classical physics. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23163] viXra:1804.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 11:59:00

Machine Learning for Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A trio of students from the University of Glasgow have developed a sophisticated artificial intelligence which could underpin the next phase of gravitational wave astronomy. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[23162] viXra:1804.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 12:34:06

Coincidence and Non-coincidence Using Optical Circulators

Authors: M. W. Roberts
Comments: 11 Pages.

An optical experiment is described in which pairs of quantum entangled photons are sent into separate optical circulators. Theoretical analysis is used to predict the number of coincident detections between these photons at the output from the circulators. With proper control of non-local, two-photon interference, the photon pairs can be put in perfect coincidence or in perfect non-coincidence, as selected by the experimenter. These results contradict the predictions made using classical probability analysis.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23161] viXra:1804.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 12:55:36

Unprecedented Neutrino Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

This week, a group of scientists working on the MiniBooNE experiment at the Department of Energy's Fermilab reported a breakthrough: They were able to identify exactly-known-energy muon neutrinos hitting the atoms at the heart of their particle detector. [19] In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[23160] viXra:1804.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 13:27:20

Superfluid Quasicrystal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

The term "superfluid quasicrystal" sounds like something a comic-book villain might use to carry out his dastardly plans. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[23159] viXra:1804.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 22:47:36

Fractal Prime Universe 5.0

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 11 Pages. (2/3^2 /5^2 * 11 *137.035999172^2) = 1836.15569564

Fibonacci Fractal Prime Universe (2/3^2 /5^2 * 11 *137.035999172^2) = 1836.15569564 (2/3^2 /5^2 * 11 *137^2) = 1835.19111111 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton-to-electron_mass_ratio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fine-structure_constant
Category: Quantum Physics

[23158] viXra:1804.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 22:59:37

Fibonacci Luminiferous Aether MATRIX

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 1 Page. (2/3^2 /5^2 * 11 *137.035999172^2) = 1836.15569564224205814599

Fibonacci Luminiferous Aether MATRIX (2/3^2 /5^2 * 11 *137.035999172^2) = 1836.15569564224205814599 Fibonacci (2*5)D https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton-to-electron_mass_ratio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fine-structure_constant
Category: Quantum Physics

[23157] viXra:1804.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 23:13:20

Topological Detection of Wideband Anomalies

Authors: Russell Leidich
Comments: 12 Pages.

Successive real-valued measurements of any physical chaotic oscillator can serve as entropy inputs to a random number generator (RNG) with correspondingly many whole numbered outputs of arbitrarily small bias, assuming that no correlation exists between successive such measurements apart from what would be implied by their probability distribution function (AKA the oscillator’s analog “generator”, which is constant over time and thus asymptotically discoverable). Given some historical measurements (a “snapshot”) of such an oscillator, we can then train the RNG to expect inputs distributed uniformally among the real intervals defined by those measurements and spanning the entire real line. Each interval thus implies an index in sorted order, starting with the leftmost which maps to zero; the RNG does nothing more than to perform this mapping. We can then replace that first oscillator with a second one presumed to abide by the same generator. It would then be possible to characterize the accuracy of that presumption by quantifying the ensuing change in quality of the RNG. Randomness quality is most accurately expressed via dyspoissonism, which is a normalized equivalent of the log of the number of ways in which a particular distribution of frequencies (occurrence counts) of masks (whole numbers) can occur. Thus the difference in dyspoissonism between the RNG output sets will serve to estimate the information divergence between theirrespective generators, which in turn constitutes a ranking quantifier for the purpose of anomaly detection.
Category: Statistics

[23156] viXra:1804.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 00:18:01

Refutation of Tarski-Grothendieck Set Theory © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The axiom of Tarski-Grothendieck set theory is refuted as contradictory.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[23155] viXra:1804.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 01:44:50

The Nature of Gravity

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 4 Pages.

Any two masses will experience gravitational attraction between them that draws them together. In an energy-conserving universe as they accelerate towards each other there must be some energy system losing mass/energy to balance the increase in kinetic energy of the two objects. Now it is received wisdom that mass is inviolate and never changes even when falling into a gravitational well, but the increase in kinetic energies of two bodies falling together under gravitational attraction would then violate the Principle of Conservation of Energy, as the only possible source of mass/energy is a reduction in the effective combined mass as two objects come together. Logically, therefore, there must be an effective reduction of mass, as seen from the greater universe, when two objects approach each other and thus increase the local spacetime dilation. The energy balance of the universe requires that dilating space reduces the effective mass as seen from the greater universe outside that dilation. However, once we accept this proposition we have to reconsider Einstein’s concept that if enough mass comes together space would be breached to create a singularity. He envisaged a linear process whereby adding mass upon mass together resulted eventually in too much mass for local space to support, but from the previous sentences we can see that such a linear process violates the Principle of Conservation of Energy. This leads us to consider an alternative solution based of the fact that a local observer sees the same nature of space around him no matter how deep his gravitational well.
Category: Classical Physics

[23154] viXra:1804.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 01:53:45

Is there an Unknown Field Type?

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 7 Pages.

If we consider the kinetic energy of a charged particle and equate it to its induced magnetic energy we find that the two are equal when ¾ of the rest mass/energy of the particle is bound up in its electric field. This leads to the concept of inertia being electromagnetic. (in Electromagnetic Field Theory model there are many papers on the momentum of electric and magnetic fields and momentum is just inertia by another name, although in the Quantum Mechanics model the concept is deprecated). Which poses the question, what is the other ¼ made of? Next we can put this in juxtaposition with the fact that electromagnetic radiation does not appear to follow the rules of general wave mechanics as the energy pulses rather than flows continually as happens in every other wave type. If, however, we assume the existence of another undetectable field alternating with the electromagnetic field then electromagnetic radiation collapses to the standard form. So is there a field type that we cannot detect except by its interaction with the electromagnetic fields, present in both matter and in electromagnetic waves?
Category: Classical Physics

[23153] viXra:1804.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 03:45:11

Extended Quantum Mechanic (Earth is Also the Quantum of Electromagnetic Field)

Authors: Mahesh Khati
Comments: 38 Pages.

Quantum mechanics can be applied to big masses also. This will solve many problems of modern physics like dark matter. This is the big problem of physics for so many years. This solves problem of dual nature of quantum like interference by single photon. This theory will start new relativity other than Einstein relativity which balances relativity of small particles & big masses by similar consideration. It is just found that some galaxies do not contain dark matter & some have abundant dark matter. Means, dark matter is real & different than known matter. This theory gives require explanation to this problem.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23152] viXra:1804.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 05:10:04

Emergent Pressure Gravity by Dipole Repeller Rigid String Pressure the Origin of Non Inertial Black Holes.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 29 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Black Holes are growing by "eating" the gravitating ( Casimir) pressure vacuum without the standard gravity related inertial effects, the result is that 1: Small BHs seem to concentrate around the central giant Galaxy BH . 2: Galaxy cluster mergers like Abell 520 overshoot and leaving behind their own Dark Matter content. Mmass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons to be produced by the collision process, between mass less ring shaped Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or Emergent Gravity. More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit. Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field.. So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us. Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption. Non inertial black hole effects are the other side of the coin.. The ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length and transfer information of monopole photons through the whole universe as long no fermion or boson comes too close. So if the new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot then there is no graviton production supposed. As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus and the result of the Casimir absorption effect of the vacuum by the black hole nucleus. At the same time, gravitons are not leaving the black hole at all.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23151] viXra:1804.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 06:12:35

Superlight Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[23150] viXra:1804.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 07:22:27

Refutation of Metamath Proof Explorer Axiom ax-Garth for Tarski–Grothendieck Set Theory © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The axiom for Tarski–Grothendieck set theory as rendered in the Metamath proof explorer in axiom ax-garth is refuted as contradictory. This raises serious questions about the logical accuracy and proof puissance of "Metamath".
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[23149] viXra:1804.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 08:47:05

Sensitive Search for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[23148] viXra:1804.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 09:25:45

Quantum Junction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23147] viXra:1804.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 10:11:06

Polarization Impact on Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23146] viXra:1804.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 11:52:50

Euclid's Geometry is Just in Our Mind, Rather Than Describing the Real World

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James Peters
Comments: 6 Pages.

The first definition (prior to the well-known five postulates) of Euclid describes the point as “that of which there is no part”. Here we show how the Euclidean account of manifolds is untenable in our physical realm and that the concepts of points, lines, surfaces, volumes need to be revisited, in order to allow us to be able to describe the real world. Here we show that the basic object in a physical context is a traversal of spacetime via tiny subregions of spatial regions, rather than the Euclidean point. We also elucidate the psychological issues that lead our mind to think to points and lines as really existing in our surrounding environment.
Category: Geometry

[23145] viXra:1804.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 12:53:37

Charge Quantum Interference Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

An international collaboration, including researchers from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Royal Holloway, University of London, has successfully demonstrated a quantum coherent effect in a new quantum device made out of continuous superconducting wire – the Charge Quantum Interference Device (CQUID). [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23144] viXra:1804.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 15:36:28

Psychological Program

Authors: Duan xianxiang
Comments: 20 Pages.

By referring to case study, this dissertation is in attempt to lay bare that people’s psychological activities are a set of programs and psychological and mental disease is accrued to procedural operation’s going awry or set-up of erroneous programs. By amending or learning correct use of these psychological programs can we precisely or thoroughly treat psychological and mental diseases. An integrated psychological treatment process contains psychological analysis plus amended psychological programs. A string of psychological reaction initiated in a human body to initiate a specific assignment is called psychological program. Such ‘initiation’ is both ‘conscious’ and ‘unconscious’. Lookout for psychological program hinges on psychological analysis and scientific hypnosis.
Category: Mind Science

[23143] viXra:1804.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 23:22:41

Step-by Step Guide to All-On Restorations

Authors: Http://roshendental.com
Comments: 4 Pages.

There are many restorative options available but we all need to know which one to choose and which one is right for the patient. Of course, there is a cost factor involved. I believe we need to provide patients with enough information before they make a decision.
Category: Education and Didactics

[23142] viXra:1804.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 02:14:46

The Photoelectric Effect

Authors: Emil Gigov
Comments: 1 Page.

The laws of the photoelectric effect were discovered by Stoletov and Lenard. And not everything is known yet in that area.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23141] viXra:1804.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 03:33:03

Length with Quantum Precision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have created a chip on which laser light interacts with a tiny cloud of atoms to serve as a miniature toolkit for measuring. [18] An international collaboration, including researchers from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Royal Holloway, University of London, has successfully demonstrated a quantum coherent effect in a new quantum device made out of continuous superconducting wire – the Charge Quantum Interference Device (CQUID). [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23140] viXra:1804.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 05:05:28

Comment on 5-Dimensional Projective Unified Field Theory by Ernst Schmutzer Published in Vixra:1605.0158

Authors: Rainer Collier
Comments: 5 Pages.

This short letter refers to Schmutzer´s 5-dimensional Projective Unified Field Theory as a new general-relativistic covariant unification of gravitation, electromagnetism and scalarism (a new phenomenon of nature) with some remarks to it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23139] viXra:1804.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 05:08:34

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Acid Blue 193 Adsorption Over Natural Sepiolite [colloids Surface a, 277(2006), 90–97] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the Acid Blue 193 adsorption over natural sepiolite by Özcan et al. [Colloids Surface A, 277(2006), 90–97] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[23138] viXra:1804.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 06:36:53

Resolving the EPR Paradox and Bell's Theorem

Authors: Robert H. McEachern
Comments: 2 Pages.

The EPR Paradox and the quantum correlations described by Bell's Inequality theorem, are explained as arising from the behavior of entities that manifest only a single bit of information, such as noisy, band-limited, polarized coins.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23137] viXra:1804.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 15:14:44

Fractal Prime Universe V 3.0

Authors: David E Fuller
Comments: 9 Pages. It is Accurate

The Universe is a Fractal Net of Primes (planck length)/((2.99792458e-36 m)) / phi^(7/2) = 1.00051886735 Planck Length = 1.6153902e-35
Category: Quantum Physics

[23136] viXra:1804.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 15:37:22

E8 Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 434 Pages.

This paper describes a research program based on the 240 E8 Root Vectors encoding the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2; E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2; D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16). Embedding E8 local classical Lagrangian into Cl(0,16) Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(0,16)s produces a generalization of hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor fermionic Fock space forming a global AQFT describing spacetime, the Standard Model, and Gravity with Dark Energy. The structure is related to unconventional 26D String Theory by Cl(0,16) -> Cl(0,16)xCl(0,8) = Cl(0,24) -> M(2,Cl(0,24)) = Cl(1,25). Completion of Union of All Tensor Products of Cl(1,25) = 2x2 matrices of Cl(0,24) is the String Theory formulation of the hyperfinite AQFT. The Cl(1,25) of 26D String Theory contains Cl(0,16) which contains E8 whose root vectors describe a Lagrangian for the Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy. The paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors and how they are used in calculating force strengths, particle masses, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, etc. that can be compared with Experimental Observations which are given up to and including the 2016 run of the LHC in the Higgs -> ZZ -> 4l channel which is relevant to the E8 Physics prediction of 3 Mass States of the Higgs and Truth Quark:
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[23135] viXra:1804.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 18:28:37

Fractal Prime Universe V 4.0

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 11 Pages. It is Accurate

The Universe is a Fractal Prime Number Matrix
Category: Quantum Physics

[23134] viXra:1804.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 07:20:10

Switchable 2-D Ferromagnet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

University of Groningen physicists have induced magnetism in platinum with an electric field created by a paramagnetic ionic liquid. As only the surface of the platinum is affected, this creates a switchable 2-D ferromagnet. [40] Cornell researchers have become the first to control atomically thin magnets with an electric field, a breakthrough that provides a blueprint for producing exceptionally powerful and efficient data storage in computer chips, among other applications. [39] This "piezomagnetic" material changes its magnetic properties when put under mechanical strain. [38] Researchers have developed a new flexible sensor with high sensitivity that is designed to perform variety of chemical and biological analyses in very small spaces. [37] In a new paper published today in Science Advances, researchers under the direction of Columbia Engineering Professors Michal Lipson and Alexander Gaeta (Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics) have miniaturized dual-frequency combs by putting two frequency comb generators on a single millimeter-sized chip. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Condensed Matter

[23133] viXra:1804.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 07:51:44

Different Spin on Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23132] viXra:1804.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 09:50:29

Wave-Particle Duality Paradox is Solved by Mutual Energy and Self-Energy Principles for Electromagnetic Field and Photon

Authors: Shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 88 Pages.

The particle and wave duality is solved through the self-energy and the mutual energy principles. Welch has introduced the time-domain reciprocity theorem in 1960. The author have introduced the mutual energy theorem in 1987. It has been proved that the above two theorems are same theorem in time-domain or in Fourier domain. The author believe there is an energy flow from transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. Hence this theorem is a energy theorem instead of a mathematical theorem i.e. the reciprocity theorem. The author found that the mutual energy is the part of additional energy when the two waves are superposed comparing to the situation if the two waves alone stayed in the space. It is often asked that if the two waves are identical what is the energy after the two waves are superposed, 4 or 2 times? The author's answer are 2 or 4 depending whether the sources of the waves are involved or not. However the author noticed that a more important situation, which is the superposition of two waves: one is retarded wave sent from the emitter, another is the advanced wave sent from the absorber. This situation actually described the photon. The author have found that, instead there are two photons the retarded photon and the advanced photon like some author believed, there is only one photon. The reason is that the two waves the retarded wave and the advanced wave they both bring one photon energy are sent to the space, but these energy are returned with the time-reversed waves. The additional energy because of the superpose process of the two waves is just with 1 photon's energy instead of 2 photon's energy. This energy is sent from the emitter to the absorber. These build the author's photon model. This photon model is proved by the author through the notice of the conflict between the energy conservation and both the superposition principle and the Maxwell equations for single charge. This conflict force the author introduced the mutual energy principle and the self-energy principle. Self-energy principle tell us the self-energy (the wave's energy before superposed) is time-reversal-return to its source and hence do not transfer any energy from emitter to the absorber. The mutual energy principle tell us that it is only the mutual energy flow which is responsible to transfer the energy from the emitter to the absorber. The author also proved that the mutual energy flow theorem, there is a mutual energy flow go through the emitter to the absorber. The energy transferred by mutual energy flow is equal in any surface between the emitter to the absorber. The wave function collapse process is explained by the two processes together the first is the self-energy time-revesal-return to their sources (instead of the targets), the second is that the mutual energy flow brings a photon's energy package from emitter to the absorber. The wave's probability property is also explained that is because the Maxwell equations are only partially correct or correct with some probabilities. The photon energy is transferred only when the retarded wave (one of solution of Maxwell equations) and the advanced wave (another solution of the Maxwell equations) are synchronized, otherwise the two waves are returned by two time-reversal waves which are not satisfy Maxwell equations but satisfy the time-reversal Maxwell equations. Hence 4 additional equations are added to Maxwell equations which describe the two additional time-reversal-return waves. Hence, the photon's package wave is consist of 4 waves which have 4 corresponding self-energy flows. There are two additional energy flows, which are the mutual energy flow that is responsible for transferring the energy from emitter to the absorber, the time-reversal-return energy flow which is responsible to bring the energy back from the emitter to the absorber if the absorber only obtained a part of photon.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23131] viXra:1804.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 10:20:52

Does wu Kun’s Philosophy of Information Define What is Information?

Authors: Emanuel Diamant
Comments: 2 Pages.

The need for a generally accepted definition of “what is information” is self-evident and acute. However, Kun’s definition of information as a philosophical category indicating indirect being is unable to satisfy this need, especially when it comes to an everyday usage of the term. That forced me to seek for a more suitable definition of information. Despite the differences, Kun and I agree that we witness today a paradigm shift from data-based computational way of thinking to information-based cognitive way of thinking (Kun calls that “informalization of science”). Below is provided a short comment on the issue.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[23130] viXra:1804.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 10:24:50

Rethinking BICA’s R&D Challenges: Grief Revelations of an Upset Revisionist

Authors: Emanuel Diamant
Comments: 6 Pages.

Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures (BICA) is a subfield of Artificial Intelligence aimed at creating machines that emulate human cognitive abilities. What distinguish BICA from other AI approaches is that it based on principles drawn from biology and neuroscience. There is a widespread conviction that nature has a solution for almost all problems we are faced with today. We have only to pick up the solution and replicate it in our design. However, Nature does not easily give up her secrets. Especially, when it is about human brain deciphering. For that reason, large Brain Research Initiatives have been launched around the world. They will provide us with knowledge about brain workflow activity in neuron assemblies and their interconnections. But what is being “flown” (conveyed) via the interconnections the research programme does not disclose. It is implied that what flows in the interconnections is information. But what is information? – that remains undefined. Having in mind BICA’s interest in the matters, the paper will try to clarify the issues.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[23129] viXra:1804.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 10:28:34

Artificial Neural Networks: a Bio-Inspired Revolution or a Long Lasting Misconception and Self-Delusion

Authors: Emanuel Diamant
Comments: 7 Pages. Rejected by the IJCNN 2018, Rio de Janeiro, July 08-13, 2018.

Ali Rahimi, best paper award recipient at NIPS 2017, labelled the current state of Deep Learning (DL) headway as “alchemy”. Yann LeCun, one of the prominent figures in the DL R&D, was insulted by this expression. However, in his response, LeCun did not claimed that DL designers know how and why their DL systems reach so surprising performances. The possible reason for this cautiousness is: No one knows how and in which way system input data is transformed into semantic information at the system’s output. And this, certainly, has its own reason: No one knows what information is! I dare to offer my humble clarification about this obscure and usually untouchable matter. I hope someone would be ready to line up with me.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[23128] viXra:1804.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 11:12:53

Recurrent Capsule Network for Image Generation

Authors: Srikumar Sastry
Comments: 9 Pages.

We have already seen state-of-the-art image generation techniques with Generative Adversarial Networks (Goodfellow et al. 2014), Variational Autoencoder and Recurrent Network for Image generation (K. Gregor et al. 2015). But all these architectures fail to learn object location and pose in images. In this paper, I propose Recurrent Capsule Network based on variational auto encoding framework which can not only preserve equivariance in images in the latent space but also can be used for image classification and generation. For image classification, it can recognise highly overlapping objects due to the use of capsules (Hinton et al. 2011), considerably better than convolutional networks. It can generate images which can be difficult to differentiate from the real data.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[23127] viXra:1804.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 14:28:19

Fractal Prime Universe

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 5 Pages. It is Acurate

The Universe is a Fractal Prime Matrix
Category: Quantum Physics

[23126] viXra:1804.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 14:56:09

Fractal Prime Universe V 2.0

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 6 Pages. It is Accurate

The Universe is a Fractal Net Constructed of Primes
Category: Quantum Physics

[23125] viXra:1804.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 15:22:25

General Relativity: Effects in Time as Causation

Authors: Capt. Joseph H. Forrington
Comments: 19 Pages.

A proof of the gravitational dynamics developed here-in is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”, and a proof of the nature of the evolving continuum is IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. As Einstein’s Tensor is solely based on the time elements he calls his “energy components”, only the effects in time are considered in this paper. Though it is noted that although the stress-energy tensor is not considered here, it is also scaled by the time elements, T00. The spacetime continuum is the quantum continuum. The evolution of time is the primary, irresistible, force in the universe, as all space, and the densities embedded within, must evolve forward with the passage of time. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle allows for random fluctuations in time that create relative densities in space, due to length contraction in the faster areas. Even though GR is based on the Equivalence Principle, the constancy of c and Lorentz contractions, the apparent effects of the time elements also appear to manifest as a virtual flow in the forward direction of time down gravitational fields (dilation gradients) from areas of faster time. This is a relativistic gravitational direction of evolution, GDE. that evolves the densities down the dilation gradients, collecting them at the bottom of the gradients. Considering Einstein’s Fundamental Metric to represent the fundamental direction of evolution, FDE, experienced by each observer in his/her inertial frame, the GDE can only manifest orthogonal to the FDE as there is no space ahead of or behind the evolving continuum for the dilation gradient to appear in. The resultant of these two directions of evolution results in the curvature in evolution as per GR as the spacetime (here-in also quantum) continuum evolves forward. Densities are not evolving “through” a “pre-existing” space because there is no space “ahead” of the evolving continuum for densities to move into. The passage of time has an acceleration aspect of ~2.2686*10-18 s/s that manifests the Hubble shift through time dilation in older frames. Without the acceleration time would not appear to pass. This acceleration eliminates Big Bang singularities and infinite expansions when added to the time elements of Einstein’s field equations. Galactic rotation velocities are explained through the proper application of GR.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23124] viXra:1804.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 01:34:04

Derivation of Forces from Matter Wave

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this work we discuss the possibility that if matter wave is composed of two different physical fields, as in the case of the electromagnetic field which is composed of the electric field and a magnetic field, then it is possible to suggest that matter wave also produces forces, like the electric force and the magnetic force produced by the electromagnetic field. Furthermore, since the forms of forces that can be derived from matter wave has a Yukawa form and Coulomb form, it may be suggested that forces produced from matter wave are in fact related to the strong force and the electroweak force, respectively.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23123] viXra:1804.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 02:19:21

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Anionic Azo Dye Congo Red Adsorption Over Cationic Modified Orange Peel Powder [J. Mol. Liq. 220 (2016) 540–548] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the anionic azo dye Congo Red adsorption over Cationic Modified Orange Peel Powder by Parashar et al. [J. Mol. Liq. 220 (2016) 540–548] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated.
Category: Chemistry

[23122] viXra:1804.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 02:34:52

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Biosorption of Pb (Ii) by Extracellular Polymeric Substances [scientific Reports | 6:31575] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the biosorption of Pb (II) over extracellular polymeric substances published by Wei et al. [Scientific RepoRts | 6:31575] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[23121] viXra:1804.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 02:51:00

Uniform Unified System of Dimensions Physical Quantities

Authors: Mikhail L. Sokolnikov
Comments: 2 Pages. https://youtu.be/rUI7Dmu62Uo

Logical continuation of the work of the Soviet aircraft designer, the Italian Earl of Croatian origin Roberto Oros di Bartini. Логическое продолжение работы советского авиаконструктора, итальянского графа хорватского происхождения Roberto Oros di Bartini. Time = x^4
Category: Mathematical Physics

[23120] viXra:1804.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 03:03:12

Modeling Platform

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

All physical theories that treat dynamic geometrical problems require a modeling platform that combines Hilbert space operator technology with function theory and differential and integral calculus.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23119] viXra:1804.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 03:12:47

Quantum Light and Quantum Gravity

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 21 Pages.

Combining the wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics with E=mc2 leads to the conclusion that the "speed of light" is nothing more than a convenient term to use (a convenience which this author also often adopts). There is actually no such thing – consequently, neither can there ever be a Variable Speed of Light. Special Relativity says the speed of light – all electromagnetic and gravitational waves "move" at this velocity – is the greatest speed in the universe. Combining quantum mechanics with general relativity – Einstein's theory of gravity - will result in a theory called quantum gravity. What is a theory integrating quantum mechanics with special relativity to be called? Perhaps quantum light … Even when a successful quantum-light theory is developed, it will only be a step towards understanding reality. Special relativity, general relativity and quantum mechanics each represent a step towards comprehension of the universe. Quantum light will be another step, joining special relativity to the bizarre world of quantum mechanics via mathematics' E=mc2. And quantum gravity will be yet another, possibly uniting general relativity with quantum mechanics via other branches of mathematics – proposed by this article to be those of the electronic binary digits (base-2 maths) and the topology of the Mobius strip and figure-8 Klein bottle (with attention paid to the simply- and multiply-connected issues). It will be shown that the quantum theories of light and gravity have dramatic implications for the concepts of dark energy, dark matter and universal expansion. When the quantum theories become parts of life, unification of physics may be an accomplished fact. More likely, the quantum theories will continue to be refined for centuries.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23118] viXra:1804.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 04:39:23

Приглашение на жизнь (Invitation to Life)

Authors: Emanuel Gluskin
Comments: 78 Pages. A respectable Critics of the Nabokov's approach

Памяти покойного Йоси Баная – Выдающегося Израильского Барда, Сатирика, и Воспитателя … всех. Он как-то сказал об одном молодом эстрадном 'герое': "Всё воет и воет – сколько можно?! Вопрос в том – есть ли ему что сказать?" Действительно -- ЧТО есть ему сказать, и на каком коне ему скакать?! Изрядно сказано – пускай его потужит, пускай перу пророков он послужит …. . Но КТО его родная мать?
Category: Mind Science

[23117] viXra:1804.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 06:30:16

Proof of the Hypothesis of Large Dirac Numbers or How to Weigh the Universe.

Authors: Yury Rabyshko
Comments: 29 Pages.

The article gives a brief exposition of the solution of cosmological problems. The problem of stability and shortage of mass in galaxies, huge velocities of galactic clusters is solved. The law of formation of fundamental constants, the law of nonlinear expansion of the Universe, the law of gravitational interaction is found. Proof of the hypothesis of large Dirac numbers. The original in Russian. The English version will be published in the near future.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23116] viXra:1804.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 06:26:54

The Theory of Everything-What Kind of Resistance Inertia of an Object Is?

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article aims to clarify briefly and explain what kind of resistance inertia is and approaching a theory of everything as well.
Category: Classical Physics

[23115] viXra:1804.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 06:48:22

On Integration of the Schrödinger Equation with the Exponential Potential

Authors: Y. J. F. Kpomahou, J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 7 pages

The Schrödinger eigenvalue problem with the purely exponential potential is investigated in this work. It is shown that exact and explicit discrete bound state solutions with negative eigenvalues may be computed for the attrative potential as well as for the repulsive potential in terms of elementary functions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[23114] viXra:1804.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 11:39:51

The Diameter Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Piggybacking on the principle of spherical celestial objects according to stellar metamorphosis a new principle is presented to make predictions of not yet discovered stars. The changing diameters of stars is continuous. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[23113] viXra:1804.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 12:12:33

The Energy of the Wave Vortices (Loks) J=3.

Authors: Alexander I.Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 10 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Development of the mathematical model of the elastic universe. The energy of the loks (3.0), (3.1), (3.2), and (3.3) is calculated. Assumptions are made regarding other loks. The first conclusions on the identification of elementary particles in a set of loks.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[23112] viXra:1804.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 12:20:45

Deterministic Evolution – the Role of Cosmological Parameters in the Evolution of Life

Authors: Jose P. Koshy
Comments: 9 Pages. Introduces a 'new concept' in biology, 'Deterministic Evolution', which is based on cosmology.

Natural selection cannot logically explain the direction of evolution of life – emerging from non-living things and evolving from simple to complex – unless nature also evolves suitably. The LCDM model provides only an approximate co-relation between 'evolution of nature' (expansion of universe) and 'evolution of life'. Based on an alternate model, I propose 'deterministic evolution', expansion guiding the evolution in a predetermined way. This resolves the only serious drawback of theory of evolution, 'complexity emerging on its own '.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23111] viXra:1804.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 13:46:55

GW170608: Structure of the Noise Fluctuations

Authors: Walter Orlov
Comments: 3 Pages.

The evaluation of the event GW170608 must be made new. During the “routine instrumental procedure” in Hanford the damping of the pendulum of the mirrors was obviously reduced. As a result, the GW signal became artificially longer.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23110] viXra:1804.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 04:33:26

Automated Classification of Hand-Grip Action on Objects Using Machine Learning

Authors: Anju Mishra, Amity University Uttar Pradesh SHANU SHARMA, Amity University Uttar Pradesh SANJAY KUMAR, Oxford Brooks University PRIYA RANJAN, Amity University Uttar Pradesh AMIT UJLAYAN, Gautam Buddha University
Comments: 10 Pages. This is a preprint of a paper under possible publication consideration.

Brain computer interface is the current area of research to provide assistance to disabled persons. To cope up with the growing needs of BCI applications, this paper presents an automated classification scheme for handgrip actions on objects by using Electroencephalography (EEG) data. The presented approach focuses on investigation of classifying correct and incorrect handgrip responses for objects by using EEG recorded patterns. The method starts with preprocessing of data, followed by extraction of relevant features from the epoch data in the form of discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and entropy measures. After computing feature vectors, artificial neural network classifiers used to classify the patterns into correct and incorrect handgrips on different objects. The proposed method was tested on real dataset, which contains EEG recordings from 14 persons. The results showed that the proposed approach is effective and may be useful to develop a variety of BCI based devices to control hand movements. KEYWORDS EEG, Brain computer interface, Machine learning, Hand action recognition
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[23109] viXra:1804.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 07:41:06

None Complex Numbers

Authors: Said Amharech
Comments: 5 Pages. the work is written in french

This work is dealing with something that we’re not sure it exists, but it’s just an attempt to solve some problems in algebra, it gives a general idea about the complexe numbers we got from the great mathematicians of all times, I believe that these complexe numbers we notice in algebra, calculus or even quantum physics are not enough, in general, i think there is another infinite dimension of numbers, and real or complexe numbers are just a simple projection of the complexity of that world. As a method of work instead of adding a function of rotation pi over two as we did with the real line to expand the complexe plan, i’ve thought to make a function of translation… But the importance in here is that the function we need is not a linear function to solve some kind of problems like for example dividing over zero, and as you may notice if the function isn’t linear so that the neutral element of the complexe plan for the additive law which it the trivial zero we know is completely different of the neutral element of the new mother group. at the end we can find some roots easily of riemann’s zeta function but it is not a complexe roots.
Category: Algebra

[23108] viXra:1804.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 09:09:31

QR Decomposition Algorithms & Complex Networks Based Cryo-em Image Processing/data Bases/data Mining in the Context of Higher Order Logic (Hol),scala,image J,basex & Jikes RVM

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. QR-HOL-Scala-Java-Image J-BaseX -> Image Processing & Bioinformatics Framework.

As the TITLE is self explanatory,we are not going into the details.cryo-EM Image Processing and Informatics is one of the BEST tools to probe the frontiers of Nano-Bio Systems.Hence a simple & small attempt from us to process cryo-EM Images in the context of HOL.Written and presented in free style,we do not follow any specific format in preparing this short communication.Just highlighting the main idea.To understand our main idea,readers are requested to kindly go through the references and block diagram/s presented in this communication.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[23107] viXra:1804.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 09:44:21

Photonic Computer Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

With novel optoelectronic chips and a new partnership with a top silicon-chip manufacturer, MIT spinout Ayar Labs aims to increase speed and reduce energy consumption in computing, starting with data centers. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[23106] viXra:1804.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 10:15:26

Dark Matter in the Smallest Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[23105] viXra:1804.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 13:20:09

Is Potential Energy Equation for a Mass at Infinity Correct?

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 1 Page.

Correct calculation for potential energy for masses at infinity.
Category: Classical Physics

[23104] viXra:1804.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 19:09:42

On a Quantum Theory of Relativity: Re-Defining the Fourth Spatial Dimension to Solve the Theory of Everything

Authors: Andrew Cox
Comments: 14 Pages.

If space is quantized on a compactified fourth spatial dimension as outlined in Kaluza-Klein theory -- with the extreme curvature of the fourth spatial dimension causing the 'effect' of gravity -- but we experience three-dimensional (inverse-square) gravity, then the fourth spatial dimension must operate as (4-3=) one stand-alone spatial dimension . In one spatial dimension, quantum gravity is the same (effectively 100%) whether two objects are together or apart. This quantum theory of relativity can then be projected to fully explain black hole mechanics, which solves dark matter, which predicts dark energy, which explains the big bang in a cyclic universe -- which completes the "theory of everything."
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23103] viXra:1804.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 21:37:22

The Structure of the String in Mathematical Principle of Nature Philosophy

Authors: D.h
Comments: 48 Pages.

If string theory unifies quantum mechanics and general relativity, the applicable objects of string theory should include microscopic particles and the macrocosm. The greater time span of the universe phenomenon, the more probability that phenomenon contains geometrical symbol that can show the string structure. By certain geometrical change rules of the space in nature philosophical theory, the article arise the solution to observe the string. In the article it build the structure mold in 2-D expression by projected high dimensions (three and above dimension). Compare the mold there is an obvious structure of B-mold polarization transfer and rotation in Cosmos Microwave Background radiation. It proofed the existence reality of the string in space geometry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23102] viXra:1804.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 10:50:45

Neutrinos as Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[23101] viXra:1804.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 12:33:41

Corrigendum Apendix

Authors: Prado, Pf
Comments: 1 Page.

Corrigendum apendix
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[23100] viXra:1804.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 12:49:20

Twisting Laser Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

A new method to sensitively measure the structure of molecules has been demonstrated by twisting laser light and aiming it at miniscule gold gratings to separate out wavelengths. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23099] viXra:1804.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 13:27:36

Do Accelerating Charged Particles Really Radiate?

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 7 Pages.

In a particle accelerator charged particles radiate when they pass through beam-bending magnets that give them a centripetal acceleration. This is commonly put down to acceleration-induced radiation, but the fact that there are several different detailed theories to explain this phenomenon suggests that it is not well understood. In addition electrons orbiting a nucleus also have centripetal acceleration and do not radiate, so we have the problem that accelerating electrons radiate only sometimes. This suggests that it is not the acceleration per se that creates the radiation but some other factor that exists only in the beam-bending scenario. This paper goes further, and shows that the general concept of acceleration-induced radiation is a violation of the Principle of Conservation of Energy, so that in an energy-conserving universe another cause must be found for the radiation from accelerating charged particles where it occurs.
Category: Classical Physics

[23098] viXra:1804.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 13:36:04

Sleeping Stem Cells Brain Repair

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25]
Category: Mind Science

[23097] viXra:1804.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 14:23:48

On the Origin of Asteroid (2867) Steins.

Authors: A. Soumbatov Gur
Comments: 15 Pages.

The enigmatic appearance of asteroid Steins is proved to be the result of its formation inside parent body’s crust and throwing out of it. Steins’ diamond-like cone shape, rotational axis, fractures, chains of craters, evolution trends, etc. are consistently explained from the point of view of explosive ejective orogenesis. The implications for asteroids and satellites are discussed.
Category: Astrophysics

[23096] viXra:1804.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 15:13:40

The Particle Model for the Higgs’ Condensate and the Anomalous Geometric Diffraction

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 55 Pages. ISBN 978-3-330-03118-0

In the Standard model of elementary particles there is no concrete particle model for the Higgs’ condensate (of bare Higgs’ particles). The main goal of this study is to create and study the possible particle model for the Higgs’ condensate. We create this model as a set of non-local tachyons. Non-local tachyons are a new type of objects proposed in our previous papers which have a 3-dimensional space-like surface as a trajectory. As a consequence of this model we obtain the existence of a time constant τ0 > 0 which is a parameter of our model. We show that then there exists a geometrical part of a diffraction in the time-like two-slit experiment which makes quantum mechanics invalid at short distances. Then we introduce the dark energy hypothesis which enable us to estimate τ0 . As a main result we give the concrete experimental proposal which can be tested. Also the relation to the basic cosmological model is mentioned. At the end we discuss the generalized model for the Higgs’ condensate in which it is possible to acquire some information from the outside of the light cone and possibly also some correlations from the outside of the light cone.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23095] viXra:1804.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 21:48:59

Second Edition: Final Results on P vs NP Via Integer Factorization and Optimization

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 17 Pages.

We reduce integer factorization problem to the equivalent problem of minimizing a quadratic polynomial with integer coefficients over the integer points in a quadratically constrained two-dimensional region. Next, we reduce integer factorization problem to the problem of enumeration of vertices of integer hull of a special two-dimensional rational polyhedron, solvable in time polynomial by Hartmann's algorithm. Finally, as we show that there exists an NP-hard minimization problem, equivalent to the original minimization problem, we conclude that P = NP.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[23094] viXra:1804.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 01:19:10

Determination of the Fatty Acids of Hibiscus Manihot Seed Oil by GC-MS

Authors: Ri Hyon Il, Yang Zheng Hyok, Son Kwen Il, Ri Chel Jin
Comments: 8 Pages. analysis

The oil was extracted from Hibiscus manihot seed using Soxhlet extraction method, petroleum ethersoak method..The fatty acid compositions of seed oil were analyzed by GC/MS and Gas Chromatographic conditionwas optimized. The results showed that the content of linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitoleic acid were 58.36 %, 1.66 % and21.95 % respectively and unsaturated fatty acids were 75.56 %.
Category: Biochemistry

[23093] viXra:1804.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 07:28:11

Biomedical Applications for Deep Learning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Bioinformatics professors Anthony Gitter and Casey Greene set out in summer 2016 to write a paper about biomedical applications for deep learning, a hot new artificial intelligence field striving to mimic the neural networks of the human brain. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses—so-called retrosyntheses—with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18] Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[23092] viXra:1804.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 08:06:18

Gare Aux Arnaques

Authors: Christophe Chalons
Comments: 8 Pages.

Papier décrivant des procédés usant abusivement du mot science et qui met en garde
Category: General Mathematics

[23091] viXra:1804.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 09:59:52

Particle in a Quantum $\delta$-Function Potential

Authors: Hristu Culetu
Comments: 8 Pages. I would like to have a minimal copyright license, if free.

A quantum potential $V(x,t)$ of $\delta$-function type is introduced, to describe the inertial motion of a particle. Quantum-mechanically, it is in a bound state, though classically one seems to be free. The motion of the object (micro- or macroscopic) takes place according to the Huygens-Fresnel principle. The new position of the object (wave front) plays the role of the secondary sources that maintain the propagation. The mean value of the potential energy is $-mc^{2}$. We found that the de Broglie - Bohm quantum potential is the difference between the bound energy $E = - mc^{2}/2$ from the stationary case and our potential $V(x,t)$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23090] viXra:1804.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 10:52:25

Particle Accelerator for Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[23089] viXra:1804.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 11:43:12

Genes Shape Behavior

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

While in graduate school at The Rockefeller University, Dr. Bendesky hypothesized that this marked behavioral difference would show up in the animals' DNA. [31] In previous studies, Camarillo's lab had outfitted 31 college football players with special mouthguards that recorded how players' heads moved after an impact, including a few cases in which players suffered concussions. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23] Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22] New research published in the New Journal of Physics tries to decompose the structural layers of the cortical network to different hierarchies enabling to identify the network's nucleus, from which our consciousness could emerge. [21]
Category: Mind Science

[23088] viXra:1804.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 14:14:20

Corrigendum

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

Corrigendum
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[23087] viXra:1804.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 15:14:17

An Algebraic Invariant of Gravity

Authors: Hans Detlef Hüttenbach
Comments: 4 Pages.

Newton's mechanics is simple. His equivalence principle is simple, as is the inverse square law of gravitational force. A simple theory should have simple solutions to simple models. A system of n particles, given their initial speed and positions along with their masses, is such a simple model. Yet, solving for n>2 is not simple. This paper discusses, why that is a difficult problem and what could be done to get around that problem.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[23086] viXra:1804.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 15:38:26

Particular Solutions for Boolean Algebra Systems

Authors: Franco Sabino Stoianoff Lindstron
Comments: 22 Pages.

Any system of 'big' Boolean equations can be reduced to a single Boolean equation {í µí±”(í µí²) = 1}. We propose a novel method for producing a general parametric solution for such a Boolean equation without attempting to minimize the number of parameters used, but instead using independent parameters belonging to the two-valued Boolean algebra B2 for each asserted atom that appears in the discriminants of the function í µí±”(í µí²). We sacrifice minimality of parameters and algebraic expressions for ease, compactness and efficiency in listing all particular solutions. These solutions are given by additive formulas expressing a weighted sum of the asserted atoms of í µí±”(í µí²), with the weight of every atom (called its contribution) having a number of alternative possible values equal to the number of appearances of the atom in the discriminants of í µí±”(í µí²). This allows listing a huge number of particular solutions within a very small space and the possibility of constructing solutions of desirable features. The new method is demonstrated via three examples over the 'big' Boolean algebras, í µí°µ 4 , í µí°µ 16 , and í µí°µ 256 , respectively. The examples demonstrate a variety of pertinent issues such as complementation, algebra collapse, incremental solution, and handling of equations separately or jointly.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[23085] viXra:1804.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 15:53:11

Solution to the Troesch Problem for Boundary Equations.

Authors: Franco Sabino Stoianoff Lindstron
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper shows, for the first time, that the explicit and exact solution to the Troesch nonlinear twopoint boundary value problem may be computed in a direct and straightforward fashion from the general solution obtained by a generalized Sundman transformation for the related differential equation, which appeared to be a special case of a more general equation. As a result, various initial and boundary value problems may be solved explicitly and exactly.
Category: General Mathematics

[23084] viXra:1804.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 17:38:45

A New 'more Natural' Toe Model with Covariant Emergent Gravity as a Solution to the Dark Sector

Authors: J Gregory Moxness
Comments: 5 Pages.

Arguments have been raised against several of the central ideas in theoretical physics, such as M-Theory's (MT's) inability to provide for the falsification necessary to avoid relegating it to the scientific dustbin of an anthropic principle based rationalization, such as the Multiverse. Along similar lines, ideas of a uniquely falsifiable inflation era after the Big Bang (BB) have also lost some of their traction. Recent major experimental results too have sent shock waves, such as the confirmation of the low Higgs mass constraining notions of super symmetry, and the Planck satellite's detail mapping of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) fixing the Hubble parameter at odds with other more traditional methods. Even the null results of major experimental apparatus are causing consternation, as in the search for particle based Dark Matter (DM). Thankfully, all this seems to be opening the door for a more serious investigation into alternative theories that attempt to answer the big questions related to the causal relationships between the Standard Model (SM), General Relativity (GR), and 95\% of the known Universe, namely cosmology's dark sector (Dark Energy (DE) and DM). This paper attempts to connect the dots between some of these alternative ideas as they relate to MOdified Newtonian Gravity (MOND), covariant emergent gravity (CEG), and the fundamental parameters used to fix Natural or Planck units-of-measure. The result is intended to point the way toward a fresh discussion in the directions available for unification of GR with SM while resolving the now more open problems in theoretical physics today.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23083] viXra:1804.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 23:04:43

Microcanonical Ensembles of 32x32 Spins in Ising Model.

Authors: Franco Sabino Stoianoff Lindstron
Comments: 1 Page.

It is well known that different thermodynamic ensembles do not coincide for finite systems. Likewise, it is well established – but hardly recognized – that these differences may distinguish certain ensembles as more appropriate than others even if one is ultimately interested in the thermodynamic limit of infinite system size. To illustrate this point we present as an example the famous second order phase transition in the two-dimensional Ising model and compare the canonical and microcanonical specific heat for a lattice of 32 × 32 spins.
Category: Condensed Matter

[23082] viXra:1804.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 01:00:22

The Free Electron's Magnetic Dipole

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 12 Pages.

To quote J. Van Huele and J. Stenson, in their paper “Stern-Gerlach experiments: past, present, and future” (J. Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts & Letters, 2004, 81, 206-212) “Spin is a non-classical duplicity useful for classifying atomic states but not observable with free electrons”. So why is it not observable? Pauli claimed that the interaction of the charged particle with the magnetic field causes an incompressible blurring of the trajectories at least as great as the separation between the spin components. However, free electrons twist and turn in the focussing and directing electromagnetic fields of electron microscopes to give precise focussing to a single dot of less than 22nm.With modern technology Pauli’s claim seems difficult to justify. This paper follows the evidence that spin does not exist in free electrons and considers the consequences that alternative decision. Some further theoretical work is required, but it nevertheless demonstrates that the approach ultimately takes us to a precise value for the neutron’s electric field strength and to the beginnings of an understanding of atomic orbitals and transitions.
Category: Classical Physics

[23081] viXra:1804.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 04:11:14

Two-Factor Authentication Vulnerabilities

Authors: Stefan Ćertić
Comments: 14 Pages. Keywords: ​internet, 2FA, data security, attacks, breaches.

Corporative giants of the internet, such as Google, Facebook, Various Banks have being using the two-factor authentication technique to ensure security to its users. Although, this companies don’t make this kind operations by themselves, they hire third part companies to do so, integrating the API products for onwards delivery. Because of this, technique have serious breaches that can be explored by a ill-intentioned company. The third part companies stays between the client and the website being in a privileged place to attack any unsuspecting victim.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[23080] viXra:1804.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 05:33:23

2-D van der Waals Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Cornell researchers have become the first to control atomically thin magnets with an electric field, a breakthrough that provides a blueprint for producing exceptionally powerful and efficient data storage in computer chips, among other applications. [39] This "piezomagnetic" material changes its magnetic properties when put under mechanical strain. [38] Researchers have developed a new flexible sensor with high sensitivity that is designed to perform variety of chemical and biological analyses in very small spaces. [37] In a new paper published today in Science Advances, researchers under the direction of Columbia Engineering Professors Michal Lipson and Alexander Gaeta (Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics) have miniaturized dual-frequency combs by putting two frequency comb generators on a single millimeter-sized chip. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Condensed Matter

Replacements of recent Submissions

[9457] viXra:1804.0234 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-18 22:28:34

An Algebraic Method for the Application of the Constructive Proof of Classification Theorem for Closed and Connected Surfaces

Authors: Onurcan Bektaş
Comments: 3 Pages.

For a given planar diagram of a closed & connected surface, we establish an algebraic method for cutting and gluing operations on the edges of the diagram. By this, by just manipulating the name of the edges with the given rules, we can determine the type of the surface without having need to draw any diagram.
Category: Topology

[9456] viXra:1804.0160 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-13 06:30:08

Differential Forms for Physics Students

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 13 Pages. One typo fixed

An introduction to the calculus of differential forms for undergraduate physics students
Category: Mathematical Physics

[9455] viXra:1804.0160 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-12 09:12:44

Differential Forms for Physics Students

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 13 Pages.

A basic introduction to the calculus of differential forms for undergraduate physics students
Category: Mathematical Physics

[9454] viXra:1804.0143 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-11 10:54:08

Topological Detection of Wideband Anomalies

Authors: Russell Leidich
Comments: 13 Pages.

Successive real-valued measurements of any physical chaotic oscillator can serve as entropy inputs to a random number generator (RNG) with correspondingly many whole numbered outputs of arbitrarily small bias, assuming that no correlation exists between successive such measurements apart from what would be implied by their probability distribution function (AKA the oscillator’s analog “generator”, which is constant over time and thus asymptotically discoverable). Given some historical measurements (a “snapshot”) of such an oscillator, we can then train the RNG to expect inputs distributed uniformally among the real intervals defined by those measurements and spanning the entire real line. Each interval thus implies an index in sorted order, starting with the leftmost which maps to zero; the RNG does nothing more than to perform this mapping. We can then replace that first oscillator with a second one presumed to abide by the same generator. It would then be possible to characterize the accuracy of that presumption by quantifying the ensuing change in quality of the RNG. Randomness quality is most accurately expressed via dyspoissonism, which is a normalized equivalent of the log of the number of ways in which a particular distribution of frequencies (occurrence counts) of masks (whole numbers) can occur. Thus the difference in dyspoissonism between the RNG output sets will serve to estimate the information divergence between theirrespective generators, which in turn constitutes a ranking quantifier for the purpose of anomaly detection.
Category: Statistics

[9453] viXra:1804.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-13 05:33:42

Dark Matter Black Hole Galaxy Hierarchy According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Black Holes are growing by "eating" the gravitating ( Casimir) pressure vacuum without the standard gravity related inertial effects, the result is that 1: Small BHs seem to concentrate around the central giant Galaxy BH . 2: Galaxy cluster mergers like Abell 520 overshoot and leaving behind their own Dark Matter content. Mass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons as a collision product, between mass less ring shaped oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or dipole Emergent Gravity. More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit. Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field.. So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us. Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption. Non inertial black hole effects are the other side of the coin..
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9452] viXra:1804.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-11 11:42:20

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Pb (Ii) Adsorption Over Bael Leaves (Aegle Marmelos) [J. Hazard. Mater., 173 502–509(2010)] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Su-Bom Yun, On-Jong Sim, Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the Pb (II) adsorption over extracellular polymeric substances [J. Hazard. Mater., 173 502–509(2010)] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[9451] viXra:1804.0125 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-13 04:30:46

Comment on 5-Dimensional Projective Unified Field Theory by Ernst Schmutzer Published in Vixra:1605.0158

Authors: Rainer Collier
Comments: 5 Pages. The publication list has been corrected and supplemented.

This short letter refers to Schmutzer´s 5-dimensional Projective Unified Field Theory as a new general-relativistic covariant unification of gravitation, electromagnetism and scalarism (a new phenomenon of nature) with some remarks to it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9450] viXra:1804.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-16 06:34:38

E8 Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 434 Pages.

This paper describes a research program based on the 240 E8 Root Vectors encoding the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2; E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2; D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16). Embedding E8 local classical Lagrangian into Cl(0,16) Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(0,16)s produces a generalization of hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor fermionic Fock space forming a global AQFT describing spacetime, the Standard Model, and Gravity with Dark Energy. The structure is related to unconventional 26D String Theory by Cl(0,16) -> Cl(0,16)xCl(0,8) = Cl(0,24) -> M(2,Cl(0,24)) = Cl(1,25). Completion of Union of All Tensor Products of Cl(1,25) = 2x2 matrices of Cl(0,24) is the String Theory formulation of the hyperfinite AQFT. The Cl(1,25) of 26D String Theory contains Cl(0,16) which contains E8 whose root vectors describe a Lagrangian for the Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy. The paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors and how they are used in calculating force strengths, particle masses, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, etc. that can be compared with Experimental Observations which are given up to and including the 2016 run of the LHC in the Higgs -> ZZ -> 4l channel which is relevant to the E8 Physics prediction of 3 Mass States of the Higgs and Truth Quark.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9449] viXra:1804.0107 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-11 03:12:21

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Anionic Azo Dye Congo Red Adsorption Over Cationic Modified Orange Peel Powder [J. Mol. Liq. 220 (2016) 540–548] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the anionic azo dye Congo Red adsorption over Cationic Modified Orange Peel Powder by Parashar et al. [J. Mol. Liq. 220 (2016) 540–548] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated.
Category: Chemistry

[9448] viXra:1804.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-17 06:47:02

Приглашение на Жизнь (Invitation to Life)

Authors: Emanuel Gluskin
Comments: 93 Pages. A respectful critics of V.V. Nabokov

Памяти покойного Йоси Баная – Выдающегося Израильского Барда, Сатирика, и Воспитателя … всех. Он как-то сказал об одном молодом эстрадном 'герое': "Всё воет и воет – сколько можно?! Вопрос в том – есть ли ему что сказать?" Действительно -- ЧТО есть ему сказать, и на каком коне ему скакать?! Изрядно сказано – пускай его потужит, пускай перу пророков он послужит …. . Но КТО его родная мать?
Category: Mind Science

[9447] viXra:1804.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-11 12:17:25

ПРИГЛАШЕНИЕ НА ЖИЗНЬ (Invitation to Life)

Authors: Emanuel Gluskin
Comments: 86 Pages. A respectful criticizm of V. V. Nabokov

Памяти покойного Йоси Баная – Выдающегося Израильского Барда, Сатирика, и Воспитателя … всех. Он как-то сказал об одном молодом эстрадном 'герое': "Всё воет и воет – сколько можно?! Вопрос в том – есть ли ему что сказать?" Действительно -- ЧТО есть ему сказать, и на каком коне ему скакать?! Изрядно сказано – пускай его потужит, пускай перу пророков он послужит …. . Но КТО его родная мать?
Category: Mind Science

[9446] viXra:1804.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-08 17:52:25

Приглашение на Жизнь (Invitation to Life)

Authors: Emanuel Gluskin
Comments: 86 Pages. A respectful critics of V.V. Nabokov

Памяти покойного Йоси Баная – Выдающегося Израильского Барда, Сатирика, и Воспитателя … всех. Он как-то сказал об одном молодом эстрадном 'герое': "Всё воет и воет – сколько можно?! Вопрос в том – есть ли ему что сказать?" Действительно -- ЧТО есть ему сказать, и на каком коне ему скакать?! Изрядно сказано – пускай его потужит, пускай перу пророков он послужит …. . Но КТО его родная мать?
Category: Mind Science

[9445] viXra:1804.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-07 09:51:55

An Algebraic Invariant of Gravity

Authors: Hans Detlef Hüttenbach
Comments: 4 Pages. Slight polishing of English.

Newton's mechanics is simple. His equivalence principle is simple, as is the inverse square law of gravitational force. A simple theory should have simple solutions to simple models. A system of n particles, given their initial speed and positions along with their masses, is such a simple model. Yet, solving for n>2 is not simple. This paper discusses, why that is a difficult problem and what could be done to get around that problem.
Category: Mathematical Physics