# All Submission Categories

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(58) - 0703(50) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(1) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)
2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)
2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(48) - 0908(110) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(52)
2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(52) - 1003(264) - 1004(138) - 1005(110) - 1006(67) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(61) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)
2011 - 1101(99) - 1102(55) - 1103(118) - 1104(82) - 1105(40) - 1106(59) - 1107(51) - 1108(48) - 1109(57) - 1110(69) - 1111(109) - 1112(84)
2012 - 1201(97) - 1202(76) - 1203(89) - 1204(90) - 1205(106) - 1206(89) - 1207(97) - 1208(220) - 1209(95) - 1210(156) - 1211(135) - 1212(138)
2013 - 1301(170) - 1302(140) - 1303(193) - 1304(147) - 1305(181) - 1306(201) - 1307(148) - 1308(138) - 1309(186) - 1310(237) - 1311(160) - 1312(197)
2014 - 1401(180) - 1402(139) - 1403(839) - 1404(244) - 1405(321) - 1406(172) - 1407(201) - 1408(212) - 1409(216) - 1410(181) - 1411(458) - 1412(233)
2015 - 1501(224) - 1502(209) - 1503(238) - 1504(209) - 1505(210) - 1506(199) - 1507(196) - 1508(343) - 1509(252) - 1510(445) - 1511(268) - 1512(427)
2016 - 1601(341) - 1602(330) - 1603(355) - 1604(317) - 1605(272) - 1606(301) - 1607(464) - 1608(393) - 1609(377) - 1610(349) - 1611(387) - 1612(388)
2017 - 1701(528) - 1702(292) - 1703(290) - 1704(353) - 1705(393) - 1706(406) - 1707(394) - 1708(454) - 1709(389) - 1710(304) - 1711(382) - 1712(583)
2018 - 1801(388) - 1802(391) - 1803(556) - 1804(441) - 1805(485) - 1806(422) - 1807(494) - 1808(569) - 1809(529) - 1810(441) - 1811(471) - 1812(434)
2019 - 1901(420) - 1902(454) - 1903(514) - 1904(533) - 1905(461)

## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[29391] viXra:1905.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 07:18:01

### The United States’ General Advisory Committee on H-Bomb in the Report of 30th Oct, 1949 to the Atomic Energy Commission

Authors: Divyansh Mansukhani

Signed in 1946 by President Harry S. Truman, the Atomic Energy Commission was established to foster the peacetime development of the atomic sciences. On having witnessed the magnitude of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, and having realized the need to revisit the nuclear security to match with the European and Russian competition, GAC recommended the project ‘Super Bomb’ (hydrogen fission mechanism weapon) to be dealt with high priority in the famous report of 30th Oct, 1949 to the commission. This essay showcases the resistance in the report on ethical and humane grounds by many dominant figures of the physics community who had worked earlier on the Manhattan project in Los Alamos.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[29390] viXra:1905.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 10:52:54

### Quantum Computing Stabilizing

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29389] viXra:1905.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 11:27:17

### Atom Patterning Record

Authors: George Rajna

"We will also work on initiating two-qubit quantum gates between the atoms to build a 2D quantum processor based on so-called Rydberg interactions," reveals Birkl, "and implement large-scale quantum entanglement and quantum simulation." [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29388] viXra:1905.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 12:57:16

### AI to Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna

In a new study from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, researchers used the power of artificial intelligence and high-performance supercomputers to introduce and assess the impact of different configurations of defects on the performance of a superconductor. [32] Using machine-learning and an integrated photonic chip, researchers from INRS (Canada) and the University of Sussex (UK) can now customize the properties of broadband light sources. [31]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29387] viXra:1905.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 13:33:36

### Equivalent Fundamental Physical Quantities and Dimensions in Special Relativity

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid

If we want to get the Derived quantities Lorentz transformation we must be finds the Lorentz transformations for Fundamental Physical Quantities
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29386] viXra:1905.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 19:03:53

### (Psip Cases Version 1.3 7.08.2018 19 Pages) on Some Specific Cases of Psi Phenomena (Not Proved to be Frauds Until Present) with Possible Electrogravitational Explanations and Transdisciplinary Implications

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines PSI phenomena (PSIP) as: “the aggregate of parapsychological functions of the mind including extrasensory perception [telepathy, clairvoyance], precognition, and psychokinesis”. Parapsychology (which is considered pseudoscience by the majority of mainstream scientists [including academics], with articles published only in a relatively small number of niche journals) also investigates other paranormal and psychic phenomena like: near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences and other paranormal claims. This paper brings in discussion some specific cases of PSI phenomena (which weren’t proved yet to be frauds) with possible explanations and implications in physics, biology and the theories of information and human consciousness. If proved (with no doubt) to be authentic, PSI phenomena may have huge implications in the evolution (and unification) of physics, biology and spirituality (including religious currents): this unification (built on synapse-like bridges of knowledge and informational integration) is the constant purpose of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity.
Category: Mind Science

[29385] viXra:1905.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 19:53:17

### Stellar Metamorphosis: Using the Deuterium to Hydrogen Ratio to Determine the Ages of Hydrous Rocks and Hydrocarbons

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

In stellar metamorphosis the D/H ratio can be used to determine the formation ages of rocks, minerals and hydrocarbons that contain hydrogen. Explanation is provided of how this can be done and why it is important.
Category: Astrophysics

[29384] viXra:1905.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 20:16:01

### Human Mind Realization Process Uses The Light Velocity

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous

Research Main Conclusion: The Human Mind Realization Process Uses The Light Velocity This conclusion is produced by the Following Questions Analysis: Special Theory Of Relativity Tells Us "If a particle moves by high velocity (Approximately) relative to an observer – the observer will see relativistic effects effected on this particle – (The relativistic effects are Length Contraction - Time Dilation - Mass Increase) The Questions 1-Are These Relativistic Effects Occurred For The Particle Nature Or For Our Vision Only? (to see something wrong as in the mirage) 2-If these effects are occurred for the Particle Nature – Why the Particle Nature Changes As Result Of The Light Velocity Motion? 3-Is The Particle Nature A Real Nature Or Found Because Of The Observer Effect On This Particle? This Paper discusses these questions and The Conclusion Proves which are: 1-The Relativistic Effects Analysis 2-A Quantized Experiment 3-The Solar Planet Moves According To A Physical Law (and Not in Chaos) 4-The Moon Angular Diameter 5-The Human Body Contains Electromagnetic Waves This paper contains 2 points only – Point No.2 (Research Methodology) and Point No. 3 (Research Conclusion Proves) Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[29383] viXra:1905.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 20:21:49

### The Mass vs Nothingness Theory5

1.all the masses in the universe volume 2.the volume of space all the masses in the universe take 3.the actual volume the masses take from space playing with those 3 would who use what is time and distance and velocity if the volume of masses and the actual volume of space all the masses take are constant we could say that they both behave with each other against the volume of space all the masses in the universe take so the actual volume of space all the masses take is time velocity is the volume of masses and the distance is the volume of space all the masses in the universe take
Category: Astrophysics

[29382] viXra:1905.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 01:52:03

### Spin-Orbit Interactions in Nanowires

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at Delft University of Technology have recently carried out a study investigating spin-orbit interaction in Majorana nanowires. [28] Scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University together with colleagues proposed using special diffraction gratings with gold plates instead of microlenses used in the classic configuration to obtain images in nanoscopes. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29381] viXra:1905.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 02:21:04

### Spintronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna

Rice University researchers have simplified the synthesis of a unique, nearly two-dimensional form of iron oxide with strong magnetic properties that is easy to stack atop other 2-D materials. [29] Researchers at Delft University of Technology have recently carried out a study investigating spin-orbit interaction in Majorana nanowires. [28] Scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University together with colleagues proposed using special diffraction gratings with gold plates instead of microlenses used in the classic configuration to obtain images in nanoscopes. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29380] viXra:1905.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 02:34:55

### Approximation of Sum of Harmonic Progression

Sum of Harmonic Progression is an old problem. While a few complex approximations have surfaced, a simple and efficient formula hasn’t. Motive of the paper is to find a general formula for sum of harmonic progression without using ‘summation’ as a tool. This is an approximation for sum of Harmonic Progression for numerical terms. The formula was obtained by equating the areas of graphs of Harmonic Progression and curve of equation (y=1/x). Formula also has a variability that makes it more suitable for different users with different priorities in terms of accuracy and complexity.
Category: Number Theory

[29379] viXra:1905.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 05:37:37

### In vitro Assessment of the Biofield Treated Test Item on Cardiac Function Using Rat Cardiomyocytes Cell Line (H9c2) via Multiparametric Analysis

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana

Introduction: Heart disorders are the major concern of population health worldwide. According to WHO estimates 2018, 17.9 million peoples were died due to cardiovascular disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective activity of Biofield Energy Treated test item, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) using rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2). Methods: The test item (DMEM) was divided into three parts, first part received one-time Biofield Energy Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi and was labeled as the one-time Biofield Energy Treated (BT-I) DMEM, while second part received the two-times Biofield Energy Treatment and is denoted as BT-II DMEM. The third part did not receive any treatment and defined as the untreated DMEM group. Results: Cell viability of the test samples by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay showed 89.03% and 98.49% in the BT-I and BT-II groups, respectively suggested a nontoxic and safe in nature of the tested test item. The BT-I group showed 16.01% restoration of cell viability. The level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was significantly inhibited by 50.37% and 49.35% in the BT-I and BT-II groups, respectively compared to the untreated DMEM group. Moreover, percent protection of creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) by 49.48% and 59.79% in the BT-I and BT-II groups, respectively, compared to the untreated DMEM group. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in terms of mean fluorescence unit (FU) was reduced by 6.64% in the BT-I group than untreated DMEM. Besides, BT-I and BT-II groups significantly increased the level of % apoptotic cells by 63.16% and 97.37% (p≤0.05), respectively than untreated DMEM. Conclusion: Allover, results envisaged that Biofield Treatment significantly improved different cardiac parameters. Thus, Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) could be utilized as a cardio-protectant against several cardiac disorders such as coronary artery disease, heart attack, arrhythmias, heart failure, congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, etc.
Category: Biochemistry

[29378] viXra:1905.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 05:38:21

### Biofield Energy Treatment: Physicochemical and Thermal Characterization of L-Tryptophan

Authors: Dahryn Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana

L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid that needs to be supplemented through protein-rich diet and it helps in growth and nitrogen balance in the humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the L-tryptophan in terms of its physicochemical and thermal properties by using modern analytical techniques. The method involved dividing the test sample into two parts and providing the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment to one part (named as Biofield Energy Treated sample), remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Dahryn Trivedi; while the other part didn’t receive any treatment called a control sample. The particle size values of the treated sample was increased by 4.77% (d10), 6.37% (d50), 6.72% (d90), and 6.49% {D(4,3)}; thus, the specific surface area was increased by 4.35% compared to the control sample. The PXRD peak intensities and crystal-lite sizes of the treated sample were significantly altered ranging from -82.69% to 30.54% and -17.15% to 179.73%, respectively, in comparison to the control sample. The total weight loss of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 11.60% during the heating process that resulted in a significant increase in the residual amount of the sample by 1093.33% as compared to the control sample. The melting temperature and the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample were significantly increased by 1.12% and 6.79%, respectively, compared to the untreated sample. Hence, the L-tryptophan might form a new polymorph after the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment that may possess better solubility and bioavailability profile along with improved thermal stability compared with the untreated sample. Thus, the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment could be considered as a novel approach for designing the formulations with improved drug profile and efficacy. The treated L-tryptophan would be more useful for the treatment of mental health disorders, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder, etc.
Category: Biochemistry

[29377] viXra:1905.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 06:15:15

### Refutation of Bourbaki’s Fixed Point Theorem and the Axiom of Choice

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate Moroianu’s and the Tarski-Bourbaki fixed point theorem and axiom of choice (AC). Two versions of the theorem and then seven theorems and corollary which follow are also not tautologous. Therefore these conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29376] viXra:1905.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 06:53:15

### Quantum Dots Enhance Stability

Authors: George Rajna

University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29375] viXra:1905.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 07:31:47

### A Theory of Likelihood: Parsimony & Synchronicity in Natural Law

Authors: Paris Matthew Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. One opening of a declarative and worded predicate structural relation of indicatorial logic is a freely ordered contactless ordered relation of congruence in departure to any two stated worlds; as alternatively they are closed to it's provision.

When approaching the co-existence of a knowable and contrasted limitation of impossibility; there are to be found only two given known's; that of pre-determination and that of accessory of antecedent unto precedent. That of light like freedom to a given asymptotic return is predicated upon a past co-existence within a future of yet invisible qualifiable capacity to which is the non-deterministic limit of coloration. Inertially free approach and departure are a disjunctive for any ordered; freed and distinct relation of relative proportional provision is an aconditional held within the assumption of a threshold to dimensional non-predictability of random subset in predicate to indication of either; and to which a certain determinant of motion upon gravitationally provided congruence of free fall and inertial freedom are available. The resultant adjoint & unitary connective to which is a gravitational and electric to magnetic space is the associable free spatial unionable connective or disconnective of one manifold and two particle tier predicated surjective space.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[29374] viXra:1905.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 07:34:04

### Human Cell Division

Authors: George Rajna

The Allen Institute today released the Integrated Mitotic Stem Cell, a data-driven model and visualization tool that captures—for the first time—a holistic view of human cell division. [45] A team of physicists has devised a novel strategy that uses naturally occurring motions inside the human cell nucleus to measure the physical properties of the nucleus and its components. [44]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29373] viXra:1905.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 08:10:14

### Quantum Theories to Extreme

Authors: George Rajna

A workshop on exploring extreme-field QED and the physics phenomena it creates will be held at SLAC in late summer. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29372] viXra:1905.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 08:12:13

### Refutation of Bounded and Σ1 Formulas in pa

Authors: Colin James III

A fundamental proposition for bounded and Σ1 formulas in PA is not tautologous. While the author states that the informal notes are full of errors, this fundamental mistake causes the entire section about Rosser’s form of Gödel’s theorems to collapse. Therefore the proposition is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29371] viXra:1905.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 08:13:29

### Refutation of Logically-Consistent Hypothesis Testing and the Hexagon of Oppositions

Authors: Colin James III

Definitions for ◻H and ¬ ◊H are supposed to be equivalent for a classical mapping of agnostic hypothesis tests. While each definition reduces to a theorem in the conjecture, they are not tautologous. This refutes that agnostic hypothesis tests are proved to be logically consistent. Hence the characterization of credal modalities in agnostic hypothesis tests cannot be mapped to the hexagon of oppositions to explain the logical relations between these modalities. Therefore the 11 definitions tested form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29370] viXra:1905.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 08:14:35

### Refutation of Reversing the Counterfactual Analysis of Causation

Authors: Colin James III

The seminal formula of C causes E iff (~C □→ ~E) is not tautologous, that is, it is not a theorem, from which the conjecture is derived. Hence reversing the counterfactual analysis of causation is refuted. Therefore the conjecture forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29369] viXra:1905.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 09:15:36

### Corrigendum to "Polyomino Enumeration Results. (Parkin et Al., Siam Fall Meeting 1967)"

Authors: Richard J. Mathar

This work provides a Java program which constructs free polyominoes of size n sorted by width and height of the convex hull (i.e., its rectangular bounding box). The results correct counts for 15-ominoes published in the 1967 proceedings of the SIAM Fall Meeting, and extend them to 16-ominoes and partially to even larger polyominoes.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[29368] viXra:1905.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 09:47:03

### Something for You to Think About with Respect to Einstein’s Two Relativity Theories

Authors: John Raymond

I provide you with scientific clues for you to consider with respect to whether Einstein may have suffered some sort of oversight or not when he first released his Special Relativity Theory in 1905. I briefly discuss the 1887 Michelson and Morely Ether experiment and then provide you with ideas to consider as to whether some sort of Ether like field [say like a dynamic fluid condition] exists in the universe. The question that I then ask you to think about is if there is such a field is it possible that the Earth is moving through this field at a specific and measurable rate of speed? I conclude by asking you to consider what the possible ramifications are for contemporary mainstream physics if this eventually proves to be the case.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29367] viXra:1905.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 10:43:01

### Origin And Destiny Of The Universe

Authors: Daniele Zamori
Comments: 4 pages, possible model regarding the Big Crunch and the fate of the Universe.

In this paper there will be a theory about the destiny of the Universe, regarding a solution about the future movement of the Universe. Examinating the actual theories about the destiny of the Universe, and ,doing a reductio ad absurdum, we could formalize a solution. Unfortunately the things that we know about the Big Bang are few, and without any kind of evidence it is pretty difficult to create a plausible solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29366] viXra:1905.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 11:33:45

### Quantum Chromodynamics on Lattice: State-of-the-Art and New Methods with New Results

Authors: Jan Helm

This paper consists of two parts. Part A is a state-of-the-art report in quantum chromodynamics. Here is presented in a concise form: the QCD gauge-theory, the standard model and its particles, the perturbative QCD (QCD/QED Feynman diagrams with results), QCD on-lattice with Wilson loops. Part B describes a new numerical QCD calculation method (direct minimization of QCD-QED-action) and its results for the first-generation (u,d) hadrons. Here we start with the standard color-Lagrangian LQCD=LDirac+Lgluon , model the quarks qi as parameterized gaussians, and the gluons Agi as Ritz-Galerkin-expansion. We minimize the Lagrangian with parameters par=(par(q),{αk},par(Ag)) for first-generation hadrons (nucleons, pseudo-scalar mesons, vector mesons). The resulting parameters yield the correct masses, correct magnetic moments for the nucleons, the gluon-distribution and the quark-distribution with interesting insights into the hadron structure.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29365] viXra:1905.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 13:11:33

### The Robustness of the Spectral Properties of the V4 Wave Function

Authors: Nok Zgrgl
Comments: 4 Pages. This is a real paper on a fake universe.

A simple model known as the V4 wave function is studied for a simple (non-equivalent) wave function, which describes the in-medium oscillations of the space-time. The new model is employed for the detailed study of the spectral properties of the V4 wave function, and one of the upcoming projects is to use it to study the spectral properties of the strongly interacting quark-gluon interaction.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29364] viXra:1905.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 17:41:36

### Refutation of Condition/decision Duality and the Internal Logic of Extensive Restriction Categories

Authors: Colin James III

The equations for condition/decision duality are not tautologous, hence refuting what follows as internal logic of extensive restriction categories. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29363] viXra:1905.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 19:26:05

### Crazy Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Bambore Dawit Geinamo
Comments: 9 Pages. If there is any correction and comment welcom

This paper magically shows very interesting and simple proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem. The proof identifies sufficient derivations of equations that holds the statement true and describes contradictions on them to satisfy the theorem. If Fermat had proof, his proof is most probably similar to this one. The proof does not require any higher field of mathematics and it can be understood in high school level of mathematics. It uses only modular arithmetic, factorization and some logical statements.
Category: Number Theory

[29362] viXra:1905.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 20:55:41

### Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Saturn and Jupiter to Determine their Ages

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. Includes EA (Earth Age) in case total Earth age changes

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". We can figure out how old they are by measuring their atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratios against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as 4.5 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Saturn and Jupiter are.
Category: Astrophysics

[29361] viXra:1905.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 22:25:58

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

The paradox of the twins. The decision with the help of the Theory of Relativity Poincare. Language is Russian.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29360] viXra:1905.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 00:50:46

### Nuclear Barnett Effect

Authors: George Rajna

Nuclear Barnett Effect Using a different method from that employed by Barnett, two researchers at NYU observed an alternative version of this effect called the nuclear Barnett effect, which results from the magnetization of protons rather than electrons. [26] Recently, scientists suggested switching from electron to nuclear transitions that may considerably increase the precision of clocks due to higher frequency. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29359] viXra:1905.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 01:22:36

### A New Hypothesis of the Relation Between Momentum and Energy

Authors: Chen Zhipeng

The combination of Newton momentum and Einstein's mass-energy relation will cause many difficulties. A new hypothesis of the relation between energy and momentum is proposed to solve these difficulties. At the same time, the relation is validated.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29358] viXra:1905.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 01:25:15

### A New Proton Structure Model

Authors: Tian Hansong

Proton is one of the most important particles. Though the precise values of the mass and the radius of proton have been figured out, the quark model of proton fails to connect these two values. However, we discover that a new proton structure model may realize this goal, which may help us know the internal structure of proton in a better way. The new model is different from the quark model which has been used to explain proton structure, it may have influence on the current particle standard model system.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29357] viXra:1905.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 02:43:24

### Configuration of Nanoscopes

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University together with colleagues proposed using special diffraction gratings with gold plates instead of microlenses used in the classic configuration to obtain images in nanoscopes. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29356] viXra:1905.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 03:19:35

### Geometry of Electrons

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists at the University of Basel have shown for the first time how a single electron looks in an artificial atom. [31] A team of researchers from Canada, France and Poland has found that electrons inside of some ceramic crystals appear to dissipate in a surprising, yet familiar way-possibly a clue to the reason for the odd behavior of "strange metals." [30] To provide the data necessary to improve these products, a team of engineers and scientists from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a new pinhole-based diffraction technique they call PIND. [29] Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin-orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29355] viXra:1905.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 03:48:39

### How Electrons Fatten

Authors: George Rajna

Spanish scientists fabricated a nanoscale artificial material manipulating atoms one after the other and discovered that electrons can become heavier. [32] Physicists at the University of Basel have shown for the first time how a single electron looks in an artificial atom. [31] A team of researchers from Canada, France and Poland has found that electrons inside of some ceramic crystals appear to dissipate in a surprising, yet familiar way-possibly a clue to the reason for the odd behavior of "strange metals." [30] To provide the data necessary to improve these products, a team of engineers and scientists from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a new pinhole-based diffraction technique they call PIND. [29] Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin-orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29354] viXra:1905.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 04:06:22

### Collision Space-Time, Unified Quantum Gravity

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

We have recently presented a unified quantum gravity theory [1]. Here we extend on that work and present an even simpler version of that theory. For about hundred years, modern physics has not been able to build a bridge between quantum mechanics and gravity. However, a solution may be found here; we present our quantum gravity theory, which is rooted in indivisible particles where matter and gravity are related to collisions and can be described by collision space-time. In this paper, we also show that we can formulate a quantum wave equation rooted in collision space-time, which is equivalent to mass and energy. The beauty of our theory is that most of the main equations that currently exist in physics are not changed (in terms of predictions), except at the Planck scale. The Planck scale is directly linked to gravity and gravity is, surprisingly, actually a Lorentz symmetry as well as a form of Heisenberg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale. Our theory gives a dramatic simplification of many physics formulas without altering the output predictions. The relativistic wave equation, the relativistic energy momentum relation, and Minkowski space can all be represented by simpler equations when we understand mass at a deeper level. This not attained at a cost, but rather a reflection of the benefit in having gravity and electromagnetism unified under the same theory. This is version 1 of the current work and contains several important new equations and insight that builds on some of our previous papers. We expect to put out an enhanced version with more detailed explanations soon. In particular, it is worth noting how incredibly simple our new relativistic wave equation is when rooted in collision space-time. The beauty of such simplicity will be evident for those familiar with previous work on this topic; future work will highlight and augment these observations and analysis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29353] viXra:1905.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 04:12:21

### Supersymmetry by ATLAS

Authors: George Rajna

If these superpartners exist and are not too massive, they will be produced at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and could be hiding in data collected by the ATLAS detector. [30] Supersymmetry predicts that two basic classes of fundamental particles, fermions and bosons, accompany each other in the same representation. [29] A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to re-create the early universe conditions. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29352] viXra:1905.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 04:21:01

### 28 Excited Electron by Lan Theory with Relativistic Effect Introduction with Corroborated Data and Detection of Errors in Bibliography

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 41 Pages. English language. Version translated into Spanish in annex.

Article is centred in Relation of Riquelme de Gozy that is part of relations fulfilled by electrons excited (LAN Theory). Article exposes a new concept of excitation lines based on orbital quantum number and, after relativistic effect inclusion, progressively increases sensitivity in energetic values of electronic jumps to be able to predict said values and discern possible errors included in the references.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29351] viXra:1905.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 02:26:52

### Particle Physics Based on focal Point'' Representation of Particles

Authors: Osvaldo Domann
Comments: 16 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the name of the author.

The present work is based on a model where subatomic particles are represented as focal points of rays of Fundamental Particles (FPs) that move from infinite to infinite. FPs are emitted by the focal point and at the same time regenerate it. Interactions between subatomic particles are the product of the interactions of the angular momenta of the FPs. The interaction between two charged subatomic particles tend to zero for the distance between them tending to zero, allowing to place the zero of the potential energy at the distance zero. Atomic nuclei can thus be represented as swarms of electrons and positrons that neither attract nor repel each other. As atomic nuclei are composed of nucleons which are composed of quarks, the quarks can also be seen as swarms of electrons and positrons. This allows a completely new interpretation of the interactions between quarks and the corresponding energy states.
Category: Classical Physics

[29350] viXra:1905.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 03:48:16

### Highest-Temperature Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna

University of Chicago scientists are part of an international research team that has discovered superconductivity-the ability to conduct electricity perfectly-at the highest temperatures ever recorded. [30] Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates-the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures-contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29349] viXra:1905.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 04:49:59

### Cancer in a New Light

Authors: George Rajna

Using the latest advances in imaging and computing, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have developed a framework that's able to reveal the structural and functional changes in the blood vessel network required for growth of a tumour. [33] Medical physicist Dr. Aswin Hoffmann and his team from the Institute of Radiooncology-OncoRay at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a proton beam, thus demonstrating for the first time that in principle, this commonly used imaging method can work with particle beam cancer treatments. [32] Washington State University researchers for the first time have shown that they can use electrical fields to gain valuable information about the tiny, floating vesicles that move around in animals and plants and are critically important to many biological functions. [31] Finding a fast and inexpensive way to detect specific strains of bacteria and viruses is critical to food safety, water quality, environmental protection and human health. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29348] viXra:1905.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 05:56:51

### Nature of Light: What Hidden Behind Young's Double-Slit Experiment?

Authors: Xiuqing Huang

We experimentally prove that the famous single- and double-slit experiments are merely the scattered-light phase transition by slit edges rather than the conventional view of the transmitted-light effect by slits. The nature of the wave-particle duality of light quanta can be well understood with the help of the hypothesis of the quantized chiral photons having an intrinsic dual-energy cyclic exchange property. With the suggested theoretical framework, the experimental diffraction pattern of a single slit is analytically determined and numerically confirmed.
Category: Classical Physics

[29347] viXra:1905.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 08:29:58

### Quantum Interferometry Phonon

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology and Keio University investigated the excitation and detection of photogenerated coherent phonons in polar semiconductor GaAs through an ultrafast dual pump-probe laser for quantum interferometry. [26] Karimi's team has successfully built and operated the first-ever quantum simulator designed specifically for simulating cyclic (ringed-shaped) systems. [25] A new Tel Aviv University study explores the generation and propagation of excitons in 2D materials within an unprecedented small time frame and at an extraordinarily high spatial resolution. [24] An international team of researchers led out of Macquarie University has demonstrated a new approach for converting ordinary laser light into genuine quantum light. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29346] viXra:1905.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 08:58:15

### Wildfire Suppression Technology: Exploration for a Directed Energy Beam (Deb) Attenuating Electron Transfer by Cyclical Vacuum Subduction of Dioxygen Dication Species, O22+

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Salvatore Giandinoto, Sabah E Karam
Comments: 57 Pages. Preprint: IOP J Phys Conf Series 2019, R L Amoroso, D M Dubois, L H Kauffman, P Rowlands (eds) Advances in Fundamental Physics: Prelude to Paradigm Shift, 11th International Symposium Honoring Mathematical Physicist J-P Vigier, 2018 Liege, Belgium

Modeling wildfire suppression technology, inspired by Einstein’s long quest for a final theory, is based on a Unified Field Mechanical (UFM) Ontological-Phase Topological Field Theory (OPTFT) derived from modified M-theory, parameters of the Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer Transactional Interpretation, with combined extensions of a de Broglie-Bohm Implicate Order super-quantum potential as a unified field force of coherence control factor. The device is multiphasic. Operationally, O2 electron transfer attenuation occurs by nonlocal matter-wave phase adduction/subduction interference nodes in dynamic-static Casimir-Polder resonant interactions pertinent to bumps and holes within a covariant polarized Dirac vacuum as the most salient feature of dioxygen dication, O22+ coupling to mirror symmetric nonlocal antispace (vacuum), rather than neutral molecular species in local 3-space as demonstrated in experimental studies of dioxygen dication, O22+. Additionally, beam emission requires a new dual class of nonlocal OCHRE (Oscillation Coupled Helicoid Resonance Emission) in tandem with localized OCRET (Optically Controlled Resonance Energy Transfer) to produce ballistic-like conduction of vacuum energy by the summation of cyclical resonant incursive oscillations within the structure of cellular Least Units tessellating spacetime as a means of mediating the additional dimensionality (XD) of brane topological phase transitions in the Bulk. Finally, device operation requires an M-theoretic form of scalable universal quantum computing (UQC), a paradigm shift beyond confines of the locality-unitarity basis of presently standard Copenhagen quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29345] viXra:1905.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 09:03:03

### Quantum Shannon Theory

Authors: George Rajna

Information theory, which was developed by Claude Shannon starting in the late 1940s, deals with questions such as how quickly information can be sent over a noisy communications channel. [28] Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory are conducting fundamental physics research that will lead to more control over mercurial quantum systems and materials. [27] Physicists in Italy have designed a "quantum battery" that they say could be built using today's solid-state technology. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29344] viXra:1905.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 09:46:49

### Learning Magnets Data Processing

Authors: George Rajna

In a new study, physicists at Radboud University have demonstrated that this could also be achieved by using chips whose operation is inspired by that of the human brain. [29] A team of researchers from the University of Münster, the University of Oxford and the University of Exeter has built an all-optical neural network on a single chip. [28] Physicists from Petrozavodsk State University have proposed a new method for oscillatory neural network to recognize simple images. Such networks with an adjustable synchronous state of individual neurons have, presumably, dynamics similar to neurons in the living brain. [27] Navid Borhani, a research-team member, says this machine learning approach is much simpler than other methods to reconstruct images passed through optical fibers, which require making a holographic measurement of the output. [26]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[29343] viXra:1905.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 10:20:18

### Preliminary Study for Developing Instantaneous Quantum Computing Algorithms (Iqca)

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 25 Pages. Preprint: IOP J Phys Conf Series 2019, R L Amoroso, D M Dubois, L H Kauffman, P Rowlands (eds) Advances in Fundamental Physics: Prelude to Paradigm Shift, 11th International Symposium Honoring Mathematical Physicist J-P Vigier, 2018 Liege, Belgium

Since the mid-1990s theoretical quadratic exponential and polynomial Quantum Computing (QC) speedup algorithms have been discussed. Recently the advent of relativistic information processing (RIP) introducing a relativistic qubit (r-qubit) with additional degrees of freedom beyond the current Hilbert space Bloch 2-sphere qubit formalism extended theory has appeared. In this work a penultimate form of QC speedup – Instantaneous Quantum Computing Algorithms (IQCA) is proposed. Discussion exists on passing beyond the quantum limits of locality and unitarity heretofore restricting the evolution of quantum systems to the standard Copenhagen Interpretation. In that respect as introduced in prior work an ontological-phase topological QC avails itself of extended modeling. As well-known by EPR experiments instantaneous connectivity exists inherently in the nonlocal arena. As our starting point we utilize Bohm’s super-implicate order where inside a wave packet a super-quantum potential introduces nonlocal connectivity. Additionally EPR experiments entangle simultaneously emitted photon pairs by parametric down-conversion. Operating an IQCA requires a parametric up-conversion cycle an M-Theoretic Unified Field Mechanical (MUFM) set of topological transformations beyond the current Galilean Lorentz-Poincairé transforms of the standard model (SM). Yang- Mills Kaluza-Klein (YM-KK) correspondence is shown to provide a path beyond the semi-quantum limit to realize the local-nonlocal duality required to implement IQCA.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[29342] viXra:1905.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 10:27:29

### Integrated Circuits Chaotic Signals

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology have found a simple, yet highly versatile way to generate "chaotic signals" with various features. [30] In a new study, physicists at Radboud University have demonstrated that this could also be achieved by using chips whose operation is inspired by that of the human brain. [29] A team of researchers from the University of Münster, the University of Oxford and the University of Exeter has built an all-optical neural network on a single chip. [28] Physicists from Petrozavodsk State University have proposed a new method for oscillatory neural network to recognize simple images. Such networks with an adjustable synchronous state of individual neurons have, presumably, dynamics similar to neurons in the living brain. [27] Navid Borhani, a research-team member, says this machine learning approach is much simpler than other methods to reconstruct images passed through optical fibers, which require making a holographic measurement of the output. [26]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[29341] viXra:1905.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 12:02:07

### Refutation that Strawson’s Presupposition is Different from Russell’s Entailment

Authors: Colin James III

Strawson’s presupposition and Russell’s entailment are of the same form, equivalent, and hence not different. These conjectures form a tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29340] viXra:1905.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 14:34:51

### 1/f Phase Noise in Oscillators Modeled with Q and Its Entropy Significance Version 2

Authors: Alec Feinberg

Noise in operating systems has been strongly linked to degradation. One such type of noise of interest in this paper is phase noise, which we model and describe its significance in thermodynamic degradation science . Phase noise of an oscillator is perhaps one of the most important oscillator parameters and the source of the noise is not well understood. Phase noise is important as it degrades the purity of the carrier frequency when used in transmission which is only one of the many applications in oscillator usage. It is known that the unloaded Q in phase noise goes as the inverse of Q to the forth power observed in the low frequency area (i.e. near the carrier frequency) as noted in oscillator power noise spectral density. In this paper we provide a model that leads to this observed unloaded Q dependence noted in the power spectral density. We will then provide specific comparison to an LRC oscillator circuit to establish a parametric useful analogy. A second model links Q to entropy which we show produces this type of noise. Although this noise’s origin, is not well understood in terms of reliability, we have previously found that noise is typically attributed to entropy (disorder). This is because temporal coherence of a signal from an operating device can be correlated to disorder in the spatial coherence in the device. Once understood, the phase noise has an entropy explanation that yields the inverse frequency dependence observed. Therefore, this type of noise measurement is of importance in thermodynamic degradation process as it has applications to understanding noise in other areas besides oscillators. Results show consistency with damage entropy principles in terms of purity of materials and measurement methods observed in the literature. Because entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, we anticipate that such results can be applied in assessing stability issues in many fabricated electronic devices.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29339] viXra:1905.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 17:04:42

### Błąd Lorentza I Einsteina

Authors: Dariusz Dudało

Analiza eksperymentu myślowego Einsteina i pokazanie błędu w założeniach.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29338] viXra:1905.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 18:19:33

### Refutation of Replacing Classical Logic with Free Logic

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluated 12 equations for the assertions with none tautologous. Therefore this conjecture is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29337] viXra:1905.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 19:35:05

### Cross-Double-Slit Experiments and Wave-Particle Duality

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 5 Pages. thanks very much for consideration of my paper

We report observations of Cross-Double-Slit Experiment and Which-Path-Cross-Double-Slit experiment. Cross-Double-Slit apparatus contains two double-slit, where first double-slit is perpendicular to second double-slit. The first double-slit and the second double-slit generate not only their own interference pattern perpendicular to each other, but also generate “Cross-interference-patterns”. When we do which-way experiment with one of two double-slit, say first double-slit, then its interference pattern disappeared, i.e., photons behave as particles; but the second double-slit’s interference pattern and the cross-interference-pattern still exist; which implies an significant phenomenon that in the same experiment, photons behave as both wave and particle, which is first time caught on film. Thus we suggest to re-study wave-particle duality, which is the basic mystery of quantum mechanics. We postulate that the particle nature of photons is intrinsic; while the wave-like of photons is manifest-behavior.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29336] viXra:1905.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 19:39:26

### Simulated Discoveries

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe

Research is based on a theory, and the results of calculations/experiments/observations/predictions can provide the necessary proof for that theory. But if you simulate what you are looking for with data in order to find what you are looking for, or in order to test the computers and the researchers, then the definite proof cannot be based on data alone.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29335] viXra:1905.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 21:44:39

### Refutation of Rooted Hypersequent Calculus for Modal Logic S5

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate two example equations as not tautologous, thereby refuting the rooted hypersequent calculus for modal propositional logic S5. The sequent calculus forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29334] viXra:1905.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 23:20:18

### The Electron Charge Explained

The electron charge explained “The photon inside the electron is the charge, is the electric field inside a volume equivalent with the electric field created by an electric charge. An electric field surrounds an electric charge; the same thing inside the electron, the electric field of the photon surrounds the center of the electron. Electric charge doesn't exist, was invented by scientists because they were not capable to explain the electric charge and what is inside the electron!” Adrian Ferent “The photon inside the electron, inside the volume, gives the electric charge to electron” Adrian Ferent “Virtual photons do not exist, that is why Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) is right” Adrian Ferent “If an electron emits a photon, does not loose the electric charge because the energy of the emitted photon is much smaller than gamma ray energy” Adrian Ferent “The electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field” Adrian Ferent “I discovered Dark Matter in electron and positron collision” Adrian Ferent Scientists do not understand the electron that is why they say the photon is absorbed by the atom not by the electron. “Virtual photons do not exist, that is why Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) is right” Adrian Ferent What you learned from your professors, from peer-reviewed journals, from your books, from the greatest scientists about electric Charge is wrong. When they can not explain something, they said it is a Fundamental Property like the electric Charge! “If an electron emits a photon, does not loose the electric charge because the energy of the emitted photon is much smaller than gamma ray energy” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors that the Electric charge is the Physical Property of matter! This Physical Property of matter causes to experience a force when is placed in an electromagnetic field. The elementary charge is a fundamental physical constant. The elementary charge of the electron, e, is about 1.6 × 10^(-19) coulombs. An electric charge has an electric field and if the charge is moving it also generates a magnetic field. “The electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent Charge quantization means the charge of any object is an integer multiple of the elementary charge (exceptions are quarks). An electron is under the influence of electromagnetic radiation. The photons of this radiation would interact with the electron; the electron absorbs the photon and the electron gain energy. “Due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field” Adrian Ferent “I discovered Dark Matter in electron and positron collision” Adrian Ferent DMe is the Dark Matter inside the electron DMp is the Dark Matter inside the positron 223. I am the first who discovered that the photon inside the electron is the charge, is the electric field inside a volume equivalent with the electric field created by an electric charge 224. I am the first who discovered that an electric field surrounds an electric charge; the same thing inside the electron, the electric field of the photon surrounds the center of the electron. 225. I am the first who discovered that the Electric charge doesn't exist, was invented by scientists because they were not capable to explain the electric charge and what is inside the electron 226. I am the first who discovered that the Virtual photons do not exist, that is why Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) is right 227. I am the first who discovered that if an electron emits a photon, does not loose the electric charge because the energy of the emitted photon is much smaller than gamma ray energy 228. I am the first who discovered that the electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron 229. I am the first who discovered that due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29333] viXra:1905.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 23:35:05

### Influence of the Biofield Energy Therapy on the Physico-Chemical and Thermal Properties of Sulfamethoxazole

Authors: Dahryn Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana

Sulfamethoxazole is an antibiotic, which inhibits the bacteria by interfering in its folic acid synthesis mechanism. The objective of this study was to analyze the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the phys-icochemical and thermal properties of sulfamethoxazole by using modern analytical techniques. The sulfamethoxaz-ole sample was classified as control and treated samples. The control sample did not receive the Biofield Treatment, while the treated sample received the Biofield Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Dahryn Trivedi. The particle sizes of the treated sample were significantly reduced by 7.99% (d10), 3.05% (d50), 3.80% (d90), and 3.03%{D(4,3)}; whereas, the specific surface area of the particles was increased by 5.19% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The PXRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes were altered ranging from -70.86% to 52.36% and -6.01% to 75.34%, respectively; whereas the average crystallite size was significantly increased by 27.28% in the treated sulfamethoxazole compared with the control sample. The sample residual amount and maximum thermal degradation temperature were increased by 2.13% and 4.21%, respectively, in the treated sample compared to the con-trol sample. The decomposition temperature and latent heat of decomposition were increased by 3.26% and 19.36%, respectively, in the treated sample compared to the untreated sample. The Biofield Treated sulfamethoxazole might con-vert to a novel polymorph of the drug, with reduced particle size, increased surface area, and improved thermal stability. This can be helpful in improving the solubility, bioavailability, and stability of the sulfamethoxazole and would be more efficacious for the treatment of infections in the ear, urinary tract infections, traveler’s diarrhoea, bronchitis, shigellosis, and pneumonia, etc.
Category: Biochemistry

[29332] viXra:1905.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 23:35:53

### Impact of Biofield Energy Treated DMEM on Mitochondrial Biogenesis Using Myoblast Cell Line, C2C12: Implications for Metabolic Disease

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana

Mitochondria play an important role in the body, and its dysfunction lead to the defective cellular energy production results to heterogeneous group of disorders such as early aging, type-2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and many more metabolic diseases. The study was aimed to examine the effect of Consciousness Energy Healing based DMEM on myoblasts cells (C2C12) for mitochondrial mass content. The test item, DMEM was divided into three parts. First part did not receive any sort of treatment and defined as the untreated DMEM group. The second and third portions were treated with the one-time and two-times Biofield Energy Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi and coded as the one-time Biofield Energy Treated DMEM (BT-I) and two-times Biofield Energy Treated DMEM (BT-II) groups, respectively. Cell viability of the test items by MTT assay showed more than 72% viable cells, which suggested that the test items were nontoxic and safe in nature. Moreover, the mitochondrial mass content in terms of fluorescence unit (FU) was significantly (p≤0.05) increased by 43.11% and 64.16% in the BT-I and BT-II groups, respectively in C2C12 cells compared to the untreated DMEM group. Overall, the experimental data suggested that two-times treated DMEM (BT-II) was found more significant improvement in mitochondrial mass content compared with the one-time treated DMEM (BT-I) group and results in better respiratory capacity. Thus, data envisaged that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM has a potential to improve respiratory activity, which could be used against various metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, etc.
Category: Biochemistry

[29331] viXra:1905.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 01:50:13

### Fundamental-Methods-Of-Mathematical-Economics-by-Kevin-Wainwright-Professor-Alpha-C-Chiang

Authors: Kevin

Fundamental-Methods-Of-Mathematical-Economics-by-Kevin-Wainwright-Professor-Alpha-C-Chiang
Category: Algebra

[29330] viXra:1905.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 05:14:45

### Extracellular Disease Diagnosis

Authors: George Rajna

A research team led by the University of Notre Dame is working to cut the test time for disease biomarkers. The new timeline-30 minutes instead of 13 hours-uses even smaller sample sizes to offer a new liquid biopsy option. [32] A new focused ultrasound approach-low-energy, rapid, short-pulsed ultrasound-can open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using microbubbles and deliver drugs more uniformly and more safely than methods based on long ultrasound pulses. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29329] viXra:1905.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 06:08:01

### Crucial Cellular Switches Protection

Authors: George Rajna

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers have used CRISPR technology to probe the mechanisms that guide the developmental trajectories of stem cells in the brain.
Category: Physics of Biology

[29328] viXra:1905.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 06:18:00

### 27 Orbital Angular Momentum of All Orbitals L and Lz Fluyiep Explanation

Authors: Javier Silvestre

Bohr atomic model is developed with electronic extremes of Victoria Theory. Toyi mechanism is focused on explaining orbital angular and spin movement of electronic extremes. This article summarizes first part of Toyi Mechanism and then proceeds with individualized explanation of angular momentum for all orbitals (named as Fluyiep Explanation). Finally, paper concludes with fundamental relations between angular momentum of all orbitals.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29327] viXra:1905.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 08:05:19

### Uncover the Logic of Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Jianfei Chen

In this paper, author introduced two theories, energy spiral as a unified field and dual resonance for energy transfer. This paper is based on these theories. Through studying formation process of particles, as was indicated that: vacuum particles and 12 basic particles are existing in the vacuum, which will become protons or electrons. In the hydrogen atomic, the external vacuum energy affects on the energy spiral of the electron, then revolution energy and rotation energy of the electron are determined, finally the parameters of Bohr structure are determined. And logical value of Fine Structure constant is obtained. [alpha=sqrt[4]{2}pi/512]. This data is supported by the calculation results of experimental data.Email: eastear@outlook.com eastear@163.com
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29326] viXra:1905.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:35:58

### The Heavy Neutrino Leads to an Accurate Critical Value for Hubble's Constant ho of 78.20 Vs. 74.03 (Km/s)/Mps for the Latest Measurement

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: Today is my 95th birthday and this is my most important 1 page note to date.

Abstract: A highly accurate critical value of Hubble's constant of 78.20 (Km/s)/Mps has been found including the 4430 MeV heavy Majorana 4th neutrino.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29325] viXra:1905.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:18:35

### New Short-Term Prognosis of Strong Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions According to Daily Indexis of Solar Activity

Authors: A.M.Eigenson, I.B.Bazylevych, M.S.Shevchenko

Recently we have made the prognosis of such terrestrial events for the period between April 22 and May 2, 2019. This forecasting is confirmed. Now we do the same prognosis for the next 2 weeks, from May 19 until June 2, 2019. During this period new great catastrophes are expected to occur on our Earth. In our days, we see from Fig. 1 that the dangerous area lies between May 19 and June 2, 2019. (Addition: earthquakes 6+ are noted as circle’s, earthquakes 7+ as ellipsis and volcanic eruptions as crosses). So, the people of seismic zones: BE CAREFUL!
Category: Geophysics

[29324] viXra:1905.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:26:40

### 1/f Phase Noise in Oscillators Modeled with Q and Its Entropy Significance

Authors: Alec Feinberg

Noise in operating systems has been strongly linked to degradation. One such type of noise of interest in this paper is phase noise, which we model and describe its significance in thermodynamic degradation science. Phase noise of an oscillator is perhaps one of the most important oscillator parameters and the source of the noise is not well understood. Phase noise is important as it degrades the purity of the carrier frequency when used in transmission which is only one of the many applications in oscillator usage. It is known that the unloaded Q in phase noise goes as the inverse of Q to the forth power observed in the low frequency area (i.e. near the carrier frequency) as noted in oscillator power noise spectral density. In this paper we provide a model that leads to this observed unloaded Q dependence noted in the power spectral density. We will then provide specific comparison to an LRC oscillator circuit to establish a parametric useful analogy. A second model links Q to entropy which we show produces this type of noise. Although this noise’s origin, is not well understood in terms of reliability, we have previously found that noise is typically attributed to entropy (disorder). This is because temporal coherence of a signal from an operating device can be correlated to disorder in the spatial coherence in the device. Once understood, the phase noise has an entropy explanation that yields the inverse frequency dependence observed. Therefore, this type of noise measurement is of importance in thermodynamic degradation process as it has applications to understanding noise in other areas besides oscillators. Results show consistency with damage entropy principles in terms of purity of materials and measurement methods observed in the literature. Because entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, we anticipate that such results can be applied in assessing stability issues in many fabricated electronic devices.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29323] viXra:1905.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:53:56

### Josephson Junction Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna

The Josephson junction is one of the most important elements in turning quantum phenomena into usable technology. [42] The ultimate degree of control for engineering would be the ability to create and manipulate materials at the most basic level, fabricating devices atom by atom with precise control. [41] A team of researchers from the University of California and Fudan University has developed a way to use a single molecule magnet as a scanning magnetometer. [40] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires. [39] Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29322] viXra:1905.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 11:04:06

### The Great Filter And The Fermi Paradox

Authors: Daniele Zamori
Comments: 4 pages, giving a possible solution to the Great Filter and the Fermi Paradox.

This paper tries to give answers to the questions “What is the Great Filter?” and “When will it arrive?”. Through the answers that we obtain to those questions, it is possible to reckon an objectival explanation to the famous Fermi paradox: “Where is everybody?”. The goal of this theory is to give a solution using only the facts we can see and evaluate, finding a logical path that could give a full solution, and to raise awareness to the notion that we have of technological developement.
Category: Astrophysics

[29321] viXra:1905.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 11:01:42

### Computer Model of the Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents the method of modelling the atomic structure of the nucleus of various elements. This way of modelling ensures that the modelled atoms be have similarly to real atoms. In nature, the vast majority of isotopes decay but some of them, due to the properties of protons and neutrons, remain stable.
Category: Classical Physics

[29320] viXra:1905.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 11:32:01

### Quantum Communication Two from One

Authors: George Rajna

One of these particles of light has the potential to serve as a carrier of the fragile quantum information, the other, as a messenger to provide prior notification of its twin. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29319] viXra:1905.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 14:56:46

### The Reformulation of Faraday's Law Using Electric Displacement Instead of Electric Field

Authors: Krishna Srinivasan

In 1864, James Clerk Maxwell formulated a set of electromagnetic equations to describe the interactions between electric and magnetic fields, now known as Maxwell's equations in his honor. In this paper, it will be shown using a thought experiment, Faraday's law formulated using electric displacement, instead of electric field, is a better formulation, consistent with the definitions of electric field and electric displacement. Maxwell's equations will be reformulated to satisfy the constituent relations, reflecting the change in the formulation of Faraday's law.
Category: Classical Physics

[29318] viXra:1905.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 16:42:25

### What is Gravity?

Authors: Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

We present a proposal, alternative to the curved spacetime of Einstein, which we replaced by the curved quantum vacuum, caused by its gravitational interaction with the masses of the stars, as the source of Newtonian anomalies of celestial mechanics, restoring gravity as one of the fundamental forces of nature.
Category: Classical Physics

[29317] viXra:1905.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 17:02:21

### What is Spacetime?

Authors: Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

The author discusses the theory of the time-space fluid that results from the supposed gravitational waves that would have detected LIGO, and reaffirms the spacetime as a structural geometric property of the dynamic matter, now with the strong argument that in an unnatural way, the physicists and philosophers of science confer the conception of the author to that ridiculous material spacetime, while depriving matter, of the intrinsic spacetime. In addition, he warns about the conceptual contradiction existing between NASA and Caltech over gravitational waves, being absurd the concept of Caltech, operator of LIGO, since gravitational waves would propagate in five non-detectable dimensions. NASA validly recognizes that they would be waves of space; therefore, there are no spacetime waves that correspond to gravitational waves that, according to the great current of relativistic physicists, would exist. Finally, the author reaffirms that quadrupole waves detected by LIGO are waves of quantum vacuum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29316] viXra:1905.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 19:57:50

### Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Neptune and Uranus to Determine their Ages

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". We can figure out how old they are by measuring their atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratios against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Neptune and Uranus are. It was previously predicted that Neptune and Uranus are 2 and 2.1 billion years old respectively via the General Theory, by using a simple graph.
Category: Astrophysics

[29315] viXra:1905.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 02:18:58

### Third Degree Polynomials Masses Force

if you had an elastic ball and a nonelastic ball you could call these two forms of masses as the activity of a mass thid is a new quality now the other two stuff that describes what we are talking about here is the force and the masses of the two masses these are literaly the three stuff that exist in the universe the force the masses weight and the quality of the mass and these are the arbitary values inside a polynomial of the third degree and since there are no other stuff that exist within the universe we could say that there is no polynomial of the fourth degrees values solution
Category: Classical Physics

[29314] viXra:1905.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 02:25:53

### Explanation of Theory of Relativity

so the main idea of relativity is that motion is relative to get a feel for that lets look at point A and point B and a car moving from one to the other now lets say that point A is moving away from point B you would need more speed to achieve the same velocity of the car originally and if point A goes nearer to point B you would need less velocity to reach with the car from point A to point B
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29313] viXra:1905.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 03:20:09

### Division by Zero Calculus and Pompe's Theorem

Authors: Tsutomu Matsuura, Hiroshi Okumura, Saburou Saitoh

In this paper, we will introduce the application of the division by zero calculus to geometry and it will show the power of the new calculus.
Category: General Mathematics

[29312] viXra:1905.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 03:48:14

### Reclamation of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (Copr) Involving Recovery of Chromate Salt, Detoxification and Fabrication of Clay Brick

Authors: Unchol Kim

We studied on the methods involving the recovery of chromate salt from COPR, the sequential detoxification of COPR and the reclamation of the detoxified COPR. The results of leaching experiments showed that it is possible to recover Cr (VI) existed in COPR using an inexpensive method, in which ca. 84% of Cr (VI) extraction rate could be under the following condition; seawater as leaching solution, 25% of solid content, leaching period of 30min, intermittent agitation, gravitational sedimentation as solid/liquid separating mode, repetition number of up 5. Cr (VI) contained in leaching liquor was recovered as chrome yellow, followed by recirculating the Cr (VI)-depleted supernatant to the leaching process. For the detoxification of post-leach COPR (plCOPR), plCOPR was mixed with sodium sulfide as a single reductant in a mixer and was discharged from the mixer without retention time for reduction. Cr (VI) content in the mixture became lower than cleanup criteria by US EPA with the Na2S/Cr (VI) mass ratio of 6 at the reaction time of 36h. Also, the results of the experiment with the detoxified plCOPR as a substitution for sand in fabricating clay brick shows that acceptable compression strength (52N/mm2) is obtained when the detoxified COPR accounts for '30% in raw material mixture, with the Cr (VI) content of 0.5mglkg-bricks below cleanup criteria by US EPA
Category: Chemistry

[29311] viXra:1905.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 06:17:00

### Emergence of Cancer by Exchanging Fields of Microgravity Between Earth's DNA and Dark Dnas in Extra Dimensions

Authors: Alireza Sepehri

Recently, it has been shown that in the absence of gravity, microgravity let us to explore some new fields which have direct effects on the communications between cells and their growth. We show that the origin of these fields may be some DNA-like structures interior of the earth's core. These structures have a long around $10^{9}$ times the diameter of the earth which are compacted in very smaller places like the core of the earth. This compacting is very similar to the compacting of DNAs interior of cells and leads to the emergence of high temperature and pressure. We measure temperature around DNA-like structures and show that it is in good agreement with predicted temperature of core. Also, we calculate number of microstates of DNA-like structures in microgravity. We will show that DNA-like structures of the core exchange microstates and fields with dark part of DNA in extra dimensions. This dark DNA includes missing genes that are needed for the animal's life and their chemical products can be observed in the activity of body. In microgravity, the absence of gravity lets to DNA-like structures to recover more states of dark DNAs. These extra states accelerate the production of extra cells and may lead to the cancer. To show this, we inject tumor cells into two fertilized eggs and incubate them for 58h. Then, we put one of them in a devices similar to clinostat and try to provide the conditions of incubation in microgravity. We consider the growth of tumor cells under microgravity and compare with normal conditions. We observe that fields of microgravity increase the velocity of production of tumor cells. This experiment confirms our theory that in the absence of gravity, communications between DNA-like structure of the earth and dark DNA leads to the an increase in number of microstates of cancerous cells.
Category: Physics of Biology

[29310] viXra:1905.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 06:58:44

### The Way to Develop of Atomic Nuclei//Дорога развития атомных ядер

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents one of the many ways to develop atomic nuclei. The nuclei of the same isotope may have a different structure. They may differ from each other in that the main components of the structure in the form of ALPHA particles are connected to each other in a different way. The road of development of atomic nuclei presented in the article is only an example of how the addition of the following protons and neutrons to the structure contributes to the appearance of other chemical elements and their isotopes.// В статье представлена одна из многих дорог развития атомных ядер. Ядра одного и того же изотопа могут иметь различную структуру. Они могут отличаться друг от друга в том отношении, что основные компоненты структуры в виде частиц АЛЬФА соединены друг с другом различным способом. Представленная в статье дорога развития атомных ядер является только примером того, как присоединение к структуре следующих протонов и нейтронов способствует возникновению других химических элементов и их изотопов.
Category: Classical Physics

[29309] viXra:1905.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 07:18:53

### Ultrasound Drug Delivery to the Brain

Authors: George Rajna

A new focused ultrasound approach-low-energy, rapid, short-pulsed ultrasound-can open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using microbubbles and deliver drugs more uniformly and more safely than methods based on long ultrasound pulses. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29308] viXra:1905.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 07:57:00

### Computer Model of the Atomic Nucleus//Компьютерная модель атомного ядра

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents a method for modeling the structure of the atomic nucleus of various chemical elements. This mode of simulation ensures that the modeled atoms behave like real atoms. In nature, the vast majority of isotopes decay, but some of them, due to the properties of protons and neutrons, remain stable.// В статье представлен метод моделирования структуры атомного ядра различных химических элементов. Этот способ моделирования гарантирует, что моделируемые атомы ведут себя подобно реальным атомам. В природе подавляющее большинство изотопов распадается, но некоторые из них, благодаря свойствам протонов и нейтронов, остаются стабильными.
Category: Classical Physics

[29307] viXra:1905.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 09:43:07

### Black Holes Axion as Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna

One possibility is that it's an exotic hypothetical kind of particle known as an axion, and a team of astronomers are using none other than black holes to try to get a glimpse into this strange new cosmic critter. [28] Leslie Rosenberg, a physicist with the University of Washington has published a paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, describing the current state of research that involves investigating the possibility that axions are what make up dark matter. [27] Physicists from MIT and elsewhere have performed the first run of a new experiment to detect axions-hypothetical particles that are predicted to be among the lightest particles in the universe. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[29306] viXra:1905.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 10:33:29

### Quantum Cloud Computing

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum Cloud Computing With a quantum coprocessor in the cloud, physicists from Innsbruck, Austria, open the door to the simulation of previously unsolvable problems in chemistry, materials research or high-energy physics. [27] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology teamed up with colleagues from the U.S. and Switzerland and returned the state of a quantum computer a fraction of a second into the past. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29305] viXra:1905.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 10:57:38

### Polariton Nano-Laser Operating

Authors: George Rajna

A room temperature polariton nano-laser has been demonstrated, along with several related research findings, regarding topics such as polariton physics at the nanoscale and also applications in quantum information systems. [41] The researchers harnessed the power of polaritons, particles that blur the distinction between light and matter. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29304] viXra:1905.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 13:58:55

### The Physical Nature of Time

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen

One of the greatest mysteries of the present physics is the physical nature of ‘time’. In this paper the author demonstrates that the ageing of a composite, multi-particle system is a general expression for the loosening of the internal coherence of its basic particles, which is mathematically expressed as the increase of its entropy. In that way, the ‘time’ of a given particle system can be expressed by the relation between the increase of its entropy and the increase of the entropy of a particle system with a steady entropy increase, that is taken as a time standard or "clock". It is thereby demonstrated that this definition of the ‘time’ leads in a self-evident way to the time dilation of high speed particle systems, which is demonstrated to be a real physical phenomenon. And this leads on its turn to Einstein’s gravitational time dilation and to the time contraction with ageing.
Category: Classical Physics

[29303] viXra:1905.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 15:25:09

### Electric Fields on the Moon

Authors: Kiyoung Kim

With the primitive-virtual negative (PVN) charge of the Moon, which generates the inherent electric field of the moon, lunar electrical environment can be understood naturally why the electric charge accumulations should be on the surface and above the moon in the circumstance of space plasma, such as solar wind plasma, UV radiation, etc. Especially, the lunar dust levitation and the horizontal transport on the dayside surface of the moon are discussed, which are crucial elements to understand the glowing effect above the horizon and the streamers at the terminator of the moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[29302] viXra:1905.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 18:52:44

### The Relationship of the Fine Structure Constant and Pi

Authors: Jeff Yee

In this paper, the fine structure constant is derived from a geometric ratio of surface areas, as a result of vibrations in a lattice with a body-centered cubic arrangement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29301] viXra:1905.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 19:09:53

### Pyramid Subatomic Particled Smacher

maybe you could do a particle smasher with a pyramid of tip point proton accelerated tonhit another pyramids tip point proton to increasr the time of contact
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[29300] viXra:1905.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 20:20:13

### Particle Wave Duality is False

if you push a mass to the speed of light it takes a lot of work now if you push a larger mass it take a larger work to push it at a time larger by the larger mass/mass coefficient velocity here is all that matters do you think electromagnetic waves has inertia if it has mass do waves have inertia? arent waves propagation of momentum? waves are because of masses hitting each other and inertia of these masses in some way there is nothing called a wave so the principle of mass wave duality is wrong
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29299] viXra:1905.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:06:32

### Neutron Shines on Dark Chocolate

Authors: George Rajna

Looking for improvements, researchers Fernanda Peyronel from the University of Guelph, Ontario, and David Pink from St. Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia, used a combination of neutrons and x-ray scattering at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge (ORNL) and Argonne National Laboratories to better understand how tempering affects chocolate's microstructure and, consequentially, how that relationship impacts taste. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29298] viXra:1905.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:09:42

### The New Periodic Table of Chemical Elements According to the Deterministic Quantum Model

Authors: Daniele Sasso

The current periodic table of chemical elements presents numerous problems because of the presence of many elements that are in actuality out of the periodic classification of groups, like transition elements that are about the half of chemical elements. Here we propose a new table that searches for solving many problems, even if not all. It is supposable hence that in future also this table can undergo changes and improvements because of a greater theoretical understanding and of a further experimental examination of chemical elements. The most important aspects of the new table consist in the 10+1 new groups in place of the present 7+1 and in the 15 periods in place of the present 7 periods. It allows to include inside the new table the numerous elements of transition that at present are out of a coherent classification.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29297] viXra:1905.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:37:07

### Orbital and Spin - Toyi Mechanism - Bohr model with Victoria Equation

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 24 Pages. English language. Version translated into Spanish in annex.

Bohr model coupled with Victoria Theory proposes that electron is separated into electronic extremes, achieving currently accepted electronic cloud, geometry and probability. Toyi mechanism is centred on movements of electronic extremes (orbital and spin).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29296] viXra:1905.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:48:37

### Garden-Variety Iron-Based Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna

In the pantheon of unconventional superconductors, iron selenide is a rock star. But new experiments by U.S., Chinese and European physicists have found the material's magnetic persona to be unexpectedly mundane. [30] Iron-based superconductors (IBSCs) have attracted sustained research attention over the past decade, partly because new IBSCs were discovered one after another in the earlier years. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[29295] viXra:1905.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:51:53

### Methionine Production by Coryneform Bacteria Through Fermentation

Authors: Venkata Narayana A1, Vamsi Priya A1, Venkata Nadh R, Swami AVN2, Sumalatha B3, Vijaya Leela M4

Production of L-methionine by Cornybacterium glutamicum MTCC 2745 was assessed in batch fermentation by varying parameters viz., initial glucose concentration, initial nitrogen concentration, fermentation time, temperature, pH, initial shaking rate. Nynhydrin test and paper chromatography were used to identify methionine. Methionine estimated by using nitroprusside method. Effect of nitrogen sources on methionine production was examined. The parameters such as concentrations of glucose, ammonium sulphate, K2HPO4, MgSO47H2O, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid and Yeast extract are optimized and maximum yield was 5.6 g of methionine/L.
Category: Chemistry

[29294] viXra:1905.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:53:58

### Simple and Validated Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Febuxostat in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

For estimation of the Febuxostat in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms, an ultra violet – spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated. The method employed 0.1 N NaOH as solvent. At 275 nm, the linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship with correlation coefficient value of 0.998 in the concentration range of 10 – 70 μg/ml. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.239 μg/ ml and 0.725 μg/ml respectively. The results demonstrated that the pro-cedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (R.S.D. < 2 %).
Category: Chemistry

[29293] viXra:1905.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:55:52

### Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Nicergoline Through Ion-Pair Complexation Reaction

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar1, R. Venkata Nadh, K.e.v. Nagoji3

Two simple, sensitive, selective, accurate and economical spectrophotometric methods (A and B) have been described in the present work for the determination of Nicergoline in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations (tablets). Methods – A/B are based on the formation of orange red / yellow colored ion-association complexes between Nicergoline and Tropaeolin ooo (TPooo) / Alizarine Red S (ARS) in acid medium followed by their extraction with chloroform, exhibiting absorption maxima at 490nm / 430nm, and obeying Beer’s law in the concentration range of 2.5– 12.5μg/ml. Statistical analysis of the results of the proposed methods reveals high accuracy and good precision. The proposed methods could be
Category: Chemistry

[29292] viXra:1905.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:57:26

### A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Lapatinib in Tablet Dosage form using Gemcitabine Hydrochloride as an Internal Standard

Authors: K. K. Kumar, K. E. V. Nagoji, R. V. Nadh

A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse‑phase high‑performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the determination of lapatinib in tablet using gemcitabine hydrochloride as an internal standard. Chromatography was carried out on an ODS C‑18 RP column (4.6 mm i.d. ×250 mm) using a mixture of acetonitrile and water (50:50 v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The drug was monitored at 232 nm. The retention times for lapatinib and gemcitabine hydrochloride were found to be 4.25±0.05 and 6.10±0.05 min, respectively. The method produced linear responses in the concentration range of 2‑60 μg/ml of lapatinib. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.265 and 0.884 μg/ml, respectively.
Category: Chemistry

[29291] viXra:1905.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:59:03

### Kinetics of Oxidation of Myo-Inositol by Potassium Periodate in Alkaline Medium

Kinetics of oxidation of myo-inositol by potassium periodate both in alkaline and acid media were studied. The reactions were found to be first order in case of periodate in both media. In the case of base catalyzed reactions, a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. An inverse fractional order with respect to substrate in alkaline shows the substrate inhibition. A positive fractional order was observed for substrate in acid catalyzed reactions. The dependence on hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions was found to be inverse fractional order. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for both the reactions conducted in acid and alkali media. Plausible mechanism is postulated based on experimental results.
Category: Chemistry

[29290] viXra:1905.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:00:10

### A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Febuxostat in Bulk Drugs

An accurate, sensitive, precise and robust reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the estimation of Febuxostat in bulk forms has been developed and validated. Chromatographic separation is conducted on Nucleosil C18 (250 x 4.6mm, 5μm) column at ambient temperature using mixture of 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (buffer of pH 4.0 adjusted with 0.2% triethyl amine) and acetonitrile in the ratio (15: 85, v/v) as a mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.2 ml / min, while UV detection is performed at 275nm. The retention time for Febuxostat is found to be 3.45 ± 0.05 min. The method is found to be linear in the range of 50.0 – 400.0 μg/mL. The limit of detection and quantization for Febuxostat are found to be 9.98 and 30.23 μg /mL respectively. Analytical recovery is 99.29 %. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method is found to be less than 2%. The method is validated as per the ICH guidelines and applied for the quantitative analysis of Febuxostat in bulk forms.
Category: Chemistry

[29289] viXra:1905.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:02:31

### A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Melphalan in Tablet Dosage Forms

Authors: K.Kiran Kumar1, R. Venkata Nadh

A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the determination of melphalan in tablet. The analyte was resolved by using a mobile phase (Acetonitrile, water and 1% ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 70:27:3 v/v/v) at a flow rate 1 ml/min on an isocratic HPLC system (PEAK) consisting UV-Visible detector, ODS C-18, RP column (4.6 mm i.d x250 mm) at a wavelength of 275 nm. The linear dynamic range for melphalan was 2.0 μg/mL – 14.0μg/mL. The limit of detection [LOD] and Limit of quantification [LOQ] for melphalan was 0.5μg/mL and 1.5μg/mL respectively.
Category: Chemistry

[29288] viXra:1905.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:04:47

### Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Estimation of Nicergoline in Marketed Formulations

Authors: K.Kiran Kumar, R. Venkata Nadh

A simple, selective, accurate, and economical reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for estimation of nicergoline in pharmaceutical formulations. Chromatographic separation achieved isocratically on a C18column (ODS, C18, 5μ, 250×4.6 mm i.d.) with mobile phase containing methanol, acetonitrile and 1.0 % ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 80:18:2 v/v/v. The flow rate was 1.0mL/min and effluent was monitored at 265nm. The retention time was 3.128min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. The linearity curve was found to be linear over 1.0 - 6.0 μg/mL. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.3 μg /ml and 0.9 μg /ml respectively. The proposed method was successfully used to determine the drug content of marketed formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[29287] viXra:1905.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:08:24

### Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Satranidazole in Pharmaceutical Formulations

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar1, R. Venkata Nadh

A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the determination of satranidazole in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was carried out on a isocratic ODS - C18 (250 x 4.6mm i.d.,5 μ) column with a mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile , 0.025M Ammonium phosphate buffer and 1.0% Ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 65:35:5 v/v/v) at a flow rate 1.2mL/min. Detection was carried out at 318nm using UV lamp visible detector. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and solution stability. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of satranidazole in pharmaceutical formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[29286] viXra:1905.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:10:10

### Refutation of Lattice Effect Algebra

Authors: Colin James III

A seminal definition of lattice effect algebra is not tautologous. This refutes lattice effect and lattice pseudoeffect algebras along with the chain effect of quasiresiduation. The conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Algebra

[29285] viXra:1905.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:11:11

### Kinetics of Oxidation of Iodide ion by Cerium (IV),

Kinetics of Oxidation of Iodide ion by Cerium (IV),
Category: Chemistry

[29284] viXra:1905.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:13:11

### Kinetics of Oxidation of Iodide Ion by Vanadium (V),

Kinetics of oxidation of iodide ion by Vanadium (V),
Category: Chemistry

[29283] viXra:1905.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:14:13

### Kinetic Studies of Thiocyanate and Iodide Oxidation with 2,6-Dichloro-Quinone-4-Chloro-Imide: a Novel and a New Oxidising Agent,

Kinetic Studies of thiocyanate and iodide oxidation with 2,6-dichloro-quinone-4-chloro-imide: A novel and a new oxidising agent,
Category: Chemistry

[29282] viXra:1905.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:15:47

### Kinetics of Oxidation of Ethylamine, Monoethanolamine and Benzylamine by Chloramine-T

Kinetics of oxidation of ethylamine, monoethanolamine and benzylamine by chloramine-T
Category: Chemistry

[29281] viXra:1905.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:17:44

### Kinetics of Oxidation of Aniline, P-Aminobenzoic Acid and P-Nitroaniline by 2,6-Dichloro Quionone-4-Chloro-Imide

Kinetics of oxidation of aniline, p-aminobenzoic acid and p-nitroaniline by 2,6-dichloro quionone-4-chloro-imide
Category: Chemistry

[29280] viXra:1905.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:20:22

### Kinetics of Reduction of Substituted Cobaloximes by Iron(ii)

Kinetics of reduction of substituted cobaloximes by iron(II)
Category: Chemistry

[29279] viXra:1905.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:21:46

### Kinetics of Oxidation of Ethylamine, Monethanolamine and Benzylamine by N-Bromosuccinimide,

Kinetics of oxidation of ethylamine, monethanolamine and benzylamine by N-bromosuccinimide,
Category: Chemistry

[29278] viXra:1905.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:42:36

### Glyphosate and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: no Causal Relationship

Authors: Ilija Barukčić

Objective: Herbicides are used worldwide by both residential and agricultural users. Due to the statistical analysis of some epidemiologic studies the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate (GS) in 2015, as potentially carcinogenic to humans especially with respect to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In this systematic review and re-analysis, the relationship between glyphosate and NHL was re- investigated. Methods: A systematic review and re-analysis of studies which investigated the relationship between GS and NHL was conducted. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship, the method of the conditio per quam relationship, the method of the exclusion relationship and the mathematical formula of the causal relationship k were used to proof the hypothesis. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05. Results: The studies analyzed do not provide any direct and indirect evidence that NHL is caused GS. Conclusion: In this re-analysis, no causal relationship was apparent between glyphosate and NHL and its subtypes. Keywords: Glyphosate, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, no causal relationship
Category: Statistics

[29277] viXra:1905.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 07:27:30

### Design and Calculation of 25MW Steam Turbine Course

Authors: UnChol Ri, GumChol Ri, YongSong Kim, WonZhu Kim

Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29276] viXra:1905.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 08:11:18

### Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Mars to Determine it's Age

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

In the general theory Mars is a dead star. We can figure out how old it is by measuring its atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratio against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Mars is.
Category: Astrophysics

[29275] viXra:1905.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 09:40:59

### The Generation of Mass and Its Directivity

Authors: Yongqiang Zhao

The mass of matter includes the mass of elementary particles and the interaction mass between the particles. So far there has been a great deal of research on the origin of the mass of the elementary particles, but there are few studies on the origin of the interaction mass. In this paper, we show that the electric field of a uniformly accelerating point charge in vacuum is curved toward the opposite direction of acceleration. When a positive charge system is accelerated, the interaction forces between its charges cannot cancel each other out; therefore the charge system will produce a self-action force opposite to the acceleration, thus generating interaction mass. The interaction mass is not constant, but varies with the direction of the acceleration. Finally, we conclude that the mass of object is related to its self-action and has directivity.
Category: Classical Physics

[29274] viXra:1905.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 10:24:22

### On the Decay of Atoms//О распаде атомов

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents the main reason leading directly to the spontaneous disintegration of atoms and mediocre to the forced disintegration of atoms. The article presents a method of computer modeling of the structures of atomic nuclei and the process of disintegration of these nuclei. The presented method, due to the limited capabilities of the author in creating computer simulation programs, is simplified, but indicates the direction in which studies of the structure of atoms and chemical compounds may develop in the future.// В статье представлена основная причина, приводящая непосредственно к самопроизвольному распаду атомов и посредственно к вынужденному распаду атомов. В статье представлен метод компьютерного моделирования структур атомных ядер и процесс распада этих ядер. Представленный метод из-за ограниченных возможностей автора в создании программ компьютерного моделирования упрощен, но указывает направление, в котором исследования структуры атомов и химических соединений могут развиваться в будущем.
Category: Classical Physics

[29273] viXra:1905.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 12:15:20

### Calculation of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Jesús Sánchez
Comments: 10 Pages. Published on: Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, 2018, 4, 510-518

The fine-structure constant α [1] is a constant in physics that plays a fundamental role in the electromagnetic interaction. It is a dimensionless constant, defined as: α=q^2/(2ε_0 hc)=0.0072973525664 (1) Being q the elementary charge, εo the vacuum permittivity, h the Planck constant and c the speed of light in vacuum. The value shown in (1) is according CODATA 2014 [2]. In this paper, it will be explained that the fine-structure constant is one of the roots of the following equation: cos⁡(α^(-1) )=e^(-1) (2) being e the mathematical constant e (the base of the natural logarithm). One of the solutions of this equation is: α=0.0072973520977 (3) This means that it is equal to the CODATA value in nine decimal digits (or the seven most significant ones if you prefer). And therefore, the difference between both values is: Difference=(α(1)-α(3))/(α(1))·100=0.00000642% (4) This coincidence is higher in orders of magnitude than the commonly accepted necessary to validate a theory towards experimentation. As the cosine function is periodical, the equation (2) has infinite roots and could seem the coincidence is just by chance. But as it will be shown in the paper, the separation among the different solutions is sufficiently high to disregard this possibility. It will also be shown that another elegant way to show equation (2) is the following (being i the imaginary unit): e^(i/α)-e^(-1)=-e^(-i/α)+e^(-1) (5) Having of course the same root (3). The possible meaning of this other representation (5) will be explained.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29272] viXra:1905.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 12:19:51

### The L/R Symmetry and the Categorization of Natural Numbers

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos

“Every natural number, with the exception of 0 and 1, can be written in a unique way as a linear combination of consecutive powers of 2, with the coefficients of the linear combination being -1 or +1”. According to this theorem we define the L/R symmetry of the natural numbers. The L/R symmetry gives the factors which determine the internal structure of natural numbers. As a consequence of this structure, we have an algorithm for determining prime numbers and for factorization of natural numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[29271] viXra:1905.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 16:23:26

### Expansion of Terms Squared, Square of a Binomial, Trinomial, Tetranomial and Pentanomial.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín

This document develops and demonstrates the discovery of a new square potentiation algorithm that works absolutely with all the numbers using the formula of the square of a binomial, trinomial, tetranomial and pentanomial.
Category: Algebra

[29270] viXra:1905.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 23:17:32

### An Interesting Insight Into Polyhedra Computation Based on Ppl[(parma Polyhedra Library in C++)/imagej/jiprolog/jikesrvm/java/eclipse-Ide] in the Context of Software Development Involving R&D of [ai+complex Systems+cryo-em Informatics] Using Iot/hpc Frame

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar

AN INTERESTING INSIGHT INTO POLYHEDRA COMPUTATION BASED ON PPL[(Parma Polyhedra Library in C++)/ImageJ/JIProlog/JikesRVM/Java/Eclipse-IDE] IN THE CONTEXT OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT INVOLVING R&D OF [AI+COMPLEX SYSTEMS+CRYO-EM INFORMATICS] USING IoT/HPC FRAMEWORK. [ Probing Numerical Abstractions in Engineering/Physics/Biology/Image Processing Domains ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29269] viXra:1905.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 01:17:30

### Proposal of Replacing Classical Logic with Free Logic for Reasoning with Non-Referring Names in Ordinary Discourse

Authors: Bornali Paul

Reasoning carried out in ordinary language, can not avoid using non-referring names if occasion arises. Semantics of classical logic does not fit well for dealing with sentences with non-referring names of the language. The principle of bivalence does not allow any third truth-value, it does not allow truth-value gap also. The outcome is an ad hoc stipulation that no names should be referentless. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how far free logic with supervaluational semantics is appropriate for dealing with the problems of non-referring names used in sentences of ordinary language, at the cost of validity of some of the classical logical theses/ principles.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29268] viXra:1905.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 01:46:04

### Entanglement Inside Protons

Authors: George Rajna

Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29267] viXra:1905.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 01:49:55

### The Henstock-Kurzweil-Feynman-Pardy Integral in Quantum Physics

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 10 Pages. The original ideas published in reputable journals

The Feynman integral is generalised so as to involve the random fluctuations of vacuum, from this integral the generalized Schroedinger equation is derived and the energy spectrum for the Coulomb potential determined.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29266] viXra:1905.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 02:23:58

### Righteousness and the Merciful Act

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

The permanent desolation of the Christian hierarchy.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[29265] viXra:1905.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 05:38:46

### Live and Lifeless Physics Eyes

Authors: A.I.Somsikov

Physical distinction of live and lifeless objects is considered
Category: Classical Physics

[29264] viXra:1905.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 07:00:19

### From Pythagorean Theorem to Cosine Theorem.

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo

Easy and natural demonstration of the cosine theorem, based on the extension of the Pythagorean theorem.
Category: Geometry

[29263] viXra:1905.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 07:47:20

### Biological Nanometer Scale

Authors: George Rajna

Synthetic proteins have been created that move in response to their environment in predictable and tunable ways. [32] Bioinspired materials mimic their natural counterparts for characteristic functionality in multidisciplinary applications forming a popular theme in biomaterials development. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29262] viXra:1905.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 08:31:16

### The Results of the Study Planck Point

Authors: Sergey Belykh
Comments: 7 Pages. Подход к исследованию дан в книге "Планковская физика", ISBN 5-85106-028-5

The approach to the laws of Nature in the language of geometry gave access to a point with Planck parameters, which is the intersection of two lines - the line of quanta of the electromagnetic field and the line of black holes. At the same time, the parameters of the Planck point are the limiting constants of the properties of the center of the core of the Universe. The numerical agreement of the constants allowed us to further make their symbolic agreement using two dimensional units - the Planck radius and the Planck time.
Category: Astrophysics

[29261] viXra:1905.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 08:13:18

### Laser of Sound Promises

Authors: George Rajna

Most people are familiar with optical lasers through their experience with laser pointers. But what about a laser made from sound waves? [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29260] viXra:1905.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 09:11:46

### Cholesterol Destruction Code

Authors: George Rajna

A team of UNSW scientists at the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences led by Professor Andrew Brown have shown how a key enzyme that contributes to cholesterol production can be regulated-and destroyed-using a particular molecule. [33] Synthetic proteins have been created that move in response to their environment in predictable and tunable ways. [32] Bioinspired materials mimic their natural counterparts for characteristic functionality in multidisciplinary applications forming a popular theme in biomaterials development. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29259] viXra:1905.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 09:29:31

### Imaging a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna

US computer scientist Katie Bouman, who became a global sensation over her role in generating the world's first image of a black hole, has described the painstaking process as akin to listening to a piano with broken keys. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[29258] viXra:1905.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 10:04:52

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

In stellar metamorphosis dead stars are made of rocks, minerals and metal. Though, just because a star is dead does not mean it is the same age as other dead stars. A good analogy would be a fossilized brontosaurus skull is vastly older than a fossilized mammoth skull, which in turn is magnitudes older than the people that were buried due to dying of the black plague from 1346-1353. There are different levels of being dead for a star, recently dead, mature, ancient and archaic. A simple graph is used to explain the levels of "dead".
Category: Astrophysics

[29257] viXra:1905.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 10:10:51

### The Complete Theory of Everything: a Proposal

Authors: Rahula T.R. Latchman, Gemma F. Lopez

This paper presents a model that bridges the gap between general relativity and quantum mechanics by providing a new understanding of space and time. The core principle of this formulation is impermanence, the fact that energy is never static, which has non-obvious consequences at the quantum level and leads to a formulation of quantum gravity. The results allow for a new interpretation of black holes and a resolution of the black hole information paradox. The model also presents the causes leading to the Big Bang as well as the Universe evolution, oﬀering a new perspective on galaxy formation and a natural explanation to the origin of dark matter, dark energy and the matter-antimatter asymmetry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29256] viXra:1905.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 15:08:29

### Conjecture Sur Les Familles Exponentielles

in this article we will establish some properties of random variables and then we will propose a conjecture related to the exponential family. This conjecture seems interesting to me. Our results are based on the consideration of continuous random variables $X_{i}$ defined on the same space $\Omega$ and the same super-extra density law of parameter $\theta_{i}$ and canonique function $T$ Let $n\in \mathbb{N}^{*}$ Considering the random variable $J$ and $I$ a subsect of $\{1,2,..n\}$ such that : $X_{J}=\inf_{i\in I}(X_{i})$ we show that : $$\forall i\in I:\mathbb{P}( J=i)=\frac{\theta_{i}\prod_{j\in I}c(\theta_{j})}{\sum_{j\in I}\theta_{j}}\int_{T(\Omega)}e^{-x}dx$$. We conjecture that if the density of $X_{i}$ is $c(\theta_{i})e^{-\theta_{i}T(x)}\mathbf{1}_{\Omega}(x)$ Hence $\exists h,r$ two functions h such that $$\forall i\in I:\mathbb{P}( J=i)=\frac{r(\theta_{i})\prod_{j\in I}h(\theta_{j})}{\sum_{j\in I}r(\theta_{j})}\int_{T(\Omega)}e^{-x}dx$$
Category: Statistics

[29255] viXra:1905.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 18:07:48

### The Accelerating Universe, Dark Energy and the Alpha Variation

Authors: Tony Bermanseder

The experimental data collected by the various supernova observers, and under utility of the Hubble Space Telescope to track the brightness variations of discovered supernovae type Ia, now converged in 1998 to the conclusion, that distant supernovae are between 20% and 30% dimmer than expected and as a consequence of their measured redshift they appear to be further away than theory permits. An interpretation of this discovery implies, that the universe's expansion is accelerating; the measured redshift depicting a distance further away for a dimmer brightness than anticipated by theory. Closer analysis of the redshift data shows an expected distribution of luminosity, calibrated to their distances in the Chilean Cala-Tololo data, up to a redshift of about 0.11 and with a redshift-gap until a redshift of 0.3; after which the 'High-Z's' begin to show the 'curving away' from a predicted decelerating expansion rate in concordance with an Euclidean flat universe of Einsteinian General Relativity. The highest redshift recorded in 1998 was that of 'supernova Iae' at (z=1.1) by the 'High-Z-Team'. Why is there a redshift gap between z=0.11 and z=0.30 approximately? Does this imply a scarcity of supernovas in this redshift interval or is there a cosmological reason for this gap? Is this cosmological reason at the core of the Dark Energy implication and the 'factuality' of an accelerating universe? This treatise shall elucidate the cosmological nature of Dark Energy and the inferred accelerating cosmology of an accelerating universe, stipulated to begin some 5-6 Billion years ago and as a change from a measured deceleration from light speed in the early universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29254] viXra:1905.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 00:38:30

### The Secret of the Neutron-Revealed//Тайна нейтрона раскрыта

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents a physical mechanism that provides a stable arrangement of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.// В статье представлен физический механизм, который обеспечивает стабильное расположение протонов и нейтронов в ядре атома.
Category: Classical Physics

[29253] viXra:1905.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:28:38

### More On Reality

Authors: Bertrand Wong

Reality is existence, fact, truth. As intelligent beings, we are always concerned with reality or the truth and abhor lies, fakeness, falsity. But we are also not averse to using falsity and lies to deceive others in order to achieve our objectives. Who has never lied before? As the interpretation of reality has a tendency to be subjective it is often difficult to differentiate between the real, the truth, and the unreal, the false. This paper is a continuation of the author’s earlier paper “Reality”; it probes further into reality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29252] viXra:1905.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:47:28

### Design, Synthesis and Anti-Tumour Activity of New Pyrimidine-Pyrrole Appended Triazoles

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Yamini Bobde ⁠c, Balaram Ghosh ⁠c, Kondapalli Venkata Gowri Chandra Sekhar

The new pyrimidine-pyrrole scaffolds (7a–7m) with substituted 1,2,3-traizole moiety were synthesized in good to mild yields and subjected for anti-cancer activity against melanoma and breast cancer cell lines using MTT assay. The compounds 7f and 7m exhibited highest anti-cancer activity against both the tested cell lines in in vitro assay. The molecular docking analysis provided the insights of binding orientation of pyrimidine-pyrrole nucleus of current ligands and their crucial interactions with Cys797 and other residues of the EGFR tyrosine kinase active site. The interactions of triazole and its various substituted groups with EGFR tyrosine kinase have been discussed
Category: Chemistry

[29251] viXra:1905.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:53:49

### Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemigliptin Using Charge Transfer Complex

A visible spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of gemigliptin present in bulk drug and tablet formulation. It involves an indirect method of charge transfer complex formation in presence of NBS, metol and suphanilic acid. Gemigliptin was subjected to oxidation with excess amount of oxidant (NBS) and the unconsumed NBS oxidizes metol to give p-N-methylbenzoquinone monoamine (PNMM) which in turn forms a charge transfer complex with sulphanilic acid. Then validated the above developed method as per the current ICH guidelines. An excellent correlation coefficient (> 0.999) was found for the obtained regression equation (y = –0.0302x + 0.928) in the range of 2.0–30.0 μg mL-1. The method was found to be simple and rapid because it does not involve any solvent extraction. The recovery levels of the drug were in the range 99.92 – 100.08.
Category: Chemistry

[29250] viXra:1905.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:55:32

### Oxidative Coupling Reaction for the Determination of Lurasidone

Authors: M. S. Sudhira, R. Venkata Nadh, H. Manjunatha

A simple, sensitive, precise, accurate, highly reproducible and economical, visible spectrophotometric method for the determination lurasidone in bulk form was developed and validated. The method is based on the formation of an oxidative coupling product by the reaction of lurasidone with 3-methylbenzothiazolin- 2-one hydrazone as a chromogenic reagent in presence of ferric chloride. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship within the concentration range of 0–100 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) value of 0.9997. The limits of detection and quantitation are 0.6 and 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The method was tested and validated according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (RSD < 2%).
Category: Chemistry

[29249] viXra:1905.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:58:01

### Novel Pyrazolyl Benzoxazole Conjugates: Design, Synthesis, Molecular Docking Studies and in vitro Anticancer Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu1, Narayana Murthy Ganta3

Abstract: Background: Nowadays, hybrid drugs have gained a significant role in the treatment of different health problems. Most of the hybrid molecules with different heterocyclic moieties were proved to be potent anti-tumor agents in cancer chemotherapy. Hence, the present study is aimed at the evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of novel hybrid molecules (pyrazolyl benzoxazole conjugates) and to investigate their anticancer activity by molecular docking studies. Methods: Designed, synthesized and characterized the novel pyrazolyl benzoxazole conjugates. Anticancer activity of these compounds was determined by SRB assay. Then molecular docking studies were carried out against proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (ATP-Src, PDB: 2BDF), a putative target for cancer. Results: All the synthesized compound derivatives were evaluated against MCF-7, KB, Hop62 and A549 cancer cell lines. Compounds 9b and 9c exhibited excellent anticancer activities with GI50 values of <0.1 μM against MCF-7 and A549 cell lines. Compound 9e exhibited good antitumor activity on MCF-7 and A-549 with GI50 values of 0.12 μM and 0.19 μM respectively. Compound 9g showed better anticancer activity on A-549 cancer cell line with GI50 value of 0.34 μM. Conclusion: The two-hybrid molecules 9b and 9c are found to be comparably potent with the standard drug doxorubicin and may act as drug lead compounds in medicinal chemistry aspect. The present docking investigation proved that having benzoxazole of compound 9c at benzofuran of reference compound N-acetyl pyrazoline derivative might be valid for contributing to anti-cancer activity.
Category: Chemistry

[29248] viXra:1905.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:00:27

### Determination of Riociguat by Oxidative Coupling Using Visible Spectrophotometry

A simple spectrophotometric method was developed to determine riociguat in bulk and tablet formulation. The present method lies on the oxidation of MBTH by Fe+3 ions in acidic medium to form active coupling species and followed by its coupling with riociguat to form the chromophore having lmax 660 nm. Validated the proposed method as per the existing guidelines of ICH. Good linearity (r~ 0.999) was observed for calibration curve in the studied concentration range (6.25 – 37.50 μg mL-1). Reproducibility, accuracy and precision of the method were confirmed from low values of % RSD.
Category: Chemistry

[29247] viXra:1905.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:02:00

### Determination of Satranidazole Through Ion-Associative Complex Reaction

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar, R.Venkata Nadh, M. Siva Kishore1, G. Giri Prasad3

A simple, selective, accurate and low-cost spectrophotometric method has been described for determination of satranidazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The developed method involves the formation of chloroform extractable colored ion-association complex of satranidazole with Tropaeolin OOO (TPooo). The extracted colored complex showed absorbance maximum at wavelength 484 nm and obeying Beer′s law in the concentration 4-20 μg mL-1 with the correlation coeffiecent of 0.9998. The results of statistical analysis of the proposed method reveals high accuracy and good precession. Thus, the proposed method can be used commercially for the determination of satranidazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[29246] viXra:1905.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:03:35

### Ninhydrin Based Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemigliptin

A simple method is described to determine the amount of gemigliptin in bulk and tablet formulation by visible spectrophotometry. Basis of the proposed method is the reaction of the primary amine present on gemigliptin with ninhydrin in alkaline pH (alkaline borate buffer) medium to produce a purple color (Ruhemann’s purple) which has maximum absorption at 558 nm. The method was validated as per the current ICH guidelines. The obtained regression equation (y = 0.0148x+0.0011) in the range of 5-30 μg mL-1 has a good correlation coefficient (> 0.999). As the method does not require any separation, it is rapid and simple. The recovery levels of the drug were in the range of 99.73 – 99.96. This method is a green method as it no organic solvents were employed.
Category: Chemistry

[29245] viXra:1905.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:05:22

### Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Ulipristal Acetate using Naphthol Blue Black

Ulipristal acetate is used to treat uterine fibroids and for emergency birth control. The present study is a first report on development of a visible spectrophotometric method for determination of Ulipristal acetate present in bulk and tablet formulation. The method involves the sequential addition of HCl (0.1 N) and Napthol Blue Black solution to Ulipristal acetate. Cation formed on tertiary amine group of Ulipristal acetate attracts anion of naphthol blue black (an acid dye) to develop a coloured ion-association complex. From the aqueous phase, the chromophore is extractable into chloroform, which exhibits λmax at 640 nm. As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (2.50 – 15.00 μg mL-1). The % recovery values falls in 99.80 – 100.72 range. %RSD results of both precision studies were observed in the range 0.007 – 0.560, indicating the satisfactory precision of the method. Low values of R.S.D. (< 1 %) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise. The proposed method can be used in quality control laboratories for routine analysis of Ulipristal acetate (bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms) without requirement of expensive instruments.
Category: Chemistry

[29244] viXra:1905.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:07:35

### Piperacillin Estimation by Ion-Associative Complex Formation

Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a simple, validated, and affordable visible spectrophotometric method for determination of piperacillin (PIP) present in bulk and powder for injection formulation. Methods: In the present method, cobalt thiocyanate (CTC) was used as a chromogenic reagent where it forms 2:1 ion pair complex at pH 2 with PIP which is having secondary and tertiary amine groups. Results: The formed bluish-green colored ion pair between PIP and CTC is quantitatively extractable into nitrobenzene with an absorption maximum of 665 nm. Regression analysis (r=0.9996) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (3–18 μg/mL). Low values of relative standard deviation (<2%) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate, and precise. Conclusions: As per the existing guidelines of ICH (international council for harmonization of technical requirements for pharmaceuticals for human use), various parameters of the proposed method were tested for validation and can be used method of choice for routine analysis in industrial quality control laboratories, especially in developing countries.
Category: Chemistry

[29243] viXra:1905.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:11:37

### Ion Associative Complex Formation for the Stimation of Piperacillin

Ion associative complex formation for the stimation of piperacillin
Category: Chemistry

[29242] viXra:1905.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:13:33

### Determination of Mianserine Using Fe3+-Phenanthroline by Visible Spectrophotometry

Mianserin is used as an antidepressant medication. A visible spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of Mianserine present in bulk and tablet formulation. The basis of the proposed method is formation of a chromophore (of λ max 484 nm) in presence of Fe3+-Phenanthroline. Optimization of reaction conditions was carried out to get highly sensitive and stable colored complex. The proposed method does not require a pre-treatment process. The method has the advantage of simple, reproducible, selective and sensitive. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (1 – 6 μg mL-1). The % recovery values falls in 98.00 – 99.66 range. As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. %RSD results of both precision studies were observed in the range 0.181 – 0.530 and -0.135 – 0.408 respectively, indicating the satisfactory precision of the method. Low values of R.S.D. (< 2 %) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis of Mianserine (bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms) in quality control laboratories, as an alternative to the methods which require expensive instruments.
Category: Chemistry

[29241] viXra:1905.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:16:43

### Determination of Mianserin Using Tropaeolin-Ooo by Ion Pair Formation

Objective: The present study was aimed at the development of a simple visible spectrophotometric method for the assay of mianserin, a drug used for the treatment of depression. Methods: The method was developed using tropaeolin-ooo (TPooo) as an ion associative complex forming a chromophore. Developed the chromophore by sequential mixing of aqueous solutions of mianserin, hydrochloric acid, and TPooo. Chromophore was extracted into an organic solvent (chloroform) and absorbance values of organic layers were measured. As per the existing guidelines of an international conference on harmonization (ICH), various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Results: At the optimized reaction conditions, the formed chromophore (λ max Conclusion: Due to lack of pre-treatment process for this method, it was simple. All the tested parameters of the method were validated as per ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[29240] viXra:1905.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:19:27

### Pharmacological Review of Caralluma r.br: A Potential Herbal Genus

In history, medicinal plants were proven as a source of active compounds with therapeutic applications, and at present, they are an important collection for the discovery of novel drug leads. Caralluma is a genus used as traditional medicine. The present article thoroughly reviewed about the classification of Caralluma into subgenera, number of its species, its distribution in different parts of the world, and pharmacological activities exhibited by different species of Caralluma.
Category: Chemistry

[29239] viXra:1905.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:21:12

### Diazo Coupling for the Determination of Selexipag by Visible Spectrophotometry

Aim and Objective: The aim and objective of this study were to develop a spectrophotometric method for the assay of selexipag (selective IP prostacyclin receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations so that it will be an alternative quantitative method to chromatographic methods which require large quantities of organic solvents, where some are with hazardous and toxic properties. Materials and Methods: The method is based on the diazo coupling of selexipag with diazotized p-nitroaniline in alkaline medium to form a stable green-colored and water-soluble azo dye with a maximum absorption at 510 nm. Optimization of reaction conditions was carried out to get highly sensitive and stable colored complex. Results and Discussion: Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 2–12 μg/mL with a molar absorptivity of 3.33 × 104 L/mol/cm. The limit of detection was 0.35 μg/mL and limit of quantification was 1.0 μg/mL. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise, and reproducible (relative standard deviation <2%). Conclusions: This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to the current ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[29238] viXra:1905.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:22:38

### Ion-pair Formation for the Determination of Mianserin Using Fast Sulphon Black F

Aim: The objective of the current study is to develop a colorimetric method for the determination of mianserin, an antidepressant drug. Materials and Methods: Fast Sulphon Black F, an acidic dye was used to develop a soluble colored ion-pair complex. The complex was extracted into an organic solvent and absorbance was measured. Results: Reaction conditions were optimized to obtain a sensitive and stable chromophore (λmax 554 nm) in dichloromethane. Good linearity was observed for the calibration curve plotted in the studied concentration range (4–14 μg/mL) with regression analysis (r > 0.9997). High percentage recovery values (98.25–101.40) show that the method is accurate. Reproducibility of the method is evident from lower relative standard deviation (<2%) for both intra- and inter-day precision studies. Conclusions: The proposed method is validated as per the existing ICH guidelines. This method is simple as it does not require any pre-treatment process.
Category: Chemistry

[29237] viXra:1905.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:34:18

### Oxidative Coupling: A Tranquil Approach for Determination of Selexipag by Visible Spectrophotometry

The present study is a first report on development of a spectrophotometric method for determination of selexipag (used to cure pulmonary arterial hypertension) in bulk and tablet formulation and its validation. The basis of the proposed method is formation of a chromophore (of λ max 600 nm) in presence of acidic ferric chloride by oxidative coupling reaction between selexipag and MBTH (3-methylbenzo-thiazolin-2-one hydrazone) solution. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (5 – 30 μg mL-1). As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Low values of R.S.D. (< 2%) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise.
Category: Chemistry

[29236] viXra:1905.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:35:59

### Phtytochemical Library of Caralluma Genus

Phtytochemical Library of Caralluma Genus
Category: Chemistry

[29235] viXra:1905.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:37:23

### Synthesis and Antitumor Activity Evaluation of 2-Aminothiazoles Appended 5-Methylisoxazoline and Pyridine-Piperazine Hybrid Molecules

A highly efficient and milder protocol for the syntheses of novel series of 2-aminothiazoles bearing 5-methylisoxazoline and pyridine-piperazine hybrid molecules has been developed. The target compounds 13a-e were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity activity against various tumor cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HCT-116 (colorectal carcinoma), Jurkat (human Tcell leukemia) and THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia). The bioactive assay showed most of the new compounds exhibited promising results in comparison with the parental Sunitinib. The synthesized compounds could well be used in the future as lead anticancer drugs in drug development studies. The synthesized compounds were fully characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectral data.
Category: Chemistry

[29234] viXra:1905.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:39:52

### LC-MS Compatible Stability Indicating RP-Uplc Method for the Estimation of Ester Prodrug of Mycophenolic Acid in Injection Formulation

Authors: 58.G. Venkata Narasimha Rao, Muralee Krishna, Ravi Kumar Bellam, R. Venkata Nadh

LC-MS compatible stability indicating RP-UPLC method for the estimation of ester prodrug of mycophenolic acid in injection formulation
Category: Chemistry

[29233] viXra:1905.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:41:23

### A Study on Extraction of Plant Based Bio Colours

Authors: P.Vijetha, R. Venkata Nadh, K. Ramesh Naidu, T.Swapna Sundari

Most of the synthetic colours are carcinogenic. Many natural colours are thought to play- a significant role in preventing or delaying the onset of many diseases. Optimized conditions were arrived for the extraction of plant based biocolours based on the literature survey. In the present study, extraction of bixin from annatto seeds was carried out using ethyl acetate and ethanol. A pure bixin is obtained by precipitating from petroleum ether. A simple method for preparing butter colour from annatto seeds is tested using castor oil and groundnut seed oil. Lycopene was extracted from tomatoes using ethyl acetate as a solvent and further purified by successive recrystallisation from ethyl acetate and ethanol. A stable oleoresin of lycopene was prepared in soybean oil. Purity of extracted colours is established from spectral studies.
Category: Chemistry

[29232] viXra:1905.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:42:54

### In-Vivo Evaluation of Rifampicin Loaded Nanospheres: Biodistribution and Mycobacterium Screening Studies

Authors: Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Beeram, Krupanidhi S, Venkata Nadh R

Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres are formulated with a specific goal in order to decrease the dose, adverse effects and to enhance targeted drug delivery. Rifampicin nanospheres were prepared and evaluated by emulsion solvent evaporation method. In vivo bio distribution studies reveal that there was a long term accumulation of rifampicin nanospheres in the lungs over other organs. The increase in Cmax values confirmed that inhalable PLGA nanospheres are suitable for targeting and providing sustained release of antitubercular drugs to lungs. So inhalation is a selected administration route of Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres. The in vivo screening of M. tuberculosis showed good activity as well as its activity against multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis and against M. tuberculosis isolates in a potentially latent state, makes Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres as an attractive drug dosage form for the therapy of tuberculosis. It can be concluded that there is a significant potential for effective oral delivery as well as nasal delivery of the Nanospheres for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Category: Chemistry

[29231] viXra:1905.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:44:25

### Development and Validation of Uplc Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Carvedilol and Ivabradine in the Presence of Degradation Products Using Doe Concept

A methodical design-of-experiments were performed by applying quality-by-design concepts to establish a design-space for simultaneous and rapid quantification of Carvedilol and Ivabradine by UPLC in the presence of degradation products. Response-surface, central-composite design, and quadratic model were employed for statistical assessment of experimental data using the Design-Expert software. Response variables such as resolution and retention time were analyzed statistically for chromatographic screening. During DoE study, various plots such as perturbation, contour, 3D and design-space plots were considered for method optimization. The method was developed using C8 [100 � 2.1 mm, 1.8 μ] UPLC column, mobile phase comprising 0.5% triethylamine buffer [pH 6.4] and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 v/v, the flow rate of 0.4 mL minute−1 and UV detection at 285 nm for both Carvedilol and Ivabradine. The method was developed with a short run time of two minutes. The method was found to be linear in the range of 25.0–199.9 μg mL−1 and 8.9–21.3 μg mL−1 for Carvedilol and Ivabradine, respectively with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 in each case. The recovery values were found in the range of 99.7–100.8% and 98.9–100.9% for Carvedilol and Ivabradine, respectively. The method was validated according to ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[29230] viXra:1905.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:46:27

### Novel Hybrid Molecules of Quinazoline Chalcone Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Kishore Kaushal3

Background: A new series of quinazoline linked chalcone conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity. Methods: The quinazoline-chalcone derivatives (13a-r) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of various substituted benzaldehydes (12a-r) with substituted l-(4-(3,4- dihydroquinazolin-4-ylamino)phenyl)ethanone (11a-b) in the presence of aqueous NaOH. Three potential compounds 13f, 13g and 13h exhibited cytotoxicity against leukemia (GI50 value of 1.07, 0.26 and 0.24 μM), Non-small lung (GI50 values of 2.05,1.32 and 0.23 μM), colon (GI50 values of 0.54, 0.34 and 0.34 μM) and breast (GI50 values of 2.17, 1.84 and 0.22 μM) cell line, respectively. Results and Conclusion: Based on these biological results, it is evident that compound 13h has the potential to be considered for further detailed studies either alone or in combination with existing therapies as potential anticancer agents.
Category: Chemistry

[29229] viXra:1905.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:48:05

### Novel Hybrid Molecules of Isoxazole Chalcone Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu1, Kishore Kaushal3

Background: Now-a-days, the model of “hybrid drugs” has acquired recognition in medicine due to their significant role in the treatment of different health problems. Methods: We have synthesized new series of isoxazole-chalcone conjugates (14a-m) by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of suitable substituted acetophenones with isoxazole aldehydes (12a-d). In vitro cytotoxic activity of the synthesized compounds was studied against four different selected human cancer cell lines by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) method. Results: The adopted scheme resulted in good yields of new series of isoxazole-chalcone conjugates (14a-m). Potent cytotoxic activity was observed for compounds -14a, 14b, 14e, 14i, 14j and 14k against prostate DU-145 cancer cell line. Conclusion: The observed potent cytotoxic activities were due to the presence of 3,4,5- trimethoxyphenyl group.
Category: Chemistry

[29228] viXra:1905.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:49:37

### Evaluation of in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Caralluma Lasiantha for Scientific Validation of Indian Traditional Medicine

Caralluma lasiantha is used as a traditional medicine in India to heal body heat and inflammations. In order to find out a scientific validation for the Indian traditional knowledge, antibacterial activity of C. lasiantha extracts was studied against inflammation causing bacteria (viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus Sp., Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae) along with other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Solvents with different polarity were used for extraction from dry roots and stems. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were also studied. Differential antibacterial activity was exhibited by extracts and higher inhibition potential against Gram-positive bacteria was explained. The observed antibacterial activities were correlated with the chemical structures of phytochemicals present in C. lasiantha. Anti-inflammation activities are related to C. lasiantha extracts through their antibacterial activities.
Category: Chemistry

[29227] viXra:1905.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:52:32

### Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity Studies of 2, 4 di Substituted Furan Derivatives

Synthesis and antibacterial activity studies of 2, 4- di substituted furan derivatives
Category: Chemistry

[29226] viXra:1905.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:56:11

### Utilization of Agro-Waste for Removal of Toxic Hexavalent Chromium: Surface Interaction and Mass Transfer Studies

Authors: R. P. Mokkapati, V. N. Ratnakaram, J. S. Mokkapati

Abundantly available agricultural waste materials (banana bunch, sorghum stem and casuarinas fruit) are processed with negligible cost and are found to be highly suitable as biosorbents for chromium(VI) removal from aqueous environment due to high surface area and functional groups of adsorbents. The equilibrium data have been analyzed for the adsorbate–adsorbate/adsorbent interactions and found to be fitted to the data in the order, Hill–de Boer C Fowler–Guggenheim % Frumkin[Kiselev. To determine the characteristic parameters for process design, mass transfer studies have been carried out using two-parameter isotherm models (Harkins–Jura, Halsey, Smith, El-Awady and Flory–Huggins) and three-parameter isotherm models (Redlich–Peterson and Sips) which are applied to the experimental data. The fitness of the isotherms describes that both mono- and multilayer adsorptions occur in the present studied three biosorbents in preference to the latter. The mechanism of adsorption has been studied using diffusion kinetic models (viz. liquid film diffusion, Dunwald–Wagner intra-particle diffusion model and moving boundary model) and described the possibility of diffusion in the order of banana bunch–stem powder[ sorghum stem powder[casuarinas fruit powder in terms of diffusion coefficients. In essence of all the results, the selected adsorbents can be used as a potential adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.
Category: Chemistry

[29225] viXra:1905.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:59:03

### A Convenient New and Efficient Commercial Synthetic Route for Dasatinib (Sprycel®)

A new and efficient synthetic route for dual-Src/Abl kinase inhibitor dasatinib (Sprycel®), an anticancer drug, is described. This commercially viable process yields dasatinib monohydrate free of potential impurities with consistent yield of 68% in route A and 61% in route B with HPLC purity >99.80% over four stages.
Category: Chemistry

[29224] viXra:1905.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:01:17

### Quality-by-Design-Based Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Uplc Method for Quantification of Teriflunomide in the Presence of Degradation Products and Its Application to Invitro Dissolution

A systematic design-of-experiments was performed by applying quality-by-design concepts to determine design space for rapid quantification of teriflunomide by the ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method in the presence of degradation products. Response surface and central composite quadratic were used for statistical evaluation of experimental data using a Design-Expert software. The response variables such as resolution, retention time, and peak tailing were analyzed statistically for the screening of suitable chromatographic conditions. During this process, various plots such as perturbation, contour, 3D, and design space were studied. The method was developed through UPLC BEH C18 2.1 � 100 mm, 1.7-μ column, mobile phase comprised of buffer (5 mM K2HPO4 containing 0.1% triethylamine, pH 6.8), and acetonitrile (40:60 v/v), the flow rate of 0.5 mL min 1 and UV detection at 250 nm. The method was developed with a short run time of 1 min. Forced degradation studies revealed that the method was stability-indicating, suitable for both assay and in-vitro dissolution of a drug product. The method was found to be linear in the range of 28–84 μg mL 1, 2.8–22.7 μg mL 1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and 1.000 for assay and dissolution, respectively. The recovery values were found in the range of 100.1–101.7%. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[29223] viXra:1905.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:03:10

### Supercritical Fluid (Co2) Chromatography for Quantitative Determination of Selected Cancer Therapeutic Drugs in the Prescence of Potential Impurities in Injection Formulations

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao G., Ravi B., Jalandhar D., Manoj P., R. Venkata Nadh

In the present study, two cancer therapeutic drugs (docetaxel and bortezomib) were separated from their potential impurities on a chromatographic platform by utilizing CO2 gas (supercritical state) and quantified. The chromatographic separations were achieved on two short columns BEH-2EP (100mm 3mm, 1.7 mm) and CHIRALPAK AD-3 (100 mm 4.6 mm, 3 mm) for docetaxel and bortezomib, respectively. The present work describes the role of organic modifiers in the separation of polar compounds by supercritical fluid chromatography. The two new methods were fully validated in accordance with the current ICH (International Council for Harmonization of technical requirements for pharmaceuticals for human use) guidelines. The stability indicating power of the methods was demonstrated from the stress studies conducted on the injection formulations of the two compounds. The methods are precise with % RSD of 0.4, linear with the correlation coefficient of r2 \$ 0.999 and accurate in the range of 50–150% of the target assay concentration. The two methods can be equally employed for the assay determination of docetaxel and bortezomib APIs as well.
Category: Chemistry

[29222] viXra:1905.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:04:38

### Phytochemical Screening of Caralluma Lasiantha Isolation of C21 Pregnane Steroid

Phytochemical screening of Caralluma lasiantha was carried out and one C21 pregnane steroid was isolated from chloroform extract. Based on spectroscopic studies (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESI-MS) the isolated compound is 3b,14b-dihydroxy-14b-pregn-5-en-20-one which was earlier isolated from other species.
Category: Chemistry

[29221] viXra:1905.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:48:48

### Refutation of Tarski’s Geometric Axioms and Betweenness

Authors: Colin James III

Of 13 equations evaluated, five are tautologous and eight are non tautologous. This refutes Tarski’s geometric axioms and betweenness which form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29220] viXra:1905.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:52:21

### Phytochemical Investigation of Caralluma Lasiantha: Isolation of Stigmasterol, an Active Immunomodulatory Agent

Authors: Malladi S1, Ratnakaram VN, Suresh Babu K, Pullaiah T

Stigmasterol, a phytosteroid was isolated for the first time from C. lasiantha using n-hexane as a solvent. Stigmasterol was characterized on the basis of physical, chemical and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1HNMR, DEPT-45, 90 & 135, and MS) analysis as well as by comparing them to their literature data. A sequence of steps was adopted like saponification, fractional crystallization and gradient elution column chromatography to isolate stigmasterol because some phytosterols possess identical physical properties which makes it difficult to isolate the constituents.
Category: Chemistry

[29219] viXra:1905.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:53:53

### Caralluma Lasiantha: a Review on It’s Vital Role in Indian Traditional Medicine

Caralluma is a genus used as traditional medicine. Caralluma lasiantha is medicinally important due to existence of pregnane glycosides, which may possess various biological activities. This article thoroughly reviewed about the usage of C. lasiantha in traditional medicinal system, phytochemicals present in it, profile identification studies, anti-hyperglycemic effect, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities.
Category: Chemistry

[29218] viXra:1905.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:55:23

### Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Plerixafor and Related Substances in an Injection Formulation

Authors: G. Venkata Narasimha Rao, B. Ravi1, M. Sunil Kumar1, P. Manoj1, R. Venkata Nadh

Plerixafor (PLX) injections are administered to patients with cancers of lymphocytes (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma) and plasma cells (multiple myeloma). The main objective of the current study was to develop a short reverse phase chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of PLX and its impurities, in an injection formulation, to reduce the time required for these quality tests. Furthermore, the present work describes the role of nonalkyl branched nonquaternary ion pair reagent in improving the peak shape and reducing column equilibration time. The separation of PLX and its related substances is pH dependent (optimum pH = 2.50) and was achieved on an octadecylsilyl (C18) column. The method was validated for its intended purpose in accordance with the current regulatory guidelines for validation. The proposed method can be applied for quality control, release, and stability analyses of active pharmaceutical ingredient, PLX, as well as finished products, PLX injections.
Category: Chemistry

[29217] viXra:1905.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:57:15

### Novel Coumarin Isoxazoline Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of Antibacterial Activities

Authors: Garbapu Suresh, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Kishore Kaushal

A highly efficient and mild protocol for the syntheses of ethyl-3- [7-benzyloxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-8-chromenyl]-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-4- isoxazole carboxylates and ethyl-3-[7-benzyloxy-3-chloro-4-methyl-2- oxo-2H-8-chromenyl]-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-4-isoxazole carboxylates in good yields via [3 þ 2] cycloaddition of in situ–generated nitrile oxides from 7-benzyloxy-4-methyl-coumarin hydroxymoylchlorides and 7-benzyloxy-3-chloro-4-methyl-coumarin hydroxymoylchlorides respectively with ethyl-3-aryl prop-2-enoate has been developed. The new compounds are screened for antibacterial activity.
Category: Chemistry

[29216] viXra:1905.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:59:11

### Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Studies on Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions Using Agro-Waste Biomaterials, Casuarina Equisetifolia L. and Sorghum Bicolor

Authors: Mokkapati Ramya Prasanthi, Mokkapati Jayasravanthi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh,

Removal of Cr(VI) by biosorption on two agro waste materials, casuarinas fruit powder (CFP) and sorghum stem powder (SSP), has been investigated. The prepared adsorbent materials were characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR and BET. These biomaterials effectively removed Cr(VI) with a maximum removal of 93.35% and 63.75% using 15 gL−1 and 5 gL−1 of CFP and SSP, respectively, at 60 oC with 20mgL−1 initial Cr(VI) concentration in solution. In both cases of adsorbents, kinetic data of adsorption fitted well in pseudo-second-order in terms of correlation coefficient (R2). This helps in proposing the process of adsorption as chemical coordination, which is correlated with the thermodynamic study results conducted at different values of temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R models were evaluated for description of metal sorption isotherms. Values of coefficients of intra-particle diffusion and mass transfer have also been determined at different values of temperature.
Category: Chemistry

[29215] viXra:1905.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:01:07

### Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamics Investigation on Adsorption of Divalent Copper Using Agro-Waste Biomaterials, Musa Acuminata, Casuarina Equisetifolia L. and Sorghum Bicolor

Authors: Ramya Prasanthi Mokkapati1, Jayasravanthi Mokkapati, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram

Three novel and distinct agricultural waste materials, viz., Casuarinas fruit powder (CFP), sorghum stem powder (SSP) and banana stem powder (BSP) were used as low cost adsorbents for the removal of toxic copper(II) from aqueous solutions. Acid treated adsorbents were characterized by SEM, EDX and FTIR. Different factors effecting adsorption capacity were analyzed and the effi ciency order was BSP>SSP>CFP. Based on the extent of compatibility to Freundlich/Langmuir/D-R/Temkin adsorption isotherm and different models (pseudo-fi rst and second order, Boyd, Weber’s and Elovich), chemisorption primarily involved in the case of CFP and SSP, whereas, simultaneous occurrence of chemisorption and physisorption was proposed in the case of BSP. Based on the observations, it was proposed that three kinetic stages involve in adsorption process viz., diffusion of sorbate to sorbent, intra particle diffusion and then establishment of equilibrium. These adsorbents have promising role towards removal of Cu(II) from industrial wastewater to contribute environmental protection.
Category: Chemistry

[29214] viXra:1905.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:02:43

### Mucoadhesive Targeted Pulmonary Delivery of Nanoparticulated Dry Powder Insufflators a Revolt in TB Therapy

Authors: Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Beeram1, Venkata Nadh R, Krupanidhi S1, Gnana Prakash K3

The emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) against first-line drugs and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB) due to misuse of second-line anti tubercular drugs (ATDs) is a further concern. Recommended treatment involves long term and multiple drug therapy with severe side effects. Due to this concern nanoparticle-based systems have significant potential for treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB) to overcome the need to administer ATDs at high and frequent doses, would assist in improving patient compliance and circumvent hepatotoxic ity and/or nephrotoxicity/ocular toxicity/ototoxicity associated with the prevalent first-line chemotherapy. Nanostructured delivery systems constitute a wide range of systems varying from liposomes, micelles, micro- and nanoemulsions, to polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs ) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Pulmonary administration of inhaled nanoparticles in the form of dry powder inhalers offer particular advantages for pulmonary administration of anti tubercular drugs (ATDs). Present review comprehensively about different approaches of nanobased drug delivery, devises and techniques for pulmonary delivery of nanoparticle encapsulated ATD.
Category: Chemistry

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[11487] viXra:1905.0480 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-24 17:10:09

### A Theory of Likelihood: Parsimony & Synchronicity in Natural Law

Authors: Paris Matthew Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. One opening of a declarative and worded predicate structural relation of indicatorial logic is a freely ordered contactless ordered relation of congruence in departure to any two stated worlds; as alternatively they are closed to it's provision.

When approaching the co-existence of a knowable and contrasted limitation of impossibility; there are to be found only two given known's; that of pre-determination and that of accessory of antecedent unto precedent. That of light like freedom to a given asymptotic return is predicated upon a past co-existence within a future of yet invisible qualifiable capacity to which is the non-deterministic limit of coloration. Inertially free approach and departure are a disjunctive for any ordered; freed and distinct relation of relative proportional provision is an aconditional held within the assumption of a threshold to dimensional non-predictability of random subset in predicate to indication of either; and to which a certain determinant of motion upon gravitationally provided congruence of free fall and inertial freedom are available. The resultant adjoint & unitary connective to which is a gravitational and electric to magnetic space is the associable free spatial unionable connective or disconnective of one manifold and two particle tier predicated surjective space.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[11486] viXra:1905.0456 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-24 14:36:37

### The Contemporary Global Economic Crises

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

Category: Economics and Finance

[11485] viXra:1905.0360 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-21 00:44:56

### A Possible Holarchy Representing Morphic Resonance as One Side of the Poised Realm

Authors: Stephen P. Smith