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## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[31481] viXra:1909.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 07:25:26

### Energy Ratio of 1/12 and Attraction in Hydrogen Atoms and Hydrogen Molecules

Authors: JianFei Chen

As has been found: In a hydrogen atom, if the proton increase 1/12 of the total mass of the electron, then the mass ratio of proton and electron is exactly an integer of 1836; And in a hydrogen molecule, hydrogen molecular bond energy is equal to 1/12 of the kinetic energy of two electrons. Both of two attraction involve the same ratio of 1/12, which should been determined by the same rules of energy. Author has explained the format process of the two attraction with energy and energy waves. The purpose of this paper is to study the four fundamental forces with energy and energy waves. Email: eastear@outlook.com eastear@163.com
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31480] viXra:1909.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 07:40:56

### Diamond are Forever

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have fabricated a novel glass and synthetic diamond foundation that can be used to create miniscule micro- and nanostructures. [39] Osaka University-led researchers demonstrated that the perturbation of laser imprinting on a capsule for nuclear fusion fuel made from stiff and heavy materials was mitigated. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31479] viXra:1909.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 07:56:58

### Nanotweezers Particle Manipulation

Authors: George Rajna

Apart from carrying small objects to various spots of a microfluidic device, the researchers can also localize them with high spatial resolution and then take them away if necessary. This capability may open up new avenues in nanoscale assembly and sensing. [30] Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have devised a new process for using nano-particles to build powerful lasers that are more efficient and safer for your eyes. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31478] viXra:1909.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 08:27:44

### Tutorial: Generating All of the Real Powers from Two Simple Properties of Positive-Integer Powers

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

This tutorial parlays two simple properties of positive-integer powers of positive numbers into a closed formula for arbitrary real-valued powers of positive numbers. The two properties are the very familiar result for the derivative of a positive-integer power of a positive real variable, and the fact that positive-integer powers of unity equal unity. Extended to real values of the powers of positive numbers, these two properties comprise a set of first-derivative linear differential equations for functions of a positive real variable, together with their initial conditions, so it isn't surprising that a unique solution is in fact forthcoming via Taylor expansion methods. The additive property of multiplied powers emerges immediately from the two properties of powers that are initially assumed, and enters prominently into working out the closed-formula result, which turns out to be a creature of the exponential function and its inverse. Logarithms are defined in terms of the inverse operation of taking powers in the familiar way, and the special base whose powers reproduce the exponential function and whose logarithms reproduce the exponential function's inverse is pointed out and developed.
Category: General Mathematics

[31477] viXra:1909.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 09:10:21

### Electronic 2-D Spin Transistors

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists from the University of Groningen constructed a two-dimensional spin transistor, in which spin currents were generated by an electric current through graphene. [31] Apart from carrying small objects to various spots of a microfluidic device, the researchers can also localize them with high spatial resolution and then take them away if necessary. This capability may open up new avenues in nanoscale assembly and sensing. [30] Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have devised a new process for using nano-particles to build powerful lasers that are more efficient and safer for your eyes. [29]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31476] viXra:1909.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 09:58:38

### Charging by Friction Conundrum

Authors: George Rajna

The electric shock you get from shuffling along a carpet might be the first experiment in electrostatics and tribology in most people's lives, but what causes it remains an open question. [32] Physicists from the University of Groningen constructed a two-dimensional spin transistor, in which spin currents were generated by an electric current through graphene. [31] Apart from carrying small objects to various spots of a microfluidic device, the researchers can also localize them with high spatial resolution and then take them away if necessary. This capability may open up new avenues in nanoscale assembly and sensing. [30] Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have devised a new process for using nano-particles to build powerful lasers that are more efficient and safer for your eyes. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31475] viXra:1909.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 10:18:35

### Graphene Based Molecular Devices

Authors: George Rajna

"The junctions were reproducible over several devices and operated from 20 Kelvin up to room temperature. Our approach represents a simple but powerful strategy for the future integration of molecule-based functions into stable and controllable nanoelectronic devices." [47] The team has turned graphene oxide (GO) into a soft, moldable and kneadable play dough that can be shaped and reshaped into free-standing, three-dimensional structures. [46]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31474] viXra:1909.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 13:23:42

### Q-Qi: Quantum Charge Teleportation for Continuous Q Charging.

Authors: Bheemaiah, Anil Kumar

Abstract: Q-Qi is defined as a form of Qi, which is based on quantum teleportation of charge.A charge pump based macroscopic quantum tunneling device for energy teleportation from a micro grid is described for use with the quantum tablet designed for the e-paper version of the one quantum tablet per child. The promise of inexpensive e-paper is possible only with the quantum internet to the cloud and the use of teleported power, for true mobility and Q-Qi charging.. In this paper the author compares, many opposing theories of electron mobility and teleportation, quantum teleportation is compared to macroscopic quantum tunneling and the creation of charge flow conduits. A comparison with current based storage and superconducting qubits, SMES systems(“Website” n.d.), supercapacitance is compared with superconducting loops with Josephson junctions and room temperature SQUIDs, described in an accompanying paper for another approach to qubits and Q-Qi. Keywords: Conduits, Quantum Teleportation, Quantum Tunneling, e-paper, energy teleportation, One Quantum Tablet Per Child, Q-Qi , SuperCapacitors, Graphene, SMES, Hall Effect, Josephson Junction, SQUID. What: Q-Qi is defined as the quantum teleportation of manifest and unmanifest Qi charge, the induction principle of wireless charging. We define arbitrary distance coherence in quantum teleportation of charge in a design analogous to DC to DC converters with charge pump designs. How: The wave function for electron flow, in entanglement, is defined as a wave function in charge - wave duality, in the existence of a sea of electrons and any barrier between them, tunneling or quantum movement of charge has been proven. We define a super capacitor for charge storage and a charge pump for DC to DC conversion, over arbitrary distances with a quantum coherence.(Monroe 2004) An opposite approach with electron-hole recombination and state teleportation for charge creation is well described in literature. (Beenakker and Kindermann 2004)(Beenakker and Kindermann 2004; Beenakker et al. 2003)(Beenakker and Kindermann 2004; “Teleportation of Electricity” n.d.) Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling is also defined with a finite probability of an electron tunneling over macroscopic distances,(“[No Title]” n.d.) , in an adaptation of classical dynamical theory of Hamiltonian functions and stability energy dynamics, a wave approach to energy stability over macroscopic distances is described for a tunneling phenomenon. Why: The quantum energy device is a power source for the quantum tablet, not necessitating the need for charging the device, with very low power levels maintained by quantum teleportation of charge, in a super capacitor. There are two approaches to materialization, the male principle is defined as one of minimalism, where a display is optronic in interactive manifolds and a force field, converting design to manifestation, the female principle is defined as materialistic, of stock keeping, including 3D printing, fabrication, marketing and transport. Hence all fabrication is treated as a female endeavor.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31473] viXra:1909.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 14:30:26

### Nature Works from the Inside Out; an Illustration

Authors: Royan Rosche

In this paper I show you the fallacy of external logic based on accidental motion and guide you through various situations that show that there exists a power or force that resides inside all Matter as to cause its alterations, modifications, and movements within a defined sphere of activity and that this force within Matter does not impart its force or powers unto other bodies beyond itself or its sphere. I show by sound logical arguments that material motions caused by an external force is impossible insomuch as it pertains to the natural workings of Nature. I show you that all Winds, Waves, Orbits, Clouds and other natural motions and natural phenomena stem from a inward activity as opposed to a external activity that causes their alterations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31472] viXra:1909.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 14:24:51

### Neutrino Quantum Gravity

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), there is the two-component spacetime composed of the SST Higgs field (which consists of tachyons) and the Einstein spacetime (which consists of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The neutrinos are built of the superluminal binary systems of closed strings (we call them the gravitons or entanglons). The closed strings in a graviton have parallel spins and opposite internal helicity. Gravitons are placed in the SST Higgs field so they carry the smallest "piece" of gravitational field. Neutrinos produce gradient in the SST Higgs field - it is the elementary gravitational field defined by the gravitational constant G. Generally, the gradients/gravitational-fields are the classical fields but at distances smaller than 3510.1831 multiplied by the equatorial radius of neutrinos there appear groups of gravitons emitted and absorbed by the core of neutrinos. Here we described phenomena that concern the quantum region of neutrinos. The Neutrino Quantum Gravity (NQG) leads to the volumetric quantum confinement of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs that is the origin of the masses of scalars in physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31471] viXra:1909.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 15:04:09

### Prediction of the Neutrinos Masses Using Some Empirical Formulae

Authors: Janko Kokosar

In a paper in year 2011 the author implicitly predicted the masses of the neutrinos using some old empirical formulae. Now this prediction is explicitly written, mass of one neutrino is calculated as 21.44240(50) meV, respectively 21.36459(49) meV, dependent of the model. (The other masses of the neutrinos are connected with one of these values.) According to the upper bounds of neutrinos masses in 2005, and respectively in 2019, the author calculates that the upper bound of the lightest neutrino mass approached between 3 times to 20 times to the predicted value in 2019 according to 2005. At the same time, cosmologists predict that in the next five years we will have values of the neutrino masses, not only the lower and upper bounds. Thus this prediction can be tested, and maybe p-value for accident will not be large. Besides, the prediction of the gravitational constant with the same formulae is also mentioned.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31470] viXra:1909.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 15:12:46

### Thermonuclear Micro-Projectile and Methods for its Use in Defensive Protection from Space Rockets, Peaceful Energy and Transport.

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin

A new type of thermonuclear micro - projectile (reactor) is proposed. The idea is to disperse the micro-capsule (10-4 g.) contained thermonuclear fuel to an energy in excess of 104 eV by collision with a solid material obstacle, thereby causing a micro-thermonuclear explosion. Ways of its use in protection against space rockets, in military science, peace power and transport are offered.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[31469] viXra:1909.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 22:53:33

### Why the Moon is Turned One Side to the Earth.

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

The moon does not have its own rotation, the moon moves like a normal satellite, so it is always turned one side towards the earth. And therefore, in one revolution around the Earth, the Moon makes one revolution around its axis.
Category: Astrophysics

[31468] viXra:1909.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 00:57:25

### Formula of ζ Even-Numbers

Authors: Toshiro Takami

I published the odd value formula for ζ, but I realized that this was true even when it was even. Therefore, it will be announced.
Category: Number Theory

[31467] viXra:1909.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 02:16:47

### Was the Light Speed Problem Really Solved by Einstein in 1905 ?

I will try to invalidate the theory of relativity by presenting a compelling alternative theory. I hope that criticism of Einstein's theories will not be seen as offense.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31466] viXra:1909.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 05:16:28

### Galactic Rotation Curves and Spiral Form

Authors: D.H.W. Reffer
Comments: 4 Pages. The two problems in the title are listed as unsolved problems in physics.

The two problems in the title, concerning massive core galaxies, unexplained by the original gravity law of Newton, are normal features according to the same law Relative-Velocity Dependence completed,thus—among other hypotheses—the dark matter is no longer necessary. Keywords: spiral galaxy; rotation curve; dark matter; interactions relative-velocity dependence; gravitational refractive index; black captor/hole; atom radius.
Category: Astrophysics

[31465] viXra:1909.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 06:56:53

### Refutation of Ceers (Computably Enumerable Equivalence Relations)

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate definitions from two papers of computably enumerable equivalence relations (ceers) as not equivalent, not tautologous, and not computably reducible. This refutes ceers as a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31464] viXra:1909.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 07:00:20

### Refutation of Examples of Monotonicity

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate antecedents and consequents of four disjunctions of monotonicity in the system Natural Logic. The conjecture that these claim different interpretations for disjunction is refuted. The claims form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31463] viXra:1909.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 07:49:51

### Magnetism and Weyl Semimetals

Authors: George Rajna

These materials-magnetic Weyl semi-metals-are innately quantum but bridge the two worlds of topology and spintronics. [25] Weyl fermions are novel particles that were predicted to be seen in high-energy physics experiments but have not been observed. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31462] viXra:1909.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 08:14:27

### Crucial Plasma Pressure

Authors: George Rajna

A key requirement for future facilities that aim to capture and control on Earth the fusion energy that drives the sun and stars is accurate predictions of the pressure of the plasma-the hot, charged gas that fuels fusion reactions inside doughnut-shaped tokamaks that house the reactions. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[31461] viXra:1909.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 09:05:55

### Measurement of Nano-Structured Light

Authors: George Rajna

Structured laser light has already opened up various different applications: it allows for precise material machining, trapping, manipulating or defined movement of small particles or cell compartments, as well as increasing the bandwidth for next-generation intelligent computing. [44] How long the battery of your phone or computer lasts depends on how many lithium ions can be stored in the battery's negative electrode material. [43] As if they were bubbles expanding in a just-opened bottle of champagne, tiny circular regions of magnetism can be rapidly enlarged to provide a precise method of measuring the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. [42]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31460] viXra:1909.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 09:24:33

### ZnS Scintillation Detector

Authors: George Rajna

Detectors for reflectometry need to detect a lot of neutrons in a very short space of time. This means they need to be designed with very high count rate capabilities. [28] Quantum dots, semiconductor crystals with distinctive conductive properties, could be good candidates for thermoelectric generation, as their discrete resonant levels provide excellent energy filters. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31459] viXra:1909.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 09:40:13

### Signal-To-Background Ratio

Authors: George Rajna

A good signal-to-background ratio is essential for a successful outcome to a neutron experiment. [32] An international team of researchers has observed that local thermal perturbations of spins in a solid can convert heat to energy even in a paramagnetic material-where spins weren't thought to correlate long enough to do so. [31] Recent discoveries in high Tc superconductors have resulted in an intense interest in a "pair-density wave" (PDW) formed in Cooper pairs (an electron pair bound together at low temperatures), although there is little theoretical understanding on the driving mechanisms of this exotic state. [30] Researchers at Northeast Normal University, in China, and University of the Basque Country, in Spain, have recently carried out a study investigating the superconducting transition of electrides. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31458] viXra:1909.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 09:47:33

### Theoretical Value for Gravitational Constant

Authors: Richard L. Marker

This paper develops the theoretical ratio of the gravitational force to electromagnetic force between two electrons. The resulting ratio produces a gravitational constant with the precision of electromagnetic constants.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31457] viXra:1909.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 12:38:14

### Quantum Charge Teleportation for the One Quantum Tablet Per Child Project

Authors: Bheemaiah, Anil Kumar

Abstract: A charge pump based macroscopic quantum tunneling device for energy teleportation from a micro grid is described for use with the quantum tablet designed for the e-paper version of the one quantum tablet per child. The promise of inexpensive e-paper is possible only with the quantum internet to the cloud and the use of teleported power, for true mobility. In this paper the author compares, many opposing theories of electron mobility and teleportation, quantum teleportation is compared to macroscopic quantum tunneling and the creation of charge flow conduits. Keywords: Conduits, Quantum Teleportation, Quantum Tunneling, e-paper, energy teleportation, One Quantum Tablet Per Child, Q-Qi
Category: Quantum Physics

[31456] viXra:1909.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 12:41:29

### A New Primality Test using Fibonnaci Numbers?

Authors: Julia Beauchamp

In this paper, we ask whether a heuristic test for prime numbers can be derived from the Fibonacci numbers. The results below test for values up to $F_{75}$ show that we might have a heuristic test for prime numbers akin to Fermat's Little Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[31455] viXra:1909.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 20:35:35

### Whole Star Magnetochronology

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

It is presented a seminal paper on magnetochronology to begin the process of dating stars based on their total magnetic fields as they evolve, total meaning whole body, i.e. thermosphere, to surface to core. All portions of the star evolve and the magnetosphere changes as these features evolve on the star. This is to include all stars in all stages of evolution from white dwarf, to blue giant, to Sun-like stars, red dwarfs, brown dwarfs, Jupiters, greys, Neptunes, post-Neptunes, ocean worlds, Earths and even dead mostly solid stars such as Venus, Mercury and Mars. It is important to establish a beginning paper to build on this concept, as the idea of Sun-like stars with whole body features evolving to becoming Earth-like stars with life is rich with work to be done. In fact, it could be argued that figuring out the ages of stars by their magnetic features can lead to a more well-rounded method for determining how much life is out there. In short, a star’s magnetic field, coupled with isotopic data, gyrochronology, atmospheric composition, mass, orbital parameters around a host, and other factors can lead us to understand why the Earth has such strange surface magnetic features.
Category: Astrophysics

[31454] viXra:1909.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 21:20:37

### Jagged Islands of Bound Entanglement and Witness-Parameterized Probabilities

Authors: Paul B. Slater

We report several witness-parameterized families of bound-entangled probabilities. Two pertain to the $d=3$ (two-qutrit) and a third to the $d=4$ (two-ququart) subsets analyzed by Hiesmayr and L{\"o}ffler of magic" simplices of Bell states that were introduced by Baumgartner, Hiesmayr and Narnhofer. The Hilbert-Schmidt probabilities of positive-partial-transpose (PPT) states--within which we search for bound-entangled states--are $\frac{8 \pi }{27 \sqrt{3}} \approx 0.537422$ ($d=3$) and $\frac{1}{2}+\frac{\log \left(2-\sqrt{3}\right)}{8 \sqrt{3}} \approx 0.404957$ ($d=4$). We obtain bound-entangled probabilities of $-\frac{4}{9}+\frac{4 \pi }{27 \sqrt{3}}+\frac{\log (3)}{6} \approx 0.00736862$ and $\frac{-204+7 \log (7)+168 \sqrt{3} \cos ^{-1}\left(\frac{11}{14}\right)}{1134} \approx 0.00325613$ ($d=3$) and $\frac{8 \log (2)}{27}-\frac{59}{288} \approx 0.00051583$ and $\frac{24 \text{csch}^{-1}\left(\frac{8}{\sqrt{17}}\right)}{17 \sqrt{17}}-\frac{91}{544} \approx 0.00218722$ ($d=4$). (For $d=3$, we also obtain $\frac{2}{81} \left(4 \sqrt{3} \pi -21\right) \approx 0.0189035$ based on the realignment criterion.) The families, encompassing these results, are parameterized using generalized Choi and Jafarizadeh-Behzadi-Akbari witnesses. In the $d=3$, analyses, we utilized the mutually unbiased bases (MUB) test of Hiesmayr and L{\"o}ffler, and also the Choi $W^{(+)}$ test. The same bound-entangled probability was achieved with both--the sets (jagged islands") detected having void intersection. The entanglement (bound and non-bound"/free") probability for each was $\frac{1}{6} \approx 0.16667$, while their union and intersection gave $\frac{2}{9} \approx 0.22222$ and $\frac{1}{9} \approx 0.11111$. Further, we examine generalized Horodecki states, as well as estimating PPT-probabilities of approximately 0.39339 (very well-fitted by $\frac{7 \pi}{25 \sqrt{5}} \approx 0.39338962$) and 0.115732 (conjecturally, $\frac{1}{8}+\frac{\log \left(3-\sqrt{5}\right)}{13 \sqrt{5}} \approx 0.115737$) for the original (8- [two-qutrit] and 15 [two-ququart]-dimensional) magic simplices themselves.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31453] viXra:1909.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 00:31:02

### An Interesting Insight Into Using [ Ruby Machine Learning Library+qrng+entropy+signal Processing ] Towards co-Designing of Novel [ Hardware/software/firmware ] in the Context of Smart Platforms Based Heterogeneous Environments to Probe Circadian Rhythms

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 6 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

An Interesting Insight into Using [ Ruby Machine learning Library+QRNG+Entropy+Signal Processing ] towards Co-Designing of Novel [ Hardware/Software/Firmware ] in the Context of Smart Platforms based Heterogeneous Environments to Probe Circadian Rhythms[CR] +Data. [ Exploring Testing of Pin Configurations + Firmware Using Above Mentioned Concepts ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31452] viXra:1909.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 02:26:58

### On the Ramanujan’s Fundamental Formula for Obtain a Highly Precise Golden Ratio: Mathematical Connections with Black Holes Entropies and Like-Particle Solutions

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli

In the present research thesis, we have obtained various and interesting new mathematical connections concerning the fundamental Ramanujan’s formula to obtain a highly precise golden ratio, some sectors of Particle Physics and Black Holes entropies.
Category: Number Theory

[31451] viXra:1909.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 03:29:28

### The Essential Papakonstantinidis

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik

NEW ECONOMIC BARGAINING/World-NET -presentation-
Category: Social Science

[31450] viXra:1909.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 04:17:29

### Atomic-Scale Sieve

Authors: George Rajna

Graphene is perfectly selective to protons and blocks even smallest ions like chlorine, University of Manchester research shows. [45] Structured laser light has already opened up various different applications: it allows for precise material machining, trapping, manipulating or defined movement of small particles or cell compartments, as well as increasing the bandwidth for next-generation intelligent computing. [44] How long the battery of your phone or computer lasts depends on how many lithium ions can be stored in the battery's negative electrode material. [43] As if they were bubbles expanding in a just-opened bottle of champagne, tiny circular regions of magnetism can be rapidly enlarged to provide a precise method of measuring the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. [42]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31449] viXra:1909.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 04:30:58

### Nanoscale Incandescent Light Source

Authors: George Rajna

What may be viewed as the world's smallest incandescent lightbulb is shining in a Rice University engineering laboratory with the promise of advances in sensing, photonics and perhaps computing platforms beyond the limitations of silicon. [46] Graphene is perfectly selective to protons and blocks even smallest ions like chlorine, University of Manchester research shows. [45] Structured laser light has already opened up various different applications: it allows for precise material machining, trapping, manipulating or defined movement of small particles or cell compartments, as well as increasing the bandwidth for next-generation intelligent computing. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31448] viXra:1909.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 04:40:45

### Semiconductor Atomic Sheets

Authors: George Rajna

In Japan Science and Technology Agency's Strategic Basic Research Programs, Associate Professor Toshiaki Kato and Professor Toshiro Kaneko of the Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University succeeded in clarifying a new synthesis mechanism regarding transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD), which are semiconductor atomic sheets having thickness in atomic order. [47] What may be viewed as the world's smallest incandescent lightbulb is shining in a Rice University engineering laboratory with the promise of advances in sensing, photonics and perhaps computing platforms beyond the limitations of silicon. [46]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31447] viXra:1909.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 04:50:20

### Electric Tech Reverse Baldness

Authors: George Rajna

But reversing baldness could someday be as easy as wearing a hat, thanks to a noninvasive, low-cost hair-growth-stimulating technology developed by engineers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. [48] In Japan Science and Technology Agency's Strategic Basic Research Programs, Associate Professor Toshiaki Kato and Professor Toshiro Kaneko of the Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University succeeded in clarifying a new synthesis mechanism regarding transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD), which are semiconductor atomic sheets having thickness in atomic order. [47]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31446] viXra:1909.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 04:59:48

### Exosome Therapy of Age-Damaged Skin

Authors: George Rajna

In a proof-of-concept study, researchers from North Carolina State University have shown that exosomes harvested from human skin cells are more effective at repairing sun-damaged skin cells in mice than popular retinol or stem cell-based treatments currently in use. [49]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31445] viXra:1909.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 06:49:42

### Face Alignment Using a Three Layer Predictor

Authors: Eugene Fox

Face alignment is an important feature for most facial images related algorithms such as expression analysis, face recognition or detection etc. Also, some images lose information due to factors such as occlusion and lighting and it is important to obtain those lost features. This paper proposes an innovative method for automatic face alignment by utilizing deep learning. First, we use second order gaussian derivatives along with RBF-SVM and Adaboost to classify a first layer of landmark points. Next, we use branching based cascaded regression to obtain a second layer of points which is further used as input to a parallel and multi-scale CNN that gives us the complete output. Results showed the algorithm gave excellent results in comparison to state-of-the-art algorithms.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[31444] viXra:1909.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 06:52:43

### Path of the Particle

Authors: Arnaud Andrieu

Here is an attachment to a very simple example of a diagram of the path taken by the particle to explain the structure of our planets. The vector that follows the path of the particle is parallel to the vectors of the gravitational force, and represents the peak of the collapse of the wave function. This model uses the principle of the unique particle vixra.org/abs/1909.0300, where its oscillation lies between singularity (planet center), and quantum decoherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31443] viXra:1909.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 07:26:54

### Classical Elegance of Time Crystals

Authors: George Rajna

Structures known as time crystals, which repeat in time the way conventional crystals repeat in space, have recently captured the interest and imagination of researchers across disciplines. [26] Dreamt up by the physics Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek in 2012, the notion of “time crystals” is now moving from theory to experiment – and could also lead to applications such as a new kind of atomic clock. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31442] viXra:1909.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 08:14:33

### Particle Detector on a Plane

Authors: George Rajna

You may have observed airplane passengers accompanied by pets or even musical instruments on flights. But have you ever been seated next to a particle detector? [27] Structures known as time crystals, which repeat in time the way conventional crystals repeat in space, have recently captured the interest and imagination of researchers across disciplines. [26] Dreamt up by the physics Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek in 2012, the notion of “time crystals” is now moving from theory to experiment – and could also lead to applications such as a new kind of atomic clock. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31441] viXra:1909.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 09:08:57

### Quantum Dot Energy Harvester

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum dots, semiconductor crystals with distinctive conductive properties, could be good candidates for thermoelectric generation, as their discrete resonant levels provide excellent energy filters. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31440] viXra:1909.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 09:36:46

Authors: George Rajna

A highly specialist laser capable of analyzing potentially deadly diseases as never before is under development at Heriot-Watt University. [47] Laser-induced graphene (LIG), a flaky foam of the atom-thick carbon, has many interesting properties on its own but gains new powers as part of a composite. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz “could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates,” Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31439] viXra:1909.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 10:15:22

### Milliseconds HD Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna

They can make tiny cell structures visible: cutting-edge light microscopes offer resolutions of a few tenths of a nanometer—in other words, a millionth of a millimeter. [37] "We put the optical microscope under a microscope to achieve accuracy near the atomic scale," said NIST's Samuel Stavis, who served as the project leader for these efforts. [36] Researchers have designed an interferometer that works with magnetic quasiparticles called magnons, rather than photons as in conventional interferometers. [35] A technique to manipulate electrons with light could bring quantum computing up to room temperature. [34] The USTC Microcavity Research Group in the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information has perfected a 4-port, all-optically controlled non-reciprocal multifunctional photonic device based on a magnetic-field-free optomechanical resonator. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31438] viXra:1909.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 10:51:04

### ANN-based Shear Capacity of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Beams Without Stirrups

Authors: M. Abambres, E. Lantsoght

Comparing experimental results on the shear capacity of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams without mild steel stirrups, to the ones predicted by current design equations and other available formulations, still shows significant differences. In this paper we propose the use of artificial intelligence to estimate the shear capacity of these members. A database of 430 test results reported in the literature is used to develop an artificial neural network-based formula that predicts the shear capacity of SFRC beams without shear reinforcement. The proposed model yields maximum and mean relative errors of 0.0% for the 430 data points, which represents a better prediction (mean Vtest / VANN = 1.00 with a coefficient of variation of 1E-15) than the existing expressions, where the best model yields a mean value of Vtest / Vpred = 1.01 and a coefficient of variation of 27%.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31437] viXra:1909.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 12:21:49

### Definition of the DIRECTION

Authors: A.I.Somsikov

One of the initial or primary concepts considered as the "simplest" (not expressed through other concepts) is considered. The structure of this concept is revealed. Algebraic and geometric consequences are found.
Category: Classical Physics

[31436] viXra:1909.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 12:25:01

### Number and Arithmetic Operation

Authors: A.I.Somsikov

The meaning (logical content) of the concept of numbers is revealed. Arithmetic operations are defined.
Category: General Mathematics

[31435] viXra:1909.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 13:18:03

### Non-Euclidean Metric Using Geometric Algebra

Authors: Jesus Sanchez

The Geometric Algebra is a tool that can be used in different disciplines in Mathematics and Physics. In this paper, it will be used to show how the information of the Non-Euclidean metric in a curved space, can be included in the basis vectors of that space. Not needing any external (out of the metric) coordinate system and not needing to normalize or to make orthogonal the basis, to be able to operate in a simple manner. The different types of derivatives of these basis vectors will be shown. In a future revision, the Schwarzschild metric will be calculated just taking the derivatives of the basis vectors to obtain the geodesics in that space. As Annex, future developments regarding GA are commented: rigid body dynamics, Electromagnetic field, hidden variables in quantum mechanics, specificities of time basis vector, 4π geometry (spin 1/2) and generalization of the Fourier Transform.
Category: Geometry

[31434] viXra:1909.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 13:45:29

### I am Very Interested in Whether or not You Are Related to the Physical Chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs of Yale University

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page. JW Gibbs was a very important man to my father especially.

Abstract: If you were, the answer to this question determines why I was able to publish my 105 short notes in ViXra without being ridiculed. Thank you very much.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31433] viXra:1909.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 14:13:13

### Black-Box Superconducting Circuit Quantization (In Russian)

Authors: Simon E. Nigg, Hanhee Paik, Brian Vlastakis...

We present a semi-classical method for determining the effective low-energy quantum Hamiltonian of weakly anharmonic superconducting circuits containing mesoscopic Josephson junctions coupled to electromagnetic environments made of an arbitrary combination of distributed and lumped elements. A convenient basis, capturing the multi-mode physics, is given by the quantized eigenmodes of the linearized circuit and is fully determined by a classical linear response function. The method is used to calculate numerically the low-energy spectrum of a 3D-transmon system, and quantitative agreement with measurements is found.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31432] viXra:1909.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 17:50:17

### Magnetic Moment of an Electron, it's Spin and de Broglie Oscillations.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

Using the idea of de Broglie oscillations in elementary particles, for example, in an electron, it is easy to obtain quantitative values of the magnetic moment of an electron and the electron spin. Based on the oscillations the gyromagnetic ratio is logically explained. The calculations presented in the work once again confirm the reality of the existence of a periodic process in elementary particles, that is, de Broglie oscillations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31431] viXra:1909.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 17:57:36

### CMB, A. Einstein's STR, “Nothing” and Big Ben.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

It is shown that the CMB actually refutes the Big Bang theory, since it is an absolute coordinate system, and this is impossible according to A. Einstein's STR. Moreover, a prediction is made about the change in the CMB map over time, since the CMB depends on the gravitational potential at a given point, and taking into account the movement of our galaxy in the Universe, it (potential) will change. Similarly, the concept of “nothing” is analyzed, which is used to explain the expansion of the Universe. The existence of “nothing” is also in insurmountable contradiction with Einstein's STR.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31430] viXra:1909.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 18:05:55

### Neutrino Oscillations, Compton Effect and Dynamic Model of a Stationary Universe.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

The mechanism of neutrino oscillations, which are the result of the Compton effect, that is, the scattering of CMB photons by neutrinos, is investigated. The scattering of highenergy photons by neutrinos leads to the formation of neutrons, which opens the way to the synthesis of baryonic matter in the Universe and restores the dynamic model of the stationary Universe. Confirmation of the stationary model of the Universe is the fact of the scattering of galaxies, which in fact is a consequence of the chaotic motion of galaxies in a limited volume. On an unlimited Universe scale, galaxies move randomly and therefore there are no Universe extensions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31429] viXra:1909.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 18:16:11

### Transition Theory of An Electron Traveling from Uncertain to Causal Basis

Authors: Satoshi Hanamura

One of Einstein’s most famous quotes is; ‘I am at all events convinced that God does not play dice’. This study attempted to be a conversion of “uncertainty principle” to a “certainty principle.” With the previous electron model, bare electrons moved discretely, and the photons surrounding them moved continuously. In this study, we shall notice the traveling of free electrons with thermal conductance, and how to determine the unique discrete traveling point by using thermal potential energy gradient.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31428] viXra:1909.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 19:11:30

### Refutation of Interpretability Logic, and Vaught and Adjunctive Set Theory

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate axioms and inference rules of interpretability logics ILM and TOL with none tautologous, making doubtful the claimed completeness. We then turn to Vaught and adjunctive set theory with neither tautologous. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31427] viXra:1909.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 19:29:46

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate unique conjunctive combinations of four statements, and as doubles and triples, which are not tautologous. This means the experiment is framed on conjectures for a flawed model and form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31426] viXra:1909.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 20:45:35

### The Normalizer of a P-Group

Authors: Henry Wong

Group theory
Category: Algebra

[31425] viXra:1909.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 21:33:11

### Braid Logic for Mass Condensation

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard

In quantum logic, the emergence of spacetime and related symmetries goes hand in hand with the emergence of the real and complex numbers themselves. In this paper, we show how finite fields are surprisingly sufficient for most physical questions, once we throw away classical geometrical models in favour of categorical axioms. In particular, generalised Pauli matrix algebras are closely related to braid and ribbon diagrams, and holographic information for mass localisation gains its intuition from algebras for anyon condensation. We discuss definitions of homology and cohomology associated to braids, recalling the twistor construction of massive solutions in H^2.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31424] viXra:1909.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 21:50:06

### On Magnetic Entanglement

Authors: Royan Rosche

An illustration of Magnetic Entanglement
Category: Quantum Physics

[31423] viXra:1909.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 03:22:37

### Heart and Brain Activity Sensors

Authors: George Rajna

"Sensors with an integrated power supply in such small sizes are also exciting for applications in the area of the Internet of Things, which connects decentralised, autonomous electronic systems," added Adelung. [23] Scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a technique to observe how radiation damages molecules over time frames of just one quadrillionth of a second-or a femtosecond. [22] DNA forensics is a powerful tool, yet it presents a computational scaling problem when it is improved and expanded for complex samples (those containing DNA from more than one individual) and kinship analysis. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31422] viXra:1909.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 03:48:47

Authors: George Rajna

"We encourage our prostate cancer patients to elect this treatment, but if they are not suitable candidates for MRgRT, or do not wish to travel to Amsterdam to VUmc, they receive more fractionated radiotherapy, 20 fractions of 3 Gy, after gold fiducials have been implanted." [23] Scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a technique to observe how radiation damages molecules over time frames of just one quadrillionth of a second-or a femtosecond. [22] DNA forensics is a powerful tool, yet it presents a computational scaling problem when it is improved and expanded for complex samples (those containing DNA from more than one individual) and kinship analysis. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31421] viXra:1909.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 04:04:15

### Data Storage in DNA

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists from Israel recently demonstrated how this process may become more cost-effective and efficient by introducing more “letters” to the DNA “alphabet”. [18] Globally, biodiversity is concentrated around the equator, but the scientific institutions generating DNA sequence data to study that biodiversity tend to be clustered in developed countries toward the poles. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31420] viXra:1909.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 04:24:17

Authors: George Rajna

Webster and his colleagues are using bacteria to produce nanoparticles, metallic particles that are between one and 100 nanometers wide. [23] Scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a technique to observe how radiation damages molecules over time frames of just one quadrillionth of a second-or a femtosecond. [22] DNA forensics is a powerful tool, yet it presents a computational scaling problem when it is improved and expanded for complex samples (those containing DNA from more than one individual) and kinship analysis. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31419] viXra:1909.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 04:40:27

### Nanochains Increase Battery Capacity

Authors: George Rajna

How long the battery of your phone or computer lasts depends on how many lithium ions can be stored in the battery's negative electrode material. [43] As if they were bubbles expanding in a just-opened bottle of champagne, tiny circular regions of magnetism can be rapidly enlarged to provide a precise method of measuring the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. [42] Antennas made of carbon nanotube films are just as efficient as copper for wireless applications, according to researchers at Rice University's Brown School of Engineering. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31418] viXra:1909.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 07:58:13

### Successions and Series

Authors: Viola Maria Grazia
Comments: Pages. Successions are successions with positive terms

In this pdf there is my point of view about successions and series. I talk about when a succession (and so a serie) is said convergent making attention to the succession's definition.
Category: General Mathematics

[31417] viXra:1909.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 09:18:32

### On the Emergence of Spacetime Dimensions from Kolmogorov Entropy

Authors: Ervin Goldfain

This short pedagogical report is based on a couple of premises. First, it was recently shown that the long run of non-equilibrium Renormalization Group flows is prone to end up on strange attractors. As a result, multifractals are likely to provide the proper framework for the characterization of effective field theories. Secondly, it is known that multifractal analysis uses the Kolmogorov entropy (K-entropy) to quantify the degree of disorder in chaotic systems and turbulent flows. Building on these premises, the report details the remarkable connection between K-entropy, multifractal sets and spacetime dimensions. It also supports the proposal that near and above the Fermi scale, spacetime is defined by continuous and arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[31416] viXra:1909.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 09:29:08

### Quantum Photonic Computing Chips

Authors: George Rajna

Now, researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology have coaxed photons into interacting with one another with unprecedented efficiency-a key advance toward realizing long-awaited quantum optics technologies for computing, communication and remote sensing. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31415] viXra:1909.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 09:59:08

### The Fermion Repelling String Black Hole the Origin of a Cyclic Raspberry Multiverse?

Authors: Leo Vuyk

This consciousness theory of everything, also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory based on a symmetrical Big Bang into 8 or 12 Charge Parity (CP) symmetric copy universes. However such a cyclic multiverse seems to be only possible with special ingredients, 1: a propeller shaped fermion able transform by collision and spin in two pitch directions. 2: A fermion knot based dark matter black hole of enough rigid string content, to become stable against the fierce oscillations of the oscillating vacuum lattice and repelling all spinning Fermions. but not other black hole nuclei or photons. As a result, The Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy multiverse entangled particles.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31414] viXra:1909.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 09:59:47

### Soundwaves Search Big Data

Authors: George Rajna

"Light lasers and single photons are part of the field photonics, but soundwaves fall under the umbrella of phononics, or the study of phonons," Deymier said. [29] Now, researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology have coaxed photons into interacting with one another with unprecedented efficiency-a key advance toward realizing long-awaited quantum optics technologies for computing, communication and remote sensing. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31413] viXra:1909.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 10:47:55

### Plasma Flow Explain Sunspots

Authors: George Rajna

For 400 years people have tracked sunspots, the dark patches that appear for weeks at a time on the sun's surface. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Astrophysics

[31412] viXra:1909.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 11:06:09

### Brain-Computer Interfaces

Authors: George Rajna

It sounds like science fiction: controlling electronic devices with brain waves. But researchers have developed a new type of electroencephalogram (EEG) electrode that can do just that, without the sticky gel required for conventional electrodes. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31411] viXra:1909.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 11:22:04

### DNA Microcapsules with Ion Channels

Authors: George Rajna

A Research group led by Tokyo Tech reports a way of constructing DNA-based microcapsules that hold great promise for the development of new functional materials and devices. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are now able to see greater details of DNA origami nanostructures, which will lead to a greater understanding and control of their assembly for future applications. [19] Nanocages are highly interesting molecular constructs, from the point of view of both fundamental science and possible applications. [18] DNA flows inside a cell's nucleus in a choreographed line dance, new simulations reveal. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[31410] viXra:1909.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 13:02:12

### From Ramanujan’s Mock Theta Functions to Black Hole Entropies and Particle Physics: Symmetry, Supersymmetry and Golden Ratio

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli

In the present research thesis, we have obtained various interesting new mathematical connections concerning the Ramanujan’s mock theta functions, some like-particle solutions, Supersymmetry, some formulas of Haramein’s Theory and Black Holes entropies. We obtain excellent approximations to the values of the golden ratio, its conjugate and ζ(2)
Category: Mathematical Physics

[31409] viXra:1909.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 13:22:46

### Refutation of a Modal Logic for Supervised Learning

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate ten conjectures which are not tautologous, and with four as contradictory. This refutes the approach and models of modal logic for supervised learning as a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31408] viXra:1909.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 15:34:57

### Naturalness Revisited: not Spacetime, But Rather Spacephase

Authors: Peter Cameron

What defines the boundary of a quantum system is phase coherence, not time coherence. Time is the same for all three spatial degrees of freedom in flat 4D Minkowski spacetime. However, in the quantum mechanics of wavefunctions in 3D space, phases of wavefunction components are not necessarily the same in all three orientations. Consequently, the S-matrix generated by the geometric Clifford product of two 3D wavefunctions exists not in 4D spacetime, but rather in 6D spacephase'.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[31407] viXra:1909.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 22:37:10

### Liquid Universe and Gravitational Wave

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 32 Pages. 4 Figure; 1 Table; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

According to the universe model based on virtual space-time physics, the universe has two states, liquid and gaseous. The current universe is in a state of liquid universe. This can be supported by some important observational evidence. The liquid universe theory predicts that microwave background radiation and cosmic rays are gases that the liquid universe naturally evaporates, the temperatures of the two should be equal. At present, there are many research results of hydroacoustic theories in related disciplines, so we can use some hydroacoustic theories to deal with the propagation of gravitational waves in the liquid universe, and we can get some inspiring conclusions. This provides a broader theoretical support for us to study and discuss some important laws of gravitational waves in more detail. This paper gives a rough estimate of the gravitational wave data generated by the huge mass of the center of the Milky Way. It is found that the radiation of the gravitational wave in the center of the Milky Way can be used to explain the periodic variation of sunspots.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31406] viXra:1909.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 01:02:49

### Implementation of Python Based Ehr/emr Software Prototyping Informatics Framework – a Novel & Simple Algorithm Using Spacy+theorem Prover+data Bases+qrng Concepts+deep Learning Methods.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 2 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Implementation of Python based EHR/EMR Software Prototyping Informatics Framework – A Novel & Simple Algorithm Using spaCy+Theorem Prover+Data Bases+QRNG Concepts+Deep Learning Methods.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31405] viXra:1909.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 01:17:28

### My Research Hypotheses

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous

During 2013-2019 I have studied the solar system geometry. Based on this study I have formed the following 5 basic hypotheses: Hypothesis No.1 Solar System is One building (or one machine) and each planet is a part of this same building. Hypothesis No.2 Solar System moves as a train. i.e. A train moves with all its carriages together, similar to that – Solar Planets move together as one train in one unified motion (i.e. No Planet moves individually or independently from other planets motions) Hypothesis No.3 Planet motion for 1 solar day depends on energy of light motion for 1 second period – that means – Planet moves following light motion – i.e. – Planet motion shows double motions – (1st) Light Motion (2nd) Its Follower Planet Motion Hypothesis No.4 Solar System Unified Motion depends On Solar Day Period Hypothesis No.5 Matter Creation process depends on solar day period of time – that means – Matter creation process depends on the time as one of its main components In this paper I try to explain these 5 hypotheses and provide short proves for them
Category: Astrophysics

[31404] viXra:1909.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 03:08:41

### Relativistic Quantum Bridge

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity form the bedrock of the current understanding of physics-yet the two theories don't seem to work together. [48] Physicists from Professor Johannes Fink's research group at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have found a way to use a mechanical oscillator to produce entangled radiation. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31403] viXra:1909.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 03:59:53

### Electrons in Magnetic Material

Authors: George Rajna

An international team of researchers led by scientists at Princeton University has found that a magnetic material at room temperature enables electrons to behave counterintuitively, acting collectively rather than as individuals. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31402] viXra:1909.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 04:33:09

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a technique to observe how radiation damages molecules over time frames of just one quadrillionth of a second-or a femtosecond. [22] DNA forensics is a powerful tool, yet it presents a computational scaling problem when it is improved and expanded for complex samples (those containing DNA from more than one individual) and kinship analysis. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31401] viXra:1909.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 04:58:28

### Kinetic Plasma Instabilities

Authors: George Rajna

Plasmas are susceptible to kinetic instabilities when the velocity distribution of its constituent plasma electrons, ions or both becomes nonthermal. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[31400] viXra:1909.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 05:07:10

### A Classification of Relativity

Authors: Vu B Ho

In this work we discuss the possibility to classify relativity in accordance with the classification of second order partial differential equations that have been applied into the formulation of physical laws in physics. In mathematics, second order partial differential equations can be classified into hyperbolic, elliptic or parabolic type, therefore we show that it is also possible to classify relativity accordingly into hyperbolic, elliptic or parabolic type by establishing coordinate transformations that preserve the forms of these second order partial differential equations. The coordinate transformation that preserves the form of the hyperbolic equation is the Lorentz transformation and the associated space is the hyperbolic, or pseudo-Euclidean, relativistic spacetime. Typical equations in physics that comply with hyperbolic relativity are Maxwell and Dirac equations. The coordinate transformation that preserves the form of the elliptic equation is the modified Lorentz transformation that we have formulated in our work on Euclidean relativity and the associated space is the elliptic, or Euclidean, relativistic spacetime. Typical equations in physics that comply with elliptic relativity are the equations that describe the subfields of Maxwell and Dirac equations. And the coordinate transformation that preserves the form of the parabolic equation is the Euclidean transformation consisting of the translation and rotation in the spatial space and the associated space is the parabolic relativistic spacetime, which is a Euclidean space with a universal time. Typical equations in physics that comply with parabolic relativity are the diffusion equation, the Schrödinger equation and in particular the diffusion equations that are derived from the four-current defined in terms of the differentiable structures of the spacetime manifold and the Ricci flow.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[31399] viXra:1909.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 05:14:20

### Topological Phases of Optical Materials

Authors: George Rajna

A new study published in Nature Communications describes how optical reciprocity can be broken using insights from topological physics. [26] Topology is a global aspect of materials, leading to fundamental new properties for compounds with large relativistic effects. [25] Weyl fermions are novel particles that were predicted to be seen in high-energy physics experiments but have not been observed. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31398] viXra:1909.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 05:49:34

### Remarks on Newtonian Dynamics, Aether, Cosmic Core and Quantized Redshift Phenomen

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache

This paper shortly reviews the links among Aether, Newtonian dynamics, galactic core and plasma double layers. It is hoped that we can sketch an argument for the origin of Tifft’s quantized redshift phenomena, a known puzzle for astronomers.
Category: Astrophysics

[31397] viXra:1909.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 06:00:27

### Unboxing AI - Radiological Insights Into a Deep Neural Network for Lung Nodule Characterization

Authors: Vasantha Kumar Venugopal, Kiran Vaidhya, Abhijith Chundur, Vidur Mahajan, Murali Murugavel, Suthirth Vaidya, Digvijay Mahra, Akshay Rangasai, Harsh Mahajan

Rationale and Objectives: To explain predictions of a deep residual convolutional network for characterization of lung nodule by analyzing heat maps Materials and Methods A 20-layer deep residual CNN was trained on 1245 Chest CTs from NLST trial to predict the malignancy risk of a nodule. We used occlusion to systematically block regions of a nodule and map drops in malignancy risk score to generate clinical attribution heatmaps on 103 nodules from LIDC-IDRI dataset, which were analyzed by a thoracic radiologist. The features were described as heat inside nodule (IH)-bright areas inside nodule, peripheral heat (PH)-continuous/interrupted bright areas along nodule contours, heat in adjacent plane (AH)-brightness in scan planes juxtaposed with the nodule, satellite heat (SH)- a smaller bright spot in proximity to nodule in the same scan plane, heat map larger than nodule (LH)-bright areas corresponding to the shape of the nodule seen outside the nodule margins and heat in calcification (CH) Results These six features were assigned binary values. This feature vector was fed into a standard J48 decision tree with 10-fold cross-validation, which gave an 85 % weighted classification accuracy with a 77.8 %TP rate, 8% FP rate for benign cases and 91.8% TP and 22.2 %FP rates for malignant cases. IH was more frequently observed in nodules classified as malignant whereas PH, AH, and SH were more commonly seen in nodules classified as benign. Conclusion We discuss the potential ability of a radiologist to visually parse the deep learning algorithm-generated 'heat map' to identify features aiding classification
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31396] viXra:1909.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 06:07:49

### Resolving Schrodinger's Cat, Wigner's Friend and Frauchiger-Renner's Paradoxes at a Single-Quantum Level

Authors: N Gurappa

Schrodinger's cat and Wigner's friend paradoxes are analyzed using the wave-particle non-dualistic interpretation of quantum mechanics at a single-quantum level' and are shown to be non-paradoxes within the quantum formalism. Then, the extended version of Wigner's friend thought experiment, proposed in a recent article titled, Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself '', Nature Communications {\bf 9}, 3711 (2018), by Frauchiger and Renner (FR) is considered. In quantum mechanics, it's well-known that, statistically observing a large number of identical quantum systems at some particular quantum state, which results in Born's probability, and merely inferring its presence in the same quantum state with the same probability yield distinct physical phenomena. If this fact is not taken care while interpreting any experimental outcomes, then FR type paradoxes pop up. What an astonishingly self-consistent the Quantum Theory is!' - is explicitly worked out in the case of FR gedankenexperiment. The present work shows the importance of single-quantum phenomenon for the non-paradoxical interpretation of statistically observed experimental outcomes.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31395] viXra:1909.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 07:14:06

### Real-Time Imaging in Medicine

Authors: George Rajna

A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before.
Category: Physics of Biology

[31394] viXra:1909.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 07:31:10

### Blood Vessels in the Brain

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology has designed a new surgical tool that is maneuverable through some of the narrowest twisting networks of blood vessels to help treat stroke and aneurysm. [37] A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31393] viXra:1909.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 07:50:05

### Law of Inertia

Authors: A.I.Somsikov

Misconception of the First Law of Motion, so called the Newton's First Law or the Galileo's Law of Inertia, is revealed.
Category: Classical Physics

[31392] viXra:1909.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 07:52:16

### Irrational Number Problem

Authors: A.I.Somsikov

A solution to the irrational numbers problem is proposed
Category: Classical Physics

[31391] viXra:1909.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 08:02:33

### Artificial Intelligence Probes Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna

A team of physicists and computer scientists at ETH Zurich has developed a new approach to the problem of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Using machine learning tools, they programmed computers to teach themselves how to extract the relevant information from maps of the universe. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31390] viXra:1909.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 08:22:30

### Explore Dark Matter with Lasers

Authors: George Rajna

"If we can detect axions and say for sure they are dark matter, it would be a truly exciting event indeed. It's what physicists like us dream for." [32] A team of physicists and computer scientists at ETH Zurich has developed a new approach to the problem of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Using machine learning tools, they programmed computers to teach themselves how to extract the relevant information from maps of the universe. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[31389] viXra:1909.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 09:09:21

### Effect on Black Holes of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna

A RUDN University physicist has developed a formula for evaluation of the effect of dark matter on the size of the shadow of a black hole. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[31388] viXra:1909.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 13:02:49

### Solar Planet Velocity Analysis (Part 2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous

Paper Hypotheses Hypothesis No. (1) Solar System pushes all planets to move together one unified motion– this motion is similar to train motion, so I call it "Train Motion Concept" – and as the train moves with all carriages one general motion- the solar system pushes all planets to move in one general unified motion.. (Planets Different Velocities can't disprove "Train Motion Concept") Hypothesis No. (2) Solar System Motion depends on Solar Day Period as its main unit of time Hypothesis No. (3) Matter depends on Solar Day Period To Be Created
Category: Astrophysics

[31387] viXra:1909.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 13:02:57

### Poor Man's Qubit

Authors: George Rajna

Engineers at Purdue University and Tohoku University in Japan have built the first hardware to demonstrate how the fundamental units of what would be a probabilistic computer—called p-bits—are capable of performing a calculation that quantum computers would usually be called upon to perform. [42] The advancement could be key to harnessing the potential of the atomic world, eventually leading to breakthroughs in computing, medicine, cryptography, materials science and other applications. [41] Researchers in the Quantum Dynamics Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) devised a new method—called image charge detection—to detect electrons' transitions to quantum states. [40]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[31386] viXra:1909.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 13:32:47

### Laser Gravitational Wave Detector

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers have announced a prototype for a laser at the heart of the first space-based gravitational wave observatory, known as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. [20] The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[31385] viXra:1909.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 16:46:07

### Cloud Formation and the Internal Quantum Principle of Nature

Authors: Royan Rosche

In this paper I dismantle 2,400 years of cloud formation science and introduce you to the Internal Quantum Principle of Nature, or the means by which nature acts, that is, from the inside out. I introduce you to the knowledge of an internal power that causes the main motions and alterations of atoms rather then those said alterations stemming from external accidental causes. It is hereto stated that Nature acts and moves by a force from inside Matter that is invisible to the senses and measurements, this force is only perceived by the actions it accomplishes and approached though extensive contemplation fit only for the sharpest of Minds.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31384] viXra:1909.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 20:47:21

### Formula of ζ Odd-Numbers

Authors: Toshiro Takami

I tried to find a new expression for zeta odd-numbers. It may be a new expression and will be published here. The correctness of this formula was confirmed by WolframAlpha to be numerically com- pletely correct.
Category: Number Theory

[31383] viXra:1909.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 21:28:20

### ζ(4), ζ(6).......ζ(108), ζ(110) Are Irrational Number

Authors: Toshiro Takami

ζ(4), ζ(6).......ζ(108), ζ(110) considered. From these equations, it can be said that ζ(4),ζ(6).......ζ(108),ζ(110) are irrational numbers. ζ(112),ζ(114) etc. can also be expressed by these equations. Because I use π2, these are to be irrational numbers. The fact that the even value of ζ(2n) is irrational can also be explained by the fact that each even value of ζ(2n) is multiplied by π2.
Category: Number Theory

[31382] viXra:1909.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 01:01:48

### [ Spacy+imageai+spin Glass Theory+z3 Api ] All in Python Language – an Insight Into the World of Natural Language Processing(nlp) Towards Understanding Informatics of Finite Automata Involving DNA Sequencing & Some Interesting Applications Like Gene Chips

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

[ spaCy+ImageAI+Spin Glass Theory+Z3 API ] all in Python Language – An Insight into the World of Natural Language Processing(NLP) towards Understanding Informatics of Finite Automata involving DNA Sequencing & Some Interesting Applications like Gene Chips. [ Exploring – NLP+Spin Glass Theory+AI+Theorem Proving in the Context of Developing Next Generation Bio-informatics ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31381] viXra:1909.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 01:29:39

### An Analysis of Genesis Using Evolutionary Theory

Authors: MinchanChoi
Comments: 18 Pages. Including both English and Korean

The programmer(Creator) made the world. 300million years ago, a warm-blooded reptile(Adam and Eve) began living in trees to avoid snakes. As the Gymnosperm(tree of life) evolve into the Angiosperm(tree of knowledge of good and evil), the Fine cone became a Fruit. and the warm-blooded reptiles that used to be herbivores on tree(subspecies) evolve into mammals(Eve). They were divided into herbivores and carnivores, but carnivores were unable to adapt and became extinct. sixty-five million years ago, when the K-pg extincion event occurred, a great flood occurred at the location of the african continent. However, the ancestors of Eurachontoglires(Noah), which used to live in wooden houses like beavers to avoid predators has not been extinct. They drift on the ocean. they drifted down to a new volcanic island(Ararat island). The Eurachontogrlires(Noah) were classified as Primates(Shem), Rodents(Ham) and Rabbits(Japheth). Primates(Sem) lived in the forests, but as the forest became desert, they lived on the pasture(13:18). thet became the first human beings(Abram). The human beings used fire(15:17) and began to settle in the spring(16:7). A hairless human beings(Abraham) has emerged. The hairless human race was genetically divided from the previous human being(Abimelech)(20:18) They used tools(21:20), and they became aware of death and the supreme Being(22:1~22:19). They held a funeral(23:1~23:20) Humanity has changed from a hunter-gatherer society (Esau) yo an agrarian society(Jacob).(25:27~25:34) As the agricultural society developed, private property was created. with the creation of private property, it became a class society(Laban).(29:17) From a tribal-centered confederacy(Jacob) to a centralized state where the king rules several tribes(Israel).(35:10~35:12) Egypt concentrated power on pharaoh, sending priest to each city to rule over them. The priest shall receive the land and be paid by pharaoh. The priest served as an official(47:22~47:26).Then Religion and Politics were linked(41:45) Israel divided into twelve administrative districts for various tribe to live together. The Levites of Israel were priests and officals in charge of the cities. Joseph entered Egypt and overcame a cirisis when Israel was a famine. Joseph did much for Israel and was assigned two of the twelve administrative districts.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[31380] viXra:1909.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 01:39:59

### Heart Contractions and Deformations

Authors: George Rajna

Research from the University of Göttingen in Germany suggests existing data from ultrasound imaging can be used to work backwards to reconstruct the underlying electrical causes of arrhythmias. [37] A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31379] viXra:1909.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 02:49:29

### Miniaturizing Medical Imaging

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists in Christine Hendon's and Michal Lipson's research groups at Columbia University, New York, have used a microchip to map the back of the eye for disease diagnosis. [38] Research from the University of Göttingen in Germany suggests existing data from ultrasound imaging can be used to work backwards to reconstruct the underlying electrical causes of arrhythmias. [37] A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31378] viXra:1909.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 03:00:23

### Ultrasound Medical Applications

Authors: George Rajna

A new ultrasound technique provides a non-invasive way of assessing bone structure on the microscale. Researchers hope to fine-tune the technique for use in assessing osteoporosis risk and treatment. [39] Scientists in Christine Hendon's and Michal Lipson's research groups at Columbia University, New York, have used a microchip to map the back of the eye for disease diagnosis. [38] Research from the University of Göttingen in Germany suggests existing data from ultrasound imaging can be used to work backwards to reconstruct the underlying electrical causes of arrhythmias. [37] A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31377] viXra:1909.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 04:18:29

### La Conjetura DE Collatz. Orden Y Armonía en Los Números de Las Secuencias.

Authors: Miguel Cerdá Bennassar

Propongo una tabla numérica en la que se demuestra visualmente que las secuencias formadas con el algoritmo de Collatz acaban siempre en el número 1.
Category: Number Theory

[31376] viXra:1909.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 04:30:35

### On the Physical Nature of the Superposition of States in Quantum Physics.

Authors: V.A. Kuz`menko

The note is devoted to the necessity of experimental study of differential cross sections of forward and reversed quantum processes.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31375] viXra:1909.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 06:56:34

### A Fully Bayesian Solution to K-Sample Tests for Comparison and the Behrens-Fisher Problem Based on the Henstock-Kurzweil Integral

Authors: Fabrice J. P. R. Pautot

We present a simple, fully probabilistic, Bayesian solution to k-sample omnibus tests for comparison, with the Behrens-Fisher problem as a special case, which is free from the many defects found in the standard, classical frequentist, likelihoodist and Bayesian approaches to those problems. We solve the main measure-theoretic difficulty for degenerate problems with continuous parameters of interest and Lebesgue-negligible point null hypothesis by approximating the corresponding continuous random variables by sequences of discrete ones defined on partitions of the parameter spaces and by taking the limit of the prior-to-posterior ratios of the probability of the null hypothesis for the corresponding discrete problems. Those limits are well defined under proper technicalities thanks to the Henstock-Kurzweil integral that is as powerful as the Lebesgue integral but still relies on Riemann sums, which are essential in the present approach. The solutions to the relative continuous problems take the form of Bayes-Poincaré factors that are new objects in Bayesian probability theory and should play a key role in the general theory of point null hypothesis testing, including other important problems such as the Jeffreys-Lindley paradox.
Category: Statistics

[31374] viXra:1909.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 07:14:08

### Fundamental Matter Probe

Authors: George Rajna

Identifying elementary constituents of matter including quarks, bosons and electrons, and the manner by which these particles interact with each other, constitutes one of the greatest challenges in modern physical sciences. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31373] viXra:1909.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 09:49:41

### Puzzle of Antineutrino's Energy

Authors: George Rajna

By understanding neutron production in concert with MINERvA's characterization of antineutrino interactions on many nuclei, future oscillation studies can quantify how undetected neutrons could affect their conclusions about the differences between neutrinos and antineutrinos. [28] An international team of scientists has announced a breakthrough in its quest to measure the mass of the neutrino, one of the most abundant, yet elusive, elementary particles in our universe. [27] In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[31372] viXra:1909.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 10:21:51

### Was Atlantis Situated Opposite of Gadeira (Critias 114 Versus Luke 8:26)?

Authors: Leon Elshout

What had Gades in Critias 114 to do with Gadara in Luke 8:26? - leon elshout, 17 september 2019, almelo, aurichalcum (at) protonmail.com - roodgoudvanparvaim.nl
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[31371] viXra:1909.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 11:07:43

### Dark Energy and the Time Dependence of Fundamental Particle Constants

Authors: Bodo Lampe

The cosmic time dependencies of $G$, $\alpha$, $h$ and of SM parameters like the Higgs vev and elementary particle masses are studied in the framework of a new dark energy interpretation. Due to the associated time variation of rulers, many effects turn out to be invisible. However, a rather large time dependence is claimed to arise in association with dark energy measurements, and smaller ones in connection with the SM.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31370] viXra:1909.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 11:26:07

### The Einstein Equations for Exterior Forms

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

We propose to replace the smooth functions by the even exterior forms, so making the tensor calculus of forms.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[31369] viXra:1909.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 13:19:02

### On the Integer Solutions to the Equation X!+x=x^n

Authors: Miika Rankaviita
Comments: 20 Pages. Licencing: CC BY-SA

This thesis explains the solution to the problem of finding all of the integer pair solutions to the equation x!+x=x^n. A detailed explanation is given so that anyone with high school mathematics background can follow the solution. This paper is a translation of my diplom work in Vaasa Lyseo Upper Secondary School.
Category: Number Theory

[31368] viXra:1909.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 14:33:15

### Resolution in Classical Modal Logic of a Security Barrier Model

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate three states of a security barrier example. For the security barrier as equivalent to the road width, the two cases are staying on the road, or staying on the road or going off of the road. Staying on the road is not a theorem. However staying on the road or going off road is a theorem. For the security barrier as larger than the road width, then staying on the road is effectively enforced as a theorem. This evaluation concludes that casting a problem to substructural epistemic resource logic is an unneeded effort for model resolution. The resolution in classical model logic of a security barrier model relegates the authors’ conjectures to non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31367] viXra:1909.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 15:11:10

### Fresnel Drag Formula Derived from Hertz em

Authors: Robert Bennett

The Fresnel drag formula was verified by Fizeau’s water-channel test. SoL = c/n + v(1-1/n2) The theoretical derivation* offered herein supports: •Full aether dragging by fluids – speed of the fluid medium equals the speed of the entrained aether in the lab - Vm = Va •The Hertz EM laws, which replace Maxwell’s partial derivatives with total time derivatives, introducing thereby laws that are Galilean covariant(not Lorentzian)...and an additional parameter, a convective velocity ...of aether, Va. • The kinematic invariants of proper time, using distance and velocity to first order in v/c. •The Fresnel drag equation, as confirmed by Fizeau. The following uses Robert’s Rules of reasoning, based on the scientific method and philo-realism.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[31366] viXra:1909.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 15:15:52

### Recent Advances in the Modal Model Checker Meth8 with the VŁ4 Universal Logic

Authors: Colin James III

We use the Meth8/VŁ4 modal logic model checker to evaluate 629 artifacts in 3274 assertions to refute 2726 as non tautologous (83.3%). This is the abstract, table of results, and table of contents. The current document in 1045-pages includes the availability of Meth8/VŁ4 and is requestable from info@ersatz-systems.com.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31365] viXra:1909.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 19:20:58

### Free Quantum Groups and Related Topics

Authors: Teo Banica

The unitary group U_N has a free analogue U_N^+, and the study of the closed subgroups G\subset U_N^+ is a problem of general interest. We review here the general theory of U_N^+ and its subgroups, with all the needed preliminaries included. We discuss as well a number of more advanced topics, selected for their beauty, and potential importance.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[31364] viXra:1909.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 21:57:03

### Refutation of Axiomatizing Logics of Fuzzy Preferences Using Graded Modalities

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate the fuzzy preference relation of the assumed ∧-transitivity theorem as not tautologous, relegating it, along with the subsequent minimal modal logics of a finite residuated lattice and the Bulldozed method, as non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31363] viXra:1909.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 23:30:47

### Exploring Ruby Based Bio-informatics R&D Framework Using NLP/BioNLP/SVM/QRNG/HPC/IoT/Mongo DB/BaseX DB Systems & Related Environments – A Novel Multidisciplinary Approach.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 5 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Exploring Ruby Based Bio-informatics R&D Framework Using NLP/BioNLP/SVM/QRNG/HPC/IoT/Mongo DB/BaseX DB Systems & Related Environments – A Novel Multidisciplinary Approach. [ Probing Advanced Computational Aspects of Cancer Research With Mathematics ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31362] viXra:1909.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 01:58:16

### Quantum States of Electrons

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers in the Quantum Dynamics Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) devised a new method—called image charge detection—to detect electrons' transitions to quantum states. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31361] viXra:1909.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 02:50:52

### Black Holes Clues to Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna

These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark
Category: Astrophysics

[31360] viXra:1909.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 03:12:30

### Solar Planet Velocity Analysis (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous

Paper Hypotheses (1) Planet Velocity shows, Planet Motion is a part of A Greater Motion- (2) Planet Velocity shows, Planets motions are similar to a train motion- it's one unified motion – and as a train moves with its carriages – the solar system moves one general motion with all planets. ("Train Motion Concept") (3) Planets different velocities can't disprove "Train Motion Concept". (4) Space is NOT nothingness but a geometrical player in the solar system geometry (5) Space & Matter are created relative (and complementary) to each other
Category: Astrophysics

[31359] viXra:1909.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 03:13:45

### Improvements in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna

The advancement could be key to harnessing the potential of the atomic world, eventually leading to breakthroughs in computing, medicine, cryptography, materials science and other applications. [41] Researchers in the Quantum Dynamics Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) devised a new method—called image charge detection—to detect electrons' transitions to quantum states. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31358] viXra:1909.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 06:27:24

### Mathematics as Information Compression Via the Matching and Unication of Patterns

Authors: J Gerard Wolff
Comments: 61 Pages. Accepted for publication in the journal "Complexity", 2019-09-17.

This paper describes a novel perspective on the foundations of mathematics: how mathematics may be seen to be largely about 'information compression (IC) via the matching and unification of patterns' (ICMUP. That is itself a novel approach to IC, couched in terms of non-mathematical primitives, as is necessary in any investigation of the foundations of mathematics. This new perspective on the foundations of mathematics reects the idea that, as an aid to human thinking, mathematics is likely to be consonant with much evidence for the importance of IC in human learning, perception, and cognition. This perspective on the foundations of mathematics has grown out of a long-term programme of research developing the SP Theory of Intelligence and its realisation in the SP Computer Model, a system in which a generalised version of ICMUP -- the powerful concept of SP-multiple-alignment -- plays a central role. The paper shows with an example how mathematics, without any special provision, may achieve compression of information. Then it describes examples showing how variants of ICMUP may be seen in widely-used structures and operations in mathematics. Examples are also given to show how several aspects of the mathematics-related disciplines of logic and computing may be understood as ICMUP. Also discussed is the intimate relation between IC and concepts of probability, witharguments that there are advantages in approaching AI, cognitive science, and concepts of probability via ICMUP. Also discussed is how the close relation between IC and concepts of probability relates to the established view that some parts of mathematics are intrinsically probabilistic, and how that latter view may be reconciled with the all-or-nothing, 'exact', forms of calculation or inference that are familiar in mathematics and logic. There are many potential benefits and applications of the mathematics-as-IC perspective.
Category: General Mathematics

[31357] viXra:1909.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 07:17:55

### Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: George Rajna

A team of scientists from Ural Federal University (Yekaterinburg), Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology and other collaborator have published an article about a new method for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. [53] A Northwestern University research team has developed a new method for making highly desirable catalysts from metal nanoparticles that could lead to better fuel cells, among other applications. [52] Valencia University (UV) researchers have modified the photoconductance of nanoparticles of tungsten oxide (WO3) in a controlled manner. [51] Scientists who study the nanoscale-with molecules and materials 10,000 smaller than a pinhead-need to be able to test the way that some molecules twist, known as their chirality, because mirror image molecules with the same structure can have very different properties. [50] In a recent study, researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center have demonstrated that nanoscale vacuum channel transistors can be fabricated on silicon carbide wafers. [49] Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanofibers can have various applications, such as in catalyzers and filters. [48] Today, scientists report progress in making versions of these nanoparticles that could someday give built-in night vision to humans. [47] A new piece of a difficult puzzle-the nature of memory-fell into place this week with a hint at how brain cells change structure when they learn something. [46] Researchers at the University of Alberta have found an important protein in the cells of a deadly infectious parasite, opening the door to less harmful treatment for millions of people suffering from diseases like sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in South America. [45] The remarkable ability of a small Australian sea snail to produce a colourful purple compound to protect its eggs is proving even more remarkable for its potential in a new anti-cancer pharmaceutical. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31356] viXra:1909.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 07:46:01

### Sound and Light Waves in Silicon Chips

Authors: George Rajna

One potential application of such devices is in future cellular networks, widely known as 5G. Digital electronics alone might not be enough to support the signal processing requirements in such networks. Light and sound devices might do the trick. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31355] viXra:1909.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 08:08:41

### Nanoswing Overcomes Thermal Fluctuations

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists at AMOLF have managed to cool a swinging, nanosized string to near-zero temperature without using external refrigeration. [35] One potential application of such devices is in future cellular networks, widely known as 5G. Digital electronics alone might not be enough to support the signal processing requirements in such networks. Light and sound devices might do the trick. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31354] viXra:1909.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 08:22:44

### Stability of Highly Energetic Materials

Authors: George Rajna

Understanding the physical and chemical characteristics of energetic materials under extreme conditions is crucial for their safe and efficient use. [36] Physicists at AMOLF have managed to cool a swinging, nanosized string to near-zero temperature without using external refrigeration. [35] One potential application of such devices is in future cellular networks, widely known as 5G. Digital electronics alone might not be enough to support the signal processing requirements in such networks. Light and sound devices might do the trick. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31353] viXra:1909.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 10:52:30

### Observe Ground State Collisions

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31352] viXra:1909.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 11:31:17

### Gravity Using Mobile Atom Interferometer

Authors: George Rajna

Mobile gravimetry is an important technique in metrology, navigation, geodesy and geophysics. [12] The relationship may even unlock the quantum nature of gravity. "It is among our best clues to understand gravity from a quantum perspective," said Witten. [11] Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10] Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31351] viXra:1909.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 12:25:42

### Mysteries of Brain Organization

Authors: George Rajna

The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31350] viXra:1909.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 12:42:24

### Closer to Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists at Uppsala University in Sweden have identified how to distinguish between true and 'fake' Majorana states in one of the most commonly used experimental setups, by means of supercurrent measurements. [57] A team from Dartmouth College and MIT has designed and conducted the first lab test to successfully detect and characterize a class of complex, "non-Gaussian" noise processes that are routinely encountered in superconducting quantum computing systems. [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31349] viXra:1909.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 12:58:00

### Mass Estimate for Elusive Neutrino

Authors: George Rajna

An international team of scientists has announced a breakthrough in its quest to measure the mass of the neutrino, one of the most abundant, yet elusive, elementary particles in our universe. [27] In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[31348] viXra:1909.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 14:38:53

### Application of ANN in Pavement Engineering: State-of-Art

Authors: M. Abambres, A. Ferreira

There has been much discussion about the impact and future of artificial intelligence (AI) in our lives and future generations. Many experts even believe that AI will “rule” the world. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have provided a convenient and often extremely accurate solution to problems within all fields, and can be seen as advanced general-purpose regression models that try to mimic the behavior of the human brain. The adoption and use of ANN-based methods in the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide is a clear sign of the successful use of neural nets in geomechanical and pavement systems. This work aims to provide an extensive and detailed state-of-the-art of the application of ANN models to pavement management, materials and design problems. Unlike former review articles published before 2014, this work is more descriptive and makes the review much more appealing to the reader by highlighting numerically and/or graphically the effectiveness and possible drawbacks of each ANN application.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31347] viXra:1909.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 14:41:13

### Neural Network-Based Formula for the Buckling Load Prediction of I-Section Cellular Steel Beams

Authors: M. Abambres, K. Rajana, K. Tsavdaridis, T. Ribeiro

Cellular beams are an attractive option for the steel construction industry due to their versatility in terms of strength, size, and weight. Further benefits are the integration of services thereby reducing ceiling-to-floor depth (thus, building’s height), which has a great economic impact. Moreover, the complex localised and global failures characterizing those members have led several scientists to focus their research on the development of more efficient design guidelines. This paper aims to propose an artificial neural network (ANN)-based formula to estimate the critical elastic buckling load of simply supported cellular beams under uniformly distributed vertical loads. The 3645-point dataset used in ANN design was obtained from an extensive parametric finite element analysis performed in ABAQUS. The independent variables adopted as ANN inputs are the following: beam’s length, opening diameter, web-post width, cross-section height, web thickness, flange width, flange thickness, and the distance between the last opening edge and the end support. The proposed model shows a strong potential as an effective design tool. The maximum and average relative errors among the 3645 data points were found to be 3.7% and 0.4%, respectively, whereas the average computing time per data point is smaller than a millisecond for any current personal computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31346] viXra:1909.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 14:50:21

### Neural Network-Based Analytical Model to Predict the Shear Strength of Steel Girders with a Trapezoidal Corrugated Web

Authors: M. Abambres, J. He

Corrugated webs are used to increase the shear stability of steel webs of beam-like members and to eliminate the need of transverse stiffeners. Previously developed formulas for predicting the shear strength of trapezoidal corrugated steel webs, along with the corresponding theory, are summarized. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based model is proposed to estimate the shear strength of steel girders with a trapezoidal corrugated web, and under a concentrated load. 210 test results from previous published research were collected into a database according to relevant test specimen parameters in order to feed the simulated ANNs. Seven (geometrical and material) parameters were identified as input variables and the ultimate shear stress at failure was considered the output variable. The proposed ANN-based analytical model yielded maximum and mean relative errors of 0.0% for the 210 points from the database. Moreover, still based on those points, it was illustrated that the ANN-based model clearly outperforms the other existing analytical models, which yield mean errors larger than 13%.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31345] viXra:1909.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 14:52:25

### Shear Capacity of Headed Studs in Steel-Concrete Structures: Analytical Prediction via Soft Computing

Authors: M. Abambres, J. He

Headed studs are commonly used as shear connectors to transfer longitudinal shear force at the interface between steel and concrete in composite structures (e.g., bridge decks). Code-based equations for predicting the shear capacity of headed studs are summarized. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based analytical model is proposed to estimate the shear capacity of headed steel studs. 234 push-out test results from previous published research were collected into a database in order to feed the simulated ANNs. Three parameters were identified as input variables for the prediction of the headed stud shear force at failure, namely the steel stud tensile strength and diameter, and the concrete (cylinder) compressive strength. The proposed ANN-based analytical model yielded, for all collected data, maximum and mean relative errors of 3.3 % and 0.6 %, respectively. Moreover, it was illustrated that, for that data, the neural network approach clearly outperforms the existing code-based equations, which yield mean errors greater than 13 %.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31344] viXra:1909.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 14:55:41

### Ineffective Obsessions in Brazilian Academia and Proposals Towards Meritocracy

Authors: M. Abambres, T. Ribeiro, A. Sousa, E. Lantsoght

Albeit its constitutional claim for quality, Brazilian academia has largely been referred to as unmeritocratic and academic hiring is still inward-oriented. Lattes platform, a public curricular information system, reflects elements of this protectionism. This article assesses two ‘obsessions’ in Brazilian academia: (i) the ‘mandatory’ Lattes CV, and (ii) the candidates’ assessment criteria in public tenders for faculty positions. Several pros and cons (mostly) of the Lattes platform are identified. The following improvements are proposed: (i) evaluations in public tenders based only on candidate’s CV, interview, and a sample lecture, (ii) the dismissal of Lattes CV as a mandatory format, and (iii) the use of platforms as Microsoft Academic, Google Scholar, ORCID or ResearcherID for curricular information. With these recommendations, Brazil can move towards a more meritocratic academic hiring system.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31343] viXra:1909.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 14:57:55

### Research Counts, Not the Journal

Authors: M. Abambres, T. Ribeiro, A. Sousa, E. Lantsoght

‘If there is one thing every bibliometrician agrees, is that you should never use the journal impact factor (JIF) to evaluate research performance for an article or an individual – that is a mortal sin’. Few sentences could define so precisely the uses and misuses of the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) better than Anthony van Raan’s. This manuscript presents a critical overview on the international use, by governments and institutions, of the JIF and/or journal indexing information for individual research quality assessment. Interviews given by Nobel Laureates speaking on this matter are partially illustrated in this work. Furthermore, the authors propose complementary and alternative versions of the journal impact factor, respectively named Complementary (CIF) and Timeless (TIF) Impact Factors, aiming to better assess the average quality of a journal – never of a paper or an author. The idea behind impact factors is not useless, it has just been misused.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31342] viXra:1909.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 15:57:28

### Neural Network-Based Formula for Shear Capacity Prediction of One-Way Slabs Under Concentrated Loads

Authors: M. Abambres, E. Lantsoght

According to the current codes and guidelines, shear assessment of existing reinforced concrete slab bridges sometimes leads to the conclusion that the bridge under consideration has insufficient shear capacity. The calculated shear capacity, however, does not consider the transverse redistribution capacity of slabs, thus leading to overconservative values. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN)-based formula to come up with estimates of the shear capacity of one-way reinforced concrete slabs under a concentrated load, based on 287 test results gathered from the literature. The proposed model yields maximum and mean relative errors of 0.0% for the 287 data points. Moreover, it was illustrated to clearly outperform (mean Vtest / VANN =1.00) the Eurocode 2 provisions (mean VE,EC / VR,c =1.59) for that dataset. A step-by-step assessment scheme for reinforced concrete slab bridges by means of the ANN-based model is also proposed, which results in an improvement of the current assessment procedures.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31341] viXra:1909.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 16:20:40

### Potential of Neural Networks for Maximum Displacement Predictions in Railway Beams on Frictionally Damped Foundations

Authors: M. Abambres, R. Corrêa, A. Pinto da Costa, F. Simões

Since the use of finite element (FE) simulations for the dynamic analysis of railway beams on frictionally damped foundations are (i) very time consuming, and (ii) require advanced know-how and software that go beyond the available resources of typical civil engineering firms, this paper aims to demonstrate the potential of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to effectively predict the maximum displacements and the critical velocity in railway beams under moving loads. Four ANN-based models are proposed, one per load velocity range ([50, 175] ∪ [250, 300] m/s; ]175, 250[ m/s) and per displacement type (upward or downward). Each model is function of two independent variables, a frictional parameter and the load velocity. Among all models and the 663 data points used, a maximum error of 5.4 % was obtained when comparing the ANN- and FE-based solutions. Whereas the latter involves an average computing time per data point of thousands of seconds, the former does not even need a millisecond. This study was an important step towards the development of more versatile (i.e., including other types of input variables) ANN-based models for the same type of problem.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31340] viXra:1909.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 17:51:25

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous

(1) Egyptian Government practices a Religious Persecution against me (Coptic) (2013-2019)– Because of my Specific Work in Astrophysics (2) Egyptian Government prevents the Coptic to be distinguished or famous – And she prevented me to travel from Egypt during (2013-2019) (3) Egyptian Government forces my relatives and Church people to perform this persecution works (4) Egyptian Government People tortures my mother to prevent me to publish my research papers (5) Egyptian Government People Try To Kill My Mother Now And To Get Rid Of Me. My research & CV proves my claim. Please Help
Category: Astrophysics

[31339] viXra:1909.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 00:08:23

### The Cosmic Origin of Climate Cycles

Authors: F.M. Sanchez

The Wolf and Milankovich cycles, as well as a 725 years one, are shown to be tightly connected to the invariant Hubble-Sanchez horizon, via the Bohr radius, the background temperature and the Kotov length, implying a liaison between the Mattieu group, the superstring dimension 496 and the Higgs boson mass. The Mattieu group order factorisation 66 × 5! is implied, and leads to a relation implying the Monster Couple, characterising the Tau, Mu Leptons and Proton masses and confirming the Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry.
Category: Climate Research

[31338] viXra:1909.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 00:13:09

### A Definiive Proof of the ABC Conjecture

Comments: 10 Pages. We give another proof of the conjecture c

In this paper, we consider the $abc$ conjecture. Firstly, we give anelementaryproof the conjecture $c<rad^2(abc)$. Secondly, the proof of the $abc$ conjecture is given for $\epsilon \geq 1$, then for $\epsilon \in ]0,1[$. We choose the constant $K(\epsilon)$ as $K(\epsilon)=e^{\left(\frac{1}{\epsilon^2} \right)}$. Some numerical examples are presented.
Category: Number Theory

[31337] viXra:1909.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 00:18:57

### Huangzi Theory Outline

Authors: Huang Weixiong

Photons are particles moving at the speed of light. They are the source of energy. Atoms are the elements that make up matter. They are the basis of matter. photons collision transforms into photons dust, photons dust combination transforms into atoms, atoms split into photons dust, photons dust collision transforms into photons. Energy and matter achieve cyclic transformation. The theory of energy and material cycle transformation is called Huangzi theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[31336] viXra:1909.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 01:14:44

### Refutation of Modal Operators on Rings of Continuous Functions

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate five expressions for a definition (2), two remarks (2), and a lemma proof (1). None is tautologous. This refutes the titled conjecture which drags in the Hausdorff and Stone topologies, Kripke frames, and dualities of Gelfand-Naimark-Stone and Esakia-Goldblatt. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31335] viXra:1909.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 02:04:19

### The Characteristic of Primes

Authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

In this paper, we propose the axiomatic regularity of prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[31334] viXra:1909.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 04:53:33

### The Effects of Copper Doping on Photocatalytic Activity at (101) Planes of Anatase Tio2: a Theoretical Study

Authors: Dorian Hanaor
Comments: 12 Pages. English, authors post-peer-review version

Copper dopants are varyingly reported to enhance photocatalytic activity at titanium dioxide surfaces through uncertain mechanisms. In order to interpret how copper doping might alter the performance of titanium dioxide photocatalysts in aqueous media we applied density functional theory methods to simulate surface units of doped anatase (101) planes. By including van der Waals interactions, we consider the energetics of adsorbed water at anatase surfaces in pristine and copper doped systems. Simulation results indicate that copper dopant at anatase (101) surfaces is most stable in a 2+ oxidation state and a disperse configuration, suggesting the formation of secondary CuO phases is energetically unfavourable. In agreement with previous reports, water at the studied surface is predicted to exhibit molecular adsorption with this tendency slightly enhanced by copper. Results imply that the enhancement of photoactivity at anatase surfaces through Cu doping is more likely to arise from electronic interactions mediated by charge transfer and inter-bandgap states increasing photoexcitation and extending surface-hole lifetimes rather than through the increased density of adsorbed hydroxyl groups.
Category: Condensed Matter

[31333] viXra:1909.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 07:36:48

### Conductivity Edges of Graphene

Authors: George Rajna

The conductivity of dual layers of graphene greatly depends on the states of carbon atoms at their edges; a property which could have important implications for information transmissions on quantum scales. [42] A research team comprised of scientists at the University of California, Riverside, and the University of Washington has for the first time directly imaged "edge conduction" in monolayer tungsten ditelluride, or WTe2, a newly discovered 2-D topological insulator and quantum material. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31332] viXra:1909.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 07:56:32

### Simulation of Peeling Graphene Sheets

Authors: George Rajna

Here, Ryoji Okamoto, Koki Yamasaki, and Naruo Sasaki at The University of Electro-Communications have developed a time-saving potential model to simulate the adhesive characteristics during the peeling process of armchair-type graphene sheets from frictionless graphite substrate surfaces. [43] The conductivity of dual layers of graphene greatly depends on the states of carbon atoms at their edges; a property which could have important implications for information transmissions on quantum scales. [42] A research team comprised of scientists at the University of California, Riverside, and the University of Washington has for the first time directly imaged "edge conduction" in monolayer tungsten ditelluride, or WTe2, a newly discovered 2-D topological insulator and quantum material. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31331] viXra:1909.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 08:15:06

### My Contribustion in Claymath Millenium Problems:

Authors: Louiz Akram

I present my contribustion in three Claymath Millenium problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[31330] viXra:1909.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 08:24:20

### Hall Effect One-Way Radio Transmission

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31329] viXra:1909.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 08:38:22

### Solar Fuel Generation in Action

Authors: George Rajna

Hoping to break this barrier, scientists at the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a Department of Energy Innovation Hub based partly at Berkeley Lab, have invented a cell that is specially designed to allow for unobtrusive observation of an isolated, operating catalyst. [30] The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29] A new hybrid energy-harvesting device may one day replace the need for batteries in certain low-power electronics devices. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[31328] viXra:1909.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 09:13:05

### A Generic Disease Cure Using T-Cells

Authors: Domenico Oricchio

I hypothesize a cure of a generic diseases using the sequencing of a single T-cell of an group of elite disease controllers
Category: Physics of Biology

[31327] viXra:1909.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 12:00:10

### A Strange Connection Exists Between Middlebush NJ and the Sunken Locomotives Off Long Branch NJ

Authors: George R. Briggs

Abstract: The 44.6 mile distance between Middlebush NJ and the 2 sunken early type locomotives found 5 miles off the coast of NJ near Long Branch NJ indicate an important connection between Middlebush and the MHCE8S theory of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31326] viXra:1909.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 11:40:17

### Stellar Metamorphosis: Does Gas Accretion Occur in the Vacuum to Form Gas Giants, K2-18b

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages. 2 diagrams, one of lift, one of stellar metamorphosis

It is pointed out that astronomers do not understand the principles of pressure and gas in the vacuum of outer space, nor do they understand planetary evolution. Some clarifying statements are made to fix the issue, and fully replace the outdated dogma. In short, astronomers claim that gas accretes onto a solid body "like a vacuum cleaner" to form a gas giant. An archive link and screen shot are provided to show how wrong this is, and a replacement theory is offered. The link is here: http://archive.is/2xg6L
Category: Astrophysics

[31325] viXra:1909.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 14:56:24

### Do You Know The Winner Of Realism (Be-ables) Vs Operational-ism (Observabls) ?

Authors: Bhasanpal S.

Always think simple to answer a question which is being seem tough.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31324] viXra:1909.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 15:35:05

### The Complexity of NonSwapClique

Authors: Anisse Ismaili

Problem NonSwapClique: Given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$, does it contain a clique $S\subseteq V$ of size $k$, such that you cannot obtain another clique of the same size by swapping a pair of vertices? In this note, I settle the complexity of this problem as NP-complete, by a reduction from problem \textsc{1-in-3-SAT}.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31323] viXra:1909.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 20:44:04

### Bye Bye Peer-Reviewed Publishing

Authors: M. Abambres, T. Salloom, N. Beganovic, R. Dojka, S. Roncallo-Dow

This work is the continuation of a ‘revolution’ started with Research Counts, Not the Journal. Own and published opinions from worldwide scientists on critical issues of peer-reviewed publishing are presented. In my opinion, peer-reviewed publishing is a quite flawed process (in many ways) that has greatly harmed Science for a long time – it has been imposed by most academic and science funding institutions as the only way to assess scientific performance. Unfortunately, most academics still follow that path, even though I believe most do it for the fear of losing their job or not being promoted. This paper aims to encourage (i) a full disruption of peer-reviewed publishing and (ii) the use of free eprint repositories for a sustainable academic/scientific publishing, i.e. healthier (no stress/distress associated to the peer review stage and the long waiting for publication) and more economic, effective and efficient (research is made immediately available and trackable/citable to anyone). On the other hand, it should be pointed out that nothing exists against scientific publishers/journals – actually it´s perfectly normal that any company wants to implement its own quality criteria. This paper is just the way chosen to promote the quick implementation of suitable policies for research evaluation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31322] viXra:1909.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 20:46:25

Authors: M. Abambres

This work reports several issues found by the author throughout his professional career, concerning academic leadership. Topics like (i) out-of-field teaching/researching, and (ii) time management in faculty hiring or new role assignment, are addressed. Besides, the author describes which fundamental decisions he´d take if he could manage a higher education institution or academic department. The topics covered are crucial for the success of any higher education institution, such as (a) hiring, (b) social engagement, (c) student assessment, (d) open mindedness, (e) prompt communication, and (f) passion in work.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31321] viXra:1909.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 20:50:16

### The Eht Picture is Wrong; This Shows How Low is the Level of Knowledge of the Black Holes in Universities, in Research Centers

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31320] viXra:1909.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 20:50:43

### Potential of Neural Networks for Structural Damage Localization

Authors: M. Abambres, M. Marcy, G. Doz

Fabrication technology and structural engineering states-of-art have led to a growing use of slender structures, making them more susceptible to static and dynamic actions that may lead to some sort of damage. In this context, regular inspections and evaluations are necessary to detect and predict structural damage and establish maintenance actions able to guarantee structural safety and durability with minimal cost. However, these procedures are traditionally quite time-consuming and costly, and techniques allowing a more effective damage detection are necessary. This paper assesses the potential of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models in the prediction of damage localization in structural members, as function of their dynamic properties – the three first natural frequencies are used. Based on 64 numerical examples from damaged (mostly) and undamaged steel channel beams, an ANN-based analytical model is proposed as a highly accurate and efficient damage localization estimator. The proposed model yielded maximum errors of 0.2 and 0.7 % concerning 64 numerical and 3 experimental data points, respectively. Due to the high-quality of results, authors’ next step is the application of similar approaches to entire structures, based on much larger datasets.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31319] viXra:1909.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 21:46:04

### An Interesting Novel Insight into the [ Ocaml+Theorem Prover+AI/ML+Java+Prolog+BaseX-XML DB/ Mongo DB Systems+Imaging Mathematics-Linear Algebra ] to Probe Radiation Oncology Informatics +BIG DATA.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 5 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

An Interesting Novel Insight into the [Ocaml+Theorem Prover+AI/ML+Java+Prolog+BaseX-XML DB/Mongo DB Systems+Imaging Mathematics-Linear Algebra ] to Probe Radiation Oncology Informatics+BIG DATA.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31318] viXra:1909.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 23:09:11

### ζ(5), ζ(7)..........ζ(331), ζ(333) Are Irrational Number

Authors: Toshiro Takami

Using the fact that ζ(3) is an irrational number, I prove that ζ(5), ζ(7)...........ζ(331) and ζ(333) are irrational numbers. ζ(5), ζ(7)...........ζ(331) and ζ(333) are confirmed that they were in perfect numerical agreement. This is because I created an odd-number formula for ζ, and the formula was created by dividing the odd- number for ζ itself into odd and even numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[31317] viXra:1909.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 01:25:25

### Solar Planet Velocity Analysis

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous

Paper Hypotheses (1) Planet Velocity shows that Planet Motion is a part of A Greater Motion- (2) Planet Velocity shows that, Planets motions are similar to a train motion- it's one unified motion – and as a train moves with its carriages – the solar system moves one general motion with all planets. ("Train Motion Concept") (3) Planets different velocities can't disprove "the rain motion concept" because Planets motions are complementary to each other to enable the general unified motion to be performed which necessities the difference of velocities.
Category: Astrophysics

[31316] viXra:1909.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 04:46:45

### Noise Cancelling Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna

A team from Dartmouth College and MIT has designed and conducted the first lab test to successfully detect and characterize a class of complex, "non-Gaussian" noise processes that are routinely encountered in superconducting quantum computing systems. [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31315] viXra:1909.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 06:51:50

### A Generalization of the Functional Equation of the Riemann zeta Function

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

With help of theta functions, a generalization of the functional equation of the zeta Riemann function can be defined.
Category: Number Theory

[31314] viXra:1909.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 06:52:45

### Paramagnetic Spins for Electrons

Authors: George Rajna

An international team of researchers has observed that local thermal perturbations of spins in a solid can convert heat to energy even in a paramagnetic material-where spins weren't thought to correlate long enough to do so. [31] Recent discoveries in high Tc superconductors have resulted in an intense interest in a "pair-density wave" (PDW) formed in Cooper pairs (an electron pair bound together at low temperatures), although there is little theoretical understanding on the driving mechanisms of this exotic state. [30] Researchers at Northeast Normal University, in China, and University of the Basque Country, in Spain, have recently carried out a study investigating the superconducting transition of electrides. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31313] viXra:1909.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 07:44:39

### Twisted and Untwisted Nanomaterial

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists who study the nanoscale—with molecules and materials 10,000 smaller than a pinhead—need to be able to test the way that some molecules twist, known as their chirality, because mirror image molecules with the same structure can have very different properties. [50] In a recent study, researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center have demonstrated that nanoscale vacuum channel transistors can be fabricated on silicon carbide wafers. [49] Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanofibers can have various applications, such as in catalyzers and filters. [48]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31312] viXra:1909.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 07:59:34

### Progress in Inverse Photoconductance

Authors: George Rajna

University (UV) researchers have modified the photoconductance of nanoparticles of tungsten oxide (WO3) in a controlled manner. [51] Scientists who study the nanoscale-with molecules and materials 10,000 smaller than a pinhead-need to be able to test the way that some molecules twist, known as their chirality, because mirror image molecules with the same structure can have very different properties. [50] In a recent study, researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center have demonstrated that nanoscale vacuum channel transistors can be fabricated on silicon carbide wafers. [49] Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanofibers can have various applications, such as in catalyzers and filters. [48] Today, scientists report progress in making versions of these nanoparticles that could someday give built-in night vision to humans. [47] A new piece of a difficult puzzle-the nature of memory-fell into place this week with a hint at how brain cells change structure when they learn something. [46] Researchers at the University of Alberta have found an important protein in the cells of a deadly infectious parasite, opening the door to less harmful treatment for millions of people suffering from diseases like sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in South America. [45] The remarkable ability of a small Australian sea snail to produce a colourful purple compound to protect its eggs is proving even more remarkable for its potential in a new anti-cancer pharmaceutical. [44] Gene editing technology is a technology that eliminates the underlying causes of and treats diseases by removing specific genesor editing genes to restore their normal function. In particular, CRISPR gene editing technology is now commonly used for immunotherapy by correcting the genes of immune cells to induce them to attack cancer cells selectively. [43]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31311] viXra:1909.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 08:17:11

### Gem-Like Nanoparticles as Catalysts

Authors: George Rajna

A Northwestern University research team has developed a new method for making highly desirable catalysts from metal nanoparticles that could lead to better fuel cells, among other applications. [52] Valencia University (UV) researchers have modified the photoconductance of nanoparticles of tungsten oxide (WO3) in a controlled manner. [51] Scientists who study the nanoscale-with molecules and materials 10,000 smaller than a pinhead-need to be able to test the way that some molecules twist, known as their chirality, because mirror image molecules with the same structure can have very different properties. [50] In a recent study, researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center have demonstrated that nanoscale vacuum channel transistors can be fabricated on silicon carbide wafers. [49] Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanofibers can have various applications, such as in catalyzers and filters. [48] Today, scientists report progress in making versions of these nanoparticles that could someday give built-in night vision to humans. [47] A new piece of a difficult puzzle-the nature of memory-fell into place this week with a hint at how brain cells change structure when they learn something. [46] Researchers at the University of Alberta have found an important protein in the cells of a deadly infectious parasite, opening the door to less harmful treatment for millions of people suffering from diseases like sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in South America. [45] The remarkable ability of a small Australian sea snail to produce a colourful purple compound to protect its eggs is proving even more remarkable for its potential in a new anti-cancer pharmaceutical. [44] Gene editing technology is a technology that eliminates the underlying causes of and treats diseases by removing specific genesor editing genes to restore their normal function. In particular, CRISPR gene editing technology is now commonly used for immunotherapy by correcting the genes of immune cells to induce them to attack cancer cells selectively. [43]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31310] viXra:1909.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 08:38:25

### Blackest Black Material Development

Authors: George Rajna

MIT engineers report today that they have cooked up a material that is 10 times blacker than anything that has previously been reported. [53] A Northwestern University research team has developed a new method for making highly desirable catalysts from metal nanoparticles that could lead to better fuel cells, among other applications. [52] Valencia University (UV) researchers have modified the photoconductance of nanoparticles of tungsten oxide (WO3) in a controlled manner. [51] Scientists who study the nanoscale—with molecules and materials 10,000 smaller than a pinhead—need to be able to test the way that some molecules twist, known as their chirality, because mirror image molecules with the same structure can have very different properties. [50]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31309] viXra:1909.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 11:00:47

### The Valuation of Financial Derivatives Subject to Counterparty Risk and Credit Value Adjustment

Authors: Xiao, Tim

This article presents a generic model for pricing financial derivatives subject to counterparty credit risk. Both unilateral and bilateral types of credit risks are considered. Our study shows that credit risk should be modeled as American style options in most cases, which require a backward induction valuation. To correct a common mistake in the literature, we emphasize that the market value of a defaultable derivative is actually a risky value rather than a risk-free value. Credit value adjustment (CVA) is also elaborated. A practical framework is developed for pricing defaultable derivatives and calculating their CVAs at a portfolio level.
Category: Economics and Finance

[31308] viXra:1909.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 13:53:36

### On the Ramanujan Modular Equations, Class Invariants and Mock Theta Functions: New Mathematical Connections with Some Particle-Like Solutions, Black Holes Entropies, ζ(2) and Golden Ratio

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli

In the present research thesis, we have obtained various interesting new possible mathematical connections between the Ramanujan Modular Equations, Class Invariants, the Mock Theta Functions, some particle-like solutions, Black Holes entropies, ζ(2) and Golden Ratio
Category: Number Theory

[31307] viXra:1909.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 17:26:10

### Stellar Metamorphosis: Accretion Friction Braking, Part Two, 25143 Itokawa

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

In this paper calculations are done to determine the kinetic energy in joules of an impact at 3 different velocities of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa. More calculations are done in a graph, and some explanation is given as to what will happen to Itokawa in accordance with the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Essentially any impact velocity of Itokawa due to its large mass will cause enormous destruction, leading to the realization that it must have formed from an even larger destructive event.
Category: Astrophysics

[31306] viXra:1909.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 22:29:05

### Other Plausible Mechanisms of Anesthetic Action Within the Framework of Spin-Mediated Consciousness Theory

Authors: Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu
Comments: 22 Pages. To be submitted for publication

We have recently discussed the mechanism of xenon anesthetic action in spin-mediated consciousness theory in light of the recent experimental findings. In this paper, we discuss some other plausible mechanisms of anesthetic action within the framework of spin-mediated consciousness theory. In one scenario, general anesthetics such as xenon may produce anesthesia by direct perturbations and/or distortions of neural spin networks alone or in addition to perturbing and/or distorting O2 and/or NO pathways in neural membranes and proteins. In another scenario, the mind-pixels are comprised of unpaired electrons carried by transition metal ions, O2 and/or NO caged-in/bound/absorbed to large molecules in neural membranes and proteins. In the latter, general anesthetics such as xenon may produce anesthesia by perturbing free/unbound O2 and/or NO pathways in neural membranes and proteins and/or unpaired electron spin networks thus blocking and/or distorting their functions in consciousness. In either of the above scenarios, the nuclear spins of xenon 131 and xenon 129 may partially play the roles of displaced nuclear spins or unpaired electron spins, thus attenuate the anesthetic potency of nuclear-spin-carrying xenon isotopes observed by Li, et. al.
Category: Mind Science

[31305] viXra:1909.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 22:57:06

### 1 期間2項モデルを活用した失業保険の価格決定

Authors: Hiroki Tahara

I determined general fee of employment insurance. I used one-term binomial models in order to determine general fee of employment insurance.
Category: Economics and Finance

[31304] viXra:1909.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 00:19:19

### Definition Of Motion (III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous

Paper Hypothesis Solar System Motion 1-Light travels before any other motion – because by this light motion energy the solar system moves. 2-Solar planets motions are followers the leading light motion 3-Light Motion is One and Planets Motions is One i.e. 4-Solar Planets cooperate together to produce one unified motion 5-Planets Data proves that solar system moves one unified motion by all planets – as a train moves with all carriages together- (Planet = A Train Carriage) Also Solar System has relativistic effects which prove the one motion claim Because (1) All distances are contracted by the same rate which means there's One Unified Motion Behind (2) the contraction rate is transported from point to another which proves the energy transportation through the solar system, makes it as one Trajectory of Energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[31303] viXra:1909.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 00:27:58

### Explain Quantum Physics with a Single-Particle

Authors: Arnaud Andrieu

The principle of the single-particle behaves exactly like a harmonic oscillator; but at very high frequency. The fixed static density is given at each end point of the particle, where between two, its acceleration would be extremely high. This anharmonic oscillation of the particle, work tirelessly between singularity and quantum decoherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[12100] viXra:1909.0438 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-22 10:12:59

### Non-Euclidean Metric Using Geometric Algebra

Authors: Jesus Sanchez

The Geometric Algebra is a tool that can be used in different disciplines in Mathematics and Physics. In this paper, it will be used to show how the information of the Non-Euclidean metric in a curved space, can be included in the basis vectors of that space. Not needing any external (out of the metric) coordinate system and not needing to normalize or to make orthogonal the basis, to be able to operate in a simple manner. The different types of derivatives of these basis vectors will be shown. In a future revision, the Schwarzschild metric will be calculated just taking the derivatives of the basis vectors to obtain the geodesics in that space. As Annex, future developments regarding GA are commented: rigid body dynamics, Electromagnetic field, hidden variables in quantum mechanics, specificities of time basis vector, 4π geometry (spin 1/2) and generalization of the Fourier Transform.
Category: Geometry

[12099] viXra:1909.0420 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-20 19:23:55

### On the Emergence of Spacetime Dimensions from the Kolmogorov Entropy

Authors: Ervin Goldfain

This short pedagogical report is based on a couple of premises. First, it was recently shown that the long run of non-equilibrium Renormalization Group flows is prone to end up on strange attractors. As a result, multifractals are likely to provide the proper framework for the characterization of effective field theories. Secondly, it is known that multifractal analysis uses the Kolmogorov entropy (K-entropy) to quantify the degree of disorder in chaotic systems and turbulent flows. Building on these premises, the report details the remarkable connection between K-entropy, multifractal sets and spacetime dimensions. It also supports the proposal that near and above the Fermi scale, spacetime is defined by continuous and arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[12098] viXra:1909.0385 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-22 00:51:56

### Formula of ζ Odd-Numbers

Authors: Toshiro Takami

I tried to find a new expression for zeta odd-numbers. It may be a new expression and will be published here. The correctness of this formula was confirmed by WolframAlpha to be numerically com- pletely correct.
Category: Number Theory

[12097] viXra:1909.0384 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-23 03:33:35

### ζ(4), ζ(6).......ζ(108), ζ(110) Are Irrational Number

Authors: Toshiro Takami

ζ(4), ζ(6).......ζ(108), ζ(110) considered. From these equations, it can be said that ζ(4),ζ(6).......ζ(108),ζ(110) are irrational numbers. ζ(112),ζ(114) etc. can also be expressed by these equations. Because I use π2, these are to be irrational numbers. The fact that the even value of ζ(2n) is irrational can also be explained by the fact that each even value of ζ(2n) is multiplied by π2.
Category: Number Theory

[12096] viXra:1909.0367 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-22 08:09:07

### Recent Advances in the Modal Model Checker Meth8 with the VŁ4 Universal Logic

Authors: Colin James III

We use the Meth8/VŁ4 modal logic model checker to evaluate 635 artifacts in 3304 assertions to refute 2756 as non tautologous (83.4%). This is the abstract, table of results, and table of contents. The current document in 1053-pages includes the availability of Meth8/VŁ4 and is requestable from info@ersatz-systems.com.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[12095] viXra:1909.0338 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-21 21:39:21

### The Cosmic Origin of Climate Cycles

Authors: F.M. Sanchez

The Wolf and Milankovich cycles, as well as a 725 years one, are shown to be tightly connected to the invariant Hubble-Sanchez horizon radius, via the Bohr radius, the background temperature and the Kotov length, implying a liaison between the Mattieu group, the superstring dimension 496 and the Higgs boson mass. The Mattieu group order factorisation 66 × 5! is implied, and leads to a relation implying the Monster Couple, characterising the Tau, Mu Leptons and Proton masses and confirming the Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry. A cosmic connection with the weak bosons implies explicit ppb formula for the Millenarium Lepton masses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12094] viXra:1909.0338 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-18 00:24:55

### The Cosmic Origin of Climate Cycles

Authors: F.M. Sanchez

The Wolf and Milankovich cycles, as well as a 725 years one, are shown to be tightly connected to the invariant Hubble-Sanchez horizon, via the Bohr radius, the background temperature and the Kotov length, implying a liaison between the Mattieu group, the superstring dimension 496 and the Higgs boson mass. The Mattieu group order factorisation 66 × 5! is implied, and leads to a relation implying the Monster Couple, characterising the Tau, Mu Leptons and Proton masses and confirming the Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry.
Category: Climate Research

[12093] viXra:1909.0320 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-22 21:07:07

### Bye Bye Peer-Reviewed Publishing

Authors: M. Abambres, T. Salloom, N. Beganovic, R. Dojka

This work is the continuation of a ‘revolution’ started with Research Counts, Not the Journal. Own and published opinions from worldwide scientists on critical issues of peer-reviewed publishing are presented. In my opinion, peer-reviewed publishing is a quite flawed process (in many ways) that has greatly harmed Science for a long time – it has been imposed by most academic and science funding institutions as the only way to assess scientific performance. Unfortunately, most academics still follow that path, even though I believe most do it for the fear of losing their job or not being promoted. This paper aims to encourage (i) a full disruption of peer-reviewed publishing and (ii) the use of free eprint repositories for a sustainable academic/scientific publishing, i.e. healthier (no stress/distress associated to the peer review stage and the long waiting for publication) and more economic, effective and efficient (research is made immediately available and trackable/citable to anyone). On the other hand, it should be pointed out that nothing exists against scientific publishers/journals – actually it´s perfectly normal that any company wants to implement its own quality criteria. This paper is just the way chosen to promote the quick implementation of suitable policies for research evaluation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[12092] viXra:1909.0315 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-20 03:32:04

### ζ(5), ζ(7)..........ζ(331), ζ(333) Are Irrational Number

Authors: Toshiro Takami

Using the fact that ζ(3) is an irrational number, I prove that ζ(5), ζ(7)...........ζ(331) and ζ(333) are irrational numbers. ζ(5), ζ(7)...........ζ(331) and ζ(333) are confirmed that they were in perfect numerical agreement. This is because I created an odd-number formula for ζ, and the formula was created by dividing the odd- number for ζ itself into odd and even numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[12091] viXra:1909.0315 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-19 03:16:57

### ζ(5), ζ(7)..........ζ(331), ζ(333) Are Irrational Number

Authors: Toshiro Takami