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## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[29338] viXra:1905.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 05:14:45

### Extracellular Disease Diagnosis

Authors: George Rajna

A research team led by the University of Notre Dame is working to cut the test time for disease biomarkers. The new timeline-30 minutes instead of 13 hours-uses even smaller sample sizes to offer a new liquid biopsy option. [32] A new focused ultrasound approach-low-energy, rapid, short-pulsed ultrasound-can open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using microbubbles and deliver drugs more uniformly and more safely than methods based on long ultrasound pulses. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29337] viXra:1905.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 06:08:01

### Crucial Cellular Switches Protection

Authors: George Rajna

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers have used CRISPR technology to probe the mechanisms that guide the developmental trajectories of stem cells in the brain.
Category: Physics of Biology

[29336] viXra:1905.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 06:18:00

### 27 Orbital Angular Momentum of All Orbitals L and Lz Fluyiep Explanation

Authors: Javier Silvestre

Bohr atomic model is developed with electronic extremes of Victoria Theory. Toyi mechanism is focused on explaining orbital angular and spin movement of electronic extremes. This article summarizes first part of Toyi Mechanism and then proceeds with individualized explanation of angular momentum for all orbitals (named as Fluyiep Explanation). Finally, paper concludes with fundamental relations between angular momentum of all orbitals.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29335] viXra:1905.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 08:05:19

### Uncover the Logic of Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Jianfei Chen

In this paper, author introduced two theories, energy spiral as a unified field and dual resonance for energy transfer. This paper is based on these theories. Through studying formation process of particles, as was indicated that: vacuum particles and 12 basic particles are existing in the vacuum, which will become protons or electrons. In the hydrogen atomic, the external vacuum energy affects on the energy spiral of the electron, then revolution energy and rotation energy of the electron are determined, finally the parameters of Bohr structure are determined. And logical value of Fine Structure constant is obtained. [alpha=sqrt[4]{2}pi/512]. This data is supported by the calculation results of experimental data.Email: eastear@outlook.com eastear@163.com
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29334] viXra:1905.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:35:58

### The Heavy Neutrino Leads to an Accurate Critical Value for Hubble's Constant ho of 78.20 Vs. 74.03 (Km/s)/Mps for the Latest Measurement

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: Today is my 95th birthday and this is my most important 1 page note to date.

Abstract: A highly accurate critical value of Hubble's constant of 78.20 (Km/s)/Mps has been found including the 4430 MeV heavy Majorana 4th neutrino.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29333] viXra:1905.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:18:35

### New Short-Term Prognosis of Strong Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions According to Daily Indexis of Solar Activity

Authors: A.M.Eigenson, I.B.Bazylevych, M.S.Shevchenko

Recently we have made the prognosis of such terrestrial events for the period between April 22 and May 2, 2019. This forecasting is confirmed. Now we do the same prognosis for the next 2 weeks, from May 19 until June 2, 2019. During this period new great catastrophes are expected to occur on our Earth. In our days, we see from Fig. 1 that the dangerous area lies between May 19 and June 2, 2019. (Addition: earthquakes 6+ are noted as circle’s, earthquakes 7+ as ellipsis and volcanic eruptions as crosses). So, the people of seismic zones: BE CAREFUL!
Category: Geophysics

[29332] viXra:1905.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:26:40

### 1/f Phase Noise in Oscillators Modeled with Q and Its Entropy Significance

Authors: Alec Feinberg

Noise in operating systems has been strongly linked to degradation. One such type of noise of interest in this paper is phase noise, which we model and describe its significance in thermodynamic degradation science. Phase noise of an oscillator is perhaps one of the most important oscillator parameters and the source of the noise is not well understood. Phase noise is important as it degrades the purity of the carrier frequency when used in transmission which is only one of the many applications in oscillator usage. It is known that the unloaded Q in phase noise goes as the inverse of Q to the forth power observed in the low frequency area (i.e. near the carrier frequency) as noted in oscillator power noise spectral density. In this paper we provide a model that leads to this observed unloaded Q dependence noted in the power spectral density. We will then provide specific comparison to an LRC oscillator circuit to establish a parametric useful analogy. A second model links Q to entropy which we show produces this type of noise. Although this noise’s origin, is not well understood in terms of reliability, we have previously found that noise is typically attributed to entropy (disorder). This is because temporal coherence of a signal from an operating device can be correlated to disorder in the spatial coherence in the device. Once understood, the phase noise has an entropy explanation that yields the inverse frequency dependence observed. Therefore, this type of noise measurement is of importance in thermodynamic degradation process as it has applications to understanding noise in other areas besides oscillators. Results show consistency with damage entropy principles in terms of purity of materials and measurement methods observed in the literature. Because entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, we anticipate that such results can be applied in assessing stability issues in many fabricated electronic devices.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29331] viXra:1905.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:53:56

### Josephson Junction Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna

The Josephson junction is one of the most important elements in turning quantum phenomena into usable technology. [42] The ultimate degree of control for engineering would be the ability to create and manipulate materials at the most basic level, fabricating devices atom by atom with precise control. [41] A team of researchers from the University of California and Fudan University has developed a way to use a single molecule magnet as a scanning magnetometer. [40] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires. [39] Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29330] viXra:1905.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 11:04:06

### The Great Filter And The Fermi Paradox

Authors: Daniele Zamori
Comments: 4 pages, giving a possible solution to the Great Filter and the Fermi Paradox.

This paper tries to give answers to the questions “What is the Great Filter?” and “When will it arrive?”. Through the answers that we obtain to those questions, it is possible to reckon an objectival explanation to the famous Fermi paradox: “Where is everybody?”. The goal of this theory is to give a solution using only the facts we can see and evaluate, finding a logical path that could give a full solution, and to raise awareness to the notion that we have of technological developement.
Category: Astrophysics

[29329] viXra:1905.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 11:01:42

### Computer Model of the Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents the method of modelling the atomic structure of the nucleus of various elements. This way of modelling ensures that the modelled atoms be have similarly to real atoms. In nature, the vast majority of isotopes decay but some of them, due to the properties of protons and neutrons, remain stable.
Category: Classical Physics

[29328] viXra:1905.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 11:14:51

### Refutation of Logically-Consistent Hypothesis Testing and the Hexagon of Oppositions

Authors: Colin James III

Definitions for ◻H and ¬ ◊H are supposed to be equivalent for a classical mapping of agnostic hypothesis tests. While each definition reduces to a theorem in the conjecture, they are not tautologous. This refutes that agnostic hypothesis tests are proved to be logically consistent. Hence the characterization of credal modalities in agnostic hypothesis tests cannot be mapped to the hexagon of oppositions to explain the logical relations between these modalities. Therefore the 11 definitions tested form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29327] viXra:1905.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 11:32:01

### Quantum Communication Two from One

Authors: George Rajna

One of these particles of light has the potential to serve as a carrier of the fragile quantum information, the other, as a messenger to provide prior notification of its twin. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29326] viXra:1905.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 13:10:43

### Refutation of Reversing the Counterfactual Analysis of Causation

Authors: Colin James III

The seminal formula of C causes E iff (~C □→ ~E) is not tautologous, that is, it is not a theorem, from which the conjecture is derived. Hence reversing the counterfactual analysis of causation is refuted.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29325] viXra:1905.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 14:56:46

### The Reformulation of Faraday's Law Using Electric Displacement Instead of Electric Field

Authors: Krishna Srinivasan

In 1864, James Clerk Maxwell formulated a set of electromagnetic equations to describe the interactions between electric and magnetic fields, now known as Maxwell's equations in his honor. In this paper, it will be shown using a thought experiment, Faraday's law formulated using electric displacement, instead of electric field, is a better formulation, consistent with the definitions of electric field and electric displacement. Maxwell's equations will be reformulated to satisfy the constituent relations, reflecting the change in the formulation of Faraday's law.
Category: Classical Physics

[29324] viXra:1905.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 16:42:25

### What is Gravity?

Authors: Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

We present a proposal, alternative to the curved spacetime of Einstein, which we replaced by the curved quantum vacuum, caused by its gravitational interaction with the masses of the stars, as the source of Newtonian anomalies of celestial mechanics, restoring gravity as one of the fundamental forces of nature.
Category: Classical Physics

[29323] viXra:1905.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 17:02:21

### What is Spacetime?

Authors: Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

The author discusses the theory of the time-space fluid that results from the supposed gravitational waves that would have detected LIGO, and reaffirms the spacetime as a structural geometric property of the dynamic matter, now with the strong argument that in an unnatural way, the physicists and philosophers of science confer the conception of the author to that ridiculous material spacetime, while depriving matter, of the intrinsic spacetime. In addition, he warns about the conceptual contradiction existing between NASA and Caltech over gravitational waves, being absurd the concept of Caltech, operator of LIGO, since gravitational waves would propagate in five non-detectable dimensions. NASA validly recognizes that they would be waves of space; therefore, there are no spacetime waves that correspond to gravitational waves that, according to the great current of relativistic physicists, would exist. Finally, the author reaffirms that quadrupole waves detected by LIGO are waves of quantum vacuum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29322] viXra:1905.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 19:37:36

### Refutation of Bounded and Σ1 Formulas in pa

Authors: Colin James III

A fundamental proposition for bounded and Σ1 formulas in PA is not tautologous. While the author states that the informal notes are full of errors, this fundamental mistake causes the entire section about Rosser’s form of Gödel’s theorems to collapse. Therefore the proposition is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29321] viXra:1905.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 19:57:50

### Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Neptune and Uranus to Determine their Ages

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". We can figure out how old they are by measuring their atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratios against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Neptune and Uranus are. It was previously predicted that Neptune and Uranus are 2 and 2.1 billion years old respectively via the General Theory, by using a simple graph.
Category: Astrophysics

[29320] viXra:1905.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 01:04:22

### A Theory of Likelihood as Parsimony & Synchronicity in Natural Law

Authors: Paris Matthew Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. To an isoconcylic departure of yet what so is; the opening of a declarative and worded structural relation is one freely ordered contactless domain of congruence in welcoming departure of any two stated worlds.

When approaching the co-existence of a knowable and contrasted limitation of impossibility; there are to be found only two given known's; that of pre-determination and that of accessory of antecedent unto precedent. That of light like freedom to a given asymptotic return is predicated upon a past co-existence within a future of yet invisible qualifiable capacity to which is the non-deterministic limit of reality. Inertial free approach and departure are a disjunctive; for any ordered; freed; and distinct relation of relative proportional provision is an aconditionally held certain determinant of motion upon gravitationally provided congruence of free fall and inertial freedom. Their resultant is the associable free spatial unionable connective or disconnective of one in two.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[29319] viXra:1905.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 02:18:58

### Third Degree Polynomials Masses Force

if you had an elastic ball and a nonelastic ball you could call these two forms of masses as the activity of a mass thid is a new quality now the other two stuff that describes what we are talking about here is the force and the masses of the two masses these are literaly the three stuff that exist in the universe the force the masses weight and the quality of the mass and these are the arbitary values inside a polynomial of the third degree and since there are no other stuff that exist within the universe we could say that there is no polynomial of the fourth degrees values solution
Category: Classical Physics

[29318] viXra:1905.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 02:25:53

### Explanation of Theory of Relativity

so the main idea of relativity is that motion is relative to get a feel for that lets look at point A and point B and a car moving from one to the other now lets say that point A is moving away from point B you would need more speed to achieve the same velocity of the car originally and if point A goes nearer to point B you would need less velocity to reach with the car from point A to point B
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29317] viXra:1905.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 03:20:09

### Division by Zero Calculus and Pompe's Theorem

Authors: Tsutomu Matsuura, Hiroshi Okumura, Saburou Saitoh

In this paper, we will introduce the application of the division by zero calculus to geometry and it will show the power of the new calculus.
Category: General Mathematics

[29316] viXra:1905.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 03:48:14

### Reclamation of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (Copr) Involving Recovery of Chromate Salt, Detoxification and Fabrication of Clay Brick

Authors: Unchol Kim

We studied on the methods involving the recovery of chromate salt from COPR, the sequential detoxification of COPR and the reclamation of the detoxified COPR. The results of leaching experiments showed that it is possible to recover Cr (VI) existed in COPR using an inexpensive method, in which ca. 84% of Cr (VI) extraction rate could be under the following condition; seawater as leaching solution, 25% of solid content, leaching period of 30min, intermittent agitation, gravitational sedimentation as solid/liquid separating mode, repetition number of up 5. Cr (VI) contained in leaching liquor was recovered as chrome yellow, followed by recirculating the Cr (VI)-depleted supernatant to the leaching process. For the detoxification of post-leach COPR (plCOPR), plCOPR was mixed with sodium sulfide as a single reductant in a mixer and was discharged from the mixer without retention time for reduction. Cr (VI) content in the mixture became lower than cleanup criteria by US EPA with the Na2S/Cr (VI) mass ratio of 6 at the reaction time of 36h. Also, the results of the experiment with the detoxified plCOPR as a substitution for sand in fabricating clay brick shows that acceptable compression strength (52N/mm2) is obtained when the detoxified COPR accounts for '30% in raw material mixture, with the Cr (VI) content of 0.5mglkg-bricks below cleanup criteria by US EPA
Category: Chemistry

[29315] viXra:1905.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 06:17:00

### Emergence of Cancer by Exchanging Fields of Microgravity Between Earth's DNA and Dark Dnas in Extra Dimensions

Authors: Alireza Sepehri

Recently, it has been shown that in the absence of gravity, microgravity let us to explore some new fields which have direct effects on the communications between cells and their growth. We show that the origin of these fields may be some DNA-like structures interior of the earth's core. These structures have a long around $10^{9}$ times the diameter of the earth which are compacted in very smaller places like the core of the earth. This compacting is very similar to the compacting of DNAs interior of cells and leads to the emergence of high temperature and pressure. We measure temperature around DNA-like structures and show that it is in good agreement with predicted temperature of core. Also, we calculate number of microstates of DNA-like structures in microgravity. We will show that DNA-like structures of the core exchange microstates and fields with dark part of DNA in extra dimensions. This dark DNA includes missing genes that are needed for the animal's life and their chemical products can be observed in the activity of body. In microgravity, the absence of gravity lets to DNA-like structures to recover more states of dark DNAs. These extra states accelerate the production of extra cells and may lead to the cancer. To show this, we inject tumor cells into two fertilized eggs and incubate them for 58h. Then, we put one of them in a devices similar to clinostat and try to provide the conditions of incubation in microgravity. We consider the growth of tumor cells under microgravity and compare with normal conditions. We observe that fields of microgravity increase the velocity of production of tumor cells. This experiment confirms our theory that in the absence of gravity, communications between DNA-like structure of the earth and dark DNA leads to the an increase in number of microstates of cancerous cells.
Category: Physics of Biology

[29314] viXra:1905.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 06:58:44

### The Way to Develop of Atomic Nuclei//Дорога развития атомных ядер

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents one of the many ways to develop atomic nuclei. The nuclei of the same isotope may have a different structure. They may differ from each other in that the main components of the structure in the form of ALPHA particles are connected to each other in a different way. The road of development of atomic nuclei presented in the article is only an example of how the addition of the following protons and neutrons to the structure contributes to the appearance of other chemical elements and their isotopes.// В статье представлена одна из многих дорог развития атомных ядер. Ядра одного и того же изотопа могут иметь различную структуру. Они могут отличаться друг от друга в том отношении, что основные компоненты структуры в виде частиц АЛЬФА соединены друг с другом различным способом. Представленная в статье дорога развития атомных ядер является только примером того, как присоединение к структуре следующих протонов и нейтронов способствует возникновению других химических элементов и их изотопов.
Category: Classical Physics

[29313] viXra:1905.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 07:18:53

### Ultrasound Drug Delivery to the Brain

Authors: George Rajna

A new focused ultrasound approach-low-energy, rapid, short-pulsed ultrasound-can open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using microbubbles and deliver drugs more uniformly and more safely than methods based on long ultrasound pulses. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29312] viXra:1905.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 07:57:00

### Computer Model of the Atomic Nucleus//Компьютерная модель атомного ядра

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents a method for modeling the structure of the atomic nucleus of various chemical elements. This mode of simulation ensures that the modeled atoms behave like real atoms. In nature, the vast majority of isotopes decay, but some of them, due to the properties of protons and neutrons, remain stable.// В статье представлен метод моделирования структуры атомного ядра различных химических элементов. Этот способ моделирования гарантирует, что моделируемые атомы ведут себя подобно реальным атомам. В природе подавляющее большинство изотопов распадается, но некоторые из них, благодаря свойствам протонов и нейтронов, остаются стабильными.
Category: Classical Physics

[29311] viXra:1905.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 09:43:07

### Black Holes Axion as Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna

One possibility is that it's an exotic hypothetical kind of particle known as an axion, and a team of astronomers are using none other than black holes to try to get a glimpse into this strange new cosmic critter. [28] Leslie Rosenberg, a physicist with the University of Washington has published a paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, describing the current state of research that involves investigating the possibility that axions are what make up dark matter. [27] Physicists from MIT and elsewhere have performed the first run of a new experiment to detect axions-hypothetical particles that are predicted to be among the lightest particles in the universe. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[29310] viXra:1905.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 10:33:29

### Quantum Cloud Computing

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum Cloud Computing With a quantum coprocessor in the cloud, physicists from Innsbruck, Austria, open the door to the simulation of previously unsolvable problems in chemistry, materials research or high-energy physics. [27] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology teamed up with colleagues from the U.S. and Switzerland and returned the state of a quantum computer a fraction of a second into the past. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29309] viXra:1905.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 10:57:38

### Polariton Nano-Laser Operating

Authors: George Rajna

A room temperature polariton nano-laser has been demonstrated, along with several related research findings, regarding topics such as polariton physics at the nanoscale and also applications in quantum information systems. [41] The researchers harnessed the power of polaritons, particles that blur the distinction between light and matter. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29308] viXra:1905.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 13:58:55

### The Physical Nature of Time

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen

One of the greatest mysteries of the present physics is the physical nature of ‘time’. In this paper the author demonstrates that the ageing of a composite, multi-particle system is a general expression for the loosening of the internal coherence of its basic particles, which is mathematically expressed as the increase of its entropy. In that way, the ‘time’ of a given particle system can be expressed by the relation between the increase of its entropy and the increase of the entropy of a particle system with a steady entropy increase, that is taken as a time standard or "clock". It is thereby demonstrated that this definition of the ‘time’ leads in a self-evident way to the time dilation of high speed particle systems, which is demonstrated to be a real physical phenomenon. And this leads on its turn to Einstein’s gravitational time dilation and to the time contraction with ageing.
Category: Classical Physics

[29307] viXra:1905.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 15:25:09

### Electric Fields on the Moon

Authors: Kiyoung Kim

With the primitive-virtual negative (PVN) charge of the Moon, which generates the inherent electric field of the moon, lunar electrical environment can be understood naturally why the electric charge accumulations should be on the surface and above the moon in the circumstance of space plasma, such as solar wind plasma, UV radiation, etc. Especially, the lunar dust levitation and the horizontal transport on the dayside surface of the moon are discussed, which are crucial elements to understand the glowing effect above the horizon and the streamers at the terminator of the moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[29306] viXra:1905.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 18:52:44

### The Relationship of the Fine Structure Constant and Pi

Authors: Jeff Yee

In this paper, the fine structure constant is derived from a geometric ratio of surface areas, as a result of vibrations in a lattice with a body-centered cubic arrangement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29305] viXra:1905.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 19:09:53

### Pyramid Subatomic Particled Smacher

maybe you could do a particle smasher with a pyramid of tip point proton accelerated tonhit another pyramids tip point proton to increasr the time of contact
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[29304] viXra:1905.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 20:20:13

### Particle Wave Duality is False

if you push a mass to the speed of light it takes a lot of work now if you push a larger mass it take a larger work to push it at a time larger by the larger mass/mass coefficient velocity here is all that matters do you think electromagnetic waves has inertia if it has mass do waves have inertia? arent waves propagation of momentum? waves are because of masses hitting each other and inertia of these masses in some way there is nothing called a wave so the principle of mass wave duality is wrong
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29303] viXra:1905.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:06:32

### Neutron Shines on Dark Chocolate

Authors: George Rajna

Looking for improvements, researchers Fernanda Peyronel from the University of Guelph, Ontario, and David Pink from St. Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia, used a combination of neutrons and x-ray scattering at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge (ORNL) and Argonne National Laboratories to better understand how tempering affects chocolate's microstructure and, consequentially, how that relationship impacts taste. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29302] viXra:1905.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:09:42

### The New Periodic Table of Chemical Elements According to the Deterministic Quantum Model

Authors: Daniele Sasso

The current periodic table of chemical elements presents numerous problems because of the presence of many elements that are in actuality out of the periodic classification of groups, like transition elements that are about the half of chemical elements. Here we propose a new table that searches for solving many problems, even if not all. It is supposable hence that in future also this table can undergo changes and improvements because of a greater theoretical understanding and of a further experimental examination of chemical elements. The most important aspects of the new table consist in the 10+1 new groups in place of the present 7+1 and in the 15 periods in place of the present 7 periods. It allows to include inside the new table the numerous elements of transition that at present are out of a coherent classification.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29301] viXra:1905.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:37:07

### Orbital and Spin - Toyi Mechanism - Bohr model with Victoria Equation

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 24 Pages. English language. Version translated into Spanish in annex.

Bohr model coupled with Victoria Theory proposes that electron is separated into electronic extremes, achieving currently accepted electronic cloud, geometry and probability. Toyi mechanism is centred on movements of electronic extremes (orbital and spin).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29300] viXra:1905.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:48:37

### Garden-Variety Iron-Based Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna

In the pantheon of unconventional superconductors, iron selenide is a rock star. But new experiments by U.S., Chinese and European physicists have found the material's magnetic persona to be unexpectedly mundane. [30] Iron-based superconductors (IBSCs) have attracted sustained research attention over the past decade, partly because new IBSCs were discovered one after another in the earlier years. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[29299] viXra:1905.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:51:53

### Methionine Production by Coryneform Bacteria Through Fermentation

Authors: Venkata Narayana A1, Vamsi Priya A1, Venkata Nadh R, Swami AVN2, Sumalatha B3, Vijaya Leela M4

Production of L-methionine by Cornybacterium glutamicum MTCC 2745 was assessed in batch fermentation by varying parameters viz., initial glucose concentration, initial nitrogen concentration, fermentation time, temperature, pH, initial shaking rate. Nynhydrin test and paper chromatography were used to identify methionine. Methionine estimated by using nitroprusside method. Effect of nitrogen sources on methionine production was examined. The parameters such as concentrations of glucose, ammonium sulphate, K2HPO4, MgSO47H2O, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid and Yeast extract are optimized and maximum yield was 5.6 g of methionine/L.
Category: Chemistry

[29298] viXra:1905.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:53:58

### Simple and Validated Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Febuxostat in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

For estimation of the Febuxostat in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms, an ultra violet – spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated. The method employed 0.1 N NaOH as solvent. At 275 nm, the linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship with correlation coefficient value of 0.998 in the concentration range of 10 – 70 μg/ml. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.239 μg/ ml and 0.725 μg/ml respectively. The results demonstrated that the pro-cedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (R.S.D. < 2 %).
Category: Chemistry

[29297] viXra:1905.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:55:52

### Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Nicergoline Through Ion-Pair Complexation Reaction

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar1, R. Venkata Nadh, K.e.v. Nagoji3

Two simple, sensitive, selective, accurate and economical spectrophotometric methods (A and B) have been described in the present work for the determination of Nicergoline in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations (tablets). Methods – A/B are based on the formation of orange red / yellow colored ion-association complexes between Nicergoline and Tropaeolin ooo (TPooo) / Alizarine Red S (ARS) in acid medium followed by their extraction with chloroform, exhibiting absorption maxima at 490nm / 430nm, and obeying Beer’s law in the concentration range of 2.5– 12.5μg/ml. Statistical analysis of the results of the proposed methods reveals high accuracy and good precision. The proposed methods could be
Category: Chemistry

[29296] viXra:1905.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:57:26

### A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Lapatinib in Tablet Dosage form using Gemcitabine Hydrochloride as an Internal Standard

Authors: K. K. Kumar, K. E. V. Nagoji, R. V. Nadh

A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse‑phase high‑performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the determination of lapatinib in tablet using gemcitabine hydrochloride as an internal standard. Chromatography was carried out on an ODS C‑18 RP column (4.6 mm i.d. ×250 mm) using a mixture of acetonitrile and water (50:50 v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The drug was monitored at 232 nm. The retention times for lapatinib and gemcitabine hydrochloride were found to be 4.25±0.05 and 6.10±0.05 min, respectively. The method produced linear responses in the concentration range of 2‑60 μg/ml of lapatinib. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.265 and 0.884 μg/ml, respectively.
Category: Chemistry

[29295] viXra:1905.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:59:03

### Kinetics of Oxidation of Myo-Inositol by Potassium Periodate in Alkaline Medium

Kinetics of oxidation of myo-inositol by potassium periodate both in alkaline and acid media were studied. The reactions were found to be first order in case of periodate in both media. In the case of base catalyzed reactions, a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. An inverse fractional order with respect to substrate in alkaline shows the substrate inhibition. A positive fractional order was observed for substrate in acid catalyzed reactions. The dependence on hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions was found to be inverse fractional order. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for both the reactions conducted in acid and alkali media. Plausible mechanism is postulated based on experimental results.
Category: Chemistry

[29294] viXra:1905.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:00:10

### A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Febuxostat in Bulk Drugs

An accurate, sensitive, precise and robust reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the estimation of Febuxostat in bulk forms has been developed and validated. Chromatographic separation is conducted on Nucleosil C18 (250 x 4.6mm, 5μm) column at ambient temperature using mixture of 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (buffer of pH 4.0 adjusted with 0.2% triethyl amine) and acetonitrile in the ratio (15: 85, v/v) as a mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.2 ml / min, while UV detection is performed at 275nm. The retention time for Febuxostat is found to be 3.45 ± 0.05 min. The method is found to be linear in the range of 50.0 – 400.0 μg/mL. The limit of detection and quantization for Febuxostat are found to be 9.98 and 30.23 μg /mL respectively. Analytical recovery is 99.29 %. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method is found to be less than 2%. The method is validated as per the ICH guidelines and applied for the quantitative analysis of Febuxostat in bulk forms.
Category: Chemistry

[29293] viXra:1905.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:02:31

### A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Melphalan in Tablet Dosage Forms

Authors: K.Kiran Kumar1, R. Venkata Nadh

A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the determination of melphalan in tablet. The analyte was resolved by using a mobile phase (Acetonitrile, water and 1% ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 70:27:3 v/v/v) at a flow rate 1 ml/min on an isocratic HPLC system (PEAK) consisting UV-Visible detector, ODS C-18, RP column (4.6 mm i.d x250 mm) at a wavelength of 275 nm. The linear dynamic range for melphalan was 2.0 μg/mL – 14.0μg/mL. The limit of detection [LOD] and Limit of quantification [LOQ] for melphalan was 0.5μg/mL and 1.5μg/mL respectively.
Category: Chemistry

[29292] viXra:1905.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:04:47

### Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Estimation of Nicergoline in Marketed Formulations

Authors: K.Kiran Kumar, R. Venkata Nadh

A simple, selective, accurate, and economical reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for estimation of nicergoline in pharmaceutical formulations. Chromatographic separation achieved isocratically on a C18column (ODS, C18, 5μ, 250×4.6 mm i.d.) with mobile phase containing methanol, acetonitrile and 1.0 % ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 80:18:2 v/v/v. The flow rate was 1.0mL/min and effluent was monitored at 265nm. The retention time was 3.128min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. The linearity curve was found to be linear over 1.0 - 6.0 μg/mL. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.3 μg /ml and 0.9 μg /ml respectively. The proposed method was successfully used to determine the drug content of marketed formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[29291] viXra:1905.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:08:24

### Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Satranidazole in Pharmaceutical Formulations

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar1, R. Venkata Nadh

A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the determination of satranidazole in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was carried out on a isocratic ODS - C18 (250 x 4.6mm i.d.,5 μ) column with a mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile , 0.025M Ammonium phosphate buffer and 1.0% Ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 65:35:5 v/v/v) at a flow rate 1.2mL/min. Detection was carried out at 318nm using UV lamp visible detector. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and solution stability. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of satranidazole in pharmaceutical formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[29290] viXra:1905.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:10:10

### Refutation of Lattice Effect Algebra

Authors: Colin James III

A seminal definition of lattice effect algebra is not tautologous. This refutes lattice effect and lattice pseudoeffect algebras along with the chain effect of quasiresiduation. The conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Algebra

[29289] viXra:1905.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:11:11

### Kinetics of Oxidation of Iodide ion by Cerium (IV),

Kinetics of Oxidation of Iodide ion by Cerium (IV),
Category: Chemistry

[29288] viXra:1905.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:13:11

### Kinetics of Oxidation of Iodide Ion by Vanadium (V),

Kinetics of oxidation of iodide ion by Vanadium (V),
Category: Chemistry

[29287] viXra:1905.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:14:13

### Kinetic Studies of Thiocyanate and Iodide Oxidation with 2,6-Dichloro-Quinone-4-Chloro-Imide: a Novel and a New Oxidising Agent,

Kinetic Studies of thiocyanate and iodide oxidation with 2,6-dichloro-quinone-4-chloro-imide: A novel and a new oxidising agent,
Category: Chemistry

[29286] viXra:1905.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:15:47

### Kinetics of Oxidation of Ethylamine, Monoethanolamine and Benzylamine by Chloramine-T

Kinetics of oxidation of ethylamine, monoethanolamine and benzylamine by chloramine-T
Category: Chemistry

[29285] viXra:1905.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:17:44

### Kinetics of Oxidation of Aniline, P-Aminobenzoic Acid and P-Nitroaniline by 2,6-Dichloro Quionone-4-Chloro-Imide

Kinetics of oxidation of aniline, p-aminobenzoic acid and p-nitroaniline by 2,6-dichloro quionone-4-chloro-imide
Category: Chemistry

[29284] viXra:1905.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:20:22

### Kinetics of Reduction of Substituted Cobaloximes by Iron(ii)

Kinetics of reduction of substituted cobaloximes by iron(II)
Category: Chemistry

[29283] viXra:1905.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:21:46

### Kinetics of Oxidation of Ethylamine, Monethanolamine and Benzylamine by N-Bromosuccinimide,

Kinetics of oxidation of ethylamine, monethanolamine and benzylamine by N-bromosuccinimide,
Category: Chemistry

[29282] viXra:1905.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:42:36

### Glyphosate and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: no Causal Relationship

Authors: Ilija Barukčić

Objective: Herbicides are used worldwide by both residential and agricultural users. Due to the statistical analysis of some epidemiologic studies the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate (GS) in 2015, as potentially carcinogenic to humans especially with respect to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In this systematic review and re-analysis, the relationship between glyphosate and NHL was re- investigated. Methods: A systematic review and re-analysis of studies which investigated the relationship between GS and NHL was conducted. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship, the method of the conditio per quam relationship, the method of the exclusion relationship and the mathematical formula of the causal relationship k were used to proof the hypothesis. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05. Results: The studies analyzed do not provide any direct and indirect evidence that NHL is caused GS. Conclusion: In this re-analysis, no causal relationship was apparent between glyphosate and NHL and its subtypes. Keywords: Glyphosate, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, no causal relationship
Category: Statistics

[29281] viXra:1905.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 07:27:30

### Design and Calculation of 25MW Steam Turbine Course

Authors: UnChol Ri, GumChol Ri, YongSong Kim, WonZhu Kim

Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29280] viXra:1905.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 08:11:18

### Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Mars to Determine it's Age

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

In the general theory Mars is a dead star. We can figure out how old it is by measuring its atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratio against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Mars is.
Category: Astrophysics

[29279] viXra:1905.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 09:40:59

### The Generation of Mass and Its Directivity

Authors: Yongqiang Zhao

The mass of matter includes the mass of elementary particles and the interaction mass between the particles. So far there has been a great deal of research on the origin of the mass of the elementary particles, but there are few studies on the origin of the interaction mass. In this paper, we show that the electric field of a uniformly accelerating point charge in vacuum is curved toward the opposite direction of acceleration. When a positive charge system is accelerated, the interaction forces between its charges cannot cancel each other out; therefore the charge system will produce a self-action force opposite to the acceleration, thus generating interaction mass. The interaction mass is not constant, but varies with the direction of the acceleration. Finally, we conclude that the mass of object is related to its self-action and has directivity.
Category: Classical Physics

[29278] viXra:1905.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 10:24:22

### On the Decay of Atoms//О распаде атомов

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents the main reason leading directly to the spontaneous disintegration of atoms and mediocre to the forced disintegration of atoms. The article presents a method of computer modeling of the structures of atomic nuclei and the process of disintegration of these nuclei. The presented method, due to the limited capabilities of the author in creating computer simulation programs, is simplified, but indicates the direction in which studies of the structure of atoms and chemical compounds may develop in the future.// В статье представлена основная причина, приводящая непосредственно к самопроизвольному распаду атомов и посредственно к вынужденному распаду атомов. В статье представлен метод компьютерного моделирования структур атомных ядер и процесс распада этих ядер. Представленный метод из-за ограниченных возможностей автора в создании программ компьютерного моделирования упрощен, но указывает направление, в котором исследования структуры атомов и химических соединений могут развиваться в будущем.
Category: Classical Physics

[29277] viXra:1905.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 12:15:20

### Calculation of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Jesús Sánchez
Comments: 10 Pages. Published on: Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, 2018, 4, 510-518

The fine-structure constant α [1] is a constant in physics that plays a fundamental role in the electromagnetic interaction. It is a dimensionless constant, defined as: α=q^2/(2ε_0 hc)=0.0072973525664 (1) Being q the elementary charge, εo the vacuum permittivity, h the Planck constant and c the speed of light in vacuum. The value shown in (1) is according CODATA 2014 [2]. In this paper, it will be explained that the fine-structure constant is one of the roots of the following equation: cos⁡(α^(-1) )=e^(-1) (2) being e the mathematical constant e (the base of the natural logarithm). One of the solutions of this equation is: α=0.0072973520977 (3) This means that it is equal to the CODATA value in nine decimal digits (or the seven most significant ones if you prefer). And therefore, the difference between both values is: Difference=(α(1)-α(3))/(α(1))·100=0.00000642% (4) This coincidence is higher in orders of magnitude than the commonly accepted necessary to validate a theory towards experimentation. As the cosine function is periodical, the equation (2) has infinite roots and could seem the coincidence is just by chance. But as it will be shown in the paper, the separation among the different solutions is sufficiently high to disregard this possibility. It will also be shown that another elegant way to show equation (2) is the following (being i the imaginary unit): e^(i/α)-e^(-1)=-e^(-i/α)+e^(-1) (5) Having of course the same root (3). The possible meaning of this other representation (5) will be explained.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29276] viXra:1905.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 12:19:51

### The L/R Symmetry and the Categorization of Natural Numbers

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos

“Every natural number, with the exception of 0 and 1, can be written in a unique way as a linear combination of consecutive powers of 2, with the coefficients of the linear combination being -1 or +1”. According to this theorem we define the L/R symmetry of the natural numbers. The L/R symmetry gives the factors which determine the internal structure of natural numbers. As a consequence of this structure, we have an algorithm for determining prime numbers and for factorization of natural numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[29275] viXra:1905.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 16:23:26

### Expansion of Terms Squared, Square of a Binomial, Trinomial, Tetranomial and Pentanomial.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín

This document develops and demonstrates the discovery of a new square potentiation algorithm that works absolutely with all the numbers using the formula of the square of a binomial, trinomial, tetranomial and pentanomial.
Category: Algebra

[29274] viXra:1905.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 23:17:32

### An Interesting Insight Into Polyhedra Computation Based on Ppl[(parma Polyhedra Library in C++)/imagej/jiprolog/jikesrvm/java/eclipse-Ide] in the Context of Software Development Involving R&D of [ai+complex Systems+cryo-em Informatics] Using Iot/hpc Frame

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar

AN INTERESTING INSIGHT INTO POLYHEDRA COMPUTATION BASED ON PPL[(Parma Polyhedra Library in C++)/ImageJ/JIProlog/JikesRVM/Java/Eclipse-IDE] IN THE CONTEXT OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT INVOLVING R&D OF [AI+COMPLEX SYSTEMS+CRYO-EM INFORMATICS] USING IoT/HPC FRAMEWORK. [ Probing Numerical Abstractions in Engineering/Physics/Biology/Image Processing Domains ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29273] viXra:1905.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 01:17:30

### Proposal of Replacing Classical Logic with Free Logic for Reasoning with Non-Referring Names in Ordinary Discourse

Authors: Bornali Paul

Reasoning carried out in ordinary language, can not avoid using non-referring names if occasion arises. Semantics of classical logic does not fit well for dealing with sentences with non-referring names of the language. The principle of bivalence does not allow any third truth-value, it does not allow truth-value gap also. The outcome is an ad hoc stipulation that no names should be referentless. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how far free logic with supervaluational semantics is appropriate for dealing with the problems of non-referring names used in sentences of ordinary language, at the cost of validity of some of the classical logical theses/ principles.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29272] viXra:1905.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 01:46:04

### Entanglement Inside Protons

Authors: George Rajna

Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29271] viXra:1905.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 01:49:55

### The Henstock-Kurzweil-Feynman-Pardy Integral in Quantum Physics

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 10 Pages. The original ideas published in reputable journals

The Feynman integral is generalised so as to involve the random fluctuations of vacuum, from this integral the generalized Schroedinger equation is derived and the energy spectrum for the Coulomb potential determined.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29270] viXra:1905.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 02:23:58

### Righteousness and the Merciful Act

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

The permanent desolation of the Christian hierarchy.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[29269] viXra:1905.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 05:38:46

### Live and Lifeless Physics Eyes

Authors: A.I.Somsikov

Physical distinction of live and lifeless objects is considered
Category: Classical Physics

[29268] viXra:1905.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 07:00:19

### From Pythagorean Theorem to Cosine Theorem.

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo

Easy and natural demonstration of the cosine theorem, based on the extension of the Pythagorean theorem.
Category: Geometry

[29267] viXra:1905.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 07:47:20

### Biological Nanometer Scale

Authors: George Rajna

Synthetic proteins have been created that move in response to their environment in predictable and tunable ways. [32] Bioinspired materials mimic their natural counterparts for characteristic functionality in multidisciplinary applications forming a popular theme in biomaterials development. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29266] viXra:1905.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 08:31:16

### The Results of the Study Planck Point

Authors: Sergey Belykh
Comments: 7 Pages. Подход к исследованию дан в книге "Планковская физика", ISBN 5-85106-028-5

The approach to the laws of Nature in the language of geometry gave access to a point with Planck parameters, which is the intersection of two lines - the line of quanta of the electromagnetic field and the line of black holes. At the same time, the parameters of the Planck point are the limiting constants of the properties of the center of the core of the Universe. The numerical agreement of the constants allowed us to further make their symbolic agreement using two dimensional units - the Planck radius and the Planck time.
Category: Astrophysics

[29265] viXra:1905.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 08:13:18

### Laser of Sound Promises

Authors: George Rajna

Most people are familiar with optical lasers through their experience with laser pointers. But what about a laser made from sound waves? [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29264] viXra:1905.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 09:11:46

### Cholesterol Destruction Code

Authors: George Rajna

A team of UNSW scientists at the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences led by Professor Andrew Brown have shown how a key enzyme that contributes to cholesterol production can be regulated-and destroyed-using a particular molecule. [33] Synthetic proteins have been created that move in response to their environment in predictable and tunable ways. [32] Bioinspired materials mimic their natural counterparts for characteristic functionality in multidisciplinary applications forming a popular theme in biomaterials development. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29263] viXra:1905.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 09:29:31

### Imaging a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna

US computer scientist Katie Bouman, who became a global sensation over her role in generating the world's first image of a black hole, has described the painstaking process as akin to listening to a piano with broken keys. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[29262] viXra:1905.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 10:04:52

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

In stellar metamorphosis dead stars are made of rocks, minerals and metal. Though, just because a star is dead does not mean it is the same age as other dead stars. A good analogy would be a fossilized brontosaurus skull is vastly older than a fossilized mammoth skull, which in turn is magnitudes older than the people that were buried due to dying of the black plague from 1346-1353. There are different levels of being dead for a star, recently dead, mature, ancient and archaic. A simple graph is used to explain the levels of "dead".
Category: Astrophysics

[29261] viXra:1905.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 10:10:51

### The Complete Theory of Everything: a Proposal

Authors: Rahula T.R. Latchman, Gemma F. Lopez

This paper presents a model that bridges the gap between general relativity and quantum mechanics by providing a new understanding of space and time. The core principle of this formulation is impermanence, the fact that energy is never static, which has non-obvious consequences at the quantum level and leads to a formulation of quantum gravity. The results allow for a new interpretation of black holes and a resolution of the black hole information paradox. The model also presents the causes leading to the Big Bang as well as the Universe evolution, oﬀering a new perspective on galaxy formation and a natural explanation to the origin of dark matter, dark energy and the matter-antimatter asymmetry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29260] viXra:1905.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 15:08:29

### Conjecture Sur Les Familles Exponentielles

in this article we will establish some properties of random variables and then we will propose a conjecture related to the exponential family. This conjecture seems interesting to me. Our results are based on the consideration of continuous random variables $X_{i}$ defined on the same space $\Omega$ and the same super-extra density law of parameter $\theta_{i}$ and canonique function $T$ Let $n\in \mathbb{N}^{*}$ Considering the random variable $J$ and $I$ a subsect of $\{1,2,..n\}$ such that : $X_{J}=\inf_{i\in I}(X_{i})$ we show that : $$\forall i\in I:\mathbb{P}( J=i)=\frac{\theta_{i}\prod_{j\in I}c(\theta_{j})}{\sum_{j\in I}\theta_{j}}\int_{T(\Omega)}e^{-x}dx$$. We conjecture that if the density of $X_{i}$ is $c(\theta_{i})e^{-\theta_{i}T(x)}\mathbf{1}_{\Omega}(x)$ Hence $\exists h,r$ two functions h such that $$\forall i\in I:\mathbb{P}( J=i)=\frac{r(\theta_{i})\prod_{j\in I}h(\theta_{j})}{\sum_{j\in I}r(\theta_{j})}\int_{T(\Omega)}e^{-x}dx$$
Category: Statistics

[29259] viXra:1905.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 18:07:48

### The Accelerating Universe, Dark Energy and the Alpha Variation

Authors: Tony Bermanseder

The experimental data collected by the various supernova observers, and under utility of the Hubble Space Telescope to track the brightness variations of discovered supernovae type Ia, now converged in 1998 to the conclusion, that distant supernovae are between 20% and 30% dimmer than expected and as a consequence of their measured redshift they appear to be further away than theory permits. An interpretation of this discovery implies, that the universe's expansion is accelerating; the measured redshift depicting a distance further away for a dimmer brightness than anticipated by theory. Closer analysis of the redshift data shows an expected distribution of luminosity, calibrated to their distances in the Chilean Cala-Tololo data, up to a redshift of about 0.11 and with a redshift-gap until a redshift of 0.3; after which the 'High-Z's' begin to show the 'curving away' from a predicted decelerating expansion rate in concordance with an Euclidean flat universe of Einsteinian General Relativity. The highest redshift recorded in 1998 was that of 'supernova Iae' at (z=1.1) by the 'High-Z-Team'. Why is there a redshift gap between z=0.11 and z=0.30 approximately? Does this imply a scarcity of supernovas in this redshift interval or is there a cosmological reason for this gap? Is this cosmological reason at the core of the Dark Energy implication and the 'factuality' of an accelerating universe? This treatise shall elucidate the cosmological nature of Dark Energy and the inferred accelerating cosmology of an accelerating universe, stipulated to begin some 5-6 Billion years ago and as a change from a measured deceleration from light speed in the early universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29258] viXra:1905.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 00:38:30

### The Secret of the Neutron-Revealed//Тайна нейтрона раскрыта

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents a physical mechanism that provides a stable arrangement of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.// В статье представлен физический механизм, который обеспечивает стабильное расположение протонов и нейтронов в ядре атома.
Category: Classical Physics

[29257] viXra:1905.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:28:38

### More On Reality

Authors: Bertrand Wong

Reality is existence, fact, truth. As intelligent beings, we are always concerned with reality or the truth and abhor lies, fakeness, falsity. But we are also not averse to using falsity and lies to deceive others in order to achieve our objectives. Who has never lied before? As the interpretation of reality has a tendency to be subjective it is often difficult to differentiate between the real, the truth, and the unreal, the false. This paper is a continuation of the author’s earlier paper “Reality”; it probes further into reality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29256] viXra:1905.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:47:28

### Design, Synthesis and Anti-Tumour Activity of New Pyrimidine-Pyrrole Appended Triazoles

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Yamini Bobde ⁠c, Balaram Ghosh ⁠c, Kondapalli Venkata Gowri Chandra Sekhar

The new pyrimidine-pyrrole scaffolds (7a–7m) with substituted 1,2,3-traizole moiety were synthesized in good to mild yields and subjected for anti-cancer activity against melanoma and breast cancer cell lines using MTT assay. The compounds 7f and 7m exhibited highest anti-cancer activity against both the tested cell lines in in vitro assay. The molecular docking analysis provided the insights of binding orientation of pyrimidine-pyrrole nucleus of current ligands and their crucial interactions with Cys797 and other residues of the EGFR tyrosine kinase active site. The interactions of triazole and its various substituted groups with EGFR tyrosine kinase have been discussed
Category: Chemistry

[29255] viXra:1905.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:53:49

### Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemigliptin Using Charge Transfer Complex

A visible spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of gemigliptin present in bulk drug and tablet formulation. It involves an indirect method of charge transfer complex formation in presence of NBS, metol and suphanilic acid. Gemigliptin was subjected to oxidation with excess amount of oxidant (NBS) and the unconsumed NBS oxidizes metol to give p-N-methylbenzoquinone monoamine (PNMM) which in turn forms a charge transfer complex with sulphanilic acid. Then validated the above developed method as per the current ICH guidelines. An excellent correlation coefficient (> 0.999) was found for the obtained regression equation (y = –0.0302x + 0.928) in the range of 2.0–30.0 μg mL-1. The method was found to be simple and rapid because it does not involve any solvent extraction. The recovery levels of the drug were in the range 99.92 – 100.08.
Category: Chemistry

[29254] viXra:1905.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:55:32

### Oxidative Coupling Reaction for the Determination of Lurasidone

Authors: M. S. Sudhira, R. Venkata Nadh, H. Manjunatha

A simple, sensitive, precise, accurate, highly reproducible and economical, visible spectrophotometric method for the determination lurasidone in bulk form was developed and validated. The method is based on the formation of an oxidative coupling product by the reaction of lurasidone with 3-methylbenzothiazolin- 2-one hydrazone as a chromogenic reagent in presence of ferric chloride. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship within the concentration range of 0–100 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) value of 0.9997. The limits of detection and quantitation are 0.6 and 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The method was tested and validated according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (RSD < 2%).
Category: Chemistry

[29253] viXra:1905.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:58:01

### Novel Pyrazolyl Benzoxazole Conjugates: Design, Synthesis, Molecular Docking Studies and in vitro Anticancer Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu1, Narayana Murthy Ganta3

Abstract: Background: Nowadays, hybrid drugs have gained a significant role in the treatment of different health problems. Most of the hybrid molecules with different heterocyclic moieties were proved to be potent anti-tumor agents in cancer chemotherapy. Hence, the present study is aimed at the evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of novel hybrid molecules (pyrazolyl benzoxazole conjugates) and to investigate their anticancer activity by molecular docking studies. Methods: Designed, synthesized and characterized the novel pyrazolyl benzoxazole conjugates. Anticancer activity of these compounds was determined by SRB assay. Then molecular docking studies were carried out against proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (ATP-Src, PDB: 2BDF), a putative target for cancer. Results: All the synthesized compound derivatives were evaluated against MCF-7, KB, Hop62 and A549 cancer cell lines. Compounds 9b and 9c exhibited excellent anticancer activities with GI50 values of <0.1 μM against MCF-7 and A549 cell lines. Compound 9e exhibited good antitumor activity on MCF-7 and A-549 with GI50 values of 0.12 μM and 0.19 μM respectively. Compound 9g showed better anticancer activity on A-549 cancer cell line with GI50 value of 0.34 μM. Conclusion: The two-hybrid molecules 9b and 9c are found to be comparably potent with the standard drug doxorubicin and may act as drug lead compounds in medicinal chemistry aspect. The present docking investigation proved that having benzoxazole of compound 9c at benzofuran of reference compound N-acetyl pyrazoline derivative might be valid for contributing to anti-cancer activity.
Category: Chemistry

[29252] viXra:1905.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:00:27

### Determination of Riociguat by Oxidative Coupling Using Visible Spectrophotometry

A simple spectrophotometric method was developed to determine riociguat in bulk and tablet formulation. The present method lies on the oxidation of MBTH by Fe+3 ions in acidic medium to form active coupling species and followed by its coupling with riociguat to form the chromophore having lmax 660 nm. Validated the proposed method as per the existing guidelines of ICH. Good linearity (r~ 0.999) was observed for calibration curve in the studied concentration range (6.25 – 37.50 μg mL-1). Reproducibility, accuracy and precision of the method were confirmed from low values of % RSD.
Category: Chemistry

[29251] viXra:1905.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:02:00

### Determination of Satranidazole Through Ion-Associative Complex Reaction

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar, R.Venkata Nadh, M. Siva Kishore1, G. Giri Prasad3

A simple, selective, accurate and low-cost spectrophotometric method has been described for determination of satranidazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The developed method involves the formation of chloroform extractable colored ion-association complex of satranidazole with Tropaeolin OOO (TPooo). The extracted colored complex showed absorbance maximum at wavelength 484 nm and obeying Beer′s law in the concentration 4-20 μg mL-1 with the correlation coeffiecent of 0.9998. The results of statistical analysis of the proposed method reveals high accuracy and good precession. Thus, the proposed method can be used commercially for the determination of satranidazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[29250] viXra:1905.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:03:35

### Ninhydrin Based Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemigliptin

A simple method is described to determine the amount of gemigliptin in bulk and tablet formulation by visible spectrophotometry. Basis of the proposed method is the reaction of the primary amine present on gemigliptin with ninhydrin in alkaline pH (alkaline borate buffer) medium to produce a purple color (Ruhemann’s purple) which has maximum absorption at 558 nm. The method was validated as per the current ICH guidelines. The obtained regression equation (y = 0.0148x+0.0011) in the range of 5-30 μg mL-1 has a good correlation coefficient (> 0.999). As the method does not require any separation, it is rapid and simple. The recovery levels of the drug were in the range of 99.73 – 99.96. This method is a green method as it no organic solvents were employed.
Category: Chemistry

[29249] viXra:1905.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:05:22

### Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Ulipristal Acetate using Naphthol Blue Black

Ulipristal acetate is used to treat uterine fibroids and for emergency birth control. The present study is a first report on development of a visible spectrophotometric method for determination of Ulipristal acetate present in bulk and tablet formulation. The method involves the sequential addition of HCl (0.1 N) and Napthol Blue Black solution to Ulipristal acetate. Cation formed on tertiary amine group of Ulipristal acetate attracts anion of naphthol blue black (an acid dye) to develop a coloured ion-association complex. From the aqueous phase, the chromophore is extractable into chloroform, which exhibits λmax at 640 nm. As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (2.50 – 15.00 μg mL-1). The % recovery values falls in 99.80 – 100.72 range. %RSD results of both precision studies were observed in the range 0.007 – 0.560, indicating the satisfactory precision of the method. Low values of R.S.D. (< 1 %) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise. The proposed method can be used in quality control laboratories for routine analysis of Ulipristal acetate (bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms) without requirement of expensive instruments.
Category: Chemistry

[29248] viXra:1905.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:07:35

### Piperacillin Estimation by Ion-Associative Complex Formation

Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a simple, validated, and affordable visible spectrophotometric method for determination of piperacillin (PIP) present in bulk and powder for injection formulation. Methods: In the present method, cobalt thiocyanate (CTC) was used as a chromogenic reagent where it forms 2:1 ion pair complex at pH 2 with PIP which is having secondary and tertiary amine groups. Results: The formed bluish-green colored ion pair between PIP and CTC is quantitatively extractable into nitrobenzene with an absorption maximum of 665 nm. Regression analysis (r=0.9996) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (3–18 μg/mL). Low values of relative standard deviation (<2%) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate, and precise. Conclusions: As per the existing guidelines of ICH (international council for harmonization of technical requirements for pharmaceuticals for human use), various parameters of the proposed method were tested for validation and can be used method of choice for routine analysis in industrial quality control laboratories, especially in developing countries.
Category: Chemistry

[29247] viXra:1905.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:11:37

### Ion Associative Complex Formation for the Stimation of Piperacillin

Ion associative complex formation for the stimation of piperacillin
Category: Chemistry

[29246] viXra:1905.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:13:33

### Determination of Mianserine Using Fe3+-Phenanthroline by Visible Spectrophotometry

Mianserin is used as an antidepressant medication. A visible spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of Mianserine present in bulk and tablet formulation. The basis of the proposed method is formation of a chromophore (of λ max 484 nm) in presence of Fe3+-Phenanthroline. Optimization of reaction conditions was carried out to get highly sensitive and stable colored complex. The proposed method does not require a pre-treatment process. The method has the advantage of simple, reproducible, selective and sensitive. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (1 – 6 μg mL-1). The % recovery values falls in 98.00 – 99.66 range. As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. %RSD results of both precision studies were observed in the range 0.181 – 0.530 and -0.135 – 0.408 respectively, indicating the satisfactory precision of the method. Low values of R.S.D. (< 2 %) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis of Mianserine (bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms) in quality control laboratories, as an alternative to the methods which require expensive instruments.
Category: Chemistry

[29245] viXra:1905.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:16:43

### Determination of Mianserin Using Tropaeolin-Ooo by Ion Pair Formation

Objective: The present study was aimed at the development of a simple visible spectrophotometric method for the assay of mianserin, a drug used for the treatment of depression. Methods: The method was developed using tropaeolin-ooo (TPooo) as an ion associative complex forming a chromophore. Developed the chromophore by sequential mixing of aqueous solutions of mianserin, hydrochloric acid, and TPooo. Chromophore was extracted into an organic solvent (chloroform) and absorbance values of organic layers were measured. As per the existing guidelines of an international conference on harmonization (ICH), various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Results: At the optimized reaction conditions, the formed chromophore (λ max Conclusion: Due to lack of pre-treatment process for this method, it was simple. All the tested parameters of the method were validated as per ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[29244] viXra:1905.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:19:27

### Pharmacological Review of Caralluma r.br: A Potential Herbal Genus

In history, medicinal plants were proven as a source of active compounds with therapeutic applications, and at present, they are an important collection for the discovery of novel drug leads. Caralluma is a genus used as traditional medicine. The present article thoroughly reviewed about the classification of Caralluma into subgenera, number of its species, its distribution in different parts of the world, and pharmacological activities exhibited by different species of Caralluma.
Category: Chemistry

[29243] viXra:1905.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:21:12

### Diazo Coupling for the Determination of Selexipag by Visible Spectrophotometry

Aim and Objective: The aim and objective of this study were to develop a spectrophotometric method for the assay of selexipag (selective IP prostacyclin receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations so that it will be an alternative quantitative method to chromatographic methods which require large quantities of organic solvents, where some are with hazardous and toxic properties. Materials and Methods: The method is based on the diazo coupling of selexipag with diazotized p-nitroaniline in alkaline medium to form a stable green-colored and water-soluble azo dye with a maximum absorption at 510 nm. Optimization of reaction conditions was carried out to get highly sensitive and stable colored complex. Results and Discussion: Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 2–12 μg/mL with a molar absorptivity of 3.33 × 104 L/mol/cm. The limit of detection was 0.35 μg/mL and limit of quantification was 1.0 μg/mL. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise, and reproducible (relative standard deviation <2%). Conclusions: This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to the current ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[29242] viXra:1905.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:22:38

### Ion-pair Formation for the Determination of Mianserin Using Fast Sulphon Black F

Aim: The objective of the current study is to develop a colorimetric method for the determination of mianserin, an antidepressant drug. Materials and Methods: Fast Sulphon Black F, an acidic dye was used to develop a soluble colored ion-pair complex. The complex was extracted into an organic solvent and absorbance was measured. Results: Reaction conditions were optimized to obtain a sensitive and stable chromophore (λmax 554 nm) in dichloromethane. Good linearity was observed for the calibration curve plotted in the studied concentration range (4–14 μg/mL) with regression analysis (r > 0.9997). High percentage recovery values (98.25–101.40) show that the method is accurate. Reproducibility of the method is evident from lower relative standard deviation (<2%) for both intra- and inter-day precision studies. Conclusions: The proposed method is validated as per the existing ICH guidelines. This method is simple as it does not require any pre-treatment process.
Category: Chemistry

[29241] viXra:1905.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:34:18

### Oxidative Coupling: A Tranquil Approach for Determination of Selexipag by Visible Spectrophotometry

The present study is a first report on development of a spectrophotometric method for determination of selexipag (used to cure pulmonary arterial hypertension) in bulk and tablet formulation and its validation. The basis of the proposed method is formation of a chromophore (of λ max 600 nm) in presence of acidic ferric chloride by oxidative coupling reaction between selexipag and MBTH (3-methylbenzo-thiazolin-2-one hydrazone) solution. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (5 – 30 μg mL-1). As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Low values of R.S.D. (< 2%) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise.
Category: Chemistry

[29240] viXra:1905.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:35:59

### Phtytochemical Library of Caralluma Genus

Phtytochemical Library of Caralluma Genus
Category: Chemistry

[29239] viXra:1905.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:37:23

### Synthesis and Antitumor Activity Evaluation of 2-Aminothiazoles Appended 5-Methylisoxazoline and Pyridine-Piperazine Hybrid Molecules

A highly efficient and milder protocol for the syntheses of novel series of 2-aminothiazoles bearing 5-methylisoxazoline and pyridine-piperazine hybrid molecules has been developed. The target compounds 13a-e were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity activity against various tumor cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HCT-116 (colorectal carcinoma), Jurkat (human Tcell leukemia) and THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia). The bioactive assay showed most of the new compounds exhibited promising results in comparison with the parental Sunitinib. The synthesized compounds could well be used in the future as lead anticancer drugs in drug development studies. The synthesized compounds were fully characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectral data.
Category: Chemistry

[29238] viXra:1905.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:39:52

### LC-MS Compatible Stability Indicating RP-Uplc Method for the Estimation of Ester Prodrug of Mycophenolic Acid in Injection Formulation

Authors: 58.G. Venkata Narasimha Rao, Muralee Krishna, Ravi Kumar Bellam, R. Venkata Nadh

LC-MS compatible stability indicating RP-UPLC method for the estimation of ester prodrug of mycophenolic acid in injection formulation
Category: Chemistry

[29237] viXra:1905.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:41:23

### A Study on Extraction of Plant Based Bio Colours

Authors: P.Vijetha, R. Venkata Nadh, K. Ramesh Naidu, T.Swapna Sundari

Most of the synthetic colours are carcinogenic. Many natural colours are thought to play- a significant role in preventing or delaying the onset of many diseases. Optimized conditions were arrived for the extraction of plant based biocolours based on the literature survey. In the present study, extraction of bixin from annatto seeds was carried out using ethyl acetate and ethanol. A pure bixin is obtained by precipitating from petroleum ether. A simple method for preparing butter colour from annatto seeds is tested using castor oil and groundnut seed oil. Lycopene was extracted from tomatoes using ethyl acetate as a solvent and further purified by successive recrystallisation from ethyl acetate and ethanol. A stable oleoresin of lycopene was prepared in soybean oil. Purity of extracted colours is established from spectral studies.
Category: Chemistry

[29236] viXra:1905.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:42:54

### In-Vivo Evaluation of Rifampicin Loaded Nanospheres: Biodistribution and Mycobacterium Screening Studies

Authors: Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Beeram, Krupanidhi S, Venkata Nadh R

Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres are formulated with a specific goal in order to decrease the dose, adverse effects and to enhance targeted drug delivery. Rifampicin nanospheres were prepared and evaluated by emulsion solvent evaporation method. In vivo bio distribution studies reveal that there was a long term accumulation of rifampicin nanospheres in the lungs over other organs. The increase in Cmax values confirmed that inhalable PLGA nanospheres are suitable for targeting and providing sustained release of antitubercular drugs to lungs. So inhalation is a selected administration route of Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres. The in vivo screening of M. tuberculosis showed good activity as well as its activity against multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis and against M. tuberculosis isolates in a potentially latent state, makes Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres as an attractive drug dosage form for the therapy of tuberculosis. It can be concluded that there is a significant potential for effective oral delivery as well as nasal delivery of the Nanospheres for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Category: Chemistry

[29235] viXra:1905.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:44:25

### Development and Validation of Uplc Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Carvedilol and Ivabradine in the Presence of Degradation Products Using Doe Concept

A methodical design-of-experiments were performed by applying quality-by-design concepts to establish a design-space for simultaneous and rapid quantification of Carvedilol and Ivabradine by UPLC in the presence of degradation products. Response-surface, central-composite design, and quadratic model were employed for statistical assessment of experimental data using the Design-Expert software. Response variables such as resolution and retention time were analyzed statistically for chromatographic screening. During DoE study, various plots such as perturbation, contour, 3D and design-space plots were considered for method optimization. The method was developed using C8 [100 � 2.1 mm, 1.8 μ] UPLC column, mobile phase comprising 0.5% triethylamine buffer [pH 6.4] and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 v/v, the flow rate of 0.4 mL minute−1 and UV detection at 285 nm for both Carvedilol and Ivabradine. The method was developed with a short run time of two minutes. The method was found to be linear in the range of 25.0–199.9 μg mL−1 and 8.9–21.3 μg mL−1 for Carvedilol and Ivabradine, respectively with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 in each case. The recovery values were found in the range of 99.7–100.8% and 98.9–100.9% for Carvedilol and Ivabradine, respectively. The method was validated according to ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[29234] viXra:1905.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:46:27

### Novel Hybrid Molecules of Quinazoline Chalcone Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Kishore Kaushal3

Background: A new series of quinazoline linked chalcone conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity. Methods: The quinazoline-chalcone derivatives (13a-r) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of various substituted benzaldehydes (12a-r) with substituted l-(4-(3,4- dihydroquinazolin-4-ylamino)phenyl)ethanone (11a-b) in the presence of aqueous NaOH. Three potential compounds 13f, 13g and 13h exhibited cytotoxicity against leukemia (GI50 value of 1.07, 0.26 and 0.24 μM), Non-small lung (GI50 values of 2.05,1.32 and 0.23 μM), colon (GI50 values of 0.54, 0.34 and 0.34 μM) and breast (GI50 values of 2.17, 1.84 and 0.22 μM) cell line, respectively. Results and Conclusion: Based on these biological results, it is evident that compound 13h has the potential to be considered for further detailed studies either alone or in combination with existing therapies as potential anticancer agents.
Category: Chemistry

[29233] viXra:1905.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:48:05

### Novel Hybrid Molecules of Isoxazole Chalcone Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu1, Kishore Kaushal3

Background: Now-a-days, the model of “hybrid drugs” has acquired recognition in medicine due to their significant role in the treatment of different health problems. Methods: We have synthesized new series of isoxazole-chalcone conjugates (14a-m) by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of suitable substituted acetophenones with isoxazole aldehydes (12a-d). In vitro cytotoxic activity of the synthesized compounds was studied against four different selected human cancer cell lines by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) method. Results: The adopted scheme resulted in good yields of new series of isoxazole-chalcone conjugates (14a-m). Potent cytotoxic activity was observed for compounds -14a, 14b, 14e, 14i, 14j and 14k against prostate DU-145 cancer cell line. Conclusion: The observed potent cytotoxic activities were due to the presence of 3,4,5- trimethoxyphenyl group.
Category: Chemistry

[29232] viXra:1905.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:49:37

### Evaluation of in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Caralluma Lasiantha for Scientific Validation of Indian Traditional Medicine

Caralluma lasiantha is used as a traditional medicine in India to heal body heat and inflammations. In order to find out a scientific validation for the Indian traditional knowledge, antibacterial activity of C. lasiantha extracts was studied against inflammation causing bacteria (viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus Sp., Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae) along with other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Solvents with different polarity were used for extraction from dry roots and stems. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were also studied. Differential antibacterial activity was exhibited by extracts and higher inhibition potential against Gram-positive bacteria was explained. The observed antibacterial activities were correlated with the chemical structures of phytochemicals present in C. lasiantha. Anti-inflammation activities are related to C. lasiantha extracts through their antibacterial activities.
Category: Chemistry

[29231] viXra:1905.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:52:32

### Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity Studies of 2, 4 di Substituted Furan Derivatives

Synthesis and antibacterial activity studies of 2, 4- di substituted furan derivatives
Category: Chemistry

[29230] viXra:1905.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:56:11

### Utilization of Agro-Waste for Removal of Toxic Hexavalent Chromium: Surface Interaction and Mass Transfer Studies

Authors: R. P. Mokkapati, V. N. Ratnakaram, J. S. Mokkapati

Abundantly available agricultural waste materials (banana bunch, sorghum stem and casuarinas fruit) are processed with negligible cost and are found to be highly suitable as biosorbents for chromium(VI) removal from aqueous environment due to high surface area and functional groups of adsorbents. The equilibrium data have been analyzed for the adsorbate–adsorbate/adsorbent interactions and found to be fitted to the data in the order, Hill–de Boer C Fowler–Guggenheim % Frumkin[Kiselev. To determine the characteristic parameters for process design, mass transfer studies have been carried out using two-parameter isotherm models (Harkins–Jura, Halsey, Smith, El-Awady and Flory–Huggins) and three-parameter isotherm models (Redlich–Peterson and Sips) which are applied to the experimental data. The fitness of the isotherms describes that both mono- and multilayer adsorptions occur in the present studied three biosorbents in preference to the latter. The mechanism of adsorption has been studied using diffusion kinetic models (viz. liquid film diffusion, Dunwald–Wagner intra-particle diffusion model and moving boundary model) and described the possibility of diffusion in the order of banana bunch–stem powder[ sorghum stem powder[casuarinas fruit powder in terms of diffusion coefficients. In essence of all the results, the selected adsorbents can be used as a potential adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.
Category: Chemistry

[29229] viXra:1905.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:59:03

### A Convenient New and Efficient Commercial Synthetic Route for Dasatinib (Sprycel®)

A new and efficient synthetic route for dual-Src/Abl kinase inhibitor dasatinib (Sprycel®), an anticancer drug, is described. This commercially viable process yields dasatinib monohydrate free of potential impurities with consistent yield of 68% in route A and 61% in route B with HPLC purity >99.80% over four stages.
Category: Chemistry

[29228] viXra:1905.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:01:17

### Quality-by-Design-Based Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Uplc Method for Quantification of Teriflunomide in the Presence of Degradation Products and Its Application to Invitro Dissolution

A systematic design-of-experiments was performed by applying quality-by-design concepts to determine design space for rapid quantification of teriflunomide by the ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method in the presence of degradation products. Response surface and central composite quadratic were used for statistical evaluation of experimental data using a Design-Expert software. The response variables such as resolution, retention time, and peak tailing were analyzed statistically for the screening of suitable chromatographic conditions. During this process, various plots such as perturbation, contour, 3D, and design space were studied. The method was developed through UPLC BEH C18 2.1 � 100 mm, 1.7-μ column, mobile phase comprised of buffer (5 mM K2HPO4 containing 0.1% triethylamine, pH 6.8), and acetonitrile (40:60 v/v), the flow rate of 0.5 mL min 1 and UV detection at 250 nm. The method was developed with a short run time of 1 min. Forced degradation studies revealed that the method was stability-indicating, suitable for both assay and in-vitro dissolution of a drug product. The method was found to be linear in the range of 28–84 μg mL 1, 2.8–22.7 μg mL 1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and 1.000 for assay and dissolution, respectively. The recovery values were found in the range of 100.1–101.7%. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[29227] viXra:1905.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:03:10

### Supercritical Fluid (Co2) Chromatography for Quantitative Determination of Selected Cancer Therapeutic Drugs in the Prescence of Potential Impurities in Injection Formulations

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao G., Ravi B., Jalandhar D., Manoj P., R. Venkata Nadh

In the present study, two cancer therapeutic drugs (docetaxel and bortezomib) were separated from their potential impurities on a chromatographic platform by utilizing CO2 gas (supercritical state) and quantified. The chromatographic separations were achieved on two short columns BEH-2EP (100mm 3mm, 1.7 mm) and CHIRALPAK AD-3 (100 mm 4.6 mm, 3 mm) for docetaxel and bortezomib, respectively. The present work describes the role of organic modifiers in the separation of polar compounds by supercritical fluid chromatography. The two new methods were fully validated in accordance with the current ICH (International Council for Harmonization of technical requirements for pharmaceuticals for human use) guidelines. The stability indicating power of the methods was demonstrated from the stress studies conducted on the injection formulations of the two compounds. The methods are precise with % RSD of 0.4, linear with the correlation coefficient of r2 $0.999 and accurate in the range of 50–150% of the target assay concentration. The two methods can be equally employed for the assay determination of docetaxel and bortezomib APIs as well. Category: Chemistry [29226] viXra:1905.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:04:38 ### Phytochemical Screening of Caralluma Lasiantha Isolation of C21 Pregnane Steroid Authors: Sireesha Malladi1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Suresh Babu K, Pullaiah T Comments: 5 Pages. OK Phytochemical screening of Caralluma lasiantha was carried out and one C21 pregnane steroid was isolated from chloroform extract. Based on spectroscopic studies (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESI-MS) the isolated compound is 3b,14b-dihydroxy-14b-pregn-5-en-20-one which was earlier isolated from other species. Category: Chemistry [29225] viXra:1905.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:48:48 ### Refutation of Tarski’s Geometric Axioms and Betweenness Authors: Colin James III Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. Of 13 equations evaluated, five are tautologous and eight are non tautologous. This refutes Tarski’s geometric axioms and betweenness which form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4. Category: Set Theory and Logic [29224] viXra:1905.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:52:21 ### Phytochemical Investigation of Caralluma Lasiantha: Isolation of Stigmasterol, an Active Immunomodulatory Agent Authors: Malladi S1, Ratnakaram VN, Suresh Babu K, Pullaiah T Comments: 9 Pages. OK Stigmasterol, a phytosteroid was isolated for the first time from C. lasiantha using n-hexane as a solvent. Stigmasterol was characterized on the basis of physical, chemical and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1HNMR, DEPT-45, 90 & 135, and MS) analysis as well as by comparing them to their literature data. A sequence of steps was adopted like saponification, fractional crystallization and gradient elution column chromatography to isolate stigmasterol because some phytosterols possess identical physical properties which makes it difficult to isolate the constituents. Category: Chemistry [29223] viXra:1905.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:53:53 ### Caralluma Lasiantha: a Review on It’s Vital Role in Indian Traditional Medicine Authors: Sireesha Malladi1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Suresh Babu K3, Pullaiah T4 Comments: 7 Pages. OK Caralluma is a genus used as traditional medicine. Caralluma lasiantha is medicinally important due to existence of pregnane glycosides, which may possess various biological activities. This article thoroughly reviewed about the usage of C. lasiantha in traditional medicinal system, phytochemicals present in it, profile identification studies, anti-hyperglycemic effect, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. Category: Chemistry [29222] viXra:1905.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:55:23 ### Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Plerixafor and Related Substances in an Injection Formulation Authors: G. Venkata Narasimha Rao, B. Ravi1, M. Sunil Kumar1, P. Manoj1, R. Venkata Nadh Comments: 14 Pages. OK Plerixafor (PLX) injections are administered to patients with cancers of lymphocytes (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma) and plasma cells (multiple myeloma). The main objective of the current study was to develop a short reverse phase chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of PLX and its impurities, in an injection formulation, to reduce the time required for these quality tests. Furthermore, the present work describes the role of nonalkyl branched nonquaternary ion pair reagent in improving the peak shape and reducing column equilibration time. The separation of PLX and its related substances is pH dependent (optimum pH = 2.50) and was achieved on an octadecylsilyl (C18) column. The method was validated for its intended purpose in accordance with the current regulatory guidelines for validation. The proposed method can be applied for quality control, release, and stability analyses of active pharmaceutical ingredient, PLX, as well as finished products, PLX injections. Category: Chemistry [29221] viXra:1905.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:57:15 ### Novel Coumarin Isoxazoline Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of Antibacterial Activities Authors: Garbapu Suresh, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Kishore Kaushal Comments: 9 Pages. OK A highly efficient and mild protocol for the syntheses of ethyl-3- [7-benzyloxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-8-chromenyl]-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-4- isoxazole carboxylates and ethyl-3-[7-benzyloxy-3-chloro-4-methyl-2- oxo-2H-8-chromenyl]-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-4-isoxazole carboxylates in good yields via [3 þ 2] cycloaddition of in situ–generated nitrile oxides from 7-benzyloxy-4-methyl-coumarin hydroxymoylchlorides and 7-benzyloxy-3-chloro-4-methyl-coumarin hydroxymoylchlorides respectively with ethyl-3-aryl prop-2-enoate has been developed. The new compounds are screened for antibacterial activity. Category: Chemistry [29220] viXra:1905.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:59:11 ### Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Studies on Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions Using Agro-Waste Biomaterials, Casuarina Equisetifolia L. and Sorghum Bicolor Authors: Mokkapati Ramya Prasanthi, Mokkapati Jayasravanthi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Comments: 10 Pages. OK Removal of Cr(VI) by biosorption on two agro waste materials, casuarinas fruit powder (CFP) and sorghum stem powder (SSP), has been investigated. The prepared adsorbent materials were characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR and BET. These biomaterials effectively removed Cr(VI) with a maximum removal of 93.35% and 63.75% using 15 gL−1 and 5 gL−1 of CFP and SSP, respectively, at 60 oC with 20mgL−1 initial Cr(VI) concentration in solution. In both cases of adsorbents, kinetic data of adsorption fitted well in pseudo-second-order in terms of correlation coefficient (R2). This helps in proposing the process of adsorption as chemical coordination, which is correlated with the thermodynamic study results conducted at different values of temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R models were evaluated for description of metal sorption isotherms. Values of coefficients of intra-particle diffusion and mass transfer have also been determined at different values of temperature. Category: Chemistry [29219] viXra:1905.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:01:07 ### Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamics Investigation on Adsorption of Divalent Copper Using Agro-Waste Biomaterials, Musa Acuminata, Casuarina Equisetifolia L. and Sorghum Bicolor Authors: Ramya Prasanthi Mokkapati1, Jayasravanthi Mokkapati, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram Comments: 10 Pages. OK Three novel and distinct agricultural waste materials, viz., Casuarinas fruit powder (CFP), sorghum stem powder (SSP) and banana stem powder (BSP) were used as low cost adsorbents for the removal of toxic copper(II) from aqueous solutions. Acid treated adsorbents were characterized by SEM, EDX and FTIR. Different factors effecting adsorption capacity were analyzed and the effi ciency order was BSP>SSP>CFP. Based on the extent of compatibility to Freundlich/Langmuir/D-R/Temkin adsorption isotherm and different models (pseudo-fi rst and second order, Boyd, Weber’s and Elovich), chemisorption primarily involved in the case of CFP and SSP, whereas, simultaneous occurrence of chemisorption and physisorption was proposed in the case of BSP. Based on the observations, it was proposed that three kinetic stages involve in adsorption process viz., diffusion of sorbate to sorbent, intra particle diffusion and then establishment of equilibrium. These adsorbents have promising role towards removal of Cu(II) from industrial wastewater to contribute environmental protection. Category: Chemistry [29218] viXra:1905.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:02:43 ### Mucoadhesive Targeted Pulmonary Delivery of Nanoparticulated Dry Powder Insufflators a Revolt in TB Therapy Authors: Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Beeram1, Venkata Nadh R, Krupanidhi S1, Gnana Prakash K3 Comments: 8 Pages. OK The emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) against first-line drugs and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB) due to misuse of second-line anti tubercular drugs (ATDs) is a further concern. Recommended treatment involves long term and multiple drug therapy with severe side effects. Due to this concern nanoparticle-based systems have significant potential for treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB) to overcome the need to administer ATDs at high and frequent doses, would assist in improving patient compliance and circumvent hepatotoxic ity and/or nephrotoxicity/ocular toxicity/ototoxicity associated with the prevalent first-line chemotherapy. Nanostructured delivery systems constitute a wide range of systems varying from liposomes, micelles, micro- and nanoemulsions, to polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs ) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Pulmonary administration of inhaled nanoparticles in the form of dry powder inhalers offer particular advantages for pulmonary administration of anti tubercular drugs (ATDs). Present review comprehensively about different approaches of nanobased drug delivery, devises and techniques for pulmonary delivery of nanoparticle encapsulated ATD. Category: Chemistry [29217] viXra:1905.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:09:31 ### A Novel Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Potential Impurities of Bisoprolol Fumarate and Hydrochlorothiazide in a Fixed Dosage Form Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao Ganipisetty, D Jalandhar, G. Gnanadev, P. Manoj, R. Venkata Nadh Comments: 9 Pages. OK In the present study 12 impurities of bisoprolol fumarate (BISO) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) were separated simultaneously in a single HPLC method. Out of these 12 impurities, five are potential degradants, which are validated as per The International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines. As the two active drug substances BISO and HCTZ have different solubilities and polarities, the most critical parameters in resolving the components from each other are pH, temperature, and solvents. The method is precise (RSD < 1.0%), accurate, linear (r2 > 0.999), robust, and stability indicating in the range of limit of quantification (LOQ) to 150%. The HPLC method is then migrated to ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) to further reduce the run time and solvent consumption, and increase the sample throughput. Category: Chemistry [29216] viXra:1905.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:10:49 ### Kinetics of Ruthenium(III) Catalyzed and Uncatalyzed Oxidation of Monoethanolamine by N-Bromosuccinimide Authors: R. Venkata Nadh, B. Syama Sundarb, P. S. Radhakrishnamurtic Comments: 6 Pages. OK Abstract—Kinetics of uncatalyzed and ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of monoethanolamine by N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) has been studied in an aqueous acetic acid medium in the presence of sodium acetate and perchloric acid, respectively. In the uncatalyzed oxidation the kinetic orders are: the first order in NBS, a fractional order in the substrate. The rate of the reaction increased with an increase in the sodium acetate concentration and decreased with an increase in the perchloric acid concentration. This indicates that free amine molecules are the reactive species. Addition of halide ions results in a decrease in the kinetic rate, which is noteworthy. Both in absence and presence of a catalyst, a decrease in the dielectric constant of the medium decreases the kinetic rate pointing out that these are dipole—dipole reactions. A relatively higher oxidation state of ruthenium i.e., Ru(V) was found to be the active species in Ru(III) catalyzed reactions. A suitable mechanism consistent with the observations has been proposed and a rate law has been derived to explain the kinetic orders. Category: Chemistry [29215] viXra:1905.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:12:31 ### Shift of Reaction Pathway by Added Chloride Ions in the Oxidation of Aromatic Ketones by Dichloroisocyanuric Acid—A Kinetic Study Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumara, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurti Comments: 8 Pages. OK Role of added chloride ions on the shift of reaction pathway of oxidation of aromatic ketones (acetophenone, desoxybenzoin) by dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) was studied in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric acid medium. Participation of enolic and protonated forms of ketones in the rate determining steps is manifested from zero and first orders with respect to the oxidant in absence and presence of added chloride ions, respectively. Positive and negative effects of acid and dielectric constant on the reaction rate were observed. The observations deduce plausible mechanisms involving (i) rate-determining formation of enol from the conjugate acid of the ketone (SH+) in the absence of added chloride ions and (ii) rapid formation of molecular chlorine species from HOCl (hydrolytic species of DCICA) in the presence of added chloride ions, which then interacts with SH+ in a rate-determining step prior to the rapid steps of product formation. The order of Arrhenius parameters substantiate the proposed plausible mechanisms based on order of reactants both in presence and absence of added chloride ions. Category: Chemistry [29214] viXra:1905.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:14:22 ### Ruthenium(III) Catalyzed Oxidation of Sugar Alcohols by Dichloroisocyanuric Acid—A Kinetic Study Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumara, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurtia Comments: 9 Pages. OK Kinetics of ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of biologically important sugar alcohols (myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol) by dichloroisocyanuric acid was carried out in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric medium. The reactions were found to be first order in case of oxidant and ruthenium(III). Zero order was observed with the concentrations of sorbitol and mannitol whereas, a positive fractional order was found in the case of inositol concentration. An inverse fractional order was observed with perchloric acid in oxidation of three substrates. Arrhenius parameters were calculated and a plausible mechanism was proposed. Category: Chemistry [29213] viXra:1905.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:16:03 ### Chemical Oxygen Demand Reduction from Coffee Processing Waste Water a Comparative Study on Usage of Biosorbents Prepared from Agricultural Wastes Authors: Ramya P.M., Jayasravanthi M., Dulla B.J., Venkata N.R. Comments: 10 Pages. OK The utilization of t hree novel and distinct agricultural waste materials, namely c asuarina fruit powder CFP s orghum stem powder SSP ) and b anan a stem powder ( as low cost adsorbents for reducing chemical oxygen demand ( COD levels of coffee industry waste water has been examined. Prepared adsorbents were characteriz ed by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM), Energy dispersive x ray spectros copic ( and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy The effects of parameters like adsorbent dose, pH, temperature agitation rate and time of adsorption on the reduction of COD levels were analyzed for each adsorbent individually and the efficiency order is CFP>SSP>BSP. Based on the extent of compatibility to Freundlich/ Langmuir adsorption isotherm and different models ( pseudo first order and second order , Boyd, Weber’s and Elovich), simultaneous occurrence of chemis orption and physi sorption was proposed. Based on the observations, it is proposed that three kinetic stages involve in adsorption process viz., diffusion of sorbate to sor bent, intra particle d iffusion and then establishment of equilibrium. As these three adsorbents exhibit adsorption capacity more than 80%, the adsorbents prepared from agricultural wastes have promising role towards reduction of COD from industrial waste water to contribute envi ronmental protection . Category: Chemistry [29212] viXra:1905.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:18:13 ### Kinetics and Mechanism of ru (Iii) Catalysed and Uncatalysed Oxidation of DL-Alanine by N-Bromosuccinimide Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, M.Sireesha Comments: 9 Pages. OK The kinetics of Ru(III) catalysed and uncatalysed oxidation of DL-alanine by N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) was studied in aqueous acetic acid and in the presence of perchloric acid and Hg (II). In both Ru(III) catalysed and uncatalysed oxidations, the kinetic orders were: first order in NBS, fractional order in substrate. The rate of the reaction decreased with the increase in perchloric acid concentration and addition of halide ions. The reactions were of fractional order with respect to Ru (III). Addition of Os(VIII) had no effect on the rate of oxidation of DL-alanine by NBS. The presence of catalysis with Ru (III) and the absence of catalysis with Os(VIII) in NBS oxidations was traced to different factors. A factor other than complexation could be a more powerful oxidant species like Ru (V) which accelerates the NBS oxidations. The effect of temperature was also investigated. By varying the solvent composition it was found that the reaction rate decreased with the decrease in dielectric constant of the solvent. All kinetic features were explained by postulating suitable mechanisms and rate laws. Category: Chemistry [29211] viXra:1905.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:20:14 ### Role of Added Chloride Ions in Alteration of Reaction Pathway in the Oxidation of Cyclic Ketones by Dichloroisocyanuric Acid— A Kinetic Study Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumara, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurtia Comments: 8 Pages. OK Effect of added chloride ions on kinetics and pathway of reaction between cyclic ketones (five to eight membered rings) and dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) was studied in aqueous acetic acid—perchlo ric acid medium. Formation of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids as the end products demonstrates the ring cleav age oxidation. Positive effect of acid and negative effect of dielectric constant on the reaction rate reveals a interaction between positive ion (oxidant in the form of H2OCl+) and dipolar substrate molecule. Zero and first orders by oxidant in absence and presence of added chloride ions illustrates the participation of substrate as enolic form of ketone and protonated ketone, respectively, in the rate determining steps. The observed order of reactivity of cyclic ketones (cyclohexanone > cyclooctanone > cyclopentanone > cycloheptanone) was explained on the bases of ring strain, change of hybridization and conformational considerations. The envisaged plausible mechanism based on order of reactants in presence and absence of added chloride ions was substantiated by the order of Arrhenius parameters. Category: Chemistry [29210] viXra:1905.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:22:25 ### Reactions of Enolisable Ketones with Dichloroisocyanuric Acid in Absence and Presence of Added Chloride Ions – a Kinetic Study Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumar, R. Venkata Nadh, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti Comments: 8 Pages. OK Kinetics of reactions of enolisable ketones (S = acetone/2-butanone) with dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) were studied in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid media in absence and presence of added chloride ions. The reactions were found to be pseudo zero order and pseudo first order on [DCICA] in absence and presence of chloride ions respectively. Both in presence and absence of chloride ions, first order and fractional order in substrate and perchloric acid were observed respectively. An increase in the rate of reaction was observed with an increase in chloride ion concentration as well as acetic acid composition. The results were interpreted in terms of probable mechanisms involving (i) rate-determining enol formation from the conjugate acid of the ketone (SH+) in the absence of added chloride ions and (ii) rate-determining interaction of SH+ with the most effective molecular chlorine species produced by the hydrolysis of DCICA (rather than a rate-determining interaction of enol with chlorine) in the presence of added chloride ions, prior to the rapid steps of product formation. Category: Chemistry [29209] viXra:1905.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:24:35 ### Supercritical Fluid (Co2) Chromatography for Quantitative Determination of Selected Cancer Therapeutic Drugs in the Presence of Potential Impurities Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao Ganipisetty, a B. Ravi, a Ch. Rajsekhara Reddy, a RajKumar Gurjar, a P. Manoj, a R. Venkata Nadh, Gnana dev Gudipatia Comments: 6 Pages. OK In the present study, supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide) chromatographicmethods were developed and validated for the quantitative assay determination of two cancer therapeutic substances, fulvestrant and azacitidine, using a UPC2 system. Fulvestrant was separated from six potential impurities, while impurities of azacitidine were separated using a 150 mm 4.6 mm, I.D., a chiral column and 5 mm, particle size. Both drugs were analysed simultaneously in a single sequence using multiple channels in the system and respective methods. These new methods were validated for their intended purpose in accordance with the current ICH guidelines. The method exhibited excellent intra- and inter-day precision. A precision with RSD 1% and 1.6% was achieved for fulvestrant and azacitidine, respectively. A linear relationship r2 > 0.999 was achieved between the concentration and detector response over a range of 25–150% of the target concentrations for both compounds. The two compounds were well quantified from their unspecified impurities obtained from stress studies. The method can be employed for routine quality control testing and stability analysis. Category: Chemistry [29208] viXra:1905.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:26:34 ### A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Bendamustine Hydrochloride in Tablet Dosage Form Using Gemcitabine Hydrochloride as Internal Standard Authors: Kiran Kumar KATARE, Venkata Nadh RATNAKARAM, Nagoji K.E.V. Comments: 8 Pages. OK Using gemcitabine hydrochloride as an internal standard, an accurate, sensitive, precise and robust reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the estimation of bendamustine in bulk and dosage forms. The proposed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines (2005) and can be applied for the quantitative analysis of bendamustine in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was performed on ODS C-18 RP column (4.6 mm i.d x 250 mm) at ambient temperature using a mixture of methanol : water (50:50 v/v) as a mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/ min, while UV detection was performed at 232 nm. The retention times of gemcitabine and bendamustine were in the ranges of 6.647–6.797 and 11.66–12.49 minutes, respectively. The method was found to be linear in the range of 1 – 10 μg/ml. The LOD and LOQ for bendamustine were found to be 0.0422 and 0.1279 µg/ml respectively. Analytical recovery varied from 98.9% to 99.13%. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2%. Category: Chemistry [29207] viXra:1905.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:29:59 ### Green Approach Toward the Synthesis of N-Substituted Anilines via Smile Rearrangement Using Amberlite IR-400 Resin Authors: H. Sudhakar1, G. Pavana Kumari2, R. Venkata Nadh, Naveen Mulakayala Comments: 6 Pages. OK A new method for the synthesis of N-alkyl anilines from phenols using silica sulfuric acid as a catalyst is described via smiles rearrangement. The synthesized anilines are handy intermediates in the organic synthesis. Category: Chemistry [29206] viXra:1905.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:31:34 ### Determination of Bendamustine Hydrochloride in Pure and Dosage Forms by Ion-Associative Complex Formation Authors: Katare Kiran Kumar1, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, K.e.v. Nagoji3 Comments: 6 Pages. OK The present study is aimed to develop visible spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Bendamustine hydrochloride. The developed methods involve the formation of chloroform extractable colored ion-association complexes of Bendamustine hydrochloride with tropaeolineo-oo (Method A) and Alizarin Red S (Method B). The chloroform extracted coloured complexes showed absorbance maxima at wavelengths 480 and 460nm in methods A and B respectively. Beer’s law obeyed in the concentration range of 2.5–12.5 μg/mL in both the cases. Correlation coefficients were found to be 0.9991 and 0.9998 for methods A and B respectively. In addition molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity and the optimum conditions for quantitative analysis of the Bendamustine hydrogenchloride were determined. The developed ion-association complex methods were rapid, simple and economically viable compared to other reported analytical methods which require expensive instruments and are not available in common laboratories. Thus the proposed methods for Bendamustine determination in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations can be used in commercial laboratories. Category: Chemistry [29205] viXra:1905.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:33:49 ### Antibacterial Activity of Some Newer 1,2,3 – Benzotriazole Derivatives Synthesized by Ultrasonication in Solvent – Free Conditions Authors: S.S. Muvvala1, V.N. Ratnakaram Comments: 6 Pages. OK Many of the classical synthetic methodologies have broad scope but generate copious amounts of waste. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been subjected to increasing pressure to minimize or, preferably, eliminate this waste. In the present study a series of some newer 1,2,3–benzotriazole derivatives were synthesized under ultrasonicated and solvent–free conditions. Newer “1–(1H–benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole–1–carbonyl) derivatives” (5A – 5P) were synthesized from “1H–benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole” (1) by optimizing the reaction conditions. The resulting products were isolated and characterized by spectral studies. The anti bacterial activities of these compounds were screened in vitro against different strains of bacteria i.e. Gram negative organism (Pseudonomous aureginosa, MTCC – 1035) and Gram positive organisms (Bacillus cereus, MTCC – 430, Bacillus subtilis, MTCC – 441, Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC – 737, Staphylococcus epidermidis, MTCC – 3086) by paper disc diffusion method. Some of the synthesized compounds showed significant activity against various bacteria. Category: Chemistry [29204] viXra:1905.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:35:10 ### Substrate Inhibition: Oxidation of DSorbitol and DMannitol by Potassium Periodate in Alkaline Medium Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumar, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurti Comments: 5 Pages. OK Abstract—In the oxidation of Dsorbitol and Dmannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline mediam, sub strate inhibition was observed with both the substrates, i.e., a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. The substrate inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complex between the substrate and periodate. The reactions were found to be first order in case of peri odate and a positive fractional order with hydroxide ions. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for the oxi dation of sorbitol and mannitol by potassium periodate in alkali media. Category: Chemistry [29203] viXra:1905.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:36:32 ### Evaluation of in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Caralluma Umbellata Haw Used in Traditional Medicine by Indian Tribes Authors: K. Suresh Babu1, Sireesha Malladi2, R. Venkata Nadh, S. Siva Rambabu Comments: 16 Pages. OK Aims: To find out a scientific validation for the traditional knowledge of tribals of Chittoor District, India for their usage of Caralluma umbellata Haw to cure stomach disorder and pain. Methodology: Antibacterial activity of Caralluma umbellata Haw was studied on a few Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The dry roots and stems were extracted using hexane, benzene, diethyl ether, chloroform, acetone and methanol and were tested for their antibacterial activity. Results: The root extracts were found to be effective against most of the organisms than the stem extracts. The extracts were highly effective against Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Chloroform extracts of both roots and stems exhibited good antibacterial activity againstConclusion: The demonstration of antibacterial activity of C. umbellata against Gram positive (B.subtilis and B.cereus) and Gram negative bacteria (E.coli) provides the scientific basis for its use in the traditional treatment of stomach disorder. Category: Chemistry [29202] viXra:1905.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:37:40 ### Diazo-Coupling: A Facile Mean for the Spectrophotometric Determination of Rasagiline Hemitartrate Authors: Muvvala Subrahmanya Sudhir1, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh Comments: 8 Pages. OK A simple, precise, accurate, high reproducible and economical visible spectrophotometric method of analysis for the synthesized rasagiline hemitartrate was developed and validated. The proposed method involves diazotization of sulphanilic acid under acidic conditions in presence of sodium nitrite, followed by its coupling with rasagiline in alkaline medium. The absorption spectra of the yellow colored chromophore formed between rasagiline and positive diazonium ion has absorption maximum at 440 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship (r = 0.99937) with in the concentration range of 0 – 10 μg mL-1. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.033 μg mL-1and 0.1 μg mL-1 respectively. This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (R.S.D. < 2 %). Category: Chemistry [29201] viXra:1905.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:40:04 ### Development of Supercritical Fluid (Carbon Dioxide) Based Ultra Performance Convergence Chromatographic Stability Indicating Assay Method for the Determination of Clofarabine in Injection Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao Ganipisetty, a Jalandhar D, a Gnana dev G, a Rajendar Bandari, a Manoj P, a Dhananjay Da, Venkata Nadh R Comments: 6 Pages. OK The present study reports the development and validation of a stability indicating assay method for clofarabine in injection on a UPC2 (ultra performance convergence chromatography) instrument, which utilizes the unrealized potential of supercritical fluid chromatography. The use of UPC2 provides a single viable technique that is a sustainable, reduced cost, and green technology that lowers the use of organic solvents. Based on this advantage, we explored a simple and robust method in order to increase sample throughput and productivity to quantify clofarabine in the presence of its potential impurities and other degradants. The separation was achieved on a BEH-2-ethyl pyridine (BEH 2EP) column (100 mm 3.0 mm I.D. with an average pore diameter of 1.7 mm) by using methanol as a cosolvent and carbon dioxide as a mobile phase in the ratio of 30 : 70. The detection is carried out at a wavelength of 254 nm. We are able to achieve the separation of clofarabine from its potential impurities and other degradants in less than 6 minutes with a low amount of solvent consumption. The new method is validated in accordance with the ICH-guidelines and exhibited good intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy and linearity (r2$ 0.999) over a range of 50% to 150% of target concentration.
Category: Chemistry

[29200] viXra:1905.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:42:03

### Supercritical Fluid (Carbon Dioxide) Based Ultra Performance Convergence Chromatography for the Separation and Determination of Fulvestrant Diastereomers

Authors: Ganipisetty Venkata Narasimha Rao, a G. Gnanadev, a Bellam Ravi, a D. Dhananjaya, a P. Manoj, a B. Indua, R. Venkata Nadh

UltraPerformance convergence chromatography (UPC2) is a new category of separation science which utilizes the unrealized potential of the supercritical chromatography phenomenon. UPC2 is a standalone, viable technique that is cost effective, sustainable, and uses green technology that lowers the use of organic solvents. Based on this advantage, we explored a simple and robust supercritical liquid-based UPC2 method in order to increase sample throughput and productivity to quantify the diastereomers of fulvestrant. The two isomers of fulvestrant were well separated on a chiral column (150 mm 4.6 mm, I.D.) by applying a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (9.5 : 0.5) as the co-solvent of the mobile phase of carbon dioxide (75%). The detection was carried out at 280 nm. We were able to achieve a threefold reduction in retention with an isocratic mode as compared to the United States Pharmacopoeias (USP) normal phase method. This new method was validated in accordance with the ICH guidelines; it exhibited good intra- and inter-day accuracy, precision, and the results were linear over a range of 25% to 150% of the target concentration. The method could be successfully applied for the determination of the diastereomeric ratio of fulvestrant as an API and in fulvestrant injectable finished products.
Category: Chemistry

[29199] viXra:1905.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:44:34

### Antifungal Activities of Novel 1,2,3-Benzotriazole Derivatives Synthesized by Ultrasonic and Solvent-Free Conditions

Objectives: To evaluate the antifungal activities of novel 1,2,3-benzotriazole derivatives synthesized by ultrasonic and solvent-free conditions. Methods: Newer “1-(1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole-1-carbonyl) derivatives” (5Ae5P) were synthesized by using“1Hebenzo[d][1,2,3]triazole” (1) as the startingmaterial underultrasonicated and solvent-free conditions. The resulting products were isolated and characterized by melting points and spectral studies. All the products were assayed for antifungal activity for various pathogenic fungi. Results: Excellent antifungal activity was shown by derivative-5L against Candida albicans (MTCCe 3018)whereas other compounds have shown comparable activity. Except derivative- 5P, all synthesized compounds have shown mild activity against Candida glabrata (MTCC e 3019). Towards Aspergillus niger (MTCCe 2638) and Aspergillus flavus (MTCC e 2737) most of the compounds were inactive and some were feebly active. All the synthesized derivatives were inactive against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC e 170). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the most of the synthesized 1,2,3-benzotriazole derivatives for these fungi were found to be 62.5 mg/ml. Conclusions: Some of the newer 1,2,3-benzotriazole derivatives synthesized under solventfree and ultrasound irradiation with noteworthy advantages viz., shorter reaction times, operational simplicity, simple work-up, and eco-friendly nature, have shown antifungal activities against selected pathogenic strains. Attachment of phenyl or phenyl with electron withdrawing substituents to either nitrile or azo functional group can be attributed to the substantial antifungal activity of these benzotriazoles.
Category: Chemistry

[29198] viXra:1905.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:46:36

### Rasagiline Hemitartrate: Synthesis, Characterization and RP-HPLC Validation for Its Estimation in Bulk Form

Authors: Muvvala S. Sudhir, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh

Objectives: To develop a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for validation and quantitative estimation of the synthesized drug rasagiline hemitartrate in bulk form. Methods: Rasagiline hemitartrate was synthesized and characterized by spectral (Infrared, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass) as well as elemental analysis. Chromatographic separation was conducted on Agilent TC-C18 (2504.6mm,5 mm) columnat ambient temperature using mixture of 20mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH 7.0): methanol and acetonitrile in the ratio (30:30:40 v/v) as a mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, while UV detection was performed at 285 nm. In addition to LOD and LOQ, other analytical parameters viz., linearity, precision, accuracy, ruggedness and robustness were detected by following the ICH (International Conference on Harmonization) guidelines. Results: The retention time for rasagiline hemitartrate was found to be 4.30 0.05 min. The method was found to be linear in the range of 10e50 mg/mL. The limit of detection and quantization for rasagiline hemitartrate are found to be 0.651 and 1.972 mg/mL respectively. Analytical recovery was 100.47%. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2%. Correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9952. Conclusion: In this study, simple, sensitive, accurate and reliable RP-HPLC method was developed and validated as per the ICH guidelines for the determination of the synthesized drug rasagiline hemitartrate in bulk form.
Category: Chemistry

[29197] viXra:1905.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:48:13

### Evaluation of in Vitro Anthelmintic Activities of Novel 1,2,3 e Benzotriazole Derivatives Synthesized in Ultrasonic and Solvent Free Conditions

Authors: M.S. Sudhir, R. Venkata Nadh

Objectives: To determine anthelmintic activity of the synthesized novel 1,2,3 e benzotriazole derivatives under ultrasonication in solvent free conditions. Methods: Newer “1e(1Hebenzo[d][1,2,3]triazole-1-carbonyl) derivatives” (5Ae5P) were synthesizedby using“1Hebenzo[d][1,2,3]triazole” (1)as the startingmaterialunder ultrasonicated and solvent-free conditions. The resulting products were isolated and characterized by melting points and spectral studies. All the products were assayed for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma using albendazole and mebendazole as reference compounds. Results: All the newer 1,2,3 e benzotriazole derivatives synthesized by ultrasound activation in solventefree condition were obtained in moderate to good yields in the range of 71e82%. The data interpretation of the spectral values with reference to standard values confirmed the structures of the synthesized compounds. Out of the sixteen synthesized derivatives, four compounds (5B, 5F, 5J and 5N) showed anthelmintic activity in dose-dependent manner giving shortest time of paralysis and death with different concentrations of the derivatives. Among these four derivatives, 5J showed superior activity. Conclusion: Out of the sixteen synthesized derivatives, four compounds (5B, 5F, 5J and 5N) containing p-nitrophenyl substituent attached to azo group of benzotriazole moieties exhibited equal or comparable anthelmintic activity with reference to albendazole. The superior activity of compound 5J might be due to attachment of additional p-nitrophenyl substituent to the cyano group.
Category: Chemistry

[29196] viXra:1905.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:50:15

### Simple and Validated Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Lurasidone in Bulk Form

Authors: Muvvala S Sudhir, Ratnakaram V Nadh

A simple, sensitive, precise, accurate and economical spectrophotometric method of analysis for lurasidone in bulk form was developed and validated. The method employed acetonitrile as solvent and the drug shows maximum absorbance at 263 nm. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of lurasidone, which is corroborated by the calculated correlation coefficient value (r2 = 0.999). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship with in the concentration range of 10 – 60 μg/ml. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 1.25316 μg/ ml and 3.797468 μg /ml respectively. This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (R.S.D. < 2 %).
Category: Chemistry

[29195] viXra:1905.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 07:17:27

### Prove that Electromagnetic Waves Are Masses

if you jump from a planet you hit the floor while you jump and hit the floor again as you fall now you could deduce that the masses need to hit each other to move if you make this deduction you could say that the first thing that caused all the masses to move in the universe is a mass or electromagnetic waves are masses
Category: Condensed Matter

[29194] viXra:1905.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 07:31:10

### Macroscopic Electron Quantum Coherence

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers at the Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (C2N, CNRS/Univ. Paris-Saclay) has experimentally achieved the coherent propagation of electrons in circuits over macroscopic distances through a novel nano-engineering strategy. [20] Researchers in Madrid, Spain, have now observed the quantization of electron energy levels in copper similar to the effects of confinement within a nanostructure, but in a copper sample with no nanoscale dimensions in the plane of the observed effects. [19] This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29193] viXra:1905.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 08:01:37

### Single Molecule Magnetometer

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers from the University of California and Fudan University has developed a way to use a single molecule magnet as a scanning magnetometer. [40] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires. [39] Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29192] viXra:1905.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 08:50:29

### On the Nature of Electromagnetic Waves

electromagnetic waves are masses that oscillate both ways(up and down and to the sides at the same time perpendicular to its direction of motion
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29191] viXra:1905.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 09:44:55

### Refutation of Counterpart Theory Via Modal Logic

Authors: Colin James III

Of seven examples for counterpart theory, none is tautologous. In fact, a translation is not tautologous in the counterpart model or in QMT, but rather shares the same truth table result. Two definitions of intensionality are also not tautologous and hence refuted. Therefore counterpart theory forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29190] viXra:1905.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 10:56:36

### Programming Primitive Recursive Functions and Beyond

Authors: Hannes Hutzelmeyer
Comments: 17 Pages. The details given here relate to document viXra: 1905.0221

In addition to the publication 'The Snark, a counterexample for Church's thesis?' examples and details are offered in the form of two appendices C6 and C7 that allow for better understanding of the general method and the particular problem related to Church's thesis. The author has developed an approach to logics that comprises, but also goes beyond predicate logic. The FUME method contains two tiers of precise languages: object-language Funcish and metalanguage Mencish. It allows for a very wide application in mathematics from recursion theory and axiomatic set theory with first-order logic, to higher-order logic theory of real numbers etc. The most usual approach to calculative (effectively calculable) functions is done by register machines or similar storage-based computers like the Abacus or Turing machines. Another usual approach to computable functions is to start with primitive recursive functions. However, one has to find a way to put this into a form that does not rely on a pre-knowledge about functions and higher logic. The concrete calcule LAMBDA of decimal pinitive arithmetic allows for such an access. It is based on a machine that is completely different from the storage-based machines: the PINITOR does not use storages but rather many microprocessors, one for each appearance of a command in the code of primitive recursive functior. the codes are decimal numbers, called pinons , where only the characters 0 1 2 8 9 appear. There are four kind of commands only: 0 nullification, 1 succession, 2 straight recursion and 8 composition. The PINITOR is a calculator which means that there is no halting problem. Computers have halting problems, per defintion calculators do not. Appendix C6 gives the programming of the codes of most of the usual primitive function and goes even farther, e.g. it introduces generator technique that allows for the straight-forward calculation of so-called processive function, that are not primitive recursive. The most famous examples of Ackermann and other hyperexponential functions are programmed. Appendix C7 turns to the Boojum-function and the Snark-function that have been introduced as calculative functions in the above publication in connection with Church's thesis. A list is provided that gives the lowest values for these functions and gives some more insight into these functions.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29189] viXra:1905.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 12:01:57

### Supplementary Notes Pertaining to a Specific Quaternion Analogue of the Cauchy-Goursat Theorem.

Authors: Stephen C. Pearson.

This particular submission contains (inter alia) a copy of the author's original paper, which was completed on 6th March 2019 and thus comprises a total of 16 handwritten A4 pages. Subsequently, in view of its contents, it is being presented as an addendum to the author's previous set of submissions, namely - "A Supplementary Discourse on the Classification and Calculus of Quaternion Hypercomplex Functions - PARTS 1/10 to 10/10", which have been published under the 'VIXRA' Mathematics subheading:- 'Functions and Analysis'.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[29188] viXra:1905.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 11:25:44

### Spaceships

you get magnets spinning in a magnets chamber through electricity and the kinetic energy produced is transformed into heat and the magnets are dipped inside water that evaporates and makes more electricity and some magnets tied to the spaceship and others let to fly through propelling them with air maybe even propelling all the magnets through other heat chambers you get chambers that are huge enough to let the water cooldown and then the water streams back to the magnet heat water bank and before that electricity is maintained through dripping water but you need large spaceships to carry the heat you could build colonies on the heat tanks you could put ice too inside the spaceship and make the tank parts of the spaceship out of thermos
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[29187] viXra:1905.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 11:28:39

### Neural Network Study Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna

As cosmologists and astrophysicists delve deeper into the darkest recesses of the universe, their need for increasingly powerful observational and computational tools has expanded exponentially.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29186] viXra:1905.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 11:54:52

### Three Fundamental Mistakes of "Scientists" //Три фундаментальные ошибки "ученых"

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article is devoted to the correction of three fundamental errors in theoretical physics. e three errors relate to gravity, the law of conservation of energy and mass. The author exposes errors and indicates how to fix them.// Статья посвящена исправлению трёх фундаментальных ошибок в теоретической физике. Эти три ошибки касаются гравитации, закона сохранения энергии и массы. Автор разоблачает ошибки и указывает, как можно их устранить.
Category: Classical Physics

[29185] viXra:1905.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 15:12:11

### Zeros of Gamma

Authors: Wilson Torres Ovejero

160 years ago that in the complex analysis a hypothesis was raised, which was used in principle to demonstrate a theory about prime numbers, but, without any proof; with the passing Over the years, this hypothesis has become very important, since it has multiple applications to physics, to number theory, statistics, among others In this article I present a demonstration that I consider is the one that has been dodging all this time.
Category: Number Theory

[29184] viXra:1905.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 17:43:20

### Ecriture Détaillée Des Equations de la Relativité Générale :Cas D’Une Métrique Diagonale

In this note, we study Einstein equations (EE) of general relativity considering a manifold M with a diagonal metric g_{ij}. We calculate the expression of the components of Ricci and Riemann tensors and the value of the scalar curvature R. Then we give the expression of the (EE) : -a- for the case where g_{ii}=g_i=g_i(x_i); -b- for the case where g_1=g_1(x_1=t) and g_i=g_i(t,x_i) for i=2,3,4\$; -c- for the case (b) with x_4=z_0=constant.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[29183] viXra:1905.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 18:35:35

### Cross-Double-Slit Apparatus

Authors: HuiPeng

We propose the Cross-Double-Slit apparatus for studying wave-particle duality and postulate that the particle nature of photons is intrinsic, while wave-like is an appearing behavior due to observation apparatus.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29182] viXra:1905.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 02:10:45

### Machine Learning of Fusion Energy

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are using ML to create a model for rapid control of plasma-the state of matter composed of free electrons and atomic nuclei, or ions-that fuels fusion reactions. [22] Machine learning can be used to predict the properties of a group of materials which, according to some, could be as important to the 21st century as plastics were to the 20th. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm-called MPLasso-that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses-so-called retrosyntheses-with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29181] viXra:1905.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 02:34:33

### Manipulating Atoms One at a Time

Authors: George Rajna

The ultimate degree of control for engineering would be the ability to create and manipulate materials at the most basic level, fabricating devices atom by atom with precise control. [41] A team of researchers from the University of California and Fudan University has developed a way to use a single molecule magnet as a scanning magnetometer. [40] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires. [39] Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29180] viXra:1905.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 04:59:02

### Disruptive Gravity

Authors: Ramses BOUNKEU SAFO
Comments: 35 Pages. language: English and French

Gravity is currently understood as a space-time curvature. If gravity was a force, it quantization would be much easier. Then what if gravity was a force able to bend space-time? We will see that gravity can be seen as such and what it would imply. We’ll then derive a new space-time bending equation thanks to a new principle equivalent to Einstein’s Equivalence Principle in low intensity fields. Thanks to quantum mechanics studies in curved space-time we can then blend gravity in quantum mechanics in a coherent way. Eventually, we'll see that applying these principles to cosmology, we can explain what we current call Dark Energy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29179] viXra:1905.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 05:05:17

### Chip-Scale Atomic Clock

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and partners have demonstrated an experimental, next-generation atomic clock-ticking at high "optical" frequencies-that is much smaller than usual, made of just three small chips plus supporting electronics and optics. [38] This has the double benefit of potentially allowing a new method of chip-to-chip communication with silicon, currently only possible with much more expensive materials, but also pushing mobile communications to much higher frequency and allowing the transmission of more data. [37] Based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (COMS) technology-a standard low-cost, high-volume chip manufacturing technique used for most processors and chips today-a group of researchers from IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, together with a consortium working under the EU-funded project "ADDAPT," have demonstrated a novel optical receiver (RX) that can achieve an aggregate bandwidth of 160 Gb/s through four optical fibers. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29178] viXra:1905.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 05:45:37

### A Theory with Consolidation: Linking Everything to Explain Everything

Authors: Gaurav Biraris

The paper reports a theory which gives explicit (ontic) understanding of the abstract (epistemic) mechanisms spanning many branches of physics. It results to most modern physics starting from Newtonian physics by abandoning progress in twentieth century. The theory assumes consolidation of points in 4-balls of specific radius in the universe. Thus the 4-balls are fundamental elements of the universe. Analogue of momentum defined as soul vector is assumed to be induced on the 4-balls at the beginning of the universe. Then with progression of local time, collisions happen leading to different rotations of CNs. For such rotations, the consolidation provides centripetal binding. By using general terminologies of force and work, the mass energy mechanism gets revealed. The theory provides explicit interpretation of intrinsic properties of mass, electric charge, color charge, weak charge, spin etc. It also provides explicit understanding of the wave-particle duality & quantum mechanics. Epistemic study of the universe with the consolidation results to conventional quantum theories. Elementary mechanism of the field interactions is evident due to conservation of the soul vectors, and its epistemic expectation results to the gauge theories. The theory predicts that four types of interaction would exist in the universe along with the acceptable relative strengths; it provides fundamental interpretation of the physical forces. Further, it explains the basic mechanisms which can be identified with dark energy & dark matter. It also results to (or explains) entanglement, chirality, excess of matter, 4-component spinor, real-abstract (ontic-epistemic) correspondence etc. The theory is beyond standard model and results to the standard model, relativity, dark energy & dark matter, starting by simple assumptions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29177] viXra:1905.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 06:42:05

### AI Teach us about Proteins

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers in Berlin and Heidelberg have now developed an intelligent neural network that can predict the functions of proteins in the human body. [25] AI combined with stem cells promises a faster approach to disease prevention. Andrew Masterson reports. [24] According to product chief Trystan Upstill, the news app "uses the best of artificial intelligence to find the best of human intelligence—the great reporting done by journalists around the globe." [23]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29176] viXra:1905.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 06:45:34

### Lucidity Yellowpaper

Authors: Miguel Morales

In this paper we present an implementation of a trustless system of measurement and enforcement of advertising metrics. Specifically, our implementation uses a sidechain composed of a decentralized consortium of verifiers. This implementation provides a decentralized and democratically governed mechanism for the codification of measurement standards. This implementation enforces the standards for computing advertising metrics based on signals received from disconnected programmatic supply chain participants. A simple standard could be codified that enforces the computation of an attribution. It also enables a mechanism in which supply-chain participants may be paid using cryptocurrency safely and at scale. Thus, the system we describe implements the trifecta of blockchain-based tracking and billing of programmatic advertising: campaign insertion orders, supply-chain transparency, and payments. In this paper, we will describe the management of participant identities, a Plasma based sidechain architecture, and support for payments. We also describe a Proof-of-Stake consensus along with a rewards and penalties system used to perpetually incentivize and enforce the correct function of the network.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[29175] viXra:1905.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 07:00:04

### The Flight Anomaly-This is no Longer a Mystery//Пролётная аномалия-это уже не загадка

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The flight anomaly can be explained on the basis of the effects of accelerations in the region of potential shells.// Пролётную аномалию можно объяснить на основе воздействия ускорений в области потенциаловых оболочек.
Category: Classical Physics

[29174] viXra:1905.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 07:01:34

### Machine Learning of Porous Materials

Authors: George Rajna

Machine learning can be used to predict the properties of a group of materials which, according to some, could be as important to the 21st century as plastics were to the 20th. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm-called MPLasso-that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses-so-called retrosyntheses-with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29173] viXra:1905.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 07:23:12

### Facial Recognition Fears

Authors: George Rajna

A ban on facial recognition for law enforcement in San Francisco highlights growing public concerns about technology which is seeing stunning growth for an array of applications while provoking worries over privacy. [26] Researchers in Berlin and Heidelberg have now developed an intelligent neural network that can predict the functions of proteins in the human body. [25] AI combined with stem cells promises a faster approach to disease prevention. Andrew Masterson reports. [24]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29172] viXra:1905.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 07:42:51

### Superfast Computing by Light Pulses

Authors: George Rajna

Superfast data processing using light pulses instead of electricity has been created by scientists. [27] Yao-Lung (Leo) Fang, an assistant computational scientist with the Quantum Computing Group in Brookhaven's Computational Science Initiative and a co-author of the paper, explained that a particle occupying a stable bound state is confined in space, such as an electron orbiting a hydrogen atom. [26] MIT researchers have designed a way to generate, at room temperature, more single photons for carrying quantum information. The design, they say, holds promise for the development of practical quantum computers. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[29171] viXra:1905.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 08:00:31

### Laser in Biopsy Technique

Authors: George Rajna

To a patient, the analysis of a tissue biopsy sample to check for something like cancer may seem like a relatively simple process, even if it does mean giving up a small piece of flesh to be tested. [20] A remote command could one day send immune cells on a rampage against a malignant tumor. The ability to mobilize, from outside the body, targeted cancer immunotherapy inside the body has taken a step closer to becoming reality. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29170] viXra:1905.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 08:59:09

### Refutation of Forcing to Change Large Cardinal Strength

Authors: Colin James III

The seminal theorem of the dissertation states a cardinal is greatly inaccessible if and only if it is Mahlo. Three non trivial equations of the proof are not tautologous, thereby refuting theorems derived therefrom. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29169] viXra:1905.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 09:45:07

### Theory of Tracer Diffusion in Concentrated Hard-Sphere Suspensions

Authors: S. S. L. Peppin

A phenomenological theory of diffusion and cross-diffusion of tracer particles in con- centrated hard-sphere suspensions is developed within the context of Batchelor's theory of multicomponent diffusion. Expressions for the diffusion coeffcients as functions of the host particle volume fraction are obtained up to the close-packing limit. In concen- trated systems the tracer diffusivity decreases because of the reduced pore space available for diffusion. Tracer diffusion, and segregation during sedimentation, ceases at a critical trapping volume fraction. The tracer diffusivity can be modelled by a Stokes-Einstein equation with an effective viscosity that depends on the pore size. The tracer cross- diffusion coeffcient increases near the glass transition and diverges in the close-packed limit.
Category: Condensed Matter

[29168] viXra:1905.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 16:00:49

### Stellar Metamorphosis: Venus's Age with D/H Ratios Factored as Opposed to Earth and Other Bodies

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. Dedicated to James Hutton, the Geologist.

It has been recently researched that Venus's D/H ratio is on the order of 100-150 times higher than the Earth. As a general rule of thumb, as the D/H ratio increases, the object increases in age. The youngest stars have D/H ratios of lower than 1* 10-5 (1D/100,000H), the ocean world/Earth aged stars 1* 10-4 to 1.6 *10-4 (1D/10,000H to 1H/6,250H respectively), and the old/dead stars and stellar remains 1* 10-3, (1D/1000H). Venus's is 1.6 * 10-2 to 2.5 * 10-2, (1D/62.5H) to 1D/40H). What this tells us is that Venus, according to the general theory is at least 100 to 156 times older than the Earth, because its deuterium ratios are 100 to 156 times higher. This is subject to change as more information is gathered, but places Venus in the class of extraordinarily old objects, which has never been done before.
Category: Astrophysics

[29167] viXra:1905.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 16:10:59

### Second Edition: The Twin Power Conjecture

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky

We consider a new conjecture regarding powers of integer numbers and more specifically, we are interesting in existence and finding pairs of integers: n ≥ 2 and m ≥ 2, such that nm = mn. We conjecture that n = 2, m = 4 and n = 4, m = 2 are the only integral solutions. Next, we consider the corresponding generalizations for Hypercomplex Integers: Gaussian and Lipschitz Integers.
Category: Number Theory

[29166] viXra:1905.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 19:31:34

### Le Découpage Cartographique International

This note concerns the international cartographic division. It gives how is organized the numbering of sheets at different scales ranging from 1/500 to 1/50000 and their sizes and surfaces.
Category: Geophysics

[29165] viXra:1905.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 19:31:52

### Solution of a Vector-Triangle Problem Via Geometric (Clifford) Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith

As a high-school-level application of Geometric Algebra (GA), we show how to solve a simple vector-triangle problem. Our method highlights the use of outer products and inverses of bivectors.
Category: Geometry

[29164] viXra:1905.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 22:14:29

### A Theory of Likelihood: Parsimony & Synchronicity in Natural Law

Authors: Paris Matthew Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. To an iso-inclinic departure of yet what so 'is; the opening of a declarative and worded structural relation is a freely ordered contactless domain congruence of any two stated worlds.

When approaching the co-existence of a knowable and contrasted limitation; there are to be found only two known given's. One is that pre-determination of light like freedom to it's asymptotic return is predicated upon a past co-existence within a future yet of invisible qualifiable capacity of color to which is the non-deterministic limit of reality of non-motile indivisibility. For then in the given of inertially free departure; any ordered and freed relation of relative provision is an a-conditional certain determinant of motion upon gravitationally provided congruence of free fall and inertial freedom; to which is associablely free spatial union of connective or disconnective in one in two.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[29163] viXra:1905.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 00:22:53

### Physical Foolishness//Физический пустяк

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

The article presents electrostatic phenomena and the physical mechanism of their development.// В статье представлены электростатические явления и физический механизм их развития.
Category: Classical Physics

[29162] viXra:1905.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 01:29:32

### Entangled Photon Gyroscope

Authors: George Rajna

Fiber optic gyroscopes, which measure the rotation and orientation of airplanes and other moving objects, are inherently limited in their precision when using ordinary classical light. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29161] viXra:1905.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 01:50:47

### Em Drive Thruster by Anti Maxwell Dead Zone Around a Wire.

Authors: Leo Vuyk

Abstract. A so called EmDrive defy classical physics expectations because it shows repellent less or reaction less thruster qualities. According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) however, the magnetic field is build on two monopole rigid string particles in the form of curved radiation trajectories, ( North and South) mostly cooperating opposing each other. Thus, the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped curved monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field. However, based on observation of iron filing-powder pattern loss close to direct currents in a wire, it is postulated, that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel locally parallel to each other inside the vacuum Axion/Higgs field, with a strong field reduction or even fading away as a result. These field reductions (or dipping) are observed to be concentrated in a tubular for around the current in the wire. As a consequence, the Lorentz force will become a non symmetric form, with a one sided reduced reaction force between the magnetic reduced field and a local magnet. The magnet will create a normal Lorentz force on the electrons in the wire, but the magnets do not “feel” locally the opposing magnetic Standard Maxwell field around the current in the wire. The EM Drive as the result. .
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29160] viXra:1905.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 02:37:22

### Spin Orbit Interactions in Copper Oxide

Authors: George Rajna

The scientists of Ural Federal University conducted a study in which they found that one of the copper oxides with a structure of a rare mineral spinel-CuAl2O4-is a material with unusual magnetic properties and structure due to significant spin-orbit interactions. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29159] viXra:1905.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 03:16:09

### Effects of Radiation on DNA

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists from TSU's Laboratory of Experimental High Energy Physics and their colleagues from the University of Bordeaux are studying new ways of modeling the effects of low doses of radiation at the cellular level. [19] Nanocages are highly interesting molecular constructs, from the point of view of both fundamental science and possible applications. [18] DNA flows inside a cell's nucleus in a choreographed line dance, new simulations reveal. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29158] viXra:1905.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 03:59:04

### Iron-Based Superconductor Stabilized

Authors: George Rajna

Iron-based superconductors (IBSCs) have attracted sustained research attention over the past decade, partly because new IBSCs were discovered one after another in the earlier years. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29157] viXra:1905.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 04:19:21

### Correction Concours Bceas 2019

Dans cet article il s'agira pour nous de corriger le sujet BCEAS 2019
Category: General Mathematics

[29156] viXra:1905.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 04:27:48

### Shuffling Public Keys (A Peer-to-peer Voting Algorithm)

Authors: Santi J. Vives

A peer-to-peer, permisionless cryptographic voting system that relies only on the existence of generic digital signatures and encryption.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[29155] viXra:1905.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 05:06:34

### Atomic Wave Function Light

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists have demonstrated a new way to obtain the essential details that describe an isolated quantum system, such as a gas of atoms, through direct observation. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29154] viXra:1905.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 05:56:05

### Gravitoethertons.

Comments: 10 Pages. FOR FURTHER RESEARCH AND LHC EXPERIMENTATION.

EXOTIC DARK FLUID SWIRLING AND WHIRLING GIVING THE TOPOLOGY OF CURVED SPACE TIME OF EINSTEIN.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29153] viXra:1905.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 06:00:03

### Some Thoughts on Romans 13:1-7: Submission to Authorities

Authors: Leon Elshout

Many Bible scholars confused the words "submitting" and "obeying" regarding Romans 13:1-7 - leon elshout, 15 may 2019, roodgoudvanparvaim.nl
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[29152] viXra:1905.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 07:53:54

### Centralization Cryptocurrency Mining

Authors: George Rajna

Design and his collaborators developed a novel approach to untangle the centralization phenomena in blockchain mining. [42] Cryptography is often used in information technology security environments to protect sensitive, high-value data that might be compromised during transmission or while in storage. [41] In a step forward for information security for the Internet of Things, a team of researchers has published a new paper in the online edition of Nano Letters in which they have engineered a new type of physically unclonable function (PUF) based on interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy (IAE). [40] Researchers from Linköping University and the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden have proposed a new device concept that can efficiently transfer the information carried by electron spin to light at room temperature-a stepping stone toward future information technology. [39] Now writing in Light Science & Applications, Hamidreza Siampour and co-workers have taken a step forward in the field of integrated quantum plasmonics by demonstrating on-chip coupling between a single photon source and plasmonic waveguide. [38] Researchers at University of Utah Health developed a proof-of-concept technology using nanoparticles that could offer a new approach for oral medications. [37] Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), extremely high resolution imaging of the molecule-covered surface structures of silver nanoparticles is possible, even down to the recognition of individual parts of the molecules protecting the surface. [36] A fiber optic sensing system developed by researchers in China and Canada can peer inside supercapacitors and batteries to observe their state of charge. [35] The idea of using a sound wave in optical fibers initially came from the team's partner researchers at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Joint research projects should follow. [34]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[29151] viXra:1905.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:05:38

### Stellar Metamorphosis: Flipping the pH Scale to Apply to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

The pH scale just needs to be spun 180 degrees to apply to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. The star when it is in younger gas giant stages will have a much more basic atmosphere. As the gas giant evolves and loses its atmosphere, it will become more acidic. So what this means is that to start life, you start with a more basic atmosphere, to sustain life it needs to be more towards a pH of 7. The oceans on Earth have a pH of about 8.2, so we're still good. They were much more basic though earlier in Earth's evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[29150] viXra:1905.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:19:33

### Quantum Simulators can be Robust

Authors: George Rajna

Digital quantum simulators might help, but until now they are drastically limited to small systems with few particles and only short simulation times. [32] 'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing. [31] For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. [30] Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29149] viXra:1905.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:38:44

### Quantum Light on Cave Art

Authors: George Rajna

Leslie Van Gelder, a well-known American-born archeologist has been working with Dr. Harald Schwefel, and other physicists at Otago University to develop a lamp that mimics the flickering torch light that paleolithic cave artists worked by many thousands of years ago. [33] Digital quantum simulators might help, but until now they are drastically limited to small systems with few particles and only short simulation times. [32] 'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing. [31] For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. [30] Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[11481] viXra:1905.0360 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-21 00:44:56

### A Possible Holarchy Representing Morphic Resonance as One Side of the Poised Realm

Authors: Stephen P. Smith

The theory of morphic resonance is unified with warm-body quantum mechanics following the ontological basis that describes the poised realm that depicts a balancing act involving quantum coherence and decoherence. Morphic resonance more properly belongs to the side of quantum coherence, leaving the other side the place where classical mechanics applies. This equally turns time into something two-sided, leaving open the possibility that proto-emotion sources the middle-term that holds the sides together.
Category: Mind Science

[11480] viXra:1905.0310 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-19 22:47:28

### Refutation of Tarski’s Geometric Axioms and Betweenness

Authors: Colin James III

Of 13 equations evaluated, five are tautologous and eight are non tautologous. This refutes Tarski’s geometric axioms and betweenness which form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[11479] viXra:1905.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-22 00:27:20

### A Theory of Likelihood: Parsimony & Synchronicity in Natural Law

Authors: Paris Matthew Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. To an iso-inclinic departure of yet what so 'is; the opening of a declarative and worded structural relation is a freely ordered contactless domain congruence of any two stated worlds.

When approaching the co-existence of a knowable and contrasted limitation; there are to be found only two known given's. One is that pre-determination of light like freedom to it's asymptotic return is predicated upon a past co-existence within a future yet of invisible qualifiable capacity of color to which is the non-deterministic limit of reality of non-motile indivisibility. For then in the given of inertially free departure; any ordered and freed relation of relative provision is an a-conditional certain determinant of motion upon gravitationally provided congruence of free fall and inertial freedom; to which is associablely free spatial union of connective or disconnective in one in two.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[11478] viXra:1905.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-19 01:59:52

### A Theory of Likelihood: Parsimony & Synchronicity in Natural Law

Authors: Paris Matthew Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. To an iso-inclinic departure of yet what so 'is; the opening of a declarative and worded structural relation is a freely ordered contactless domain congruence of any two stated worlds.

When approaching the co-existence of a knowable and contrasted limitation; there are to be found only two known given's. One is that pre-determination of light like freedom to it's asymptotic return is predicated upon a past co-existence within a future yet of invisible qualifiable capacity of color to which is the non-deterministic limit of reality of non-motile indivisibility. For then in the given of inertially free departure; any ordered and freed relation of relative provision is an a-conditional certain determinant of motion upon gravitationally provided congruence of free fall and inertial freedom; to which is associablely free spatial union of connective or disconnective in one in two.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[11477] viXra:1905.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-17 23:06:50

### A Theory of Likelihood: Parsimony & Synchronicity in Natural Law

Authors: Paris Matthew Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. To an iso-inclinic departure of yet what so 'is; the opening of a declarative and worded structural relation is a freely ordered contactless domain congruence of any two stated worlds.

When approaching the co-existence of a knowable and contrasted limitation; there are to be found only two known given's. One is that pre-determination of light like freedom to it's asymptotic return is predicated upon a past co-existence within a future yet of invisible qualifiable capacity of color to which is the non-deterministic limit of reality of non-motile indivisibility. For then in the given of inertially free departure; any ordered and freed relation of relative provision is an a-conditional certain determinant of motion upon gravitationally provided congruence of free fall and inertial freedom; to which is associablely free spatial union of connective or disconnective in one in two.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[11476] viXra:1905.0244 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-21 03:59:26

### EM Drive Thruster by Anti Maxwell Monopole Tubular Field Reduction Around a Conductor.

Authors: Leo Vuyk