**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(58) - 0703(50) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(1) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)

2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)

2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(48) - 0908(109) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(54)

2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(51) - 1003(265) - 1004(138) - 1005(110) - 1006(67) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(61) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)

2011 - 1101(100) - 1102(55) - 1103(120) - 1104(82) - 1105(40) - 1106(60) - 1107(52) - 1108(49) - 1109(59) - 1110(69) - 1111(112) - 1112(86)

2012 - 1201(99) - 1202(79) - 1203(90) - 1204(93) - 1205(111) - 1206(89) - 1207(98) - 1208(222) - 1209(95) - 1210(160) - 1211(136) - 1212(139)

2013 - 1301(171) - 1302(145) - 1303(196) - 1304(147) - 1305(182) - 1306(204) - 1307(151) - 1308(138) - 1309(187) - 1310(238) - 1311(161) - 1312(198)

2014 - 1401(183) - 1402(140) - 1403(841) - 1404(249) - 1405(323) - 1406(173) - 1407(203) - 1408(214) - 1409(219) - 1410(183) - 1411(478) - 1412(237)

2015 - 1501(224) - 1502(215) - 1503(238) - 1504(212) - 1505(210) - 1506(200) - 1507(199) - 1508(350) - 1509(259) - 1510(451) - 1511(271) - 1512(438)

2016 - 1601(343) - 1602(344) - 1603(367) - 1604(326) - 1605(291) - 1606(311) - 1607(479) - 1608(407) - 1609(395) - 1610(362) - 1611(391) - 1612(398)

2017 - 1701(561) - 1702(231)

Any replacements are listed further down

[17780] **viXra:1702.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-19 09:45:36*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 207 Pages.

One day in 2002, I discovered in a newspaper that "dark matter" is supposed to be responsible for the constancy of the orbital velocity of the stars, and that velocity is supposed to be in contradiction with the Kepler laws. I was upset. We can travel to the moon and invent great medicines, we have the supposed miracle-theory of general relativity and nobody can explain it? Next hour, I was rumbling in a slide of my old desk, where I stored old papers from my university period, and I found back the analogy I made between electromagnetism and gravitation. I never trusted Einstein's relativity theory, because it only calculates what is observed by using light, but not what is really happening. Also the great Richard Feynman once confessed that he didn't understand why gravitation would be so different from other physical theories. A few days later, I found the gravitational consequences of the motion of masses. Month after month, I steadily discovered that all the cosmic issues that are not understood by mainstream, make sense through gravitomagnetism. The shape of supernovae, the disc and the spiral galaxies, the motion of asteroids, the flatness of planetary systems, the tiny rings of Saturn, black holes, the expanding Earth and Sun, etc. I can't find any cosmic issue that is in contradiction with gravitomagnetism.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17779] **viXra:1702.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-19 09:47:06*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

It is a widely accepted misconception that the solar system would have been created by the collapse of nebulae around the solar region, just as our galaxy itself. Where this is true for the stars in the galaxy, this is definitely wrong for our planetary system.
Indeed, many stars in our galaxy were created during the formation of our disk galaxy out of a regular, spherical or elliptical galaxy, due to the angular momentum of the galaxy's center, which contains fast spinning stars and black holes. This process has been extendedly explained in my book “Gravitomagnetism - including an introduction to the Coriolis Gravity Theory”. The disk was compressed by the angular gravity of the galaxy's center, a second gravity field on top of Newtonian Gravity. The smaller and colder parts were able to clump together and heathen up by
that compression. Elsewhere, voids were created that way, and a heterogeneous disk, as our spiral disk galaxy shows us, could form. The difference between the solar system creation and the galaxy creation is enormous. Where we find numerous stars in the galaxy on the same orbit or at close orbits, our solar system counts only nine (or, more correctly: eight) planets, which orbit very far from each-other. Moreover, on each orbit or nearby it, there are no other planets nor objects. The only place where other objects are found is on the asteroid belt and, as an extension of that belt, a number of asteroids, called Trojans, on Jupiter’s orbit.
The nebula theory has numerous unsolved problems. The very existence of the Trojans prove that asteroids doesn’t just go away or aren’t just absorbed by the planet of (or near) an orbit. At the contrary, one should then find several planets on the same orbit, and remaining asteroids from the nebula. The diversity of the planets’ spin orientations is another problem. More problems arise regarding the big difference between the set of core planets and the set of gas planets. Nothing in the nebula theory can explain the differences of spin either.
In this little book, the reader will find numerous arguments in favor to a totally different point of view: the planets all come from an electromagnetic solar explosion. The reason of the existence of a set of four core planets versus the set of four gas planets will be explained, and why their masses, as groups, are related like the mass quotient of a proton versus an electron. Jupiter’s spin rate will be explained and the orientation of the planets’ spin as well. Also the orbital distance between the planets can be explained with very high probability.
In a few moments, the reader will discover this fresh Solar Protuberance Paradigm, enriched with a multitude of evidence. Enjoy the reading!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17778] **viXra:1702.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-19 09:58:27*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Is not everything settled with Gravitomagnetism, the analogy of electromagnetism for gravity, with which I explained the formation of disk galaxies without dark matter, the shape of supernova and hourglass stars, and many other phenomena? Is there more to be told?
In this little booklet, I show that one of the parameters that are used to define the Sun's dynamics can be expressed by the other parameters. In other words, the Sun's gravity is defined by its angular velocity and its radius. This amazing property finds its origin in the way how particles interact, and the way how I expect that all kinds of forces work: by a Coriolis effect between particles. Henceforth the calculus of the Gravitational Constant is possible. Linked to this phenomenon is the expansion of spinning objects, like the Earth, the Sun and the stars. This occurs by gravity as well, and this can be explained by both the Gravitomagnetic as the Coriolis approach.
Discover in the next few pages how these new gravitational realities take form.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17777] **viXra:1702.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-19 10:42:32*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Sergey Ershkov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome.

In this paper, we will solve 2Riccati ODEs using Maxima computer algebra package with applications in: (a) generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation, (b) cosmology problem. The results presented below deserve further investigations in particular for comparison with existing analytical solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17776] **viXra:1702.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-19 10:43:43*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Sergey Ershkov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome.

In a recent paper, Ershkov derived a system of two coupled Riccati ODEs as solution of nonstationary 3D Navier-Stokes equations. Now in this paper, we will solve these coupled Riccati ODEs using Maxima computer algebra package. The result seems to deserve further investigation in particular for finding nonstationaryNavier-Stokes equations for real fluid.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[17775] **viXra:1702.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-19 11:36:41*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Automatic differentiation is a powerful collection of software tools that are invaluable in many areas including statistical computing. It is well known that automatic differentiation techniques can be applied directly by a programmer in a process called hand coding. However, the advantages of hand coding with certain applications are less appreciated, but these advantages are of paramount importance to statistics in particular. Based on the present literature, the variance component problem using restricted maximum likelihood is an example where hand coding derivatives was very useful relative to automatic or algebraic approaches. Some guidelines for hand coding backward derivatives are also provided, and emphasis is given to techniques for reducing space complexity and computing second derivatives.

**Category:** Statistics

[17774] **viXra:1702.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-19 12:24:40*

**Authors:** Jean Akande, Damien K. K. Adjaï, Lucas H. Koudahoun, Biswanath Rath, Pravanjan Mallick, Rati Ranjan Sahoo, Fernando Y. J. Kpomahou, Marc D. Monsia

**Comments:** 13 pages

The quantization of second order dissipative dynamical systems is well known to be a complicated Sturm-Liouville problem. This work is devoted to the exact quantization of a given quadratic Liénard type oscillator equation. The bound state solutions of the resulting Schrödinger equation in terms of associated Laguerre polynomials and the possibility to recover the energy spectrum of the quantum harmonic oscillator are discussed following the specific values of system parameters, using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[17773] **viXra:1702.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-19 12:16:51*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Asteroids are a great threat to mankind. Here we will show that it is possible to redirect them from their trajectories by means of a strong gravitational repulsion, produced by the gravitational interaction between the asteroid and a Gravitational Spacecraft positioned close to the asteroid.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17772] **viXra:1702.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-19 04:41:53*

**Authors:** Vania Vieira Estrela, A. M. Coelho, Vania V. Estrela

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Int J Comput Appl. 2012 August 1; 51(19): 17–24. doi:10.5120/8151-1886

Inverse problems are very frequent in computer vision and machine learning applications. Since
noteworthy hints can be obtained from motion data, it is important to seek more robust models. The
advantages of using a more general regularization matrix such as Λ=diag{λ1,…,λK} to robustify
motion estimation instead of a single parameter λ (Λ=λI) are investigated and formally stated in
this paper, for the optical flow problem. Intuitively, this regularization scheme makes sense, but it
is not common to encounter high-quality explanations from the engineering point of view. The study
is further confirmed by experimental results and compared to the nonregularized Wiener filter approach.
Int J Comput Appl. 2012 August 1; 51(19): 17–24. doi:10.5120/8151-1886

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[17771] **viXra:1702.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-19 05:54:26*

**Authors:** Sumera Naz, Hossein Rashmanlou, M. Aslam Malik

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Single valued neutrosophic model as an instance of a neutrosophic model provide
an additional possibility to represent imprecise, uncertainty, inconsistent and incomplete information which exist in real situations. In this paper, the concept of energy
of a graph is introduced in the context of a single valued neutrosophic environment, where for each element the truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership
and falsity-membership degree, in [0, 1], are independently assigned. Firstly, the
novel concepts of energy of a single valued neutrosophic graph (SVNG) are proposed and their properties are investigated, then Laplacian energy of a SVNG is
introduced. Between the properties of energy and Laplacian energy of a SVNG,
there is a great deal of analogy, but also some significant differences.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[17770] **viXra:1702.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-18 14:00:18*

**Authors:** S. Naz, M. A. Malik, H. Rashmanlou

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS) as a generalization of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) increase its elasticity drastically. In this paper, some important
types of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy graphs (IVIFGs) such as regular, irregular, neighbourly irregular, highly irregular and strongly irregular IVIFGs are
discussed. The relation among neighbourly irregular, highly irregular and strongly
irregular IVIFGs is proved. The notion of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy clique
(IVIFC) is introduced. A complete characterization of the structure of the IVIFC
is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[17769] **viXra:1702.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-18 14:33:00*

**Authors:** S. Naz, S. Ashraf, H. Rashmanlou

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Bipolar fuzzy set theory provides a basis for bipolar cognitive modeling and multiagent decision analysis, where in some situations, the product operator may be
preferred to the min operator, from theoretical and experimental aspects. In this
paper, the definition of product bipolar fuzzy graphs (PBFGs) is modified. The
concepts of product bipolar fuzzy multigraphs (PBFMGs), product bipolar fuzzy
planar graphs (PBFPGs) and product bipolar fuzzy dual graphs (PBFDGs) are
introduced and investigated. Product bipolar fuzzy planarity value of PBFPG is
introduced. The relation between PBFPG and PBFDG is also established. Isomorphism between PBFPGs is discussed. Finally, an application of the proposed
concepts is provided.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[17768] **viXra:1702.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-18 15:07:31*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The paper considers a physical process inside EM Drive. According to the proposed conception, there is an electromagnetic field gyroscope, EMFG, originated due to superposition of straight and reflected flows of the electromagnetic energy inside the resonant chamber. The considered model comes to conclusion of existence of a narrow area inside the EMFG where its mass-function experiences a break and even becomes negative. There are 3 models which deduce origination of the thrust of EM Drive on a base of the considered properties of the EMFG.
The first considered model states that there is a gradient of the gravitational potential inside the originated narrow area due to its heavy non-linear electromagnetic mass. Interaction of the originated gradient of the gravitational potential and the mass of the EM Drive results in origination of a net force, which is the thrust of the EM Drive. This thrust is furnished by the axial gradient of the gravitational potential inside the EM Drive.
The second model projects a property and theory of 4D gyroscope, developed by G.I.Shipov, onto EMFG. Operation of the mechanical 4D gyroscope results in the reactionless motion, due to a time-varying and frequency-dependable mass of the gyroscope. The EMFG has the time and frequency dependable mass and fits the above condition for the mechanical 4D gyroscope.
The third model considers a behavior of the EMFG in frames of N.A. Kozyrev’s Casual Mechanics. The EMFG is a quantum object and its C2 indicator of movement of time trends to zero as well as the external force 0. The considered limit of their ratio brings a finite force which is a trust developed by the EM Drive.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17767] **viXra:1702.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-18 17:57:09*

**Authors:** Hossam Moustafa Moawad, Mohamed Khaled Ibrahim

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 9251289

The world’s needs for energy have been growing sharply, so Egypt is struggling to meet its
own needs especially concerning fossil fuels. Solar energy plays an important role to reduce energy consumption. Based on Organolead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) show great promise as a new large scale and cost-competitive photovoltaic technology. The power conversion efficiencies (PCE) have achieved
over 15% within 18 months of development, and thus perovskite materials have attracted great attention in
photovoltaic research. However, the manufacture of PSCs raises environmental concerns regarding the overproduction of raw lead ore, which has harmful health and ecological effects. Herein, we report an environmentally-responsible process to fabricate efficient PSCs by reusing car batteries to simultaneously
avoid the disposal of toxic battery materials and provide an alternative, readily-available lead sources for PSCs.
Moreover, we made tracking system by using electronics to make our PSC follow the sun like so the sun radiation always perpendicular on the cell. Overheat, dust and humidity impact negatively on PSC because it changes the chemical structure of perovskite film, hence we coated Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which makes our cell hydrophobic, has excellent temperature resistance and good resistance to certain acids and solvents so energy crisis can be solved by what is considered as (PTSC).

**Category:** Chemistry

[17766] **viXra:1702.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-18 21:44:17*

**Authors:** Robert B. Easter

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This note very briefly describes or sketches the general ideas of some applications of the G(p,q) Geometric Algebra (GA) of a complex vector space C^(p,q) of signature (p,q), which is also known as the Clifford algebra Cl(p,q). Complex number scalars are only used for the anisotropic dilation (directed scaling) operation and to represent infinite distances, but otherwise only real number scalars are used. The anisotropic dilation operation is implemented in Minkowski spacetime as hyperbolic rotation (boost) by an imaginary rapidity (+/-)f = atanh(sqrt(1-d^2)) for dilation factor d>1, using +f in the Minkowski spacetime of signature (1,n) and -f in the signature (n,1).
The G(k(p+q+2),k(q+p+2)) Mother Algebra of CGA (k-MACGA) is a generalization of G(p+1,q+1) Conformal Geometric Algebra (CGA) having k orthogonal G(p+1,q+1):p>q Euclidean CGA (ECGA) subalgebras and k orthogonal G(q+1,p+1) anti-Euclidean CGA (ACGA) subalgebras with opposite signature. Any k-MACGA has an even 2k total count of orthogonal subalgebras and cannot have an odd 2k+1 total count of orthogonal subalgebras.
The more generalized G(l(p+1)+m(q+1),l (q+1)+m(p+1)):p>q k-CGA algebra, for even or odd k=l+m, has any l orthogonal G(p+1,q+1) ECGA subalgebras and any m orthogonal G(q+1,p+1) ACGA subalgebras with opposite signature. Any 2k-CGA with even 2k orthogonal subalgebras can be represented as a k-MACGA with different signature, requiring some sign changes.
All of the orthogonal CGA subalgebras are corresponding by representing the same vectors, geometric entities, and transformation versors in each CGA subalgebra, which may differ only by some sign changes.
A k-MACGA or a 2k-CGA has even-grade 2k-vector geometric inner product null space (GIPNS) entities representing general even-degree 2k polynomial implicit hypersurface functions F for even-degree 2k hypersurfaces, usually in a p-dimensional space or (p+1)-spacetime. Only a k-CGA with odd k has odd-grade k-vector GIPNS entities representing general odd-degree k polynomial implicit hypersurface functions F for odd-degree k hypersurfaces, usually in a p-dimensional space or (p+1)-spacetime. In any k-CGA, there are k-blade GIPNS entities representing the usual G(p+1,q+1) CGA GIPNS 1-blade entities, but which are representing an implicit hypersurface function F^k with multiplicity k and the k-CGA null point entity is a k-point entity. In the conformal Minkowski spacetime algebras G(p+1,2) and G(2,p+1), the null 1-blade point embedding is a GOPNS null 1-blade point entity but is a GIPNS null 1-blade hypercone entity.

**Category:** Algebra

[17765] **viXra:1702.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-18 22:26:45*

**Authors:** H Dhaliwal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

By attaching multiple massive anti- gravity wheel type structures to the rocket we may achieve a less apparent weight for the rocket, allowing it to lift easier. Instead of a wheel, a hollow saucer like pod shall be used, attached to a bar, which connects to the rocket. There are multiple anti gravity saucers attached to the rocket in a symmetric fashion connecting to a point at the rocket. These saucers will carry water, fuel or cargo which is minused from the rocket and added to the saucer. Displacing the weight from the rocket and into the saucers will ensure no extra weight is added. These saucers will be spun up extremely fast from the ground via motors, storing energy in them. The motors are ground based at the lift off site and will decouple from the saucers on lift off. The torque induced gyroscopic precession of these spinning saucers will decrease the apparent weight of the rocket as the rocket raises, allowing the thrust to make the rocket raise easier. The fuel in the rocket tank will not be filled 100%. Perhaps it will be filled 50%. The other 50% of the fuel is displaced and divided amongst the saucers and stored in them. As the rockets main fuel tank level lowers during mid flight, the fuel in the saucers can be pumped into the tank of the rocket for continued use. These saucers spin rate will be slowed down as the rocket raises, allowing easier transfer of fuel. When the fuel in the saucer tanks is depleted, the anti gravity saucer arms can be disconnected from the rocket and the saucers shall fall back towards earth. Instead of fuel, water can also be stored in these saucers for long term human missions to mars. The water can be frozen solid in the saucer tanks to keep the saucers cool as they ascend, and the ice will melt as the rocket ascends. The water tank in the rocket will be empty on lift off. But will be refilled in the same manner as above after reaching a certain altitude. Cargo that can withstand centrifugal forces can also be stored, such as food, or metal equipment. This equipment can then be reintroduced to the rocket by moving the saucer pods to the rocket. The whole rocket structure can be on a platform that makes the rocket setup rotate just before liftoff so the saucer wheels can start their gyroscopic precession. Or mechanism can be built into the saucer arms to push the saucer outward a bit to start the gyroscopic precession. Or such a setup may not be needed as a rocket rotates by itself usually as it ascends which will efficiently create the needed gyroscopic precession.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17764] **viXra:1702.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-18 07:11:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Finding new functional materials is always tricky. But searching for very specific properties among a relatively small family of known materials is even more difficult. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[17763] **viXra:1702.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-18 09:09:57*

**Authors:** Gary D. Simpson

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This text demonstrates that the complex i can be combined with a Hamilton style quaternion to produce a 5-D mathematical structure. Essentially, the complex plane is combined with an arbitrary unit vector. The complex i is shown to anti-commute with the unit vectors i, j, and k. The resulting geometry is shown to be an extension of Hamilton’s quaternions based upon the complex plane rather than real numbers. This new geometric structure is presented in Figure 1 and Equations 3 through 3.3. This configuration makes it possible to calculate the diameter of the proton at rest with the estimated value being 1.668 x 10-15 meter. This is within the accepted measured range of the proton diameter at 1.755(102) x 10-15 meter as given by the NIST, and it is very close to the proton diameter at 1.68174(78) x 10-15 meter as measured at the Paul Scherrer Institute in 2010 by using muonic hydrogen.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[17762] **viXra:1702.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 15:18:24*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we examine maximum proper velocity (sometimes referred to as celerity), based on the recently suggested maximum velocity for anything with rest mass, as given by Haug. Proper velocity, is a quantity that has been suggested for use in a series of calculations in relativity theory. Current standard theory imposes no limit on how close to infinity the proper velocity for an object with mass can be. Under our extended theory, by contrast, there is a strict upper limit on the proper velocity for anything with rest mass, which again is directly related to our newly suggested maximum velocity for anything with rest mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17761] **viXra:1702.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-18 02:21:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

An artificial intelligence experiment has emerged of the most enjoyable kind: It is called "A.I. Duet." [16]
Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15]
A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14]
A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13]
Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12]
A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[17760] **viXra:1702.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 11:50:31*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Analysis of global power shift in the Scientific Age.

**Category:** Social Science

[17759] **viXra:1702.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:25:24*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the former paper “The Gyro-Gravitational Spin Vector Torque Dynamics of Main Belt Asteroids in relationship with their Tilt and their Orbital Inclination”, a physical deduction is found for the motion and the variations of the tilt of asteroids. This deduction is based upon the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17758] **viXra:1702.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:27:18*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Polynomial time probable prime test for specific class of N=k*b^n-1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[17757] **viXra:1702.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:30:02*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Supernovae remnants that are double-lobe or double-ring shaped with a central ring are fully explained by Gravitomagnetism.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17756] **viXra:1702.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:31:57*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Like Maxwell has shown, the idea of an intrinsic gravitational energy surrounding masses is not viable to explain gravity, because that would lead to incredibly large energies. This falsifies the need for a non-linear general gravity theory such as the general relativity theory, and confirms the validity of Heaviside’s linear gravity theory, gravitomagnetism, known as the “weak-field approximation”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17755] **viXra:1702.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:35:07*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Maxwell equations are not causal, says Oleg Jefimenko. In this paper, the causality of the Maxwell equations is explored and explained, and new causal equations formulated, according to Jefimenko’s important work in this area, strongly inspired by Oliver Heaviside’s genius work. The causal equations take into account what is commonly called ‘relativistic’ velocities, and in fact replace the need for any relativity theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17754] **viXra:1702.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:37:15*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

There seems to exist a way to transform apparent chaos into an ordered system. The key for such a behavior lays in gravity itself, and more precisely in gravitomagnetism. The results of the G Probe-B experiment, in 2011, proved gravitomagnetism’s superiority over other theories like General Relativity and its deduced metrics, and it is in this light that the solution can be found. We apply the gravitomagnetic principles to a random spherical galaxy with a global null angular momentum and unveil how this system eventually becomes a disk galaxy. Moreover, we deduce the quantum nature of galaxies through this process and, by the analogy between electromagnetism and gravitomagnetism, we prove by deduction the quantum nature of atomic structures as well.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17753] **viXra:1702.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:43:51*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The gravity measurement of Qian-shen Wang during the total eclipse of the Sun on 9 March 1997 showed a strange diagram-shape over time. In this paper, I investigate this shape by setting up a simple scenario: the double shielding of the used gravimeter didn’t totally exclude an induction of the fast electrons of the Sun’s corona. The passage of the Moon shielded the fields. Neither the hypothesis of a gravitational shielding, nor a temperature effect can be maintained.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17752] **viXra:1702.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:46:36*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Milky Way might be a bar galaxy. In this paper, we show that bar galaxies are spiral galaxies with an orientation change of the bulge's gravitomagnetic field. The tilting of the gravitomagnetic field evolves from the bulge to the galaxy's extremities at wave speed and the physical acceleration of the stars away from the disc follow soon. Finally, this will result in a new, slightly elliptical galaxy that will again turn into a disc galaxy and then a spiral galaxy. If the Milky Way really is a bar galaxy, the solar system will some day get a novel acceleration (an apocalyptic sway?) towards a new, widely oscillating position in the galaxy. Finally, we come to a Gravitomagnetic Evolutionary Classification of Galaxies that is different from the usual classifications.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17751] **viXra:1702.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:49:23*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We found [4] that the key for many cosmic events lays in gravity, which is very well explained by gravitomagnetism, as suggested by O. Heaviside and further developed as a causal and coherent theory by O. Jefimenko. The angular momentum of spinning objects is transmitted to the surroundings by gravity, and form the rings of Saturn and the disc galaxies. In this paper, we analyze what happens with the gravity fields of collapsing stars. It is found that not only the mechanical angular momentum is regulating the orientation of disc galaxies. The magnetic-like component of gravity, which is velocity-dependent, is found to create forces that are consistent with the conservation of angular momentum. However, the retardation of the gravity fields by the speed of light, which is velocity-dependent, is found to cause a discrepancy between the mechanical angular momentum and the transmitted gravitational angular momentum.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17750] **viXra:1702.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:51:18*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we analyze the validity of the common belief in modern science that an intrinsic time dilatation would exist, i.e. that time effectively dilates with speed and not just the ticking rate of the clocks that measure it. I start from the Special Relativity theory and I analyze if it is theoretically possible to obtain an intrinsic time dilatation. Furthermore, I analyze the context of the Hafele–Keating experiment, which used atomic clocks and the Special Relativity theory to calculate the time rates. Finally, I analyze what is at the origin of the time dilatations that are measured in atomic clocks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17749] **viXra:1702.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:53:24*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The analogy of electromagnetism for gravity was proposed by O. Heaviside in 1893 and applied by O. Jefimenko at the end of last millennium. In one intriguing example of two falling masses in a gravity field, he found that the two masses are mutually over-accelerating, more than the gravity acceleration field. I find here the result of his example in the form of a relativistic equation of velocity stabilization in that gravity field, related to the distance of the two masses. When I look for the conditions for the upper limit velocity, the speed of light, I deduce that the distance between the two masses at that relativistic speed equals the Planck length. Hence, this gives the first physical meaning of Planck length in a practical application, i.e. that very small particles such as gravitons and neutrinos with a rest mass can propagate in a gravity field at the speed of light without being just a wave that is propagated by the specific natural constants of a medium.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17748] **viXra:1702.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:57:29*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Gravitomagnetism, initiated by O. Heaviside [1] and further developed by O. Jefimenko [2] consists of the Newtonian gravity and gyrotation, which is totally analogous to magnetism. This model successfully explained an important number of physical and cosmic phenomena [3]. Striking is the possibility of gravitational repel by particles with like-oriented spins. I also showed [5] why the gravitational constant is varying locally and I prove that, the particles in rotating bodies will preferentially form distributions that globally attract. This explains why masses have never been found to be repulsive. I deduced a new definition for “mass” as a vector, and conclude that the gravitational constant’s value is the sum of the orientations of the elementary vector-masses while taking their spacing into account. I found why the gravity force is so weak and why cohesion forces are so large.
In this paper, I attempt to define the variations of the Gravitational Constant in the evolution of stars, and show that, for the same global mass of a star during its evolution, white dwarfs possess a much stronger gravitational constant than the red giant stars. Based upon these findings, I study the possibility that relaxed galaxy clusters possess, due to the same process, a much lower gravitational constant than unrelaxed galaxy clusters.
This might be the reason why gravity lensing is a hundred times larger than the visible mass.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17747] **viXra:1702.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 05:12:21*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Einstein's method of synchronising clocks in his Special Theory of Relativity is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17746] **viXra:1702.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 07:08:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed a material that could reduce signal losses in photonic devices. The advance has the potential to boost the efficiency of various light-based technologies including fiber optic communication systems, lasers and photovoltaics. [18] Research led by ANU on the use of magnets to steer light has opened the door to new communications systems which could be smaller, cheaper and more agile than fibre optics. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17745] **viXra:1702.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 07:27:51*

**Authors:** V.V. Dudko, A. A. Yushkanov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Considered the second Stokes's problem about the behavior of rarefied gas filling half-space,
when limiting the half-space the plane performs harmonic oscillations in its plane.
Continuum mechanics equations with the slip are used. It is shown that in quadratic in the
velocity of wall approximation in gas have taken place the temperature effects due to influence
of viscous dissipation.
In this case there is a
temperature difference between the surface of the body and the gas away from the surface.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17744] **viXra:1702.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 17:56:01*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 4 Pages. draft 1

The whole game of MMU x.x that Lee proposes starts with Lee’s mantra: “To end the math poverty is to end the poverty itself.” Not only that, those who escape the math poverty spill over the math prosperity, which leads to the socio-economic prosperity quickly. The major difference is that Lee is trying to make the transitions happen in 2-4 years instead of 50-100 plus years if you go without MMU series. Before you start reading this document, I strongly suggest you to read the front page of www.uslgoglobal.com first, which may take about 5 minutes.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[17743] **viXra:1702.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 02:05:51*

**Authors:** Viktor Strohm

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

. In this paper we consider some problems of the origin of body rotation under the influence of the thermal radiation

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[17742] **viXra:1702.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 03:37:03*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Following to the two former papers “The Gyro-Gravitational Spin Vector Torque Dynamics of Main Belt Asteroids in relationship with their Tilt and their Orbital Inclination” and “Cyclic Tilt Spin Vector Variations of Main Belt Asteroids due to the Solar Gyro-Gravitation”, wherein we theoretically studied the tilt motions and variations of spinning asteroids, we continue the analysis with the study of the orbit anomalies of satellites. The equations for the fly-by of satellites near the Earth, or near planets in general are deduced.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17741] **viXra:1702.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 03:40:10*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Sun’s dynamics defines our Gravitational Constant. In a former paper [2], that strict relationship has been shown, based upon the most fundamental equations of gravity and gyrotation (the magnetic equivalent for gravity), applied upon elementary particles. The consequence is that one parameter can be eliminated, as explained before [6] and this allows me to unveil some issues on the shape and the moments of inertia of stars, supernovae and black holes, and the possibility of double bursts of forming black holes.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17740] **viXra:1702.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 03:43:35*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The amazing Solar Protuberance Theory gives three strong proofs for the creation of our planets from a huge electromagnetic eruption. I found a 99,98% probability fit between the initial planetary orbit diameters calculated with the theory and the actually observed ones. Since the initial orbits probably were highly eccentric, the question remains whether or not the actual planetary orbital eccentricities can be explained by the theory. This is proven here in different ways.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17739] **viXra:1702.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 03:46:57*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The formation theories of our solar system have still remained filled of question marks. Why are the orbits of Mercury and Pluto that much eccentric, and that of the other planets much less? Why are the axial tilts what they are? This we will discover in this paper. Here we will start from the primary model of a huge solar protuberance and next apply the electromagnetic and the gravitational dynamics to it. The application of these physics leads us to the description of how the planets arose, their orbits, their tilt, and their composition. Also we will comment why the Asteroids Belt and the Trojan Asteroids probably arose. Initially, we will bring in that the complete planetary system originated from a solar eruption, and reveal that the planets have successively developed in the order : Mercurius, Venus, the Earth, and Mars on the one hand, and on the other hand Neptune, next Uranus and probably Pluto, then successively Saturnus and Jupiter. At last, the Asteroids Belt was formed, just after the formation of Mars and Jupiter. This theory is supported by the other parameters such as the comparison of the planet’s density, size and chemical composition. Also the comparison of their tilt, the spacing between their orbits, and the elliptic orbit and tilt of some planets support the theory. We find evidence that Venus’ and Uranus’ tilt are totally natural.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17738] **viXra:1702.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 03:48:57*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Inertia is analyzed in the light of the Coriolis Gravity Theory. It is found that inertia is orientation-dependent, which opens a way to outsmart its effects. Particles can be oriented and made inertia-insensitive for given accelerations and forces by using magnetic fields. Although the theory allows it, effective technology to realize this still has to be developed.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17737] **viXra:1702.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 03:50:57*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The evaluation of stars’ properties is classically performed by comparing the stars’ light spectra and fluxes to the known solar properties. Another method to find the stars’ rotation velocity will be discussed here: the extrapolation to the other solar-like stars of an empiric solar property, which consists of a direct relationship between the star’s frequency and its surface gravity, without the need of any other parameters.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17736] **viXra:1702.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 03:53:41*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a previous paper of the author’s, two types of magnetic fields were proposed and discussed. The two types of magnetic fields should have very different properties with respect to the observer’s motion state. For convenience to discuss, here we name them absolute magnetic field and relative magnetic field. The absolute magnetic field is the magnetic field produced by permanent magnets or by electric currents in neutral wires, which is very familiar to us. Its magnitude is invariable with respect to the motion state of the observer. The relative magnetic field is the magnetic field produced by directional motion of like charges, of which, the magnitude is variable with respect to the motion state of the observer. Here in this article, experimental designs are proposed, by which the existence of the relative magnetic field can be proved.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17735] **viXra:1702.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 03:54:02*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Gravitomagnetism is almost totally similar to Electromagnetism. I call 'Gyrotation' the magnetic-like part of gravitomagnetism.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17734] **viXra:1702.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:01:32*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Black holes and fast spinning stars attract the surrounding objects in a different way than Newtonian gravity. As shown by my work on Gravitomagnetism [1], the spin of fast spinning stars and black holes is far the most important factor in the behavior of nearby objects. This paper shows that the accretion disc of any black hole is orbiting in prograde way. Moreover, it is explained that the accretion disc’s turbulence, curvature and quantity of the vortexes are predominant factors for the gravitational strength of a black hole. The measurement of the spin of a black hole depends mainly on this factor, and to a lesser extent, to a few other factors.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17733] **viXra:1702.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:05:47*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The gravitational constant G is clearly not a universal constant [5]. It seems impossible to find a precise value for G. In this paper, I will analyze the reasons for that issue, according Gravitomagnetism and the Coriolis Gravitation Theory. In my paper “Fundamental Causes of an Attractive Gravitational Constant, Varying in Place and Time” [4], I explained that, according Gravitomagnetism and the Coriolis Gravitation Theory, the orientation of the particles’ spin determines whether a set of particles attract or repel, but I proved that attraction takes the lead. Here, I show, based upon [3] , that the constant G depends from star to star. Furthermore, I generalize the Coriolis concept for the forces in electromagnetism and in quantum mechanics, as an identical process for all types of forces. I look at the meaning of matter, mass and electrical charge.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17732] **viXra:1702.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:08:11*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The hypothesis of a Solar Nebula, also known as the Kant-Laplace hypothesis, is currently the most accepted explanation for the origin of the Solar System.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17731] **viXra:1702.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:10:01*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I discuss the approach of black holes based upon the improved theory of gravity originated by Oliver Heaviside [2] and find that the Schwarzschild metric is highly improbable to occur at all, if not impossible. I found that a spinning black hole is always emitting information at the poles [6]. Close binary stars containing a fast spinning star or black hole and a companion are found to emerge from only one original star. Close binary stars consisting of two fast spinning stars or black holes are found to be much more rarely.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17730] **viXra:1702.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:13:22*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Since generations it has been taught that the relationship between energy and mass for E-M waves is E = m c². However, in this paper we will discover that this equation unveils the intrinsic potential energy of the carrier of waves, formerly called ‘aether’. We will find the mass of an electron and Planck’s constant in terms of the aether’s density.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17729] **viXra:1702.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:16:21*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This publication is based on the fundamentals of the dynamics of masses interacting by gravitation, given by the Maxwell analogy for gravitation or the Heaviside field. In our paper “A coherent dual vector field theory for gravitation” © oct 2003, we have developed a model. This dynamics model allowed us to quantify by vector way the transfer of angular movement point by point, and to bring a
simple, precise and detailed explanation to a large number of cosmic phenomena. With this model the flatness of our solar system and our Milky way has been explained as being caused by an angular collapse of the orbits, creating so a density increase of the disc. The constant velocity of the stars has been calculated, and the halo explained. The “missing mass” (dark matter) problem has been solved without harming the Keplerian motion law. The theory also explains the deviation of mass like in the diablo shape of rotary supernova having mass losses, and it defines the angle of mass losses at 0° and above 35°16’. Some quantitative calculations describe in detail the relativistic attraction forces maintaining entire the fast rotating stars, the tendency of distortion toward a torus-like shape, and the description of the attraction fields outside of a rotary black hole.
Qualitative considerations on the binary pulsars show the process of cannibalization, with the repulsion of the mass at the poles and to the equator, and this could also explain the origin of the spin-up and the spin-down process. The bursts of collapsing rotary stars are explained as well. The conditions for the repulsion of masses are also explained, caused by important velocity differences between masses. Orbit ‘chaos’ is better explained as well. Finally, the demonstration is made that gyrotation is related to the Relativity Theory.
The detailed photographs of the Saturn rings made by the Cassini-Huygens mission gives us new evidence for the validity of Gravitomagnetism. It explains the presence of the flat rings around Saturn, the presence of thin parallel rings, the shape of the edges of the F-ring and the reason why such rings are present at the border of large ring zones.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17728] **viXra:1702.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 08:14:19*

**Authors:** Arthur Eugene Pletcher

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will
view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of
time, from past to present, in his single moment (unlike
superposition), like a time-lapse. For example, an electron
obital, viewed in a single moment represents a time
interval from −∆t (past) to +∆t future.
TD explains the orbital gaps as simply the portions of
rotation that are outside of this time range.
The principle behind such an expanded range of time
is the novel concept of ”time divergence” which occurs
in any observation between classic scale and nano scales.
Even more interesting, is that TD predicts that this effect
is nullified when the introduction of an apparatus
(such as a detector), which, consequently,brings the observation
(from source to effect) to essentially the same
scale.
TDMS offers an alternate explanation to the ”undetermined
probability wavefunction Ψ”.
Explanations, resolutions and insights gained
from TDMS
TDMS explains all of the following mysteries with
beauty, simplicity and persuasion:
In nanoscales:
* The cloud appearance of electron orbits
* The gaps between electron orbits are very much
predicted
* The shapes of orbitals
* Collapse, as well as duality
* Why orbital density appears closest to nucleus
* Progression of energy states
* TDMS suggests that information about energy
states and position can be gained from comparing
observations at two separate points in time.
In macroscales:
* Accelerated expansion
* Millisecond pulsars
* Galaxy outer rim rotation mysteries
* The nonuniform expansion of supernovae remnant
clouds

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[17727] **viXra:1702.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 09:33:37*

[17726] **viXra:1702.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 10:13:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Research led by ANU on the use of magnets to steer light has opened the door to new communications systems which could be smaller, cheaper and more agile than fibre optics. [17]
Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16]
Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15]
University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14]
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13]
One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17725] **viXra:1702.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 10:26:00*

**Authors:** Zeraoulia Elhadj

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This note is concerned with presenting sufficient conditions to proves that the number of elements of certain real sequences is infinite.

**Category:** Number Theory

[17724] **viXra:1702.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-15 14:15:29*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin, Zarek Newman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

For the past sixty years, scientists have spent approximately one hundred billion dollars in an attempt to develop tritium thermonuclear energy. They were unsuccessful. No stable thermonuclear reactions were achieved. Current plans are to design an expensive, but workable industrial installation. It will cost tens of billions of US dollars and will possibly only begin to produce electric energy 15 – 20 years from now. Even if the new designs were viable, they are economically unfeasible. Currently, Tritium is used for fusion ignition because the tritium-deuterium thermonuclear reaction (T+D) has the lowest ignition temperature (≈100 million degree) in contrast to deuterium thermonuclear reaction (D+D) which has a fusion ignition temperature 50 - 100 times hotter. This paper demonstrates that because tritium fuel is very expensive ($30,000/gram and more), the electricity generated by the tritium thermonuclear reactor will cost (≈ $1/kwh), at least 10 times more than conventional sources of energy (≈ $0.1/kwh, 2015). Even using Li-6, Li-7 blankets to breed tritium from fusion reactions cannot be a full solution, because, as we will show, they can only restore a maximum of 30% of the expensive tritium fuel. Hundreds of billions of dollars were spent in vain over the past sixty years for R&D of tritium fusion. It is the costliest mistake in the history of science! Research and Development (R&D) of huge, very expensive tritium fusion installations should be abandoned and in its stead, develop viable and economically feasible, inexpensive, small reactors that use deuterium fuel and high temperatures. That decreases the fuel cost by 30,000 times. Viable designs of small thermonuclear reactors have been offered by senior author in [8,9] where an analysis of the problems with the various configurations of the new small and cheap fusion reactors are detailed therein.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[17723] **viXra:1702.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-15 20:33:10*

**Authors:** Johan Aspegren

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we will prove the Kakeya maximal function conjecture.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[17722] **viXra:1702.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 02:13:22*

**Authors:** Peter Leifer

**Comments:** 10 Pages. FQXi_contest_2016

Wandering in quantum researches should lead to the rational goal - understanding.
All history of the science shows how meaningful mathematical laws in physics, engineering, chemistry, etc., arose on the ground of rational human practice. I would like show that in the contradictory development of quantum physics, the theory ultimately follows the same line.
``Elementary" particles do exist. This fact does not depend on the procedure of a measurement. The existence, however, requires some description that mostly based on relations between measurable values. Our goal is to bridge this objective reality and its mental reflection. It is assumed that existence should be based on the invariant relations between measurable values. What kind of the invariance should be used?

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17721] **viXra:1702.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 03:12:46*

**Authors:** Roman BAUDRIMONT

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article aims to explain for a large public the link between Newtonian gravity and entropic force. This link has already been written by Erik Verlinde in 2011, but we will deepen it and see what are the current problems of physics that it can solve.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17720] **viXra:1702.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 03:16:43*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The reviews of McLaughlin (2003) and of Brodie and Strader (2006) show that the globular cluster mass function in present-day galaxy halos is approximately log-normal with a peak log M = 5.3, where M is expressed in solar masses. On the other hand, our investigation of distribution of disc masses of dwarf spiral galaxies (we used the 36 objects selected by Karukes et al. (6 January 2017)) leads to 3 peaks for log M = 8.017, 7.415 and 6.813. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed the origin of such quantization of masses of discs and globular clusters within one coherent model. The peaks follow from the initial large-scale structure of the Universe described within SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17719] **viXra:1702.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 04:14:01*

**Authors:** Oliver Consa

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A new model of the electron with Helical Solenoid geometry is presented. This new model is an extension of the Parson’s Ring Electron Model and the Hestenes’ Zitter Electron Model. In this new electron model, the g-factor appears as a simple consequence of the geometry of the electron. The calculation of the g-factor is performed in a simple manner and we obtain the value of 1.0011607. This value of the g-factor is more accurate that the value provided by the Schwinger’s factor.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17718] **viXra:1702.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 07:22:32*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this very elementary article, we try to show that the universe would be static, flat and infinite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17717] **viXra:1702.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 07:59:31*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This paper proposes hybrid vector similarity measures under single valued refined neutrosophic sets and proves some of its basic properties. The proposed similarity measure is then applied for solving multiple attribute decision making problems. Lastly, a numerical example of medical diagnosis is given on the basis of the proposed hybrid similarity measures and the results are compared with the results of other existing methods to validate the applicability, simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[17716] **viXra:1702.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-15 10:36:36*

**Authors:** Chang Li

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article proved two theorems and presented one conjecture about the real-zeros of Jones Polynomial of Torus. The distribution of zeros of Jones Polynomial is an interesting topic in knots theory of math and physics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[17715] **viXra:1702.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-15 11:47:16*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

With verses traceable back to the Vedic ages, and a presence continuously seen until the present day, worship of the Lord Dharma Shaasta most popularly known as Ayyappan remains a strong forte of the Hindu faith. However, with origins hazy and shrouded in mystery, there is also a thick cloud of mystery and controversial notions surrounding the Lord, with the real truth being as good as deeply hidden and buried underground. The discussion attempts to address this topic from all angles such as literature, temples and spirituality.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[17714] **viXra:1702.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-15 07:33:20*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with the elliptic integrals.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[17713] **viXra:1702.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-15 08:13:33*

**Authors:** Kiyoung Kim

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

It has been believed that the process of scientific reasoning in research and its conclusion in the natural science should be in phenomenological basis. However, what if physical reality that is based on phenomenological facts is not enough to explain all natural phenomena or what if physical reality is not closed by itself? In other words, what if physical reality is representing just a part of outcome through interacting with any unconceivable entities in ontological truth? After reviewing 4-dimensional complex space model, which has been introduced as an alternative way to understand physics comprehensively from classical physics to modern physics, some interesting scientific activities are discussed, which have been ignored in the name of pseudoscience, such as free electric energy generation, Hutchison Effect, and the common physical origin of the Hutchison Effect and WTC (World Trade Center) collapse in 2001.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17712] **viXra:1702.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-15 06:15:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17711] **viXra:1702.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-15 06:19:13*

**Authors:** Prado, PF et al

**Comments:** 0 Pages.

error corrections

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[17710] **viXra:1702.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 16:11:56*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We have questioned the value of the Planck constant in other work, such that its value is likely different for a physical reality with parameters for dimensionality (LSXD) beyond the 4D Standard Model. Now the fundamental basis of the fine structure constant (FSC) itself also comes under scrutiny. The FSC is generally determined in terms of other constants; therefore, its origin yet remains a profound mystery. One must go ‘out of bounds’ to obtain a holistic picture. Our understanding of the physical world has progressed from Classical to Quantum; and now to the brink of the 3rd regime of Unified Field Mechanics (UFM). We review the 2nd regime origin and development of the FSC, then propose new insights gleaned from 3rd regime UFM parameters and also review importance of the FSC in developing empirical protocols for gaining access to the 3rd regime.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[17709] **viXra:1702.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 16:12:01*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

I have been working for a long time about basic laws which direct existence, and some mathematical problems which are waited for a solution. I can count myself lucky that I could did some important inferences during this time, and I published them in a few papers partially as some propositions. This work aimed to explain and discuss these inferences all together by relating them one another being physical phenomenons are prior.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17708] **viXra:1702.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 19:23:54*

**Authors:** Erman ZENG

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The quantitative Marxian function system is developed on the basis of the labor theory of value as the micro foundation resulting labour value function, surplus value function, Marx production function. The heterogeneous capital aggregation problem is overcome by value transformation analysis of Leontief intermediate input coefficient matrix leading to production price eigenvectors and Marx-Sraffa-Leontief General Equilibrium eigenvalues thus the details about an economic system such as the reduced organic composite of capital, the rate of profit, the surplus rate of value, the elasticity of capital output. The falling tendency of the rate of profit may not be true if the economy undergoes a general equilibrium.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[17707] **viXra:1702.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 19:38:12*

**Authors:** Clive Jones

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An Exploration of Circle-Square Properties & Identities

**Category:** General Mathematics

[17706] **viXra:1702.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-15 02:30:57*

**Authors:** Krzysztof Maslanka

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Certain analytical expressions which "feel" the divisors of natural numbers are investigated. We show that these expressions encode in some way the well-known algorithm of the sieve of Eratosthenes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[17705] **viXra:1702.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 11:20:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fibre (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17704] **viXra:1702.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 11:32:08*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

For more 60 years scientists havewanted to reach confined, stable thermonuclear reaction state. They are using two main methods: ICF – Inertial Confinement Fusion and MCF – Magnetic Confinement Fusion. In ICF they have tried to heat a frozen thermonuclear fuel by highly compressing the reactive force of the fuel’s vaporized cover and tohold (confine) it by inertial forces of the fuel used. In MCF they heatrarefied plasma by electric current and hold it a relative long time by enshrouding magnetic field. In ICF, only 10-20% the laser energy is used for compression and significantly less for further fuel heating.
The author is offering a significantly new design the fuel pellet (capsule) for laser ICF reactor which allows using about 90% the laser energy for pellet heating and compression work. The second advantage of the author’s innovative suggested method is significantly increasing (by a hundred-fold) the time of nuclear reaction (reactivity) as well as the possibility to use the compressed gas fuel at room temperature,instead of the frozen fuel held at absolute Kelvin zero. The suggested pellet (capsule) design requires few collimated light beams (maximum 6, not 192 as with NIF) because it is using offered multi-reflect capsule(pellet). That greatly simplifies the design laser system.Possible of getting conditions will be enough for using the D-D nuclear fuel, which is monetarily less costly by 30,000 times than T-D fuel.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[17703] **viXra:1702.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 11:50:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17702] **viXra:1702.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 12:15:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

EPFL scientists have found a way to miniaturize frequency combs, realizing a new step toward miniaturization of such tools. Their device can measure light oscillations with a precision of 12 digits. [20] Technion researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, that laser emissions can be created through the interaction of light and water waves. This "water-wave laser" could someday be used in tiny sensors that combine light waves, sound and water waves, or as a feature on microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices used to study cell biology and to test new drug therapies. [18] Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17701] **viXra:1702.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 10:45:05*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article introduces with necessary philosophical basis, the perception of “Dwaadasha Tattva” or twelve concepts, enshrining twelve key deities of Indian Spirituality. These are Lalitha Ambika (Parabrahman), Dharma Shasta (Guru), Shiva (Existence), Shakti (Attributes), Maayon (Narayana), Skanda (Guruguha), Vinaayaka (Pranava), Durga (Kriya Shakti), Lakshmi (Iccha Shakti), Saraswathi (Jnaana Shakti), Brahma (Creator), Aaditya (Universe), Aanjaneya (Bhakti).

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[17700] **viXra:1702.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 10:18:35*

**Authors:** Chongjunhuang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Prime density formula

**Category:** Number Theory

[17699] **viXra:1702.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 09:21:47*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

B. Kiziltan et al. (9 February 2017) showed that pulsars in 47 Tuc imply a central black hole (BH) with a mass of about 2,200 solar masses (the upper limit is 3,700 solar masses whereas the lower limit is 1,400). Predictive power correlates with number of observed pulsars. The inference flattens with decreasing number of randomly selected pulsars. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we suggest that the BH consists of 16 neutron black holes (NBH) entangled with 16 pulsars. With time, the set of 16 pulsars changes its constituents. SST shows that then mass of the central BH should be 2,536 solar masses. To such mass lead as well the observational data for 16 randomly selected pulsars. More precise observational data should show whether predicted within SST the exact mass of the central BH is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17698] **viXra:1702.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 06:32:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Brain Model to Quantify Pain Pain is a signal of actual or potential damage to the body, so it is natural to think of it as a localized sensation: knee pain in the knee, back pain in the back and so on. [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[17697] **viXra:1702.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 08:01:15*

[17696] **viXra:1702.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-13 15:50:27*

**Authors:** U. Kayser-Herold

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Analytical determination of the magnetic flux included in the electron's dipole field - with consideration of magnetic flux quantization - reveals that it precisely comprises one magnetic flux quantum $\Phi_{0}$. The analysis further delivers a redefinition of classical electron radius $r_{e}$ by a factorized relation among electron radius $r_{e}$, vacuum permeability $\mu_{0}$, magneton $\mu_{B}$ and fluxon $\Phi_{0}$, exclusively determined by the electron's quantized magnetic dipole field:
\begin{center}
$r_{e} =\mu_{0}\hspace{1} \mu_{B}\hspace{1}(\Phi_{0})^{-1}= e^{2}/ 4 \pi \epsilon_{0} m_{e} c^{2}$
\end{center}
The single fluxon electron model further enables analytical determination of its vector potential at $r_{e}$: $\vec{A}_{re} = \vec{\Phi}_{0}/2\pi r_{e}}$
and canonical angular momentum: $ e \vec{A}_{re}\hspace{2} 2 \hspace{2}\pi r_{e} %= e \hspace{2}\vec{\Phi_{0}} 2 \hspace{2}\pi
= \hbar/2$.\\
Consideration of flux-quantization supports a toroidal electron model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17695] **viXra:1702.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-13 16:00:14*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: If F(2*p) is a Fibonacci number with an index equal to 2*p, where p is prime, p ≥ 5, then there exist a prime or a product of primes q1 and a prime or a product of primes q2 such that F(2*p) = q1*q2 having the property that q2 – 2*q1 is also a Fibonacci number with an index equal to 2^n*r, where r is prime or the unit and n natural. Also I observe that the ratio q2/q1 seems to be a constant k with values between 2.2 and 2.237; in fact, for p ≥ 17, the value of k seems to be 2.236067(...).

**Category:** Number Theory

[17694] **viXra:1702.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-13 21:08:13*

**Authors:** Priya Karna, Sunil Karna

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The experiment was conducted to demonstrate the behavior of fire propagation on wildland using matchsticks forest model. A model forest was designed on a flame resistance clay, on top of which matchsticks were inserted and kept vertical to the ground by keeping spacing between them constant with the help of aluminum grid. The data for distance traveled by fire with time was taken at wide range of slopes from downhill of -25^o to uphill of 45^o on model forests of packing ratios of 0.08 and 0.04. The minimum rate of fire spread was observed around 15^o downhill. The data collected from this experiment follows nature of tan^2(theta) and agrees with Rothermel mathematical model of fire propagation except at high elevation above 35^o for low packing ratio.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[17693] **viXra:1702.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-13 21:14:17*

**Authors:** Chongxi Yu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Prime numbers are the basic numbers and are crucial important. There are many conjectures concerning primes are challenging mathematicians for hundreds of years and many “advanced mathematics tools” are used to solve them, but they are still unsolved. Based on the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and Euclid’s proof of endless prime numbers, we have proved there are infinitely many twin primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[17692] **viXra:1702.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 01:08:29*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Movement of gravitational educations on an internal surface of a cover of the Moon owing to influence of "tidal" forces of the Moon and the Sun is the main reason for lunotryaseniye.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17691] **viXra:1702.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 01:21:17*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Recurrence of fluctuations of internal energy pressure of the Solar system is a basic reason of emergence of Ice Ages on Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17690] **viXra:1702.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 03:02:44*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Relativity Theories are based on the concept of spacetime, which has no physical meaning. The theories are partial, applicable only to limited areas, and remain a stumbling block for the unification of physics. Here I show that an alternate concept, 'energy is motion, and force is reaction to motion', can explain all phenomena that are now being explained using Relativity Theories. This renders the tests for Relativity theories irrelevant. The alternate concept is physically meaningful and is applicable to all areas from particle level to cosmic level. So I conclude that the Relativity theories, which were in vogue for a century, can now be discarded.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17689] **viXra:1702.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 03:10:49*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

By the early 1970’s estimates of the Hubble constant from Sandage and Tammann were hovering around 55. On the other hand, VandenBerg and deVaucouleurs obtained values near 100. Even at the beginning of the current millennium still was evident such bimodality. Then cosmologists corrected the diameters and magnitudes of galaxies to reconcile two or more groups receiving different values of Hubble constant. Such a “method” of averaging the results leads to a value of about 70. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the two different values for the local Universe follow from two different ways of emission of photons which causes that the same redshift leads to two different light travel times - it concerns supernova and its host galaxy. We obtain respectively 45.17 (the upper limit is 46.44) and values two times higher i.e. 90.34 (the upper limit is 92.88) - the mean value is 67.75 (the upper limit is 69.66), which are consistent with the recent observational data. Emphasize that the bimodality does not result from assumed uncertainties - just bimodality is characteristic for the near Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17688] **viXra:1702.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-13 14:23:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17687] **viXra:1702.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-13 14:43:06*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Christian Goldbach (March 18, 1690 – November 20, 1764) was a German mathematician. He is remembered today for Goldbach's conjecture.
Goldbach's conjecture is one of the oldest and best-known unsolved problems in number theory and all of mathematics. It states: Every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes.
On 7 June 1742, the German mathematician Christian Goldbach wrote a letter to Leonhard Euler (letter XLIII) in which he proposed the following conjecture:
Every even integer which can be written as the sum of two primes (the strong conjecture)
He then proposed a second conjecture in the margin of his letter:
Every odd integer greater than 7 can be written as the sum of three primes (the weak conjecture).
A Goldbach number is a positive even integer that can be expressed as the sum of two odd primes. Since four is the only even number greater than two that requires the even prime 2 in order to be written as the sum of two primes, another form of the statement of Goldbach's conjecture is that all even integers greater than 4 are Goldbach numbers.
The “strong” conjecture has been shown to hold up through 4 × 1018, but remains unproven for almost 300 years despite considerable effort by many mathematicians throughout history.
In number theory, Goldbach's weak conjecture, also known as the odd Goldbach conjecture, the ternary Goldbach problem, or the 3-primes problem, states that
Every odd number greater than 5 can be expressed as the sum of three primes. (A prime may be used more than once in the same sum). In 2013, Harald Helfgott proved Goldbach's weak conjecture.
The author would like to give many thanks to Helfgott’s proof of the weak conjecture, because this proof of the strong conjecture is completely dependent on Helfgott’s proof. Without Helfgott’s proof, this elementary proof would not be possible.

**Category:** Number Theory

[17686] **viXra:1702.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-13 15:23:55*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In his paper entitled A New Perspective on Advanced Space Travel, the author dealt briefly with the so called gravitational ‘constant’ in the range , 0 ≤G ≤Go where G represents a variable gravitational ‘constant’, and Go represents the usual Newtonian gravitational ‘constant’ value. The scale dealt with was the sub-nuclear level regarding the weak interaction: hardly a range at which gravity can be measured, yet a close approximation to the Fermi constant was derived based upon a variable G in the weak interaction. It is, however, the belief of the author that the universe operates quite differently in the range of 0 ≤G ≤Go as opposed to the range G ≥0 .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17685] **viXra:1702.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 13:29:14*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that the first sugars for prebiotic life are formed during stellar evolution according to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis. They are created by formaldehyde being polymerized by iron/nickel meteors, which serve as catalysts, entering the atmospheres of middle aged stars such as Jupiter and Saturn. Explanation is provided.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[17684] **viXra:1702.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 17:48:18*

**Authors:** Emil Junvik

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Blackbody radiation by volume accounts for temperature distribution in the troposphere. Gravity perform an equal amount of work on a square meter, as the amount of thermal energy radiated by the surface towards space.

Abstract
This is a very simple analysis of earth and the input of solar energy using heat transfer and geometry. I show that earth radiates as a blackbody by volume and not as a surface.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17683] **viXra:1702.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-13 00:48:16*

**Authors:** Stefko B. Iliev

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) in the conventional – copper mediated variant is the main representative case of the controlled radical polymerizations (CRP). That’s why, the discussions of the new notions about the complex formation, polymer chains initiation, growth and termination are oriented to comparison with the reactions included in the conventional ATRP mechanism.
The basic postulate of this mechanism is the opinion for reversible haloid atom transfer at every chain growth elementary act. This mechanism however, can not to explain the effect of the ATRP acceleration observed at the vinyl monomers polymerization under of magnetic field influence. That’s why, it is proposed a new functional mechanism named: ATRP – Polarizing / Depolarizing Functional Mechanism. The proposed theory submit that the monovalent copper complex chemical activity is a consequence from the complex brief-living molecular structure physical asymmetry. Because of this, the resulting effect is double electrostatic and electrochemical polarization of the complex molecules and following biphase depolarization at the chain grouth and the termination steps.
This mechanism throw additional light not only on the ATRP reversible equilibrium and the haloid atom transfer effects, but also on the motive forces essence at all of the cases by transition metals mediated radical polymerizations with identical complex formation.

**Category:** Chemistry

[17682] **viXra:1702.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 10:17:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11]

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[17681] **viXra:1702.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 10:31:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[17680] **viXra:1702.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 12:43:00*

**Authors:** Wen-Po Liu, Tong Wei

**Comments:** published in the Asia-Pacific Education (ISSN: 2095-9214), 2015, No.29, Page 291 (DOI: 10.16550/j.cnki.2095-9214.2015.29.005)

In order to enliven the environment of the physics classroom and deepen the understanding of physics concepts, we propose a ``human'' teaching method that uses the students' bodies themselves as the sole medium to approximately recreate major physical processes. In concrete terms, participants play definite physical roles and assume definite physical functions. All participants form a group and perform the demonstration, thereby recreating major physical processes. We use ``surface tension'' as an example to illustrate this teaching method. This technique increases the interest factor in physics teaching, thus stimulating students' exploratory enthusiasm while cultivating cooperation and team spirit. Therefore, this method is conducive to improving students' collective creative abilities.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[17679] **viXra:1702.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 08:24:33*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. currently available only in German

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed.
This article suggests and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations leads always to the same experimental predictions.
The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17678] **viXra:1702.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-11 13:12:03*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Bipolar neutrosophic sets are the extension of neutrosophic sets and are based on the idea of positive and negative preferences of information. Projection measure is a useful apparatus for modeling real life decision making problems. In the paper, we have defined projection, bidirectional projection and hybrid projection measures between bipolar neutrosophic sets and the proposed measures are then applied to multi-attribute decision making problems. The ratings of performance values of the alternatives with respect to the attributes are expressed by bipolar neutrosophic values. We calculate projection, bidirectional projection, and hybrid projection measures between each alternative and ideal alternative with bipolar neutrosophic information and then all the alternatives are ranked to identify best option. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the developed method. Comparison analysis with other existing methods is also provided.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[17677] **viXra:1702.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-11 23:42:13*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This is a system which simulates a ball game and a machine is substituted for one player in it.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[17676] **viXra:1702.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 00:00:48*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A quantized magnetic flux version of Planck's reduced constant is deduced from first principles. The magnetic flux quantum can explain the fine structure constant and the “anomalous” magnetic moment of an electron.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17675] **viXra:1702.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 02:49:18*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Its a pleasure to post this on Vixra.

The basic building blocks of the universe have been debated for millennia. Recently advances have been made in string theory and variant schools of thought. Here I propose the notion that, at extremely small scales, information has a structure, and the information that determines a system is equivalent to it's momentum.
This is achieved through an analogous mechanism to the Cartesian axes. These axes are aware of their position. This has many implications and I believe the mathematics regarding this will flourish.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17674] **viXra:1702.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 02:55:02*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Polynomial time primality test for safe primes is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[17673] **viXra:1702.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-11 07:53:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Research published Wednesday, in Nature Scientific Reports lays out a theoretical map to use ferroelectric material to process information using multivalued logic-a leap beyond the simple ones and zeroes that make up our current computing systems that could let us process information much more efficiently. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17672] **viXra:1702.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 16:48:55*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Some aspects of the future of humankind are considered based on applications of the quantum modification of general relativity. Particularly, the energy supply from the vacuum and a new form of communication are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17671] **viXra:1702.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-11 03:19:24*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 13 Pages. It is published in FQXi contest 2016/2017.

The author is developing the idea that genes were not enough in evolution to create goals, because the first goals should have arisen quickly. This is another clue that consciousness exists also at unicellular organisms. Besides, qualia are more
primitive form of a goal. Consciousness is composed of qualia and free-will, and both need new physics. Free-will is based also on quantum consciousness. Although it seems that it is disproved by Tegmark, it is very obvious, thus it cannot be disproved until it will not be clarified what a physical base of consciousness is. Quantum consciousness is based also on panpsychism, which has already some support in mainstream science. Explanations of goal, free-will, qualia, and consciousness are also things of explanation of time. It is shown how time is connected with matter and how with consciousness. At the end it is criticized, how official science too much ignores goals and ideas of authors that do not belong to it.

**Category:** Mind Science

[17670] **viXra:1702.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 10:55:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17669] **viXra:1702.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 07:54:35*

**Authors:** Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Castillo demonstrates an important case of successful superposition of
elliptically-polarised light by moving to spinor representations of
electromagnetic plane waves: when the angle between the two unit spinors
as represented on a Poincare sphere are (as a complex number) either 1,
-1, i or -i. This paper demonstrates that there are additional conditions
under which superposition is successful: phase-shifting of one of the
waves by 90 degrees prior to superposition. Two and three superpositions
are shown, and the candidate configurations for each are listed.
The result is significant for Particle Physics at least, in that Castillo
and Rubalcava-Garcia's
prior work show a correspondance between Jones Calculus and SU(2), and
gives a direct mapping between Jones and Pauli Matrices.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17668] **viXra:1702.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 09:42:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[17667] **viXra:1702.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 09:57:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

If researchers at Florida Institute of Technology, employing pioneering new methods, are able to determine the top quark's mass at a level of precision as yet unachieved, they will move science closer to understanding whether the universe is stable, as we have long believed to be the case, or unstable. [16] Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[17666] **viXra:1702.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 04:47:46*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a previous paper of the author’s, a paradox resulted from the relativistic mass increase with speed was presented and analyzed. To avoid this contradiction while leaving relativity intact, the assumption that the strength of a substance will increase with its speed was introduced. Here in this article, one more paradox of relativistic mass increase with speed is presented which is conflict with the principle of relativity. There are no solutions for this contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17665] **viXra:1702.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 14:05:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Bonn have cleared a further hurdle on the path to creating quantum computers: in a recent study, they present a method with which they can very quickly and precisely sort large numbers of atoms. [17] Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17664] **viXra:1702.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 01:45:24*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Some aspects of the future of humankind are considered based on application of the quantum modification of general relativity. Particularly, the energy supply from the vacuum and a new form of communication are discussed.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[17663] **viXra:1702.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 02:53:39*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here we described the mechanism of creation of the dark-matter (DM) structure in massive spiral galaxies by the initial quasars. Such mechanism moves the angular momentum of quasars to the outer regions of massive galaxies. We calculated that range of the DM structure in the Milky Way should be about 51.5 kpc. We calculated also the range of the DM structure for dwarf galaxies with initial baryonic mass equal to giga-solar-masses on the assumption that now in their centre is the lightest gravitational BH - we obtained 1.9 kpc. We as well answered following question: How can we detect loops of dark matter in the Earth experiments? Just we should mimic the mechanism in quasars - we should use strong magnetic field to create relativistic vortex of baryonic plasma. We explained also why the DM structures cannot interact electromagnetically.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17662] **viXra:1702.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 04:23:59*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Why do objects possess inertia at all ? What is gravity ? Why are inertial and gravitational masses equal ? These are some of the greatest puzzles and mysteries in physics that have not been solved to date. This paper reveals these mysteries. Inertia and electrical inductance are not only analogous, but they are the same phenomena: electromagnetism ! Electrostatic force and gravitational force are not only analogous, but they are the same phenomena: electrostatics ! Both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total number of electrons, protons and neutrons in an object, i.e. the total (NOT net ) charge in the object. This is the fundamental reason why inertial mass and gravitational mass are equal. Universal speed limit is due to non-linear law of electrical self inductance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17661] **viXra:1702.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 10:20:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Electromagnetic pulses lasting one millionth of a millionth of a second may hold the key to advances in medical imaging, communications and drug development. But the pulses, called terahertz waves, have long required elaborate and expensive equipment to use. [20] A widely held understanding of electromagnetic radiation has been challenged in newly published research led at the University of Strathclyde. [19] Technion researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, that laser emissions can be created through the interaction of light and water waves. This "water-wave laser" could someday be used in tiny sensors that combine light waves, sound and water waves, or as a feature on microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices used to study cell biology and to test new drug therapies. [18] Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17660] **viXra:1702.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 11:23:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Researchers from Brown University have shown experimentally how a unique form of magnetism arises in an odd class of materials called Mott insulators. [17] Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17659] **viXra:1702.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 11:28:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17658] **viXra:1702.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 11:33:29*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) gives us very simple formula for charge density distribution $(\rho_e)$ within ionic solutions. PBE is widely solved by specifying values to electrostatic potential ($\psi$) at different boundaries; this type of boundary condition (BC) is known as Dirichlet condition (DC). Here we show that DC cannot be used to solve the PBE, because it leads to unphysical consequences. For example, when we change the reference for $\psi$, the functional forms of $\psi$ and $\rho_e$ change in non-trivial ways i.e. it changes the physics, which is not acceptable. Our result should have far reaching effects on many branches of physical, chemical and biological sciences.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17657] **viXra:1702.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 07:58:42*

**Authors:** Matthew Marko

**Comments:** 114 pages including supplementary code

The author demonstrates a stable Lagrangian solid modeling method, tracking the interactions of solid mass particles, rather than using a meshed grid. This numerical method avoids the problem of tensile instability often seen with Smooth Particle Applied Mechanics by having the solid particles apply stresses expected with Hooke's law, as opposed to using a smoothing function for neighboring solid particles. This method has been tested successfully with a bar in tension, compression, and shear, as well as a disk compressed into a flat plate, and the numerical model consistently matched the analytical Hooke's law as well as Hertz contact theory for all examples. The solid modeling numerical method was then built into a 2-D model of a pressure vessel, which was tested with liquid water particles under pressure and simulated with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. This simulation was stable, and demonstrated the feasibility of Lagrangian specification modeling for Fluid Solid Interactions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[17656] **viXra:1702.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 09:31:55*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Westenberger

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

SUMMARY.
Dozens of exceeding experiments all over the world were performed with high hopes to find
dark matter particles. No evidence for any dark particle could be found despite all these
efforts. This is an overwhelming result. Furthermore, one must consider some discrepancy
between the theory of dark matter and astrophysical observations.
But there is another theory to explain the galactic rotation curve by calculation, called method
of gravity areas, which is based on the gravitation theorem and other well-known facts.
Newton's gravitation law remains untouched, and no unknown is needed. At any position
there is a single gravitational vector towards the centre and another single vector towards the
opposite direction. So the billions-of-masses-problem has changed to a solvable threecomponent-
problem. The summed up gravitational vectors of all near and far away mass
within a galactic disc, baryonic mass only, will result in a horizontal gravitation curve,
equivalent to a horizontal rotation curve.
The theory of gravity areas is based on well-known physical laws and verifiable parameters.
Therefore, the theory can be proved wrong, but up to now it has not been disproved.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17655] **viXra:1702.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 18:00:36*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Essay submitted to Gravity Research Foundation 2016 essay contest: 24 March 2016

A theory’s equations are designed to model physical behavior that reflects the nature of physical reality. Einstein's nonlinear gravity equation is 'linearized' in the 'weak field limit' by ignoring nonlinear terms. This can be misinterpreted as affecting the nature of the field. Linearization is a mathematical artifice making equations easier to solve, having zero effect on the physical nature of the field itself. Thus it is false to say that the weak gravitational field is not self-interacting. Nor is the weak gravitational field based on mass; the field equation is based on mass density. These aspects of gravity are investigated by replacing curved space-time with mass density in flat space. A novel quantum gravity relation is derived and related to quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17654] **viXra:1702.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 19:17:35*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

As a step toward understanding why the Earth's atmosphere "rotates" with the Earth, we use using Geometric (Clifford) Algebra to investigate the trajectory of a single molecule that desorbs vertically upward from the Equator, then falls back to Earth without colliding with any other molecules. Sample calculations are presented for a molecule whose vertical velocity is equal to the surface velocity of the Earth at the Equator (463 m/s) and for one with a vertical velocity three times as high. The latter velocity is sufficient for the molecule to reach the Kármán Line (100,000 m). We find that both molecules fall to Earth behind the point from which they desorbed: by 0.25 degrees of latitude for the higher vertical velocity, but by only 0.001 degrees for the lower.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17653] **viXra:1702.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 19:34:45*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 3 Pages. A very short communication

Based on Mach's principle and quantum gravity, we imagine our universe as a best quantum gravitational sphere and assume that, at any stage of cosmic evolution: 1) Planck scale Hubble parameter plays a crucial role. 2) Space-time curvature follows, ${GM_t}\cong{R_tc^2}$ where $M_t$ and $R_t$ represent the ordinary cosmic mass and radius respectively. 3) Both, cosmic radius and expansion velocity, are proportional to the ratio of dark matter density and ordinary matter density. 4) Cosmic temperature is proportional to the ratio of ordinary matter density and critical density. With further research, a unified model of `quantum cosmology' with evolving dark energy or evolving vacuum energy can be developed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17652] **viXra:1702.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 01:32:04*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Some explanations about the "Some Views of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light" and the "Gravitational Theory of Time"
1、The existence of time is because our fancy.Time is not exist,we found a change in our universe,so we think there is time.What's the change?All change in our universe is the change of entropy.(All the change, the cause and the effect,the logic is the change of entropy.)Stephen W. Hawking said that:"this means that our subjective sense of the direction of time,the psychological arrow of time,is determined by the thermodynamic arrow of time."Time is only our felling of the increase of entropy.So we can get the relation between time and entropy:ΔT∝ΔS.As we all know,this relation is the base of my two theory that I have write in my two paper:"Gravitational theory of entropy(time)" and "Some Views of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light".But from "Gravitational theory of entropy" we can know that all of our universe is not exist.Entropy and our universe and all of the difference in our universe is only our obverse and our felling which all come our fancy.Because our fancy,w
e found the difference between past and future.So we have an illusion that the time is exist.
So that make another conclusion:we can't measure time period which is shorter than our cycle.2、"gravitational theory of entropy" think that all change in the universe is because the change of the entropy.So two forces dominate all changes in the universe:the force to reduce the entropy and the force to increase the entropy.
It's very interesting that Chinese has put forward this view in the ancient times.
yin and yang , the two opposing principles in nature, the former feminine and negative, the latter masculine and positive.Yin is the force to reduce the entropy and yang is the force to increase the entropy.
The time more early,the entropy more less.So in the begining of the universe,the enprogy is very little,so it was in a very smooth,ordered and symmetrical state.If more early,the defference from the observer and the thing which we are observing will disappear.The observer and the thing which the observer are observing will be the same thing.So the existence of the universe becase our observing.This is the explain of the begining of the universe in the gravitational theory of entropy:because our fancy,we fancied the difference from ourselve and the thing which we are observing(the difference from "I" and "the thing which is not I").And the difference cause more difference:the increase of the entropy and the decrease of the entropy.And then yin and yang.Then we can see that the yin become the gravity and the yang become the light,and then,they become more things.
This is a additional paper for my paper "Gravitational theory of entropy".I have submit this paper to the Gravity Research Foundation.
Thanks to "Naughty blue cat 3000 question space adventure"

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17651] **viXra:1702.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 02:40:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Periodic motions of atoms over a length of a billionth of a millionth of a meter (10-15 m) are mapped by ultrashort x-ray pulses. [11] High-energy electrons synced to ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time. [10] A small team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Italy, Japan and the U.S. has created a simulation that suggests that it should be possible for a single photon to simultaneously excite two atoms. [9] Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a meter. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17650] **viXra:1702.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 03:01:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The field of spintronics focuses on spin transport behavior in magnetic metals, and the major findings in this area have important implications for the field of electronics. [12] Periodic motions of atoms over a length of a billionth of a millionth of a meter (10-15 m) are mapped by ultrashort x-ray pulses. [11] High-energy electrons synced to ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time. [10] A small team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Italy, Japan and the U.S. has created a simulation that suggests that it should be possible for a single photon to simultaneously excite two atoms. [9] Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a meter. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17649] **viXra:1702.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 03:46:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Niels Bohr's atomic model was utterly revolutionary when it was presented in 1913. Although it is still taught in schools, it became obsolete decades ago. However, its creator also developed a much wider-ranging and less known quantum theory, the principles of which changed over time. Researchers at the University of Barcelona have now analysed the development in the Danish physicist's thought – a real example of how scientific theories are shaped. [13] The field of spintronics focuses on spin transport behavior in magnetic metals, and the major findings in this area have important implications for the field of electronics. [12] Periodic motions of atoms over a length of a billionth of a millionth of a meter (10-15 m) are mapped by ultrashort x-ray pulses. [11] High-energy electrons synced to ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time. [10] A small team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Italy, Japan and the U.S. has created a simulation that suggests that it should be possible for a single photon to simultaneously excite two atoms. [9] Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a meter. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17648] **viXra:1702.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 07:00:12*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 86 Pages. this paper links the Broeck developments for the Alcubierre warp drive to the Natario warp drive

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory.Some years ago in $1999$ Chris Van Den Broeck appeared with
a very interesting idea.Broeck proposed a warp bubble with a large
internal radius able to accommodate a ship inside while having a
submicroscopic outer radius and a submicroscopic contact external
surface in order to better avoid the collisions against the
interstellar matter.The Broeck spacetime distortion have the shape
of a bottle with $200$ meters of inner diameter able to
accommodate a spaceship inside the bottle but the bottleneck
possesses a very small outer radius with only $10^{-15}$ meters
$100$ billion time smaller than a millimeter therefore reducing
the probabilities of collisions against large objects in
interstellar space.In this work we apply the Broeck idea to the
Natario warp drive spacetime but out bottle have $200$ kilometers
of inner size $1000$ times the size of the original Broeck bottle
and we use the original Alcubierre shape function to generate our
version of the Broeck bottle with very low energy density
requirements.The Broeck idea is more than welcome and solves
definitively the problem of the collisions against large objects.
Any future development for the Natario warp drive must encompass
the Broeck bottle and this approach must be named as the
Natario-Broeck warp drive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17647] **viXra:1702.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 09:31:36*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Recent measurements by the LHC are a strong support for the stability differences between (anti)-proton and (anti)-neutrons.
See Nature: “Measurement of matter–antimatter differences in beauty baryon decays”
According to Quantum FFF Theory however there should be a multiversal CP symmetric origin if we assume that the vacuum is able to become chiral.
So I concentrate here on Construction principles for chiral “atoms of spacetime” based on geometrical 3-D chiral vacuum lattice models and consequences for spacetime, general relativity based space curvature and time variation, including cyclic Multi- Universal time, and local time.
The chirality of the oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum lattice in each universe is assumed to be the origin of the difference between material or anti-material universes.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17646] **viXra:1702.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 09:53:39*

**Authors:** Paul E. Loehr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The concepts of modern physics concerning light, gravitation and particles seem to be precisely confirmed by observation and are well founded in complex and sophisticated theories - the more experiments the more confirmation. But, as unbelievable as it may sound for every scientist, two simple experiments are able to shatter the basics of modern physics. These decisive tests are aberration experiments using laser beams whereof the most important doesn't need any other means than a blank sheet, a pencil and pure logic. The conclusions to be drawn disprove fundamental theories and force us to rethink our concepts of light, gravitation, and particles. The acceptance of the implications presented here poses less a logical but far more a psychological challenge. This issue, if managed successfully, will lead to realistic physics that probably opens the path to quantum gravity too.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17645] **viXra:1702.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 10:09:01*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely. If so then, we pick the conditions for an equality, with a small , to come up with restraints which are in line with modifications of the Friedman equation in a quantum bounce, with removal of the Penrose theorem initial singularity. In line with super negative pressure being applied, so as to understand what we can present as far as H = 0 ( quantum bounce) in terms of density of the Universe. And also considering what to expect when . I.e. we have a negative energy density in Pre Planckian space-time. This leads to a causal discontinuity between Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time due to the sign of the inflaton changing from minus to positive, for reasons brought up in this manuscript. i.e. looking at Eq. (9) , Eq. (10) and Eq. (11) of this document, with explanations as to what is going on physically.
Keywords: Emergent time , metric tensor perturbations, HUP , negative energy density

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17644] **viXra:1702.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 12:23:49*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This is a 1 page, 10 point summary reports about the WP series on "Math Stagnation Nations".

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[17643] **viXra:1702.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 12:50:49*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 15 Pages. draft 2

In this visual timeline-driven observational report and analysis based on the math grades 4 and 8 of the NAEP (the National Report Card) of the USA 1992-2015 (during 23 years), we demonstrate that the following 7 key points: 1) for the 50 USA states, the math stagnations are real, not something to wisp away as the stagnations kicked in around 2003-2007 to the majority of the USA states for the math grade 4; 3) the math stagnations seemed to kick in a bit of time lag for the math grade 8 some years after the math stagnations kicking in for the math grade 4; 4) we observed this for the entire 50 states against the national (public) average timelines; 5) the math stagnations even for the fastest math growing states out of the 50 states; 6) outside the 50 USA states, DC and DoDEA haven’t had full-blown math stagnations yet, but their growths have slowed down significantly around 2013-2015; 7) all their timeline math growths plotted against the expect MMU1 impacts if implemented in short 3-4 years for each state or 2-3 years for cities or DC, DoDEA. To distinguish the expected impacts of the MMU1 over the traditional USA math education reforms, the yellow arrow was estimated to be roughly equivalent to about NAEP math 40 points. For the math grade 4, we added the timelines of 75 percentile – 25 percentile table and chart in Appendix. For the math grade 8, it is about the same and we shared in other paper by the author. The readers need to observe that the size of the yellow arrows (MMU1 size) are roughly 50-90% larger than the difference between the math best states vs. the math worst states of the grades 4 and 8 by 2011-2015: for the math grade 4, almost twice as large, for the math grade 8, about 50% larger than the gamut between the math best vs. the worst state math averages of the entire 50 USA states.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[17642] **viXra:1702.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 13:05:56*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 17 Pages. draft 2

Here, we will demonstrate the following: 1) the math EDU stagnations in almost all OECD nations (especially in the Western countries) are here to stay and they will not go away according to the data from PISA, TIMSS internationally and NAEP for the USA; 2) as the Math growth is critical for the modern economic growths and yet the EDU establishments are highly inefficient and adhere to the traditional alternatives instead of embracing more unconventional approaches, we provide a wide variety of the reality-biting results; 3) throughout the paper in this series, we used the yellow arrows as the expected math growth estimations against the past historic math growth data from the international and national math tests to demonstrate to the readers as to what they are missing by simply looking at the other directions when the answer is here already; 4) our mantra: to end math poverty means to end poverty itself. As such, we focus primarily on the math poorest 25 percentile of students especially (as about 20-35 percentiles of the math poverty population, especially in the grades 3-5 seem to have very negative impacts on the population for the rest of their lives; 5) we propose the worst case plan 4th of MMU1, which in itself is revolutionary and will achieve what the average USA cities or states have achieved past 20 years in just 2 years.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[17641] **viXra:1702.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 13:25:27*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Although being listed under 'Thermodynamics and Energy', this refers by implication to all areas of science.

Quite often in the sciences, results from one area are used in other quite different scenarios.
However, it is crucial in these cases to ensure beyond all doubt that any assumptions made in deriving the initial result are fulfilled in all subsequent applications. It is the purpose of this note to draw attention to this highly important, but often neglected, point.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[17640] **viXra:1702.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 13:52:37*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

In this short paper whose charts were directly borrowed from the NAEP website on the National Report Cards, I noticed some very striking features about the national and state math stagnations in the USA, especially for 2005-2015 during which most of the citywide math stagnations seemed to have taken place. We examined the NAEP math data from 2003 to 2015 for the math grades 4 and 8 from 21 big cities (or districts). Although there are some variations with the time lags of perhaps 2-4 years (Los Angeles or Chicago) or even 6 years (for the case of District of Columbia), there were strikingly consistent, emerging patterns about the math stagnations. The overall math stagnations took their roots around 2005 for the math grade 4 and this was observed for the math grade 8 in about 4 years later and this was very consistent in almost all TUDA participating cities and districts. Thus the main outline for the stagnations were 2005-2009. The conclusion after examining the 21 cities is that 18 of them have confirmed the hypothesis of the math stagnations already by 2015. So the confirmation of the hypothesis of the math stagnations in all these cities is at least 86% and most likely 90-100% will be by 2017-2019 most likely. The math stagnations are here across the USA even in the city and district levels and very unlikely to go away. We discussed the implications of about 4 year time lags impacting the math stagnations to grade 8 with the implications of the Common Core math standards of the USA 2011-2015.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[17639] **viXra:1702.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 14:15:10*

**Authors:** Adrian Packham

**Comments:** 7 Pages. phulpackham@gmail.com

GRAVITY ABSTRACT.
With advances in technology in recent years, in particular space telescopes and space probes, mankind can now see further into space with more accuracy than ever before. This also applies to the microscopic world with the development of The Large Hadron Collider and electron telescopes.
On a macroscopic level, it is now possible to view our solar system, galaxies and a portion of the known universe. Similar patterns are now emerging that may indicate that celestial bodies and systems have more in common than previously thought.
From the planets in our solar system to the sun to other stars and galaxies it would appear that the activity around these bodies equators and polar regions require further investigation. That investigation should also include whether there are similarities to how the quantum world operates.
Mankind may now be at the tipping point of being able to understand gravity at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. This paper attempts to explain how this is possible.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17638] **viXra:1702.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 15:02:00*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

From string theory to topstringy.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[17637] **viXra:1702.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 18:05:09*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This paper is an extension of the previous paper by the author on the theme of the math stagnations in almost all developed (OECD) nations internationally, for all developed English-speaking and most of the Latin American countries. The author has covered this theme for the USA math stagnations in the international math assessments, national NAEP’s national math growth stagnations, most of the states’ math stagnations, and at least 90-95% of the large districts’ (or cities’) math stagnations over the past 5-10-15-20 years. In this paper, the author observes and demonstrates the following: 1) the longer the states had stayed with the Common Core math standards, the math grade 4 average and 25 percentile had declined more than the USA states that had never participated in the Common Core math or those that had opted out by the end of 2014 or so before the NAEP 2015 math dipping happened for both the grade 4 and 8; 2) The similar pattern was also observed for the grade 4, however, with much less effect; 3) Although the negative impacts of the Common Core math on the NAEP 2015 was not negligible for the grade, the dips for the grade 8 was more likely caused by the Common Core more so than for the grade 4th math. Regardless, the math stagnations are persistent with or without the Common Core math’s overall negative effects for math for both grades will be as such. There were math dips in the grade 8 math for the states that had been out of the Common Core math, which means that the math stagnations in the USA may enter a worse phase in 2017 on even if the negative effect of the Common Core math is overcome.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[17636] **viXra:1702.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 03:46:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

When light shines on certain materials, it causes them to emit electrons. This is called "photoemission" and it was discovered by Albert Einstein in 1905, winning him the Nobel Prize. But only in the last few years, with advancements in laser technology, have scientists been able to approach the incredibly short timescales of photoemission. [11] High-energy electrons synced to ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time. [10] A small team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Italy, Japan and the U.S. has created a simulation that suggests that it should be possible for a single photon to simultaneously excite two atoms. [9] Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17635] **viXra:1702.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 10:15:12*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali, Ganeshsree Selvachandran

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we propose the complex neutrosophic
soft set model, which is a hybrid of complex fuzzy sets,neutrosophic sets and soft sets. The basic set theoretic operations and some concepts related to the structure of this model are introduced, and illustrated. An example related to a decision making problem involving uncertain and subjective information is presented, to demonstrate the utility of this model.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[17634] **viXra:1702.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 10:15:33*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely. If so then, we pick the conditions for an equality, with a small , to come up with restraints which are in line with modifications of the Friedman equation in a quantum bounce, with removal of the Penrose theorem initial singularity. In line with super negative pressure being applied, so as to understand what we can present as far as H = 0 ( quantum bounce) in terms of density of the Universe. And also considering what to expect when . I.e. we have a negative energy density in Pre Planckian space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17633] **viXra:1702.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 12:52:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In numerous previous experiments, physicists have observed correlations between particles in excess of the limit set by Bell's inequality, which suggests that they are indeed entangled, just as predicted by quantum theory. But each such test has been subject to various "loopholes," scenarios that might account for the observed correlations even if the world were not governed by quantum mechanics. [11] Using a Bose-Einstein condensate composed of millions of sodium atoms, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have observed a sharp magnetically-induced quantum phase transition where they expect to find entangled atomic pairs. The work moves scientists closer to an elusive entangled state that would have potential sensing and computing applications beyond its basic science interests. [10] A team of researchers at the University of Cambridge has succeeded in creating turbulence in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) and in the process, have possibly opened the door to a new avenue of research. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they achieved this feat and the evidence they found for a cascade. Brian Anderson with the University of Arizona offers a News & Views piece describing the work done by the team in the same journal issue and offers a brief overview of the characteristic distribution of kinetic energy in turbulent fluids. [9] Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are macroscopic systems that have quantum behaviour, and are useful for exploring fundamental physics. Now researchers at the Gakushuin University and the University of Electro-Communications have studied how the miscibility of multicomponent BECs affects their behaviour, with surprising results. [8] Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic antisocial behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7] Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17632] **viXra:1702.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 07:49:15*

**Authors:** O.I. Velichko

**Comments:** In Russian, 274 pages, 90 figures, 551 references

A theory describing the processes of atomic diffusion in a nonequilibrium state with nonuniform distributions of components in a defect?impurity system of silicon crystals is proposed. Based on this theory, partial diffusion models are constructed, and simulation of a large number of experimental data are curried out. A comparison of the simulation results with the experiment confirms the correctness and importance of the theory developed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17631] **viXra:1702.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 08:27:42*

**Authors:** Chongxi Yu

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Prime numbers are the basic numbers and are crucial important. There are many conjectures concerning primes are challenging mathematicians for hundreds of years. Goldbach's conjecture is one of the oldest and best-known unsolved problems in number theory and in all of mathematics. We give a clear proof for Goldbach's conjecture based on the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and Euclid's proof that the set of prime numbers is endless.

**Category:** Number Theory

[17630] **viXra:1702.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 09:37:09*

**Authors:** J.Williams

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle once said, and I am paraphrasing (once you remove all that's false, whatever remains has to be the truth. No matter how strange or ridiculous it may seem). I am going to assume that a photon will turn into a wave just because it goes through a double slit in a piece of paper is a false statement. I will then demonstrate that whatever is left can explain the four bars of light that form when light travels through the double slit.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17629] **viXra:1702.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 10:10:35*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Ali Hassan, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Motivated by the notion of generalized fuzzy graphs proposed by Samanta et al.[40] and the notion of single valued neutrosophic graphs proposed by Broumi et al.[30]. In this paper, we define the concept of generalized single valued neutrosophic graphs of first type ( GSVNG-1) and presented a matrix representation for it and studied few properties of this new concept. The concept of GSVNG is a generalization of generalized fuzzy graphs (GFG1).

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[17628] **viXra:1702.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 13:30:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Can helium bond with other elements to form a stable compound? Students attentive to Utah State University professor Alex Boldyrev's introductory chemistry lectures would immediately respond "no." And they'd be correct – if the scholars are standing on the Earth's surface. [11] Using a Bose-Einstein condensate composed of millions of sodium atoms, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have observed a sharp magnetically-induced quantum phase transition where they expect to find entangled atomic pairs. The work moves scientists closer to an elusive entangled state that would have potential sensing and computing applications beyond its basic science interests. [10] A team of researchers at the University of Cambridge has succeeded in creating turbulence in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) and in the process, have possibly opened the door to a new avenue of research. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they achieved this feat and the evidence they found for a cascade. Brian Anderson with the University of Arizona offers a News & Views piece describing the work done by the team in the same journal issue and offers a brief overview of the characteristic distribution of kinetic energy in turbulent fluids. [9] Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are macroscopic systems that have quantum behaviour, and are useful for exploring fundamental physics. Now researchers at the Gakushuin University and the University of Electro-Communications have studied how the miscibility of multicomponent BECs affects their behaviour, with surprising results. [8] Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic antisocial behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7] Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17627] **viXra:1702.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 14:22:10*

**Authors:** C S Sudheer Kumar

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Consider two ensembles of N qubits each: E1 and E2. The ratio Na1/N (Na2/N) is approximately 1/2 (1/2), where Na1 (Na2) is the total number of qubits in E1 (E2) which are in the state |a1> (|a2>), a1=0,1 (a2=+,-). |0>, |1> are eigenkets of Z (Pauli-z matrix), and |+>=(|0>+|1>)/sqrt(2), |->=(|0>-|1>)/sqrt(2). If we cannot address and control each of the N qubits in the ensemble separately (i.e., no local control, but only global control), like in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin ensembles, then both E1 and E2 are said to be maximally mixed, and hence it is not possible to discriminate between them. This is because, both E1 and E2 give same expectation value of an arbitrary observable. As number of measurements increases, variance of sample mean (of measurement outcomes) decreases, and hence sample mean approaches expectation value of the observable being measured. We are going to show that, if we have local control (like in experiments with single photons), then selectively rotating about x-axis (on Bloch sphere) each of the N qubits in the ensemble by a random angle, reduces variance of sample mean in E1 (this is due to sort of convoluting two independent probability distributions). As random x-rotations does nothing (up to an insignificant global phase) to the states |+>, |->, variance of sample mean remains unaltered in E2. Without random x-rotations, both E1 and E2 give same variance of sample mean. Hence we can discriminate between E1 and E2, via variance of sample mean. We also show that, numerical simulation results support theoretical predictions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17626] **viXra:1702.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 03:09:04*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here I study the behaviour of internal orbital angular momentum OAM light beams in a gravitational field. According to this study, such a beam should behave like a particle with rest mass, therefore the wavefront should slow down if the beam is pointed against the gravitational field and it will accelerate if pointed in the same direction as the gravitational field. This study is conducted in a classical context, intentionally ignoring Lorentz factors. However, the relativistic effects associated with these helical structures will emerge naturally. The paper will focus on a single relativistic phenomenon – naturally occurring velocity limitation of a spin ½ particle concept which poses a rest mass. However, this rest mass is also a redefined concept. It is interesting that if a beam is pointed against a gravitational field, the step length of the helical structure reduces which acts on increasing the detected frequency of the incoming beam (considering a stationary detector above the source and the gravitational filed direction pointing downward), but since the speed of the wavefront reduces, it acts as a reducing factor for the frequency that the detector will read. In other words, although the wavelength of the beam reduces as the wave-front advances, the speed of the wavefront reduces as well, resulting in a decreasing frequency. When the front-wave velocity tends to zero, this frequency tends to a positive number. It is clear that if the wavefront speed reduces under a gravitational field, it will eventually stop and reverse the direction, falling towards the source of the field. This behaviour is similar to a particle with rest mass. However, if photons don't have mass, then, my suggestion is that particles are helical structures that have similar construction to OAM |m| = 1 and therefore, we could say they don't have mass either.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17625] **viXra:1702.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 10:54:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In their most recent paper they demonstrated that solitons can be manipulated and outlined how to use them for logical operations. Their experiments and models are published in Nature Physics and pave the way to a new field of electronics: Solitonics. [14]
Scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. [13]
A team of theoretical physicists has proposed a way to simulate black holes on an electronic chip. Additionally, the technology used to create these lab-made black holes may be useful for quantum technologies. [12]
To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11]
Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved.
New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe.
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17624] **viXra:1702.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 11:01:59*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that the infinite tetration of Euler’s number is equal to any complex number. It is also found that starting with any complex number except 0 and 1, we can convert the complex number into an exponential with a complex exponent. If this is done recursively for each successive exponent, we find that the complex exponent converges to a constant number, which is named the Z-Exponential (Z_e). Derivatives for the Z-Exponential function are derived as well as its relationship to the exponential and natural logarithm.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[17623] **viXra:1702.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 09:21:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

While investigating how efficiently the brain can learn new information, physicists have found that, at the neuronal level, learning efficiency is ultimately limited by the laws of thermodynamics—the same principles that limit the efficiency of many other familiar processes. [18] Neural networks are commonly used today to analyze complex data – for instance to find clues to illnesses in genetic information. Ultimately, though, no one knows how these networks actually work exactly. [17] Hey Siri, how's my hair?" Your smartphone may soon be able to give you an honest answer, thanks to a new machine learning algorithm designed by U of T Engineering researchers Parham Aarabi and Wenzhi Guo. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system,

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[17622] **viXra:1702.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 02:52:26*

**Authors:** Chidi Idika

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Critique is welcome from physicists

Observer remains in quantum mechanics an undefined notion. I argue that to eliminate the measurement problem, for instance, the observer must not be considered also an observable. Instead, it must be deemed by own definition as the self referencing state rather the qualitatively “un-definable”; in the exact same sense that the self referencing state is in Gödel’s 2nd incompleteness theorem own “un-decidable” qualitatively. This has the crucial import that the observer is in fact the “uncertainty” proper—same seen otherwise as the entanglement (norm; wave function) of observables. It is modeled here as the zero refractive index n0 = vg/vp. Meaning, observables are non-zero refractive indices. I show here that absolute neutrino mass (sterile neutrino) is in fact the “mass gap” n0 signifying man as the observer vp.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17621] **viXra:1702.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 03:29:13*

**Authors:** Chidi Idika

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Critique welcome from physicists

Grant that neutrino absolute mass is the “mass gap”—modeled as the zero refractive index n0 = (vg/vp); wherein, man as observer signifies the phase velocity vp and the CMB is group velocity vg. I argue now that as the material self-referential state n0 is then the material “wave function of the universe” (the Heisenberg cut). I show here that this will be in the material sense that n0 is the substantive mass-energy constant in place of conventional carbon-12 or c2. Meaning now, it is the bona fide “Hoyle resonance state”; something otherwise termed the natural unit.
I propose strictly thus that a material self i.e., a “wave function” n0 defines a space-time and vice versa. Specifically, it is that whose interference pattern or beats (“oscillations”; “curvatures”) constitutes the valid observables—the observable “space” and “time”. Overall, this permits us to adopt quite literally the Everett many-worlds or the “multiverse” picture. Basically here it is the complex form wherein the observer is the imaginary unit and the observables constitute the real axis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17620] **viXra:1702.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 03:41:13*

**Authors:** Hervé Le Cornec

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We show that the time must be quantized in a classical world, and therefore all other physics parameters must also be. We propose to build a classical physics theory that uses only theorems, but no postulate. The foundation are build on five elementary theorems, that lead trivially and straight forward to the description of the Planck's constant, the Planck-Einstein relationship, and the speed of light as the maximum speed, although we remain on a classical point of view.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17619] **viXra:1702.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 04:07:40*

**Authors:** Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

**Comments:** 22 Pages. This document will always be in "Draft" Status indefinitely and permanently

The Extended Rishon Model is currently in continuous development,
expansion and clarification, yet with nothing found that is contradictory
to its initial foundations as of over three decades ago. However there
are a series of recurring themes that have a large body of evidence to
support, some less-well-confirmed themes and a body of hypotheses that
need significant further exploration. This document - which will be
continuously revised - therefore keeps track of the different categories
in order to avoid repetition, and to make it much easier for others to
understand the Extended Rishon Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[17618] **viXra:1702.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-05 10:50:12*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

I search group structure for a preon model of quarks and leptons. Knot theory algebra SLq(2) [4] is shown to be applicable to the model. Results on teleparallel gravity [10] are reviewed with interesting results. A tentative glimpse on quantum gravity is indicated.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17617] **viXra:1702.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-05 10:49:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

A team of researchers from Google, the University of the Basque Country, the University of California and IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science has devised a means for combining the two leading ideas for creating a quantum computer in one machine, offering a possible means for learning more about how to create a true quantum computer sometime in the future. [31] When future users of quantum computers need to analyze their data or run quantum algorithms, they will often have to send encrypted information to the computer. [30] Quantum systems were believed to provide perfectly secure data transmission because until now, attempts to copy the transmitted information resulted in an altered or deteriorated version of the original information, thereby defeating the purpose of the initial hack. [29] Researchers have developed a new type of light-enhancing optical cavity that is only 200 nanometers tall and 100 nanometers across. Their new nanoscale system represents a step toward brighter single-photon sources, which could help propel quantum-based encryption and a truly secure and future-proofed network. [28] Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23]

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[17616] **viXra:1702.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-05 11:18:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

Researchers from Griffith University and the University of Queensland have overcome one of the key challenges to quantum computing by simplifying a complex quantum logic operation. They demonstrated this by experimentally realising a challenging circuit—the quantum Fredkin gate—for the first time. [32] A team of researchers from Google, the University of the Basque Country, the University of California and IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science has devised a means for combining the two leading ideas for creating a quantum computer in one machine, offering a possible means for learning more about how to create a true quantum computer sometime in the future. [31] When future users of quantum computers need to analyze their data or run quantum algorithms, they will often have to send encrypted information to the computer. [30] Quantum systems were believed to provide perfectly secure data transmission because until now, attempts to copy the transmitted information resulted in an altered or deteriorated version of the original information, thereby defeating the purpose of the initial hack. [29] Researchers have developed a new type of light-enhancing optical cavity that is only 200 nanometers tall and 100 nanometers across. Their new nanoscale system represents a step toward brighter single-photon sources, which could help propel quantum-based encryption and a truly secure and future-proofed network. [28] Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24]

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[17615] **viXra:1702.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-05 12:11:01*

**Authors:** Felix M Lev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We discuss finite quantum theory (FQT) developed in our previous publications and give a simple explanation that standard quantum theory is a special case of FQT in the formal limit $p\to\infty$ where $p$ is the characteristic of the ring or field used in FQT. Then we argue that FQT is a more natural basis for quantum computing than standard quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17614] **viXra:1702.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-05 09:58:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

When future users of quantum computers need to analyze their data or run quantum algorithms, they will often have to send encrypted information to the computer. [30] Quantum systems were believed to provide perfectly secure data transmission because until now, attempts to copy the transmitted information resulted in an altered or deteriorated version of the original information, thereby defeating the purpose of the initial hack. [29] Researchers have developed a new type of light-enhancing optical cavity that is only 200 nanometers tall and 100 nanometers across. Their new nanoscale system represents a step toward brighter single-photon sources, which could help propel quantum-based encryption and a truly secure and future-proofed network. [28] Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21]

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[17613] **viXra:1702.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-05 00:01:02*

**Authors:** William W. Sabol

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been shown to be uniquely activated when people engage in envy. Similarly, dACC is the major component of a proposed adversity processing circuit that predicts risks to prevent destructive behaviors and inhibit release of dopamine and serotonin, which play a significant role in skeletal health. A causal relationship may therefore exist between chronic envy and the induction of lowered bone mineral density (BMD) as a result of dACC activation.

**Category:** Mind Science

[17612] **viXra:1702.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 08:00:54*

**Authors:** M.W.Kalinowski

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

W pracy rozpatrujemy podstawy mechaniki kwantowej w języku logik kwantowych w zasto-
sowaniu do teorii parametrów ukrytych i możliwych uogólnień mechaniki kwantowej. Omawiamy
związek mechaniki kwantowej z logikami wielowartościowymi. Wprowadzamy system aksjoma-
tyczny Mackaya–Mączyńskiego ogólnego systemu mechanicznego. Badamy ogólne własności ob-
serwabli i ich reprezentacje boolowskie. Z aksjomatu QM mechaniki kwantowej wyprowadzamy
podstawowe postulaty tej mechaniki. Omawiamy hipotezę o parametrach ukrytych, dyskusję na
ich temat oraz paradoks EPR (Einsteina–Podolskiego–Rosena) wraz z nierównością Bella.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[17611] **viXra:1702.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 08:01:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. [13]
A team of theoretical physicists has proposed a way to simulate black holes on an electronic chip. Additionally, the technology used to create these lab-made black holes may be useful for quantum technologies. [12]
To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11]
Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved.
New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe.
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17610] **viXra:1702.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 08:05:27*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Since stellar evolution takes billions of years, and planet formation is stellar evolution in the general theory of stellar metamorphosis, it takes billions of years for a planet to form.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17609] **viXra:1702.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 09:44:48*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely with a small ttg , affected by a small nonsingular region of space-time. The resulting density will be of the form 24 int~ ( ) visc H a t with the first term, on the right viscosity, of space-time, the 2nd on the right the square of an initial expansion rate, and due to the nonsingular nature of initial space time the fourth power of a scale factor, with 55 ~ ~10 init aa . We apply these density alteration tools to a criterion of self-replication of the universe, as written up by Mukhanov, as to how classical and quantum inflaton variations lead to understanding if the initial inflaton field of the Universe will be ‘growing’, or shrinking with .. The first contribution to the initial alteration of the inflaton is classical, equivalent to minus the inverse of the inflation field, and the second quantum mechanically based alteration of the inflaton is a ‘mass’ term times an initial inflaton field. If this change in inflaton is positive, it means that domains of space time are increasing, and this is dependent upon the effective mass term we calculate in this manuscript., Finally after we do this we state how this relates to a formulation of the initial change in the Cosmological ‘constant’ as given by ~ initial total space time mass M as well as heavy gravity issues.
Keywords: Emergent time, heavy gravity, metric tensor perturbations, HUP

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17608] **viXra:1702.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 09:53:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[7559] **viXra:1702.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-16 04:03:24*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

With verses traceable back to the Vedic ages, and a presence continuously seen until the present day, worship of the Lord Dharma Shaasta most popularly known as Ayyappan remains a strong forte of the Hindu faith. However, with origins hazy and shrouded in mystery, there is also a thick cloud of mystery and controversial notions surrounding the Lord, with the real truth being as good as deeply hidden and buried underground. The discussion attempts to address this topic from all angles such as literature, temples and spirituality.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[7558] **viXra:1702.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-17 19:44:31*

**Authors:** Chongxi Yu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Prime numbers are the basic numbers and are crucial important. There are many conjectures concerning primes are challenging mathematicians for hundreds of years and many “advanced mathematics tools” are used to solve them, but they are still unsolved. Based on the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and Euclid’s proof of endless prime numbers, we have proved there are infinitely many twin primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[7557] **viXra:1702.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-18 21:07:27*

**Authors:** Stephen P Smith

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper describes the backward differentiation of the Cholesky decomposition by the bordering method. The backward differentiation of the Cholesky decomposition by the inner product form and the outer product form have been described elsewhere. It is found that the resulting algorithm can be adapted to vector processing, as is also true of the algorithms developed from the inner product form and outer product form. The three approaches can also be fashioned to treat sparse matrices, but this is done by enforcing the same sparse structure found for the Cholesky decomposition on a secondary work space.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[7556] **viXra:1702.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-19 12:25:44*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. fix scaling error in figure 3

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed.
This article proposes and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations lead always to the same experimental predictions.
The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7555] **viXra:1702.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-15 03:18:13*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. now in English

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed.
This article proposes and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations leads always to the same experimental predictions.
The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7554] **viXra:1702.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-12 10:20:00*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A quantized magnetic flux version of Planck's reduced constant is deduced from first principles. The magnetic flux quantum can explain the fine structure constant and the “anomalous” magnetic moment of an electron.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7553] **viXra:1702.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-12 05:39:27*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A quantized magnetic flux version of Planck's reduced constant is deduced from first principles. The magnetic flux quantum can explain the fine structure constant and the “anomalous” magnetic moment of an electron.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7552] **viXra:1702.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-15 03:23:14*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Polynomial time primality test for safe primes is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[7551] **viXra:1702.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-14 00:07:47*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Polynomial time primality test for safe primes is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[7550] **viXra:1702.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-14 03:47:06*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Why do objects possess inertia at all ? What is gravity ? Why are inertial and gravitational masses equal ? These are some of the greatest puzzles and mysteries in physics that have not been really solved to date. This paper reveals these mysteries. Inertia and electrical self- inductance are not only analogous, but they are the same phenomena: electromagnetism ! Inertia is 'self-inductance' or electromagnetic radiation reaction. Electrostatic force and gravitational force are not only analogous, but they are basically the same phenomena: electrostatics. Both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total number of electrons, protons and neutrons in an object, i.e. the total (NOT net ) charge in the object. This is the fundamental reason why inertial mass and gravitational mass are equal. Universal speed limit is due to non-linear law of self- inductance or radiation resistance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7549] **viXra:1702.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-09 19:34:42*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

As a step toward understanding why the Earth's atmosphere "rotates" with the Earth, we use Geometric (Clifford) Algebra to investigate the trajectory of a single molecule that desorbs vertically upward from the Equator, then falls back to Earth without colliding with any other molecules. Sample calculations are presented for a molecule whose vertical velocity is equal to the surface velocity of the Earth at the Equator (463 m/s) and for one with a vertical velocity three times as high. The latter velocity is sufficient for the molecule to reach the Kármán Line (100,000 m). We find that both molecules fall to Earth behind the point from which they desorbed: by 0.25 degrees of latitude for the higher vertical velocity, but by only 0.001 degrees for the lower.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7548] **viXra:1702.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-08 17:50:50*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Added 2 equations as to explain how the square of the time derivative of the inflaton is >> Susy potential, explicitly

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely. If so then, we pick the conditions for an equality, with a small , to come up with restraints which are in line with modifications of the Friedman equation in a quantum bounce, with removal of the Penrose theorem initial singularity. In line with super negative pressure being applied, so as to understand what we can present as far as H = 0 ( quantum bounce) in terms of density of the Universe. And also considering what to expect when . I.e. we have a negative energy density in Pre Planckian space-time. This leads to a causal discontinuity between Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time due to the sign of the inflaton changing from minus to positive, for reasons brought up in this manuscript. i.e. looking at Eq. (9) , Eq. (10) and Eq. (11) of this document, with explanations as to what is going on physically.
Keywords: Emergent time , metric tensor perturbations, HUP , negative energy density

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7547] **viXra:1702.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-08 13:20:29*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 32 Pages. drafr 1.2

In this paper whose charts were directly borrowed from the NAEP website on the National Report Cards, I noticed some very striking features about the national and state math stagnations in the USA, especially for 2005-2015 during which most of the citywide math stagnations seemed to have taken place. We examined the NAEP math data from 2003 to 2015 for the math grades 4 and 8 from 21 big cities (or districts). Although there are some variations with the time lags of perhaps 2-4 years (Los Angeles or Chicago) or even 6 years (for the case of District of Columbia), there were strikingly consistent, emerging patterns about the math stagnations. The overall math stagnations took their roots around 2005 for the math grade 4 and this was observed for the math grade 8 in about 4 years later and this was very consistent in almost all TUDA participating cities and districts. Thus the main outline for the stagnations were 2005-2009. The conclusion after examining the 21 cities is that 18 of them have confirmed the hypothesis of the math stagnations already by 2015. So the confirmation of the hypothesis of the math stagnations in all these cities is at least 86% and most likely 90-100% will be by 2017-2019 most likely. The math stagnations are here across the USA even in the city and district levels and very unlikely to go away. We discussed the implications of about 4 year time lags impacting the math stagnations to grade 8 with the implications of the Common Core math standards of the USA 2011-2015.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[7546] **viXra:1702.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-10 03:21:43*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

From string theory to topstringy.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[7545] **viXra:1702.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-08 13:29:59*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 18 Pages. drafr 1.2

This paper is an extension of the previous paper by the author on the theme of the math stagnations in almost all developed (OECD) nations internationally, for all developed English-speaking and most of the Latin American countries. The author has covered this theme for the USA math stagnations in the international math assessments, national NAEP’s national math growth stagnations, most of the states’ math stagnations, and at least 90-95% of the large districts’ (or cities’) math stagnations over the past 5-10-15-20 years. In this paper, the author observes and demonstrates the following: 1) the longer the states had stayed with the Common Core math standards, the math grade 4 average and 25 percentile had declined more than the USA states that had never participated in the Common Core math or those that had opted out by the end of 2014 or so before the NAEP 2015 math dipping happened for both the grade 4 and 8; 2) The similar pattern was also observed for the grade 4, however, with much less effect; 3) Although the negative impacts of the Common Core math on the NAEP 2015 was not negligible for the grade, the dips for the grade 8 was more likely caused by the Common Core more so than for the grade 4th math. Regardless, the math stagnations are persistent with or without the Common Core math’s overall negative effects for math for both grades will be as such. There were math dips in the grade 8 math for the states that had been out of the Common Core math, which means that the math stagnations in the USA may enter a worse phase in 2017 on even if the negative effect of the Common Core math is overcome.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[7544] **viXra:1702.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-13 23:18:35*

**Authors:** Chongxi Yu

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Prime numbers are the basic numbers and are crucial important. There are many conjectures concerning primes are challenging mathematicians for hundreds of years. Goldbach's conjecture is one of the oldest and best-known unsolved problems in number theory and in all of mathematics. We give a clear proof for Goldbach's conjecture based on the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and Euclid's proof that the set of prime numbers is endless.
Key words: Goldbach's conjecture , fundamental theorem of arithmetic, Euclid's proof of infinite primes

**Category:** Number Theory

[7543] **viXra:1702.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-12 00:48:46*

**Authors:** Chongxi Yu

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Prime numbers are the basic numbers and are crucial important. There are many conjectures concerning primes are challenging mathematicians for hundreds of years. Goldbach's conjecture is one of the oldest and best-known unsolved problems in number theory and in all of mathematics. We give a clear proof for Goldbach's conjecture based on the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and Euclid's proof that the set of prime numbers is endless.
Key words: Goldbach's conjecture , fundamental theorem of arithmetic, Euclid's proof of infinite primes

**Category:** Number Theory

[7542] **viXra:1702.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-07 07:43:45*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here I study the behaviour of internal orbital angular momentum OAM light beams in a gravitational field. According to this study, such a beam will behave like a particle with rest mass, therefore the wavefront will slow down if the beam is pointed against the gravitational field and it will accelerate if pointed in the same direction as the gravitational field. This study is conducted in a classical context, intentionally ignoring Lorentz factors. However, the relativistic effects associated with these helical structures will emerge naturally. The paper will focus on a single relativistic phenomenon – naturally occurring velocity limitation of a spin ½ particle concept which poses a rest mass. However, this rest mass is also a redefined concept. It is interesting that if a beam is pointed against a gravitational field, the step length of the helical structure reduces which acts on increasing the detected frequency of the incoming beam (considering a stationary detector above the source and the gravitational filed direction pointing downward), but since the speed of the wavefront reduces, it acts as a reducing factor for the frequency that the detector will read. In other words, although the wavelength of the beam reduces as the wave-front advances, the speed of the wavefront reduces as well, resulting in a decreasing frequency. When the front-wave velocity tends to zero, this frequency tends to a positive number.
It is clear that if the wavefront speed reduces under a gravitational field, it will eventually stop and reverse the direction, falling towards the source of the field. This behaviour is similar to a particle with rest mass. However, if photons don't have mass, then, my suggestion is that particles are helical structures that have similar construction to OAM |m| = 1 and therefore, we could say they don't have mass either.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7541] **viXra:1702.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-10 11:04:23*

**Authors:** Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The Extended Rishon Model is currently in continuous development,
expansion and clarification, yet with nothing found that is contradictory
to its initial foundations as of over three decades ago. However there
are a series of recurring themes that have a large body of evidence to
support, some less-well-confirmed themes and a body of hypotheses that
need significant further exploration. This document - which will be
continuously revised - therefore keeps track of the different categories
in order to avoid repetition, and to make it much easier for others to
understand the Extended Rishon Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7540] **viXra:1702.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-07 06:11:20*

**Authors:** Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The Extended Rishon Model is currently in continuous development,
expansion and clarification, yet with nothing found that is contradictory
to its initial foundations as of over three decades ago. However there
are a series of recurring themes that have a large body of evidence to
support, some less-well-confirmed themes and a body of hypotheses that
need significant further exploration. This document - which will be
continuously revised - therefore keeps track of the different categories
in order to avoid repetition, and to make it much easier for others to
understand the Extended Rishon Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics