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## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[21504] viXra:1712.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-16 16:46:07

### The Closed-Form Theory of Tuned Mass Damper with Hysteretic Friction

Authors: Roman Vinokur

The classical theory of lumped mechanical systems employs the viscous friction mechanisms (dashpots), while the loss factors of most solid structures are controlled by hysteresis. This paper presents analysis of the forced vibration of 2-DOF in-series systems with hysteretic friction where one of the partial 1-DOF systems plays the role of tuned (or auxiliary) mass damper (TMD). The assumption of hysteretic damping is acceptable if the loss factor remains about stable at least in the frequency range containing the resonance peaks. The closed-form simple relationships for the transmissibility at the resonance frequencies are derived in the “nearby” case where (1) the natural undamped frequencies of 2-DOF in-series system are most close to each other and (2) the loss factors of the 2-DOF system become similar and equal to the arithmetic average of the partial loss factors. The independent parameters are the mass ratio and partial loss factors. The relationships become very simple if the mass ratio is high or low compared to the square of each partial loss factor. In cases where the ratio of natural undamped frequencies of 2-DOF system are moderately lower or higher than in the “nearby case”, the transmissibility peak magnitudes are about similar to those for the “nearby” case. The results can be utilized for the noise and vibration control in machinery and buildings.
Category: Classical Physics

[21503] viXra:1712.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-16 19:45:21

### Electromagnetic Mass Reduction Repulsion Boots

Authors: Ricardo T/Thomas Gil
Comments: 2 Pages. This paper is about Human performance, mass reduction through repulsion and Mathematical Physics.

The purpose of this paper is to show how these electronic mass reduction repulsion boot(similar to magnetic field disruption TR3B (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=au4hbUm4mMo) could be used on the Talos to reduce the weight of the suit.(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFmFl5eE8vc).
Category: Number Theory

[21502] viXra:1712.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-17 02:19:30

### Blue Rib Bridge or Hiway

Authors: Ricardo T/Thomas Gil
Comments: 1 Page. To make a Tesla car, put one or more car batteries in the front seat and run a jumper cable to the cigarette lighter.

The purpose of this paper is to point out the Blue Rib Bridge or Highway A.K.A the Pinn Oak or Hausmann Stargate.
Category: Number Theory

[21501] viXra:1712.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-17 04:13:36

### Derivation Method of Numerous Dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed.

The article presents our innovative method of deriving dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity. This method enables to derive infinitely dynamics in relativistic mechanics. We have shown five examples of these derivations. In this way, we have shown that the dynamics known today as the dynamics of Special Theory of Relativity is only one of infinitely possible. There is also no reason to treat this relativistic dynamics as exceptional, either for experimental or theoretical reasons. Therefore, determination of which possible dynamics of relativistic mechanics is a correct model of reality remains an open problem of physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21500] viXra:1712.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-16 09:24:13

### Single Photon Detector

Authors: George Rajna

Engineers have shown that a widely used method of detecting single photons can also count the presence of at least four photons at a time. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27]Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[21499] viXra:1712.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 08:30:49

### Two-Dimensional Fourier Transformations and Mordell Integrals

Authors: Martin Nicholson

Several Fourier transformations of functions of one and two variables are evaluated and then used to derive some integral and series identities. It is shown that certain two- dimensional Mordell integrals factorize into product of two integrals and that the square of the absolute value of the Mordell integral can be reduced to a single one-dimensional integral. Some connections to elliptic functions and lattice sums are discussed.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[21498] viXra:1712.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 09:53:51

### On Quantization of Interacting Velocity Gauge Fields

Authors: Jean Pierre Rukundo

The many velocity gauge fields interaction Lagrangian density is extended to a continuous spectrum Lagrangian then quantized and normalized. The Euler-Lagrange equation is transformed to the Yang-Mills field, curvature and integral operators. The Yang-Mills field operator quantization gives the equivalent Dirac equation, the integral operator quantization gives perturbation series similar to the path integral formulation of Quantum mechanics and the curvature operator gives the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian. In all quantization cases, the field form operators have mass eigenvalue. Finally, the normalization of the wave function gives the Lagrangian of massive particle Lagrangian with many different representations.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21497] viXra:1712.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 10:21:17

### Collective Quantum Modes

Authors: George Rajna

ICFO researchers created a novel type of liquid 100 million times more dilute than water and 1 million times thinner than air. The experiments, published in Science, exploit a fascinating quantum effect to produce droplets of this exotic phase of matter. [14] "In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[21496] viXra:1712.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 11:09:58

### Quantum Behavior of Resonant Systems

Authors: George Rajna

A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[21495] viXra:1712.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 13:20:16

### Consciousness

Authors: Robert T. Longo

The present scientific paradigm holds that the brain is the seat of consciousness, and a complete knowledge of the neurons will yield a full understanding of this phenomena. There are also non-scientific paradigms that suggest that consciousness is some how connected to a great universal consciousness, the mind of God. In this paper I will separate these two ideas by defining a local and global consciousness, and will briefly discuss both.
Category: Mind Science

[21494] viXra:1712.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 16:18:36

### Tying Gravitational Work to Energy Transformations and Other Principles in the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

Gravitational work is defined as the star doing work on itself as it collapses into a "planet". This work translates to various energy transformations, due to Gravitational Potential energy being converted to kinetic energy and then to friction, heat and electrical energy and back to potential energy in different forms. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[21493] viXra:1712.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 19:37:16

### The Unifying Theory: A New Theory of the Universe

Our understanding of motion has been influenced by the assumption that external and invisible forces act upon matter to cause acceleration. In this article, I refute the validity of this convention and propose an alternative perception that suggests matter's independence. That change in perspective gives rise to important principles and equations that contribute to resolving the conflict between classical and quantum mechanics, unifying the explanations for universal forces and explaining the Lorentz transformation. I start by introducing a unit, a number of fundamental particles, that replaces mass. Then, I suggest that motion is quantized with a frequency equal to speed divided by a variation of Planck's Length. I then explain that energy is the primary cause of motion and can be calculated by measuring time dilation. Finally, I introduce a single formula that describes gravity and electromagnetism.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[21492] viXra:1712.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 22:02:20

### Conformal Kerr-de Sitter Gravity

Authors: William O. Straub

We show that the Kerr metric for de Sitter spacetime is consistent with the demand that the associated Einstein field equations be derived from a simple conformally invariant Lagrangian.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21491] viXra:1712.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 23:33:47

### Predicting Yelp Star Reviews Based on Network Structure with Deep Learning

Authors: Luis Perez

In this paper, we tackle the real-world problem of predicting Yelp star-review rating based on business features (such as images, descriptions), user features (average previous ratings), and, of particular interest, network properties (which businesses has a user rated before). We compare multiple models on different sets of features -- from simple linear regression on network features only to deep learning models on network and item features. In recent years, breakthroughs in deep learning have led to increased accuracy in common supervised learning tasks, such as image classification, captioning, and language understanding. However, the idea of combining deep learning with network feature and structure appears to be novel. While the problem of predicting future interactions in a network has been studied at length, these approaches have often ignored either node-specific data or global structure. We demonstrate that taking a mixed approach combining both node-level features and network information can effectively be used to predict Yelp-review star ratings. We evaluate on the Yelp dataset by splitting our data along the time dimension (as would naturally occur in the real-world) and comparing our model against others which do no take advantage of the network structure and/or deep learning.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[21490] viXra:1712.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 23:41:37

### The Effectiveness of Data Augmentation in Image Classification using Deep Learning

Authors: Luis Perez, Jason Wang

In this paper, we explore and compare multiple solutions to the problem of data augmentation in image classification. Previous work has demonstrated the effectiveness of data augmentation through simple techniques, such as cropping, rotating, and flipping input images. We artificially constrain our access to data to a small subset of the ImageNet dataset, and compare each data augmentation technique in turn. One of the more successful data augmentations strategies is the traditional transformations mentioned above. We also experiment with GANs to generate images of different styles. Finally, we propose a method to allow a neural net to learn augmentations that best improve the classifier, which we call neural augmentation. We discuss the successes and shortcomings of this method on various datasets.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[21489] viXra:1712.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 23:43:11

### Gaussian Processes for Crime Prediction

Authors: Luis Perez, Alex Wang

The ability to predict crime is incredibly useful for police departments, city planners, and many other parties, but thus far current approaches have not made use of recent developments of machine learning techniques. In this paper, we present a novel approach to this task: Gaussian processes regression. Gaussian processes (GP) are a rich family of distributions that are able to learn functions. We train GPs on historic crime data to learn the underlying probability distribution of crime incidence to make predictions on future crime distributions.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[21488] viXra:1712.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 23:44:57

### Harvard Q-Guide Predictions Market

Authors: Luis Perez, Haotian Wu

Given the announcement by Harvard College to stop publishing difficulty rating for courses \cite{crimson}, a need has arisen for alternative methods of information gathering among undergraduates. In this paper, we propose different prediction market mechanisms, detailing user input/output, contract definitions, and payment rules for each of the proposed mechanisms. The goal of each mechanism is to obtain accurate predictions that could replace Q-guide data (overall course quality, difficulty rating, and workload rating). We further discuss properties of each prediction market, such as the truthfulness incentives of for individual agents, individual agent's optimal policies, and expected results from each market. We conclude with a discussion and explanation of a simple toy implementation of the market, detailing design consideration that might affect user behaviour in our market, and laying the groundwork for future expansion and testing.
Category: Economics and Finance

[21487] viXra:1712.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-16 00:36:46

### Reinforcement Learning with Swingy Monkey

Authors: Luis Perez, Aidi Zhang, Kevin Eskici

This paper explores model-free, model-based, and mixture models for reinforcement learning under the setting of a SwingyMonkey game \footnote{The code is hosted on a public repository \href{https://github.com/kandluis/machine-learning}{here} under the prac4 directory.}. SwingyMonkey is a simple game with well-defined goals and mechanisms, with a relatively small state-space. Using Bayesian Optimization \footnote{The optimization took place using the open-source software made available by HIPS \href{https://github.com/HIPS/Spearmint}{here}.} on a simple Q-Learning algorithm, we were able to obtain high scores within just a few training epochs. However, the system failed to scale well after continued training, and optimization over hundreds of iterations proved too time-consuming to be effective. After manually exploring multiple approaches, the best results were achieved using a mixture of $\epsilon$-greedy Q-Learning with a stable learning rate,$\alpha$, and $\delta \approx 1$ discount factor. Despite the theoretical limitations of this approach, the settings, resulted in maximum scores of over 5000 points with an average score of $\bar{x} \approx 684$ (averaged over the final 100 testing epochs, median of $\bar{m} = 357.5$). The results show an continuing linear log-relation capping only after 20,000 training epochs.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[21486] viXra:1712.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-16 00:38:28

### Multi-Document Text Summarization

Authors: Luis Perez, Kevin Eskici

We tackle the problem of multi-document extractive summarization by implementing two well-known algorithms for single-text summarization -- {\sc TextRank} and {\sc Grasshopper}. We use ROUGE-1 and ROUGE-2 precision scores with the DUC 2004 Task 2 data set to measure the performance of these two algorithms, with optimized parameters as described in their respective papers ($\alpha =0.25$ and $\lambda=0.5$ for Grasshopper and $d=0.85$ for TextRank). We compare these modified algorithms to common baselines as well as non-naive, novel baselines and we present the resulting ROUGE-1 and ROUGE-2 recall scores. Subsequently, we implement two novel algorithms as extensions of {\sc GrassHopper} and {\sc TextRank}, each termed {\sc ModifiedGrassHopper} and {\sc ModifiedTextRank}. The modified algorithms intuitively attempt to maximize'' diversity across the summary. We present the resulting ROUGE scores. We expect that with further optimizations, this unsupervised approach to extractive text summarization will prove useful in practice.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[21485] viXra:1712.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-16 01:01:52

### Proof that a Derivative is a Fraction, and the Chain Rule is the Product of Such Fractions

Authors: Carl Wigert, Quincy-Howard Xavier

In this paper, we define very small numbers and very very small numbers and use them to construct derivatives as ratios of real numbers. We then use that result to rigorously prove that the chain rule treats derivatives as fractions being multiplied.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[21484] viXra:1712.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-16 07:18:33

### Spinning Cosmos Hyphotesis

Authors: Furkan Akal

Antihesis against Dark Matter and Dark Energy Theories..
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21483] viXra:1712.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-16 08:28:16

### Stellar Metamorphosis: Astron Classification Table

Authors: Daniel Archer

I present a classification table of astrons made possible due to the theory of Stellar Metamorphosis(GTSM).
Category: Astrophysics

[21482] viXra:1712.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 08:26:10

### 浅谈量子理论的客观实在性，观察改变世界

Authors: Liu Ran

Category: Quantum Physics

[21481] viXra:1712.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 09:17:53

### Primes Obtained Concatenating 9p-12 with P^2 Where P Prime or Poulet Number

Authors: Marius Coman

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (1) There exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating 9*p – 12 with p^2 where p is a prime (for example, such a prime is 208554289 obtained concatenating 9*233 – 12 = 2085 with 233^2 = 54289); (2) There exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating 9*p – 12 with p^2 where p is a Poulet number (for example, such a prime is 155492989441 obtained concatenating 9*1729 – 12 = 15549 with 1729^2 = 2989441).
Category: Number Theory

[21480] viXra:1712.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 09:19:56

### Primes Obtained Concatenating 2n+4 with 2n+4 Then with N Where N=3p and P Prime

Authors: Marius Coman

In this paper I make the following conjecture: There exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating 2*n + 4 with 2*n + 4 then with n where n = 3*p and p is a prime; for example, such primes are 19019093 obtained concatenating 190 = 2*(3*31) + 4 with 190 then with 93 = 3*31 or 12701270633 obtained concatenating 1270 = 2*(3*211) + 4 with 1270 then with 633 = 3*211. Note that for twenty-five from the first eighty primes p are obtained primes with this method.
Category: Number Theory

[21479] viXra:1712.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 16:26:27

### Emergence of the Laws of Nature in the Developing Entangled Universe

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature seems to be emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of entangled gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable. The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass of neutrino, as the first massive fermionic particle created from the background condensate, is estimated, in accord with experimental bound. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is also estimated. The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of quantum entanglement of ordinary matter was, apparently, inherited from the background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate, which opens a new window into the dark sector of matter. The Qmoger theory goes beyond the Standard Model and the Quantum Field Theory and can be combined with their achievements. Key words: quantum modification of general relativity, emergence of the laws of nature, isenthalpic universe, quantum condensate of gravitons, oscillating neutrinos, subjective experiences and dark sector of matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21478] viXra:1712.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 16:56:51

### The Role of Charm and Strange Quarks in Holographic Cyclic E8 Symmetric Universe Theory

Authors: George R. Briggs

Abstract: It is noticed that the sum of the s and c quarks mc^2 = 1370 MeV. 1000X this energy is close to the energy needed per second per active galaxy to energize the universe according to HCE8S theory
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21477] viXra:1712.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 21:35:07

### Influence of Temperature to Flow-Induced Forces on QCM Sensors in a Pakistani Liquor Identification Electronic-Nose

Authors: Zabak Hiyae
Comments: 8 Pages. Computational fluid dynamics, Temperature, QCM gas sensor, Electronic nose, Identification accuracy

An electronic-nose (e-nose) was developed based on eight quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) gas sensors in a sensor box, and was used to detect Pakistani liquors at room temperature. Each QCM gas sensor was a highly-accuracy and highly-sensitive oscillator that experienced airflow disturbances under the condition of varying room temperature due to unstable flow-induced forces on sensors surfaces. The three-dimensional (3D) nature of the airflow inside the sensor box and the interactions of the airflow on the sensors surfaces at different temperatures were studied utilizing computational fluid dynamics tools. Higher simulation accuracy was achieved by optimizing meshes, meshing the computational domain using a fine unstructural tetrahedron mesh. An optimum temperature, 30°C, was obtained by analyzing the distribution of velocity streamlines and static pressure, as well as flow-induced forces over time, all of which may be used to improve the identification accuracy of the QCM e-nose for achieving stabile and repeatable signals by removing the influence of temperature.
Category: Classical Physics

[21476] viXra:1712.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 00:25:18

### How Many Shots Were Fired on 22. November 1963 in Dealey Plaza?

Authors: Jorma Jormakka

This article is continuation to my previous article on the acoustic evidence of the assassination of President John. F. Kennedy. Four putative gunshots are identified from Dictabelt data, they are matched to the Zapruder film, and a fifth shot is postulated because of the Zapruder film. Finally echo correlation analysis is performed. It is only suggestive because data is too noisy, but agrees with what can be expected by other arguments.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[21475] viXra:1712.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 03:07:11

### Primes of the Form 2^a∙2^b∙2^c + D Where a, b, c, D of the Form 6k-1

Authors: Marius Coman

In this paper I make the following conjecture: For any a, b, c distinct numbers of the form 6*k – 1 there exist an infinity of numbers d of the form 6*h – 1 such that the number n = 2^a*2^b*2^c + d is prime. This is a formula that conducts often to primes and composites with very few prime factors; for instance, taking a = 5 and b = 11 are obtained seventeen primes for c and d both less than 100 (for c = 17, n is prime for six values of d up to 100: 17, 29, 35, 59, 71, 77)! Also note that for [a, b, c, d] = [59, 65, 71, 53] (all four less than or equal to 71) is obtained a prime with 59 digits!
Category: Number Theory

[21474] viXra:1712.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 03:09:04

### Primes of the Form 2^a∙2^b∙2^c D Where a, b, c, D of the Form 6k+1

Authors: Marius Coman

In this paper I make the following conjecture: For any a, b, c distinct numbers of the form 6*k + 1 there exist an infinity of numbers d of the form 6*h + 1 such that the number n = 2^a*2^b*2^c - d is prime. This is a formula that conducts often to primes and composites with very few prime factors; for instance, taking a = 7 and b = 13 are obtained eighteen primes for c and d both less than 100 (for c = 19, n is prime for four values of d up to 100: 7, 19, 67, 91)! Also note that for [a, b, c, d] = [49, 55, 61, 61] (all four less than or equal to 61) is obtained a prime with 50 digits!
Category: Number Theory

[21473] viXra:1712.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 03:27:41

### Quest for an Elusive Particle

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand highenergy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and righthanded particles. [4]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[21472] viXra:1712.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 05:11:59

### Quantum Liquid

Authors: George Rajna

ICFO researchers created a novel type of liquid 100 million times more dilute than water and 1 million times thinner than air. The experiments, published in Science, exploit a fascinating quantum effect to produce droplets of this exotic phase of matter. [14] "In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[21471] viXra:1712.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 06:19:20

### Silicon Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists have built one of the first basic elements of a trapped Rydberg ion quantum computer: a single-qubit Rydberg gate. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[21470] viXra:1712.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 07:35:21

### Why Speed of Light is Constant Regardless the Motion?

Authors: Mohammed Abdelwhab Husseiny

In this paper, we explain why speed of light is constant for all observers by postulating that the moving frames travel to forward and backward with the same velocity with respect to observers at rest. The regress of moving frames to backward during its motion to forward refers to reversal of space and time of moving frames with respect to observers at rest. The conclusions drawn in this study refer to “Retrocausality" or "backward causation" of moving frames along reversed space and during reversed time with respect to a stationary frame of reference.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21469] viXra:1712.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 08:17:06

### A New Divergence Measure for Basic Probability Assignment and Its Applications in Extremely Uncertain Environments

Authors: Liguo Fei, Yong Hu, Yong Deng, Sankaran Mahadevan

Information fusion under extremely uncertain environments is an important issue in pattern classification and decision-making problem. Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (D-S theory) is more and more extensively applied to information fusion for its advantage to deal with uncertain information. However, the results opposite to common sense are often obtained when combining the different evidences using Dempster’s combination rules. How to measure the difference between different evidences is still an open issue. In this paper, a new divergence is proposed based on Kullback-Leibler divergence in order to measure the difference between different basic probability assignments (BPAs). Numerical examples are used to illustrate the computational process of the proposed divergence. Then the similarity for different BPAs is also defined based on the proposed divergence. The basic knowledge about pattern recognition is introduced and a new classification algorithm is presented using the proposed divergence and similarity under extremely uncertain environments, which is illustrated by a small example handling robot sensing. The method put forward is motivated by desperately in need to develop intelligent systems, such as sensor-based data fusion manipulators, which need to work in complicated, extremely uncertain environments. Sensory data satisfy the conditions 1) fragmentary and 2) collected from multiple levels of resolution.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[21468] viXra:1712.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 08:35:07

### A Equação Guedes-Schroedinger: Sobre a Solução Estacionária Oriunda do Oscilador Harmônico Amortecido

Authors: Edigles Guedes

Derivamos algumas soluções gerais para o estado estacionário, oriundas do oscilador harmônico amortecido, por meio da equação Guedes-Schroedinger.
Category: Quantum Physics

[21467] viXra:1712.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 08:59:01

### Environmental Impact Assessment Using D-Vikor Approach

Authors: Liguo Fei, Yong Deng

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an open and important issue depends on factors such as social, ecological, economic, etc. Due to human judgment, a variety of uncertainties are brought into the EIA process. With regard to uncertainty, many existing methods seem powerless to represent and deal with it effectively. A new theory called D numbers, because of its advantage to handle uncertain information, is widely used to uncertainty modeling and decision making. VIKOR method has its unique advantages in dealing with multiple criteria decision making problems (MCDM), especially when the criteria are non-commensurable and even conflicting, it can also obtain the compromised optimal solution. In order to solve EIA problems more effectively, in this paper, a D-VIKOR approach is proposed, which expends the VIKOR method by D numbers theory. In the proposed approach, assessment information of environmental factors is expressed and modeled by D numbers. And a new combination rule for multiple D numbers is defined. Subjective weights and objective weights are considered in VIKOR process for more reasonable ranking results. A numerical example is conducted to analyze and demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed D-VIKOR approach.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[21466] viXra:1712.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 09:10:04

### Using Klauder’s Enhanced Quantization to Set a Bound to the Cosmological Constant, in Pre Planckian Space as a Way to Ascertain the Most Important Fundamental Physics Question.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 Pages. would be entry into new FQXI contest

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). In FFP 15, in the Author’s presentation, one of the two compared action integrals was from Hambler’ Quantum Gravity reference, while another was given as similar to the action principle of the Hilbert idea of General Relativistic derivation of the Einstein Field Equations. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result straight from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with also a nod to Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to , if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. We argue this is the most important fundamental question in physics today, for reasons we elaborate upon in the conclusion. Key words, Ricci Scalar, inflaton physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21465] viXra:1712.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 10:19:11

### Unconventional Origins of Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[21464] viXra:1712.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 11:00:55

### Natural Squarefree Numbers: Statistical Properties.

Authors: Helmut Preininger

n this paper we calculate for various sets X (some subsets of the natural numbers) the probability of an element a of X is also squarefree. Furthermore we calculate the probability of c is squarefree, where c=a+b, a is an element of the set X and b is an element of the set Y.
Category: Number Theory

[21463] viXra:1712.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 11:25:22

### Trapped Rydberg Ion Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists have built one of the first basic elements of a trapped Rydberg ion quantum computer: a single-qubit Rydberg gate. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[21462] viXra:1712.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 11:45:00

### Large Scale Traffic Surveillance :Vehicle Detection and Classification Using Cascade Classifier and Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Shaif Chowdhury

In this Paper, we are presenting a traffic surveillance system for detection and classification of vehicles in large scale videos. Vehicle detection is crucial part of Road safety. There are lots of different intelligent systems proposed for traffic surveillance. The system presented here is based on two steps, a descriptor of the image type haar-like, and a classifier type convolutional neural networks. A cascade classifier is used to extract objects rapidly and a neural network is used for final classification of cars. In case of Haar Cascades, the learning of the system is performed on a set of positive images (vehicles) and negative images (non-vehicle), and the test is done on another set of scenes. For the second, we have used faster R-CNN architecture. The cascade classifier gives faster processing time and Neural Network is used to increase the detection rate.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[21461] viXra:1712.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 12:18:00

### Smart Irrigation :Iot Based Irrigation Monitoring System

Authors: Shaif Chowdhury, Soummyo Priyo Chattopadhyay, Avijit Ghose

The project aims at autonomous monitoring of irrigation system in both large and small scale plantation estates with a view to eradicating the manual system which involves personal liability concerns and the ignorance of the field workers. Even sometimes the experienced people cannot assure how much fertilizers or water must be used for the maximum yield. Hence our system will monitor the temperature, humidity, moisture content of the soil and other physical factors like presence of major pollutants in air like PM2.5, PM10, CO,NOx etc. The factors and the crop yield are compared with dataset of past surveys and will try to predict is irrigation is necessary or not. With the help of this information, the rate of releasing water from pumps is decided and fed to a microcontroller system which supervises and controls the whole irrigation system. Besides, there is also provision to monitor plant growth both in longitudinally and horizontally.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[21460] viXra:1712.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 12:40:41

### “The Information as Absolute” Conception: Marxism and “now”

Authors: Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

In this paper the some problems of relevance of Marxism in applications to recent societies are considered in framework of the “The Information as Absolute” conception
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21459] viXra:1712.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 16:11:57

### Is The Equivalence Principle Correct

Authors: Tom Hollings

ABSTRACT The Equivalence principle. "Bodies which are moving under the sole influence of a gravitational field receive an acceleration, which does not in the least depend on the material or the physical state of the body. For instance, a piece of lead and a piece of wood fall in exactly the same manner in a gravitational field (in vacuo) when they start off from rest or with the same initial velocity." There appears to be an error in the formation of the equivalence principle (and here the author gives the evidence of that error), which when corrected would lead to a new understanding of stellar formation and planetary orbits, including an explanation of why trinary star systems are not observed - as opposed to a binary pair with another star orbiting that pair (or vice versa). Einstein used a Gedankenexperiment with a man in a chest, to prove that falling objects of differing masses all fall at the same rate for the man in the chest who is being accelerated at a steady 9.8 m/s^2, and the man on Earth who is experiencing 9.8 m/s^2 of gravity. It can be proved that the equivalence principle does not hold when the falling object used as an example is an extremely large mass. The logical conclusion therefore is that by reducing the extremely large mass down to more normal mass values, although the objects appear to fall at the same rate, they do not, but as the difference is minute, it can be, and is, customarily ignored. This does not matter on Earth, but it does matter a great deal for planetary formation and orbits, and for stellar and galactic formation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21458] viXra:1712.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 15:09:00

### Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna with Reactive Load Design for Wireless Local Area Network Application

Authors: Basim Khalaf Jarullah Al-Shammari

This paper presents a design of microstrip antenna for IEEE 802.11b and for IEEE 802.11g using a nearly square patch antenna, excited by a standard miniature adapter probe feed line. The patch and ground plane are separated by a substrate; the radiating patch is loaded by a central shorting pin and feeding probe loaded by a series capacitor. This antenna has a wide bandwidth in the frequency band of (WLAN) and with a return loss ≤ −10 dB from 2.4 GHz to 2.48 GHz exhibits circularly polarized far-field radiation pattern. The proposed antennas have been simulated and analyzed using method of moments (MoM) based software package Microwave Office 2008 v8.0. The results show that the bandwidth of the antenna increases by using reactive load. The simulated gain of the antenna is over 6 dB.‬ IEEE802.11b ‫و‬ IEEE802.11g
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21457] viXra:1712.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 15:27:41

### About the Conjecture of Syracuse

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

We show that the problem of Syracuse is a problem of complex analysis (Analytical Number Theory).
Category: Number Theory

[21456] viXra:1712.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 22:28:48

### DS-Vikor: a New Methodology for Supplier Selection

Authors: Liguo Fei, Yong Deng, Yong Hu

How to select the optimal supplier is an open and important issue in supply chain management (SCM), which needs to solve the problem of assessment and sorting the potential suppliers, and can be considered as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. Experts’ assessment play a very important role in the process of supplier selection, while the subjective judgment of human beings could introduce unpredictable uncertainty. However, existing methods seem powerless to represent and deal with this uncertainty effectively. Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (D- S theory) is widely used to uncertainty modeling, decision making and conflicts management due to its advantage to handle uncertain information. The VIKOR method has a great advantage to handle MCDM problems with non-commensurable and even conflicting criteria, and to obtain the compromised optimal solution. In this paper, a DS- VIKOR method is proposed for the supplier selection problem which expends the VIKOR method by D-S theory. In this method, the basic probability assignment (BPA) is used to denote the decision makers’ assessment for suppliers, Deng entropy weight-based method is defined and applied to determine the weights of multi-criteria, and VIKOR method is used for getting the final ranking results. An illustrative example under real life is conducted to analyze and demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed DS-VIKOR method.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[21455] viXra:1712.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 00:52:04

### The Effect of Geometry on Quantum Mechanics

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 12 Pages. References to be supplied. the author can be contacted at jpeel01@hotmail.com

The author attempts to unify General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics. This involves the use of the Cartesian Axes as the building blocks of reality. A certain set is employed and this permeates the content of the article. The author can be contacted at jpeel01@hotmail.com.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21454] viXra:1712.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 00:55:05

### Proposed Civilization Scale

Authors: Cres Huang

Instead of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement based on energy consumption point of view, I believe it is more appropriate on it's capability of commanding the cycle and recycle of energy and matter; or based on the knowledge and technology of mastering the energy and matter:

1. Type 0 Civilization: Parasitic;
2. Type I: Energy Mastery;
3. Type II: Energy and Matter Mastery, achieving mastery of energy and matter.

Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21453] viXra:1712.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 01:05:01

### Stochastic Functions of Blueshift vs. Redshift

Authors: Cres Huang

Viewing the random motions of objects, an observer might think it is 50-50 chances that an object would move toward or away. It might be intuitive, however, it is far from the truth. This study derives the probability functions of Doppler blueshift and redshift effect of signal detection. The fact is, Doppler redshift detection is highly dominating in space, surface, and linear observation. Under the conditions of no quality loss of radiation over distance, and the observer has perfect vision; It is more than 92% probability of detecting redshift, in three-dimensional observation, 87% surface, and 75\% linear. In cosmic observation, only 7.81% of the observers in the universe will detect blueshift of radiations from any object, on average. The remaining 92.19% of the observers in the universe will detect redshift. It it universal for all observers, aliens or Earthlings at all locations of the universe.
Category: Statistics

[21452] viXra:1712.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 06:22:28

### The Essence of Liberation

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

The highest realms of philosophy and human thought, a lifestyle capable of granting liberation is beautifully encapsulated in a single verse of the Lord's word, the Bhagavad Gita.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21451] viXra:1712.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 08:11:26

### Without Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna

Three mathematicians have a different explanation for the accelerating expansion of the universe that does without theories of "dark energy." [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[21450] viXra:1712.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 06:45:11

### Particle Double Nature Reason

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous

How The Matter Is Created? Why The Particle Has Double Nature? What's The Gravity Reason And Mechanism? Does the gravity needs time to effect or works instantly? If the Planet moves by gravity, why does the moon revolve the Metonic cycle which the Earth doesn't? The Matter Creation is the main question I discuss in this paper, tries to explain why the Particle has double nature.. ( Paper Main Hypothesis: "The Matter Is Made Of Light")
Category: Astrophysics

[21449] viXra:1712.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 07:27:51

### How Life Started in Earth

Authors: George Rajna

Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[21448] viXra:1712.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 08:27:04

### Undulating Relativity + §26 Mercury Perihelion Advance of 42.99".

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know: -The dilatation of time, and -The contraction of the Lorentz Length. The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21447] viXra:1712.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 08:57:22

### A Minimally Necessary Local-Nonlocal Model for the Evolution of Elementary Particles and Fundamental Interactions of the Early Universe

Authors: Sergey V. Vasiliev

The proposed model describes the process of evolution of elementary particles and fundamental interactions of the early Universe, in which the order observed today, described by the standard model of elementary particle physics, develops in several stages with the participation of complementary local and nonlocal processes. Предлагаемая модель описывает процесс эволюции элементарных частиц и фундаментальных взаимодействий ранней Вселенной, в котором наблюдаемый сегодня порядок, описываемый стандартной моделью физики элементарных частиц, развивается в несколько этапов с участием дополняющих друг друга локальных и нелокальных процессов.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[21446] viXra:1712.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 09:31:48

### 3400 Pin Oak Rd

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 2 Pages. Don't worry folks I have been there on foot and in a car. Remain Calm.Have fun with it.

The purpose of this paper is to explain a Stargate or Temporal anomaly on Pin Oak Road
Category: Number Theory

[21445] viXra:1712.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 10:47:52

### Storage of a Photonic Qubit

Authors: George Rajna

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[21444] viXra:1712.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 13:58:40

### The Globotoroid

Authors: Nikola Samardzija
Comments: 16 Pages. This review paper was written in 2014, and since has raised quite a few eyebrows in academia. The simplicity of the globotoroid model is far reaching, and alters some central themes in mathematics and sciences - Namely, the singularity based theories.

Mathematical models can give us invaluable insights into natural phenomena, and as such play an important role in science. The intent of this paper is to give a high-level overview of a simple continuous dynamical model that offers an insight into a qualitative behavior seldom reported or discussed. This model has no equilibrium or singular points, yet its phase space unveils four distinct topological features: a limit cycle, a torus, a sphere and a wormhole. Each of these features results from model solutions that can be periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic, which collectively form a space-time structure referred to as the globotoroid. The model generalizes the energy behavior of many processes of interest, and consequently is reshaping contemporary systems theory to fit more completely with different natural phenomena. Specifically, the globotoroid is the simplest 3-dimensional dynamic model that exposes the concept of the wormhole, which embodies an important energy behavior throughout our universe. The fields of science that may benefit from this modeling approach are many, including physics, cosmology, biology, chemistry, engineering, cognitive sciences, economics, politics, and business and finance. This is demonstrated by reviewing some well-known phenomena in natural and social sciences.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[21443] viXra:1712.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 14:37:36

### Gravity & Electromagnetism Unified

Authors: Richard Lighthouse

No one has ever provided mathematical evidence that unifies gravity and electromagnetism. This is an important mathematical discovery. Note that the 2 classical equations of Newton's Gravity and Coulomb's Law have a similar form. Also note that when Limit (r) ---> 0, these 2 equations approach a singularity This implies that our universe collapses to a single point for unification. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks, off and on, 1.1 trillion cycles each second (1.1 THz). See my related articles, including the blinking universe calculation and 1024-QAM for elementary particles. There are 3 mathematical approaches and 3 empirical sources that all conclude the same idea - our universe is blinking. As Einstein once said, "Reality is merely an illusion..." - A blinking universe would certainly make his statement correct.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21442] viXra:1712.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 14:43:39

### Time Travel: An Approximate Mathematical Solution

Authors: Richard Lighthouse

This short technical note describes an approximate mathematical solution for Time Travel involving relativity and very brief time intervals. Limitations of the solution are discussed including possible error sources. Assumptions are made for small changes in the speed of light and for the Lighthouse Frequency, which has been described in previous papers. This paper will only be meaningful to those with a background in calculus. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks off and on, approximately 1.1 trillion times every second. The solution is derived by taking the partial derivative with respect to time, of E=mc^2. Readers will note that the speed of light is not constant per NASA scientist, Dr Daniel Gezari's important 2009 paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21441] viXra:1712.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 14:49:56

### The Discovery of Parallel Universes

Authors: Richard Lighthouse

This short paper presents information into technology that has been used to move between two parallel universes. Described here are the technology characteristics of glowing orbs or balls of light, which have been photographed and filmed, all over the world. By utilizing the blinking frequency of our universe, it is possible to move between parallel universes. These orbs have been reported as glowing and/or pulsing and some appear to be 12 to 14 inches in diameter. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is blinking off and on, approximately 1.1 trillion cycles every second. The energy required to transit between two parallel universes is E = Volts * Amp * sec Where volts is proportional to the mass, and Amp*sec is the "electrical distance" or "range" between the two universes. Pictures and videos are referenced for discussion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21440] viXra:1712.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 14:54:56

### Faster Than Light Travel: The Basic Mechanics

Authors: Richard Lighthouse

This short technical paper presents the first practical technology solution for traveling faster than the speed of light. Light-years of distance can be traversed by performing millions of “hops;” yet the entire distance traveled requires only a fraction of a second. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is literally blinking off and on, more than 1.1 trillion times every second. For those unconvinced that our universe is blinking, please read “The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles,” which provides compelling mathematical evidence. Also see youtube: Colonel Philip Corso, THE DAY AFTER ROSWELL; author comments on the Army's investigation of the 1947 Roswell vehicle; "We were never able to figure out how the propulsion system works... We only know it has something to do with blinking." Recorded 1997.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21439] viXra:1712.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 15:01:54

### The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles

Authors: Richard Lighthouse

This short technical paper presents a new standard model for Elementary Particles. All elementary particle masses are related by simple math. This math is similar to the math used for wifi signals and it is called 1024-QAM. The 1024-QAM table graphically displays how all elementary particles are related, similar to the Standard Periodic Table in chemistry. If we line up all of the particle masses in order, we find there are a number of “gaps.” These are called the "mass gaps", and they line up perfectly with 1024-QAM, which fits the sequence. Supersymmetry (SUSY) is also found to occur with 1024-QAM. Mass Groups 1 thru 8 have heavyweight counterparts which are found in Mass Groups 9 thru 16. New particles appear in groups of 4. Numerous new particles are predicted using 1024-QAM. Each particle mass is shown to have 16 probabilities - 4 charges X 4 spins. The only possible explanation for elementary particles to follow a QAM pattern, is due to a blinking universe. This ebook provides compelling evidence that our universe is literally blinking, off and on.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[21438] viXra:1712.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 15:08:22

### Mathematical Solution Unifying the Four Fundamental Forces

Authors: Richard Lighthouse

This short technical ebook describes a simple mathematical solution for unifying the four fundamental forces in nature. The fundamental forces of gravitation, electromagnetism, strong force, and the weak force are actually different aspects of the same force. In general, the relationship between the four forces can be described using a form of the equation for Analog Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (Analog-QAM). This equation form is developed utilizing the concept of a “blinking” physical universe. The approach to develop the solution is described by minimizing the number of available dimensions (zero), which is in contrast to numerous efforts (String theory, M-theory, Quantum gravity) that attempt to maximize the number of dimensions under consideration. An Electrical Universe (EU) model is presented that provides sufficient conditions for a solution. This mathematical solution should be tested against experimental data to confirm its validity, however it is noted that, “discrete-time” forces will be measured differently than “time-averaged” forces in a laboratory environment. Confirmation of the theory is suggested through small, discrete-time interval measurements of gravitational acceleration and the Electromagnetic Force, where they will be seen to vary continuously, and yet also retain a “time-averaged” value. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks, off and on, more than 1 trillion cycles each second.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21437] viXra:1712.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 15:15:48

### Massless Travel

Authors: Richard Lighthouse

This short technical paper discuss a method and technology that can be utilized to minimize energy requirements for all kinds of travel. Specifically, there are three types of travel under discussion: (1) Time Travel, (2) Distance Travel, and (3) Travel between parallel universes. The method requires precise control, synchronization, and amplification of very high frequencies, which is difficult for current technology computer processors. To reduce the effective mass value or weight of a vehicle, requires extremely fast clocks, called gamma-ray clocks. These clocks operate at about 10^21 cycles per second. Each reader must comprehend that our physical universe literally blinks, off and on, more than 1.1 trillion times every second. By synchronizing an electrical signal on a vehicle with the neutral point in the blinking cycle - the effective mass of the vehicle will approach zero.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21436] viXra:1712.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 15:22:33

### Anomalous Magnetic Moment: Source and Explanation

Authors: Richard Ligthouse

This paper explains the anomalous magnetic moment for all elementary particles and composite particles (such as the proton). The special case regarding the Muon anomaly is addressed. It also presents a summary of the issues in accurately measuring the magnetic dipole moment for elementary particles. The explanation provided involves simple math and probabilities. It is not complex, such as Yang-Mills and related theories. In summary, there is no anomaly. The measurement of the magnetic moment is a time-averaged value for 16 different probabilities (4 charges X 4 spins) for each particle mass, which is consistent with 1024-QAM. To eliminate the anomaly, a measurement of the particle characteristics and magnetic moment must be taken at a rate faster than the blinking universe, or 1.1 trillion cycles per second. Visual graphs and areas for further research are suggested.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[21435] viXra:1712.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 21:42:30

### A Brief Experiment of Space

Authors: Cres Huang

Among the three fundamental elements of the universe; space is as real, intimate, yet illusive. We have learned to manipulating matter and energy since our first existence on Earth, however, never space even it is in our hands and everywhere. Nevertheless, it has caused some confusions of our understanding of the universe, when dominating and proportional cosmic redshift has been interpreted as the result of space expansion. I believe it is fundamental to have clear understanding of this fundamental of the universe. Even it is impossible to study it hand-on, h However, there is vacuum sharing some properties of space. The truth is, even vacuum can not exist without space. We can consider space is analogous to an infinite vacuum, and vacuum the window to view the nature of space. Luckily, we can create and shape vacuum to some extent. This experiment will ob- serve the actions of vacuum, mass and energy to derive a logical understanding of space.
Category: Astrophysics

[21434] viXra:1712.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 01:25:52

### Ellipsoid Method for Linear Programming Made Simple

Authors: Sanjeev Saxena

In this paper, ellipsoid method for linear programming is derived using only minimal knowledge of algebra and matrices. Unfortunately, most authors first describe the algorithm, then later prove its correctness, which requires a good knowledge of linear algebra.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[21433] viXra:1712.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 02:55:57

### On the Limit Energy of Cosmic Rays

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 4 Pages. 4 p., 1 fig.

It is established that the upper limit of cosmic-ray energy due to the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect is local. On the basis of the mechanistic interpretation of J. Wheeler's geometrodynamic concept, a more fundamental limitation on this limit was established, which, in the final analysis, depends on Planck's size (ђγ/c^3)^1/2 and for protons the limit is 4.51×10^18 eV. The inflection in the spectrum curve, the "knee", corresponds to the mass-energy of the vortex tube of the limiting proton-electron contour, 1.46×10^15 eV. For other nuclei these energies increase in proportion to the atomic number of the element.
Category: Astrophysics

[21432] viXra:1712.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 03:42:44

### A Derivation of Dirac Equation from a General System of Linear First Order Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Vu B Ho

In this work, we discuss a method to derive Dirac equation and other equations, such as the Cauchy-Riemann equations, from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations, with the hope that when studied more thoroughly the general system may provide deeper insights into geometrical and topological structures of quantum particles and fields.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[21431] viXra:1712.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 04:09:51

### There is no Standard Model of ZFC

Authors: Jaykov Foukzon

Main results are:(i) Let M_st be standard model of ZFC. Then ~Con(ZFC+∃M_st), (ii) let k be an inaccessible cardinal then  ~Con(ZFC+∃k),[10]-[11].
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[21430] viXra:1712.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 05:18:45

### Quantum Photonic Devices

Authors: George Rajna

An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27]Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[21429] viXra:1712.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 06:52:57

### Adaptively Evidential Weighted Classifier Combination

Authors: Liguo Fei, Bingyi Kang, Van-Nam Huynh, Yong Deng

Classifier combination plays an important role in classification. Due to the efficiency to handle and fuse uncertain information, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is widely used in multi-classifiers fusion. In this paper, a method of adaptively evidential weighted classifier combination is presented. In our proposed method, the output of each classifier is modelled by basic probability assignment (BPA). Then, the weights are determined adaptively for individual classifier according to the uncertainty degree of the corresponding BPA. The uncertainty degree is measured by a belief entropy, named as Deng entropy. Discounting-and-combination scheme in D-S theory is used to calculate the weighted BPAs and combine them for the final BPA for classification. The effectiveness of the proposed weighted combination method is illustrated by numerical experimental results.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[21428] viXra:1712.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 03:53:52

### On the General Solution for the Nonlinear Differential Equation from Troesch Boundary Value Problem

Authors: D. K. K. Adjaï, J. Akande, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia

This paper shows, for the first time, that the explicit and exact solution to the Troesch nonlinear two-point boundary value problem may be computed in a direct and straightforward fashion from the general solution obtained by a generalized Sundman transformation for the related differential equation, which appeared to be a special case of a more general equation. As a result, various initial and boundary value problems may be solved explicitly and exactly.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[21427] viXra:1712.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 06:21:21

### Particle Double Nature Reason

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous

How The Matter Is Created? Why The Particle Has Double Nature? What's The Gravity Reason And Mechanism? Does the gravity needs time to effect or works instantly? If the Planet moves by gravity, why does the moon revolve the Metonic cycle which the Earth doesn't? The Matter Creation is the main question I discuss in this paper, tries to explain why the Particle has double nature.. ( Paper Main Hypothesis: "The Matter Is Made Of Light")
Category: Astrophysics

[21426] viXra:1712.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 06:30:48

### Pie in Python_Piethon

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 2 Pages. If your computer can handle it the sky's the limit with regards to digits.

The objective of this paper is to provide everyone with a program in Piethon to be able to print 250,000 digits and if your computer allow to be able to print > 299792458 digits.
Category: Number Theory

[21425] viXra:1712.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 10:16:41

### Frequency Topology of Encryption

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 3 Pages. Mosses equals 500 in the Torah.

The objective of this paper is simplify frequency topology of encryption and lininear Graphs that can be represent in dimension 2 or greater.
Category: Number Theory

[21424] viXra:1712.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 15:45:55

### Misunderstanding Definition Of The Gravity Of General Relativity

Authors: Ozan Varli
Comments: 4 Pages. A Highly Consistent Hypothesis Which Supports All The Observations

Description in the theory of general relativity of the gravity is completely just a misunderstanding. Because curvature of space is caused by gravity. Gravity is a field force that bends space, because it causes acceleration as shown by Newton. And a new theory of gravity which supports our observations is suggested named as neutral field.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21423] viXra:1712.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 16:06:01

### Defining Space, Time And Dark Energy

Authors: Ozan Varli
Comments: 4 Pages. A Hardy Consistent Representing Of Strong Hypothesis Of Theory Of Everything

Figuring out the mystery of expanding universe seems a mandatory question for today’s physicists. The space, time and dark energy are also all the same thing as we found out that the space and time are the same. Looking at observations and findings take us to one result which is consisted with specifications and behaviors of space that; anti-gravitation field named as anti-neutral field is space-time itself. This anti-neutral field expands in 3 dimensions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21422] viXra:1712.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 16:46:30

### Formulas and Spreadsheets for Simple, Composite, and Complex Rotations of Vectors and Bivectors in Geometric (Clifford) Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 29 Pages. Formulas and Spreadsheets for Simple, Composite, and Complex Rotations of Vectors and Bivectors in Geometric (Clifford) Algebra

We show how to express the representations of single, composite, and rotated" rotations in GA terms that allow rotations to be calculated conveniently via spreadsheets. Worked examples include rotation of a single vector by a bivector angle; rotation of a vector about an axis; composite rotation of a vector; rotation of a bivector; and the rotation of a rotation". Spreadsheets for doing the calculations are made available via live links.
Category: Geometry

[21421] viXra:1712.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 16:58:18

### Iriene Versus Smarandache

Authors: Gergő Cosmin Tudor Jr.

ABSTARCT: Following recent development in http://vixra.org/abs/1712.0372 , we propose scientific paper of three parts. 1. We proove strengh of freindship letter proof method 2. Proof of F. Smarandache mathematial skill via S. Wolfram method 3. Th
Category: General Mathematics

[21420] viXra:1712.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 21:42:54

### The Ultimate Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything is 42

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42. The answer could very well be related to 42. Sphere theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.047987*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.588269 *10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21419] viXra:1712.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 01:10:14

### Metoda Wyprowadzania Licznych Dynamik W Szczególnej Teorii Względności (In Polish)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 23 Pages. Method of deriving numerous dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish)

W artykule przedstawiliśmy naszą nowatorską metodę wyprowadzania dynamik w Szczególnej Torii Względności. Metoda ta pozwala na wyprowadzenie w mechanice relatywistycznej nieskończenie wielu dynamik. Pokazaliśmy pięć przykładów takich wyprowadzeń. Wykazaliśmy w ten sposób, że dynamika znana dzisiaj jako dynamika Szczególnej Teorii Względności jest tylko jedną z nieskończenie wielu możliwych. Nie ma także żadnej podstawy, aby tą obowiązującą dynamikę relatywistyczną traktować jako wyjątkową, ani z powodów eksperymentalnych, ani z powodów teoretycznych. W związku z tym rozstrzygnięcie, która z możliwych dynamik mechaniki relatywistycznej jest prawidłowym modelem rzeczywistości pozostaje otwartym problemem fizyki.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21418] viXra:1712.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 01:26:41

### On Multi-Criteria Pythagorean Fuzzy Decision-Making

Authors: Liguo Fei, Yong Deng

Pythagorean fuzzy set (PFS) initially extended by Yager from intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS), which can model uncertain information with more general conditions in the process of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM). The fuzzy decision analysis of this paper is mainly based on two expressions in Pythagorean fuzzy environment, namely, Pythagorean fuzzy number (PFN) and interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy number (IVPFN). We initiate a novel axiomatic definition of Pythagorean fuzzy distance measure, including PFNs and IVPFNs, and put forward the corresponding theorems and prove them. Based on the defined distance measures, the closeness indexes are developed for PFNs and IVPFNs inspired by the idea of technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) approach. After these basic definitions have been established, the hierarchical decision approach is presented to handle MCDM problems under Pythagorean fuzzy environment. To address hierarchical decision issues, the closeness index-based score function is defined to calculate the score of each permutation for the optimal alternative. To determine criterion weights, a new method based on the proposed similarity measure and aggregation operator of PFNs and IVPFNs is presented according to Pythagorean fuzzy information from decision matrix, rather than being provided in advance by decision makers, which can effectively reduce human subjectivity. An experimental case is conducted to demonstrate the applicability and flexibility of the proposed decision approach. Finally, the extension forms of Pythagorean fuzzy decision approach for heterogeneous information are briefly introduced as the further application in other uncertain information processing fields.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[21417] viXra:1712.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 11:26:37

### Time Arrow and Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna

The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time - from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn’t dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment world-wide, commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[21416] viXra:1712.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 12:27:40

### Discovering and Proving that Pi is Irrational, 2nd Edition

Authors: Timothy W. Jones

Ivan Niven's proof of the irrationality of pi is often cited because it is brief and uses only calculus. However it is not well motivated. Using the concept that a quadratic function with the same symmetric properties as sine should when multiplied by sine and integrated obey upper and lower bounds for the integral, a contradiction is generated for rational candidate values of pi. This simplifying concept yields a more motivated proof of the irrationality of pi and pi squared.
Category: Number Theory

[21415] viXra:1712.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 13:41:40

### Mass, Energy and Force in the Theory of Emergent Space-Time-Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov

The concepts of mass, force and energy in the theory of generated space-time-matter are described.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21414] viXra:1712.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 19:43:19

### Gravitational Waves Carry Negative Energy

“Gravitational waves carry negative energy” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons” Adrian Ferent This means gravitational waves carry gravitational energy and momentum. “The Gravitational waves have their energy contained in gravitons” Adrian Ferent “The gravitons give a negative momentum to mass-carrying particles to attract them.” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational force is mediated by gravitons faster than the speed of light, with negative momentum” Adrian Ferent The momentum of the graviton is negative p = - m × v and I calculated the speed of the graviton va. “Because the momentum is negative, the relativistic mass -m of the graviton is negative!” Adrian Ferent “The relativistic mass m of the graviton is negative, this implies that the energy of the graviton is negative, E = - m × va2.” Adrian Ferent This means: “Gravitation is caused by negative energy” Adrian Ferent “Gravitons have negative energy E = a × f and the speed higher than the speed of light” Adrian Ferent Einstein’s gravitational waves carry positive energy. That is why: “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that LIGO is a fraud. The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded for a project, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) not for a scientific discovery; they did not detect anything because Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist. The same fraud was in 2013 with the Higgs Boson, the so-called “God particle”.
Category: Astrophysics

[21413] viXra:1712.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 01:12:11

### 12 Excited Electrons. Relation of Riquelme de Gozy: Lan Lineality with Energy of Excited States.

Authors: Javier Silvestre

This is 12th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Excited state energy is attracted towards Torrebotana Central Line [1] and this attraction is accentuated as n and l are increased. LAN allows Serelles Secondary Lines creation depending on non-excited and excited states. LAN vs. n curve shows soft plain that leads to straight line equation in excited state energy function. Relation of Riquelme de Gozy is this line equation and now, Li detailed study of 1s22s→1s2ns is extended to this jump in other atoms and other jump types. Initially, P50 Initial LAN value in jump from ns to ns is utilized with "Xorrador Approximation" that enables correct first estimate of excited state energies.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[21412] viXra:1712.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 01:24:50

### 16 Excited Electron. Spa III: Mc Flui Transform in Silpovgar III and IV

Authors: Javier Silvestre

This is 16th article of 24 dedicated to atomic model based on Victoria equation (Articles index is at end). Relation of Silva de Peral y Alameda (SPA) is introduced in [5] and refers to excited states and provides linearity between specific energy relationship and LAN of Serelles Secondary Line [2,4] that allows creation of said secondary line obtained from Torrebotana Central Line [1]. SPA in jump 1s2→1sns (Term=3S and J=1) and nss→ns is treated in [5] and [6] respectively. [6] is first and this is second of three articles that make up a unit. First part of this article concludes Silpovgar study on nss→ns with Mc Flui transform for Silpovgar III and part two of Silpovgar I. Its second part is centred on other jumps behaviour that leads to confluence of Silpovgar IV.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[21411] viXra:1712.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 05:43:47

### The Fizeau Experiment – the Experiment that Led Physics the Wrong Path for One Century

Although Fresnel's ether drag coefficient was ad hoc, its curious confirmation by the Fizeau experiment forced physicists to accept and adopt it as the main guide in the development of theories of the speed of light. Lorentz's 'local-time' , which evolved into the Lorentz transformations, was developed to explain the Fizeau experiment and stellar aberration. Given the logical, theoretical and experimental counter-evidences against the theory of relativity today, it turns out that the Fresnel's drag coefficient may not exist at all. The Fizeau experiment and the phenomenon of stellar aberration have no common physical basis. The result of the Fizeau experiment can be explained in a simple, classical way. It is as if nature conspired to lead physicists astray for more than one century. Alternative theories and interpretations for the ether drift experiments and invariance of Maxwell's equations will be proposed. Physicists rightly assumed the invariance of Maxwell's equations, but their deeply flawed conception of light as ordinary local phenomenon led them unnecessarily to seek an 'explanation' for this invariance, which was the Lorentz transformation. Einstein went down the wrong path when he sought an 'explanation' for the light postulate, when none was needed. The invariance of Maxwell's equationsfor light is a direct consequence of non-existence of the ether and there is no explanation for it for the same reason that there is no explanation for light being a wave when there is no medium for its propagation. Constancy of phase velocity of light and rotation of the wave fronts for a moving observer, which are direct consequences of non-existence of light carrying medium, can explain the phenomenon of stellar aberration .The group velocity of light behaves in a conventional way: independent of source absolute velocity, but varying with observer absolute velocity. Light is a dual phenomenon: local and non-local. Light is a dual and quantum mechanical phenomenon. The paradoxes in classical electromagnetism, such as the moving magnet and conductor problem, arose due to incompleteness of classical electromagnetism and its wrong interpretation. The solutions to these paradoxes lay in unconventional and subtle, yet logical and natural, fundamental nature of light and electromagnetism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21410] viXra:1712.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-11 06:43:19

### Magnetic Force on a Current that not Flowing Through the Magnetic Field

Authors: Yannan Yang

From the distribution characteristics of the magnetic field created by a current wire, we speculate that a current wire will experience force from a magnetic field nearby even if the current does not go through the field. From the same analysis, a similar effect should also exist for a moving charged particle, i.e., a moving charged particle will experience force from a nearby magnetic field, although the particle does not cut across the magnetic field. To prove the existence of this force, two experiments are performed and the results support our speculation. Considering the experimental results of this paper, if the relativistic transformation of field is universally valid, a motional electromotive force should be created in a neutral conductor moving through a space where there is no magnetic field, as long as there is a magnetic field around. Experimental designs are proposed to prove this motional electromotive force.
Category: Classical Physics

[21409] viXra:1712.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 09:47:16

### Black Hole's Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna

In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[21408] viXra:1712.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 10:21:20

### Proposal for a New Architecture for Anonymous Peer to Peer Networks

Authors: Steven David Young
Comments: 16 Pages. A proposal to Improve Tor Hidden Services

A system that incorporates distributed means of communication as well as steganographic storage techniques while remaining as similar as possible to an existing trusted platform such as Tor could provide a model for a next generation anonymous communication system that is less susceptible to common vulnerabilities, such as an adversarial Global Network Observer.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[21407] viXra:1712.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 10:20:16

### Concept of Matter

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese

Abstract: Attempts to define ‘matter’ were unsuccessful throughout development of natural philosophy. As advancement in physics called for speedier pace, one attribute of matter – the mass – was accepted as a substitute. Mass of a body (an assumed relation that exists in mathematical analyses and in the minds of analyzers) is considered as an equivalent that can represent body’s 3D matter-content. Mass has successfully usurped rightful place of 3D matter in all contemporary theories to increase their complexity and confusion. In material world, existence of matter is nearest to absolute truth. Defining matter on this basis can provide logical foundations to physical theories.
Category: Classical Physics

[21406] viXra:1712.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 13:59:54

### Reply to Paper Http://vixra.org/pdf/1712.0362v1.pdf of Cental Hypothesis Paper Http://vixra.org/pdf/1712.0346v1.pdf

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene

respone to paper of Gergő Cosmin Tudor Jr. viXra:1712.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-08 06:56:46
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21405] viXra:1712.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 14:11:00

### Gravitational Collapse: A Mass and Energy Loss Phenomenon

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

For gravitational collapse to occur, a body needs to have mass and energy to lose. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[21404] viXra:1712.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 19:33:05

### Strong Support for the Mass Independence and Coherency Principles of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis: NGTS-1b

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

The discovery of NGTS-1b strongly supports the principles of mass independence and coherency of stellar evolution and formation according to the general theory. Explanation is provided along with link to original discovery paper showing the issues.
Category: Astrophysics

[21403] viXra:1712.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 20:32:00

### Friction

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese

Abstract: Opposition to relative movements, between macro bodies in contact, is generally termed as ‘friction’. Friction develops from mutual adhesive tendencies of resultant fields adjacent atoms on the contact surfaces of macro bodies in contact. All atoms have resultant fields surrounding their material structures. Tendency of adhesion between interlinking resultant fields of atoms on either side of contact surface is caused by merger of these fields into a common stable structure. Attempt to destabilize resultant structure of merged fields between bodies in contact results in resistance to their relative motion.
Category: Classical Physics

[21402] viXra:1712.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 22:30:01

Authors: Colin James III

"[O]one cannot infer from X simulates Y, and Y has property P, to the conclusion that therefore X has Y's property P for arbitrary P." is tautologous. "The contrapositive of the inference is logically equivalent—X simulates Y, X does not have P therefore Y does not [have P]" is not tautologous. The two conjectuses are not logically equivalent. Hence the brain Simulator reply of the Chinese room argument is confirmed and validated.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[21401] viXra:1712.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 00:42:00

### Appearances of Monster Group in Physics

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weugel, Renée Veysseyre

Two mandatory combinations from different constants gives the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, which is, apart a √2 factor, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. The square and the cube of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21400] viXra:1712.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 01:30:48

### The Goldbach Conjecture

Authors: Barry Foster

This treatment uses two simple facts and seems to confirm the Conjecture without providing an obvious method for discovering GP primes.
Category: Number Theory

[21399] viXra:1712.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 07:52:18

### On the General Solution to the Mathematical Pendulum and Generalized Mathematical Pendulum Equations

Authors: J. Akande, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, M. D. Monsia

This paper shows, for the first time, that the mathematical pendulum and generalized mathematical pendulum initial and boundary value problems may be computed from the explicit and exact general solution to the corresponding differential equation in a straightforward fashion by a direct method.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[21398] viXra:1712.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 08:14:55

### Physics after the Higgs Boson

Authors: George Rajna

The work at the CERN research centre in Switzerland became widely known when the 2013 Nobel-prize-winning discovery of the Higgs boson completed the standard model of particle physics. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[21397] viXra:1712.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-08 06:56:46

### Proof of Existence of the Florentin Smarandache: a Response to Vixra 1712.0346v1

Authors: Gergő Cosmin Tudor Jr.

ABSTRACT Existence of Florentin Smarandache is proven. Here we present Smarandachean interaction in the forms of 3 (three) letters from author to FLorentin Smarandache and one (1) letter from Florentin Smadaranche to author. The letters have were re-translated to English for readings conveniences and popularism. It is a proof of strong freindship and hencw the existence of he is proven; henceworth refuting calomnious claims of vixra 1712.0346v1 . Apology for poor English.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21396] viXra:1712.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-08 07:20:28

### Economic Sociodynamics: Criticism

Authors: Arsen A. Movsesyan

The article provides a solution to the problem of classification of the Social Sciences, and briefly tells about the newly discovered fundamental Laws of Sociodynamics, which are the driving force of the historic progress. The author, based on these laws, holds constructive criticism of the Concept of Economic Sociodynamics (CES) proposed by R. S. Greenberg and A. J. Rubinstein. The corresponding analysis bears interdisciplinary nature at the junction of sciences such as Sociodynamics, Psychology and Physics. The article reasonably shows the fallacy of the foundation of CES and its potential danger. The author in doing so was basing on the objective Laws of Nature and not on the subjective judgments.
Category: Economics and Finance

[21395] viXra:1712.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-08 07:53:45

### Observable Universe Event Horizon

Authors: Alberto Coe

The standard cosmological model defines the Observable Universe as the region of the Universe observed from the earth at the present time ; all the signals that have arrived to the earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion .We introduce a quantifier parameter .The use of such parameter allow us to understand the amount of items involved in any system . First we analyze the posible topology of the event horizon of the observable universe and how such surface area depends on the time .Finally will describe a numerical depiction about the evolution of the observable universe wich involves the Hubble parameter , the number of stars , the hydrogen molecule , the degrees of freedom of the hydrogen mulecule related to the amount of information of ordinary matter as well as the surface area of the observable universe event horizon .
Category: Classical Physics

[21394] viXra:1712.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-08 08:14:04

### 千古奇冤，素数有限

Authors: Liu Ran

Category: Number Theory

[21393] viXra:1712.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-08 13:52:23

### A Riemann Hypothesis Essay

Authors: Wanting To Remain Anonymous

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Category: General Mathematics

[21392] viXra:1712.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-08 17:36:33

### On the Nature of W Boson

Authors: Andrzej Okninski

We study leptonic and semileptonic weak decays working in the framework of Hagen-Hurley equations. It is argued that the Hagen-Hurley equations describe decay of the intermediate gauge boson W. It follows that we get a universal picture with the W boson being a virtual, off-shell, particle with (partially undefined) spin in the $0\oplus 1$ space.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[21391] viXra:1712.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-08 19:58:12

### On_the_bilateral_laplace_transform_of_the_positive_even_functions_and_proof_of_the_riemann_hypothesis

Authors: Seong Won Cha

This is a brief report before writing a full paper. We proved the Riemann hypothesis using the properties of the bilateral Laplace transform.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[21390] viXra:1712.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 04:18:48

### Goldbach Conjecture Proof

In this paper, we are going to give the proof of the Goldbach conjecture by introducing the lemma which implies Goldbach conjecture. first of all we are going to prove that the lemma implies Goldbach conjecture and in the following we are going to prove the validity of the lemma by using Chébotarev-Artin theorem's, Mertens formula and the Principle of inclusion - exclusion of Moivre
Category: Number Theory

[21389] viXra:1712.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 04:21:53

### Legendre Conjecture

In this paper, we are going to give the proof of legendre conjecture by using the Chebotarev -Artin 's theorem ,Dirichlet arithmetic theorem and the principle inclusion-exclusion of Moivre
Category: Number Theory

[21388] viXra:1712.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 07:25:03

### Systematic Synthetic Factoring

Authors: Timothy W. Jones

A tabular method of factoring quadratic polynomials is presented.
Category: Education and Didactics

[21387] viXra:1712.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 07:49:41

### Tabby Star’s Support for New Pysics Starspot Black Holes of Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Sunspots and Starspots in general are originated by former Comet nuclei crashed into the sun (or stars) which should be interpreted as new physics black holes. Those black holes seem to be able repel Fermionic matter but absorb the Axion Higgs field vacuum, which is the origin of a constant nuclear black hole growing ins size, but not in mass effect. Tabby’s star seems to be a star being preparing for super nova explosion by the over density of starspot black hole populations, just as is observed in super novas such as the Helix nebula, showing rings of point like hotspots interpreted as former starspots, expelled from the nucleus. As a consequence, in Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form) all black holes should deviate strongly from the black holes as proposed by the physics community and could be named “electric dark matter black holes” with an external negative charge without graviton radiation or even real mass- and inertia effects. The gravity effect observed around black holes is supposed to be originated by the dark energy pressure of the external massless “Oscillating Axion Higgs Rigid String Vacuum Lattice” The Massless Axion-Higgs Vacuum Rigid String particle, is the transformer into all other particles (Bosons, Fermions) and even concentrated in Micro and Macro Dark Matter Black Hole Nuclei. Q-FFF Theory, is basically a classical theory based on transformable rigid string based building blocks of a raspberry shaped clockwork multiverse, however these building blocks are all instantly guided by long distance entanglement between CP symmetric copy universal bubbles. As a consequence Quantum FFF Theory should be called a semi classical theory, Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs vacuum and black hole particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic cold big bang black hole nucleus as the creator of only one symmetrical raspberry shaped multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles. The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21386] viXra:1712.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 08:00:34

### An Extended Version of the Natario Warp Drive Equation Based in the Original $3+1$ $adm$ Formalism Which Encompasses Accelerations and Variable Velocities

Authors: Fernando Loup
Comments: 46 Pages. develops a Natario warp drive which encompasses accelerations

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor $10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous interstellar matter that will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in theory.However both the Alcubierre or Natario warp drive spacetimes always have a constant speed in the internal structure of their equations which means to say that these warp drives always travel with a constant speed.But a real warp drive must accelerate from zero to a superluminal speed of about $200$ times faster than light in the beginning of an interstellar journey and de-accelerate again to zero in the end of the journey.In this work we expand the Natario vector introducing the coordinate time as a new Canonical Basis for the Hodge star and we introduce an extended Natario warp drive equation which encompasses accelerations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21385] viXra:1712.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 09:10:57

### Finding The Next Term Of Any Time Series Type Or Non Time Series Type Sequence Using Total Similarity & Dissimilarity {Version 6} ISSN 1751-3030.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given time series type or non-time series type sequence.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[21384] viXra:1712.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 11:22:20

### The Smarandache Incident

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene

CONJECTRE: Mathematician of "Florentin Smarandache" is acual of art project of Moldova 1990 is has gone spiralled "out-of-control" of beyond origianl creators
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21383] viXra:1712.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 11:31:38

### Earth is Bombarded with Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna

University of Southern Denmark researchers have conducted simulations of dark matter particles hitting the Earth. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[21382] viXra:1712.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 14:40:24

### Higgs-Tquark NJL 3-State System: A Detailed History of Observations

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

The Consensus view of the Physics Community is that the Standard Model has one Higgs mass state at 125 GeV and one Tquark mass state at 174 GeV. E8 Physics (viXra 1602.0319, 1701.0495, 1701.0496) views Higgs as a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type Tquark -Tantiquark Condensate with 3 mass states for Higgs and Tquark: Low-mass - 125 GeV Higgs and 130 GeV Tquark; Middle-mass - 200 GeV Higgs and 174 GeV Tquark; High-mass - 240 GeV Higgs and 220 GeV Tquark. This paper is a chronological listing of observations of Higgs and Tquark mass states by experiments such as (descriptions from Wikipedia): ARGUS - a particle physics experiment at the electron-positron collider DORIS II at DESY in Hamburg - commissioned in 1982 - operated until 1992. HERA - DESY’s largest synchrotron and storage ring for electrons and positrons - began operation in 1990 - started taking data in 1992 - closed in 2007 - detectors H1 and HERA. FERMILAB - site of Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Batavia, Illinois - Tevatron was completed in 1983 and closed in 2011 - detectors CDF and D0. LEP - electron-positron collider at CERN in Geneva used from 1989 until 2000. LHC - proton-proton collider at CERN re-using the LEP tunnel - the largest single machine on Earth - built between 1998 and 2008 - detectors CMS and ATLAS - first research run at 7 to 8 TeV was from 2010 to 2013 - restarted at 13 TeV in 2015 - by the end of 2016 had 36 fb(-1) at 13 TeV - during 2017 had collected an additional 45 fb(-1) at 13 TeV for a total of 80 fb(-1) = 80 x 100 Trillion = 8 Quadrillion = 8 x 10^15 events. ATLAS analysis of Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l of 2016 LHC run was in ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 saying: “... proton–proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector during 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider ... excess ...[is]... observed ...around 240 ... GeV ... with local significance 3.6 sigma. WILL ANALYSIS OF THE ADDITIONAL 45 fb(-1) OF LHC 2017 DATA CONFIRM OBSERVATION OF THE HIGGS HIGH-MASS 240 GEV STATE ?
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[21381] viXra:1712.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 19:37:22

### Disjunctive Sequence are Rare

Authors: F.L.B.Périat

Voici la démonstration que les nombres univers sont infiniment rare.
Category: Number Theory

[21380] viXra:1712.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-08 05:38:49

### Stable Tetraquarks

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists peering inside the neutron are seeing glimmers of what appears to be an impossible situation. The vexing findings pertain to quarks, which are the main components of neutrons and protons. The quarks, in essence, spin like tops, as do the neutrons and protons themselves. Now, experimenters at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Va., have found hints that a single quark can briefly hog most of the energy residing in a neutron, yet spin in the direction opposite to that of the neutron itself, says Science News. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[21379] viXra:1712.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:40:56

### Noi lauri

Authors: Eugen Evu

Profesoara W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, de la Institutul Indian de Tehnologie din Chennai (India), şi profesorul romȃn Florentin Smarandache, de la Universitatea New Mexico din Statele Unite, au primit Premiul statului New Mexico la categoria Ştiinţă şi Matematică pentru cartea lor “Algebraic Structures Using Natural Class of Intervals”, publicată de Editura de Educaţie din oraşul Columbus, în anul 2011.
Category: Social Science

[21378] viXra:1712.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:41:35

### Nominalizarea Lui Florentin Smarandache Pentru Premiul Nobel Pentru Literatură

Authors: Geo Stroe

Academia DacoRomână din Bucureşti, România, l-a nomi-nalizat pe scriitorul avangardist trilingv (română-franceză-engleză) Florentin Smarandache pentru Premiul Nobel pentru Literatură pe anul 2011. Niciun scriitor trilingv nu a primit Premiul Nobel până în prezent.
Category: Social Science

[21377] viXra:1712.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:42:22

### Nonsensul Sensului

Authors: Doina Drăgan

Voi face câteva referințe critice asupra cărții Paradoxismul Civic (Nonsensul Sensului). Pamflete, autori Florentin Smarandache și Andrușa R. Vătuiu, Editura Primus, Oradea, 2016. Cititorul, poate observa (afla) de pe coperta IV a cărții ce fel de mișcare internațională în literatură este paradoxismul, când și de cine a fost înființat acest curent (în 1980 în România, de către artistul și omul de știință Florentin Smarandache), cînd și unde a fost publicat primul manifest (în 1983 în prima carte paradoxistă, Le Sens du Nonsens/Sensul nonsensului, în Maroc).
Category: Social Science

[21376] viXra:1712.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:46:31

### O Călătorie în Antarctica

Authors: Eva Halus

Matematician, om de știință, scriitor – așa se recomandă dr. Florentin Smarandache, autorul cărții “La capătul Pământului: Expediție în Antarctica”. Pasionat de călătorii, el a vizitat 49 de țări până acum, iar în perioada 19-28 decembrie 2015 a participat la o expediția în Antarctica, la bordul vasului olandez Plancius.
Category: Social Science

[21375] viXra:1712.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:47:19

### O Fațetă a Postmodernismului

Authors: Marian Barbu

Când se va scrie o Istorie a culturii române, care să cuprindă creațiile apărute după Decembrie 1989 – în țară și diasporă – un loc aparte va trebui rezervat literaturii de sertar.
Category: Social Science

[21374] viXra:1712.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:49:59

Authors: Ion Soare

În ciuda faptului că unii critici şi teoreticieni literari se prefac a ignora noua mișcare și pe întemeietorul ei principal - Florentin Smarandache, ea este o realitate ce se impune tot mai mult.
Category: Social Science

[21373] viXra:1712.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:50:42

### O, Florentin :Ecrivez Vos Paradoxes !

Authors: Khalil Raiss

Le jeune poète roumain Ovidiu Florentin vit à Sefrou en sa qualité de prof coopérant. Selon son sentiment, il vit un PARADOXE car il enseigne les maths dans un lycée, là-bas.
Category: Social Science

[21372] viXra:1712.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:51:23

### O Ipostază de Excepție a Spiritului Uman

Authors: Valerica Ionilete

Profesorul Florentin Smarandache s-a născut la 10 decembrie 1954, în comuna Bălcești (astăzi oraș) din județul Vâlcea și este în prezent conferențiar universitar doctor la Facultatea de Matematică de la Universitatea „New Mexico” din Gallup, New Mexico, SUA.
Category: Social Science

[21371] viXra:1712.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:52:05

### O Lecție de Viață

Authors: Mirela Teodorescu

Florentin Smarandache este un savant în dome-niul științelor, publicist (în toate formele jurnalismului) și un mare iubitor de necunoscut. Acest tărâm al necunos-cutului îl provoacă la cercetare, la elucidarea enigmelor, a incertitudinilor, neclarităților, de aici a decurs și teoria sa neutrosofică, teoria neutralităților.
Category: Social Science

[21370] viXra:1712.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:53:17

### Oltenescul Boț de Humă

Authors: Janet Nică

,,Întreabă-mă, să te-ntreb” , Editura ,,Macarie”, Târgovişte, 1999, 60 p, este o arenă în care Florentin Smarandache e ,,hărţuit” cu întrebările de Veronica Balaj, Mihail I. Vlad Emilian Mirea, Adrian Dinu Rachieru, Ada Cârstoiu, Ioan Nicoară şi Cornel Popa.
Category: Social Science

[21369] viXra:1712.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:54:03

### Oltenia lui Ovidiu Florentin

Authors: Constantin M. Popa

Prima imagine a Olteniei culturale este una opusă austerității. În locul sobrietății rigide, de circumstanță, te întâmpină starea de perpetuă agitație, lucrul făcut în văzul lumii.
Category: Social Science

[21368] viXra:1712.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:54:43

### O Lume ca Nelumea

Authors: Janet Nică

În teatru, ca şi în proză, intrarea lui Florentin Smarandache este devastatoare. E un cutremur de nouă grade pe scara Richter. Nimic nu rezistă.
Category: Social Science

[21367] viXra:1712.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:55:22

Authors: Žakalin Nežić

Begun in the 1980s by Florentin Smarandache, a revolutionary writer, artist, and mathematician, whose works are considered innovative and progressive, as well as controversial, paradoxsim is an avant-garde movement involving literature, art, philosophy, and science.
Category: Social Science

[21366] viXra:1712.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:56:11

### O Raită Prin Rai

Authors: Andruşa R. Vătuiu

Ȋn vara anului 2015, profesorul universitar dr. Florentin Smarandache ne-a surprins cu o nouă carte.* Autor, co-autor, editor, co-editor a peste 140 de cărţi şi peste 175 lucrări ştiinţifice, matematician renumit, a părăsit pentru o perioadă lumea numerelor, a para-doxului şi a neutrosofiei, pentru a pătrunde ȋntr-o lume mirifică, un arhipelag pierdut undeva ȋn Pacific, unde natura explodează prin imagini ieşite din comun, unde ritmul de viaţă parcă este altul decât cel cotidian iar oamenii ȋşi dezvăluie toată prietenia şi dragostea de care sunt ȋn stare.
Category: Social Science

[21365] viXra:1712.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:56:50

### Originalitatea Unui Poet

Authors: D. R. Popa

Am primit de curând cartea de versuri "Le sens de non-sens", scrisă de Ovidiu Florentin (Florentin Sma-randache) și tipărită de Editions Artistique din Maroc.
Category: Social Science

[21364] viXra:1712.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:57:42

### Outer-art

Authors: Al. Sfârlea

Florentin Smarandache, matematicianul și artistul multilateral, stabilit în SUA înainte de ʼ89, care și-a ”împrumutat” numele unor formații matematice și a fondat, în 1980, un curent literar de avangardă – paradoxismul -, fiind, de asemenea, și creatorul ”logicii neutrosofice” (în filosofie, dar și autorul unor versuri de oținută respectabilă, reușește, din nou, să fie suprinzătorși original.
Category: Social Science

[21363] viXra:1712.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:58:23

### Outer-Art. Avatarurile Unui Comentariu Critic

Authors: Mugur Grosu

Se spune că un reprezentant al școlii Ukiyo-e obișnuia să se semneze Hoksai - cel nebun după desen. Sunt nevoit să folosesc sintagma se spune că deoarece merg pe mâna celor ce popularizează semnalele îndepărtate ale lumii artelor plastice.
Category: Social Science

[21362] viXra:1712.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:59:04

### O Viaţă de Căutări şi de Creaţie

Authors: Ştefan Dumitrescu

Plecat de pe plaiurile Bălceştiului de Olteţ, profesorul şi scriitorul Florentin Smarandache, actualmente profesor uni-versitar în Statele Unite, face parte din acea categorie a per-sonalităţilor complexe, neliniştite, însetate de cunoaştere şi de adevăr, aflat tot timpul pe un drum care nu se va termina niciodată, al căutării absolutului şi al căutării de sine, al creaţiei şi descoperirii.
Category: Social Science

[21361] viXra:1712.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 01:59:59

### Păcală, Extraterestrul și Zmeul

Authors: Al. Mirodan

Poet, prozator, matematician și altele, profesorul Florentin Smarandache (stabilit în Statele Unite în anii '80) este și un talentat autor de teatru pentru copii.
Category: Social Science

[21360] viXra:1712.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:01:20

### Palimpsestul „ReSemnării”

Authors: Ştefan Vlăduţescu

Profesorul româno-american Florentin Smarandache este întemeietorul celui mai puternic curent literar-artistic românesc contemporan: paradoxismul.
Category: Social Science

[21359] viXra:1712.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:01:57

Authors: Ioan Danilă

Nu e deloc uşor să-ţi croieşti un drum al tău în literatură, cu precădere în poezie.
Category: Social Science

[21358] viXra:1712.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:02:37

Authors: Ştefan Vlăduţescu

Florentin Smarandache este întemeietorul paradoxismului. Întâi de toate, este un matematician cu o reputaţie excepţională, are şiruri de numere care-i poartă numele, este fondatorul unei geometrii neeuclidiene, este conducător de doctorat în mai multe universităţi ale lumii: S.U.A., Australia, Indonezia, China etc. Domnia sa este, pe de altă parte, şi poet, prozator, dramaturg.
Category: Social Science

[21357] viXra:1712.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:06:11

### Paradoximul, O Direcţie de Gândire şi Creaţie

Authors: Ştefan Vlăduţescu

Florentin Smarandache este întemeietorul paradoxismului. Întâi de toate, este un matematician cu o reputaţie excep-ţională, are şiruri de numere care-i poartă numele, este fondatorul unei geometrii neeuclidiene, este conducător de doctorat în mai multe universităţi ale lumii: S.U.A., Australia, Indonezia, China etc. Domnia-sa este, pe de altă parte, şi poet, prozator, dramaturg.
Category: Social Science

[21356] viXra:1712.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:07:01

Authors: Ion Soare

For a better understanding of the aims of this essay it is necessary to recall, at least fugitively, the partial (in)adequacy of the notion and the term of postmodernism, what, in spite of the fact that it is recognized for quite a long time in the literature of specialty, still arouses controversies.
Category: Social Science

[21355] viXra:1712.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:07:51

Authors: Andrei Pogány

În primăvara lui 2016, Florentin Smarandache şi Vătuiu Roauă Ion Andruşa, coautori, publică, la Editura Primus din Oradea, volumul lor intitulat „Paradoxismul Civic (Nonsensul Sensului)”.
Category: Social Science

[21354] viXra:1712.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:08:42

### Paradoxism la Cafeneaua Ceainăria de Platină

Authors: Sorin Găinariu

În „Cafeneaua culturală” din cadrul Complexului Rotonda Boromir din centrul Râmnicului a avut loc în 26 iulie a.c. un eveniment de excepție.
Category: Social Science

[21353] viXra:1712.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:12:42

Authors: Ion Soare

Pentru o înțelegere cât mai apropiată de intențiile acestui eseu, se impune să amintim măcar în treacăt, parțială (in)adecvare a noțiunii și termenului de postmodernism, care, în ciuda faptului că s-a impus demult în literatura de specialitate, suscită încă (și incită) la controverse.
Category: Social Science

[21352] viXra:1712.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:16:44

### Paradoxism și Postmodernism: O Privire Critică

Authors: Mihai Sporiș

Am încercat să ne lămurim, printr-o carte a lui Ion Soare, „Paradoxism și Postmodernism în creația Florentin Smarandache”, care sunt locul și importanța vâlceanului nostru mondializat în cultură, Florentin Smarandache. Demersul lui Ioan Soare, lăudabil în esența lui și în modul de abordare, suferă de unele deficiențe.
Category: Social Science

[21351] viXra:1712.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:17:38

Authors: Ion Soare

...Therefore, the literary histories are put in front of an event- a literary one, certainly! - that they will have, volens-nolens, to mention, in the worst case, if not to analyze at an equal level with the other movements from the so large and complex field of the letters: the paradoxism.
Category: Social Science

[21350] viXra:1712.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:18:42

### Paradoxismul Este O Boală Care se Ia!

Authors: Mircea Brenciu

Totul a început odată cu scrisoarea trimisă din Istanbul la redacția publicației Curentul din München. Expeditor – poetul-matematician Florentin Smarandache, aflat în azil politic la Înalta Poartă. Destinatar – scriitorul și criticul Titus Popescu, aflat în exil într-o Germanie ospitalieră.
Category: Social Science

[21349] viXra:1712.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:20:19

### Paradoxismul O Nouă Fațetă a Postmodernismului

Authors: Marian Barbu

La Smarandache, istoria prea vie a României "de ieri" este stoarsă până la lacrimă şi caricatură, încât orânduirea fonfoistă a lui Hon Hyn a paralizat şi pârjolit totul-de la ideea de libertate până la aceea de muncă.
Category: Social Science

[21348] viXra:1712.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:21:22

Authors: Geo Vasile

De-a lungul a 139 de pagini plus 4 de bibliografie se întinde strădania eseistului Titu Popescu de a impune paradoxismul drept un concept estetic teoretizat şi ilustrat prin cărţile lui Florentin Smarandache, încă tânărul autor rezident în SUA.
Category: Social Science

[21347] viXra:1712.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:22:31

Authors: Gheorghe Săvoiu, Ion Iorga-Simăn, Constantin Manea, Marian Ţaicu

Paradoxismul, în dubla sa calitate de curent literar şi metodă ştiinţifică de abordare a realităţii, a fost datorat matematicianului şi logicianului Florentin Smarandache şi a început ca un protest anti-totalitar impotriva unei societăţi plasate în autarhie sau izolare aproape completă, aşa cum era România anilor ’80, când valorile culturale şi ştiinţifice erau manipulate iar cele materiale deţinute aparent de un singur grup ale căror idei şi nevoi aveau prioritate absolută şi impact politic.
Category: Social Science

[21346] viXra:1712.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:23:43

Authors: Marian Barbu

Poezia paradoxistică, în ceea ce a realizat mai nobil, mai durabil, a sondat după misterele lumii, dincolo de realitatea imediată, adică în idee, de la înălţimea căreia se poate începe ca un evantai tot arsenalul liric: melancolia, angoasa, subtilitatea, discreţia ş.c.!.
Category: Social Science

[21345] viXra:1712.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:24:41

### Paradoxologia Vieții și Ispita de Neant

Authors: Dumitru Ichim

OEra prin 1980. Florentin Smarandache, cunoscut ca matematician şi poet, în calitate de participant la viaţa polis-ului, într-un mod "politicos", ia o "atitudine politică" împotriva regimului comunist totalitar, iniţiind Mişcarea Literară Paradoxistă.
Category: Social Science

[21344] viXra:1712.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:28:13

Authors: Ion Soare

La începutul deceniului opt al acestui secol, un cunoscut dramaturg, om de teatru, francezul Jacques Sarthou, de la Teatre de l'Île de France, primind de la Florentin Smarandache Manifeste non-conformiste pour un nouveau mouvement Iitteraire: le Paradoxisme, s-a simţit atât de entuziasmat la citirea. programului noii mişcări, încât l-a proclamat pe autor "le plus grand poete du XX -eme siecle".
Category: Social Science

[21343] viXra:1712.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:32:29

### Effect of Dark Matter and Dark Energy on Discreteness of Universe

Authors: Amir Ali Tavajoh

Existence of Dark Matter is proved by the flat rotation curves which show the distribution of luminous matter and dark matter when we move from the De Vaucuoleur spheroid of galaxy to the farthest points from center of galaxy. The dark matter increases as we get far from it, on the contrary, the luminous matter decreases. There are two types of Dark Matter: 1- Baryonic Dark Matter, 2- Non-baryonic Dark Matter; The volunteers for elements of dark matter are as follows: 1. MACHO (known as Baryonic Dark Matter) 2. Neutrinos (based on OPERA experiment, it is more probable that Tau neutrinos would be the fundamentals of dark matter), these are candidates for Non-baryonic Dark Matter, Hot Dark Matter. 3. Neutralinos (Candidate for Cold Dark Matter) 4. WIMP (Candidate for Cold Dark Matter) Dark energy and Dark Matter are making the universe accelerating in a way that the voids get totally empty and superclusters get heavier in the universe by pushing the galaxies located at the void to the superclusters. The primordial universe was continuous and there was no void, but as time goes and the superclusters appeared, voids appeared as well and the universe turn out to be discrete.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21342] viXra:1712.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:29:05

Authors: Ion Soare

At the beginning of 1980’s, a well-known playwright and man of theatre, the Frenchman Jacques Sarthou from Theatre de l’Ile de France, receiving from Florentin Smarandache the “Manifeste non-conformiste pour un nouveau movement litter ire, le Paradoxisme”, was so enthusiastic at the reading of the new movement’s programme, that claimed the author “le plus grand poete du xx-eme siecle”.
Category: Social Science

[21341] viXra:1712.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:29:50

Authors: Valeriu Perianu

Avem enunțul: "Dacă orice mulțime este inclusă într-o altă mulțime, mulțimea tuturor mulțimilor în ce este inclusă?".
Category: Social Science

[21340] viXra:1712.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:30:33

Authors: Nicolae Rusu

Se știe că valorificarea creațiilor folclorice este o activitate de importanță majoră pentru perpetuarea în timp a unui popor. În această idee, firește, au insistat încă în anii de dominație sovietică și cercetătorii în domeniu din spațiul geografic dintre Nistru și Prut.
Category: Social Science

[21339] viXra:1712.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:31:18

### Pledoarie Pentru Omul Liber

Authors: Dan Tărchilă

Formulele teatrului modern continuă să seducă și să influențeze dramaturgia contemporană, impunându-și continuu amprenta dată de patroni, de la inițiatori până astăzi.
Category: Social Science

[21338] viXra:1712.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:32:08

### Poems

Authors: David Castleman

The sensations of our living perceptions are celeb-rated in their mad wild glory. Every page exclaims riotously with announcement of sensation, and (perhaps) uncontrollably.
Category: Social Science

[21337] viXra:1712.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:32:51

### Poetica Patafizicii

Authors: Marian Barbu

În primele luni ale acestui an, a văzut lumina ti-parului cartea Estetica paradoxismului, de Titu Popescu*.
Category: Social Science

[21336] viXra:1712.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:33:34

Matematicianul Florentin Smarandache a înființat în anii ´80 o mișcare literară în zona tulbure de inter-ferență a artelor cu științele exacte – Mișcare Literară care a făcut înconjurul mapamondului.
Category: Social Science

[21335] viXra:1712.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:34:18

### Poezia Unui Matematician

Authors: Constantin Popescu

Literatura română de azi își înmulțește numărul de poeți a căror profesie de bază este matematica cu craioveanul Ovidiu Florentin, al cărui volum de versuri, intitulat Sentimente fabricate în laborator, a apărut în acest an, în versiune franceză, în Maroc.
Category: Social Science

[21334] viXra:1712.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:35:01

### Popasuri Scriitoricești, 2

Authors: Ion Părăianu

Să vorbești despre Florentin Smarandache trebuie să ai curajul unui luptător, care, când intră în ring, să fie sigur de victorie, ceea ce, în cazul de față, nu se poate. Florentin Smarandache nu poate fi învins!
Category: Social Science

[21333] viXra:1712.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:35:57

### Popasuri Scriitoricești, 3

Authors: Marian Pătrașcu

În vara anului trecut, prietenul și făcătorul de reviste Petre Cichirdan, m-a informat că dl. Florentin Smarandache, neobositul spirit enciclopedic oltean, profesor la New Mexico University, SUA, intenționează să scoată o antologie intitulată Popasuri scriitoricești pe Olt și Olteț.
Category: Social Science

[21332] viXra:1712.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:36:45

### Posibilul Imposibilului

Authors: Mirela Teodorescu

Sunt oameni pentru care sunt mult prea puţine lucruri pe care nu ştiu să le facă, să le abordeze, să le înțeleagă. Sunt oameni cărora le este de ajuns să-i priveşti că au înţeles semnificaţia, sunt oameni pentru care n-ai terminat de rostit propoziţia că au şi dat soluţia, sunt … oameni!
Category: Social Science

[21331] viXra:1712.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:37:44

### Postface to Defective Writing

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers

So as not to render Smarandache non-Smarandache, or perhaps both Smarandache and not Smarandache, I have had to refrain from a conservative impulse to render everything herein strictly in terms of the rules of English grammar, syntax and orthography.
Category: Social Science

[21330] viXra:1712.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:39:28

Authors: George Băjenaru

Prin arta sa, poetul Smarandache îmi aminteşte de precizia matematică a artei gravorului olandez Maurits Comelis Escher, de procedeul inversiunii raportului formă/fond, dar mai ales de ambiguitatea care l-a facut celebru pe Escher.
Category: Social Science

[21329] viXra:1712.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:40:12

Authors: Titu Popescu

Când publicasem, în 1995, Estetica paradoxismului, nu mă așteptasem ca o asemenea riscantă construcție teoretică să înregistreze un ecou neașteptat: a apărut ediția a II-a în anul 2001, iar în 2002 să fie tradusă în limba engleză: The Aesthetics of Paradoxism.
Category: Social Science

[21328] viXra:1712.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:43:08

### Preface to Through Tunnels of Words

Authors: Ovidiu Ghidirmic

The title of the volume immediately captures attention. Through tunnels of words, a metaphore of the last poem of the volume, wants to suggest the unidirectional going of the poetical speech through the tunnels of the words of the one single poem.
Category: Social Science

[21327] viXra:1712.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 02:47:40

### Prefață la Prin Tunele de Cuvinte

Authors: Ovidiu Ghidirmic

Poetul se dezice de el însuși, de o ipostază a sa lirică anterioară. Titlul volumului ne atrage, numaidecât, atenția.Prin tunele de cuvinte, o metaforă din poemul ultim al volumului, vrea să sugereze mersul unidirecțional al discursului poetic.
Category: Social Science

[21326] viXra:1712.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 03:00:47

### Premierea Unui Egiptean... ,,smarandachist"!

Authors: Mircea Monu

Ziarul nostru a scris în 15 decembrie 2007 despre apariția în Egipt, în limba araba, a cărții ,,Neutrosofia în filozofia arabaʺ, scrisă (împreuna cu vâlceanul Florentin Smarandache) de lect. univ. dr. Salah Osman, de la Departamentul de Filozofie al Facultății de Arte a Universitații ,,Minufiyaʺ din orașul Shibin Al Kawm, Guvernoratul (provincia) Minufiya, din Delta Nilului și despre participarea vâlceano-americanului Florentin Smarandache, corespondent special al ziarului nostru, la oconferință internațională pe tema netrosofiei îngândirea arabă, desfășurată în 16 decembrie 2007 la sediul acestei universități.
Category: Social Science

[21325] viXra:1712.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 03:03:20

### Pseudo-Eseu Asupra Unui Nou Curent Literar Euro-American:paradoxismul

Authors: Ion Rotaru

În ciuda marei, arzătoarei dorințe a întemeietorului ei, Mișcarea Paradoxistă nu s-a născut odată cu el, la 10 decembrie 1954, la Bălceşti, j. Vâlcea, în România. Căci aceasta este data venirii pe lume a lui FLORENTIN SMARANDACHE, actualmente rezident în USA, profesor de matematici, autor de "nonpoeme", fost disident anticeauşist, fugit din ţară înainte de aşa zisa revoluţie din decembrie 1989, cu un popas mai prelungit în Turcia, într-un lagăr de lângă Ankara.
Category: Social Science

[21324] viXra:1712.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 03:04:16

### Puritate Nebună, Nebună, Nebună

Authors: Janet Nică

Albumul lui Florentin Smarandache, „Outer-art”, volumul II, Editura „Conphis”, Râmnicu Vâlcea, 2002, 166 p, consilier editorial Ion Soare, coperta: Florentin Smarandache, este o super carte, oglindă cazută pe gânduri, excepţională lecţie de libertate şi semnul unui talent fără borne.
Category: Social Science

[21323] viXra:1712.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 03:05:29

### Qu`est-ce Que C’est le Paradoxisme ?

Authors: Constantin M. Popa

On confond souvent le paradoxe avec l’exercice plat et ennuyeux de réhabilitation du truisme.
Category: Social Science

[21322] viXra:1712.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 03:06:35

Authors: Marian Popa

Florentin Smarandache (n. 10.12.1954 Bălcești; liceul pedagogic absolvit la Craiova, în 1972; tot acolo licența în matematică, în 1979, apoi programator într-o uzină, profesor de liceu în țară și în Maroc, 1982-1984; refugiat politic în 1988-90 în Turcia, emigrant în SUA, computerist, universitar în New Mexico) a debutat poetic în revista școlii în 1970.
Category: Social Science

[21321] viXra:1712.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 03:07:42

Authors: Ion Urda

Paradoxism... s-a vorbit și se va mai vorbi despre acest curent literar fundamentat de sclipirea minții unui năbădăios oltean care și-a luat lumea-n cap și a reușit apoi să și-o aștearnă la picioare.
Category: Social Science

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[8773] viXra:1712.0470 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-16 14:59:22

### Conformal Kerr-de Sitter Gravity

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 4 Pages. Fixed several typos

We show that the Kerr metric for de Sitter spacetime is consistent with the demand that the associated Einstein field equations be derived from a simple conformally invariant Lagrangian.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8772] viXra:1712.0443 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-15 09:31:47

### Using Klauder's Enhanced Quantization to Set a Bound to the Cosmological Constant, in Pre Planckian Space as a Way to Ascertain the Most Important Fundamental Physics Question

Authors: Andrew Beckwith

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). In FFP 15, in the Author’s presentation, one of the two compared action integrals was from Hambler’ Quantum Gravity reference, while another was given as similar to the action principle of the Hilbert idea of General Relativistic derivation of the Einstein Field Equations. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result straight from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with also a nod to Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to , if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. We argue this is the most important fundamental question in physics today, for reasons we elaborate upon in the conclusion. Section 6 details my actual answers to the essay’s ideas, in lieu of the creation of this answer to the cosmological constant due to enhanced quantization.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8771] viXra:1712.0403 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-15 05:52:44

### There is no Standard Model of ZFC

Authors: Jaykov Foukzon

Main results are:(i) Let M_st be standard model of ZFC. Then ~Con(ZFC+∃M_st),(ii) let k be an inaccessible cardinal then ~Con(ZFC+∃k),[10],[11].
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[8770] viXra:1712.0390 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-14 12:33:09

### Aasts

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

For the leading scholars in the Scientific Age.
Category: Education and Didactics

[8769] viXra:1712.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-12 04:53:04

### The Ultimate Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything is 42

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42. The real answer, to this question, could very well be related to 42. Sphere Theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.0471*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.57920 *10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8768] viXra:1712.0387 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-17 04:25:57

### Metoda Wyprowadzania Licznych Dynamik W Szczególnej Teorii Względności (In Polish)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 23 Pages. Method of deriving numerous dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish)

W artykule przedstawiliśmy naszą nowatorską metodę wyprowadzania dynamik w Szczególnej Torii Względności. Metoda ta pozwala na wyprowadzenie w mechanice relatywistycznej nieskończenie wielu dynamik. Pokazaliśmy pięć przykładów takich wyprowadzeń. Wykazaliśmy w ten sposób, że dynamika znana dzisiaj jako dynamika Szczególnej Teorii Względności jest tylko jedną z nieskończenie wielu możliwych. Nie ma także żadnej podstawy, aby tą obowiązującą dynamikę relatywistyczną traktować jako wyjątkową, ani z powodów eksperymentalnych, ani z powodów teoretycznych. W związku z tym rozstrzygnięcie, która z możliwych dynamik mechaniki relatywistycznej jest prawidłowym modelem rzeczywistości pozostaje otwartym problemem fizyki.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8767] viXra:1712.0359 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-12 02:10:44

Authors: Liu Ran