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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[19803] viXra:1708.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-20 11:29:40

Self-Sterilization vs. Host Sterilization in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis a star can self-sterilize while keeping its atmosphere, or become sterilized by a host. This is in reference to life, as stellar metamorphosis is a life centered worldview, in that stars cool and evolve, forming life on them.
Category: Astrophysics

[19802] viXra:1708.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-20 07:40:04

Minimal Circuit in P vs NP Problem

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper describes about complexity of NP problems by using minimal circuit, and divide class P and NP. Inputs of uniform circuit family that compute P problem have some symmetry that indicated curcit structure. To clarify this symmetry, we define “Minimal circuit” as subgraph of circuit which are necessary to compute subset of inputs. Minimal circuit divide problem to some symmetric partial problems. The other hand, inputs of NTM that compute NP problem have extra implicit symmetry that indicated nondeterministic transition functions. To clarify this implicit symmetry, we define special DTM “Concrete DTM Di”which index i correspond to selection of nondeterministic transition functions. That is, NTM split many different asymmetry DTM Di and compute all Di in same time. Consider Di and minimal circuit family, uniform circuit family N that solve NP problem have to include minimal circuit family that correspond to Di. These minimal circuit family have unique circuit gate and N must include these minimal circuit family and gates. Number of such minimal circuit is over polynomial size of input. Therefore, N is over polynomial size, and P is not NP.
Category: General Mathematics

[19801] viXra:1708.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-20 09:31:39

Artificial Intelligence Revolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19800] viXra:1708.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 14:27:54

Machine-Learning Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

In what could be a small step for science potentially leading to a breakthrough, an engineer at Washington University in St. Louis has taken steps toward using nanocrystal networks for artificial intelligence applications. [16] Physicists have applied the ability of machine learning algorithms to learn from experience to one of the biggest challenges currently facing quantum computing: quantum error correction, which is used to design noise-tolerant quantum computing protocols. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19799] viXra:1708.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 16:25:48

Cosmologists and Their Problem with Equivocation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Cosmologists use equivocation, which confuses the public and even themselves. They do this to make sure they can never be wrong in any situation, by never taking a stance one way or the other. Their intent is to deceive to protect their careers and to sell books that say nothing. It is essentially a political tactic that does not belong in science, and neither does cosmology (which is a quasi-religion) as a whole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19798] viXra:1708.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 17:45:13

Property of a Curve Connecting Any Two Points in Space that Are at Different Differences from a Third Point

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: In this paper we prove that any two points A and B in space that are at different distances from a third point C, when connected by any curve in three dimensional space, must contain points such as D that are at intermediate distances from the third point C (length DC is intermediate to length AC and length BC).
Category: Geometry

[19797] viXra:1708.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 22:45:29

Is Quantum Physics Really Strange?

Authors: Georgina Woodward
Comments: 10 Pages. Includes two coloured diagrams

The conclusions from investigations of physics at the quantum realm, and theoretical models fitting the results, have presented that scale of reality as a realm utterly unlike macroscopic material reality, as we 'know' it. The aim of this paper is to show that some the difference between the scales is due to the way in which the quantum scale is considered and portrayed, not actually a difference in the way phenomena are happening.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[19796] viXra:1708.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 11:06:29

Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Ramaswamy Krishnan
Comments: 3 Pages.

This proof is based on an assumption that value of an infinite series cannot be obtained from a finite number of terms of the series. For all possible factors of (x + y -z) which are not factors of x or y or z, 3 infinite series can be developed, 2 convergent and 1 divergent. In all the 3 cases, the value of the infinite series can be obtained by considering only a finite number of terms. This gives the value for (x + y -z) = p to to the power of alpha * (p1) (p2) (p3). Thus proving Fermat's last theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[19795] viXra:1708.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 11:04:46

Basic Quantum Field Theory

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages.

Heerbaan 6 6
Category: Quantum Physics

[19794] viXra:1708.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 11:51:51

A Relation for Q-Pochhammer Symbol, Q-Bracket, Q-Factorial and Q-Binomial Coefficient.

Authors: Edigles Guedes, Cícera Guedes
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, we construct a relation involving q-Pochhammer symbol, q-bracket, q-factorial and q-binomial coefficient among other things.
Category: Number Theory

[19793] viXra:1708.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 11:56:45

An Identity for a Q-Hypergeometric Series

Authors: Edigles Guedes, Cícera Guedes
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we construct a identity for a q-hypergeometric series.
Category: Number Theory

[19792] viXra:1708.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 12:49:36

Regarding Three Points in a Plane Such that Two Points Are Non-Equidistant from the Third Point and a Predicted Property of Any Curve in that Plane Connecting the Two Non-Equidistant Points

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper, we give a simple proof that if there are two points A and B that are at distinct linear distances from a third point C (AC is not equal to BC), then any curve connecting the points A and B (this curve lies within the same plane containing A,B,C) must contain points such as D that lie at an intermediate distance from C, (DC is of length intermediate to AC and BC).
Category: Geometry

[19791] viXra:1708.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 10:48:58

Astronomical Pseudoscience Via Linguistics and Culture

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Since the mystery of planet formation is solved by the discovery that planets are older stars (stellar evolution is planet formation), the continued mystery of planet formation as accepted by establishment dogma is pseudoscientific. Thus a different type of pseudoscience is present, the ignoring of discoveries. The only problem now with getting the discovery recognized is a deep culturally rooted belief that they are mutually exclusive, regardless if the facts of nature are in direct contradiction of the culture.
Category: Astrophysics

[19790] viXra:1708.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 14:49:37

Dark and Bright-State Polaritons in Triple-Λ Eit System

Authors: M. Karthick Selvan
Comments: 7 Pages.

Triple-Λ system is investigated using polariton theory. The role of dark and bright-state polaritons in the dynamics of the system is explained in detail. Time evolution of entanglement of single and three-photon EIT modes within the system is studied.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19789] viXra:1708.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 17:46:16

On the Principle of Least Action

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 10 Pages.

Investigations into the nature of the principle of least action have shown that there is an intrinsic relationship between geometrical and topological methods and the variational principle in classical mechanics. In this work, we follow and extend this kind of mathematical analysis into the domain of quantum mechanics. First, we show that the identification of the momentum of a quantum particle with the de Broglie wavelength in 2-dimensional space would lead to an interesting feature; namely the action principle δS=0 would be satisfied not only by the stationary path, corresponding to the classical motion, but also by any path. Thereupon the Bohr quantum condition possesses a topological character in the sense that the principal quantum number n is identified with the winding number, which is used to represent the fundamental group of paths. We extend our discussions into 3-dimensional space and show that the charge of a particle also possesses a topological character and is quantised and classified by the homotopy group of closed surfaces. We then discuss the possibility to extend our discussions into spaces with higher dimensions and show that there exist physical quantities that can be quantised by the higher homotopy groups. Finally we note that if Einstein’s field equations of general relativity are derived from Hilbert’s action through the principle of least action then for the case of n=2 the field equations are satisfied by any metric if the energy-momentum tensor is identified with the metric tensor, similar to the case when the momentum of a particle is identified with the curvature of the particle’s path.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19788] viXra:1708.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 19:18:40

Time Dilation Can be Emerged from Newtonian Space in One Case

Authors: Mohamed Abdelwhab
Comments: 7 Pages.

This study shows that time dilation supposed by Einstein can be derived from absolute time supposed by Newton if Newtonian space is sloped with motion where space of moving frames is sloped with respect to space of the stationary frame of reference. Slope of Newtonian space creates a new kind of energy that causes moving frames to experience slight resistance while moving to forward in Newtonian space; hence, moving frames reverse slightly backward in space. With respect to observers at rest, the sum of the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the moving frame to forward and the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the same frame to backward is equal to the distance ( ) that the light travels vertically in frame from the perspective of the observers in the same frame . The motion of light through the reversed space dilates Newtonian time of the moving frames with respect to the stationary frame of reference, like a car that moves slowly because it is climbing a hill, the time of the moving bodies moves slowly because of the slope of Newtonian space. This work does not aim to prove slope or straightness of space; rather it aims to show that time dilation can be exists in nature as a result of a reaction between Newtonian time and slope of Newtonian space, therefore testing of slope's property must be included in the interests of applied physicists in the next days.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19787] viXra:1708.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 20:48:18

Factoring any Second Order Homogeneous Linear Ordinary Differenial Equation

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 2 Pages.

Elementary ordinary differential equations texts often present factorization of ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients by linear operators. The theorem, here, demonstrates that any Second Order Homogeneous Linear Ordinary Differential Equation with differentiable coefficients may be factored via two linear differential operators, by way of the reduction of order formula. Since the reduction of order formula applies at any order, this theorem may be generalized to any order.
Category: General Mathematics

[19786] viXra:1708.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 21:05:49

Pi Value Precisely

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed
Comments: 2 Pages.

The pi value found by hunch
Category: Geometry

[19785] viXra:1708.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 03:21:54

Bioimaging Technique

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue—such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing. [20] Chemists at ITbM, Nagoya University have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye called PhoxBright 430 (PB430) to visualize cellular ultra-structure by super-resolution microscopy. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[19784] viXra:1708.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 03:46:20

Generalization of a Ramanujan Formula

Authors: Mendzina Essomba Francois
Comments: 6 Pages.

I found a formula due to Ramanjan, I have given a generalization in this article
Category: Number Theory

[19783] viXra:1708.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 03:47:39

Equation for Distribution of Prime Numbers

Authors: Ranganath G. Kulkarni
Comments: 1 Page.

An equation for distribution of prime numbers is found that agree well with actual values of prime numbers in the range x. We find that Riemann's formula is approximate one. We need to study the variation of prime numbers with given number x and new variable r.
Category: Number Theory

[19782] viXra:1708.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 03:56:44

Instabilities in Fusion Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Scientists have discovered a remarkably simple way to suppress a common instability that can halt fusion reactions and damage the walls of reactors built to create a "star in a jar." [12] Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19781] viXra:1708.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 12:48:11

A Quantum Phenomenon that Forces the Extra Energy Shift in Mossbauer Rotor Experiment

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described a quantum phenomenon that forces a rapid additional increase in the coefficient k which defines the Mossbauer rotor experiment (k increases from 0.5 predicted within the General Theory of Relativity to 0.714). The extra energy shift follows from the interactions of photons with virtual charged pairs produced at the cost of the relativistic mass. Production of such pairs results from the atom-like structure of baryons described within SST. We as well answered following question: Why are there so many different theories of gravity?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19780] viXra:1708.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 12:55:06

Light-By-Light Scattering as a Proof of at Least Incompleteness of the Perturbative Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the light-by-light scattering and we calculated the cross-section: 76.5 +- 59.5 nb - it is independent of transverse momentum. This result is very close to the ATLAS data. The SST shows that in reality light is scattered on the central condensates in virtual electrons. The maximum width +-59.5 nb follows from a natural phenomenon. On the other hand, the calculated within the Standard Model central value (too low) and width (too low) of the cross-section are inconsistent with the ATLAS data. We answered as well following question: Why the perturbative Quantum Electrodynamics is at least an incomplete theory?
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19779] viXra:1708.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 07:54:16

Duality of Time and Perpetual Re-creation of Space

Authors: Mohamed Haj Yousef
Comments: 28 Pages. The concept of the Duality of Time is based on a previous research published in The Single Monad Model of the Cosmos (www.amazon.com/dp/1499779844).

Based on the Duality of Time hypothesis, a dynamic, granular and self-contained space-time is introduced and investigated. A new time-time or complex-time Euclidean space is defined and it is shown that the non-Euclidean Minkowski space is the first global approximation of this complex-time space in which the space-time interval becomes invariant between different inertial and non-inertial frames alike. Therefore, in addition to Lorentz factor, the equivalence principle is derived directly from the resulting discrete symmetry. To support this hypothesis, it will be applied to derive the mass-energy equivalence relation directly from fundamental classical principles. It will be also shown that the resulting dynamic quintessence could diminish the cosmological constant discrepancy by 117 orders of magnitude.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19778] viXra:1708.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 08:08:14

Mysterious Behavior of Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11] Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[19777] viXra:1708.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 10:22:54

Fluorescent Super-Resolution Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Chemists at ITbM, Nagoya University have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye called PhoxBright 430 (PB430) to visualize cellular ultra-structure by super-resolution microscopy. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19776] viXra:1708.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 13:59:26

Feeding the Universe, Quantum Scaling and Stable Neutrinos

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), it is shown, that the Vacuum is continuously feeding the universe with ultralight particles (vacumo). Vacumos are transforming into more heavy (but still ultralight) gravitons, which form quantum condensate even for high temperature. The condensate, under gravitational pressure in galaxies, produces and expels from the hot places the first generation of "ordinary" massive fermions, with are identified with neutrinos. It explains the stability of all three neutrinos, which was a puzzle in the Standard Model. The mass of neutrino, estimated in terms of a new scaling in Qmoger, satisfies the experimental bound. The oscillations of neutrino are explained in terms of interaction with the background condensate of gravitons. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is also estimated. The situation with neutrinos is an example of interface between dark and ordinary matter (Idom), introduced before in explanation of the phenomena of subjectivity.
Category: Astrophysics

[19775] viXra:1708.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 22:38:32

On the Evidence of the Number of Colours in Particle Physics

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas, Sajjad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is commonly believed ( and as well reflected in current textbooks in particle physics ) that the R ratio in $e^+ e^-$ scattering and $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay provide strong evidences of the three colours of the Quantum Chromodynamics group ${SU(3)}_c$. This is well documented in current literature. However, here we show that with a better understanding of the structure of the electric charge in the Standard Model of particle physics at hand, one rejects the second evidence as given above but continues to accept the first one. Thus $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay is not a proof of three colours anymore. This fact is well known. However unfortunately some kind of inertia has prevented this being taught to the students. As such the textbooks and monographs should be corrected so that more accurate information may be transmitted to the students.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19774] viXra:1708.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 03:27:59

Images Tiny Quasicrystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

When Israeli scientist Daniel Shechtman first saw a quasicrystal through his microscope in 1982, he reportedly thought to himself, "Eyn chaya kazo"—Hebrew for, "There can be no such creature." [24] Washington State University physicists have found a way to write an electrical circuit into a crystal, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[19773] viXra:1708.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 05:43:55

X-ray from Nucleus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A team around Kilian Heeg from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg has now found a way to make the spectrum of the x-ray pulses emitted by these sources even narrower. [28] Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19772] viXra:1708.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 05:45:49

Error Concealment by Means of Motion Refinement and Regularized Bregman Divergence

Authors: Alessandra M. Coelho, Vania V. Estrela, Felipe P. do Carmo, Sandro R. Fernandes, V. V. Estrela, Vania Vieira Estrela
Comments: 8 Pages. Proceedings of the IDEAL 2012, Springer Verlag, 2012

This work addresses the problem of error concealment in video transmission systems over noisy channels employing Bregman divergences along with regularization. Error concealment intends to improve the effects of disturbances at the reception due to bit-errors or cell loss in packet networks. Bregman regularization gives accurate answers after just some iterations with fast convergence, better accuracy, and stability. This technique has an adaptive nature: the regularization functional is updated according to Bregman functions that change from iteration to iteration according to the nature of the neighborhood under study at iteration n. Numerical experiments show that high-quality regularization parameter estimates can be obtained. The convergence is sped up while turning the regularization parameter estimation less empiric, and more automatic.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[19771] viXra:1708.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 05:19:11

2 to the Power of (p-1) is not Congruent to 1 Mod P Cubed for Any Prime 'p'

Authors: Ramaswamy Krishnan
Comments: 3 Pages. Title has been changed a little bit. Instead of mod p, it should be mod p cubed

If\quad { 2 }^{ p-1 }\quad \equiv \quad 1\quad mod\quad ({ p }^{ 3 })\quad then\quad 2,-1,{ 2 }^{ p-2 }\quad are\quad solutions\quad to\quad the\quad equation\\ f(a)\quad =\quad 1\quad -\quad { a }^{ p }\quad -\quad { (1-a) }^{ p\quad \quad }\equiv \quad o\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 }).\quad Using\quad this\quad fact\quad and\quad an\quad expression\quad for\\ { (x+y) }^{ n }\quad \quad in\quad terms\quad of\quad xy\quad ,\quad (x+y)\quad ,\quad ({ x }^{ 2 }+xy+{ y }^{ 2 })\quad it\quad is\quad prooved\quad that\\ { 2 }^{ p-1 }\quad \ncong \quad 1\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad for\quad any\quad prime\quad 'p'.
Category: Number Theory

[19770] viXra:1708.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 05:20:01

Accuracy Analysis of Tool Deflection Error Modeling in Prediction of Milled Surfaces by a Virtual Machining System

Authors: Mohsen Soori, Behrooz Arezoo, Mohsen Habibi
Comments: 14 Pages.

Accuracy of produced parts in machining process is influenced by many errors such as tool deflection as well as geometrical deviations of machine tool structure. To increase accuracy and productivity in part manufacturing, the errors are modelled by using mathematical concepts. This paper presents an application for the virtual machining systems to analyse accuracy in modelling of tool deflection error. A virtual machining system is used to create actual parts in virtual environments. Then, a comparison for different methods of tool deflection error such as cantilever beam model of the cutting tool, Finite Element Method (FEM) of the cutting tool and workpiece and geometrical model of the cutting tool effects on the workpiece is presented to show accuracy and reliability of the methods in prediction of milled surfaces. So, capabilities and difficulties of the methods in the error modelling are presented to increase accuracy and efficiency in part manufacturing.
Category: General Mathematics

[19769] viXra:1708.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 05:25:20

3 to the Power of (p-1) is not Congruent to 1 Mod P Cubed if P is Congruent to 1 Mod 6

Authors: Ramaswamy Krishnan
Comments: 2 Pages.

If\quad f(a)\quad =\quad 1\quad -\quad { a }^{ p }\quad -\quad { (1-a) }^{ p }\quad \equiv \quad 0\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad and\quad even\quad if\quad { a }^{ 2 }-a+1\quad \ncong \quad 0\quad mod(p)\\ it\quad is\quad prooved\quad that\quad f({ a }_{ r })\quad \equiv \quad 0\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad .Then\quad using\quad the\quad fact\quad that\quad if\\ { 3 }^{ p-1 }\quad \equiv \quad 1\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad ,\quad { a }^{ 2 }+a+1\quad \equiv \quad 0\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad is\quad also\quad a\quad solution\quad to\quad \\ f(a)\quad \equiv \quad 0\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 }).
Category: Number Theory

[19768] viXra:1708.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 10:16:48

Terahertz Skin Cancer Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new terahertz imaging approach that, for the first time, can acquire micron-scale resolution images while retaining computational approaches designed to speed up image acquisition. This combination could allow terahertz imaging to be useful for detecting early-stage skin cancer without requiring a tissue biopsy from the patient. [19] A new system developed by UCLA researchers could make it easier and less expensive to diagnose chronic diseases, particularly in remote areas without expensive lab equipment. [18] University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to produce 3-D images of live embryos in cattle that could help determine embryo viability before in vitro fertilization in humans. [17] For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape,
Category: Physics of Biology

[19767] viXra:1708.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 11:07:19

Redshift in Lattice-Cellular Models of the Universe: Lindquist-Wheeler and Beyond

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 5 Pages. This paper will be submitted to Open Physics J.

Many physicists and philosophers alike have debated a long standing puzzle: whether the space is continuous or discrete. It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models rely on pseudo-Riemannian metric as the cornerstone of Einsteinian universe. But the metric itself is based on continuum model. It is known that such models have led us to too many (monster) problems, including dark matter and dark energy etc. Now what if the universe is discrete? Then perhaps we can solve these problems naturally. Despite majority of cosmologists rely on such a Standard Model which is called Lambda CDM theory, we will explore here the redshift theory based on a few of lattice-cellular models, including Lindquist-Wheeler theory and beyond it. We will also touch briefly some peculiar models such as Voronoi tesellattice and also Conrad Ranzan’s cellular model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19766] viXra:1708.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 01:29:25

On the Universal Speed in Relativity

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment has been considered as a verification of the validity of Einstein’s postulate of the universal constancy of the speed of light in vacuum. However, it has been shown that the special theory of relativity can be developed by applying only the principle of relativity without the need to postulate the universal constancy of the speed of light and, as a consequence, this raises the question of what role the Michelson-Morley experiment would play in special relativity. In this work we show that the Michelson-Morley experiment can be used to verify the fact that the speed of light is not universal as postulated in Einstein’s special relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19765] viXra:1708.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 01:42:13

A Temporal Dynamics: a Generalised Newtonian and Wave Mechanics

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 24 Pages.

In this work we discuss the possibility of reconciling quantum mechanics with classical mechanics by formulating a temporal dynamics, which is a dynamics caused by the rate of change of time with respect to distance. First, we show that a temporal dynamics can be derived from the time dilation formula in Einstein’s theory of special relativity. Then we show that a short-lived time-dependent force derived from a dynamical equation that is obtained from the temporal dynamics in a 1-dimensional temporal manifold can be used to describe Bohr’s postulates of quantum radiation and quantum transition between stable orbits in terms of classical dynamics and differential geometry. We extend our discussions on formulating a temporal dynamics to a 3-dimensional temporal manifold. With this generalisation we are able to demonstrate that a sub-quantum dynamics is a classical dynamics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19764] viXra:1708.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 01:50:44

On the Stationary Orbits of a Hydrogen-Like Atom

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this work we discuss the possibility of combining the Coulomb potential with the Yukawa’s potential to form a mixed potential and then investigate whether this combination can be used to explain why the electron does not radiate when it manifests in the form of circular motions around the nucleus. We show that the mixed Coulomb-Yukawa potential can yield stationary orbits with zero net force, therefore if the electron moves around the nucleus in these orbits it will not radiate according to classical electrodynamics. We also show that in these stationary orbits, the kinetic energy of the electron is converted into potential energy, therefore the radiation process of a hydrogen-like atom does not related to the transition of the electron as a classical particle between the energy levels. The radial distribution functions of the wave equation determine the energy density rather than the electron density at a distance r along a given direction from the nucleus. It is shown in the appendix that the mixed potential used in this work can be derived from Einstein’s general theory of relativity by choosing a suitable energy-momentum tensor. Even though such derivation is not essential in our discussions, it shows that there is a possible connection between general relativity and quantum physics at the quantum level.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19763] viXra:1708.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 01:54:09

A Theory of Temporal Relativity

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this work we develop a theory of temporal relativity, which includes a temporal special relativity and a temporal general relativity, on the basis of a generalised Newtonian temporal dynamics. We then show that a temporal relativity can be used to study the dynamics of quantum radiation of an elementary particle from a quantum system.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19762] viXra:1708.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 01:58:54

A Special Relativity of Circular Reference Frame

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 3 Pages.

Similar to Einstein’s method to formulate a special relativity for inertial reference systems in classical physics, we show that a special relativity can also be formulated for systems of circular reference frames.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19761] viXra:1708.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 02:06:26

Superconductivity New State of Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19760] viXra:1708.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 03:51:07

Spacetime Structures of Quantum Particles

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this work we propose a covariant formulation for the gravitational field and derive equations that can be used to construct the spacetime structures for short-lived and stable quantum particles. We also show that Schrödinger wavefunctions can be used to construct spacetime structures for the quantum states of a quantum system, such as the hydrogen atom. Even though our discussions in this work are focused on the microscopic objects, the results obtained can be applied equally to the macroscopic phenomena.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19759] viXra:1708.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-17 03:54:59

A Derivation of the Ricci Flow

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this work we show that by restricting the coordinate transformations to the group of time-independent coordinate transformations it is possible to derive the Ricci flow from the contracted Bianchi identities.
Category: Geometry

[19758] viXra:1708.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 11:30:26

Universal Theory of General Invariance

Authors: M.P. Benowitz
Comments: 29 Pages. Submitted to Foundations of Physics

Through the introduction of a new principle of physics, we extend quantum mechanics by proposing three additional postulates. With them we construct a quantum theory where gravitation emerges from the thermodynamics of an entangled vacuum. This new quantum theory reproduces the observations of the $\Lambda$CDM model of cosmology, predicting the existence of massive vacua $ M_{\text{on}} = \sqrt{\dfrac{\hbar c}{G}}$ and $M_{\text{off}} = \sqrt{\dfrac{ \Lambda^{2} \hbar^{3}G}{c^{5}}}$. Finally, we propose an experiment for the formers direct detection.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19757] viXra:1708.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 12:07:35

Solving Numerically Ermakov-type Equation for Newtonian Cosmology Model with Vortex

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models have singularity problem. Cosmological singularity has been a consequence of excessive symmetry of flow, such as “Hubble’s law”. More realistic one is suggested, based on Newtonian cosmology model but here we include the vertical-rotational effect of the whole Universe. We review a Riccati-type equation obtained by Nurgaliev, and solve the equation numerically with Mathematica. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19756] viXra:1708.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 12:49:22

Real Roots of the Equation: X^6-3x^4-2x^3+9x^2+3x-26=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

This note presents the real roots (in radicals)of the equation:x^6-3x^4-2x^3+9x^2+3x-26=0.
Category: Algebra

[19755] viXra:1708.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 12:56:13

Question 273: Nonlinear Equation,Bernoulli Numbers,Number Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 6 Pages.

This note presents some formulas for pi.
Category: Number Theory

[19754] viXra:1708.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 07:52:52

Drug-Delivering Micromotors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Nanoengineers at the University of California San Diego have demonstrated for the first time using micromotors to treat a bacterial infection in the stomach. [12] The ability to stimulate neural circuits with very high precision light to control cells—optogenetics—is key to exciting advances in the study and mapping of the living brain. [11] A breakdown of memory processes in humans can lead to conditions such as Alzheimer's and dementia. By looking at the simpler brain of a honeybee, new research published in Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, moves us a step towards understanding the different processes behind long-term memory formation. [10] New research from Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. During the tests they learned that that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. [9] A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time. Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19753] viXra:1708.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 10:30:48

Quantum Clones

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19752] viXra:1708.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 10:47:23

A One Page Derivation of the Theory of Everything

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 10 Pages.

In a previous work I have derived the theory of everything (ToE) in a 74 pages paper. To make the theory more accessible, in this work, I derive the equation for the ToE on one page. I then follow the derivation with a few pages of discussion.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19751] viXra:1708.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 06:01:40

New Gravitational Theory of Time

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 6 Pages.

What is the source of the gravity? Why the zero point energy didn't lead the curvature of space-time to infinite? How to describe the gravity in a very short length? Why the proton almost can't decay? Who is the first cause? To answer those questions, I wrote this paper and I hope my ideas can give us a right answer.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19750] viXra:1708.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 06:41:19

Levitate Liquids at Home

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Levitation techniques are no longer confined to the laboratory thanks to University of Bristol engineers who have developed an easier way for suspending matter in mid-air by developing a 3D-printed acoustic levitator. [19] Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology have found a material used for decades to color food items ranging from corn chips to ice creams could potentially have uses far beyond food dyes. [18] Liquid droplets are natural magnifiers. Look inside a single drop of water, and you are likely to see a reflection of the world around you, close up and distended as you'd see in a crystal ball. [17] MIT physicists have created a new form of matter, a supersolid, which combines the properties of solids with those of superfluids. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19749] viXra:1708.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 06:53:04

The Proof of the Lonely Runner Conjecture

Authors: Kurmet Sultan
Comments: 29 pages, Written in Russian

The article presents the proof of the lonely runner conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[19748] viXra:1708.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 18:10:58

Some Views of Time Trials for Fundamental Constants and a New Physical Philosophy

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 9 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments proved that the fundamental constants are changing by the evolution of the universe, this paper tries to give some explanations. We have observed that the proton-to-electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant both are changing over time. Some scientists think the vacuum dielectric constant and the speed of light are changing, too. I agree them. So I finish this paper to explain those experiments and develop those guesses. The constants are changing over time. They are different from early universe. We can't understand why them change now, maybe they change because the change of the entropy because entropy is very closed with time (to know the relation between time and entropy, you can see the note under this paper), I want to prove that in this paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19747] viXra:1708.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 01:18:46

From Memristor Theory: for the Missing Links in Electrical and Mechanical System (The First Draft)

Authors: Youngdae Seo
Comments: 16 Pages.

The memristor is a kind of resistor with memory characteristic, not new fourth circuit element. The relationship between electric charge and magnetic flux linkage represents the resistor. The linear resistor has linear relationship between charge and magnetic flux, and the non-linear resistor has nonlinear relationship between them. The memristor has non-volatile and memory characteristic as well as non-linear characteristic. In addition, from the viewpoint of the mechanical system instead of the electrical system, it can be seen that the relationship between the momentum and the displacement represents the drag coefficient. This implies that there is a new term associated with consumption, not the momentum mv we usually think of. Generally, total energy is expressed as the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy. This may be due to stereotypes, and it has to be corrected because we have not considered the concept of consumption enough. It may be too far ahead, but these ideas may be the key to solving many contradictions arising from relativity, quantum mechanics, and dark energy.
Category: Classical Physics

[19746] viXra:1708.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 00:48:13

The Proof of the Collatz Conjecture

Authors: Kurmet Sultan
Comments: 49 Pages.

The article provides with the evidence of the Collatz conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[19745] viXra:1708.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 01:32:34

Machine Learning Quantum Error Correction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Physicists have applied the ability of machine learning algorithms to learn from experience to one of the biggest challenges currently facing quantum computing: quantum error correction, which is used to design noise-tolerant quantum computing protocols. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch - the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19744] viXra:1708.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 01:51:29

Heuristic Approach to Einsteins Field Equation Theory

Authors: Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar
Comments: 4 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s field equations (Fig. 1), mass curves space time and curvature of space-time dictates the gravitational field around the mass. Based on the interpretation today of the Einstein’s field equations the curvature of space time causes a smaller mass B to move towards a greater mass A since it is the shortest geodesic path in the curved space-time. This article tries to analyze the Einstein field equations in a new heuristic approach in which curvature of space-time and geodesic path is replaced by an equivalent dynamic flow of space –time model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19743] viXra:1708.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 02:54:44

Brain Machine Interface

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Brain Machine Interface Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are basically gimmicks. The reason you don't hear so much about them these days is because, in the fullness of time, significant tangible benefit to a user has flat out failed to materialize. [9] How does the brain-a lump of 'pinkish gray meat'-produce the richness of conscious experience, or any subjective experience at all? Scientists and philosophers have historically likened the brain to contemporary information technology, from the ancient Greeks comparing memory to a 'seal ring in wax,' to the 19th century brain as a 'telegraph switching circuit,' to Freud's subconscious desires 'boiling over like a steam engine,' to a hologram, and finally, the computer. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Mind Science

[19742] viXra:1708.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 11:50:11

Newton’s Gravitational Constant is not a Constant

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: Pages.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite of one of the longest history of measurements in physics, a definite value of Newton's gravitational constant γ is still not in sight. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A thought experiment is performed to analyze the log- ical structure of the claim that Newton's gravitational constant γ is a constant. Two masses in deep space are accelerated (non-inertial frames of reference). After a period of time the acceleration stops. The behavior of Newton's gravitational constant γ is ana- lyzed. RESULTS: The assumption of the constancy of Newton's gravitational constant γ leads straightforward to a logical contradiction. Thus far, if we accept that Newton's gravita- tional constant γ we must accept too that +1=+0.
Category: Astrophysics

[19741] viXra:1708.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 07:17:13

Evidence of Light-by-Light Scattering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19740] viXra:1708.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 05:14:24

Lensless Computational Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Lensless computational microscopy makes it possible to visualize transparent objects or measure their shape in three dimensions. [18] University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to produce 3-D images of live embryos in cattle that could help determine embryo viability before in vitro fertilization in humans. [17] For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19739] viXra:1708.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 05:27:43

Action Without Reaction Symmetry for em Space Propulsion Thruster Technology.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 34 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF model (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different rigid string shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South ( N+S) vector field component. Two different monopole stringy particle are also suggested for the dual electric quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components. Based on observation of iron filing-powder patterns close to direct currents in a wire, it is assumed that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel only locally parallel to each other without a magnetic field effect inside the oscillating Axion-Higgs field. This in contrast with the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field. . As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron filing atoms. As a consequence, this is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field formulas around an electric direct current wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” ( dead zone) around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of tubular or spiral magnets. Magnet optimization is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet plating with spiraling electric coils in between. The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone. Three circular anti-Maxwell propulsion systems in triangle configuration, should be enough to create stable piloting and flight Experiments with coiled magnetized iron tubes has already shown this new physics reaction less propulsion effect.
Category: Astrophysics

[19738] viXra:1708.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 05:41:30

X-ray Imaging Resolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19737] viXra:1708.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 05:43:15

Conversion of Kinetic Energy Into an Electromagnetic Pulse by Means of Control of the Gravitational Mass

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is shown a system that, if launched radially into the Earth’s gravitational field, it can acquires a ultra high amount of kinetic energy, which can generate a highly intense pulse of electromagnetic energy (EMP) with magnitude of the order of 10 Megatons or more.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19736] viXra:1708.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 06:17:08

Organismic Learning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A new computing technology called "organismoids" mimics some aspects of human thought by learning how to forget unimportant memories while retaining more vital ones. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19735] viXra:1708.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 06:49:15

Regular and Singular Rational Extensions of the Harmonic Oscillator with Two Known Eigenstates

Authors: Spiros Konstantogiannis
Comments: 50 Pages.

Exactly solvable rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator have been constructed as supersymmetric partner potentials of the harmonic oscillator [1] as well as using the so-called prepotential approach [2]. In this work, we use the factorization property of the energy eigenfunctions of the harmonic oscillator and a simple integrability condition to construct and examine series of regular and singular rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator with two known eigenstates, one of which is the ground state. Special emphasis is given to the interrelation between the special zeros of the wave function, the poles of the potential, and the excitation of the non-ground state. In the last section, we analyze specific examples.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19734] viXra:1708.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 16:32:10

Review of Weyl Tensor as an Aid to Reviewing the Penrose Weyl Tensor Conjecture Near Start of Inflation. I.e. that no Need to Suppose it is Always Zero at Start of Inflation

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 14 Pages.

We review, using our prior work the Weyl tensor as an aid to reviewing the Penrose Weyl Tensor Conjecture near start of Inflation. Our supposition is that this Weyl tensor will not vanish, and this is in tandem with a non- zero initial entropy. In doing so, we make use of two representations of the scale factor, one with , and another in terms of , with the time, scaled as . The second representation of the derivative of will yield a not equal to zero due to initial time step not being zero, i.e. a quantization of time, whereas the first representation of depends upon the initial value assumed and picked. We then afterwards, say something as to Malek’s doctoral thesis rendition of , for n general dimensions as a way to buttress our conclusion, that indeed is non-zero at start of inflation provided certain assumptions are made. Which in turn affects entropy production at the start of the universe. Note . in the case of a Pre Planckian imaginary time , i.e. to have real valued, but nonzero, we have to restrict = 1, as a way of making sense of what happens if we do use purely imaginary time. If not, then the Weyl tensor could be complex valued. If we have real time for , we have far less restrictive conditions, as is given in our document. i.e. This idea of use of a much larger initial value of the cosmological constant in line with [16] leads to a closed form solution for the if we have real time for . We conclude with our buildup to the future works section by the end of our conclusion, which has that a Pre Planckian may be linked to the inverse of the Planckian value of the initial Hubble parameter. With future input from reference [13] of our paper.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19733] viXra:1708.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 18:42:09

Electrostatic Force and Charge Structure

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 10 Pages.

In our previous report, Electromagnetic Effects and Structure of Particles due to Special Relativity, we proved that electromagnetic effects are due to special relativity by showing 11 significant digits of correspondence between the maximum value of rotation minus precession and the fine structure constant. We now provide the theoretical basis for the correspondence and its relationship to the previously derived electron and proton structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[19732] viXra:1708.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 02:58:11

Traveling Salesman Problem Solved with Zero Error

Authors: A. A. Frempong
Comments: 12 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The traveling salesman can determine by hand, with zero or negligible error, the shortest route from home base city to visit once, each of three cities, 10 cities, 20 cities, 100 cities, or 1000 cities, and return to the home base city. The general approach to solving the different types of NP problems is the same, except that sometimes, specific techniques may differ from each other according to the process involved in the problem. In the salesman problem, the first step is to arrange the data in the problem in increasing order, since one's interest is in the shortest distances. The main principle here is that the shortest route is the sum of the shortest distances such that the salesman visits each city once and returns to the starting city. The approach in this paper is different from the author's previous approach (viXra:1505.0167) in which the needed distances not among the least ten distances were added to the least ten distances before route construction began. In this paper, one starts with only the least ten distances and only if a needed distance is not among the set of the least ten distances, would one consider distances greater than those in the set of the ten least distances. The shortest route to visit nine cities and return to the starting city was found in this paper. It was also found out that even though the length of the shortest route is unique, the sequence of the cities involved is not unique. The approach used in this paper can be applied in workforce project management and hiring, as well as in a country's workforce needs and immigration quota determination. Since an approach that solves one of these problems can also solve other NP problems, and the traveling salesman problem has been solved, all NP problems can be solved, provided that one has an open mind and continues to think. If all NP problems can be solved, then all NP problems are P problems and therefore, P is equal to NP. The CMI Millennium Prize requirements have been satisfied
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[19731] viXra:1708.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 03:04:33

Networks Trophic Coherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

"Demonstrating that trophic coherence is a property found in a wide range and scale of ecosystems and networks was actually easier than we had expected," Johnson tells Phys.org. [16] A network may have many layers—corresponding to different types of relationships in a social network, for example—but traditional approaches to analysis are limited. [15] Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19730] viXra:1708.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 03:52:52

Single Molecules Transistors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A first step in this field is for researchers to demonstrate that single molecules can function as reproducible circuit elements such as transistors or diodes that can easily operate at room temperature. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Condensed Matter

[19729] viXra:1708.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 07:09:58

Laser on High-Energy-Density

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Those are among the reasons the University of Rochester has turned its attention to the relatively new field of high-energy-density physics. [15] Using ultrashort laser pulses an international team at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has managed to manipulate the positions of atoms in hydrocarbon molecules in a targeted fashion. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[19728] viXra:1708.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 07:45:29

Freeform Optical Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

The device is a type of spectrometer—an optical instrument that takes light and breaks it down into components to reveal a catalogue of information about an object. [24] When we look at a painting, how do we know it's a genuine piece of art? [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19727] viXra:1708.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 08:00:35

On the Pythagorean Triples (12,y,z)

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 3 Pages.

I found a pattern in the Pythagorean triples formed of the natural number12;{(12,5,13), (12,9,15), (12,16, 20), (12,35,37)}. The pattern is the decreasing value of the difference z - y for the triples such that the differences form a sequence of the even numbers {8,6,4,2} in that order. The existence of such sequence for other natural numbers transforms the Pythagorean equation into a linear equation in y .
Category: Number Theory

[19726] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 09:30:46

The Structure and Causes of Energy Levels Quantization Of Atoms

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: this article giving a new atomic structure that has been proved by related experiments. Based on the new atomic structure, put forward the new causes of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19725] viXra:1708.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 10:23:58

Some Critical Notes on the Cantor Diagonal Argument

Authors: Philip Molyneux
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper critically examines the Cantor Diagonal Argument (CDA) that is used in set theory to draw a distinction between the cardinality of the natural numbers and that of the real numbers. In the absence of a verified English translation of the original 1891 Cantor paper from which it is said to be derived, the CDA is discussed here using a consensus from the forms found in a range of published sources (from "popular" to "professional"). Some general comments are made on these sources. The discussion then focusses on the CDA as applied to the correspondence between the set of the natural numbers, and the set of real numbers in the open range (0,1) in their expansion from decimal digits (0.123… etc.). Four points critical of the CDA are raised: (1) The conventional presentation of the CDA forms a putative new real number (X) from the "diagonal" of the chosen list of real numbers and which is therefore not on this initial list; however, it omits to consider that it may indeed be on the later part of the list, which is never exhausted however far the "diagonal" list is extended. (2) This aspect, combined with the fact that X is still composed of decimal digits, that is, it is a real number as defined, indicates that it must be on the later part of the list, that is, it is not a "new" number at all. (3) The conventional application of the CDA leads to one putative "new" real number (X); however, the logical extension of this in its "exhaustive" application, that is, by using all possible different methods of alteration of the decimal digits on the "diagonal", and by reordering the list in all possible ways, leads to a list of putative "new" real numbers that become orders of magnitude longer than the chosen "diagonal" list. (4) The CDA is apparently considered to be a method that is applicable generally; however, testing this applicability with the natural numbers themselves leads to a contradiction. Following on from this, it is found that it indeed is possible to set up a one-to-one correspondence between the natural numbers and the real numbers in (0,1), that is, ! ⇔ "; this takes the form: … a3 a2 a1 ⇔ 0. a1 a2 a3 …, where the right hand extension of the natural number is intended to be a mirror image of the left hand extension of the real number. It is also shown how this may be extended to real numbers outside the range (0,1). Additionally, a form of the CDA was presented by Wilfred Hodges in his 1998 critical review of "hopeless papers" dealing with the CDA; this form is also examined from the same viewpoints, and to the same conclusions. Finally, some comments are made on the concept of "infinity", pointing out that to consider this as an entity is a category error, since it simply represents an absence, that is, the absence of a termination to a process.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[19724] viXra:1708.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 11:23:00

Exotic Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19723] viXra:1708.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 11:54:09

Gravity

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed
Comments: 1 Page.

This talks about gravity is produced in the universe and how to induce gravitational fields
Category: Classical Physics

[19722] viXra:1708.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 12:50:30

An Integrated Pattern of Behavior Consistent with an Unprecedented Cult of the Scientific Age

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

A review paper.
Category: Social Science

[19721] viXra:1708.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 05:00:16

Hologram Diseases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A new system developed by UCLA researchers could make it easier and less expensive to diagnose chronic diseases, particularly in remote areas without expensive lab equipment. [18] University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to produce 3-D images of live embryos in cattle that could help determine embryo viability before in vitro fertilization in humans. [17] For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19720] viXra:1708.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 05:27:35

On the Relationship of Lunar Events to Seismic Activity and Its Seasonality

Authors: Kovalyov, M.
Comments: 15 Pages.

A number of authors have proved the existence of a correlation between lunar phases and perigees on one hand and seismic activity on the other hand. A similar number have authors have disproved the existence of such a correlation. We show that such a correlation exists but only "seasonally".
Category: Geophysics

[19719] viXra:1708.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 06:44:27

Smartphone Tracking

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Youth spend less time in their neighborhoods if area residents have a high fear of crime, according to a new study that used smartphones to track kids' whereabouts. [31] Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich neurobiologists present a new theory for the origin of the grid cells required for spatial orientation in the mammalian brain, which assigns a vital role to the timing of trains of signals they receive from neurons called place cells. [30] During the last decade, commercial brain-training programs have risen in popularity, offering people the hope of improving their cognitive abilities through the routine performance of various "brain games" that tap cognitive functions such as memory, attention and cognitive flexibility. [29] The human brain is smaller than most people imagine, it can be held in one hand and weighs about 3 pounds. However, the innocuous looking gray matter is infinitely complex and barely understood. But part of the challenge to understanding, despite the number of researchers, scientists, and doctors dedicated to its study, is that there is no central hub of information, mapping, or data gathering for brain research. Soon though, the Human Brain Project (HBP) hopes to change all that. [28] Many universities and institutes suggested that inside microtubules of brain cells, quantum vibrational computations were orchestrated. [27] New research proposes a way to test whether quantum entanglement is affected by consciousness. [26] Using atomic-scale quantum defects in diamonds known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to detect the magnetic field generated by neural signals, scientists working in the lab of Ronald Walsworth, a faculty member in Harvard's Center for Brain Science and Physics Department, demonstrated a noninvasive technique that can image the activity of neurons. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23]
Category: Mind Science

[19718] viXra:1708.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 20:34:15

On an Entropic Universal Turing Machine Isomorphic to Physics

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 38 Pages.

According to the second law of thermodynamics, a physical system will tend to increase its entropy over time. In this paper, I investigate a universal Turing machine (UTM) running multiple programs in parallel according to a scheduler. I found that if, over the course of the computation, the scheduler adjusts the work done on programs so as to maximize the entropy in the calculation of the halting probability Ω, the system will follow the laws of physics. Specifically, I show that the computation will obey algorithmic information theory (AIT) analogues to general relativity, entropic dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, a maximum computation speed analogous to the speed of light, the Lorentz's transformation, light cone, the Dirac equation for relativistic quantum mechanics, spins, polarization, etc. As the universe follows the second law of thermodynamics, these results would seem to suggest an affinity between an "entropic UTM" and the laws of physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[19717] viXra:1708.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 21:51:40

Approximation to Higgs Boson

Authors: Harry Watson
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Consider the product (4pi)(4pi-1/pi)(4pi-2/pi)(pi-2/pi)(4pi-4/pi). The product of the first three terms is 1836.15. The product of the last two terms is 134.72. The mass ratio of the proton to the electron is 1836.15. We may sharpen the result by letting the last two terms be (4pi-3/pi)(4pi-4/pi) = 131.13$.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19716] viXra:1708.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 22:08:33

Atomic Orbitals: Explained and Derived by Energy Wave Equations

Authors: Jeff Yee, Yingbo Zhu, Guofu Zhou
Comments: 75 pages

The electron’s orbital distance, ionization energy and shape can be modeled based on classical mechanics when the recently-discovered pentaquark structure is used as the model of the proton. This paper accurately models atomic orbital distances based on this five-quark structure of the proton, in which the orbiting electron is both attracted by an anti-quark and repelled by quarks in the proton. The orbital distance is classically defined as the point where the sum of the forces is zero, removing the need for a separate set of laws in physics, known as quantum mechanics, to describe the electron’s position in an atom.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19715] viXra:1708.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 01:40:40

Known and Unknown about Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[19714] viXra:1708.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 12:51:24

Kepler-438b, Life or No Life?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustrative diagram

It is well understood that establishment astronomy and astrophysics (the dogma for short) does not understand that planets are evolving, evolved/dead stars. The two objects, planets and stars, were never mutually exclusive. They were assumed to be exclusive in light of the complete absence of data concerning stars in all mass ranges. What they did is claim to understand how stars evolved, while simultaneously ignoring the evolved/evolving stars by calling them “exoplanets/planets”. This essentially means that all their models and theories concerning planet formation/star evolution are built on mountains of false knowledge. They simply do not have good enough theories or data interpretation to explain what is actually happening. We can determine if life is on Kepler 438b by using the life hypothesis of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis and the MVT principles as coupled to the principle of biostellar evolution in the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[19713] viXra:1708.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 07:36:46

Hilbert's Forgotten Equation of Velocity Dependent Acceleration in a Gravitational Field

Authors: David L. Berkahn, James M. Chappell, Derek Abbott
Comments: 5 Pages.

The principle of equivalence is used to argue that the known law of decreasing acceleration for high speed motion, in a low acceleration regime, produces the same result as found for a weak gravitational field, with subsequent implications for stronger fields. This result coincides with Hilbert's little explored equation of 1917, regarding the velocity dependence of acceleration under gravity. We derive this result, from first principles exploiting the principle of equivalence, without need for the full general theory of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19712] viXra:1708.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 09:06:24

Understanding the Limit of Relativity, Dark Matter and the Hubble Shift

Authors: Capt. Joseph H. Forrington
Comments: 17 Pages.

There is fundamental misnomer about what General Relativity describes. This is why Einstein’s field equations do not explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. Dilation fields have two different shapes, spherical and flat. Stellar systems are spherical and have only one shape gradient, and events are evolved forward and accelerated sequentially as the dilation gradient deepens. Flattened spiral galaxies have two types of interacting gradients. From above and below the disk, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. Along the edge the effect is spherical and this causes the circular orbits, as in General Relativity. This paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of the continuum, how events and spaces evolve forward together and how relative velocities equate to forward evolution within the continuum rather than movement through pre-existing, static, spaces. This approach also allows the Hubble shift to be described in terms of time dilation. Since events are always being accelerated in the rate of time, older frames have progressively slower rates the older they are, creating a time dilation gradient. As we are always being accelerated in time and space, objects in older frames must appear to be accelerating away from us. This eliminates the need for Dark Energy. The theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMBR is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at C through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna, translating the force in time into “real” energy. Also, IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 14 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like, which is where the difference in the rate of time between frames, the dRt, = 1 s/s, both looking into a gravity well, and looking outward to the limits of perception.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19711] viXra:1708.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 04:27:47

Yet Another Proof that Zeta(2)=pi^2/6

Authors: Hervé G.
Comments: 4 Pages.

Yet another proof that zeta(2)=Pi^2/6
Category: Number Theory

[19710] viXra:1708.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 05:44:28

A Model for Micro Black Holes with Gravity-Quantum Theory Connection

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 7 Pages.

I propose a model scenario for Planck scale micro black holes having a torsion induced dynamics. The model includes a mechanism for deep elastic and inelastic scattering. The latter causes an explosive decay into standard model particles. The model fulfills the entanglement-spacetime relationship. Connection to the hypothesis EP=EPR and correction to GR=QM is pointed out.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19709] viXra:1708.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 13:46:01

Numbers Added to the Mobility, Volume and Time Principles of the Biostellar Evolution Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Numbers are added to the MVT Principles of the Biostellar evolution principle of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[19708] viXra:1708.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 22:28:20

Feeding the Universe and Neutrino

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 4 Pages.

Based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), it is shown, that the Vacuum is continuously feeding the universe with ultralight particles (vacumo). Vacumos are transforming into more heavy (but still ultralight) gravitons, which form quantum condensate even for high temperature. The condensate, under gravitational pressure in galaxies, produces the first generation of "ordinary" massive particles, with are identified with neutrinos. The estimated in this theory mass of neutrino satisfies the experimental bound. The oscillations of neutrino are explained in terms of interaction with the background condensate of gravitons. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is estimated.
Category: Astrophysics

[19707] viXra:1708.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 03:36:47

Approaches Used in Theoretical Physics

Authors: Osvaldo Domann
Comments: 11 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The intention of theoretical physics is to construct mathematical models so that experimental data can be predicted through calculation. Models are based on approaches which define the nature of the models. The most common approaches used are of mythological, mathematical or physical nature. Examples of mythological approaches are gluons, gravitons, dark matter, dark energy. Examples of mathematical approaches are the MOND theory for gravitation, special relativity and general relativity, the theory of quantum mechanics with the gauge principle. Examples of approaches of physical nature are the String, Vortex and Focal Point theories, the Emission theories, the theory of gravitation as the result of the reintegration of migrated electrons and positrons to their nuclei, the theory of Galilean relativity with the gamma factor.
Category: Classical Physics

[19706] viXra:1708.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 04:05:10

Massive Particles Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19705] viXra:1708.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 04:41:56

Mysteries of Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[19704] viXra:1708.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 05:48:33

About Conservation the Angular Momentum for Asymmetric Tensor in Electrodynamics

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 12 Pages.

It is customary to assume that the law of conservation of the angular momentum is violated for an asymmetric energy-momentum tensor. This is the reason for criticizing the Minkowski tensor and other asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. In this paper, it is shown that the laws of conservation of energy and momentum following from an asymmetric tensor in the form of its total divergence are equivalent to the divergence of its symmetric part. It is shown that the total divergence of the antisymmetric part of the asymmetric tensor is identically zero. From this, it follows that for the asymmetric energy-momentum tensor the law of conservation of the angular momentum is also fulfilled. It is shown that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor for a vacuum does not correspond to the quadratic invariant of the electromagnetic field. This indicates that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor and the three-dimensional stress tensor are not correct.
Category: Classical Physics

[19703] viXra:1708.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 06:12:33

Wearable Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The rapid development of wearable technology has received another boost from a new development using graphene for printed electronic devices. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19702] viXra:1708.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 07:06:34

Moving Objects at the Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers report that it is possible to move a nanoparticle on the surface of a graphene sheet by applying a temperature difference at the ends of the membrane—a nanocluster on the surface will drift from the hot region to the cold one. [16] Research from The University of Manchester has thrown new light on the use of miniaturised 'heat engines' that could one day help power nanoscale machines like quantum computers. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19701] viXra:1708.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 13:16:12

Adaptive Plant Propagation Algorithm for Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problem

Authors: Sayan Nag
Comments: 11 Pages.

Optimization problems in design engineering are complex by nature, often because of the involvement of critical objective functions accompanied by a number of rigid constraints associated with the products involved. One such problem is Economic Load Dispatch (ED) problem which focuses on the optimization of the fuel cost while satisfying some system constraints. Classical optimization algorithms are not sufficient and also inefficient for the ED problem involving highly nonlinear, and non-convex functions both in the objective and in the constraints. This led to the development of metaheuristic optimization approaches which can solve the ED problem almost efficiently. This paper presents a novel robust plant intelligence based Adaptive Plant Propagation Algorithm (APPA) which is used to solve the classical ED problem. The application of the proposed method to the 3-generator and 6-generator systems shows the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm. A comparative study with another state-of-the-art algorithm (APSO) demonstrates the quality of the solution achieved by the proposed method along with the convergence characteristics of the proposed approach.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19700] viXra:1708.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 14:05:34

Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (Yark) Gravitation Theory Versus Infantile Harassment and Abuse

Authors: T. Yarman, A. L. Kholmetskii, O. Yarman, M. Arik
Comments: 5 pages

We provide our reply to a new attempt by C. Corda where he calumniates Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory (http://vixra.org/pdf/1705.0287v1.pdf.). It therefore becomes incumbent upon us to once more demonstrate that the origin of his criticism is based on his misunderstanding of the basic aspects of YARK theory, as well as on his misinterpretation of the outcomes of Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system. All of this came to be despite the fact that we had drawn a final point to his agitations in our recent papers published in Annals of Physics in 2015 and 2016 in response to his adverse behavior.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19699] viXra:1708.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 20:53:10

Bayesian Networks and Applications in Bioinformatics

Authors: Nikolaos-Modestos Kougioulis
Comments: 135 Pages.

In this report, we present Bayesian networks, a seminal class of graphical models in the Artificial Intelligence field, and as a result Causal Networks, as a natural mathematical theory for modelling dependence relationships between random variables and inference. Algorithms for the construction of these models are presented in an analytic manner. We introduce the field of Bioinformatics and make emphasis on the microarray technology. Bayesian networks modelling can be applied to construct Gene Regulatory Networks from data. From this, we are able to gain insight on the regulation mechanisms between the genes and-or proteins. As an example, the protein-signaling network constructed by Scutari & Denis (2014) and Nagarajan et al. (2013) using data from Sachs et al. (2005) is presented. Using the microarray data from Gordon et al. (2002) we propose the Naive Bayes classifier as a suitable predictor for the diagnosis and distinction of Adenocarcinoma and Mesothelioma based on gene expression data from tumor samples.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19698] viXra:1708.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 00:14:14

Assessment of Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Ferrous Sulphate Using PXRD, PSD, DSC, and TGA/DTG Analysis

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 10 Pages.

Ferrous sulphate is an inorganic salt of iron used to treat iron deficiency anaemia and maintain the overall health in our body. The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of ferrous sulphate using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Ferrous sulphate test item was divided into two parts, one part was considered as control (without Biofield Energy Treatment), whereas the second part received The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Treatment remotely by the renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD data revealed that the relative intensities and crystallite size of the characteristic diffraction peaks in the treated sample were significantly altered from -26.74% to 421.23% and from -24.93% to 42.91%, respectively compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 6.39% compared to the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90 and D(4, 3) values were significantly increased by 30.43%, 35.94%, 19.49%, and 26.26%, respectively and the surface area was significantly decreased by 53.26% compared with the control sample. The melting temperature of the treated sample in the 1st and 3rd peaks was increased by 1.61% and 1.04% respectively, whereas decreased by 5.71% and 1.04% in the 2nd and 4th peaks, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the total latent heat of fusion to transition from FeSO4•7H2O to FeSO4 was decreased by 0.44% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The TGA thermograms of both the samples exhibited four steps of thermal degradation. The total weight loss in the treated sample was increased by 0.62% compared with the control sample. The maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated sample was increased by 5.81% and 0.26% in the 1st and 4th peak respectively, but the Tmax of 2nd and 3rd peaks were decreased by 2.58% and 2.38%, respectively compared to the control sample. Overall, DSC and TGA/DTG of the treated sample showed that the thermal stability was changed compared with the control sample. The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might lead to the production of a polymorphic form of ferrous sulphate, which would have better powder flowability and appearance with altered thermal stability compared to the control sample. Alice’s Biofield Energy Treated ferrous sulphate would be useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations, which could provide better therapeutic response against iron deficiency anaemia.
Category: Chemistry

[19697] viXra:1708.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 01:13:28

Is a Photon Made of Mass and Negative Mass

Authors: Tong Wang
Comments: 3 Pages. The possibility of a photon being made of mass and negative mass

We wish to propose a configuration of a photon. This configuration has novel features which are of considerable physical implications. The potential existence of negative mass has been presented before and some of its unique attributes were discussed. Here we show that a photon is able to be made of mass and negative mass. We have emphasized the importance of an intrinsic distance between mass and negative mass inside a photon. The mass-negative mass interaction can formulate a relationship between the wavelength of a light and the intrinsic distance inside its photon. As a pair of mass and negative mass a photon can have zero active gravitational mass and positive passive gravitational mass at the same time.
Category: Classical Physics

[19696] viXra:1708.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 03:10:54

SQUID-Based Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

They overcame the bandwidth barrier by using very cold superconducting microwave circuitry and superconducting quantum interference device amplifiers, known as SQUIDs, capable of boosting the intensity of small signals. [41] Strange electrons break the crystal symmetry of high-temperature superconductors. [40] Researchers at North Carolina State University have significantly increased the temperature at which carbon-based materials act as superconductors, using a novel, boron-doped Q-carbon material. [39] Magnetic quantum objects in superconductors, so-called "fluxons," are particularly suitable for the storage and processing of data bits. [38] Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19695] viXra:1708.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 08:58:02

Blind Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that clients who possess only classical computers—and no quantum devices—can outsource computing tasks to quantum servers that perform blind quantum computing. [15] Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19694] viXra:1708.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 09:32:14

Protons Shock Front

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19693] viXra:1708.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 10:14:24

Describing a Fluid in Three-Dimensional Circular Motion with One Independent Variable by Rectangular Coordinate

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Describe a fluid in three-dimensional circular motion with one independent variable by rectangular coordinate and concludes on the breakdown of Euler and Navier-Stokes equations.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[19692] viXra:1708.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 09:57:16

Gauge Groups and Wavefunctions - Balancing at the Tipping Point

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: Pages.

“What the Hell is Going On?” is Peter Woit’s ‘Not Even Wrong’ blog post of July 22nd 2017, a commentary on Nima Arkani-Hamed’s view of the present barren state of LHC physics, the long-dreaded Desert. This paper addresses the roots of the quandary which are fundamental, branching deep into the measurement problem and the enigmatic unobservable character of the wavefunction, and the confusion generating an ongoing proliferation of quantum interpretations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19691] viXra:1708.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 09:58:40

Multilayer Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A network may have many layers—corresponding to different types of relationships in a social network, for example—but traditional approaches to analysis are limited. [15] Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19690] viXra:1708.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 10:37:34

X-rays Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a less expensive and more efficient way of controlling x-ray beams used to study the intricate details of batteries, solar cells, proteins and all manner of materials. [18] The ESRF Council, representing the 22 partner nations of the ESRF, gave the green light for the construction and commissioning of four new beamlines from 2018-2022. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet
Category: Quantum Physics

[19689] viXra:1708.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 04:27:33

Theory of Events, Space and Time

Authors: Corrado La Posta
Comments: 26 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity [1], conceived in 1905 by A. Einstein and now universally applied, involves some theoretical problems as well as some difficulties in the interpretation of experimental facts. Theoretical issues have long been debated [2,4] but have not found a sufficiently good explanation, indeed many interpretations [3,24] appear forceful and prejudicial. The many paradoxes expressed and debated and never clarified are still unresolved. The consequences of adopting a radical point of view, such as the relativistic one, also appear in the Quantum Field Theory, where the Lorentz-covariance formulation of the theory results, with careful analysis, the cause of many of the problems [54, 78]. The experimental point of view, contrary to what is commonly stated, does not undoubtedly support the theory; actually several results [5,42, 78] appear of difficult interpretation and others [6, 75] even in sharp contrast to the theory itself [23, 76]. The analysis of these inconsistencies leads to the assumption that the theory is spoiled by its foundations, that is the postulates, from defective origins that can not be eliminated [40, 77]. An alternative hypothesis, based on different premises, is therefore elaborated in this paper to reach a number of conclusions [81]. Such a different theoretical context recovers certain concepts of classical, mechanical and electrodynamic physics, which are however extended in a relativistic sense. Modifications are introduced in current kinematic, dynamic, electrodynamic and Quantum field theory. The theory thus developed is devoid of paradoxical aspects, adhering to experimental facts and free of divergence problems; superluminary motions are especially possible. Electrodynamic equations are extended into a new invariant form, compatible with Newtonian mechanics. Lorentz's force law is rewritten as a force variable with speed while the mass remains constant. A generalization of the equation of the waves is introduced, from which the equations of the superluminal motion and the equations of the material waves (Schrodinger and Klein-Gordon) can be obtained.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19688] viXra:1708.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 06:30:03

Centroid of A Given Set Of Numbers In Any Prime Metric Basis Of Concern

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a Novel Technique of finding the Centroid of a given Set of Numbers in Any Prime Metric Basis of concern.
Category: Statistics

[19687] viXra:1708.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 13:08:30

Energy Efficient Information Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Concepts for information storage and logical processing based on magnetic domain walls have great potential for implementation in future information and communications technologies." [21] Research at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) suggests it also may be true in the microscopic world of computer memory, where a team of scientists may have found that subtlety solves some of the issues with a novel memory switch. [20] Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced the first known material capable of single-photon emission at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelengths. [19] In their paper published in Nature, the team demonstrates that photons can become an accessible and powerful quantum resource when generated in the form of colour-entangled quDits. [18] But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[19686] viXra:1708.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 15:21:33

Feeding the Universe, Qualia and Neutrino

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), it is shown, that Vacuum is continuously feeding the universe and partially merge with it, not unlike an ovary with a fruit. Subjective experiences (qualia) are considered in frames of the Qmoger theory. A relation is found between qualia and the neutrino oscillations.
Category: Mind Science

[19685] viXra:1708.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 19:49:52

The Higgs Troika

Authors: Wei Lu
Comments: 21 Pages.

There are three composite electroweak Higgs bosons stemming from top quark, tau neutrino, and tau lepton condensations. Each of the three condensations gives rise to masses of four different fermions. The fermion mass hierarchies within these three cohorts are dictated by four-fermion condensations, which break two global chiral symmetries. The four-fermion condensations induce axion-like pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons and can be dark matter candidates. In addition to the 125 GeV Higgs boson observed at the LHC, we anticipate detection of tau neutrino composite Higgs boson via the charm quark decay channel. Tau neutrino condensation may contribute substantially to the muon anomalous magnetic moment. On the other hand, a feeble antisymmetric condensation might be gravitationally relevant and reflected as large-scale CMB anisotropies.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19684] viXra:1708.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 21:43:45

The Binary Goldbach Conjecture: A Proof For the Existence of Prime Sums For All 2N

Authors: Joseph Dise
Comments: 3 Pages.

A minimum number of paired composite sums is shown for all 2N. By logical extension, it proves the existence of paired prime sums for all 2N.
Category: Number Theory

[19683] viXra:1708.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 00:57:36

Centroid Of A Given Set Of Numbers In Prime Metric Basis

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this Technical Note, the author has detailed the evaluation of the Centroid of a given set of numbers in Prime Metric Basis.
Category: Statistics

[19682] viXra:1708.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 11:18:20

The Foundation of Ξ Theory

Authors: douG aka Douglas D Snell
Comments: 62 Pages. Copyrighted, All Rights Reserved

The Foundation of Ξ Theory explains the cosmological redshift is merely due to gravity's affects on light; explaining the lost energy (mass) of the photon, redshifting, occurs during curvature. Ξ Theory uses Einstein's W= withdraw and R= curvature equations to qualify the lost energy unique to the electromagnetic spectrum energies (light etc). With the Sum of the kinetic energy lost from emission to observance quantified, cosmological redshift is merely an 'effect'. Accounting for the effect Ξ Theory presents a Universe that is contracting at an increasing rate, via Gravity, being a sum of its contracting parts; requiring no hypotheticals dark energy opposing gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[19681] viXra:1708.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 07:42:36

Plasmons Display Color

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Professor Laura Na Liu at the University of Heidelberg in Germany has created it with magnesium blocks which shine because free electrons inside them perform a kind of Mexican wave known as a plasmon. [17] Multiplexing, the ability to send multiple signals through a single channel, is a fundamental feature of any voice or data communication system. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[19680] viXra:1708.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 08:08:09

Gravitational Waves Strain Amplitude and Hydrogen Atom Spectrum

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper will introduce a numerical equivalence between the strain amplitude of a gravitational wave and the wavelength of a photon emited when an electron dropps from the energy level 2 to the ground state .
Category: Classical Physics

[19679] viXra:1708.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 08:43:47

Quantum Networking Experiments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19678] viXra:1708.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 09:44:07

The P-alic Numbers

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

The P-alic numbers are defined and we show a formula giving the decomposition of a polynomial according the valuations.
Category: Number Theory

[19677] viXra:1708.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 10:07:13

A Simple Explanation of Basic Physical and Spiritual Differences Between Races Based Upon Solar Energy.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 3 Pages.

I give an explanation for why negros are more spiritual,\lazy", strong and clever than white people are.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19676] viXra:1708.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 10:12:14

Way to Detect Nanoparticles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

The team's most recent discovery of the sensing capability of microresonators could have impacts in the creation of biomedical devices, electronics and biohazard detection devices. [11] Accordingly, techniques such as the one developed in this study will be very valuable in research on new nano-thin films in which the qualitative consistency of the film across a large area needs to be ensured. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK's national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19675] viXra:1708.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 05:11:47

A New Variant on Young’s Double-slit Experiment and Wheeler’s Delayed Choice Experiment

Authors: Yuan Kai
Comments: 2 Pages.

Based on the basic version of the Double-slit experiment, a coherent light source, such as a laser beam, illuminates a plate pierced by two parallel slits, and the light passing through the slits is observed on a screen behind the plate.The wave nature of light causes the light waves passing through the two slits to interfere, producing bright and dark bands on the screen — a result that would not be expected if light consisted of classical particles. Our new variant is as below: We shut one of the two parallel slits once the light passed the slits. Or we keep the two slits shutting and opening randomly in high speed. We believe this variant experiment could lead to a farther fundamental understanding of the Quantum Mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19674] viXra:1708.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 06:38:11

Terahertz Multiplexer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Multiplexing, the ability to send multiple signals through a single channel, is a fundamental feature of any voice or data communication system. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19673] viXra:1708.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 13:24:14

The Infinity of Twin Primes

Authors: Joseph Dise
Comments: 1 Page.

6x±1 are twin primes where x=6nm±(n±m) has no solution for positive integers x, n, and m. This paper follows that definition to its conclusion.
Category: Number Theory

[19672] viXra:1708.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 13:30:28

Question 765: Polynomials , Number pi , Fractals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 15 Pages.

This note presents some results related with fractals,polynomials and number pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[19671] viXra:1708.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 14:30:07

Coronal Heating Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

It is known that the sun's corona—the outermost layer of the sun's atmosphere—is roughly 100 times hotter than its photosphere—the sun's visible layer. [16] A team led by scientists from the University of California, Los Angeles and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has reached another milestone in developing a promising technology for accelerating particles to high energies in short distances: They created a tiny tube of hot, ionized gas, or plasma, in which the particles remain tightly focused as they fly through it. [15] Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[19670] viXra:1708.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 16:23:12

Racism Amongst the Royals

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

A shattered institution.
Category: Social Science

[19669] viXra:1708.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 11:20:20

Pulsating Blue Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[19668] viXra:1708.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 12:03:10

Venus' Surface

Authors: Taylor Jones
Comments: 1 Page. Venus, Surface

.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19667] viXra:1708.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 12:36:40

MEANING’S Negotiation and SIGN’S Image

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Our study investigates how the negotiation of the meaning of the world takes place throughout history in the poem "Memento mori" by Mihai Eminescu. The method used is a thematic-linguistic one. It is noted that the initial gesture, the impulse to trigger the poetic imagination is the understanding of history as a book; This makes it possible, with the mechanism of opening the book by preference, to stop the wheel of history in relation to the preference for one called the level of development of human civilization. Understanding the stages of the evolution of society takes place on the basis of signs that predict the future; The change of civilizations is a change of signs, a change of languages, a change of explanation and comprehension ofsigns. On the other hand, the system of signs change when the signs explain and their understanding contradict each other. There is a moment when, the explanation of old signs and their understanding contradicts: thus emerges in the negotiation of the meaning of explanation / understanding a segregation, a contradiction. When the contradiction is incomprehensible and unexplained, the jump leads to a higher level of civilization. With contradiction being permanent, civilizations will prove to be precarious, fragile, perishable, vain. Everything passes, the torrent perishes, eternal is the contradiction of signs, the negotiation of meaning, the change of systems of signs.
Category: Social Science

[19666] viXra:1708.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 12:44:07

Message and Image in a Parable of Romania's Last Decades

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 9 Pages.

This study brings into a Romanian and universal diachronic perspective the parable ”The three hundred days rain” by Gabriel Chifu. The method used is a mix of comparisons, thematics and hermeneutics. There are three significant horizons: a realistic horizon, a biblical horizon, and a parabolic horizon. It is understood that in the articulation of this three horizons a distinctive parabolic realism is invented, a realism of parabolical fission of meanings. It is argued that the parable of Gabriel Chifu finds his place in universal literature, at the intersection of two groups of paradigm parables, the line of biblical parables and the line of parables with real incidence, myth or magic of the series ”The Plague” (A. Camus) and ”One Hundred Years of Solitude” (G. G. Márquez) and that, through the role of substantiation of the word, this parable shows clear Borgesian inflections. The novel ”The three hundred days rain” is qualified as a parable of Romania’s last years and is considered to be the most valuable parabolic novel of the present Romanian literature.
Category: Social Science

[19665] viXra:1708.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 08:36:56

Flash Memory Successor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

in the microscopic world of computer memory, where a team of scientists may have found that subtlety solves some of the issues with a novel memory switch. [20] Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced the first known material capable of single-photon emission at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelengths. [19] In their paper published in Nature, the team demonstrates that photons can become an accessible and powerful quantum resource when generated in the form of colour-entangled quDits. [18] But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[19664] viXra:1708.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 05:48:21

Black Holes Pervade the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

After conducting a cosmic inventory of sorts to calculate and categorize stellar-remnant black holes, astronomers from the University of California, Irvine have concluded that there are probably tens of millions of the enigmatic, dark objects in the Milky Way-far more than expected. [17] Astrophysicists at the University of Birmingham have made progress in understanding a key mystery of gravitational-wave astrophysics: how two black holes can come together and merge. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[19663] viXra:1708.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 14:25:48

Laser Imaging, Chemical Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Terahertz radiation—the band of the electromagnetic spectrum between microwaves and visible light—has promising applications in medical and industrial imaging and chemical detection, among other uses. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19662] viXra:1708.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 17:28:12

Mass of Photon

Authors: Dham Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. Mass of photon

Mass of photon found
Category: Classical Physics

[19661] viXra:1708.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 01:33:39

A Generalization of the Thomas Precession, Part I

Authors: Gary Osborn
Comments: 4 pages, no figures

The time shown by a moving clock depends on its history. The Lorentz transform does not distinguish between the history of an accelerated clock and a constant velocity clock. The history of the clock can be assimilated by integrating the first derivative of the Thomas precession from the time t=0. A definite integral is required because the unknown trajectory of the clock in the distant past affects its displayed time. The coordinates are spinning in the second frame of reference during the integration, but in the definite integral from time t=0 to time t the spin accumulates to a specific angle. The integral is equivalent to a Lorentz transform followed by a space rotation. A space rotation does not affect the invariant quantity r2 - c2 t2. The history of a jerked clock is different than that of an accelerated clock. The solution in that order is equivalent to a Lorentz transform followed by two consecutive space rotations in different directions. Similarly, there are three rotations in the ä solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19660] viXra:1708.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 01:51:23

Lessons We Can Learn from Post-Keynesian Theory and Nonlinear Dynamics for Macroeconomics Modelling: A Toy Model for Indonesia Case

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati, The Houw Liong
Comments: 8 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome

It has been known for long time that most macroeconomics models normally used for economics forecast are based on neoclassical paradigm, which relies on certain assumptions such as Efficient Market Hypothesis and Near to Equilibrium condition. But in recent years, there is growing awareness that world economy is getting more unstable and unpredictable. This condition is more appropriate for Keynesian and Hyman Minsky’s idea of FIH (financial instability hypothesis).Therefore it seems better for this unstable situation to consider what lessons we can learn from Post-Keynesian theory and also nonlinear dynamics for macroeconomics modelling. In this paper we will discuss one of the most discussed PK author, Steve Keen who is able to offer a mathematical model of Hyman Minsky’s ideas. We will discuss a toy model for Indonesia case, but of course this toy model needs to be verified with more robust model such as MINSKY software.
Category: Economics and Finance

[19659] viXra:1708.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-09 03:16:30

Origin of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[19658] viXra:1708.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 14:42:32

Velocity of Cosmic Muons Most Likely Much Higher Than C

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 3 Pages.

It seems to be the most attractive experiment for physicists, who strongly believe in the validity of the STR, to refer to: the supposed half-life time, in combination with their supposed velocity, of muons entering the atmosphere. The crucial part of the experiment is the application of the equation E=mc2. This article shows that, by applying this equation, the one error in STR is used to prove the apparent validity of another error in this theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19657] viXra:1708.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 01:55:24

Conditions of Stellar Interiors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have conducted thermonuclear measurements of nuclear reaction cross-sections under extreme conditions like those of stellar interiors. [19] Astronomers like to say we are the byproducts of stars, stellar furnaces that long ago fused hydrogen and helium into the elements needed for life through the process of stellar nucleosynthesis. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19656] viXra:1708.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 02:28:31

Analogies of Genetic and Chemical Code

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 33 Pages. This is a preprint paper about the unity of genetic and chemical code.

Starting from the previously established hypothesis on the existence of the coherence of the chemical and genetic code, new facts and new insights on the existence of essential analogies between the genetic and chemical code are presented, whereby the chemical code is derived from the original Mendeleev work on the periodic system of chemical elements. When, namely, all elements are scheduled into adequate groups of Periodic system of chemical elements, in accordance to Mendeleev original manuscript tables, then are revealed some very specific mathematical and chemical regularities; among others, Periodic system appears to be a code – the chemical code – in an entity analogy with the terrestrial genetic code. These regularities correspond to the mathematical regularities within the genetic code. Between others relations, it appears also a correspondence between the distribution of codons in the Genetic Code Table and the distribution of chemical elements in the Periodic system with respect to their even/odd parity and stability/instability of the isotopes.
Category: Chemistry

[19655] viXra:1708.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 04:15:26

Dipole Repeller Gravity Effects at Different Universal Scales as the Origin of Large Scale and Local Quantum Gravity and Hubble Redshift.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 36 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum dark energy particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the large scale repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. This seems to be a great support for the dual Quantum gravity proposal of Quantum FFF Theory, as opposing quantum push effects between vacuum particles and gravitons on Fermion around massive objects. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, ( which surpass the redshift of relative speed) as a sign for universal contraction and negative entropy, leading to a cyclic universe. All Black holes EAT the dark energy Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice supposed to be the origin of the Hubble redshift and universal contraction.
Category: Astrophysics

[19654] viXra:1708.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 05:09:33

New Formulas for Transcendent Functions

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba
Comments: 12 Pages.

I propose new formulas for the transcendent functions that I discovered.
Category: Number Theory

[19653] viXra:1708.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 05:20:31

Optical Fiber Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19652] viXra:1708.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 05:28:05

Einstein Bent the Time, Ferent Unbent the Time

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 76 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I explained Gravitational time dilation! “Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space” Adrian Ferent “Einstein bent the time, Ferent unbent the time” Adrian Ferent Einstein’s geometric gravity is not a force like in Newton’s theory, but a consequence of the distortion of space and time. “Gravitational field strength is smaller at higher altitude, because the flux of gravitons to the same surface is smaller at higher altitude, this means fewer interactions.” Adrian Ferent “Interactions in my Gravitation theory, curvature in Einstein Gravitation theory” Adrian Ferent Because of fewer interactions with gravitons, clocks that are far from massive bodies run more quickly and clocks close to massive bodies run more slowly. “Scientists are more rigorous to indoctrinate people, than clerics. Clerics need a thousand years to indoctrinate population with a new religion, scientists needed one hundred years to indoctrinate the whole world with Einstein's Gravitation theory, a wrong theory.” Adrian Ferent All Gravitation theories based on Einstein gravitation theory are wrong, from example the String theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19651] viXra:1708.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 05:42:36

Optical Coherence Tomography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19650] viXra:1708.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 06:04:11

Microscope of Live Embryos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to produce 3-D images of live embryos in cattle that could help determine embryo viability before in vitro fertilization in humans. [17] For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19649] viXra:1708.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 07:03:16

Classify Positive Integers to Prove Collatz Conjecture by Mathematical Induction

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 22 Pages.

Positive integers which are able to be operated to 1 by set operational rule of the Collatz conjecture and positive integers got via operations by the operational rule versus the set operational rule are one-to-one the same, thus we refer to converse operational routes, apply the mathematical induction, next classify positive integers to prove the Collatz conjecture by substeps according to beforehand prepared two theorems concerned.
Category: Number Theory

[19648] viXra:1708.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 07:08:51

Euler-Lagrange Equations of the Einstein-Hilbert Action

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 7 Pages.

I applied the method of the second variations of the Calculus of Variations to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Since the Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian for a gravitational field is proportional to the Ricci curvature scalar construction of the Euler-Lagrange equations requires dealing with the tensor quantities from which the Ricci curvature scalar is composed rather than the Ricci curvature scalar itself. As the result of applying this method two Euler-Lagrange equations emerged; both equations yielded the same Einstein’s field equations in absence of energy-momentum fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19647] viXra:1708.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 07:16:24

Quantum Sensors Precision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Quantum sensors are highly sensitive and among their many promising applications they are ushering in a new era of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) that is making visible the tiny details inside cells and proteins. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19646] viXra:1708.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 08:09:02

Digital-to-Biological Converter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

A team of researchers at Synthetic Genomics (SG) has unveiled a machine they call a digital-to-biological converter—it sends digitized information describing DNA, RNA or a protein to a device that prints out synthesized versions of the original material. [22] Work at the New York Genome Centre represents a big step towards DNA-based information storage. Andrew Masterson reports. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[19645] viXra:1708.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 09:13:48

Coherent Terahertz Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19644] viXra:1708.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 09:50:48

Color of LED Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The color of the light emitted by an LED can be tuned by altering the size of their semiconductor crystals. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19643] viXra:1708.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 10:35:39

Previously Unknown Protein

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

University of Georgia researchers have discovered a new way that iron is stored in microorganisms, a finding that provides new insights into the fundamental nature of how biological systems work. [16] The stage is set for a new era of data-driven protein molecular engineering as advances in DNA synthesis technology merge with improvements in computational design of new proteins. [15] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19642] viXra:1708.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 11:02:50

Synaptic Junction Reinforcement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

At the cellular level, learning and memory require continuous readjustment of the strength of synaptic junctions – the functional connections between nerve cells. [17] University of Georgia researchers have discovered a new way that iron is stored in microorganisms, a finding that provides new insights into the fundamental nature of how biological systems work. [16] The stage is set for a new era of data-driven protein molecular engineering as advances in DNA synthesis technology merge with improvements in computational design of new proteins. [15] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Mind Science

[19641] viXra:1708.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 06:06:35

It’s Déjà Vu All Over Again: A Classical Interpretation of Syntropy and Precognitive Interdiction Based on Wheeler-Feynman’s Absorber Theory

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 6 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It has been known for long time that intuition plays significant role in many professions and human life, including in entrepreneurship, government, and also in detective or law enforcement activities. Even women are known to possess better intuitive feelings or “hunch” compared to men. Despite these examples, such a precognitive interdiction is hardly accepted in established science. In this paper, we discuss briefly the advanced solutions of Maxwell equations, and then make connection between syntropy and precognition from classical perspective. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with experimental data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.
Category: Mind Science

[19640] viXra:1708.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 14:29:23

Is the Chemical Bond Consistent with the Theory of Relativity?

Authors: Omar Yepez
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures.

An experimental non-model determination of the number of electron participating in a chemical bond has been achieved. This determination corroborates the valence theory of Lewis and coincides with current state of the art. The relationship between a normalized bond area and its bond energy is used to precisely characterize selected organic molecules. The mass fusion of bonding electrons with its mass loss or gain, is the probable origin of the chemical energy. A probable geometric meaning of thermodynamic functions is provided.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19639] viXra:1708.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 17:11:22

Meta Mass Function

Authors: Yong Deng
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, a meta mass function (MMF) is presented. A new evidence theory with complex numbers is developed. Different with existing evidence theory, the new mass function in complex evidence theory is modelled as complex numbers and named as meta mass function. The classical evidence theory is the special case under the condition that the mass function is degenerated from complex number as real number.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19638] viXra:1708.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 18:01:26

Setting Time as Purely Imaginary in Regime of Space-Time Before Causal Barrier and Planckian Space-Time

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 4 Pages. Asks if imaginary time is derigor in the Pre Plankian universe

We start where we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor min ~ a a t  . In doing so, using the approximations brought up in the case of an early universe generation of a magnetic field, we come up with the stunning datum of a Pre Planckian space-time with purely imaginary time. The consequences of such are brought up in our document. We use what is brought up in a prior article as to Pre Planckian to Planckian generation of Magnetic fields to make our point. Here, we assume, in the Pre Planckian spacetime, a singular injection of space-time. Which we argue, if there is no spatial variation of the Inflaton field, so used, and we just have ONE Pre Planckian time instant, that this will be imaginary valued time, hence leading to pure Tunneling behavior. To whatever we are channeling from say a Penrose cosmology style CCC universe recycling, in terms of energy, is transferred to Planckian space-time
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[8264] viXra:1708.0211 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-18 23:54:36

On the Evidence of the Number of Colours in Particle Physics

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas, Sajad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin, Mohsin Ilahi
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is commonly believed ( and as well reflected in current textbooks in particle physics ) that the R ratio in $e^+ e^-$ scattering and $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay provide strong evidences of the three colours of the Quantum Chromodynamics group ${SU(3)}_c$. This is well documented in current literature. However, here we show that with a better understanding of the structure of the electric charge in the Standard Model of particle physics at hand, one rejects the second evidence as given above but continues to accept the first one. Thus $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay is not a proof of three colours anymore. This fact is well known. However unfortunately some kind of inertia has prevented this being taught to the students. As such the textbooks and monographs should be corrected so that more accurate information may be transmitted to the students.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8263] viXra:1708.0173 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-17 16:39:28

Newton’s Gravitational Constant is not a Constant

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 8 pages. Copyright © 2017 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by:

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite of one of the longest history of measurements in physics, a definite value of Newton's gravitational constant γ is still not in sight. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A thought experiment is performed to analyze the log- ical structure of the claim that Newton's gravitational constant γ is a constant. Two masses in deep space are accelerated (non-inertial frames of reference). After a period of time the acceleration stops. The behavior of Newton's gravitational constant γ is ana- lyzed. RESULTS: The assumption of the constancy of Newton's gravitational constant γ leads straightforward to a logical contradiction. Thus far, if we accept that Newton's gravita- tional constant γ we must accept too that +1=+0.
Category: Astrophysics

[8262] viXra:1708.0168 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-19 18:42:22

Conversion of Kinetic Energy Into an Electromagnetic Pulse by Means of Control of the Gravitational Mass

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is shown a system that, if launched radially into the Earth’s gravitational field, it can acquires a ultra high amount of kinetic energy, which can generate a highly intense pulse of electromagnetic energy (EMP) with magnitude of the order of 10 Megatons or more.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8261] viXra:1708.0163 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-16 02:10:47

Traveling Salesman Problem Solved with Zero Error

Authors: A. A. Frempong
Comments: 12 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The traveling salesman can determine by hand, with zero or negligible error, the shortest route from home base city to visit once, each of three cities, 10 cities, 20 cities, 100 cities, or 1000 cities, and return to the home base city. The general approach to solving the different types of NP problems is the same, except that sometimes, specific techniques may differ from each other according to the process involved in the problem. In the salesman problem, the first step is to arrange the data in the problem in increasing order, since one's interest is in the shortest distances. The main principle here is that the shortest route is the sum of the shortest distances such that the salesman visits each city once and returns to the starting city. The approach in this paper is different from the author's previous approach (viXra:1505.0167) in which the needed distances not among the least ten distances were added to the least ten distances before route construction began. In this paper, one starts with only the least ten distances and only if a needed distance is not among the set of the least ten distances, would one consider distances greater than those in the set of the ten least distances. The shortest route to visit nine cities and return to the starting city was found in this paper. It was also found out that even though the length of the shortest route is unique, the sequence of the cities involved is not unique. The approach used in this paper can be applied in workforce project management and hiring, as well as in a country's workforce needs and immigration quota determination. Since an approach that solves one of these problems can also solve other NP problems, and the traveling salesman problem has been solved, all NP problems can be solved, provided that one has an open mind and continues to think. If all NP problems can be solved, then all NP problems are P problems and therefore, P is equal to NP. The CMI Millennium Prize requirements have been satisfied
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[8260] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-19 08:07:22

Structure and Mechanism of Energy Levels Quantization of Atoms

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: this article show a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; based on this atomic structure, put forwards a new mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8259] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-17 06:55:17

The Structure and Causes of Energy Levels Quantization Of Atoms

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: this article show a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; and, based on this atomic structure, put forwards a new causes of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8258] viXra:1708.0153 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 21:49:12

An Integrated Pattern of Behavior Consistent with an Unprecedented Cult of the Scientific Age

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

A review summary.
Category: Social Science

[8257] viXra:1708.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-16 20:22:20

On an Entropic Universal Turing Machine Isomorphic to Physics

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 38 Pages.

According to the second law of thermodynamics, a physical system will tend to increase its entropy over time. In this paper, I investigate a universal Turing machine (UTM) running multiple programs in parallel according to a scheduler. I found that if, over the course of the computation, the scheduler adjusts the work done on programs so as to maximize the entropy in the calculation of the halting probability Ω, the system will follow the laws of physics. Specifically, I show that the computation will obey algorithmic information theory (AIT) analogues to general relativity, entropic dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, a maximum computation speed analogous to the speed of light, the Lorentz's transformation, light cone, the Dirac equation for relativistic quantum mechanics, spins, polarization, etc. As the universe follows the second law of thermodynamics, these results would seem to suggest an affinity between an "entropic UTM" and the laws of physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[8256] viXra:1708.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 09:19:09

On an Entropic Universal Turing Machine Isomorphic to Physics

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 38 Pages.

According to the second law of thermodynamics, a physical system will tend to increase its entropy over time. In this paper, I investigate a universal Turing machine (UTM) running multiple programs in parallel according to a scheduler. I found that if, over the course of the computation, the scheduler adjusts the work done on programs so as to maximize the entropy in the calculation of the halting probability Ω, the system will follow the laws of physics. Specifically, I show that the computation will obey algorithmic information theory (AIT) analogues to general relativity, entropic dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, a maximum computation speed analogous to the speed of light, the Lorentz's transformation, light cone, the Dirac equation for relativistic quantum mechanics, spins, polarization, etc. As the universe follows the second law of thermodynamics, these results would seem to suggest an affinity between an "entropic UTM" and the laws of physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[8255] viXra:1708.0147 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-19 12:51:05

Approximation to Higgs Boson

Authors: Harry Watson
Comments: 2 Pages.

Consider the product (4pi)(4pi-1/pi)(4pi-2/pi)(4pi-2/pi)(4pi-4/pi). The product of the first three terms is 1836.15. The product of the last two terms is 134.72. The mass ratio of the proton to the electron is 1836.15. We may sharpen the result by letting the last two terms be (4pi-3/pi)(4pi-4/pi) = 131.13. harry.watson@att.net
Category: Mathematical Physics

[8254] viXra:1708.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 13:45:02

Understanding the Limit of Relativity, Dark Matter and the Hubble Shift

Authors: Capt. Joseph H. Forrington
Comments: 17 Pages.

There is fundamental misnomer about what General Relativity describes. This is why Einstein’s field equations do not explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. Dilation fields have two different shapes, spherical and flat. Stellar systems are spherical and have only one shape gradient, and events are evolved forward and accelerated sequentially as the dilation gradient deepens. Flattened spiral galaxies have two types of interacting gradients. From above and below the disk, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. Along the edge the effect is spherical and this causes the circular orbits, as in General Relativity. This paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of the continuum, how events and spaces evolve forward together and how relative velocities equate to forward evolution within the continuum rather than movement through pre-existing, static, spaces. This approach also allows the Hubble shift to be described in terms of time dilation. Since events are always being accelerated in the rate of time, older frames have progressively slower rates the older they are, creating a time dilation gradient. As we are always being accelerated in time and space, objects in older frames must appear to be accelerating away from us. This eliminates the need for Dark Energy. The theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMBR is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at C through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna, translating the force in time into “real” energy. Also, IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 14 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like, which is where the difference in the rate of time between frames, the dRt, = 1 s/s, both looking into a gravity well, and looking outward to the limits of perception.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8253] viXra:1708.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-17 09:12:43

A Model for Micro Black Holes with Gravity-Quantum Theory Connection

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: Page 5 rewritten. Minor changes elsewhere. References added.

I propose a model scenario for Planck scale micro black holes including torsion induced dynamics. The model includes a mechanism for deep elastic and inelastic scattering off a black hole. The former leads to the black hole-entanglement connection. The latter causes an explosive decay into standard model particles. Linkage to the hypothesis EP=EPR and a correction to GR=QM are pointed out.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8252] viXra:1708.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-13 18:40:18

Feeding the Universe, Quantum Scaling and Neutrino

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), it is shown, that the Vacuum is continuously feeding the universe with ultralight particles (vacumo). Vacumos are transforming into more heavy (but still ultralight) gravitons, which form quantum condensate even for high temperature. The condensate, under gravitational pressure in galaxies, produces the first generation of "ordinary" massive particles, with are identified with neutrinos. The estimated in this theory mass of neutrino satisfies the experimental bound. The oscillations of neutrino are explained in terms of interaction with the background condensate of gravitons. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is estimated. A connection of this theory with the Standard Model is discussed.
Category: Astrophysics

[8251] viXra:1708.0134 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-15 10:57:31

About Conservation the Angular Momentum for Asymmetric Tensors in Electrodynamics

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 18 Pages.

It is customary to assume that the law of conservation of the angular momentum is violated for an asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. This is the reason for criticizing the Minkowski tensor and other asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. In this paper, it is shown that the laws of conservation of energy and momentum following from an asymmetric tensor in the form of its total divergence are equivalent to the divergence of its symmetric part. It is shown that the total divergence of the antisymmetric part of the asymmetric tensor is identically zero. From this, it follows that for the asymmetric energy-momentum tensor the law of conservation of the angular momentum is also fulfilled. It is shown that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor for a vacuum does not correspond to the quadratic invariant of the electromagnetic field. This indicates that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor and the three-dimensional stress tensor are not correct.
Category: Classical Physics

[8250] viXra:1708.0129 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-19 20:08:31

Bayesian Networks and Applications in Bioinformatics

Authors: Nikolaos-Modestos Kougioulis
Comments: 135 Pages.

In this report, we present Bayesian networks, a seminal class of graphical models in the Artificial Intelligence field (Pearl, 1982;1988), and as a result Causal Networks (Pearl, 2000), as a natural mathematical theory for modelling dependence relationships between random variables and inference. Algorithms for the construction of these models are presented in an analytic manner. We introduce the fields of Statistical Learning and Bioinformatics, and make emphasis on the microarray technology. Bayesian networks modelling can be applied to construct Gene Regulatory Networks from data. From this, we are able to gain insight on the regulation mechanisms between the genes and-or proteins. As an example, the protein-signaling network constructed by Scutari & Denis (2014) and Nagarajan et al. (2013) using biological data from Sachs et al. (2005) is presented. Using the microarray data from Gordon et al (2002) we propose the Naive Bayes Classifier as a suitable predictor for the diagnosis and distinction of Adenocarcynoma and Mesothelioma based on gene expression Data from tumor samples. The R programming language (R Development Team, 2012) is used for both applications.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[8249] viXra:1708.0129 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-18 21:02:19

Bayesian Networks and Applications in Bioinformatics

Authors: Nikolaos-Modestos Kougioulis
Comments: 135 Pages.

In this report, we present Bayesian networks, a seminal class of graphical models in the Artificial Intelligence field (Pearl, 1982;1988), and as a result Causal Networks (Pearl, 2000), as a natural mathematical theory for modelling dependence relationships between random variables and inference. Algorithms for the construction of these models are presented in an analytic manner. We introduce the fields of Statistical Learning and Bioinformatics, and make emphasis on the microarray technology. Bayesian networks modelling can be applied to construct Gene Regulatory Networks from data. From this, we are able to gain insight on the regulation mechanisms between the genes and-or proteins. As an example, the protein-signaling network constructed by Scutari & Denis (2014) and Nagarajan et al. (2013) using biological data from Sachs et al. (2005) is presented. Using the microarray data from Gordon et al (2002) we propose the Naive Bayes Classifier as a suitable predictor for the diagnosis and distinction of Adenocarcynoma and Mesothelioma based on gene expression Data from tumor samples. The R programming language is used for both applications.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[8248] viXra:1708.0123 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-15 06:33:11

Describing a Fluid in Three-Dimensional Circular Motion with One Independent Variable by Rectangular Coordinate

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Describe a fluid in three-dimensional circular motion with one independent variable by rectangular coordinate and concludes on the breakdown of Euler and Navier-Stokes equations.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[8247] viXra:1708.0123 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-12 11:42:48

Describing a Fluid in Three-Dimensional Circular Motion with One Independent Variable by Rectangular Coordinate

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Describe a fluid in three-dimensional circular motion with one independent variable by rectangular coordinate and concludes on the breakdown of Euler and Navier-Stokes equations.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[8246] viXra:1708.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-16 21:03:47

The Higgs Troika

Authors: Wei Lu
Comments: 22 Pages.

Ternary Clifford algebra is connected with three Higgs bosons and three fermion generations, whereas cube roots of time vector are associated with three quark colors and three weak gauge fields. Four-fermion condensations break chiral symmetries, induce axion-like bosons, and dictate fermion mass hierarchies.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8245] viXra:1708.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-12 14:09:19

The Higgs Troika

Authors: Wei Lu
Comments: 21 Pages.

There are three composite electroweak Higgs bosons stemming from top quark, tau neutrino, and tau lepton condensations. Each of the three condensations gives rise to masses of four different fermions. The fermion mass hierarchies within these three cohorts are dictated by four-fermion condensations, which break two global chiral symmetries. The four-fermion condensations induce axion-like pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons and can be dark matter candidates. In addition to the 125 GeV Higgs boson observed at the LHC, we anticipate detection of tau neutrino composite Higgs boson via the charm quark decay channel. Tau neutrino condensation may contribute substantially to the muon anomalous magnetic moment. On the other hand, a feeble antisymmetric condensation might be gravitationally relevant and reflected as large-scale CMB anisotropies.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8244] viXra:1708.0108 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-12 18:30:40

The P-alic Numbers

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

We define here a p-adic like field, called the P-alic field. We replace in fact the ring Z by Q[X] and we show a formula of decomposition of a polynomial.
Category: Number Theory

[8243] viXra:1708.0108 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-11 13:40:29

The P-alic Numbers

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

Following the definition of p-adic numbers, we apply the definitions to the ring Z[X] instead of Z, we show a formula for a polynomial.
Category: Number Theory

[8242] viXra:1708.0108 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-10 18:38:28

The P-alic Numbers

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

The P-alic numbers are defined following the definition of p-adic numbers. We show a formula for a polynomial.
Category: Number Theory

[8241] viXra:1708.0099 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-13 04:34:23

Racism Amongst the Royals

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

A shattered institution.
Category: Social Science

[8240] viXra:1708.0091 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-15 10:25:08

Mass of Photons

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed
Comments: 1 Page.

Mass of photons from big photons to small photons
Category: Classical Physics

[8239] viXra:1708.0089 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 02:29:39

Lessons We Can Learn from Post-Keynesian Theory and Nonlinear Dynamics for Macroeconomics Modelling: A Toy Model for Indonesia Case

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati, Thee Houw Liong
Comments: 11 Pages. This paper has been submitted to RBE (Review of Behavioral Economics)

It has been known for long time that most macroeconomics models normally used for economics forecast are based on neoclassical paradigm, which relies on certain assumptions such as Efficient Market Hypothesis and Near to Equilibrium condition. But in recent years, there is growing awareness that world economy is getting more unstable and unpredictable. This condition is more appropriate for Keynesian and Hyman Minsky’s idea of FIH (financial instability hypothesis).Therefore it seems better for this unstable situation to consider what lessons we can learn from Post-Keynesian theory and also nonlinear dynamics for macroeconomics modelling. In this paper we will discuss one of the most discussed PK author, Steve Keen who is able to offer a mathematical model of Hyman Minsky’s ideas. We will discuss a toy model for Indonesia case, but of course this toy model needs to be verified with more robust model such as MINSKY software.
Category: Economics and Finance

[8238] viXra:1708.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 05:49:26

Euler-Lagrange Equations of the Einstein-Hilbert Action

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 7 Pages.

I applied the method of the second variations of the Calculus of Variations to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Since the Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian for a gravitational field is proportional to the Ricci curvature scalar construction of the Euler-Lagrange equations requires dealing with the tensor quantities from which the Ricci curvature scalar is composed rather than the Ricci curvature scalar itself. As the result of applying this method two Euler-Lagrange equations emerged; both equations yielded the same Einstein’s field equations in absence of energy-momentum fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8237] viXra:1708.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-12 22:41:46

Is the Chemical Bond Consistent with the Theory of Relativity? and What Change in Mass after a Chemical Reaction?

Authors: Omar Yepez
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures

An experimental non-model determination of the number of electron participating in a chemical bond has been achieved. This determination corroborates the valence theory of Lewis and coincides with current state of the art. The relationship between a normalized bond area and its bond energy is used to precisely characterize selected organic molecules. The mass fusion of bonding electrons with its mass loss or gain, is the probable origin of the chemical energy. A probable geometric meaning of thermodynamic functions is provided.
Category: Quantum Physics