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## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[18435] viXra:1704.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 11:16:26

### Quantum Computing Frontier

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18434] viXra:1704.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 11:28:53

### Feigenbaum’s Constant and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Mario Hieb

A simple mathematical relationship exists between two unit-less, universal physical constants: the Sommerfeld fine-structure constant and Feigenbaum’s delta. This relationship may help to explain the “mystery” that has surrounded the fine-structure constant for many decades.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18433] viXra:1704.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 11:52:28

### Photodielectric Discovery

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers from Japan reports this week in Applied Physics Letters, that they have discovered a phenomenon called the photodielectric effect, which could lead to laser-controlled touch displays. [33] Researchers from the ARC Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) in the University of Sydney's Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology have made a breakthrough achieving radio frequency signal control at sub-nanosecond time scales on a chip-scale optical device. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18432] viXra:1704.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 12:26:58

### Selectivity in Sets and the Duality P vs NP

Authors: Haroun Boutamani

I address the concept of selectivity using a main set and an auxiliary set, the auxiliary serves the purpose of deciding which elements do or do not fit together within the output sets chosen based on the elements of the main set. This paper also presents an approach of comparing sets based on a defined relation and the sets’ properties, and also the elementary properties being total compatibility and total incompatibility. The problem classes P and NP are two sets considered under the criteria of distinguishability, then the possibility of comparison of the two sets is discussed. The proposed comparison presents a distinction between P and NP.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[18431] viXra:1704.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 08:31:47

### Electricity at Almost the Speed of Light

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists at the University of California, Irvine and elsewhere have fabricated new two-dimensional quantum materials with breakthrough electrical and magnetic attributes that could make them building blocks of future quantum computers and other advanced electronics. [16] NIST has been granted a patent for technology that may hasten the advent of a long-awaited new generation of high-performance, low-energy computers. [15] Researchers have shown how to create a rechargeable "spin battery" made out of materials called topological insulators, a step toward building new spintronic devices and quantum computers. [14] Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18430] viXra:1704.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 09:07:41

### السلوك الجيبي لإحداثيات جيوديزيك القرآن في فضاء الحرقم

Authors: Ahmida Bendjoudi

we give the data in the holy quran, showing the sine-behavior of the letters, with respect to the harkam space.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[18429] viXra:1704.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 05:08:15

### Do We See the Equivalence Principle in Its True Aspect?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

The interaction of the non-gravitating Higgs field with an inertial mass, due to the fifth force, resulting from the dynamic viscosity of the inertial mass and Higgs field, causes the inertial mass to be surrounded by non-gravitating/inertial gravitational field which is the gradient in the Higgs field. Such gravitational clothing does not result in the appearance of a new mass type commonly referred to as gravitational mass. Since there is only one kind of mass, that is inertial mass, so the challenge is not to answer the question of why the inertial and gravitational masses are the same. The challenge is to answer why the gravitational constant G does not depend on the internal structure of bodies - this is the fundamental problem of the Equivalence Principle. Here we justify that the invariance of the gravitational constant is due to the fact that the second component of spacetime, i.e. the Einstein spacetime, and all bodies consist of inertial masses-charges having invariant inertial mass. Interactions such as gravity, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and nuclear strong interactions can not change the mass of the inertial masses-charges - they can only change their number in the system under consideration. The same concerns the quantum entanglement which is a result of simultaneous exchanges of the same parts of the inertial masses-charges. In formula ma = GMm/(rr), M and m are the inertial masses, not some gravitational masses, whereas G depends on properties of Higgs field and dynamic viscosity of it and indirectly of the invariant masses-charges. The inertial masses-charges produce only the invariant negative gradients in the Higgs field so gravitational force is always attractive.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18428] viXra:1704.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 05:13:57

### Lepton Flavour Non-Universality from the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

In recent years, LHCb has found hints of deviations from the Standard-Model (SM) predictions that point new physics (NP). The lepton flavour universality is violated when comparing rates of decays of B mesons into excited kaon and lepton-antilepton pair with different flavours. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the ratio of such decay rates when there appears a pair of muons or electron-positron pair. In the low-squared-q region (0.045 < qq < 1.1 GeV^2/c^4)), we obtained ratio = 0.6603 and in the central-squared-q region (qq > 1.1), we obtained ratio = 0.6850. The SST results are consistent with the central values obtained in the LHCb experiments 0.660 and 0.685 respectively. We can compare the LHCb and SST results with the SM predictions that give values close to unity. The SM results are inconsistent with the LHCb data having a statistical significance of 2.2 - 2.5 sigma. We showed that the decrease from about 1 in SM to 0.6603 in SST follows from different structure of muon and electron and from creation of additional electron-positron pair near bare muon, whereas the increase in SST from 0.6603 to 0.6850 is a result of the weak interactions of a pair of muons with nucleon at q higher than some threshold energy equal to 1.05 or 1.06 GeV/c^2 i.e. the squared q should be higher than about 1.1. We do not need a heavy Z’ boson or leptoquarks to explain the deviations from SM - we need a lacking part of SM i.e. we need the SST which is the NP.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18427] viXra:1704.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 07:16:39

### Spintronic Computing

Authors: George Rajna

NIST has been granted a patent for technology that may hasten the advent of a long-awaited new generation of high-performance, low-energy computers. [15] Researchers have shown how to create a rechargeable "spin battery" made out of materials called topological insulators, a step toward building new spintronic devices and quantum computers. [14] Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18426] viXra:1704.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 14:57:30

### The Principle of the Holy Quran

Authors: Ahmida Bendjoudi

The Quranic equivalence principle is further simplified.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[18425] viXra:1704.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 17:54:24

### A Sieve for the Twin Primes

Authors: H. L. Mitchell

This paper presents a sieve for the twin primes using a double application of the Sieve of Eratosthenes to the k index for multiples of 6 centered around the primes ranging from 5 to sqrt N. Considering the set {(6k-1, 6k+1)}, we look at the exact pattern in which multiples of primes p occur in the set with respect to the values of k. By deleting the values of k such that 6k-1 is composite, we get the set of all pairs such that 6k-1 is prime, then from these we delete those in which 6k+1 is composite. That leaves us with the set of all twin primes less than N. We derive a mathematical formula accordingly using the Euler product formula, the Prime Number Theorem, Mertens’ Theorem and the Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture. The main results are: 1) A sieve for the twin primes similar to the sieve of Eratosthenes for primes 2) A formula for the approximate number of twin primes less than N in terms of the number of primes 3) The asymptotic formula for the number of twin primes less than N
Category: Number Theory

[18424] viXra:1704.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 11:52:19

### Formalization of Multivariate Lagrange Interpolation

Authors: Le Fay Yvann

We generalize a simple formula for constructing the multinomial function f which interpolates a set of (d+1) points in IR^N. We also provide an example of application of this method.
Category: General Mathematics

[18423] viXra:1704.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 06:56:36

### Artificial Synapse

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers from France and the University of Arkansas have created an artificial synapse capable of autonomous learning, a component of artificial intelligence. [17] Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18422] viXra:1704.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 07:29:54

### Einstein’s Repudiation of His Own Theory of Relativity After 1920

Authors: Peter Sujak

Einstein in his works from 1905 till 1907 discarded the ether from physics but his more than 5 papers from 1920 to 1934 deal with the ether as an unexceptionable physical reality. In these papers Einstein becomes more an enthusiastic advocate of the testification of the ether than supporters of the ether before the year 1905. It is regrettable that except of Einstein’s widely cited less important paper presented at a conference in Leiden in 1920 other more important papers on ether in which Einstein comes with the definitive claim that without the ether it is not possible to explain the physical world around us are not known to wider physical community and even not known to dissident physicists community as well. In this paper we show that Einstein by his own declarations after 1920 about testified existence of the ether himself openly repudiated his Special and General theories of relativity. In amendment we bring the text of Einstein’s 1924 paper “On the ether”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18421] viXra:1704.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 07:55:13

### Laser Cooling

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[18420] viXra:1704.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 08:24:21

### Laser for Everything

Authors: George Rajna

A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18419] viXra:1704.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 09:09:00

### On Aberration of Light Part #2

Authors: Florian Michael Schmitt

This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18418] viXra:1704.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 09:47:36

### Quantum Secure Communications

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important breakthrough in the theory of quantum secure communications. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18417] viXra:1704.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 10:13:48

### A Short Note on the de Broglie Wavelengths of Composite Objects

Authors: James Bonnar

The de Broglie wavelength of an object is inversely proportional to the object’s mass and relative velocity multiplied by Planck’s constant. A composite object, such as an atom composed of a proton and electron, possesses a total mass and therefore a composite de Broglie wavelength. Mass is simply additive, although the relation for combining de Broglie wavelengths has never been stated. In this paper, we derive the relation for combining the de Broglie wavelengths of an object’s component parts into the composite de Broglie wavelength of the object as a whole.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18416] viXra:1704.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 10:26:25

### Performance of Computer Components

Authors: George Rajna

NIST scientists have developed a novel automated probe system for evaluating the performance of computer components designed to run 100 times faster than today's best supercomputers and consume as little as Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[18415] viXra:1704.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 05:16:15

### A Reassessment of Nucleic Acid Melting

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar

A brief critique of DNA and RNA melting, particularly from a physico-chemical perspective, is presented. These melting phenomena have been employed to obtain quantitative estimates of the stability of putative base pairs, thus apparently bolstering the double helical structure of DNA. It is argued herein that the titled phenomena may not be what they seem: in particular, the strategy based on the van’t Hoff equation may not be valid, and alternative interpretations of the results merit serious consideration. These arguments cast a shadow on current views about nucleic acid structure and stability.
Category: Chemistry

[18414] viXra:1704.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 06:16:55

### One Step Forecasting Model {Version 4}

In this research investigation, the author has presented two forecasting models.
Category: Statistics

[18413] viXra:1704.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 13:47:47

### Moduli Space of Compact Lagrangian Submanifold

Authors: Giordano Colò

We describe the deformations of moduli space M of Special Lagrangian submanifolds in the compact case and we give a characterization of the topology of M by using McLean theorem. By constructing Banach spaces on bundle sections and by elliptical operators, we are able to use Hodge theory to study the topology of the manifold. Starting from McLean results, for which moduli spaces of compact special Lagrangian submanifolds is smooth and its tangent space can be identified with harmonic 1-forms on the special Lagrangian submanifolds, we can analyze deformation theory. Then we introduce a Riemannian metric on M, from which we obtain other important properties.
Category: Geometry

[18412] viXra:1704.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 13:52:17

### Quantum Simulator Supermaterials

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists at Utrecht University have created a 'quantum simulator,' a model system to study theoretical prognoses for a whole new class of materials. [18] For the first time, scientists created a tunable artificial atom in graphene. They demonstrated that a vacancy in graphene can be charged in a controllable way such that electrons can be localized to mimic the electron orbitals of an artificial atom. Importantly, the trapping mechanism is reversible (turned on and off) and the energy levels can be tuned. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[18411] viXra:1704.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 16:11:18

### The Dirichlet and the Neumann Boundary Conditions May not Produce Equivalent Solutions to the Same Electrostatic Problem

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty

Electrostatic problems are widely solved using two types of boundary conditions (BC), namely, the Dirichlet condition (DC) and Neumann condition (NC). The DC specifies values of electrostatic potential ($\psi$), while the NC specifies values of $\nabla \psi$ at the boundaries. Here we show that DC and NC may not produce equivalent solutions to a given problem; we demonstrate it with a particular problem: 1-D linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE), which has been regularly used to find the distribution of ionic charges within electrolyte solutions. Our findings are immediately applicable to many other problems in electrostatics.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18410] viXra:1704.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 16:57:03

### PHPR Preconditions

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

A waiting period...
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18409] viXra:1704.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 21:05:36

### Time Perspective Distortion, Alternative to Accelerated Expansion

Authors: Arthur Eugene Pletcher

This alternative model to Accelerated Expansion, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) postulates that time is actually observed and measured with an inherent perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event. Subsequently, decreased time intervals appear as increased velocity. TPD rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion viewed in time perspective. Both linear and rotational velocities, as well as universal expansion are skewed (oblique) to an observer on Earth. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. Please note: TPD does not contradict or violate time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length: (t). Subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using (t), instead of t In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TPD.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18408] viXra:1704.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 21:32:08

### On Anthropomorphic Principles and the Planck Fine-structure Constant

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino

In this paper I introduce a new Planck unit - the Planck fine-structure constant –. Then, from the relativistic model of the hydrogen atom I prove that this new constant is consistent with the existence of the hydrogen atom. Therefore, it seems natural to extend this concept to the rest of the laws of physics stating that the laws of physics are consistent with the appearance of life in the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18407] viXra:1704.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 03:14:10

### Digital Assistant

Authors: George Rajna

Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18406] viXra:1704.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 09:25:42

### Evaluation of Mach’s Principle in a Universe with Four Spatial Dimensions

Authors: Eva Déli

Recent cosmological data shows the Milky Way galaxy being pushed ahead of a void. Independently, laboratory research created matter with negative mass. A possible relationship between these seemingly unrelated results indicates the need to reexamine our understanding of gravity. According to Page and Wootter mechanism, time is globally static, but emergent for ‘internal’ observers. That is, interaction increases the energy-information differences among the constituents of the cosmos. Such temporal evolution engenders polar singularities, known as black and white holes, in accordance with general relativity. The second law of thermodynamics leads to Landauer’s principle, which shows that the emitted heat is proportional to the erased information of the system. Thus, information accumulates heat in black hole horizons, which have been found to be two dimensional; whereas information-free areas are energy rich and cold. The principle of static time dictates an information and dimensionality symmetry between antipodal areas of the universe. Two dimensional, positive curvature black holes must be balanced by negative curvature, four dimensional white holes, which expand space and lead to the experience of ‘dark energy.’ Positive curvature forms great field strength, which stabilizes the universe with a pressure experienced as excess gravity, called dark matter. Enhanced field strength leads to clumping, forming planets, stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters, which slows expansion. The dimensional anisotropy (two in the black holes and four in the white holes) straddle unstable three dimensional galactic environments between them. An object’s position in space corresponds to a freely hanging plumb. Deviations in angle of that plumb (position of the object) – thereby changes the equilibrium of the whole universe and leads to inertia, a force that is proportional to both the mass of the object and the field strength (i.e. radial topological distance from the center). Therefore inertia is greatest in the vicinity of the black holes. On the positively curved polar surfaces of space (such as a planet) a path that curves toward the pole forms the shortest distance. On positive curving temporal surfaces the shortest time is acceleration, which leads to the twin paradox. The hypothesis is congruent with the latest CMB data, satisfies Mach’s principle as well as Occam’s razor by uncovering a surprisingly simple, stable and unified alignment of the universe. This new physical world view is presented without equations, reflecting the futility of a universal calculation method.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18405] viXra:1704.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 14:05:12

### Quranic Relativity النسبية القرآنية

Authors: Ahmida Bendjoudi

We see in this research that the text structure of quran follows general relativity equations.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[18404] viXra:1704.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 15:01:19

### Inexhaustible Power Source

Authors: Simon A. Olanipekun

An Inexhaustible Power Source(IPS) that has a power-to-weight ratio of 122Horsepower per kilogram, with an efficiency of about 99% and a lifespan of 70years, and a coefficient of performance that tends to infinity… The IPS produces energy by inducing a magnetic vortex in its vicinity and transducing the energy inherent in the magnetic vortex into classical mechanical energy.
Category: Classical Physics

[18403] viXra:1704.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 23:04:13

### One Step Forecasting Model {Version 3}

In this research investigation, the author has presented two one step forecasting models.
Category: Statistics

[18402] viXra:1704.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 23:10:04

### A Modification of the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner Equation for Predicting Coarsening of γ‘ and Other Precipitates with Compositions Similar to that of Their Matrix

Authors: James A. Smith

Category: Condensed Matter

[18401] viXra:1704.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:13:45

### A Neutrosophic Binomial Factorial Theorem with their Refrains

Authors: Huda E. Khalid, Florentin Smarandache, Ahmed K. Essa

The Neutrosophic Precalculus and the Neutrosophic Calculus can be developed in many ways, depending on the types of indeterminacy one has and on the method used to deal with such indeterminacy. This article is innovative since the form of neutrosophic binomial factorial theorem was constructed in addition to its refrains.Two other important theorems were proven with their corollaries, and numerical examples as well. As a conjecture, we use ten (indeterminate) forms in neutrosophic calculus taking an important role in limits. To serve article's aim, some important questions had been answered.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18400] viXra:1704.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:19:00

### An Isolated Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graph

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache

The interval valued neutrosophic graphs are generalizations of the fuzzy graphs, interval fuzzy graphs, interval valued intuitionstic fuzzy graphs, and single valued neutrosophic graphs. Previously, several results have been proved on the isolated graphs and the complete graphs. In this paper, a necessary and sufficient condition for an interval valued neutrosophic graph to be an isolated interval valued neutrosophic graph is proved.
Category: General Mathematics

[18399] viXra:1704.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:20:29

### Apollonius Circles of Rank -1

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

In this article, we highlight some properties of the Apollonius circles of rank - 1 associated with a triangle.
Category: Geometry

[18398] viXra:1704.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:22:04

### Applications of Fuzzy and Neutrosophic Logic in Solving Multi-criteria Decision Making Problems

Authors: Abdel Nasser H. Zaied, Hagar M. Naguib

In daily life, decision makers around the world are seeking for the appropriate decisions while facing many challenges due to conflicting criteria and the presence of many alternatives.
Category: General Mathematics

[18397] viXra:1704.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:25:49

### The 3n + p Conjecture: A Generalization of Collatz Conjecture

Authors: W.b. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

The Collatz conjecture is an open conjecture in mathematics named so after Lothar Collatz who proposed it in 1937. It is also known as 3n 1 conjecture, the Ulam conjecture (after Stanislaw Ulam), Kakutanis problem (after Shizuo Kakutani) and so on. Several various generalization of the Collatz conjecture has been carried.
Category: General Mathematics

[18396] viXra:1704.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:33:50

### Microworld_36. Axiomatization of Physics

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 19 Pages. English and russian texts

Axiomatization of physics that D. Gilbert hankered after is implemented by methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations, using Mandelstam-Andronov’s applied scientific methodology
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18395] viXra:1704.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:52:27

### Fuzzy Logic vs. Neutrosophic Logic: Operations Logic

Authors: Salah Bouzina

The goal of this research is first to show how different, thorough, widespread and effective are the operations logic of the neutrosophic logic compared to the fuzzy logic’s operations logical. The second aim is to observe how a fully new logic, the neutrosophic logic, is established starting by changing the previous logical perspective fuzzy logic, and by changing that, we mean changing the truth values from the truth and falsity degrees membership in fuzzy logic, to the truth, falsity and indeterminacy degrees membership in neutrosophic logic; and thirdly, to observe that there is no limit to the logical discoveries.
Category: General Mathematics

[18394] viXra:1704.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:53:42

### An Application on Standard Neutrosophic Information Systems

Authors: Nguyen Xuan Thao, Bui Cong Cuong, Florentin Smarandache

A rough fuzzy set is the result of approximation of a fuzzy set with respect to a crisp approximation space. It is a mathematical tool for the knowledge discovery in the fuzzy information systems. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of rough standard neutrosophic sets, standard neutrosophic information system and give some results of the knowledge discovery on standard neutrosophic information system based on rough standard neutrosophic sets.
Category: General Mathematics

[18393] viXra:1704.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:55:07

### Some Aggregation Operators For Bipolar-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy Information

Authors: Tahir Mahmood, Florentin Smarandache, Kifayat Ullah, Qaisar Khan

In this article we define some aggregation operators for bipolar-valued hesitant fuzzy sets. These operations include bipolar-valued hesitant fuzzy ordered weighted averaging (BPVHFOWA) operator, bipolar-valued hesitant fuzzy ordered weighted geometric (BPVHFOWG) operator and their generalized forms. We also define hybrid aggregation operators and their generalized forms and solved a decision-making problem on these operation.
Category: General Mathematics

[18392] viXra:1704.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 08:43:53

### Depth-Integrated Characteristics of Nonlinear Water Waves

Authors: Yakov A. Iosilevskii

This exposition has the following main objects in view. (1) All main depth-integrated time-dependent and time-averaged characteristics, – as the velocity potential, velocity, pressure, momentum flux density tensor, volumetric kinetic, potential, and total energies, Poynting (energy flux density) vector, radiation (wave) stress tensor, etc, – of the ideal (inviscid, incompressible, and irrotational) fluid flow in an imaginary wave-perturbed infinite water layer with an arbitrary shaped bed and with a free upper boundary surface, and also the pertinent depth-integrated time-dependent and time-averaged differential continuity equations, – as those of the mass density, energy density, and momentum flux density (Euler’s and Bernoulli’s equations), etc, – are rigorously deduced from the respective basic local (bulk and surface) characteristics and from the respective bulk continuity equations, with allowance for the corresponding exact kinematic boundary conditions at the upper (free) and bottom surfaces and also with allowance for the corresponding exact dynamic boundary condition at the free surface, which follows from the basic Bernoulli equation. (2) The recursive asymptotic perturbation method with respect to powers of ka that has been developed recently by the present author for the local characteristics and bulk continuity equations of the ideal fluid flow in the presence of a priming (seeding) progressive, or standing, monochromatic gravity water wave (PPPMGWW or PSPMGWW) of a wave number k>0 and of wave amplitude a>0 in an imaginary infinite water layer of a uniform depth d>0 is extended to flow’s momentary and time-averaged (TA), depth-integrated (DI) characteristics and to their continuity equations, particularly to the 3x3 radiation, or wave, stress tensor (RST). (3) The extended recursive method is applied to PPPMGWW’s and PSPMGWW’s with the purpose to obtain their main TADI characteristics in terms of elementary functions. (4) The first non-vanishing asymptotic approximation of a characteristic, particularly that of the 3x3-TADIRST, of a PPPMGWW or PSPMGWW is generalized to a priming progressive, or standing, quasi-pane (PPQP or PSQP) MGWW. (5) The longshore wave–induced sediment transport rate, expressed by the so-called CERC (Coastal Engineering Research Council) formula, is briefly discussed in its relation to the (x,y)-component of the 3x3-TADIRST of the pertinent PPQPMGWW. (6) The presently common 2x2-TADIRST’s of progressive and standing water waves, which have been deduced by various writers from intuitive considerations and have been canonized about 55 years ago, are revised in accordance with the 3x3 ones of the recursive asymptotic theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18391] viXra:1704.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 08:48:27

### Heretical Physicsxia Newtons'g'

Authors: John E. Miller

Investigate the source of Newton's 'G' and unexplored dynamic applications beyond value 'g'
Category: Astrophysics

[18390] viXra:1704.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 08:55:12

### Biosensor using Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna

A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[18389] viXra:1704.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 09:02:56

### Study of Tornadoes that Have Reached the State of Paraná

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo

Several tornadoes have solid recorded in the Midwest, Southeast and South of Brazil. The southern region of Brazil has been hit by several of them in the last decade, highlighted the state of Paraná a to record three tornadoes in 2015. The work is a survey of tornadoes that caused major damage to the Paraná population, relevance those who reached the Balsa Nova counties, Francisco Beltrão, Cafelândia, Nova Aurora and Marechal Cândido Rondon. The main cause because it is related to El Niño which has caused a significant rise in temperature and water vapor present in the atmosphere in the state’s regions in surroundings that influence the climate of the state. Another likely factor is the increase in global temperature of the planet, a ripple effect on the warming of Pacific Ocean waters. The meeting is the possibility of the formation of large storms that funnel and reach the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina. Overall fronts storms fall into two, forming a separation channel as a wave, their crests (storms) and valleys (lull), advancing the state of Paraná.
Category: Climate Research

[18388] viXra:1704.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 11:27:27

### Nanoscopic Techniques

Authors: George Rajna

Tromsø have developed a photonic chip that makes it possible to carry out super-resolution light microscopy, also called 'nanoscopy,' with conventional microscopes. In nanoscopy, the position of single fluorescent molecules can be determined with a precision of just a few nano-meters, that is, to a millionth of a millimeter. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18387] viXra:1704.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 11:57:50

### Chiral Currents in Quantum Hall

Authors: George Rajna

Using an atomic quantum simulator, scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have achieved the first-ever direct observation of chiral currents in the model topological insulator, the 2-D integer quantum Hall system. [22] Physicists at Bielefeld University and the Arctic University of Norway in Tromsø have developed a photonic chip that makes it possible to carry out super-resolution light microscopy, also called 'nanoscopy,' with conventional microscopes. In nanoscopy, the position of single fluorescent molecules can be determined with a precision of just a few nano-meters, that is, to a millionth of a millimeter. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18386] viXra:1704.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 04:51:58

### One Step Forecasting Model (Version 2)

In this research investigation, the author has presented two Forecasting Models.
Category: Statistics

[18385] viXra:1704.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 06:54:45

### Zhoufang Transformation (Z- Transformation) : The Motion Observation Theory and Theoretical Interpretation for Hubble’s Law

Authors: Fang Zhou

The only objectively existing in nature transformation of space and time for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity is first revealed in the article.The discovered transformation ,referred to as Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation), is logically derived, using in derivation the concepts of both the principle of relativity and the postulate of constant light velocity. The Z-Transformation takes the typical form of Galilean Transformation. Moreover, a theoretical interpretation for Hubble’s Law is given firstly by the author as well, utilizing the Z-Transformation revealed .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18384] viXra:1704.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 06:49:47

### Brains Recognize Unseen in a Second

Authors: George Rajna

In about a tenth of a second—too quickly for us to even be aware it's happening—our brains figure out what we are seeing and make sense of it. [25] A new study out of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) has found that one part of the neurons in our brains is more active than previously revealed. The finding implies that our brains are both analog and digital computers and could lead to better ways to treat neurological disorders. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[18383] viXra:1704.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 00:38:54

### Optical Micro-Oscillator

Authors: George Rajna

A team of engineering researchers from UCLA and OEWaves has developed an optical micro-oscillator, a key time-keeping component of clocks that could vastly improve the accuracy of time-keeping, which is essential for use in spacecraft, automobile sensing or satellite communications. [33] Researchers from the ARC Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) in the University of Sydney's Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology have made a breakthrough achieving radio frequency signal control at sub-nanosecond time scales on a chip-scale optical device. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18382] viXra:1704.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 02:09:56

### Никитин В. Н., Никитин И. В. Если раcпадаться, то до конца! Конечный результат распада всего – Вселенское пространство фундаментальных частиц «ничего».

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.

Конечный результат распада всего – Вселенское пространство фундаментальных частиц «ничего».
Category: Astrophysics

[18381] viXra:1704.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 11:14:37

### 3D Printed Dancing Humanoid Robot “Buddy” for Homecare

This paper describes a 3D printed humanoid robot that can perform dancing and demonstrate human-like facial expressions to expand humanoid robotics in entertainment and at the same time to have an assistive role for children and elderly people. The humanoid is small and has an expressive face that is in a comfort zone for a child or an older person. It can maneuver in a day care or home care environment using its wheeled base. This paper discusses on the capabilities of the robot to carry and handle small loads like pills, common measurement tools such as pressure and temperature measurement units. The paper also discusses the use of IP camera for color identification and an Arduino based audio system to synchronize music with dance movements of the robot.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18380] viXra:1704.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 11:21:17

### Humanoid Robot Path Planning with Fuzzy Markov Decision Processes‏

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Amirreza Kosari, Mohsen Jafarzadeh

In contrast to the case of known environments, path planning in unknown environments, mostly for humanoid robots, is yet to be opened for further development. This is mainly attributed to the fact that obtaining thorough sensory information about an unknown environment is not functionally or economically applicable. This study alleviates the latter problem by resorting to a novel approach through which the decision is made according to fuzzy Markov decision processes (FMDP), with regard to the pace. The experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18379] viXra:1704.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 12:08:04

### Formula to Generate a Set of Poulet Numbers from a Poulet Number P and Its Factor D Lesser Than Sqr P

Authors: Marius Coman

In this paper I make the following observation: Let d be a factor (not necessarily prime) of the Poulet number P such that d < sqr P and m the least number such that m*d*(d – 1) > (P – 1)/2. Let n be equal to P – m*d*(d – 1). Then often exist a set of Poulet numbers Q such that Q mod(m*d*(d – 1)) = n. For example, for P = 2047 = 23*89 and d = 23, where d < sqr 2047, the least m such that m*23*22 > (P – 1)/2 is equal to 3 (1518 > 1023, while, for 2, 1012 < 1023); so, n = 2047 – 3*23*22 = 2047 – 1518 = 529 and indeed there exist a set of Poulet numbers Q such that Q mod 1518 = 529; the formula 1518*x + 529 gives the Poulet numbers 2047, 6601, 15709, 30889 (...) for x = 1, 4, 10, 20 (...).
Category: Number Theory

[18378] viXra:1704.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 12:18:12

### Study of the Molecular Electrostatic Potential of D-Pinitol an Active Hypoglycemic Principle Found in Spring Flower Three Marys (Bougainvillea Species) in the Mm+ Method

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 9 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. PJSE, v.2, n.4. 1-9 May 14,(2016)

Diabetes is one of the major causes of premature illness and death worldwide. The prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions. The work is a study of the molecular electrostatic potential via molecular mechanics of the D-Pinitol found in the Bougainvillea species, a Nyctaginaceae. A computational study of the molecular geometry of the D-pinitol through Mm+ method of the hypoglycemic compounds present in Bougainvillea species is described in a computer simulation. It is a active antidiabetic agent compounds. The study the cyclitol resembles the hooks weed bur plant Asteraceae, it showed up as appearance of a bur molecule. Probably bind to sugar molecules contained in the blood, through hydrogen bonds.
Category: Physics of Biology

[18377] viXra:1704.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 09:42:42

### Cosmology on the Back of an Envelope

Authors: John R. Berryhill
Comments: 8 Pages. Discussion at unmysticalphysics.com

An explicit closed-form solution applicable to the lambda - CDM model has been known, or perhaps forgotten, for decades. It incorporates zero spatial curvature and a nonzero cosmological constant, as recent observations support. The model incorporating these essential points is presented here in updated form. An explicit, closed-form, solution is displayed, together with useful formulas and graphs. The presentation is accessible with first-year physics and calculus.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18376] viXra:1704.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 10:44:47

### Wyjaśnienie Wyników Eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya Przy Pomocy Teorii Z Eterem (In Polish)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

Powszechnie uważa się, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a z 1887 roku oraz eksperyment Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a z 1932 roku wykazały, że nie istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter) oraz, że prędkość światła w próżni jest absolutnie stała. Analiza tych eksperymentów doprowadziła do powstania Szczególnej Teorii Względności (STW). W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia. W tym artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter). Eter jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku. W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem eteru, prędkość światła może być inna. W oparciu o nową transformację została stworzona Szczególna Teoria Eteru (STE).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18375] viXra:1704.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 13:45:16

### Evidence of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna

Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[18374] viXra:1704.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 14:54:00

### Mass

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe

I don't believe that the Higgs boson theory is correct, and it's obvious that there is no definite proof that a Higgs boson exists. The discovery of the Higgs boson is only based on data, the data consists of an energy trail of a particle that was found after a particle collision experiment in the LHC accelerator. Physicists were convinced that it was a Higgs boson because the data confirmed that the mass was similar to the mass of a hypothetical Higgs boson, but they cannot prove that the data was real. They didn't prove that the Higgs boson theory is correct, so the Higgs theory remains a theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18373] viXra:1704.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 16:51:50

### Multi Criteria Decision Making Based on Projection and Bidirectional Projection Measures of Rough Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Rumi Roy, Tapan Kumar Roy

In this paper, we define projection and bidirectional projection measures between rough neutrosophic sets. Then two new multi criteria decision making methods are proposed based on neutrosophic projection and bidirectional projection measures respectively. Then the proposed methods are applied for solving multiple criteria group decision making problems. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Category: General Mathematics

[18372] viXra:1704.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 19:23:44

### Design and Motion Control of Bioinspired Humanoid Robot Head from Servo Motors Toward Artificial Muscles

The potential applications of humanoid robots in social environments, motivates researchers to design, and control biomimetic humanoid robots. Generally, people are more interested to interact with robots that have similar attributes and movements to humans. The head is one of most important part of any social robot. Currently, most humanoid heads use electrical motors, pneumatic actuators, and shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actuation. Electrical and pneumatic actuators take most of the space and would cause unsmooth motions. SMAs are expensive to use in humanoids. Recently, in many robotic projects, Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) artificial muscles are used as linear actuators which take up little space compared to the motors. In this paper, we will demonstrate the designing process and motion control of a robotic head with TCP muscles. Servo motors and artificial muscles are used for actuating the head motion, which have been controlled by a cost efficient ARM Cortex-M7 based development board. A complete comparison between the two actuators is presented.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18371] viXra:1704.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 23:07:54

### Smart Wheelchair

Authors: Amit singh, Ravi Kumar Gupta, Aishwarya rajak, Harish Chand Pal

Automatic wheelchair for disabled person
Category: Economics and Finance

[18370] viXra:1704.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 23:35:39

### Poulet Numbers Obtained Concatenating Two Primes P and P±30k

Authors: Marius Coman

In a previous paper, “Poulet numbers in Smarandache prime partial digital sequence and a possible infinite set of primes” I conjectured that there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers which admit a deconcatenation in prime numbers. In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers which admit a deconcatenation in two prime numbers p and q where q = p + 30*k, where k integer.
Category: Number Theory

[18369] viXra:1704.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 23:37:50

### Primes Obtained Concatenating Four Consecutive Numbers, the Largest One Being a Poulet Number

Authors: Marius Coman

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating four consecutive numbers, the largest one from them being a Poulet number. For example, 1726172717281729 is such a prime, obtained concatenating the numbers 1726, 1727, 1728 and 1729, where 1729 is a Poulet number (see the sequence A030471 in OEIS for primes which are concatenation of four consecutive numbers).
Category: Number Theory

[18368] viXra:1704.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 04:09:15

### Poulet Numbers Which Can be Written as X^3±y^3

Authors: Marius Coman

It is well known the story of the Hardy-Ramanujan number, 1729 (also a Poulet number), which is the smallest number expressible as the sum of two cubes in two different ways, but I have not met yet, not even in OEIS, the sequence of the Poulet numbers which can be written as x^3±y^3, sequence that I conjecture in this paper that is infinite. I also conjecture that there are infinite Poulet numbers which are centered cube numbers (equal to 2*n^3 + 3*n^2 + 3*n + 1), also which are centered hexagonal numbers (equal to 3*n^2 + 3*n + 1).
Category: Number Theory

[18367] viXra:1704.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 05:21:47

### One Step Forecasting Model

In this research investigation, the author has detailed two models of One Step Forecasting
Category: General Mathematics

[18366] viXra:1704.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 06:13:46

### Phonon Laser

Authors: George Rajna

While the optical laser celebrated its 50th anniversary earlier this year, some scientists have been working on a new type of coherent beam amplifier for sound rather than light. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18365] viXra:1704.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 12:08:37

### Origins and Basis of Life

Authors: George Rajna

In 1952, chemists Stanley Miller and Harold Urey conducted a famous experimental simulation of the conditions thought to prevail on early Earth in order to determine possible pathways to the creation of life. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[18364] viXra:1704.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 07:37:34

### The Use of Known False Principles in Science

Authors: Clayton James Conway

A criticism of science and the unconscious manner that the Science Establishment use false logic and facts to uphold an adopted worldview to drive and stabilize the whole range of science endeavors. Human consciousness is the main component while the herd mentality is used to achieve popular consensus from the majority of societies non participants. An inability of scientists to accept basic facts and let go of a failed worldview as Kepler did. Illogics: Geologies use of two lengths of periods for one depth measurement. The use of Newton's one time corrective as a general procedure. Failure to use the rules of algebra in Einstein's equation. Faster than light gravity. Materialism requiring solidity that does not exist. The use of attraction that requires charge in a universe denied of having active charge. Denial of repelling that does not require charge. The Earth and Moon having the same charge facing each other that requires charged repelling. The sun and inner planets acting as a unit ignoring Jupiter's mass. Circular logic used to defend the adopted worldview.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18363] viXra:1704.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 04:49:27

### Mathematics for Input Space Probes in the Atmosphere of Gliese 581d.

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 8 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. v.2, n.5, 6-13(2016). https://sites.google.com/site/pjsciencea/archives

The work is a mathematical approach to the entry of an aerospace vehicle, as a probe or capsule in the atmosphere of the planet Gliese 581d, using data collected from the results of atmospheric models of the planet. GJ581d was the ﬁrst planet candidate of a few Earth masses reported in the circum-stellar habitable zone of another star. It is located in the Gliese 581 star system, is a star red dwarf about 20 light years away from Earth in the constellation Libra. Its estimated mass is about a third of that of the Sun. It has been suggested that the recently discovered exoplanet GJ581d might be able to support liquid water due to its relatively low mass and orbital distance. However, GJ581d receives 35% less stellar energy than the planet Mars and is probably locked in tidal resonance, with extremely low insolation at the poles and possibly a permanent night side. The climate that demonstrate GJ581d will have a stable atmosphere and surface liquid water for a wide range of plausible cases, making it the ﬁrst conﬁrmed super-Earth (2-10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone. According to the general principle of relativity, “All systems of reference are equivalent with respect to the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics.” In this case all the equations studied apply to the exoplanet Gliese 581d. If humanity is able to send a probe to Gliese 581d, this has all the mathematical conditions set it down successfully on its surface.
Category: Astrophysics

[18362] viXra:1704.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 14:29:50

### Graphene Electronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna

For the first time, scientists created a tunable artificial atom in graphene. They demonstrated that a vacancy in graphene can be charged in a controllable way such that electrons can be localized to mimic the electron orbitals of an artificial atom. Importantly, the trapping mechanism is reversible (turned on and off) and the energy levels can be tuned. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[18361] viXra:1704.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 17:50:53

### Le Comete

Authors: P.F. Nali
Comments: 14 pages, in Italian. This article derived from a school homework written in the late 70s and posted on the author's webpage in 2005. It is now posted here in order to ensure wider diffusion.

As a result of a school homework some historical and physical issues on comets are presented at an amateur level.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18360] viXra:1704.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 19:21:32

### Local Realism Cuts the Quantum Bait

Authors: Andrew P. Yake

Local realism is now revitalized as a fully viable causal explanation of physical reality including empirical Bell violations according to detailed arguments provided at the link below. Meanwhile, by denying local realism in its account of EPR experiments, quantum theory requires a physical causal signal that is physically discontinuous, leaping out of spacetime from one locality and landing in another, like a fish leaping out of water. Quantum theory thus invokes a physical domain outside spacetime through which its causal signal is logically required to travel -- unobservable, unstoppable, and at infinite speed. It might be tempting to conclude that such domains and such signals are some sort of magic, except that would be exactly wrong. Even magic obeys local realism. A master magician, however, can provide a compelling illusion to the contrary. The causally complete local realistic model given by the article below argues compellingly that the antilocality claims of quantum physics reduce to such illusions. Please see main article: ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 ** Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - Claims to demonstrate that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, 1 graph of testable predictions, and 2 paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[18359] viXra:1704.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 20:25:04

### Allocryptopine, Berberine, Chelerythrine, Copsitine, Dihydrosanguinarine, Protopine and Sanguinarine. Molecular Geometry of the Main Alkaloids Found in the Seeds of Argemone Mexicana Linn

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 10 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. v.1, n.2, 7-16(2015).

The work is a study of the geometry of the molecules via molecular mechanics of the main alkaloids found in the seeds of prickly poppy. A computational study of the molecular geometry of the molecules through molecular mechanics of the main alkaloids compounds present in plant seeds is described in a computer simulation. The plant has active ingredients compounds: allocryptopine, berberine, chelerythrine, copsitine, dihydrosanguinarine, protopine and sanguinarine. The Argemone Mexicana Linn, which is considered one of the most important species of plants in traditional Mexican and Indian medicine system. The seeds have toxic properties as well as bactericide, hallucinogenic, fungicide, insecticide, in isoquinolines and sanguinarine alkaloids such as berberine. The studied alkaloids form two groups having distribution characteristics similar to each other loads, to which they have dipole moments twice higher than in the other group.
Category: Physics of Biology

[18358] viXra:1704.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 20:35:25

### Molecular Electrostatic Potential of the Main Monoterpenoids Compounds Found in Oil Lemon Tahiti (Citrus Latifolia Var Tahiti)

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 10 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education, v.1, n.1, November 17, 2015.

The work is a study of the geometry of the molecules via molecular mechanics of the main monoterpenoids found in the oil of Lemon Tahiti. Lemon Tahiti is the result of grafting of Persia file on Rangpur lime and has no seeds. A computational study of the molecular geometry of the molecules through molecular mechanics of the main monoterpenoids compounds present in fruit oil is described in a computer simulation. The fruit has active terpenoids compounds: alfa-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene and gama-terpenine. The studied monotepernoides form two groups of distribution characteristics of fillers and similar electrical potentials between groups. Since alfa-pinene and limonene present, major and minor moment of electric dipoles, respectively.
Category: Physics of Biology

[18357] viXra:1704.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 20:56:48

### The Asymptotic Behavior of Defocusing Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations

Authors: En-Lin Liu
Comments: 6 Pages. Quite trivial research XD

This article is concerned with the scattering problem for the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equations (NLS) with a power nonlinear |u|^p u where 2/n < p < 4/n. We show that for any initial data in H^{0,1} x the solution will eventually scatter, i.e. U(-t)u(t) tends to some function u+ as t tends to innity.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[18356] viXra:1704.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 23:57:42

### What if Entropy Varies Logarithmically Rather Than Linearly with the Area? on the Emergence of Surface Gravity

Authors: A. Klatchko

A constant speed of light implies a hyperbolic spacetime. The “Exponential Explosion” of a hyperbolic geometry at infinity lends itself to the Boltzmann principle, thereby connecting geometry with entropy. We borrow the concept of entropy at a horizon from Bekenstein, but propose instead that it varies logarithmically with the area enclosed by the horizon, S ~ log (A). We use the experimental data from the recent LIGO detected events of coalescing two black holes to verify that our definition of entropy does not violate the generalized second law. We observe that the first law of thermodynamics seems to determine the second law thereby setting an upper limit to the fraction of the mass that can be gravitationally irradiated. Dimensional analysis of black hole entropy requires quantization of its mass in Planck mass quanta. We treat the area enclosed within the horizon as an elastomer membrane thereby showing that its surface tension can be identified as a gravitational force – surface gravity – and its potential is directly proportional to the entropy. As information is lost to heat via, δQ = T dS, we connect the loss process to spacetime fluctuations. Using the Unruh effect we estimate the order of magnitude of these fluctuations for a weak field. We do this by analyzing the famous gravitational redshift experiment of Pound and Rebka. For a strong field we show that the black hole is a quantum heat sink with a gradient inversely proportional to the area.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18355] viXra:1704.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 01:33:53

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18354] viXra:1704.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 03:09:39

### An Indirect Nonparametric Regression Method for One-Dimensional Continuous Distributions Using Warping Functions

Authors: Zhicheng Chen

Distributions play a very important role in many applications. Inspired by the newly developed warping transformation of distributions, an indirect nonparametric distribution to distribution regression method is proposed in this article for predicting correlated one-dimensional continuous probability density functions.
Category: Statistics

[18353] viXra:1704.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 11:44:58

### Foot Step Power Generation Using Piezoelectric Transducer

It has the ability to produce electric power from mechanical reaction (force) and then it change to electric charges. This kind of technology can be used as the alternative electric power generator. It is impossible to replace the existing electricity generation, but at least to vary and reduce the dependency on the conventional electricity generation. Design concept used in this thesis is to use piezoelectric place at the walking area named as “Foot Step Power Generation System”. When a human walking, jumping or dancing on the surface which contain the piezoelectric, it then will produce sufficient force for energy generation process. This system is very suitable applied at the public spotted area with many people such as walking corridor, shopping mall, in the office, schools and others. Therefore, the continued pressure will provide sufficient resources to be used to produce the electricity required. Keywords—new technology, piezoelectricity, piezoelectric material, generate power, force or pressure
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18352] viXra:1704.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 11:19:33

### Laser Neutron Yield

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers from several institutions in China has developed a new way to produce neutrons that they claim improves on conventional methods by a factor of 100. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18351] viXra:1704.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 11:49:07

### Two Extreme Formulas for Converging to Pi,the Fastest and Most Painful

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba

I present in this small article two algorithms of calculation of pi, they are characterized by two extremities, one is the most convergent and the other the slowest of the imaginable formulas.
Category: Number Theory

[18350] viXra:1704.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 12:51:06

### The Quantum Geometric Algebra Algorithm

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau

In this paper I set down the Quantum Geometric Algebra Algorithm standing for the Theory of Quantum Computational Complexity
Category: Algebra

[18349] viXra:1704.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:40:01

### Interference Black Holes, Ball Lightning, Micro Comets, Sprite-Fireballs and Sunspots According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. I assume that the largest Interference black holes are produced at star surfaces by Solar Flares and other electric discharge phenomena around Stellar Anchor Black Holes. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface. I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprite interference micro black hole phenomena..
Category: Astrophysics

[18348] viXra:1704.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:43:51

### Hyper-Complex Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists use an interferometer to test whether standard quantum mechanics is correct, or whether a more complex version is required. They used the interferometer to send photons around a loop in opposite directions. In this way, photons travelling in one direction interact with objects inside the loop in one order, while photons travelling the opposite direction interact with objects in the opposite order. [26] Physicists at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech have discovered the first three-dimensional quantum liquid crystal—a new state of matter that may have applications in ultrafast quantum computers of the future. [25] For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18347] viXra:1704.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:44:11

### Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Hypothesis of "Star" Disintegration of Galaxies Formation and Evolution of Galaxies is a Result of "Star" Disintegration of Their White Holes and Their Further Transformation Into Black Holes.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.

Formation and evolution of galaxies is a result of "star" disintegration of their White Holes and their further transformation into Black Holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[18346] viXra:1704.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 09:09:35

### Quantum Bilocal Causality

Authors: George Rajna

For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated the violation of "bilocal causality"—a concept that is related to the more standard local causality, except that it accounts for the precise way in which physical systems are initially generated. The results show that it's possible to violate local causality in an entirely new and more general way, which could lead to a potential new resource for quantum technologies. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18345] viXra:1704.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 10:01:53

### Can Quantum Mechanical Systems Influence the Geometry of the Fiber Bundle/space-Time?

Authors: Victor Atanasov, Hristo Dimov

We suggest that gravitation is an emergent phenomenon which origin is the information signal associated with quantum fields acting like test particles. We have shown how the metric (Lamè) coefficients emerge as position & time operator mean value densities. The scalar curvature of the space-time in the case of a Bose-Einstein condensate or super- fluid/conductor is calculated and an experimentally verifiable prediction of the theory is made.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18344] viXra:1704.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 10:15:27

### Soft Starter of Single Phase Pump Motor

Authors: Rai Shailesh, Dubey Jayesh, Gupta Ajay
Comments: 2 Pages. Thank You for providing us platform to explore our project idea.

In single-phase induction motor of ratings beyond a certain limit of withstand take very large currents and low powe factor while being started directly from a 1-phase supply. In order to mitigate the adverse effects of starting torque transients and high inrush currents in induction motors, a popular method is to use electronically controlled soft-starting voltages utilizing TRIAC. Normally soft-starters are used for avoiding this problem and to achieve smooth starting of large capacity induction motors. Soft starters use ac voltage controllers to start the induction motor and to adjust its speed. The performance of a voltage controlled large induction motor soft starter has been improved, resulting in nearly perfect current and torque profiles. Soft starters are used as induction motor controllers in compressors, blowers, fans, pumps, mixers, crushers and grinders, and many other applications. Starting torque pulsations are eliminated by triggering back-to-back-connected TRIAC at proper points on the first supply voltage cycle. The soft starter is connected in motor drive during the starting condition only and once the motor get its rated speed then the soft starter is disconnected from the main motor system so that the motor get protected.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[18343] viXra:1704.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 13:20:56

### Laser Polarization Control

Authors: George Rajna

A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18342] viXra:1704.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 14:42:45

### Quantum Liquid Crystals

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech have discovered the first three-dimensional quantum liquid crystal—a new state of matter that may have applications in ultrafast quantum computers of the future. [25] For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18341] viXra:1704.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 18:59:25

### Preliminary Evidence That a Neoclassical Model of Physics (L3) Might Be Correct

Authors: Paul J. Werbos
Comments: 15 pages, 36 equations, 34 references

Today’s standard model of physics treats the physical masses of elementary particles as given, and assumes that they have a bare radius of zero, as in the older classical physics of Lorentz. Many physicists have studied the properties of the Yang-Mills-Higgs model of continuous fields in hopes that it might help to explain where elementary particles (and their masses) come from in the first place. This paper reviews some of the important prior work on Yang-Mills-Higgs and solitons in general, but it also shows that stable particles in that model cannot have intrinsic angular momentum (spin). It specifies four extensions of Yang-Mills Higgs, the Lagrangians L1 through L4, which are closer to the standard model of physics, and shows that one of the four (L3) does predict/explain spin from a purely neoclassical theory. The paper begins by summarizing the larger framework which has inspired this work, and ends by discussing two possibilities for further refinement.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18340] viXra:1704.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 11:11:51

### Casimir Effect on a Silicon Chip

Authors: George Rajna

A new approach to control forces and interactions between atoms and molecules, such as those employed by geckos to climb vertical surfaces, could bring advances in new materials for developing quantum light sources. [30] Quantum mechanics rules. It dictates how particles and forces interact, and thus how atoms and molecules work—for example, what happens when a molecule goes from a higher-energy state to a lower-energy one. But beyond the simplest molecules, the details become very complex. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18339] viXra:1704.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:24:52

### Engineering Biology Problems Book

Authors: Ilya Klabukov

The Engineering Biology Problems Book contains the physical, biomedical and engineering tasks with biological solutions will bring benefit to the all mankind. The Problems Book consists of seven chapters according to applications of biological technologies to various parties of actual and perspective human activity: wellness and life extension, transformation of nature and human enhancement. Descriptions of tasks are devoted to biological object modification methods and versions of the application of engineered biosystems for the solution of biomedical, industrial, agricultural, ethical and other problems. Solving of the offered tasks can be based on original use of advanced molecular and cellular technologies, including genome editing systems (CRISPR/Cas9, TALEN, ZFN), synthetic receptors, biomaterials, etc. The Book is intended for students with engineering mentality who are wishing to find oneself in designing of super-systems of the new industry of biotechnological superiority. Notes: Downloadable document is available in Russian. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2898429
Category: Physics of Biology

[18338] viXra:1704.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:42:52

### Foundations for Molecular and Enzymatic Functional Surgery

Authors: Ilya Klabukov

This paper presents an approach of molecular and enzymatic surgery for treatment of human diseases, including opportunity for use of systemic biology methods in planning of surgical interventions, possible biological components of a “molecular scalpel”, and problems of standardization, medical ethics and clinical trials of the new pharma-surgical toolbox. In conclusions is proposed to consider of molecular and enzymatic surgery methods as realization of the principles of “functional surgery” and also further development of fast track surgery with attaining the modern concept of a personalized approach to surgical treatment of the patient. Klabukov, Ilya, Foundations for Molecular and Enzymatic Functional Surgery (March 30, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2943526
Category: Physics of Biology

[18337] viXra:1704.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:53:36

### Fractals and Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito

This note presents a collection of fractals related with constant pi
Category: Number Theory

[18336] viXra:1704.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:57:06

### Question 2360 : Series For Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito

This note presents some series for pi constant.
Category: Number Theory

[18335] viXra:1704.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 08:02:54

### The Ramanujan-GÖLLNITZ-Gordon Continued Fraction

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito

In this research , the autor has detailed about: Numerical evaluation of the Ramanujan-Göllnitz-Gordon continued fraction.
Category: Number Theory

[18334] viXra:1704.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 08:14:31

### The Real Root of the Equation: X^5+x^4+x-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito

this note presents some representations for the real root of the equation: x^5+x^4+x-1=0.
Category: General Mathematics

[18333] viXra:1704.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:24:29

### An Analysis of Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Edward G. Lake

An analysis of books, presentations and scientific papers about Albert Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Special Theory of Relativity shows that there is a fundamental disagreement between what Einstein wrote and how what he wrote is being interpreted by mathematician-physicists and taught in colleges and universities around the world. An analysis of the evidence shows that Einstein was correct and the interpretations and teachings are incorrect.
Category: Astrophysics

[18332] viXra:1704.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:21:46

### Ejemplo de Cómo Obtener Los Valores Energéticos de la Partícula en un Pozo de Potencial Infinito Unidimensional

Authors: Roberto Reinosa

En el presente artículo se va a exponer un ejemplo de la obtención de los valores energéticos de la partícula en un pozo de potencial infinito unidimensional.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18331] viXra:1704.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:27:33

### Black Hole Heart Beating

Authors: George Rajna

New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18330] viXra:1704.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:28:01

### Potential Difference Observed with Magnetic Field Lines

Authors: Ionel DINU, M.Sc.

Following a theory to be detailed in a work to be published in the near future, an experiment was planned to see whether the potential difference between two points of a current-carrying straight wire can be observed in the magnetic field lines produced around the wire by the electric current. Direct observation seems to show that there is a crowding of the magnetic field lines at the negative side of the wire compared to the positive side.
Category: Classical Physics

[18329] viXra:1704.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:57:45

### Singularity in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna

A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18328] viXra:1704.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 04:18:06

### Universal Remote Control

With most pieces of consumer electronics, from camcorders to stereo equipment, an infrared remote control is always included. Today we all are using mobile phones, and in each mobile devices there is one common communication media through which devices communicate and that common platform is Bluetooth. This Paper connects these two platforms to create a more simplified process to bridge the gap between modern devices.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[18327] viXra:1704.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 06:09:47

### The Physicist of an Origin of Forces of Gravitation and Range of S-Radiations in Whom Threats from Space Are Shown

Authors: V.Korniienko
Comments: 18 pages in English and a copy at 19 pages in Russian

In article it is experimentally proved that any body has the quantum electromagnetic field which as a result of deformation generates electromagnetic radiations (S-radiations). The S-radiations properties found by us demonstrates that interaction of quantum electromagnetic fields of different bodies causes their mutual attraction which is gravitation forces. Besides, tension which arises in matter of celestial bodies under the influence of gravitation and forces of other origin, cause deformation of the quantum electromagnetic field of these bodies owing to what they generate space S-radiations which have filled all Universe. Therefore there is a range of S-radiations in which we observed how in the summer of 2003 Earth and the Sun were occupied by a power information field which influence causes all global changes. In this range we also watch a space body which from a terrestrial orbit generates powerful S-radiations. Therefore, for the benefit of early identification of threats from Space, it is necessary to develop astronomical observations in a range of S-radiations.
Category: Astrophysics

[18326] viXra:1704.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 06:46:11

### Ejemplo de Obtención de Los Valores Energéticos Del Pozo de Potencial Infinito Unidimensional

Authors: Roberto Reinosa

En el presente artículo se va a exponer un ejemplo de la obtención de los valores energéticos del caso del pozo de potencial infinito unidimensional.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18325] viXra:1704.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 13:49:06

### Superconducting Linear Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna

The international X-ray laser European XFEL has reached one of its final major milestones on the way to scientific user operation. DESY has successfully commissioned the particle accelerator, which drives the X-ray laser along its full length. [17] Physicists at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with researchers in South Korea and Germany, have developed a theoretical framework for improving the stability and intensity of particle accelerator beams. [16] For several decades now, scientists from around the world have been pursuing a ridiculously ambitious goal: They hope to develop a nuclear fusion reactor that would generate energy in the same manner as the sun and other stars, but down here on Earth. [15] It's the particles' last lap of the ring. On 5 December 2016, protons and lead ions circulated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time. At exactly 6.02am, the experiments recorded their last collisions (also known as 'events'). [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18324] viXra:1704.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 19:12:16

### Modeling the Strain Monitoring Data in Structural Health Monitoring Using Copulas

Authors: Zhicheng Chen, Hui Li

In Structural Health Monitoring, there are usually many strain sensors installed in different places of a single structure. The raw measurement of a strain sensor is generally a mixed response caused by different excitations such as moving vehicle loads, ambient temperature, etc. Monitoring data collected by different strain sensors are usually correlated with each other, correlation structures of responses caused by different excitations for different sensor pairs are quite diverse and complex. In Structural Health Monitoring, quantitatively describing and modeling complicated dependence structures of strain data is very important in many applications. In this article, copulas are exploited to characterize dependence structures and construct joint distributions of monitoring strain data. The constructed joint distribution is also applied in missing data imputation.
Category: Statistics

[18323] viXra:1704.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 20:55:22

### Remark On Variance Bounds

Authors: R. Sharma, R. Bhandari

It is shown that the formula for the variance of combined series yields surprisingly simple proofs of some well known variance bounds.
Category: Statistics

[18322] viXra:1704.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 22:38:15

### Heretical Physics Xii

Authors: John E. Miller

A check of the variations required to be produced by the sun 'g' to balance the Newton - Kepler planetary elliptic orbits as theorized by the 'Standard Model'
Category: Astrophysics

[18321] viXra:1704.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 01:46:09

### Microscopy for Biological Systems

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18320] viXra:1704.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 03:08:52

### Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Perm Extinction – a Doomsday Prelude the Most Fissile Mass Cold Snap is the Reason of Mass Extinction of the Permian Period of Existence of Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

The most fissile mass cold snap is the reason of mass extinction of the Permian Period of existence of Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[18319] viXra:1704.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 11:18:30

### Spin Battery for Spintronics and Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers have shown how to create a rechargeable "spin battery" made out of materials called topological insulators, a step toward building new spintronic devices and quantum computers. [14] Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18318] viXra:1704.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 11:32:41

### Trigonometric Interpolation Based on Summation of Fourier Series F_{i}^{\delta} with Data-Related Delta-Function Property F_{i}^{\delta}\left(x_{j}\right)=y_{j}\delta_{ij} (Analogy to Lagrange Form of Interpolation Polynomial)

Authors: Andrej Liptaj

Full analogy to the Lagrange form of the interpolation polynomial is constructed for Fourier series. As a straightforward consequence one gets the ability to extend an existing trigonometric interpolation to additional data point(s).
Category: General Mathematics

[18317] viXra:1704.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 11:32:59

### Gelfond Constant

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito

This note presents some formulas related with Gelfond constant:exp(pi)
Category: Number Theory

[18316] viXra:1704.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 12:12:50

### Quantum Measurement: A New View

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 24 Pages. Measurement is the bridge between quantum theory and experiment.

This report investigates the flawed foundations of standard quantum theory based on a misunderstanding of the role of measurement. The report is major part of a research programme (UET) based on a new theory of the electromagnetism (EM), centered exclusively on the interaction between electrons. All the previous papers to date in this series have presented a realistic view of the dynamics of two or more electrons as they interact only between themselves. This paper now posits a theory of how this microscopic activity is perceived by human beings in attempting to extract information about atomic systems. The standard theory of quantum mechanics (QM) is constructed on only how the micro-world appears to macro measurements - as such, it cannot offer any view of how the foundations of the world are acting when humans are not observing it (the vast majority of the time) - this has generated almost 100 years of confusion and contradiction at the very heart of physics. All human beings (and all our instruments) are vast collections of electrons, our information about atomic-scale can only be obtained destructively and statistically. This theory now extends the realistic model of digital electrons by adding an explicit measurement model of how our macro instruments interfere with nature's micro-systems when such attempts result in human-scale information. The focus here is on the connection between the micro-world (when left to itself) and our mental models of this sphere of material reality, via the mechanism of atomic measurements. The mathematics of quantum mechanics reflects the eigenvalues of the combined target system plus equipment used for measurement together. Therefore, QM has constructed a theory that inseparably conflates the ontological and epistemological views of nature. This standard approach fails to examine isolated target systems alone. It is metaphysically deficient. This investigation concludes that the Quantum State function (Ψ) is not a representation of physical reality, within a single atom, but a generator function for producing the average statistical results on many atoms of this type. In contrast, the present theory builds on the physical reality of micro-states of single atoms, where (in the case of hydrogen), a single electron executes a series of fixed segments (corresponding to the micro-states) across the atom between a finite number of discrete interactions between the electron and one of the positrons in the nucleus. The set of serial segments form closed trajectories with real temporal periods, contra to Heisenberg’s ‘papal’ decree banning such reality because of his need to measure position and momentum at all times. This is the first paper in the multi-paper series (UET7n), which is dedicated to analyzing, criticizing and replacing existing theories of quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18315] viXra:1704.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 07:46:39

### The Krypton Hypothesis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

A simple conclusion is made concerning destroyed worlds with life on them according to stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[18314] viXra:1704.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 09:29:00

### Tracking the Diffusion of Signal Proteins in Escherichia Coli

Authors: Herbert Weidner

We describe a fast computational model to study the signal transduction in E. coli chemo­taxis. It allows to trace the places and chemical reactions of individual molecules in a cell as a function of time. From the spatial resolution of the model and the known diffusion constant of the proteins, a time step of 3 µs is calculated for the simulation.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[18313] viXra:1704.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 10:09:41

### Unrealistic Assumptions Inherent in Maximal Extension

Authors: G.N.N.Martin

I argue that maximal extension makes improbable assumptions about future conditions. I start by looking at the Schwarzschild metric, and showing that it does not quite represent the exterior of a collapsed star, although it is easy to argue that the mismatch is immaterial. I then look at the collapse of a cloud of dust using the Robinson Walker metric, which might seem to justify using the Schwarzschild metric to describe the exterior of a black hole. I then show how the Schwarzschild metric is modified when the interior is a collapsed dust cloud, and finally show how the maximal extension of a Schwarzschild black hole makes unrealistic assumptions about the future.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18312] viXra:1704.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 10:41:43

### Time Interval Distortions, Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: Arthur Eugene Pletcher

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale. TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3. In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from (constant expansion with TC). TC provides alternative explanations for: Accelerated expansion, Rotational and recessive velocities approaching c, as well as superluminal velocities. Also, a potential explanation for galaxy rotational curves.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18311] viXra:1704.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 04:54:18

### The Mosaic of the Norm

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

An interrelated study.
Category: Social Science

[18310] viXra:1704.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 05:03:10

### Structure of Complex Chemical Systems

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at Northwestern University have created a new method to extract the static and dynamic structure of complex chemical systems. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK's national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18309] viXra:1704.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 15:55:52

### Not All Clocks Obey to Special Relativity

Authors: Mohammed Mezouar

What dominates the other, Special Relativity or light ? Einstein believed to have submitted bodies and light to the same laws. In what follows, we show that there are light-clocks which do not matches with his Special Relativity exigences. The equivalence between bodies and light turns out utopian.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18308] viXra:1704.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 21:06:23

### Multifractal Analysis and the Dynamics of Effective Field Theories

Authors: Ervin Goldfain

We show that the flow from the ultraviolet to the infrared sector of any multidimensional nonlinear field theory approaches chaotic dynamics in a universal way. This result stems from several independent routes to aperiodic behavior and implies that the infrared attractor of effective field theories is likely to replicate the geometry of multifractal sets. In particular, we find that the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is characterized by a single generalized dimension (D = 4), while the Standard Model (SM) Lagrangian is defined by a triplet of generalized dimensions (D = 2, 3 and 4). On the one hand, this finding disfavors any naïve field-theoretic unification of SM and General Relativity (GR). On the other, it hints that the continuous spectrum of generalized dimensions lying between D = 2 and D = 4 may naturally account for the existence of non-baryonic Dark Matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18307] viXra:1704.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 22:23:21

### Mass Loss Versus Mass Gain Phenomenon in Nature

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

It is presented an extremely easy paper to understand to explain that in nature, there are mass gain phenomenon and there are mass loss phenomenon. Clarification is presented so that the nature of these types of phenomenon are well established. This paper utilizes a simple rule of nature concerning physics, the conservation of mass.
Category: Classical Physics

[18306] viXra:1704.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 23:39:41

### Universal Topology W = P ± iV and Horizon of Dark Fluxions and Thermodynamics

Authors: C. Wei Xu
Comments: 7 pages, part II of Unified Physics (part I at http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0221)

Associated with the virtual or physical manifolds, the Universe Topology aggregates quantum objects and forms the second horizon as the group effects of the flow conservations both physically and virtually, called Dark Fluxions, a dynamics cosmology of energy flows. Inherent to its internal nature, the universe produces each of opposite dualities as a complex conjugate, the statistical representation of dark fluxions dynamically affiliated to bulk entropy, motion continuities, statistical works, and interactive fields, giving rise to the horizon of thermodynamics. As a result, this becomes a groundwork in quest for nature transformations delivered by the life energy of dark fluxions, or the dynamic flows of dark energy...
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[18305] viXra:1704.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 08:53:59

### Anyons Quantum Quasiparticles

Authors: George Rajna

In an article published today in the journal Nature, physicists report the first ever observation of heat conductance in a material containing anyons, quantum quasiparticles that exist in two-dimensional systems. [15] The formation of quasiparticles, such as polarons, in a condensed-matter system usually proceeds in an extremely fast way and is very difficult to observe. In Innsbruck, Rudolf Grimm's physics research group, in collaboration with an international team of theoretical physicists, has simulated the formation of polarons in an ultracold quantum gas in real time. The researchers have published their findings in the journal Science. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18304] viXra:1704.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 04:35:47

### Time Crystals for Quantum Machines

Authors: George Rajna

Harvard physicists have created a new form of matter-dubbed a time crystal-which could offer important insights into the mysterious behavior of quantum systems. [31] Two groups of researchers based at Harvard University and the University of Maryland report March 9 in the journal Nature that they have successfully created time crystals using theories developed at Princeton University. [30] Are time crystals just a mathematical curiosity, or could they actually physically exist? Physicists have been debating this question since 2012, when Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek first proposed the idea of time crystals. He argued that these hypothetical objects can exhibit periodic motion, such as moving in a circular orbit, in their state of lowest energy, or their "ground state." [28] Researchers from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), together with researchers from the Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba (Japan), have discovered an exceptional new quantum state within a superconducting material. This exceptional quantum state is characterised by a broken rotational symmetry – in other words, if you turn the material in a magnetic field, the superconductivity isn't the same everywhere in the material. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18303] viXra:1704.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 05:39:10

### Bell Correlations of Million Atoms

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists have demonstrated Bell correlations in the largest physical system to date—an ensemble of half a million atoms at an ultracold temperature of 25 µK. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18302] viXra:1704.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 17:28:46

### Conjecture on the Primes Obtained Concatenating Three Numbers, id Est a, B and A+b+n

Authors: Marius Coman

In this paper I make the following conjecture: For any n positive integer there exist an infinity of primes which can be deconcatenated in three numbers, i.e., from left to right, a, b and a + b + n. Examples: for n = 0, the least such prime is 101 (1 + 0 + 0 = 1); for n = 1, the least such prime is 113 (1 + 1 + 1 = 3); for n = 2, the least such prime is 103 (1 + 0 + 2 = 3); for n = 3, the least such prime is 137 (1 + 3 + 3 = 7); for n = 4, the least such prime is 127 (1 + 2 + 4 = 7); for n = 5, the least such prime is 139 (1 + 3 + 5 = 9); for n = 6, the least such prime is 107 (1 + 0 + 6 = 7); for n = 7, the least such prime is 3313 (3 + 3 + 7 = 13).
Category: Number Theory

[18301] viXra:1704.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 17:31:06

### Conjecture on Primes Obtained Concatenating p, N and P+n, Where P and P+n Primes

Authors: Marius Coman

In this paper I make the following conjecture: For any n even there exist an infinity of primes which can be deconcatenated in three numbers, i.e., from left to right, p, n and p + n, where p and p + n are primes. Examples: for n = 2, the least such prime is 11213 (11 + 2 = 13); for n = 4, the least such prime is 347 (3 + 4 = 7); for n = 6, the least such prime is 11617 (11 + 6 = 17); for n = 8, the least such prime is 5813 (5 + 8 = 13); for n = 10, the least such prime is 31013 (3 + 10 = 13); for n = 12, the least such prime is 51217 (5 + 12 = 17); for n = 14, the least such prime is 51419 (5 + 14 = 19); for n = 16, the least such prime is 431659 (43 + 16 = 59).
Category: Number Theory

[18300] viXra:1704.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 17:50:17

### Incalculability

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

Define and explain Incalculability.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18299] viXra:1704.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 21:08:25

### Uzbek Atom

Authors: Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov

At the availability of a force of an atomic unification, a sharp interconnection of the evrmionic antineutrino and neutron must constitute the antineutrino hydrogen of Al-Fargoniy is one of the two atoms having a crucial value for construction of all the remaining ones. We discuss a theory in which atomic orbit quantization is carried out around the nucleus in the flavor type dependence. Such an orbit quantized succession principle splits in external fields the spectral lines of atoms, confirming the availability in them of the family structure. Thereby, it predicts the existence in nature of 63189 forms of isotopes of 118 types of atomic systems. We derive the united equations, which relate in atoms the radii of boson, lepton and antineutrino orbits including the speeds, energies and rotation periods of their particles. Finding for them estimates express, in the case of each of the five forms of uraniums and two types of hydrogens, the ideas of an intraatomic force quantized by leptonic families. They unite all necessary for steadiness and completeness of an atom connections in a unified whole as a role of gravity in an atomic construction. Therefore, any of the structural particles suffers in it a strong change both in lifetime and in his self radius in the orbit type dependence.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18298] viXra:1704.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 21:13:25

### Universal Topology W = P ± iV and First Horizon of Quantum Fields

Authors: C. Wei Xu
Comments: Three pages, two submission letters, one letter from Nature Physics

The universal topology W = P ± iV is the nature law that intuitively constitutes a duality of Manifolds and Event Operations. Its First Horizon of this framework, naturally comes out with the dual State Equilibrium and dual Motion Dynamics, which replace the empirical “math laws” and give rise to the general quantum fields to concisely include Schrödinger and Klein–Gordon Equations. As a result, it becomes a groundbreaking in the quest for Unified Physics: the workings of a life streaming of physical and virtual dynamics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18297] viXra:1704.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 03:24:39

### Reproductive Cloning

Authors: Ian von Hegner

Progressiv forkortelse af telomere ved DNA replikation er blevet sat i forbindelse med cellulær ældning. Hvad vil der ske med dyr, fremkommet ved somatisk kerneoverførsel, hvis differentierede celler fra voksne dyr med forkortede teleomerelængde benyttes til at starte embryo udvikling? Vil de forkortede telomere påvirke deres livslængde eller udvikling, eller er de forkortede telomere fra donerceller blevet rekonstrueret til fuld længde i klonede dyr?
Category: Quantitative Biology

[18296] viXra:1704.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 07:18:16

### Special Relativity and Wave-Particle Duality.

Authors: Enrique Cantera del Río

A SYMMETRY OF LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION IS PROPOSED FOR THE VISUALIZATION OF THE MOST BASIC PHYSICAL LANDSCAPE DERIVED FROM SPECIAL RELATIVITY. ALTHOUGH BASIC ARGUMENTS ,THE SYMMETRY SHOWS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY AND THE EXISTENCE OF TWO POSSIBLE STATES FOR THIS PHYSICAL RELATION. THE SPIN AND THE ABRAHAM-MINKOWSKI CONTROVERSY ARE ANALYZED REGARDING THIS IDEAS AND A NEW HYPOTHESIS ON WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY IS PRESENTED.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18295] viXra:1704.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 08:26:16

### No Support for Accelerating Expansion redshift, Dark Energy, Cosmic Radiation Back Ground, Gravitational Waves … not Support Expanding UNIVERSE.”

Authors: Bandaru Ramu

Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18294] viXra:1704.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 10:07:19

### Negative Mass Created

Authors: George Rajna

Washington State University physicists have created a fluid with negative mass, which is exactly what it sounds like. Push it, and unlike every physical object in the world we know, it doesn't accelerate in the direction it was pushed. It accelerates backwards. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18293] viXra:1704.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 04:57:47

### Unit-Jacobian Coordinate Transformations: The Superior Consequence of the Little-Known Einstein-Schwarzschild Coordinate Condition

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

Because the Einstein equation can't uniquely determine the metric, it must be supplemented by additional metric constraints. Since the Einstein equation can be derived in a purely special-relativistic context, those constraints (which can't be generally covariant) should be Lorentz-covariant; moreover, for the effect of the constraints to be natural from the perspective of observational and empirical physical scientists, they should also constrain the general coordinate transformations (which are compatible with the unconstrained Einstein equation) so that the constrained transformations manifest a salient feature of the Lorentz transformations. The little-known Einstein-Schwarzschild coordinate condition, which requires the metric's determinant to have its -1 Minkowski value, thereby constrains coordinate transformations to have unit Jacobian, and for that reason causes tensor densities to transform as true tensors, which is a salient feature of the Lorentz transformations. The Einstein-Schwarzschild coordinate condition also allows the static Schwarzschild solution's singular radius to be exactly zero; though another coordinate condition that allows zero Schwarzschild radius exists, it isn't Lorentz-covariant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18292] viXra:1704.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 06:22:35

### Puzzling Neutrino Shortfall

Authors: George Rajna

A puzzling neutrino shortfall seems to be due to faulty predictions, not a new particle. [12] Results from a new scientific study may shed light on a mismatch between predictions and recent measurements of ghostly particles streaming from nuclear reactors—the so-called "reactor antineutrino anomaly," which has puzzled physicists since 2011. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18291] viXra:1704.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 16:11:58

### (Version 1.1 23 Pages 16.04.2017) a Cyclic Toy Model of the Universe Predesigned for Life, Based on Preonic Quantized Branes and a Very Strong 2D Gravitational Field as a Candidate for a Unified Primordial Field

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi

This paper proposes a cyclic toy model of the universe predesigned for life, based on preonic quantized 1-branes (strings), quantized 2-branes (supermembranes/2D surfaces) and the holographic principle. This toy model is based on a few simple hypothesis/assumptions, including the existence of a universal brane quanta (conceived as a basic quantum clock) for any n-brane and a unified primordial field (UPF) defined as equivalent to a very strong 2D gravitational field acting on hypothetical quark/leptonic/bosonic 2-branes.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18290] viXra:1704.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 18:05:21

### Wind Energy. Electron Jet Generators and Propulsions

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin

In given book considered the topics: utilization wind energy at high altitude, transfer of energy from airborne wind turbines to ground surface, new non turbine electron wind and water electric generators and propulsion system. Ground based, wind energy extraction systems have reached their maximum capability. The limitations of current designs are: wind instability, high cost of installations, and small power output of a single unit. The wind energy industry needs of revolutionary ideas to increase the capabilities of wind installations. This book suggests a revolutionary innovation which produces a dramatic increase in power per unit and is independent of prevailing weather and at a lower cost per unit of energy extracted. The main innovation consists of large free-flying air rotors positioned at high altitude for power and air stream stability, and an energy transmission system between the air rotor and a ground. Author offers a new method of getting electric energy from wind. A special injector injects electrons into the atmosphere. Wind picks up the electrons and moves them in the direction of wind which is also against the direction of electric field. At some distance from injector a unique grid acquires the electrons, thus charging and producing electricity. This method does not require, as does other wind energy devices, strong columns, wind turbines, or electric generators. This proposed wind installation is cheap. The area of wind braking may be large and produces a great deal of energy. Although this electron wind installations may be in a city, the population will not see them. Author offers a new high efficiency propulsion non turbine system using electrons for acceleration of the craft. As this system does not heat the air, it does not have the heating limitations of conventional air ramjet hypersonic engines. Offered engine can produce a thrust from a zero flight speed up to the desired escape velocity for space launch. It can work in any planet atmosphere (gas, liquid) and at high altitude.
Category: Classical Physics

[18289] viXra:1704.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 19:36:57

### ABC Conjecture–An Ambiguous Formulation

Authors: Zhang Tianshu

Due to exist forevermore uncorrelated limits of values of real number ε≥0, enable ABC conjecture to be able to be both proved and negated. In this article, we find a representative equality 1+2N(2N-2)=(2N-1)2 satisfying (2N-1)2>[Rad(1, 2N(2N-2), (2N-1)2)]1+ε, then both prove the ABC conjecture and negate the ABC conjecture according to two limits of values of ε.
Category: Number Theory

[18288] viXra:1704.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 20:04:11

### Core Growth Termination During Stellar Evolution in the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

In the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis stars grow iron/nickel cores via vapor deposition and condensation during intermediate stages of evolution. It is proposed that these iron/nickel cores stop growing for a few reasons provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[18287] viXra:1704.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 20:26:30

### Scienza e Complessità: W. Weaver 1947

Authors: Warren Weaver, P.F. Nali
Comments: 11 pages, in Italian, reproduced under permission of Am. Sc. on Jan. 23, 2004 on the SISSA online magazine "Biblioteca dei 500" in website "ULISSE - nella rete della scienza". It is posted at this time as the website has discontinued service in Jan. 2011.

It is proposed here in the Italian version the seminal paper in which Weaver introduced the concept of complexity in modern science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18286] viXra:1704.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 21:05:19

### The Armageddon Scenario: War-Game

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

And its resolution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18285] viXra:1704.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 23:53:15

### Ether, Time, and Energy (December 23, 2006).

Authors: Kenneth M. Sasaki.
Comments: 52 pages, 16 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 64 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18284] viXra:1704.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 01:40:24

### Formula Analyzer: Find the Formula by Parameters

Authors: Artur Eduardovich Sibgatullin

Let it be a formula, e.g.: x + y^2 - z = r. It is usually necessary to find a parameter’s value by knowing others’ ones. However, let’s set another problem to find the formula itself, knowing only its parameters. The solution of such a problem we call reverse computing. For that we'll create an algorithm and accomplish it as a program code.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18283] viXra:1704.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 05:37:00

### A Fine-Tuning of Special Relativity

Authors: Mohammed Mezouar

The use of Lorentz transformation offers two ways to compare time measures from two moving clocks. We show that the more realistic way leads to discover that absolute rest plays a hidden role and prescribes a boundary on the relativity principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18282] viXra:1704.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 18:43:45

### L'enunciato Del Principio di Inerzia

Authors: Lorenzo Galli, P.F. Nali
Comments: 3 pages, in Italian. Question Answer published on Sep. 28, 2005 on the section "Chiedi a Ulisse" of the SISSA website "ULISSE - nella rete della scienza". It is posted at this time as the website has discontinued service in January 2011.

Why is it incomplete to enunciate the principle of inertia in this form: "a body not subject to forces is either at rest or moves with uniform rectilinear motion"?
Category: Classical Physics

[18281] viXra:1704.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 18:43:07

### Another One-line Proof of the Infinitude of Primes

Authors: Daniel Dunck Cintra

Another one-line proof of the infinitude of primes.
Category: Number Theory

[18280] viXra:1704.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 19:16:00

### ϖ

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene

Finite.
Category: General Mathematics

[18279] viXra:1704.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 12:43:01

### Mach's Principle and the Kinetic Dipole

Authors: Mihai Grumazescu

As a departure from Einstein's GR, gravity is described as the cumulative effect of all protons and neutrons in the universe acting as self-propelled particles called nucleon kinetic dipoles. They signal to each other their relative positions through the propagation of gravitational information at a superluminal speed. Mach's principle is interpreted as the reciprocal influence of all masses in the universe because of the propagation of directional information of kinetic dipoles at astronomical distances. Every time we measure big G we find a different value because the gravitational information received by a test mass is changing continuously. Speed of gravity also shapes the universe, as a consequence of Mach's principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18278] viXra:1704.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 08:20:18

### Theory of Exact Trigonometric Periodic Solutions to Quadratic Liénard Type Equations

Authors: J. Akande, D.K.K. Adjaï, L.H. Koudahoun, Y.J.F. Kpomahou, M.D. Monsia

The problem of finding exact trigonometric periodic solutions to non-linear differential equations is still an open mathematical research field. In this paper it is shown that the inverted Painlevé-Gambier XVIII equation and other quadratic Liénard type equations may exhibit trigonometric functions as exact periodic solutions but with amplitude-dependent frequency. Other inverted Painlevé-Gambier equations are shown to admit exact periodic solutions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18277] viXra:1704.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 08:50:20

### The Origin and Formation Mechanism of Protons

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: showing the viewpoint with regards to the origin and formation mechanism of protons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18276] viXra:1704.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 10:09:35

### Introduction to Complementary Analysis

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba, Gael Dieudonné Essomba Essomba
Comments: 48 Pages. analyse, differentielle, complémentaire, analyse complémentaire

We introduce a new notion in the analysis, the notion of complementarity, which completes the work of Newton-Leibniz by defining all the elements.
Category: General Mathematics

[18275] viXra:1704.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 06:48:55

### New Approximation Algorithms of Pi, Accelerated Convergence Formulas from N = 100 to N = 2m

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba, Gael Dieudonné Essomba Essomba
Comments: 7 Pages. algorithm, convergence and approximation

We give algorithms for the calculation of pi. These algorithms can be easily developed in a linear manner and allows the calculation of pi with an infinite degree of convergence. Of course, the calculation of the second term passes through the first one, and it is necessary, as this type of algorithms, for a larger memory for calculations contrary to the formula BBP [1] whose execution corresponds to the order of the desired number. The advantage of our formulas in spite of the dificulty associated with extracting sin(x) lies in their degree of convergence, which is infinite, they prove the Borweins brothers hypothesis on the construction of algorithms At any speed as symbolized in our generic formula (8) of this paper. These formulas for the most part are totally new : We had found several other formulas of pi l
Category: Number Theory

[18274] viXra:1704.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 13:41:27

### Recognition from Description Through Synthesis and Reduction to Theory and Model

Authors: Andrzej Gecow

The half a century attempts to transmit the results of the theoretical work on the biological issues which used the methodology of physics, gave an insight into the methodological limitations resulting from the stereotypes of thinking in biology. It is primarily a lack of interest in the pursuit to deductive theory. Abstraction and deduction - the basis of physics, is despised and omitted as speculation, which creates a blockade in the development of theory in biology. The process of this development stops at an analysis that should (and does not do) reduce the sufficient conditions noted in the description to the necessary and sufficient conditions, ie. to determine the reasons for the phenomena being considered. Determination of the necessary conditions is the basis of reduction, which in the applied reductionism is not noticed. This chapter is not a recognized knowledge imparted authoritatively to use, nor fight against the official position of biology, but a collection of arguments against conservative stereotypes, to compare with other more elaborate sources on the reader's own responsibility to work out his own view rather than uncontrolled take over of the defective tradition.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[18273] viXra:1704.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 14:03:45

### Fermi Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna

In physics, the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou (FPUT) problem—which found that certain nonlinear systems do not disperse their energy, but rather return to their initial excited states—has been a challenge that scientists have tackled repeatedly since 1955. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[18272] viXra:1704.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 19:06:31

### Universal Optimization and Its Application

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin

The book consists of three parts. The first part describes new method of optimization that has the advantages at greater generality and flexibility as well as the ability to solve complex problems which other methods cannot solve. This method, called the “Method of Deformation of Functional (Extreme)”, solves for a total minimum and finds a solution set near the optimum. Solutions found by this method can be exact or approximate. Most other methods solve only for a unique local minimum. The ability to create a set of solutions rather than a unique solution has important practical ramifications in many designs, economic and scientific problems because a unique solution usually is difficult to realize in practice. This method has the additional virtue of a simple proof, one that is useful for studying other methods of optimization, since most other methods can be delivered from the Method of Deformation. The mathematical methods used in the book allow calculating special slipping and breaking optimal curves, which are often encountered in problems of optimal control. The author also describes the solution of boundary problems in optimization theory. The mathematical theory is illustrated by several examples. The book is replete with exercises and can be used as a text-book for graduate courses. In fact the author has lectured on this theory using this book for graduate and post-graduate students in Moscow Technical University. The second part of the book is devoted to applications of this method to technical problems in aviation, space, aeronautics, control, automation, structural design, economic, games, theory of counter strategy and etc. Some of the aviation, aeronautic, and control problems are examined: minimization of energy, exact control, fuel consumption, heating of re-entry space ship in the atmosphere of planets, the problems of a range of aircraft, rockets, dirigibles, and etc. Some of the economic problems are considered, for example, the problems of a highest productivity, the problem of integer programming and the problem of linear programming. Many economic problems may be solved by the application of the Method to the Problems of non-cooperative games. The third part of the book contains solutions of complex problems: optimal thrust angle for different flight regimes, optimal trajectories of aircraft, aerospace vehicles, and space ships, design of optimal regulator, linear problems of optimal control. This book is intended for designers, engineers, researchers, as well as specialists working on problems of optimal control, planning, or the choosing of optimal strategy. For engineers the book provides methods of computation of the optimal construction and control mechanisms, and optimal flight trajectories. In addition, the book will be useful to students of mathematics, general engineering, and economic. English translation is not full. Full text is in Russian referances.
Category: General Mathematics

[18271] viXra:1704.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 22:34:46

### A Latent Quantized Force of an Atomic Unification

Authors: Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov

At the availability of a force of an atomic unification, a sharp interconnection of the evrmionic antineutrino and neutron must constitute the antineutrino hydrogen of Al-Fargoniy is one of the two atoms having a crucial value for construction of all the remaining ones. We discuss a theory in which atomic orbit quantization is carried out around the nucleus in the flavor type dependence. Such an orbit quantized succession principle splits in external fields the spectral lines of atoms, confirming the availability in them of the family structure. Thereby, it predicts the existence in nature of 63189 forms of isotopes of 118 types of atomic systems. We derive the united equations, which relate in atoms the radii of boson, lepton and antineutrino orbits including the speeds, energies and rotation periods of their particles. Finding for them estimates express, in the case of each of the five forms of uraniums and two types of hydrogens, the ideas of an intraatomic force quantized by leptonic families. They unite all necessary for steadiness and completeness of an atom connections in a unified whole as a role of gravity in an atomic construction. Therefore, any of the structural particles suffers in it a strong change both in lifetime and in his self radius in the orbit type dependence.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18270] viXra:1704.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 00:49:16

### The Omega-Kardeschev Scale

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

An interplay.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18269] viXra:1704.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 01:13:43

### Reflection Symmetry and Time

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 3 Pages. reflection symmetry time relativity

Two identical stopwatches moving at the same speed will elapse the same time after moving the same distance. Start one stopwatch later than the other stopwatch. The time difference between these two stopwatches will remain constant after both stopwatches have elapsed the same time. Such time difference will remain constant while both stopwatches are under identical acceleration. Therefore, the elapsed time in an accelerating reference frame is identical to the elapsed time in a stationary reference frame. Consequently, a physical system that exhibits Reflection Symmetry in its motion demonstrates that the time of a moving clock is independent of the relative motion between the clock and its observer.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18268] viXra:1704.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 11:09:27

### Local Realism Versus Quantum Mysticism

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. See main article ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism has been widely falsely discounted but is recently vindicated according to detailed arguments at the link below. Local realism is ordinary causal determinism. By contrast, quantum theory is mystical causation by indeterminacy. If this claim that quantum theory embeds mystical causation seems at odds with the modal signal in physics right now, we ought to ask why that should be so. In any case, it is a trivial point to establish from the quantum account of the EPR experiment. According to this account, two unmeasured particles at respective separate localities in spacetime have remarkable properties. (A) Neither has measurable properties prior to the first being measured. (B) The instant either is measured, both obtain perfectly correlated outcomes. So where do the physical properties that "decide" those outcomes come from? And how do they coordinate their instant perfect correlation across a spacetime interval, which requires violating Special Relativity? Enter the mystic. Or consider the compelling logic of a new formulation of local realism per below. http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - Claims to demonstrate that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, 1 graph of testable predictions, and 2 paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[18267] viXra:1704.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 09:50:39

### Cell’s DNA Made a Biocomputer

Authors: George Rajna

Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[18266] viXra:1704.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 04:42:54

### A Mechanistic Model for the Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Norman Graves

A model is proposed for the hydrogen atom in which the orbiting electron is seen as an objectively real particle. The model is based on the postulate that certain velocity terms can be treated as being affected by relativity. The model provides a mechanism which drives the quantization process and so leads to the discrete energy levels of the atom. The Rydberg formula, being empirically derived, represents the yardstick by which any model for the hydrogen atom must be judged. Rather than develop a model and test it against the Rydberg formula, the approach taken here is to use the Rydberg formula itself as the basis for such a model. The model effectively unifies quantum mechanics with classical mechanics as well as providing a simple mechanical explanation of the Somerfield Fine Structure Constant.
Category: Classical Physics

[18265] viXra:1704.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 07:05:01

### Conscious Versus Unconscious Life.

Authors: Johan Noldus

I give away some further reflections regarding my latest two books on quantum gravity [1, 2] and the issue of life. I present some rather stunning ideas some of which go against common lore in the medical “sciences”.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[18264] viXra:1704.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 13:42:01

### Novel Quantum Effect

Authors: George Rajna

A team of scientists from the Quantum Dynamics Division of Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching near Munich) has now succeeded to make the first steps in this direction. Using a strongly coupled atom-cavity system, they were the first to observe the so-called two-photon blockade: the system emits at most two photons at the same time since its storage capacity is limited to that number. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18263] viXra:1704.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 22:15:25

### The Beginning of Homogeneous Nucleation of Iron/Nickel Cores in Homogeneous Young Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

To begin the process of forming homogeneous iron/nickel cores it is required that the young, hot stars be homogeneous in their interiors. To form an iron/nickel core as the star evolves, no nuclear core can be present. It would be too hot for the iron/nickel vapor to clump together and it would get in the way of the differentiation process.
Category: Astrophysics

[18262] viXra:1704.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 02:00:52

### Ten Superconducting Qubits Entangled

Authors: George Rajna

A group of physicists in China has taken the lead in the race to couple together increasing numbers of superconducting qubits. [19] The race to build larger and larger quantum computers is heating up, with several technologies competing for a role in future devices. Each potential platform has strengths and weaknesses, but little has been done to directly compare the performance of early prototypes. Now, researchers at the JQI have performed a first-of-its-kind benchmark test of two small quantum computers built from different technologies. [18] To find out whether quantum computers will work properly, scientists must simulate them on a classical computer. Now a record-breaking experiment has simulated the largest quantum computer yet. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18261] viXra:1704.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 02:20:41

### An Outline of Cellular Automaton Universe Via Cosmological KdV Equation

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 6 Pages. This paper has been submitted to CTPNP 2017

It has been known for long time that the cosmic sound wave was there since the early epoch of the Universe. Signatures of its existence are abound. However, such a sound wave model of cosmology is rarely developed fully into a complete framework. This paper can be considered as our second attempt towards such a complete description of the Universe based on soliton wave solution of cosmological KdV equation. Then we advance further this KdV equation by virtue of Cellular Automaton method to solve the PDEs. We submit wholeheartedly Robert Kurucz’s hypothesis that Big Bang should be replaced with a finite cellular automaton universe with no expansion. Nonetheless, we are fully aware that our model is far from being complete, but it appears the proposed cellular automaton model of the Universe is very close in spirit to what Konrad Zuse envisaged long time ago. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18260] viXra:1704.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 04:03:04

### Local Realism Versus Quantum Computers & Quantum Information Theory

Authors: Andrew P. Yake

Local realism reduces to the proposition that every physical effect arises exclusively at the spacetime locality where the determinate properties of physical reality determine that it be so. The causal model of quantum theory, however, and thus all prospects for quantum computers, require that local realism is false. The essential argument favoring quantum beliefs is that local realism cannot explain empirical Bell violations, whereas quantum theory can. By contrast, the article cited below offers compelling evidence to the contrary. Furthermore, such alleged refutations of local realism are predicated on an interpretation of the Bell inequality that many researchers reject (the cited article provides specific references). Meanwhile, the causal model of quantum theory reduces to the quantum formalism itself, which distributes outcomes across separate localities without providing enough information to determine what those outcomes are. More specifically, depending on subtleties of interpretation, the quantum formalism requires either: (A) There exists a bit of physical information such that this bit exists as mutually exclusive states, or (B) there exists a bit of physical information such that this bit is not physically informed. They are both contradictions. Pick your poison. Or reconsider local realism. See ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 ** Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - for a demonstration that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, 1 graph of testable predictions, and 2 paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[18259] viXra:1704.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 11:08:43

### Trapped Ions and Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna

The race to build larger and larger quantum computers is heating up, with several technologies competing for a role in future devices. Each potential platform has strengths and weaknesses, but little has been done to directly compare the performance of early prototypes. Now, researchers at the JQI have performed a first-of-its-kind benchmark test of two small quantum computers built from different technologies. [18] To find out whether quantum computers will work properly, scientists must simulate them on a classical computer. Now a record-breaking experiment has simulated the largest quantum computer yet. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18258] viXra:1704.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 11:49:24

### Materials for Discussion of Methodological Limitations Resulting from the Stereotypes of Biologists Thinking

Authors: Andrzej Gecow

Attempts to communicate the results of theoretical works on the evolutionary biology using the methodology of physics have not yielded results for half a century, but have led to the recognition of methodological limitations stemming from the stereotypes of thinking in biology. It is primarily a lack of interest in the pursuit of deductive theory. Abstraction and deduction - the basis of physics, are despised and omitted as speculation, which creates a blockade in the development of theory in biology. As a basis for this diagnosis, five reviews of the text addressed to “KOSMOS” have been analyzed, which led to the conclusion that the text, because of the thesis contained therein, is unreadable to biologists. This study is the basis for a wider discussion in a separate publication.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[18257] viXra:1704.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 07:02:31

### A P Time Solution to an NP Complete Problem

Authors: Q.P.Wimblik

Vertex Coloring can be reduced to a set of 2 color vertex coloring problems. This is achieved by utilizing an ability to account for every positive integer with a unique pair of smaller integers.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[7824] viXra:1704.0352 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-26 13:41:24

### Einstein’s Repudiation of His Own Theory of Relativity After 1920

Authors: Peter Sujak

Einstein in his works from 1905 till 1907 discarded the ether from physics but his more than 5 papers from 1920 to 1934 deal with the ether as an unexceptionable physical reality. In these papers Einstein becomes more an enthusiastic advocate of the testification of the ether than supporters of the ether before the year 1905. It is regrettable that except of Einstein’s widely cited less important paper presented at a conference in Leiden in 1920 other more important papers on ether in which Einstein comes with the definitive claim that without the ether it is not possible to explain the physical world around us are not known to wider physical community and even not known to dissident physicists community as well. In this paper we show that Einstein by his own declarations after 1920 about testified existence of the ether himself openly repudiated his Special and General theories of relativity. In amendment we bring the text of Einstein’s 1924 paper “On the ether”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7823] viXra:1704.0349 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-26 13:13:11

### On Aberration of Light Part #2

Authors: Florian Michael Schmitt

On Aberration of Light Part #2 This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7822] viXra:1704.0349 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-26 11:56:50

### On Aberration of Light Part #2

Authors: Florian Michael Schmitt

This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7821] viXra:1704.0339 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-27 09:10:25

### Time Perspective Distortion, Illusion of Accelerated Expansion

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher

This alternative model to Accelerated Expansion, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) postulates the novel idea of a linear point perspective in the time dimension. Just as subtended arcs in linear spacial perspective create the appearance of decreasing (and converging) geometry over distance, TPD proposes that time perspective creates the appearance of decreasing (and converging) time intervals over distance. The result is an illusion of accelerated velocity, as the appearance of decreasing time intervals is equivalent to increasing velocity. TPD rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion viewed (obliquely) in time perspective. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. Please note: TPD is distinct from time dilation and does not contradict or violate either time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t. In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TPD
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7820] viXra:1704.0339 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-26 14:53:37

### Time Perspective Distortion, Illusion of Accelerated Expansion

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher

This alternative model to Accelerated Expansion, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) postulates the idea of perspective in the time dimension. Just as linear spacial perspective has the appearance of decreasing (and converging) geometry over distance, TPD proposes that time perspective has the appearance of decreasing (and converging) time intervals over distance. The result is an illusion of accelerated velocity, as the appearance of decreasing time intervals is equivalent to increasing velocity. TPD rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion viewed (obliquely) in time perspective. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. Please note: TPD does not contradict or violate time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t. In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TPD
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7819] viXra:1704.0339 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-26 08:43:23

### Time Perspective Distortion, Alternative to Accelerated Expansion

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher

This alternative model to Accelerated Expansion, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) postulates that time is actually observed and measured with an inherent perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event. Subsequently, decreased time intervals appear as increased velocity. TPD rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion viewed (obliquely) in time perspective. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. Please note: TPD does not contradict or violate time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t. In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TPD.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7818] viXra:1704.0338 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-26 10:51:40

### On Anthropomorphic Principles and the Planck Fine-structure Constant

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino

In this paper I introduce a new Planck constant - the Planck fine-structure constant –. Then, from the relativistic model of the hydrogen atom I prove that this new constant is consistent with the existence of the hydrogen atom. Therefore, it seems natural to extend this concept to the rest of the laws of physics stating that the laws of physics are consistent with the appearance of life in the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7817] viXra:1704.0336 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-25 13:19:25

### Evaluation of Mach’s Principle in a Universe with Four Spatial Dimensions

Authors: Eva Deli

Recent cosmological data shows the Milky Way galaxy being pushed ahead of a void. Independently, laboratory research created matter with negative mass. A possible relationship between these seemingly unrelated results indicates the need to reexamine our understanding of gravity. According to Page and Wootter mechanism, time is globally static, but emergent for ‘internal’ observers. That is, interaction increases the energy-information differences among the constituents of the cosmos. Such temporal evolution engenders polar singularities, known as black and white holes, in accordance with general relativity. The second law of thermodynamics leads to Landauer’s principle, which shows that the emitted heat is proportional to the erased information of the system. Thus, information accumulates heat in black hole horizons, which have been found to be two dimensional; whereas information-free areas are energy rich and cold. The principle of static time dictates information and dimensional complementarity between antipodal areas of the universe. Two dimensional, positive curvature black holes must be balanced by negative curvature, four dimensional white holes, which expand space and lead to the experience of ‘dark energy.’ Positive curvature forms great field strength, which stabilizes the universe with a pressure experienced as excess gravity, called dark matter. Enhanced field strength leads to clumping, forming planets, stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters, which slows expansion. The dimensional anisotropy (two in the black holes and four in the white holes) straddle unstable three dimensional galactic environments between them. An object’s position in space corresponds to a freely hanging plumb. Deviations in angle of that plumb (position of the object) – thereby changes the equilibrium of the whole universe and leads to inertia, a force that is proportional to both the mass of the object and the field strength (i.e. radial topological distance from the center). Therefore inertia is greatest in the vicinity of the black holes. On the positively curved polar surfaces of space (such as a planet) a path that curves toward the pole forms the shortest distance. On positive curving temporal surfaces the shortest time is acceleration, which leads to the twin paradox. The hypothesis is congruent with the latest CMB data, satisfies Mach’s principle as well as Occam’s razor by uncovering a surprisingly simple, stable and unified alignment of the universe. This new physical world view is presented without equations, reflecting the futility of a universal calculation method.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7816] viXra:1704.0281 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-23 10:58:34

### What if Entropy Varies Logarithmically Rather Than Linearly with the Area? on the Emergence of Surface Gravity

Authors: Asher Klatchko

A constant speed of light implies a hyperbolic spacetime. The “Exponential Explosion” of a hyperbolic geometry at infinity – ∂H, lends itself to the Boltzmann principle, thereby connecting geometry with entropy. We borrow the concept of entropy at a horizon from Bekenstein, but propose instead that it varies logarithmically with the area enclosed by the horizon, S ~ log (A). We use the experimental data from the recently LIGO detected events of two coalescing black holes to verify that our definition of entropy does not violate the generalized second law. We propose that the 1st law of thermodynamics seems to determine the 2nd law thereby setting an upper limit to the fraction of the mass that can be gravitationally irradiated. Dimensional analysis of black hole entropy requires quantization of its mass in Planck mass quanta. We treat the area enclosed within the horizon as an elastomer membrane thereby showing that its surface tension can be identified as a gravitational force – surface gravity – and its potential is directly proportional to the entropy. As information is lost to heat via, δQ = T dS, we connect the loss process to spacetime fluctuations. Using the Unruh effect we estimate the order of magnitude of these fluctuations for a weak field. We do this by analyzing the famous gravitational redshift experiment of Pound and Rebka. For a strong field we show that the black hole is a quantum heat sink with a gradient inversely proportional to the area.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7815] viXra:1704.0278 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-22 20:06:18

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7814] viXra:1704.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-22 06:37:27

### Two Extreme Formulas for Converging to Pi,the Fastest and Most Painful

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba

I present in this small article two algorithms of calculation of pi, they are characterized by two extremities, one is the most convergent and the other the slowest of the imaginable formulas.
Category: Number Theory

[7813] viXra:1704.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-24 10:16:46

### Modeling the Strain Monitoring Data in Structural Health Monitoring Using Copulas

Authors: Zhicheng Chen, Hui Li

In Structural Health Monitoring, there are usually many strain sensors installed in different places of a single structure. The raw measurement of a strain sensor is generally a mixed response caused by different excitations such as moving vehicle loads, ambient temperature, etc. Monitoring data collected by different strain sensors are usually correlated with each other, correlation structures of responses caused by different excitations for different sensor pairs are quite diverse and complex. In Structural Health Monitoring, quantitatively describing and modeling complicated dependence structures of strain data is very important in many applications. In this article, copulas are exploited to characterize dependence structures and construct joint distributions of monitoring strain data. The constructed joint distribution is also applied in missing data imputation.
Category: Statistics

[7812] viXra:1704.0235 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-25 16:15:36

### Time Interval Distortions, Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. Time convergence (TC) rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion with apparent decreasing time intervals. TC is a corollary of Minkowski’s assertion that ”Whatever happens to space also happens to time”, and can be conceptualized as a linear perspective in the time dimension. TC proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale. Thus, accelerated expansion is interpreted to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3. Please note that TC is not time dilation. Time intervals do not actually decrease per distance, rather appear to decrease per distance similar to linear spatial perspective from subtended arcs. Thus, there is no contradiction or violation of special relativity nor GR In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TC.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7811] viXra:1704.0235 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-20 09:51:08

### Time Interval Distortions, Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. ”Time interval distortion” rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion with apparent decreasing time intervals. TC is a corollary of Minkowski’s assertion that ”Whatever happens to space also happens to time”, and can be conceptualized as a linear perspective in the time dimension. Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale. Thus, Accelerated expansion is interpreted to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3. In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TC. TC provides alternative explanations for: Accelerated expansion, Rotational and recessive velocities approaching c, as superluminal velocities. Also, a potential explanation for galaxy rotational curves.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7810] viXra:1704.0221 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-18 21:18:24

### Universal Topology W = P ± iV and First Horizon of Quantum Fields

Authors: C. Wei XU
Comments: 7 Pages. Restored original introduction and Converted to the 1 column style

The universal topology W = P ± iV is the nature law that intuitively constitutes a duality of Manifolds and Event Operations. Its First Horizon of this framework, naturally comes out with the dual State Equilibrium and dual Motion Dynamics, which replace the empirical “math laws” and give rise to the general quantum fields to concisely include Schrödinger and Klein– Gordon Equations. As a result, it becomes a groundbreaking in the quest for Unified Physics: the workings of a life streaming of physical and virtual dynamics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7809] viXra:1704.0199 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-17 09:28:29

### Theory of Exact Trigonometric Periodic Solutions to Quadratic Liénard Type Equations

Authors: J. Akande, D.K.K. Adjaï, L.H. Koudahoun, Y.J.F. Kpomahou, M.D. Monsia

The problem of finding exact trigonometric periodic solutions to non-linear differential equations is still an open mathematical research field. In this paper it is shown that the Painlevé-Gambier XVIII equation and its inverted version may exhibit exact trigonometric periodic solutions as well as other quadratic Liénard type equations but with amplitude-dependent frequency. Other inverted Painlevé-Gambier equations are also shown to admit exact periodic solutions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[7808] viXra:1704.0198 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-16 08:24:29

### The Origin and Formation Mechanism of Protons

Authors: Yibing Qiu