All Submission Categories

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(58) - 0703(50) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(1) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)
2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)
2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(48) - 0908(109) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(54)
2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(51) - 1003(265) - 1004(138) - 1005(110) - 1006(67) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(61) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)
2011 - 1101(100) - 1102(55) - 1103(119) - 1104(82) - 1105(40) - 1106(59) - 1107(52) - 1108(48) - 1109(57) - 1110(69) - 1111(110) - 1112(84)
2012 - 1201(97) - 1202(79) - 1203(89) - 1204(92) - 1205(107) - 1206(89) - 1207(97) - 1208(221) - 1209(95) - 1210(159) - 1211(136) - 1212(138)
2013 - 1301(170) - 1302(143) - 1303(194) - 1304(146) - 1305(181) - 1306(203) - 1307(149) - 1308(138) - 1309(187) - 1310(238) - 1311(160) - 1312(197)
2014 - 1401(182) - 1402(139) - 1403(840) - 1404(246) - 1405(322) - 1406(172) - 1407(202) - 1408(214) - 1409(217) - 1410(182) - 1411(464) - 1412(236)
2015 - 1501(224) - 1502(212) - 1503(238) - 1504(209) - 1505(210) - 1506(200) - 1507(197) - 1508(346) - 1509(256) - 1510(448) - 1511(271) - 1512(431)
2016 - 1601(343) - 1602(338) - 1603(359) - 1604(321) - 1605(289) - 1606(306) - 1607(473) - 1608(402) - 1609(390) - 1610(361) - 1611(391) - 1612(394)
2017 - 1701(541) - 1702(305) - 1703(300) - 1704(371) - 1705(405) - 1706(335)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[19122] viXra:1706.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 14:01:08

A Short Monograph on Lightning and the EARTH’S Changing Magnetic Field

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 2 Pages.

Could the changing magnetic field of the earth lead ultimately to more powerful lightning bolts?
Category: Classical Physics

[19121] viXra:1706.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 18:25:20

The Search for New Physical Principles a Short Monograph on the Strange Consequences of Zero Inertia

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 2 Pages.

Three very strange consequences of zero inertia are deduced by very simple reasoning.
Category: Classical Physics

[19120] viXra:1706.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 18:25:43

Factored Closed-Form Expressions for the Sums of Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

Authors: Kunle Adegoke
Comments: 11 Pages.

We obtain explicit factored closed-form expressions for Fibonacci and Lucas sums of a certain form.
Category: Number Theory

[19119] viXra:1706.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:39:13

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Spectral, and Thermal Properties of Sodium Selenate Treated with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate is a common ingredient in nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals as a source of selenium. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physicochemical, spectral, and thermal properties of The Trivedi Effect® Treated sodium selenate using various analytical methods such as PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, DSC, and TGA. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received The Trivedi Effect® Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The PXRD analysis of the treated sample showed the significant alteration of the crystallite size in the range of -16.63% to 42.9% compared with the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sodium selenate was increased by 1.01% compared with the control sample. The particle sizes d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 6.14%, 16.56%, and 18.82%, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 10.52% compared with the control sample. Both control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 888 and 887 cm-1, respectively due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated sodium selenate were at 204.8 and 204.9 nm, respectively. The TGA of the control and treated samples exhibited two steps of thermal degradation, and the total weight loss was slightly increased by 1.16% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The DSC thermograms showed the latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was significantly elevated by 6.37% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness (Biofield Energy Healing) might generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate which could be more soluble, thermally more stable, and higher absorption rate compared with the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design the various forms of nutraceuticals and/or pharmaceutical formulation which might be providing a better therapeutic response against heart disease (i. e. Atherosclerosis), viral diseases (i. e. Hepatitis), infectious diseases (i. e. Dermatitis, Psoriasis), Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[19118] viXra:1706.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:40:09

A Comprehensive Physical, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Characterization of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Treated with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract possesses a broad range of pharmacological activities. The aim of current study was to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on the physical, spectroscopic, and thermal properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received The Trivedi Effect® Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the control and The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10 and d50 of the treated sample were decreased by 4.66% and 6.02% and at d90 slightly increased by 0.99% compared with the control sample. The average surface area of the treated (0.130 m2/g) sample was increased by 4.84% compared with the control (0.124 m2/g) sample. The FT-IR results suggested that the force constant of O-H (stretching), and C-O (stretching) functional groups of the treated sample were reduced compared with the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.4 nm and 205.6 nm, respectively. The TGA thermograms exhibited three steps of the degradation process, and the total weight loss of the treated (86.45%) sample was increased by 1.44% compared with the control (85.22%) sample. The DSC analysis revealed that melting point of the treated (201.67°C) sample was reduced by 0.87% compared with the control (203.43°C) sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated (6.77 J/g) sample was significantly decreased by 21.82% compared to the control (8.67 J/g) sample. Hence, the treated sample would be more advantageous for the better therapeutic responses compared to the control sample. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, dissolution, absorption, and bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various forms of pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[19117] viXra:1706.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:41:51

Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Analysis of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Treated with the Energy of Consciousness

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The objective of the study was to characterize and evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (Energy of Consciousness) on phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The LC-MS analysis of the control and treated samples showed a very close retention time (Rt), indicated that the polarity of the phytoconstituents present in the root extract are same. The numbers of peaks observed in the total ion chromatograms were 28 and 29 in the control and treated samples, respectively. The change in the peak height% of the phytoconstituents in the treated sample was altered significantly within the range of -50.91% to 118.12% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the change in the peak area% of most of the phytoconstituents in the treated ashwagandha was significantly altered within the range of -54.95% to 66.95% compared with the control sample. An additional peak was appeared in the treated sample at Rt of 5.72 minutes, which was not found in the control sample. The LC-MS spectra indicated the presence of possible withanolides like -hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-withanolide F, withanolide A, withaferine A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide S, thiowithanolide, etc. in both the samples. The peak are percentage (%) was altered in the identified withanolides, but withanolide sulfoxide was increased significantly by 12.44% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. These results indicated that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treatment might have an impact on the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract. This could be the probable cause of alteration in the peak height, peak area, and appearance of a new peak in the treated sample. As a result, the concentrations of the phytoconstituents altered in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The treated ashwagandha root extract would be helpful for designing better pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations which might be providing a better therapeutic response against autoimmune diseases, nervous and sexual disorders, infectious diseases, antiaging, diabetes, cancer, ulcer, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[19116] viXra:1706.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:43:06

Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on Withania Somnifera Root Extract Using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The objective of the study was to characterize and evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using GC-MS and NMR. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The GC-MS data indicated that the peak height and peak area of The Trivedi Effect® treated sample were found to be altered compared with the control sample. The peak height of the phytoconstituents present in the treated ashwagandha sample was altered significantly in the range of -8.32% to 89.25% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the peak area of the treated sample was altered significantly in the range of -4.28% to 216.30% compared with the control sample. Overall, the change in the peak area% of the treated sample was significantly altered in the range of -18.29% to 170.18% compared with the control sample. The GC-MS and NMR analysis results identified the presence of withanolides such as glyco-withanolides, alkaloids, and sugars in the root extract in both the sample. The peak area of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazine (1), methyl ethyl sulfoxide (2), 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-4(H)pyran-3,4-dione (4), diethoxy-2-methyl-propane (5), 2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy-tetrahydro-pyran (6), and 3,4-dimethyl-2(3H)-furanone (7) were significantly increased by 170.18%, 58.21%, 7.74%, 139.50%, 23.16%, and 45.63%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. On the contrary, the peak area% of 2-hydroxy--butyrolactone (3) was decreased by -14.96% in the treated ashwagandha compared with the control sample. From the results, it can be hypothesized that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treatment might have the impact on the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract and responsible for the alteration in the relative peak height/area of treated sample compared with the control sample. As a result, the concentrations of the phytoconstituents assumed to be increased in treated sample compared with the control sample. This treated ashwagandha root extract would be helpful for designing better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations which might be providing a better therapeutic response against autoimmune diseases, nervous and sexual disorders, infectious diseases, antiaging, diabetes, cancer, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[19115] viXra:1706.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:44:10

Characterization of Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate After Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 12 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a potent antioxidant and widely used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesia. The current research was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on magnesium gluconate for the change in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from -24.96% to 99.98% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly increased by 7.79% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. PSD analysis revealed that the particle sizes in The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample at d10, d50/ and d90 values were decreased by 5.36%, 11.35% and 0.90%, respectively compared with the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that surface area of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was significantly increased by 7.48% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that structure of the magnesium gluconate remained the same in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed four steps thermal degradation of both the samples and the total weight loss of Biofield Energy Treated sample was increased by 0.12% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis demonstrated that the melting temperature of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (171.29°C) was increased by 0.18% compared with the control sample (170.99°C). The latent heat of fusion was significantly increased by 27.09% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. The Biofield Treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[19114] viXra:1706.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 07:02:21

Strange Phenomena in Space-Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Mathematicians have created a new theory that could explain how universal disturbances move through space and time. This field pattern theory could explain how gravitational waves move and answer seemingly unanswerable questions in quantum mechanics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19113] viXra:1706.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 07:55:56

Correlation Between Solar and Seismic Activity: Prognosis of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions Based on Daily Solar Indexes

Authors: A. M. Eigenson
Comments: 55 Pages.

Large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are compared with the epochs of minima of 11-year cycles of solar activity. We use the data from 405 earthquakes with magnitude 7 and more and 71 volcanic eruption during 260 years. Close correlation between years of these terrestrial events and years of minima of solar activity is shown. We also use also daily solar indexes SSp and compare them with terrestrial events, constituting the main novelty of this work. Here we use the data of earthquakes between December 856 and January 2016, as well as data of volcanic eruptions in the same period. We subsequently compare daily indexes SSp during 2016 and 4 months of 2017 with earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. An important results is demonstrated: as soon as solar activity curve begins to go down, on the same day or some days after the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. Evidently, this circumstance could be used for prognosis of these terrestrial events for several days in advance. In all cases considered our prognosis is confirmed. This is the main result of this article.
Category: Geophysics

[19112] viXra:1706.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 08:35:27

Quantum Machine Learning Computer Hybrids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Creative Destruction Lab, a technology program affiliated with the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management in Toronto, Canada hopes to nurture numerous quantum learning machine start-ups in only a few years. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19111] viXra:1706.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 10:31:28

Weak AI, Strong AI and Superintelligence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Should we fear artificial intelligence and all it will bring us? Not so long as we remember to make sure to build artificial emotional intelligence into the technology, according to the website The School of Life. [16] Creative Destruction Lab, a technology program affiliated with the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management in Toronto, Canada hopes to nurture numerous quantum learning machine start-ups in only a few years. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries - how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms - has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19110] viXra:1706.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 05:30:44

A Proposed Experiment to Test Theories of the Flyby Anomaly

Authors: C. K. Raju
Comments: 12 pages, 3 tables, 6 graphs

We use Lorentz covariant retarded gravitation theory (RGT), without simplifications, to validate the earlier calculations for the flyby anomaly as a gravitational effect of Earth's rotation at the special relativistic (v/c) level. Small differences persist between the theoretical predictions of RGT and the data reported by Anderson et al. That reported data, however, is not direct observational data but consists of un-modeled residues. To settle doubts, we propose a 3-way experimental test to discriminate between RGT, Newtonian gravitation (no flyby anomaly), and Anderson et al.'s formula. This involves two satellites orbiting Earth in opposite directions in the equatorial plane in eccentric orbits. For these orbits, Earth's rotation should not affect velocity on (1) Newtonian gravitation and (2) the formula of Anderson et al. However, (3) on RGT, one satellite gains and the other loses velocity, by typically a few cm/s/day, which is easily measurable by satellite laser ranging.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19109] viXra:1706.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 18:07:29

The Principle of Multiple Orbiting Objects in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

According to stellar metamorphosis, the more massive the star the more the objects that can orbit it or have orbited it. This means at one point all stars have or had many other objects orbiting them. Further elaboration of the principle is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[19108] viXra:1706.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 00:08:53

The Critical Analysis of the Foundations of Statistical Physics. 1. Boltzmann Distribution

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract. Modern analysis of the Boltzmann distribution on the basis of probability theory and of Gibbs quantum canonical distribution is proposed. It is shown that the Boltzmann distribution function is neither a reliable result of probability theory nor a consequence of Gibbs quantum canonical distribution. Conclusion is that the Boltzmann distribution function has no statistical and physical meaning, and the concept “Boltzmann distribution” should be abolished.
Category: Classical Physics

[19107] viXra:1706.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 00:12:38

The Critical Analysis of the Foundations of Statistical Physics. II. the Theory of Photon Gas

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 16 Pages.

The critical analysis of the generally accepted foundations of theory of photon (quantum) gas are proposed. The principle of the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is the correct methodological basis of the analysis. The new results – the correct quantum-statistical foundations – obtained within the framework of the formulated master equation taking into consideration both the quantum states of the radiating molecule and the quantum states of the photon gas in the isolated macroscopic systems “molecule + molecular gas + monochromatic photon gas” are as follows: (a) Planck’s, Einstein’s, and Bose’s works on the theory of photon (quantum) gas contain logical errors; (b) photon (quantum) gas being born by radiating molecule obeys “Gibbs statistics”: equilibrium photon (quantum) gas is described by Gibbs quantum canonical distribution; (c) Planck function (“Bose’s distribution”) is an consequence of Gibbs quantum canonical distribution; (d) Einstein coefficients (i.e. the coefficients of spontaneous emission, induced emission and absorption) are equal to each other.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19106] viXra:1706.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 00:16:24

The Critical Analysis of the Foundations of Classical Thermodynamics

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 8 Pages.

The critical analysis of the generally accepted foundations of classical thermodynamics is proposed. The principle of the unity of formal logic and rational dialectics is a methodological basis of the analysis. The main result is as follows: the foundations of classical thermodynamics (i.e., the first and second laws, equation of state, concepts of internal energy, of heat energy, of entropy, of temperature) contain logical errors. The existence of logical errors is irrefutable proof of incorrectness of thermodynamics. The correct statistical foundations are proposed.
Category: Classical Physics

[19105] viXra:1706.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 02:34:26

Brain-Inspired Supercomputing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

IBM and the Air Force Research Laboratory are working to develop an artificial intelligence-based supercomputer with a neural network design that is inspired by the human brain. [28] Researchers have built a new type of "neuron transistor"—a transistor that behaves like a neuron in a living brain. [27] Research team led by Professor Hoi-Jun Yoo of the Department of Electrical Engineering has developed a semiconductor chip, CNNP (CNN Processor), that runs AI algorithms with ultra-low power, and K-Eye, a face recognition system using CNNP. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19104] viXra:1706.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 11:30:26

The Triple-Quasar is an Optical Image of Milkyway, Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies – Implies Expansion in the Direction of Dark Flow

Authors: Jose P. Koshy
Comments: Six pages

Based on the concept that light follows a circular path of radius 2.5 billion light-years, here I show that the triple-quasar LBQS 1429-008 is the 10.5 billion years old image of 'Milkyway, Andromeda and Triangulum' galaxies. From this, the position of our galaxy at two different times can be ascertained, and the direction of expansion of the universe can be estimated. The 'surprise finding' is that the direction thus obtained is in agreement with the direction of so-called 'Dark flow', implying the possibility that the expansion is due to actual motion of bodies, and hence LCDM model is wrong.
Category: Astrophysics

[19103] viXra:1706.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 11:32:14

Symmetry of Covariance & Exchange: The Two Body Electron Equation

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 5 Pages. June 24th, 2017

Proceeding from arguments of the eigenstate and eigenvector condition and that of the Pauli Exclusion Principle; it is formulated that a spin gauge connection need be introduced to correct for coordinates and that this non anomalous term in correcting for the energy momentum introduces a discrepancy leading to bosonization in systems in which electrons are confined to strong exchange interactions; for an energy momentum lowering and gap pair potential; explaining superconductivity and Yang Mills by local and global symmetries; their breaking; and photon renormalization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19102] viXra:1706.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 04:11:34

Atomic Imperfections

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

An international team led by the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering has discovered how to manipulate a weird quantum interface between light and matter in silicon carbide along wavelengths used in telecommunications. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19101] viXra:1706.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 13:07:08

Symmetry of Covariance & Exchange

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 5 Pages. Simplicity is requisite in the interpretation of local and global symmetries.

This paper aims at a dissection of the Yang Mills problem by simple aspects of exchange; arriving at an elegant solution to the local and global isosymmetry and symmetry problem of statistics of Fermionic nature with electrons under the provisions of adherence to the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the eigenvector eigenvalue formalism; ultimately explaining the pairing energy mass gap as a consequence of photonic energy momentum lowering and the electron four energy momentum commutation and anticommutation relationship.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19100] viXra:1706.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 13:24:49

Question 935 : An Integral for Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this note we present an integral for the constant pi:pi=3.1415926535...
Category: Number Theory

[19099] viXra:1706.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 18:05:12

The Theory of the Transcendent Reality (TTR)

Authors: Mauro Bernardini
Comments: 44 Pages.

This is a brief summary of the Theory of Transcendent Reality (TTR), which describes the main postulates and mathematics used to describe and support the rationality of the Alef's model as unique and absolute being container of all the existences. This first issiue allow to describe This is a brief summary of the Theory of Transcendent Reality (TTR), which describes the main postulates and mathematics used to describe and support the rationality of the Alef's model as unique and absolute being container of all the existences. This first issiue allow to describe the real physical composition of all the parallel universes contained in Alef's body. Universes that are logically and rationally constituted exclusively by Particles of Existence with a mass equal to that of a Proton and which generate an "apparent" existence since they are interpreted as existent only by the under-dimensional beings they generate in each single universe. Highlighting therefore that the Particles of Existence present in every universe are in fact 11 dimensional body slices of the Points of Alef, which, in turn, are the only real components of Alef's body: and, therefore, Particles of Existence that never really born nor diedthe real physical composition of all the parallel universes contained in Alef's body. Universes that are logically and rationally constituted exclusively by Particles of Existence with a mass equal to that of a Proton and which generate an "apparent" existence since they are interpreted as existent only by the under-dimensional beings they generate in each single universe. Highlighting therefore that the Particles of Existence present in every universe are in fact 11 dimensional body slices of the Points of Alef, which in turn are the only real components of Alef's body: and, therefore, Particles of Existence that never really born nor died
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19098] viXra:1706.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:33:11

Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties Analysis in Magnesium Gluconate: An Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is an organometallic pharmaceutical/nutraceutical used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases caused by the low level of magnesium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physicochemical, thermal, structural, and behavioral properties of magnesium gluconate using powder PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-visible, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as the control, while the another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited the significant alteration of the crystal morphology of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly altered from -39.99% to 62.57% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was decreased by 9.71% compared with the control sample. Particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 value was significantly increased by 5.36%, 23.10% and 11.11%, respectively compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 9.76% compared to the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structural characteristic of the magnesium gluconate remained same in the treated sample compared with control sample. The TGA data revealed that the weight loss of the treated sample in the first and third steps of degradation was increased by 31.58% and 5.94%, respectively, whereas in the second step of degradation, the weight loss was decreased by 7.57% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the melting point of the control and treated samples were at 170.29°C and 169.76°C, respectively. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample was increased by 4.18% compared with the control sample. The current study evaluated that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to a new polymorphic form of the magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble, powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. Hence, the Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[19097] viXra:1706.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:34:14

Evaluation of Structural Properties and Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Energy Treated (The Trivedi Effect®) Magnesium Gluconate Using LC-MS and NMR

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The current research work was designed to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) by using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of the both control and treated samples revealed the presence of the mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.53 min with similar fragmentation pattern. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions of the treated sample were significantly changed compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) in the treated sample was significantly increased by 34.33% compared with the control sample. Subsequently, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 64.08% as compared to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly changed compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[19096] viXra:1706.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:35:18

Evaluation of Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 13 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic salt used for the prevention and treatment of magnesium deficiency diseases. The objective of the current research was to explore the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited significant alteration of the crystal morphology of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from range -69.99% to 71.40% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 13.61% compared with the control sample. Particle size analysis revealed that the particle size in the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 value was significantly decreased by 5.19%, 26.77%, and 18.22%, respectively compared with the control sample. The treated sample’s surface area was significantly enhanced (12.82%) compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structure of the magnesium gluconate remained the same in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed the four steps thermal degradation of the both samples and the total weight loss of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was increased by 0.55% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting temperature of the treated sample (171.72°C) was increased by 0.21% compared with the control sample (171.36°C). The latent heat of fusion was increased by 4.66% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. This result indicated that the thermal stability of treated sample was improved compared with the control sample. The current study infers that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[19095] viXra:1706.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:36:45

Investigation of Physicochemical, Spectral, and Thermal Properties of Sodium Selenate Treated with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Sodium selenate is used for the prevention and treatment of various disorders like cancer, diabetes, inflammation diseases, etc. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physicochemical, spectral, and thermal properties of The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate using various analytical methods such as PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any treatment and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed the significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample in the range of -36.36% to 133.24% as compared to the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 8.31% as compared to the control sample. Overall, the crystal morphology of the treated sample was different from the control sample. The particle sizes d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 3.40%, 9.75%, and 8.52%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5.26% from the control sample. Both the control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 887 cm-1 due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of both the control and treated samples were at 204.1 and 204.0 nm, respectively. TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 1.24% as compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the treated sample (588.77°C) had higher melting point than the control sample (588.60°C). The latent heat of fusion was reduced in the treated sample by 8.01% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing might lead to generate a new polymorphic (enantiotropic) form of sodium selenate which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[19094] viXra:1706.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:41:51

Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on Physical, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Properties of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract and their active metabolites possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The current study aimed to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physical, spectroscopic, and thermal properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the treated and control samples were amorphous in nature. The particle sizes at d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 12.23%, 10.97%, and 1.25%, respectively with respect to the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 14.29% as compared to the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated the alteration of the force constant for the functional groups of the treated sample in comparison to the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.8 and 206.0 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss was decreased by 0.70% in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. This indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis indicated that the melting point of the treated sample (190.48°C) was decreased by 4.91% than the control sample (203.45°C). The latent heat of fusion of the treated (4.94 J/g) sample was significantly decreased by 42.96% compared with the control (8.66 J/g) sample. The current findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, absorption, dissolution, and finally, bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[19093] viXra:1706.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:42:50

LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopic Analysis of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract After Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the structural characterization of the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control, without any Biofield Energy Healing Treatment, while another part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in both the control and treated samples, whereas the peak area% at respective retention time was significantly altered. The peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.35, 5.55, 5.94, 6.25, 6.63, 6.76, 7.92, 8.04, 8.60, 8.73, and 9.31 min were significantly reduced by 6.15% to 60.67% compared with the control sample at Rt of 5.43, 5.65, 5.95, 6.29, 6.76, 6.85, 8.03, 8.14, 8.68, 8.78, and 9.30 min. Consequently, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 7.25, 7.30, 8.27, and 8.47 min were significantly increased by 26.32%, 7.99%, 16.93% and 7.97% compared with the control sample at Rt of 7.37, 7.41, 8.36, and 8.55 min, respectively. A total of 13 withanolides were proposed with their structure from the deduced molecular mass at m/z 470, 472, 488, 504, 782, and 991 through LC-MS, GC-MS, 1H and 13C NMR analysis of both the control and treated samples. Viscosa lactone B, 27-hydroxy withanolide A, (20S, 22R)-α, 6α-epoxy-β, 5β, 27-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-24-enolide, (20S, 22R)-4β, 5β, 6α, 27-tetrahydroxy-1-oxo-with-2, 24-dienolide were proposed in the control and treated samples at Rt of 6.85 and 7.30 min, respectively. Dihydrowithanolide D was only identified in the control sample at Rt of 7.41 min, whereas withanoside IV or withanoside VI was only present in the Biofield Treated sample at Rt of 6.76 min. Withanolide A, withaferin A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A and withanolide sulfoxide were found in both the control and treated samples. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of W. somnifera extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[19092] viXra:1706.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 02:44:34

The Harmony Mathematical Structure of the Hadrons :The Existence of the Hadrons Duo to the Higgs-Gluons Fields Spherical Waves Fluctuations Via Spinning Quarks

Authors: Yazzed T.Al-Harbi
Comments: 10 Pages.

As we know that all the baryons [ a type of the hadrons] are consist of an odd number of fundamental particles called quarks, like a proton consist of three quarks, or maybe more than three [2], and all the quarks have a quantization spin state with 1/2ħ. And now let's imagine the spacetime is a vacuum and the Higgs field is everywhere, Higgs bosons are attracting with the quarks ( 2 ups and 1 down ), since this attracting is the mechanism of the mass source, and the particle reaches its maximum mass by reaching the equilibrium state of the attracting, the quarks have an Intrinsic property (the spin) that's quantitative property consuming energy to establish a differentiation in the spacetime vacuum, and since we know that quarks have an "excited versions", or kinetic energy by its movement and the probability density, it's very hard to calculate [3]. furthermore, we don't know how effective this on the Higgs field with the intrinsic property (the spin) and according to the Higgs field energy, it's energy is unknown. this maybe causes a difference in the equilibrium state of .the attracting with higgs field. And as we say, this difference can't be calculated. and in this paper we will prove the color confinement phenomenology mathmaticaly and the particles Behavior.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19091] viXra:1706.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 12:54:04

The Hypothesis of the Virtual Reality World; According to Astrophysical and Mathematical Presumption I. Overviewing the Creator's Mind

Authors: Islam Atef Aly
Comments: 6 Pages.

Context. This paper suggests a hypothesis that the world is a simulation of a digital world done by a creator who is the ruler of the highest civilization. As this creator can control the cosmic distances and so he used his science and arts in a simulation called life, this life is based upon the creator strategies and those strategies are simple as your computer, you turn on your computer so the life began, but in the highest civilization computer there is no shut down, but a timer set according to the highest civilization order.It's because we are controlled by a higher civilization that we cannot go beyond them because they are at a higher dimension than ours, and mostly they are at the highest dimension that can get over all the dimensions of the hyperspace, Science is a dynamic process of questioning, hypothesizing, discovering, and changing previous ideas based on what is learned. Scientific ideas are developed through reasoning and tested against observations. Scientists assess and question each other's work in a critical process called peer review. Our understanding about the universe and our place in it has changed over time. New information can cause us to rethink what we know and reevaluate how we classify objects in order to better understand them. New ideas and perspectives can come from questioning a theory or seeing where a classification breaks down Aims. The aim of this paper is to over viewing the data that the creator used to shape the hyperspace and ruling the life we live in and this incredible data is connected to achieve the main goal of life. Methods. Collecting data and analyzing then connecting them Results. A creator from a higher civilization made this hyperspace of multi-verse by using a special kind of programming
Category: Astrophysics

[19090] viXra:1706.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 12:52:46

Dark Matter Annihilation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai have proposed a theory that predicts how dark matter may be annihilating much more rapidly in the Milky Way, than in smaller or larger galaxies and the early Universe. [30] Two teams working independently have conducted studies with similar results suggesting the possibility that some of the cosmic rays striking the Earth arise from dark matter particles colliding with one another. [29] A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars – the incredibly dense, rapidly spinning cores of collapsed ancient stars that were up to 30 times more massive than the sun. [28] Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[19089] viXra:1706.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 07:18:05

Exotic Quantum Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

New research by physicists at the University of Chicago settles a longstanding disagreement over the formation of exotic quantum particles known as Efimov molecules. [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19088] viXra:1706.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 07:43:57

Molecular Sunscreen Response

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

In experiments at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists were able to see the first step of a process that protects a DNA building block called thymine from sun damage: When it's hit with ultraviolet light, a single electron jumps into a slightly higher orbit around the nucleus of a single oxygen atom. [25] Scientists at the University of York have used florescent proteins from jellyfish to help shed new light on how DNA replicates. [24] When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells are exposed to harm, they have defenses against potential breakage and mutations. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16]
Category: Physics of Biology

[19087] viXra:1706.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 09:51:28

Magnetic Vortex Theory of Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Now in a new paper published in Physical Review Letters, mathematical physicist Paul Sutcliffe at Durham University in the UK has theoretically shown that nanoparticles called magnetic skyrmions can be tied into various types of knots with different magnetic properties. [16] A new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory determined that magnetic skyrmions – small electrically uncharged circular structures with a spiraling magnetic pattern – do get deflected by an applied current, much like a curveball getting deflected by air. [15] Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14] The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19086] viXra:1706.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 17:54:32

Possible Mechanism for the Generation of a Fundamental Unit of Charge (Long Version)

Authors: J. P. Lestone
Comments: 46 Pages.

Various methods for calculating particle-emission rates from hot systems are reviewed. Semi-classically derived photon-emission rates often contain the term exp(-e/T) which needs to be replaced with the corresponding Planckian factor of [exp(e/T)-1]^{-1} to obtain the correct rate. This replacement is associated with the existence of stimulated emission. Simple arguments are used to demonstrate that black holes can also undergo stimulated emission, as previously determined by others. We extend these concepts to fundamental particles, and assume they can be stimulated to emit virtual photons with a cross section of pi x lambda_bar^2, in the case of an isolated particle when the incident virtual-photon energy is < 2pimc^2. Stimulated-virtual photons can be exchanged with other particles generating a force. With the inclusion of near-field effects, the model choices presented give a calculated fundamental unit of charge of 1.6022x10^{-19} C. If these choices are corroborated by detailed calculations then an understanding of the numerical value of the fine structure constant may emerge. The present study suggests charge might be an emergent property generated by a simple interaction mechanism between point-like particles and the electromagnetic vacuum, similar to the process that generates the Lamb shift.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19085] viXra:1706.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 23:58:44

Evaluation of the Impact of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 12 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic salt used for the prevention and treatment of magnesium deficiency diseases. The objective of the current research was to explore the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, thermal and behavioral properties of magnesium gluconate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited significant alteration of the crystal morphology of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from range -33.33% to 66.65% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was increased in the treated sample by 6.13% compared with the control sample. Particle size analysis revealed that the particle size at d10 value was significantly reduced in the treated sample by 13.20% compared with the control sample, although the particle size at d50 and d90 values were increased in the treated sample by 2.75% and 3.72%, respectively. The treated sample’s surface area was significantly enhanced (6.96%) compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structure of magnesium gluconate remained similar in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed that the weight loss of the first and second degradation steps in the treated sample was significantly decreased by 2.89% and 8.43%, respectively compared with the control sample, whereas at the third degradation step, the weight loss was enhanced by 14.80% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting point of the control and treated samples were 170.23°C and 170.25°C, respectively. The latent heat of fusion was significantly decreased by 6.15% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study infers that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble and bioavailable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[19084] viXra:1706.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 00:00:41

Structural and Natural Isotopic Abundance Analysis of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) Using LC-MS and NMR

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current research article was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) of magnesium gluconate using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The liquid chromatogram of the control sample showed two peaks at Rt of 1.81 and 2.06 min, whereas the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample displayed these peaks at Rt of 1.79 and 2.03 min. The ESI-MS spectra of the control and the Trivedi Effect® Treated samples revealed the presence of the mass for magnesium gluconate ion in two forms at m/z 447 (adduct form with methanol) and 415 (protonated ion) in positive ionization mode. But, it showed the mass for the gluconate ion at m/z 195 in the negative ionization mode. The fragmentation pattern of magnesium gluconate in the treated sample was notably altered as compared to the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) in two magnesium gluconate ion forms at m/z 447 and 415 in treated sample was significantly decreased by 59.82% and 55.44%, respectively compared with the control sample. The percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) was remarkably decreased in the magnesium gluconate ion at m/z 447 in the treated sample by 78.26% compared with the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) in gluconate ion in the treated sample was significantly increased by 37.35% with respect to the control sample. Thus, the Trivedi Effect® treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergies, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The treated magnesium gluconate might be helpful to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[19083] viXra:1706.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 00:02:16

A Comprehensive Analytical Evaluation of the Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the Physical, Structural, and Thermal Properties of Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 12 Pages.

Zinc chloride has an importance in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, and thermal properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while other part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant change of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample with respect to the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 41.22% compared with the control sample. The size of the particles at d10, d50, and d90 was increased by 8.33%, 6.27%, and 1.83%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was decreased by 5.90% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control and treated sample were at 511 and 507 cm-1, respectively. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance of both the control and treated samples were at 196.4 and 196.3 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis exhibited that weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 13.98% and 2.43% in the 1st and 2nd steps of degradation, respectively. Consequently, the DSC analysis revealed that the maximum thermal decomposition temperature of the treated sample (489.06°C) was significantly increased by 15.75% compared with the control sample (422.50°C). Moreover, a significant increase in the enthalpy of decomposition was noticed in the treated sample (ΔHdecomp = 131.40 J/g) by 137.10% compared with the control sample (ΔHdecomp = 55.42 J/g). The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect® Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which could have better powder flowability and thermal stability. The treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[19082] viXra:1706.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 01:16:46

Stored Electromagnetic Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[19081] viXra:1706.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 01:18:06

Evaluation of the Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physical, Spectral, and Thermal Properties of Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride has the importance in pharmaceutical/nutraceutical industries for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on physical, structural, and thermal properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any, while the other part was defined as the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample, which received the Trivedi Effect® Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The PXRD analysis revealed that the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks significantly altered in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of treated sample was decreased by 4.19% compared with the control sample. The particle size at d10 and d50 of the Biofield Energy Treated sample decreased by 4.72% and 2.70%, respectively compared with the control sample. But, the particle size of the treated sample increased at d90 by 0.83 compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area was increased by 3.22% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control and treated sample was at 520 cm-1 and 521 cm-1, respectively. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that the wavelength of the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples was at 196.4 and 196.2 nm, respectively. The TGA thermograms revealed two steps of the thermal degradation and the weight loss of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 22.54% in the 1st step of degradation compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the enthalpy of decomposition was significantly increased by 34.9% in the treated sample (89.17 J/g) compared with the control sample (66.10 J/g). Overall, DSC and TGA analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample was increased compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, stable, and higher absorption rate compared with the control sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride could be very useful to design the various forms of nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical formulation which might be providing a better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[19080] viXra:1706.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 01:19:12

Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio and Structural Properties of Magnesium Gluconate After Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current research work was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM) of magnesium gluconate using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the another part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The total ion chromatogram of the control sample showed two peaks at Rt of 1.81 and 2.06 min, whereas the treated sample displayed peaks at Rt of 1.79 and 2.04 min. The ESI-MS spectra of the control and the treated samples revealed the presence of the mass for magnesium gluconate ion in two forms at m/z 447 (adduct form with methanol) and 415 (protonated ion) in positive ionization mode. But, it showed the mass for the gluconate ion at m/z 195 in the negative ionization mode. The fragmentation pattern of magnesium gluconate in the treated sample was notably altered compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and treated samples. The LC-MS based isotopic abundance ratio analysis indicated that the PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) in the treated magnesium gluconate ion at m/z 415 was significantly decreased by 79.24% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) in the gluconate ion was decreased by 6.62% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The treated magnesium gluconate might be beneficial in the nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical industries for designing various forms of formulations, which could be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. Consequently, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated magnesium gluconate would be more helpful for understanding the enzymatic reactions as well as assist in the designing of the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by applying its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[19079] viXra:1706.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 02:06:48

Optomechanical Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19078] viXra:1706.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 02:28:23

Spin Waves Propagation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Assistant Professor Taichi Goto at Toyohashi University of Technology elucidated the noise generation mechanism of the spin wave (SW), the wave of a magnetic moment transmitted through magnetic oxide, and established a way to suppress it. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[19077] viXra:1706.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 06:26:37

DNA Copying

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists at the University of York have used florescent proteins from jellyfish to help shed new light on how DNA replicates. [24] When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells are exposed to harm, they have defenses against potential breakage and mutations. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[19076] viXra:1706.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 06:57:24

AI and Robots can Help Patients

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

McMaster and Ryerson universities today announced the Smart Robots for Health Communication project, a joint research initiative designed to introduce social robotics and artificial intelligence into clinical health care. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19075] viXra:1706.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 11:18:27

Genome Sequencing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

It's mind-blowing that we are able to routinely sequence patients' genomes when just a few years ago this was unthinkable. [28] "DNA's chiral spine of hydration," published May 24 in the American Chemical Society journal Central Science, reports the first observation of a chiral water superstructure surrounding a biomolecule. [27] Living cells must constantly process information to keep track of the changing world around them and arrive at an appropriate response. [26] A research team led by Professor YongKeun Park of the Physics Department at KAIST has developed an optical manipulation technique that can freely control the position, orientation, and shape of microscopic samples having complex shapes. [25] Rutgers researchers have developed a new way to analyze hundreds of thousands of cells at once, which could lead to faster and more accurate diagnoses of illnesses, including tuberculosis and cancers. [24] An international team including researchers from MIPT has shown that iodide phasing—a long-established technique in structural biology—is universally applicable to membrane protein structure determination. [23] Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[19074] viXra:1706.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 07:48:07

Topological Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19073] viXra:1706.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 08:32:36

Magnetic Analog of Liquid Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Reinitzer had inadvertently discovered liquid crystals. In this cloudy-looking phase, intermittent between a solid and a liquid, the molecules are at random positions but nonetheless break rotational symmetry. [17] In many ways, magnets are still mysterious. They get their (often powerful) effects from the microscopic interactions of individual electrons, and from the interplay between their collective behavior at different scales. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19072] viXra:1706.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 05:16:29

Two Methods of Physical-Mathematical Derivation for Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation)

Authors: Fang Zhou
Comments: 37 pages in Chinese

Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation) is the only objectively existing in nature transformation of space (the co-ordinates of material points) and time (the parameter of events) for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity, and actually underlies the theoretical and methodological basis for the motion observation theory.The article presents two methods of physical-mathematical derivation for Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation).One method relies on algebra means, and the other on vector analysis as well.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19071] viXra:1706.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 05:38:58

On the Michelson-Morley Experiment

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 3 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment would be due to that the electric field is contracted in the line of motion.
Category: Classical Physics

[19070] viXra:1706.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 06:27:34

Modified Dynamics Due to Forehead Collisions of Bodies with Gravitons: Numerical Modeling

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov, Adelya S. Narkevich, Polina S. Shenets
Comments: 6 Pages.

The numerical modeling of a non-relativistic modification of dynamics due to forehead collisions of bodies with gravitons in the model of low-energy quantum gravity is performed. We have found too big instability of trajectories in the central field by the anomalous deceleration $w \simeq - H_{0}c$. Perhaps, the most probable source of that may be backhead collisions of bodies with gravitons, not taken into account in this model up to now.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19069] viXra:1706.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 07:00:46

Immortality and Resurrection Thru Science

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 5 Pages.

What would you do if you had an unshakeable belief in resurrection of the deceased to healthy immortality through advances in the science and medicine of centuries to come - but you were completely and constantly surrounded by doctors and other people who had no doubt that death was obviously the permanent end of your existence. For a while, you'd keep quiet because you'd know that saying anything at all would be totally futile. Eventually, you'd become so frustrated that you'd feel it necessary to express your beliefs (in writing, if it's always been hard to express yourself with spoken words). A factor causing you to tap on a keyboard is remembering a statement credited to the French philosopher and writer Voltaire (1694-1778): "I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it." In a few sentences, how can resurrection be possible? The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics - which governs progress from the order of life to the disorder (entropy) of disease and death - must first be overcome. Apparently, the only way this can be done is if the universe is a computer simulation that can be refreshed or reloaded. I'll present a reasonable basis for how this could be done, though the mere mention of universal simulation has probably cost me 99% of my potential readers. If you're still here - the other requirement is that time not exclusively follow a straight line from past to future, because that condition would just mean more and more decay for the body. Einstein's General Relativity says time is curved and warped, meaning the future overcoming of entropy and disorder - the second part of this article identifies the overcoming of entropy with what a recent science paper calls "negative temperature" - can be made to follow a curve from any future century back to a time when any long-deceased person was alive and healthy (future medical advances will be able to correct any physical or mental problems - and some of the resurrected will live elsewhere, sparing the limited area on Earth). I may lack the skills necessary to convince you of eternal life and resurrection. But if you have the misfortune to die someday, I have no doubt that you'll be convinced of their reality then.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19068] viXra:1706.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 18:06:54

The Moment-Generating Function of Normal Variate Functionals Using the Star Probability Measure

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 13 Pages.

The motivation of this study is to investigate new methods for the calculation of the moment-generating function of the lognormal distribution. Taylor expansion method on the moments of the lognormal suers from divergence issues, saddle-point approximation is not exact, and integration methods can be complicated. In the present paper we introduce a new probability measure that we refer to as the star probability measure as an alternative approach to compute the moment-generating function of normal variate functionals such as the lognormal distribution.
Category: Statistics

[19067] viXra:1706.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 18:41:57

Total Radiated Light Per Frequency from the Cooled Black Body with Zero Chemical Potential

Authors: Kadir Aydogdu
Comments: 13 Pages.

To understand the relation between temperature and black body radiation which is continuous photon radiation, we are using the Planck’s Law and Stefan-Boltzmann Law, to model the heat transfer. Moreover to find the total energy of the free vacuum we are using the radiation constant which is only dependent to the temperature and the volume. However in this project to understand the mechanism behind the vacuum energy, our aim is to find the total radiated light from the black body until it lost all the energy. By deriving this function we will be able to speak about the total radiation potential of non-zero temperature free space. We will start with analyzing Planck’s Law and its temperature dependency then we will write our function as a time dependent integral. Afterwards, we will try to solve it with numeric analysis and series solution to find the function we need.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19066] viXra:1706.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 23:46:42

With Regard to Elementary Particles and Nucleus

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a catalog of articles related elementary particles and Nucleus.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19065] viXra:1706.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 03:23:00

The Physical Basis of Spirituality.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 32 Pages.

Spirituality is often seen as a part of religion, it is about rules for dealing with the spirits from the point of view of God the almighty, the creator of our universe. Of course, these rules have been written down by humans which are accepted to be so-called inspired and speaking the words of that same God. Whereas the point of view these rules are taking has to do with eternal good and bad, the morality and dangers of dealing with spirits and engaging with deamons; the point of view expressed in this book is a scientic one. It tries to descipher rules spirits have to obey and it lays down the foundations for behavioral psychology, devoid of good and evil, from the point of view of physical charges. I wish to advocate the point of view that nobody is good or evil, we can all do things which many people accept to be good or evil, but there is no such thing as intrinsically good or bad people. There are on the other hand, strong and weak ones, those with grand visions and small ones, quick and slow thinkers and so on.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19064] viXra:1706.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 03:34:26

The Lost Proof of FERMAT’S Last Theorem.

Authors: Andrea Ossicini
Comments: 10 pages in English and 10 pages in Italian

It is shown that an appropriate use of so-called << double equations >> of Diophantus provides the origin of the Frey elliptic curve and that from this we can deduce an elementary proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[19063] viXra:1706.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 03:57:24

Mass in Motion According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 8 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Polarized propeller shaped Fermions (Nuclear Quarks) are supposed to be the origin of non accelerated motion through the resistive oscillating vacuum (Axion) Higgs field. Recent observations in the LHC do support the idea of Fermion polarization into a constant specific space based direction, which could support the idea of a constant battle between a resistive vacuum and polarized spinning propeller shaped Fermions pushed forward by the same vacuum at the same time to compensate the resistance. Even a so called Lorentz Fitzgerald contraction seem to be the logic result, which was described by John Bell in his essay: “How to Teach Special Relativity” The recently observed Axial symmetric pear shaped atom Barium nuclei ( LHC) are an extra support for the atomic interaction with a new massless oscillating Axion-Higgs vacuum reference frame postulated by Quantum FFF Theory. John S. Bell was Right: “How to Teach Special Relativity” and atomic pear shaped contraction
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[19062] viXra:1706.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 12:49:53

Shrink Digital Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Chemists at Case Western Reserve University have found a way to possibly store digital data in half the space current systems require. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[19061] viXra:1706.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 07:30:10

Superconducting Undulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Argonne National Laboratory have collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials -- evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19060] viXra:1706.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 07:56:44

Observable Universe Curiosities (I)

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 3 Pages.

The standard cosmological model defines the Observable Universe as the region of the Universe observed from the earth at the present time ; all the signals that have arrived to the earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion .We could imagine a spherical volumen centered on the observer , whose radius is about r~〖10〗^26 m .This article is the introduction to other developments concerning the numerical reality of the observable universe .
Category: Classical Physics

[19059] viXra:1706.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 09:12:37

Erratum: Functions of Multivectors in 3D Euclidean Geometric Algebra Via Spectral Decomposition (For Physicists and Engineers)

Authors: Miroslav Josipović
Comments: 1 Page.

There is an erroneous formula in the article Functions of multivectors in 3D Euclidean geometric algebra via spectral decomposition (for physicists and engineers).
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19058] viXra:1706.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 09:48:46

The Hypergeometrical Universe - Supernova and SDSS Modeling

Authors: Marco Pereira
Comments: 107 Pages.

3077 38th Street Apt 2B
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19057] viXra:1706.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 05:00:47

Forty Inedited Sequences of Integers Involving Primes and Fermat Pseudoprimes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 20 Pages.

A selection of forty sequences regarding primes and Fermat pseudoprimes from my yet unpublished papers, presented in "OEIS style", with definition of the terms of a sequence, examples, few first terms, notes and conjectures.
Category: Number Theory

[19056] viXra:1706.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 05:27:17

Magnetic Monopole Test to Demonstrate the Existence of a Anti Maxwell Dead Zone Around a Current in a Wire.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 12 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field. After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning propeller shaped Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic photon particle based waves from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as two real rigid shaped photons, as the result of two individual mutated oscillating Higgs field particles from the vacuum. These photons should do the magnetic job by interlocking temporarily with the Fermion, and give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right fully in line and according to the Lorentz force law. However, based on observation of iron filing-powder patterns close to direct currents in a wire, it is assumed that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel only locally parallel to each other without a magnetic field effect inside the Higgs field. This in contrast with the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field. .As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron filing atoms. As a consequence, this is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric direct current wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” ( dead zone) around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of strong tubular or spiral magnets. Magnet optimization is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet plating with spiraling electric coils in between. The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone. Three circular anti-Maxwell propulsion systems in triangle configuration, should be enough to create stable piloting and flight Experiments with coiled magnetized iron tubes has already shown this new physics reaction less propulsion effect.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19055] viXra:1706.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 05:33:09

Runaway Fusion Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

When the electrons collide with the high charge in the nuclei of the ions, they encounter resistance and lose speed. [10] More than seven years later, that collaboration could result in an inexpensive tabletop device to detect elusive neutrinos more efficiently and inexpensively than is currently possible, and could simplify scientists' ability to study the inner workings of the sun. [9] Scientists in Germany have flipped the switch on a €60 million (US $66 million) device designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [8] Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19054] viXra:1706.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 06:45:08

Arrangement of Skyrmions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Measurements at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have helped clarify the arrangement of magnetic vortices, known as skyrmions, in manganese silicide (MnSi). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19053] viXra:1706.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 00:28:19

Primes Obtained Concatenating the Numbers S(p)-D(k), Where S(p) is the Sum of Digits of a Prime P and D(1),...,d(k) the Digits of P

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: There exist an infinity of primes p having the property that concatenating s(p) – d(1) with s(p) – d(2) and repeatedly up to s(p) – d(k), where s(p) is the sum of digits of p and d(1),...,d(k) are the digits of p, is obtained a prime q. Example: such prime p is 127 because concatenating 9 (= 10 – 1) with 8 (= 10 – 2) and with 3 (= 10 – 7) is obtained a prime q = 983.
Category: Number Theory

[19052] viXra:1706.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 01:40:42

Symplectic Dirac Operators-Lichnerowicz Formula

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 5 pages, written in french

A symplectic Dirac operator is defined for a spin Kaehler manifold. The corresponding Schrödinger-Lichnerowicz formula is proved.
Category: Geometry

[19051] viXra:1706.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 02:28:55

A New Sufficient Condition by Euler Function for Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Choe Ryong Gil
Comments: 12 pages, 2 tables

The aim of this paper is to show a new sufficient condition (NSC) by the Euler function for the Riemann hypothesis and its possibility. We build the NSC for any natural numbers ≥ 2 from well-known Robin theorem, and prove that the NSC holds for all odd and some even numbers while, the NSC holds for any even numbers under a certain condition, which would be called the condition (d).
Category: Number Theory

[19050] viXra:1706.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 02:30:07

An Upper Bound for Error Term of Mertens' Formula

Authors: Choe Ryong Gil
Comments: 27 pages, 6 tables

In this paper, it is obtained a new estimate for the error term E(t) of the Mertens' formula sum_{p≤t}{p^{-1}}=loglogt+b+E(t), where t>1 is a real number, p is the prime number and b is the well-known Mertens' constant. We , first, provide an upper bound, not a lower bound, of E(p) for any prime number p≥3 and, next, give one in the form as E(t)<logt/√t for any real number t≥3. This is an essential improvement of already known results. Such estimate is very effective in the study of the distribution of the prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[19049] viXra:1706.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 11:52:06

Atomic Resonance-Based Method

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Scientists develop innovative, atomic resonance-based method to measure electric fields. [25] Australia's fastest camera has revealed the time it takes for molecules to break apart. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19048] viXra:1706.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 08:42:54

Black Holes, or Just "Grey Objects"? Hypothesis.

Authors: Richard Palkovac
Comments: 4 Pages.

In 2003, I was thinking about would happen if we pushed two fundamental particles of matter into ourselves (in the same location in space, in the same point). My intuition told me that it could not be mass anymore and therefore gravity would cease to have an effect. After I developed this idea, I also found the cause for the expansion of the universe and, ultimately, its acceleration. The basic idea of my hypothesis is: "Gravitational mass is being lost in black holes (Grey Objects)." It is clear to me that the physical definition of the term "black hole" is something other than what I use in this hypothesis.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19047] viXra:1706.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 08:49:38

Soliton Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team of researchers with the University of Burgundy in France has shown that solitons can vibrate like real molecules when paired. [18] Excitons are formed when light is absorbed by molecules or crystals. But they can also emit light, after they are created electrically in things like light-emitting diodes (LEDs). [17] For the first time, engineers and scientists at Caltech have been able to directly observe the ultrafast motion of electrons immediately after they are excited with a laser—and found that these electrons diffuse into their surroundings much faster and farther than previously expected. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19046] viXra:1706.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 09:19:19

Electron Localisation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Australia's fastest camera has revealed the time it takes for molecules to break apart. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19045] viXra:1706.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 10:02:53

Neuron Transistor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers have built a new type of "neuron transistor"—a transistor that behaves like a neuron in a living brain. [27] Research team led by Professor Hoi-Jun Yoo of the Department of Electrical Engineering has developed a semiconductor chip, CNNP (CNN Processor), that runs AI algorithms with ultra-low power, and K-Eye, a face recognition system using CNNP. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19044] viXra:1706.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 10:30:41

Does the One-Way Speed of Light Depend on the Distance Between the Emitter and Absorber?

Authors: Robert D. Bock
Comments: 6 Pages.

We present a simple model of light propagation that allows for the one-way speed of light, or equivalently, the simultaneity convention, to depend on the distance between the emitter and the absorber. This is distinct from variable speed of light (VSL) theories that assume the two-way speed of light is variable. We show that this model predicts wavelength shifts that are consistent with wavelength shifts measured from light propagating on astrophysical scales, thus eliminating the need to propose ad hoc mechanisms, such as dark matter, dark energy, and cosmological expansion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19043] viXra:1706.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 13:18:30

The Number s : Formulas and Fractals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 14 Pages.

Some formulas and fractals related with the number s.
Category: General Mathematics

[19042] viXra:1706.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 17:52:24

The Nature of Reality: A Christian Perspective.

Authors: Richard A. Stovall
Comments: 20 Pages.

Part One delineates the history of science and its primacy as to the nature of reality and addresses issues that need to be resolved concerning quantum theory and, to a lesser extent, relativity theory. Part Two delineates a modified form of idealism as a possible solution to the relevant theories. Part Three investigates the theological implications of said solution. Part Four advocates Christian mysticism as a practical method of personal confirmation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19041] viXra:1706.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 17:52:53

The Origin of the Moon in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The moon is a dead star vastly older than the Earth. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[19040] viXra:1706.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 19:53:32

Quantum Relativity

Authors: Andrew Cox, Mba, Jd, Llm, Sjd
Comments: 10 Pages.

Quantum Relativity logically extends Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by incorporating quantum mechanics. It is effectively the “Theory of Everything,” which solves quantum gravity, black hole mechanics, dark matter, dark energy, and the Big Bang -- by showing that the fourth spatial dimension (hyperspace) operates as one stand-alone spatial dimension with no dimension for time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19039] viXra:1706.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 20:19:10

Why Michelson and Morley Expected the Wrong Result from Their Experiment

Authors: Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract This paper endeavours to explain why light and elementary particles have dual wave and particle characteristics, and proposes a physical interpretation of Huygens’ principle. It also explains why the famous Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and to show that it did, in fact, detect the ether but was not correctly interpreted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19038] viXra:1706.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 20:20:08

The Runway Problem

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 3 Pages.

Using Quattro Pro Optimizer in order to assist in calculating the dimensions of a to be built military runway, given only the area of the runway, as part of a bid challenge to supposed government contractors!
Category: Classical Physics

[19037] viXra:1706.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 21:20:19

The Precession of Mercury’s Perihelion and the Free Fall

Authors: Azzam K I Almosallami
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper I study the precession of Mercury’s perihelion and the free fall from the point of view of the field theory and retardation. SRT and GR do not support the field theory and retardation, that is because They consider the reality in physics is observer independent according to the Minkowski Geometry of space-time continuum. According to that SRT and GR must be understood from the point of view of the field theory and thus the reality must be observer dependent and in this case the mathematics that describe the physical reality will be different.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19036] viXra:1706.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 12:17:08

A Review of Five Approaches of Quantum Potential Including Madelung Hydrodynamics Formulation

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages. This paper is prepared as contribution for a book project: "Old problems, New horizons in World Physics."

It has been long known that a year after Schrodinger published his equation, Madelung also published a hydrodynamics version of Schrodinger equation. But it is often misinterpreted by many contemporary physicists, especially after the famous Bohmian quantum potential. In this paper we will review quantum potential by five different approaches, including Madelung hydrodynamics, complex Madelung, and also Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics approach. In the last section we will also discuss a new expression of quantum potential based on complex Riccati equation. It is our hope that these methods can be verified and compared with experimental data. But we admit that more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19035] viXra:1706.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 12:39:20

DNA May Store Information with Base Pair and Communicate by uv

Authors: DU Lin
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper,UV is suggested to be a medium of information transmission in DNA. DNA bases can certainly absorb UV. They also have a typical structure to emit UV. And the stacking way of base pairs in DNA can accelerate the luminescence efficiency. Electrical signaling information from UV could be stored in base pair, in ways such as change of π conjugated electrons. The evaluation and calculation of information in DNA may base on quantum effect of π conjugated electrons and photon entangling. A hypothesis about origin of this UV communication and origin of life is also proposed here, which involve in the irradiation of the circular polarization light and self-organization of aromatic N-heterocycles.The hypotheses can explain some biological phenomena.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19034] viXra:1706.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 08:06:35

Understanding Data Virtualization for Learning Models

Authors: Tal Ben Yakar
Comments: 9 Pages.

Data are most crucial and essential building component for any data mining and AI applications exist. More significantly, deep learning approaches require massive datasets. We know that the theory and algorithms have been around for quite a while however the ability to process the right amounts of data brought us to the recent breakthroughs in the field. A challenge comes up in a case of a small dataset, comparing to the required training data required. However, mostly, getting this data are neither an easy nor a cheap task, many annotating services take advantage of the problem and charge for tagging data-sets campaigns, those could cost hundreds of dollars easily and yet with an uncertain quality. as the task of generalization at hand, we wondered how to exploit the minimal data we have and still have an AI system to learn well. In this paper, we overview methods for solving the problem and suggest solutions in order to overcome the challenge.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19033] viXra:1706.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 08:45:12

Exciton Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Excitons are formed when light is absorbed by molecules or crystals. But they can also emit light, after they are created electrically in things like light-emitting diodes (LEDs). [17] For the first time, engineers and scientists at Caltech have been able to directly observe the ultrafast motion of electrons immediately after they are excited with a laser—and found that these electrons diffuse into their surroundings much faster and farther than previously expected. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19032] viXra:1706.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 04:15:18

Artificial Intelligence Health Revolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19031] viXra:1706.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 04:53:08

The Quantum Statistical Mechanics in the Analysis of the Context Dependence in Quantum Cognition Studies: May a Quantum Statistical Analysis Connect the Science of Complexity ?

Authors: Elio Conte, Ferda Kaleagasioglu, Rich Norman
Comments: 16 Pages.

Quantum probability fields are involved during processing of human perception and cognition with a wave function that mathematically is articulated in a proper Hilbert space and conceptually represents the space of all the potential alternatives at a semantic and semiotic level. Each subject has developed a unique mind within his/her correspondent context, hence his/her own wave function requires to be displayed as a complex-valued probability amplitude. Reaction time as well as the time of observation / decision / measurement also represent important variables contributing to our cognitive response and having also proper neurological correlates. Mind is a so complex abstract entity so that we can certainly retain that, generally speaking, the observer and the observed system enter in the domain of what technically are considered to be un-complete specified systems . An elementary wave function remains insufficient to represent a mental state, whereas a quantum wave function, which exhibits intrinsic indetermination and fluctuation of the basic probability amplitudes, may be implemented. In this paper, along with von Neumann’s postulate for non-existing dispersion-free ensembles, a new quantum statistical approach is elaborated to elucidate the peculiar quantum mechanical feature of the context dependent dynamics of human cognitive conceptual processing. In the framework of the present quantum statistical elaboration we introduce for the first time the possibility of using the Pareto distribution as a probability density function. This result links quantum statistical mechanics with the science of complexity .
Category: Mind Science

[19030] viXra:1706.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 04:54:30

K-Eye Face Recognition System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A research team led by Professor Hoi-Jun Yoo of the Department of Electrical Engineering has developed a semiconductor chip, CNNP (CNN Processor), that runs AI algorithms with ultra-low power, and K-Eye, a face recognition system using CNNP. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19029] viXra:1706.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 05:27:00

Experimental Designs to Approach the Internal Relation of Lorentz Force law and Faraday’s Flux Rule

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, two experimental designs are proposed to approach the internal relation of Lorentz Force law and Faraday’s Induction Law. In the two experiments, when a part of a conductor loop moves in a uniform magnetic field, there is only one of the two mechanisms working (either Lorentz Force Law or Faraday’s Flux Rule). By the experimental results, the deeper relation of the two laws could be further revealed.
Category: Classical Physics

[19028] viXra:1706.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 06:44:28

Photon-Photon Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19027] viXra:1706.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 07:08:00

The Principle of Atmospheric Thinning and Chthonian Planets

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 screenshots, 1 illustrative diagram

Chthonian planets as previous gas giants are observed all over the galaxy, regardless if their evidence for existence is hypothetical inside of the dogma. They are not hypothetical objects in stellar metamorphosis, because they are observed and can be directly experimented on. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[19026] viXra:1706.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 19:03:08

Breaking a Multi-Layer Crypter Through Reverse-Engineering, a Case Study Into the Man1 Crypter

Authors: Jason Reaves
Comments: 8 Pages.

Crypters and packers are common in the malware world, lots of tech- niques have been invented over the years to help people bypass security measures commonly used. One such technique where a crypter will use multiple, sometimes dynamically generated, layers to decode and unpack the protected executable allows a crypter to bypass common security mea- sures such as Antivirus. While at the end of this paper we will have con- structed a working proof of concept for an unpacker it is by no means meant as a production level mechanism, the goal is simply to show the reversing of routines found in a crypter while using a reverse-engineering framework that is geared towards shellcode analysis to our benefit for malware analysis.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19025] viXra:1706.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 22:43:41

Diophantine Equation Bicar

Authors: Lahcen Aghray
Comments: 5 Pages.

We obtain a parameterization of a Diophantine equation of degree 4
Category: Number Theory

[19024] viXra:1706.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 23:13:05

Diophantine Equation Third Degre

Authors: Lahcen Aghray
Comments: 2 Pages.

The resolution of a Diophantine equation by calculating the intersection of a curve of degree 3 with a line
Category: Number Theory

[19023] viXra:1706.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 00:46:33

The Recursive Future And Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure Considered To Exhaustion {File Closing Version}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Recursive Past Equation and a Recursive Future Equation based on the Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure considered to Exhaustion [1] (please see the addendum of [1] as well).
Category: Statistics

[19022] viXra:1706.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 11:30:48

Superfluid Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[19021] viXra:1706.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 09:19:10

Dissecting the Dyre Loader

Authors: Jason Reaves
Comments: 8 Pages.

Dyre or Dyreza, is a pretty prominent figure in the world of financial malware. The Dyre of today comes loaded with a multitude of mod- ules and features while also appearing to be well maintained. The first recorded instance of Dyre I have found is an article in June 2014 and the sample in question is version 1001, while at the time of this report Dyre is already up to version 1166. While the crypters and packers have varied over time, for at least the past 6 months Dyre has used the same loader to perform it’s initial checks and injection sequence. It is the purpose of this report to go through the various techniques and algorithms present in the loader, and at times reverse them to python proof of concepts.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19020] viXra:1706.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 10:29:55

An Approach for Analysing Time Dilation in the TSR

Authors: Per Hokstad
Comments: 14 Pages.

We investigate time dilation under the conditions of the theory of special relativity (TSR). The arguments apply a direct comparison of clock readings at identical positions. As observations of time depends on (the location of) the clocks used for time registrations we investigate various observational principles. Three principles are in focus: Reference frame applying single clock (SC); reference frame applying multiple clocks (MC); and the completely symmetric situation. We also study variants of the Lorentz transformation. Finally, we apply the approach to present a thorough discussion of the travelling twin example.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19019] viXra:1706.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 15:30:21

Defining the Chemical Equilibrium of Dead Stars in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

: It is explained in stellar metamorphosis that in order for a star to be classified as dead, it absolutely must be in static chemical equilibrium. Perfect chemical equilibrium is impossible though, as interactions with asteroids and hotter stars can change the chemistry of the dead star.
Category: Astrophysics

[19018] viXra:1706.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 02:32:42

Liquid Light at Room Temperature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

This matter is both a superfluid, which has zero friction and viscosity, and a kind of Bose-Einstein condensate-sometimes described as the fifth state of matter-and it allows light to actually flow around objects and corners. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19017] viXra:1706.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 12:14:46

Newton's E=mc^2 Two Hundred Years Before Einstein?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here we will show that there exist a simple relationship between the Einstein and Newton formula. They are closely connected when it comes to fundamental particles. Newton indirectly had E=mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein without knowing about it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19016] viXra:1706.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 10:37:06

Black Holes Are Ferent Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 66 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Ferent matter is matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent Graviton momentum > Photon momentum “Because the electromagnetic waves, the photons, can not escape from a black hole, this means the gravitons momentum emitted by the black hole is higher than the momentum of the photons” Adrian Ferent The gravitational force exerted by a black hole on a planet is much higher than the gravitational force exerted by a planet on a black hole. Newton’s third law is wrong: The energy of the gravitons emitted by a black hole, the frequency of the gravitons emitted by a black hole ν > 4.176 ×10^71 Hz, is much higher than the energy of the gravitons emitted by a planet, than the frequency of the gravitons emitted by a planet ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz. “Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space” Adrian Ferent
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19015] viXra:1706.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 16:38:23

Condensate Structure of Higgs and Spacetime

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 9 Pages.

For the Higgs as a Fermion-AntiFermion condensate, the most massive fermions, the Truth Quark - AntiQuark pairs would be so dominant that the Higgs could be effectively considered as a condensate of Truth Quark - Truth AntiQuark pairs. As to Spacetime in the E8 physics model ( viXra 1602.0319 ), consider a generalized Nambu Jona-Lasinio model in which 8-dim Classical Lagrangian Spacetime is a condensate of Geoffrey Dixon’s 64-dim Particle spinor T = RxCxHxO = Real x Complex x Quaternion x Octonion and its corresponding 64-dim AntiParticle spinor Tbar. The T - Tbar pairs of the condensate form the 128-dim part of E8 that lives in the Cl(16) Real Clifford Algebra as 248-dim E8 = 120-dim bivector D8 + 128-dim half-spinor D8. Each cell of E8 Classical Lagrangian Spacetime corresponds to 65,536-dim Cl(16) which contains 248-dim E8 = 120-dim D8 bivectors +128-dim D8 half-spinors. Human Brain Microtubules 40 microns long have 65,536 Tubulin Dimers and so can have Bohm Quantum Resonance with Cl(16) Spacetime cells.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19014] viXra:1706.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 01:25:47

Entry in Cancelled Nasa Competition

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 3 Pages.

Subtitle - New Time Dimension, New Space-time Travel, & Computers of Unlimited Power In early May, I wrote the following entry for a competition being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Today I received a disappointing email advising me that the competition has been cancelled. Here's part of what it said regarding the competition's purpose and the reasons for cancellation: "NASA Cancels its High Performance Fast Computing Challenge: After careful deliberation, NASA has decided to cancel the competition it announced six weeks ago that was designed to solicit the public’s help in speeding up its Pleiades supercomputer software. Called the High Performance Fast Computing Challenge, the contest was designed to reward qualified contenders who could change the agency’s FUN3D design software so that it could run 10 to 1,000 times faster without a decrease in accuracy. The extremely high number of applicants, more than 1,800, coupled with the difficulty in satisfying the extensive vetting requirements to control the public distribution of the software made it unlikely we would achieve the challenge’s original objectives in a timely manner." My submission does not include lines of programming for the simple reason that no coding beyond that currently being used is necessary. Since NASA was looking for coding to update its Pleiades supercomputer software, I am well aware that they undoubtedly wouldn't have even considered my entry. I don't want to waste my efforts to explain new programming (and new space-time travel), however. So I'll post my entry here.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19013] viXra:1706.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 02:20:09

The Speed of Light

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

There is only one speed in nature where you cannot add a speed to it, that is the transfer speed of a medium.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19012] viXra:1706.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 07:03:24

Nickel for High-Temperature Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19011] viXra:1706.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 07:22:11

Creating Different Sized Earths in Stellar Metamorphosis, the Trappist-1 System

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Nature creates Earths. Here is an explanation of one aspect of how she does it by ripping away their atmospheres at different rates. We can explain the different sizes of the Trappist-1 evolved stars using stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[19010] viXra:1706.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 08:10:58

The Big Mistake in the Derivation of Friedmann Equation

Authors: Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Friedmann Equation which is often described as the most important equation in cosmology can be derived from Newtonian gravity without General Relativity. However, it is shown here that this derivation is mathematically incorrect and cannot even be a good approximation specifically because of invalid application of the shell theorem. Derivations from general relativity and Machian derivation are also without foundation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19009] viXra:1706.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 08:12:45

Solid-State Excited Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

For the first time, engineers and scientists at Caltech have been able to directly observe the ultrafast motion of electrons immediately after they are excited with a laser—and found that these electrons diffuse into their surroundings much faster and farther than previously expected. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Condensed Matter

[19008] viXra:1706.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 08:45:02

Zeno Effect of a Qubit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19007] viXra:1706.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 00:54:28

Entropy Measures on Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Application in Multi Attribute Decision Making

Authors: I. Arockiarani
Comments: 5 Pages.

The focus of the paper is to furnish the entropy measure for a neutrosophic set and neutrosophic soft set which is a measure of uncertainty and it permeates discourse and system. Various characterization of entropy measures are derived. Further we exemplify this concept by applying entropy in various real time decision making problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[19006] viXra:1706.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 00:55:59

Estimation of the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) of Rock Joints by Vector Similarity Measures

Authors: Rui Yong, Jun Ye, Qi-Feng Liang, Man Huang, Shi-Gui Du
Comments: 15 Pages.

Accurate determination of joint roughness coefficient (JRC) of rock joints is essential for evaluating the influence of surface roughness on the shear behavior of rock joints. The JRC values of rock joints are typically measured by visual comparison against Barton’s standard JRC profiles. However, its accuracy is strongly affected by personal bias. In the present study, a new comparison method is proposed for JRC evaluation to overcome the drawback of conventional visual comparison methods based on vector similarity measures (VSMs). The feature vectors are obtained by analyzing the angular variation of line segments of both standard JRC profiles and test profiles obtained from three kinds of natural rocks with a sampling interval of 0.5 mm.
Category: General Mathematics

[19005] viXra:1706.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 00:58:09

Evaluation of Efficiency of Torrential Protective Structures With New BF-TOPSIS Methods

Authors: Simon Carladous, Jean-Marc Tacnet, Jean Dezert, Deqiang Han, Mireiile Batton-Hubert
Comments: 8 Pages.

Decision-Aid Methods (DAMs) such as the CostBenefit Analysis (CBA) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) help decision-makers to rank alternatives or to choose the best one among several potential ones. The new Belief Function based Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (BF-TOPSIS) methods have been recently developed for Multi-Criteria Decision-Making problems. In this paper, we compare CBA, AHP and BF-TOPSIS methods through an actual application case to natural risks in mountains. The CBA is the most used approach but is limited. Classical Multi-Criteria Decision-Aid methods (MCDAs) such as the AHP help to go further. The BF-TOPSIS methods notably show a robustness to rank reversal problems in the problem under concern, with a tractable complexity. Moreover, some steps of these new methods can be included in other MCDAs developed under the belief function theory framework.
Category: General Mathematics

[19004] viXra:1706.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 00:59:00

Exponential Operations And aggregation Operators Of interval Neutrosophic Sets And their Decision Making Methods

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 18 Pages.

An interval neutrosophic set (INS) is a subclass of a neutrosophic set and a generalization of an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set, and then the characteristics of INS are independently described by the interval numbers of its truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership, and falsity-membership degrees. However, the exponential parameters (weights) of all the existing exponential operational laws of INSs and the corresponding exponential aggregation operators are crisp values in interval neutrosophic decision making problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[19003] viXra:1706.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 01:19:15

Further Research of Single Valued Neutrosophic Rough Set Model

Authors: Yan-Ling Liu, Hai-Long Yang
Comments: 21 Pages.

Neutrosophic sets (NSs), as a new mathematical tool for dealing with problems involving incomplete, indeterminant and inconsistent knowledge, were proposed by Smarandache. By simplifying NSs, Wang et al. proposed the concept of single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) and studied some properties of SVNSs. In this paper, we mainly investigate the topological structures of single valued neutrosophic rough sets which is constructed by combining SVNSs and rough sets. Firstly, we introduce the concept of single valued neutrosophic topological spaces.
Category: General Mathematics

[19002] viXra:1706.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 01:38:39

Generalized Inverse of Fuzzy Neutrosophic Soft Matrix

Authors: R.Uma, P. Murugadas, S.Sriram
Comments: 16 Pages.

Aim of this article is to find the maximum and minimum solution of the fuzzy neutrosophic soft relational equation = and = , where and are fuzzy neutrosophic soft vector and is a fuzzy neutrosophic soft matrix.
Category: General Mathematics

[19001] viXra:1706.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 01:39:34

Generalized Neutrosophic Hypergraphs

Authors: A. Hassan, M. A. Malik
Comments: 9 Pages.

The generalization of the concept of single valued neutrosophic hypergraph (SVNHG), strong SVNHG by considering SVN-Vertex instead of crisp vertex set and interrelations between SVN-Vertices and family of SVN-Edges are introduced here. A few properties and operations of such graphs are established here.
Category: General Mathematics

[19000] viXra:1706.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:00:44

Information Fusion of Conflicting Input Data

Authors: Uwe Mönks, Helene Dörksen, Volker Lohweg, Michael Hübner
Comments: 37 Pages.

Sensors, and also actuators or external sources such as databases, serve as data sources in order to realise condition monitoring of industrial applications or the acquisition of characteristic parameters like production speed or reject rate. Modern facilities create such a large amount of complex data that a machine operator is unable to comprehend and process the information contained in the data.
Category: General Mathematics

[18999] viXra:1706.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:14:15

Interval Neutrosophic Muirhead mean Operators and Their Application in Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making

Authors: Peide Liu, Xinli You
Comments: 32 Pages.

In recent years, neutrosophic sets (NSs) have attracted widespread attentions and been widely applied to multiple attribute decision-making (MADM). The interval neutrosophic set (INS) is an extension of NS, in which the truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership degree are expressed by interval values, respectively. Obviously, INS can conveniently describe complex information.
Category: General Mathematics

[18998] viXra:1706.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:15:06

Interval Neutrosophic finite Switchboard State Machine

Authors: Tahir Mahmood, Qaisar Khan
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper we introduced the concept of interval neutrosophic finite state machine, interval neutrosophic finite switchboard state machine using the notion of interval neutrosophic set. We also introduced the concept of homomorphism and strong homomorphism of interval neutrosophic finite state machine.
Category: General Mathematics

[18997] viXra:1706.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:16:12

Interval Neutrosophic Fuzzy Stochastic Multi-Criteria Decision-making Methods Based on MYCIN Certainty Factor and Prospect Theory

Authors: Chenchen Liu
Comments: 7 Pages.

For the stochastic multi-criteria decision-making problem, in which the information on criteria's weights is incomplete and the indices value of alternatives are in the form of interval neutrosophic fuzzy numbers, an interval neutrosophic random decision-making approach based on WYCIN certainty factor and prospect theory is proposed. According to the score function of interval neutrosophic fuzzy numbers and prospect theory, the MYCIN certainty factors of different alternatives in different indices are obtained. And the trust degrees of different indices are determined by using the grey incidence analysis. Then, the certainty factor fusion method in different indices is deduced to get the optimal alternative. And the best alternative is got by using the method. Finally, an example shows the feasibility and validity of this method.
Category: General Mathematics

[18996] viXra:1706.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:16:13

Second Physical & Mathematics Theoretical Analysis of Special Relativity, Albert Einstein

Authors: Valentin Ibanez Fernandez
Comments: 84 Pages.

Abstract The paper is the second part of PHYSICAL & MATHEMATICS THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY, Albert Einstein. It presents a deep theoretical analysis of the historical overview to the special theory of relativity. Unfortunately, the special theory of relativity violated the basic principle of relativity. The wrong development of processing of experiments affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity and other areas.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18995] viXra:1706.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:17:06

Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Competition Graphs

Authors: Muhammad Akram, Maryam Nasir
Comments: 18 Pages.

We first introduce the concept of interval-valued neutrosophic competition graphs. We then discuss certain types, including k-competition interval-valued neutrosophic graphs, p-competition interval-valued neutrosophic graphs and m-step interval-valued neutrosophic competition graphs. Moreover, we present the concept of m-step interval-valued neutrosophic neighbouhood graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[18994] viXra:1706.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:17:58

Interval Valued Q-Fuzzy Multiparameterized Soft Set and its Application

Authors: Fatma Adam, Nasruddin Hassan
Comments: 21 Pages.

Molodtsov’s soft set theory is a newly emerging mathematical tool for handling uncertainty. However, classical multiparameterized soft sets are not appropriate for imprecise and Q-fuzzy parameters.
Category: General Mathematics

[18993] viXra:1706.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:20:10

Introduction to Neutrosophic Nnearrings

Authors: S. A. Akinleye, E .O. Adeleke, A. A. A. Agboola
Comments: 14 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of neutrosophic nearrings. The concept of neutrosophic N-group of a neutrosophic nearring is introduced. We study neutrosophic subnearrings of neutrosophic nearrings and also neutrosophic N-subgroups of neutrosophic N- groups. The notions of neutrosophic ideals in neutrosophic nearrings and neutrosophic N-groups are introduced and their elementary properties are presented. In addition, we introduce the concepts of neutrosophic homomorphisms of neutrosophic nearrings and neutrosophic N-homomorphisms of neutrosophic N-groups and also, we present neutrosophic quotient nearrings and quotient N-groups.
Category: General Mathematics

[18992] viXra:1706.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:30:08

Jaccard Vector Similarity Measure of Bipolar Neutrosophic Set Based on Multi-Criteria Decision Making

Authors: Mehmet Şahin, İrfan Deli, Vakkas Uluçay
Comments: 8 Pages.

The main aim of this study is to present a novel method based on multi-criteria decision making for bipolar neutrosophic sets. Therefore, Jaccard vector similarity and weighted Jaccard vector similarity measure is defined to develop the bipolar neutrosophic decision making method. In addition, the method is applied to a numerical example in order to confirm the practicality and accuracy of the proposed method.
Category: General Mathematics

[18991] viXra:1706.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:34:39

Majority-Consensus Fusion Approach for Elderly Iot-Based Healthcare Applications

Authors: Faouzi Sebbak, Farid Benhammadi
Comments: 15 Pages.

Nowadays, tremendous growth of Internet of Things (IoT) applications is seen in smart environments such as medical remote care applications which are crucial due to the general aging of the population.
Category: General Mathematics

[18990] viXra:1706.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:36:25

Measure Distance Between Neutrosophic Sets: an Evidential Approach

Authors: Jiawei Zou, Yong Deng, Yong Hu, Ge Lin
Comments: 8 Pages.

Due to the efficiency to handle uncertainty information, the single valued neutrosophic set is widely used in multicriteria decision-making. In MCDM, it is inevitable to measure the distance between two single valued neutrosophic sets. In this paper, an evidence distance for neutrosophic sets is proposed. There are two main contributions of this work. One is a new method to transform the single valued neutrosophic set into basic probability assignment. The other is evidence distance function between two single valued neutrosophic sets. The application in MCDM is illustrated the efficiency of the proposed distance.
Category: General Mathematics

[18989] viXra:1706.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 03:36:52

Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Based on Generalized Prioritized Aggregation Operators Under Simplified Neutrosophic Uncertain Linguistic Environment

Authors: Zhang-peng Tian, Jing Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Jian-qiang Wang
Comments: 17 Pages.

A simplified neutrosophic uncertain linguistic set that integrates quantitative and qualitative evaluation can serve as an extension of both an uncertain linguistic variable and a simplified neutrosophic set. It can describe the real preferences of decision-makers and reflect their uncertainty, incompleteness and inconsistency.
Category: General Mathematics

[18988] viXra:1706.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 04:00:23

Aristotle’s Answer on Russell’s Paradox

Authors: Nikolay Dementev
Comments: 9 Pages.

An attempt of resolving Russell’s paradox with the help of Aristotle’s ideas is presented.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[18987] viXra:1706.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 05:14:56

Metodos de Certificacion de la Sostenibilidad en Proyectos Urbanos

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: 110 Pages. In Spanish

En los últimos años, se han tratado de dar respuesta a la necesidad de una mayor sostenibilidad en los proyectos urbanos, desde distintas perspectivas o mediante la creación de determinados instrumentos. Uno de estos instrumentos, son las herramientas de certificación de la sostenibilidad, con ya una cierta tradición en su aplicación a los edificios aisladamente, pero que todavía están dando sus primeros pasos en su aplicación desde la escala urbana. El objetivo de este trabajo es, partiendo de la revisión, análisis comparativo, y compilación de los contenidos y metodologías de algunas de estas herramientas que se han considerado relevantes, llegar a una propuesta de los contenidos que debería tener una herramienta de estas características para su aplicación en el contexto español. Para ello, se ha realizado un análisis comparativo exhaustivo de las dos herramientas y métodos con mayor difusión en la actualidad (y de aplicación en entornos con características similares al español) LEED for Neighbourhood Development y BREEAM for Communities. También se han revisado otras herramientas, con menor implantación o de carácter más local, pero que plantean enfoques complementarios o interesantes. A partir del análisis y las revisiones, se ha realizado una enumeración y estructuración de los aspectos que sería necesario considerar en el contexto español, no limitándose a los contenidos (lo que se ha llamado ‘herramienta’), sino también proponiendo la manera en que estas herramientas pueden integrarse en los procesos proyectuales y administrativos (lo que se ha llamado ‘método’). Por último, dado que el análisis y propuesta se realiza fundamentalmente desde la perspectiva de los proyectos de nueva creación, se ha considerado necesario destacar, mediante algunas reflexiones acerca de esta cuestión, la mayor eficiencia de las actuaciones planteadas sobre la ciudad existente, por cuanto además de implicar ahorros en consumo de materiales, suelo e infraestructuras, pueden servir para dar respuesta a la necesidad natural de actualización y renovación de las ciudades con el paso del tiempo. In recent years, there have been different attempts to respond to the need for more sustainable urban projects from different perspectives or through the creation of certain instruments. One of these instruments is the Sustainability Assessment Methods, which have been already implemented on buildings for a while, but are still taking their first steps in its implementation to the urban project scale. The aim of this research work is, based on the review, comparative analysis, and compilation of contents and methodologies of some of these methods that have been deemed relevant, reach a proposal of the contents that should have a method of these characteristics to be applied to the Spanish urban context. In order to elaborate this proposal, a thorough comparative analysis has been undertaken of the tools and methods more widely used at present (in environments similar to Spanish) which are LEED for Neighbourhood Development and BREEAM for Communities. Also other tools have been revised, with lower uptake or more local, but which pose interesting or complementary approaches. Based on this analysis and review, a compilation and proposal of the issues that should be addressed in the Spanish context, not limited to content (which is considered 'tool'), but also proposing ways in which these tools can be integrated into project and administrative processes (what is considered 'method'). Finally, as the analysis and proposal are mainly from the perspective of new projects, it has been considered necessary to highlight, by some reflections on this issue, the greater efficiency of projects located on the existing city, as this will also involve savings in material consumption, land and infrastructure, and can serve to meet the natural need of renovation and renewal of cities over time.
Category: Social Science

[18986] viXra:1706.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 05:23:42

Proyecto Haz[Otea].

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: 84 Pages. In Spanish

desde hace ya tiempo es frecuente oír hablar del gran potencial de la ‘puesta en carga’ de las azoteas urbanas no utilizadas para incrementar la sostenibilidad de las ciudades, generalmente aludiendo a su habilitación como azoteas verdes o para ubicar elementos generadores de energía renovable. Sin embargo, por varios motivos resulta difícil valorar en qué grado son correctas dichas afirmaciones: La información disponible de diferentes soluciones de azoteas describe cuestiones técnicas e impactos focalizados en aspectos muy concretos de la realidad (aislamiento térmico, retención de agua de lluvia…) difícilmente relacionables con el efecto global sobre las áreas urbanas de habilitar las azoteas. El efecto de un diseño/solución técnica es diferente en áreas urbanas diferentes. Las azoteas pueden ser destinadas a numerosos usos y antes de afirmar el mayor o menor interés de cada uno de ellos es necesario compararlos entre sí. Para ayudar en este debate, en este texto tratamos de aportar una estimación más completa del potencial de transformar la ciudad mediante la actuación sobre las azoteas de los edificios, incorporando dos cuestiones frecuentemente ausentes: revisaremos tanto las soluciones frecuentemente denominadas ‘sostenibles’ como un rango amplio de otras transformaciones posibles que seleccionamos a partir de una revisión extensa de ejemplos actuales y pasados de aprovechamiento de azoteas en todo el mundo. Paralelamente, realizaremos una estimación del impacto previsible de habilitar todas las azoteas de un área urbana existente, lo que nos permitirá valorar impactos globales que solo es posible apreciar al incrementar la escala de análisis. Para ello, estimaremos el impacto previsible de la posible transformación de un área urbana existente (el barrio Palos de Moguer en Madrid) utilizando el modelo Meta[S] propuesto por el autor (Alvira, 2015). La evaluación nos permite poner de manifiesto tres cuestiones fundamentales: no todas las transformaciones posibles de las azoteas producen el mismo beneficio sobre las ciudades, maximizar el beneficio de poner en carga las azoteas requiere el análisis particularizado de cada área urbana, y la cantidad de usos que es posible implantar y la facilidad de dicha implantación se incrementan si se introducen cambios en la normativa. Estas dos últimas cuestiones nos permiten afirmar el interés no solo de actualizar las normas estatales de edificación, sino también de que los ayuntamientos regulen las condiciones y utilización de los espacios de azotea, y en las conclusiones enumeramos algunas cuestiones que consideramos deberían contemplar o incorporar las diferentes normativas en relación a las azoteas. For some time now, it has become increasingly common hearing about the great potential transforming urban rooftop spaces poses for increasing cities’ sustainability, in a speech usually encouraging their adaptation into green roofs or use for locating renewable energy generators. However, it is currently extremely difficult assessing to what extent these statements are correct: • Available information and assessments of these rooftops’ types describe technical issues and/or focus on specific aspects of their impact on reality [thermal insulation, rain water retention ...] being hardly relatable to the impact a general transformation of an urban area’s rooftops would imply for the area’s overall state. • The impact of some technological solution/design may be different in different urban areas. • Rooftops may host several uses, yet we have found no document providing an extensive comparison of the impact of each of them. To assist in this debate, in this text we estimate the expected impact of the hypothetical transformation of all available rooftops in an existing urban area: Palos de Moguer neighborhood in Madrid. In order to do so, we use Meta[S] model proposed by the author as PhD Thesis project, which assesses 64 dimensions of urban reality. The assessment allows us to highlight three key issues: • Not all possible rooftops transformations produce the same benefit for cities/urban areas, and in urban consolidated environments rooftop transformations that allow people’s use may pose higher collective benefit. • Rooftops transformations benefit maximization requires individual analysis of each urban area, relating its particular needs with available rooftop surface characteristics. • The number of different rooftops possible uses and their ease of implementation can be greatly increased if some previsions are incorporated in Urban Planning/Building Codes These last two issues allow us to state the interest of both updating national Building & Design Codes and that municipalities regulate the conditions and use of rooftop spaces. In the Conclusions we list some issues we believe should be incorporated by different rooftops’ regulations.
Category: Social Science

[18985] viXra:1706.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 07:17:52

Quantum Manipulating Nanomagnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18984] viXra:1706.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 08:05:20

Molecular Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18983] viXra:1706.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 08:50:34

Multi-lead Fusion Detection of T-Wave Alternans Using Dezert-Smarandache Theory

Authors: Changrong Ye,Guojun Li, Yang Bao, Jinliang Qiao, Deping Zhang
Comments: 10 Pages.

T-Wave alternans (TWA) is a cardiac phenomenon regarded as an index of high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Although a number of methods have been proposed for TWA detection, their final decision always fully depends on one single lead which is usually picked out for its strongest TWA detection result among all the other leads. That is to say that lots of useful information have been unused and wasted. To our best knowledge, no method that fuses TWA detection results independently obtained by each lead to do comprehensive decision has been introduced. In this paper, a novel multi-lead method for TWA fusion detection is proposed.
Category: General Mathematics

[18982] viXra:1706.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 08:53:27

Multi-objective Optimal Model of Two-sided Matching

Authors: Yan Gao
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on the interval neutrosophic numbers, a new multi-objective optimal model of two-sided matching is researched. Through integrating interval neutrosophic information of each subject, the relative closeness degree of uncertainty evaluation information and positive and negative ideal is calculated by the approximate method, which can be expected as the satisfaction of the matching subjects. According to these, a multi-objective optimal model of two-sided matching is constructed, and applied to the leisure industry technology demand and supply. Finally a numerical example is given to illustrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed method.
Category: General Mathematics

[18981] viXra:1706.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 08:59:42

Quantum Nature of Electronic Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18980] viXra:1706.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 09:23:32

Neutrosophic AHP Multi Criteria Decision Making Method Applied on the Selection of Learning Management System

Authors: Nouran M. Radwan, M. Badr Senousy, Alaa El Din M. Riad
Comments: 11 Pages.

Learning management systems (LMSs) are used today to assist in the designing, delivery and management of learning resources for learners. There are hundreds of LMS available in the marketplace. Selecting the most suitable LMS that meets specific requirements is a problem of decision making. Many studies in learning management system selection are implemented under complete information, while in the real world many uncertainty aspects do exist. As these systems were described by decision makers with vague, imprecise, ambiguous and inconsistent terms, it is understandable that traditional multi criteria decision making methods may not be effective.
Category: General Mathematics

[18979] viXra:1706.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 09:35:41

Neutrosophic Refined Similarity Measure Based on Cotangent Function and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, cotangent similarity measure of neutrosophic refined set is proposed and some of its properties are studied. Finally, using this refined cotangent similarity measure of single valued neutrosophic set, an application on educational stream selection is presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[18978] viXra:1706.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 09:36:42

On Neutrosophic Semi-Open sets in Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: P. Iswarya, K. Bageerathi
Comments: 10 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to define the product related neutrosophic topological space and proved some theorems based on this. We introduce the concept of neutrosophic semi-open sets and neutrosophic semi-closed sets in neutrosophic topological spaces and derive some of their characterization. Finally, we analyze neutrosophic semi-interior and neutrosophic semi-closure operators also.
Category: General Mathematics

[18977] viXra:1706.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 04:26:24

Programa Analizador de Retrovirus

Authors: Roberto Reinosa
Comments: 3 Pages. Spanish

En el presente artículo se va a mostrar un programa, que sirve para realizar una serie de análisis a partir de secuencias provirales de retrovirus.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[18976] viXra:1706.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 04:35:19

Scientific Breakthrough at Sub-Atomic Level

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Chinese scientists have pulled off a major feat with one of the sub-atomic world's weirdest phenomena: photons that behave like twins and experience the same things simultaneously, even over great distances. [23] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol combined with quantum memory, which is essential for storing and controlling the transfer of information. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18975] viXra:1706.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 05:25:45

One Step Forecasting Model (Advanced Model - Version 5)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented an Advanced Forecasting Model.
Category: Statistics

[18974] viXra:1706.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 05:46:25

Improved Message Delivery Scheme for UAVs Tracking The Moving Target

Authors: Yu Yunlong, Ru Le
Comments: 4 Pages.

Aiming at the special circumstance in which UAVs swarm are used in the mode of battlefield extending, a message delivery scheme called AWJPMMD (ARIMA-WNN Joint Prediction Model based Message Delivery) is proposed. In this scheme, the LET (Link Expiration Time) of the center node and the proxy node is calculated by high precision GPS information, then the LET at next moment is predicted by ARIMA-WNN (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model - Wavelet Neural Network) Joint Prediction Model. Finally, the process of message delivery is affected by the predicted value of LET and other parameters. The target information is sent to the UAVs ground station in form of store-and-forward by the message delivery process. Simulation shows that this scheme can provide higher message delivery ratio and this scheme is more stable.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[18973] viXra:1706.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 06:05:08

Computers Reason Like Humans

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18972] viXra:1706.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 13:17:39

Universe and Big Bang

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

According to Einstein's theory of relativity, the curvature of spacetime was infinite at the big bang. In fact, at this point all mathematical tools fail, and the theory breaks down. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[18971] viXra:1706.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 13:59:41

The Religious Naturalism of the Scientific Age

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 5 Pages.

The self-empowerment and self-actualization of the federation of industrial economy and the internationalist model.
Category: Social Science

[18970] viXra:1706.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 17:15:55

Algo Mas Acerca DE la Gravedad

Authors: Norberto Meyer Roberto Morales
Comments: 4 Pages. "COMPLEMENTA EL ARTÍCLO "ACERCA DE LA GRAVEDAD"

Writing “G” with the help of “m1”, we find that gravity is function of the negative setting energy of a mass. With the hydrogen atom we found that he negative rest-energy can be the (negative) binding energy of a mass
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18969] viXra:1706.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 07:32:46

Charge Density Wave in Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18968] viXra:1706.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 07:46:58

On Fermat's Last Theorem - An Elementary Approach

Authors: Gang Li
Comments: 14 Pages.

An attempt of using elementary approach to prove Fermat's last theorem (FLT) is given. For infinitely many prime numbers, Case I of the FLT can be proved using this approach. Furthermore, if a conjecture proposed in this paper is true (k-3 conjecture), then case I of the FLT is proved for all prime numbers. For case II of the FLT, a constraint for possible solutions is obtained.
Category: Number Theory

[18967] viXra:1706.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 08:00:25

Evidence for Quantum-Interference Phenomena in the Femtometer Scale of Baryons. Part II: Inclusion of all Baryon Octet and Decuplet Particles

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 figure

This work supplements the paper vixra: 1706.0040. It contains a single Figure in which quantum interference is demonstrated for all particles of the octet and decuplet, through the joint analysis of their rest energy and magnetic moments data. Some tendency for alignment on Shapiro step-like structures is also present. This analysis serves as a proof of the importance of dominating electromagnetic effects in the nuclear scale of particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18966] viXra:1706.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 08:48:10

Quantum Dot Neurons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A transistor that simulates some of the functions of neurons has been invented based on experiments and models developed by researchers at the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar) in São Paulo State, Brazil, Würzburg University in Germany, and the University of South Carolina in the United States. [15] For certain frequencies of shortwave infrared light, most biological tissues are nearly as transparent as glass. Now, researchers have made tiny particles that can be injected into the body, where they emit those penetrating frequencies. The advance may provide a new way of making detailed images of internal body structures such as fine networks of blood vessels. [14] The proposed nano-MRI setup consists of an atomic qubit positioned 2-4 nm below a surface holding a molecule. The qubit acts as both the sensor and source of the magnetic field for encoding the nuclear spins of the molecule. The nuclear density data is then used to generate a 3D image of the molecular structure with angstrom-level resolution. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[18965] viXra:1706.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 09:10:50

Further Investigation on Faraday’s Law of Induction

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, Faraday’s law of induction was further investigated. The purpose is to see that besides there is the change of magnetic flux through the region enclosed by a conductor loop, if the magnetic flus change inside the wire of the loop is also required to generate an induction current in the conductor loop. An experiment is design and performed. The result shows that it is also a necessary condition that there is magnetic flux change inside the wire of the loop to generate an induction current in the conductor loop.
Category: Classical Physics

[18964] viXra:1706.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 09:54:27

Satellite-Based Quantum Encryption Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

In a new study, researchers demonstrate ground-based measurements of quantum states sent by a laser aboard a satellite 38,000 kilometers above Earth. This is the first time that quantum states have been measured so carefully from so far away. [23] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol combined with quantum memory, which is essential for storing and controlling the transfer of information. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18963] viXra:1706.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 10:07:21

Why does the Impossible Thrust work

Authors: J.R. Croca, P. Castro, M. Gatta, L. Gurriana
Comments: 14 Pages.

Scientific literature refers to a strange observed phenomenon, “impossible” according to traditional physics. The authors have called it an Impulsive Thrust from a Closed Radio-Frequency Cavity in Vacuum. Here we present a possible explanation for the observed thrust based on the conceptual framework of Eurhythmic Physics, a macroscopic non-linear pilot-wave theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18962] viXra:1706.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 12:18:33

Neutrosophic Subalgebras of Bck/bci-Algebras Based on Neutrosophic Points

Authors: A. Borumand Saeid, Young Bae Jun
Comments: 10 Pages.

The concept of neutrosophic set (NS) developed by Smarandache is a more general platform which extends the concepts of the classic set and fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set.
Category: General Mathematics

[18961] viXra:1706.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 12:58:17

Statistical Characterization of the Time to Reach Peak Heat Release Rate for Nuclear Power Plant Electrical Enclosure Fires

Authors: Raymond Gallucci
Comments: 10 Pages.

Since publication of NUREG/CR-6850 (EPRI 1011989), EPRI/NRC-RES Fire PRA Methodology for Nuclear Power Facilities in 2005, phenomenological modeling of fire growth to peak heat release rate (HRR) for electrical enclosure fires in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has typically assumed an average 12-minute rise time. One previous analysis using the data from NUREG/CR-6850 from which this estimate derived (Gallucci, “Statistical Characterization of Cable Electrical Failure Temperatures Due to Fire, with Simulation of Failure Probabilities”) indicated that the time to peak HRR could be represented by a gamma distribution with alpha (shape) and beta (scale) parameters of 8.66 and 1.31, respectively. Completion of the test program by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for electrical enclosure heat release rates, documented in NUREG/CR-7197, Heat Release Rates of Electrical Enclosure Fires (HELEN-FIRE) in 2016, has provided substantially more data from which to characterize this growth time to peak HRR. From these, the author develops probabilistic distributions that enhance the original NUREG/CR-6850 results for both qualified (Q) and unqualified cables (UQ). The mean times to peak HRR are 13.3 and 10.1 min for Q and UQ cables, respectively, with a mean of 12.4 min when all data are combined, confirming that the original NUREG/CR-6850 estimate of 12 min was quite reasonable. Via statistical-probabilistic analysis, the author shows that the time to peak HRR for Q and UQ cables can again be well represented by gamma distributions with alpha and beta parameters of 1.88 and 7.07, and 3.86 and 2.62, respectively. Working with the gamma distribution for All cables given the two cable types, the author performs simulations demonstrating that manual non-suppression probabilities, on average, are 30% and 10% higher than the use of a 12-min point estimate when the fire is assumed to be detected at its start and halfway between its start and the time it reaches its peak, respectively. This suggests that adopting a probabilistic approach enables more realistic modeling of this particular fire phenomenon (growth time).
Category: Statistics

[18960] viXra:1706.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 20:37:12

Human Immortality and Electronic Civilization (v4) Russian Edition

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 120 Pages.

Бессмертие - это голубая, вековая, самая большая мечта и самое большое желание любого человека. В книге покaзaно (см. список в концe), что с точки зрeния компьютeрныx нaук чeловeк eсть биологичeский логичeский прибор для обрaботки информaции. Нaшa головa - xрaнилищe информaции, взглядов, привычeк, пaмяти и прогрaмм, нaкоплeнныx и вырaботaнныx чeловeком в тeчeнии eго жизни. Нaш мозг - логичeский прибор, пeрeрaбaтывaющий эту информaцию. Глaзa, уши, кожa и другиe оргaны чувств - дaтчики информaции об окружaющeм мирe, a руки и ноги - исполнитeльныe оргaны прикaзов нaшeго мозгa. Отсюдa срaзу слeдуeт вывод, что eсли мы нaучимся соxрaнять информaцию, нaкоплeнную и вырaботaнную чeловeком в тeчeнии eго жизни, зaписaв ee нa болee стойкиe носитeли (нaпримeр, чипы), то соxрaним eго кaк личность (душу) вeчно. Если жe снaбдим eго дaтчикaми приeмa, нe подвeргaeмой цeнзурe информaции, то позволим eму свободно рaзвивaться кaк личности. А eсли снaбдим eго исполнитeльными оргaнaми, то он получит возможность aктивно воздeйствовaть нa внeшний мир (жить вeчно). В книге покaзaно, что проблeмa бeссмeртия можeт быть рeшeнa кaрдинaльно только зaмeной биологичeской оболочки чeловeкa нa искусствeнную. Тaкой бeссмeртный чeловeк из чипов и свeрxпрочныx мaтeриaлов (или Е-сущeство, кaк он нaзвaн в книге), будeт имeть огромныe прeимущeствa пeрeд биологичeскими людьми. Издание дополнено новыми достижениями в науке о бессмертии (гл.11 и др.).
Category: Physics of Biology

[18959] viXra:1706.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:01:46

Novel Single-Valued Neutrosophic Aggregated Operators Under Frank Norm Operation and Its Application to Decision-Making Process

Authors: Nancy, Harish Garg
Comments: 15 Pages.

Uncertainties play a dominant role during the aggregation process and hence their corresponding decisions are made fuzzier. Single-value neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs) contain the three ranges: truth, indeterminacy, and falsity membership degrees, and are very useful for describing and handling the uncertainties in the day-to-day life situations. In this study, some operations of SVNNs such as sum, product, and scalar multiplication are defined under Frank norm operations and, based on it, some averaging and geometric aggregation operators have been developed. We further establish some of its properties. Moreover, a decision-making method based on the proposed operators is established and illustrated with a numerical example.
Category: General Mathematics

[18958] viXra:1706.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:19:47

An Unusual Hole in Mars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the image.
Category: Astrophysics

[18957] viXra:1706.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:42:22

On Neutrosophic Feebly Open Set In Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: P. Jeya Puvaneswari, Dr.K.Bageerathi
Comments: 8 Pages.

The focus of this paper is to introduce the concept of Neutrosophic point, Neutrosophic quasi coincident, Neutrosophic feebly open sets and Neutrosophic feebly closed sets in Neutrosophic Topological spaces. Also we analyse their characterizations and investigate their properties. This concept is the generalization of intuitionistic topological spaces and fuzzy topological spaces. Using this neutrosophic feebly open sets and neutrosophic feebly closed sets, we define a new class of functions namely neutrosophic feebly continuous functions. Further, relationships between this new class and the other classes of functions are established.
Category: General Mathematics

[18956] viXra:1706.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:44:55

On Neutrosophic Soft Lattices

Authors: Vakkas Uluçay, Mehmet Sahin, Necati Olgun, Adem Kilicman
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this study, using the neutrosophic soft definitions, we define some new concept such as the neutrosophic soft lattice, neutrosophic soft sublattice, complete neutrosophic soft lattice, modular neutrosophic soft lattice, distributive neutrosophic soft lattice, neutrosophic soft chain then we study the relationship and observe some common properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[18955] viXra:1706.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:47:43

Operations on Complex Multi-Fuzzy Sets

Authors: Yousef Al-Qudah, Nasruddin Hassan
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the concept of complex multi-fuzzy sets (CMkFSs) as a generalization of the concept of multi-fuzzy sets by adding the phase term to the definition of multi-fuzzy sets. In other words, we extend the range of multi-membership function from the interval [0,1] to unit circle in the complex plane. The novelty of CMkFSs lies in the ability of complex multi- membership functions to achieve more range of values while handling uncertainty of data that is periodic in nature. The basic operations on CMkFSs, namely complement, union, intersection, product and Cartesian product are studied along with accompanying examples. Properties of these operations are derived. Finally, we introduce the intuitive definition of the distance measure between two complex multi-fuzzy sets which are used to define δ-equalities of complex multi-fuzzy sets.
Category: General Mathematics

[18954] viXra:1706.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:49:16

Operations on Single-Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: Muhammad Akram, Gulfam Shahzadi
Comments: 26 Pages.

The concept of neutrosophic sets can be utilized as a mathematical tool to deal with imprecise and unspecified information. In this paper, we apply the concept of single-valued neutrosophic sets to graphs. We introduce the notion of single-valued neutrosophic graphs, and present some fundamental operations on single-valued neutrosophic graphs. We explore some interesting properties of single-valued neutrosophic graphs by level graphs. We highlight some flaws in the definitions of Broumi et al. [10] and Shah-Hussain [18]. We also present an application of single-valued neutrosophic graphs in social network.
Category: General Mathematics

[18953] viXra:1706.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:50:25

Optimized PROMETHEE Based on Interval Neutrosophic Sets for New Energy Storage Alternative Selection

Authors: Zheng Wang, Lin Liu
Comments: 9 Pages.

New energy storage alternative selection is a hot research issue that involves multiple-criteria decision-making process. In view of the existing deficiencies of multiple-criteria decision-making methods, an optimized method of PROMETHEE was proposed based on interval neutrosophic sets that has the advantage in describing fuzzy decision-making information.
Category: General Mathematics

[18952] viXra:1706.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:53:04

Performance Еvaluation of Тracking Аlgorithm Incorporating Attribute Data Processing Via DSmT

Authors: J. Dezert, A. Tchamova, L. Bojilov, P. Konstantinova
Comments: 5 Pages.

The main objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of the quality of attribute data source on the performance of a target tracking algorithm. An array of dense scenarios arranged according to the distance between closely spaced targets is studied by different confusion matrices. The used algorithm is Generalized Data Association (GDA-MTT) algorithm for multiple target tracking processing kinematic as well as attribute data. The fusion rule for attribute data is based on Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT). Besides the main goal a comparison is made between the cited above algorithm and an algorithm with Kinematic based only Data Association (KDAMTT). The measures of performance are evaluated using intensive Monte Carlo simulation.
Category: General Mathematics

[18951] viXra:1706.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:59:56

Power Aggregation Operators of Simplified Neutrosophic Sets and Their Use in Multi-attribute Group Decision Making

Authors: Chunfang Liu, Yuesheng Luo
Comments: 10 Pages.

The simplified neutrosophic set (SNS) is a useful generalization of the fuzzy set that is designed for some practical situations in which each element has different truth membership function, indeterminacy membership function and falsity membership function. In this paper, we develop a series of power aggregation operators called simplified neutrosophic number power weighted averaging (SNNPWA) operator, simplified neutrosophic number power weighted geometric (SNNPWG) operator, simplified neutrosophic number power ordered weighted averaging (SNNPOWA) operator and simplified neutrosophic number power ordered weighted geometric (SNNPOWG) operator.
Category: General Mathematics

[18950] viXra:1706.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:01:25

Proposal for the Formalization of Dialectical Logic

Authors: José Luis Usó-Doménech, Josué Antonio Nescolarde-Selva, Lorena Segura-Abad
Comments: 11 Pages.

Classical logic is typically concerned with abstract analysis. The problem for a synthetic logic is to transcend and unify available data to reconstruct the object as a totality. Three rules are proposed to pass from classic logic to synthetic logic. We present the category logic of qualitative opposition using examples from various sciences. This logic has been defined to include the neuter as part of qualitative opposition. The application of these rules to qualitative opposition, and, in particular, its neuter, demonstrated that a synthetic logic allows the truth of some contradictions. This synthetic logic is dialectical with a multi-valued logic, which gives every proposition a truth value in the interval [0,1] that is the square of the modulus of a complex number. In this dialectical logic, contradictions of the neuter of an opposition may be true.
Category: General Mathematics

[18949] viXra:1706.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:20:03

Representation of Graphs Using Intuitionistic Neutrosophic Soft Sets

Authors: Muhammad Akram, Sundas Shahzadi
Comments: 23 Pages.

The concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft sets can be utilized as a mathematical tool to deal with imprecise and unspecified information. In this paper, we apply the concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft sets to graphs. We introduce the concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft graphs, and present applications of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft graphs in multiple-attribute decision-making problems. We also present an algorithm of our proposed method.
Category: General Mathematics

[18948] viXra:1706.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:22:50

Robust and False Positive Free Watermarking in Iwt Domain Using SVD and Abc

Authors: Irshad Ahmad Ansari, Millie Pant, Chang Wook Ahn
Comments: 12 Pages.

Watermarking is used to protect the copyrighted materials from being misused and help us to know the lawful ownership. The security of any watermarking scheme is always a prime concern for the developer.
Category: General Mathematics

[18947] viXra:1706.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:26:07

Rough Neutrosophic Set in a Lattice

Authors: I. Arockiarani, C. Antony Crispin Sweety
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, we examine the relationship between rough fuzzy neutrosophic sets and lattice theory. We introduce the notion of Rough fuzzy neutrosophic set and Rough fuzzy neutrosophic lattice (resp Rough fuzzy neutrosophic ideals). Further, we discuss about fuzzy neutrosophic rough set corresponding to a rough set and define the terms and conditions for fuzzy neutrosophic rough lattice.
Category: General Mathematics

[18946] viXra:1706.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:35:50

Clarkson Syndrome Approached

Authors: Anna Lunghi, Davide Mapelli, Alessandro Rizzi, Clara Tacconi, Diego Liberati
Comments: Pages.

the Systemic Capillary Leakage Syndrome is approached by both deepening data found in literature investigation and compare data by a patient and two healthy females leaving together. A five day period in capillary leakage evident in the untreated patient may also be present, even with less amplitude and less precise period, in the last two weeks of the recorded month for the two healthy subjects, letting to hypnotize that SCLS could be the pathological amplification of a physiologic attitude. Genders could express in a different proportion light chains K or Lambda in the monoclonal immunoglobulin usually expressed in patients.
Category: Physics of Biology

[18945] viXra:1706.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:49:46

Self Additive Inverse Elements of Neutrosophic Rings and Fields

Authors: T.Chalapathi, R.V.M.S.S.Kiran Kumar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Algebraic Neutrosophic theory is an abstract branch of modern mathematics that originated from classical algebra through the composition of Neutrosophic theory. Its development started few years ago, and now a days Neutrosophic analytic methods and results are important in various fields of engineering science and applied mathematics with its applications.
Category: General Mathematics

[18944] viXra:1706.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:51:57

Quantum Secure Direct Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol combined with quantum memory, which is essential for storing and controlling the transfer of information. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18943] viXra:1706.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:55:36

Simplified Neutrosophic Linguistic Multi-criteria Group Decision-Making Approach to Green Product Development

Authors: Zhang-peng Tian, Jing Wang, Jian-qiang Wang, Hong-yu Zhang
Comments: 31 Pages.

For many companies, green product development has become a key strategic consideration due to regulatory requirements and market trends. In this paper, the life cycle assessment technique is used to develop an innovative multi-criteria group decision-making approach that incorporates power aggregation operators and a TOPSIS-based QUALIFLEX method in order to solve green product design selection problems using neutrosophic linguistic information.
Category: General Mathematics

[18942] viXra:1706.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:56:50

Single-Valued Neutrosophic Planar Graphs

Authors: Muhammad Akram
Comments: 11 Pages.

We apply the concept of single-valued neutrosophic sets to multigraphs, planar graphs and dual graphs. We introduce the notions of single-valued neutrosophic multigraphs, single-valued neutrosophic planar graphs, and single-valued neutrosophic dual graphs. We illustrate these concepts with examples. We also investigate some of their properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[18941] viXra:1706.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:58:57

Single Valued Neutrosophic Signedgraphs

Authors: Seema Mehra, Manjeet Singh
Comments: 4 Pages.

Motivated by the notion of single valued neutrosophic graphs defined by Broumi, Talea, Bakali and Smarandache[2] and notion of intuitionistic fuzzy signed graphs defined by Mishra and Pal[8], we introduce the concept of single valued neutrosophic signed graphs and examine the properties of this new concept and examples.
Category: General Mathematics

[18940] viXra:1706.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:01:12

Some Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Uncertain Linguistic Bonferroni Mean Aggregation Operators and Their Application in Multiple Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Peide Liu, Fei Teng
Comments: 41 Pages.

Interval-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy uncertain linguistic set (IVNHFULS) has the advantages of both neutrosophic numbers and interval-valued hesitant fuzzy uncertain linguistic variable. In this paper, we firstly introduce the definition, the operational laws, and the score function of IVNHFULS.
Category: General Mathematics

[18939] viXra:1706.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:02:47

Deep Learning with Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members,
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18938] viXra:1706.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:03:21

Special Types of Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: M. A. Malik, A. Hassan
Comments: 13 Pages.

Neutrosophic theory has many applications in graph theory, interval valued neutrosophic graph (IVNG) is the generalization of fuzzy graph, intuitionistic fuzzy graph and single valued neutrosophic graph. In this paper, we introduced some types of IVNGs, which are subdivision IVNGs, middle IVNGs, total IVNGs and interval valued neutrosophic line graphs (IVNLGs), also discussed the isomorphism, co weak isomorphism and weak isomorphism properties of subdivision IVNGs, middle IVNGs, total IVNGs and IVNLGs.
Category: General Mathematics

[18937] viXra:1706.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:07:07

Supervised Pattern Recognition Using Similarity Measure Between Two Interval

Authors: Anjan Mukherjee, Sadhan Sarkar
Comments: 8 Pages.

F. Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set in 1995 and P. K. Maji introduced the notion of neutrosophic soft set in 2013, which is a hybridization of neutrosophic set and soft set. Irfan Deli introduced the concept of interval valued neutrosophic soft sets. Interval valued neutrosophic soft sets are most efficient tools to deals with problems that contain uncertainty such as problem in social, economic system, medical diagnosis, pattern recognition, game theory, coding theory and so on. In this article we introduce similarity measure between two interval valued neutrosophic soft sets and study some basic properties of similarity measure. An algorithm is developed in interval valued neutrosophic soft set setting using similarity measure. Using this algorithm a model is constructed for supervised pattern recognition problem using similarity measure.
Category: General Mathematics

[18936] viXra:1706.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:08:19

Survey On: Categorization Techniques on the Basis of on Evidential Reasoning

Authors: Priyanka Deshpande, A.N.Banubakode
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is studied in this paper that the arrangement of inadequate examples is an extremely testing assignment in light of the fact that the article (inadequate example) with distinctive feasible estimations of missing qualities may yield particular arrangement results. The insecurity (equivocalness) of grouping is for the most part brought about by the absence of data of the missing information.
Category: General Mathematics

[18935] viXra:1706.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:09:20

Survey Paper on Aircraft Recognition for Satellite Image

Authors: D.PonJenifer, Y.R.Packia Dhas
Comments: 4 Pages.

Aircraft recognition plays an important role in image processing. Recognition processor is used to extract the shape of aircraft. Recognition is done using various algorithms. In this paper eight types of recognition algorithm are discussed.
Category: General Mathematics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[8031] viXra:1706.0426 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-23 01:31:52

Immortality and Resurrection Thru Science

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 5 Pages.

Doctors, nurses and hospitals are in the business of taking good care of us. So I imagine the goal of healthy, eternal life (as well as the goal of resurrecting the dead to such life) interests them if it can be shown to have a scientific explanation. This article is a mixture of present ideas regarding physics, cosmology, computer science and mathematics that have been extrapolated to their possible state centuries from now. These multidisciplinary ideas are necessary to describe how immortality and resurrection will be achieved through science. In a few sentences, how can resurrection be possible? The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics - which governs progress from the order of life to the disorder (entropy) of disease and death - must first be overcome. Apparently, the only way this can be done is if the universe is a computer simulation that can be refreshed or reloaded. The other requirement is that time not exclusively follow a straight line from past to future, because that condition would just mean more and more decay for the body. Einstein's General Relativity says time is curved and warped, meaning the future overcoming of entropy and disorder - the final part of this article identifies the overcoming of entropy with what a recent science paper calls "negative temperature" - can be made to follow a curve from any future century back to a time when any long-deceased person was alive and healthy (future medical advances will be able to correct any physical or mental problems - and some of the resurrected will live elsewhere, sparing the limited area on Earth). I may lack the skills necessary to convince you of eternal life and resurrection. But if you have the misfortune to die someday, I have no doubt that you'll be convinced of their reality after that event.
Category: Physics of Biology

[8030] viXra:1706.0423 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-22 09:43:15

The ElementaryParticle and Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a catalog of articlesrelated elementaryparticlesandatomic nucleus.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8029] viXra:1706.0421 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-23 12:02:29

The Lost Proof of FERMAT’S Last Theorem.

Authors: Andrea OSSICINI
Comments: 11 Pages.

It is shown that an appropriate use of so-called «double equations» by Diophantus pro- vides the origin of the Frey elliptic curve and from it we can deduce an elementary proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[8028] viXra:1706.0415 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-21 11:13:29

The Hypergeometrical Universe - Supernova and SDSS Modeling

Authors: Marco Pereira
Comments: 107 Pages.

This paper presents a simple and purely geometrical Grand Unification Theory. Quantum Gravity, Electrostatic and Magnetic interactions are shown in a unified framework. Newton's Gravitational Law, Gauss' Electrostatics Law and Biot-Savart's Electromagnetism Law are derived from first principles. Gravitational Lensing and Mercury Perihelion Precession are replicated within the theory. Unification symmetry is defined for all the existing forces. This alternative model does not require Strong and Electroweak forces. A 4D Shock-Wave Hyperspherical topology is proposed for the Universe which together with a Quantum Lagrangian Principle and a Dilator based model for matter result in a quantized stepwise expansion for the whole Universe along a radial direction within a 4D spatial manifold. The Hypergeometrical Standard Model for matter, Universe Topology and a new Law of Gravitation are presented. Newton's and Einstein's Laws of Gravitation and Dynamics, Gauss Law of Electrostatics among others are challenged when HU presents Type 1A Supernova Survey results. HU's SN1a results challenge current Cosmological Standard Model (L-CDM) by challenging its Cosmological Ruler d(z). SDSS BOSS dataset is shown to support a new Cosmogenesis theory and HU proposal that we are embedded in a 5D Spacetime. The Big Bang Theory is shown to be challenged by SDSS BOSS dataset. Hyperspherical Acoustic Oscillations are demonstrated in the SDSS BOSS Galaxy density. A New de-Broglie Force is proposed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8027] viXra:1706.0392 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-22 19:39:43

DNA May Store Information with Base Pair and Communicate by uv

Authors: DU Lin
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper,UV is suggested to be a medium of information transmission in DNA. DNA bases can certainly absorb UV. They also have a typical structure to emit UV. And the stacking way of base pairs in DNA can accelerate the luminescence efficiency. Electrical signaling information from UV could be stored in base pair, in ways such as change of π conjugated electrons. The evaluation and calculation of information in DNA may base on quantum effect of π conjugated electrons and photon entangling. A hypothesis about origin of this UV communication and origin of life is also proposed here, which involve in the irradiation of the circular polarization light and self-organization of aromatic N-heterocycles.The hypotheses can explain some biological phenomena.
Category: Physics of Biology

[8026] viXra:1706.0371 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-24 06:58:57

Newton’s E = mc^2 Two Hundred Years Before Einstein?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8025] viXra:1706.0371 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-21 02:36:23

Newton’s E = mc^2 Two Hundred Years Before Einstein?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8024] viXra:1706.0371 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-19 16:56:09

Newton’s E = mc^2 Two Hundred Years Before Einstein?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology