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## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[20607] viXra:1710.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-19 12:07:02

### The Purpose of Nature is Super - Intelligence

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin

This article is about robots, artificial intelligence, the real purpose of Nature and the role of humanity in this process. In a series of previous articles[1]-[5], the authors examined some questions of robot technology, human immortality as well as a totally electronic civilization. In those articles, it was also briefly mentioned the law of increase of complexity self-copying systems and the purpose of existence of mankind. In this brief extensive article that theme is presented in more detail which are developed and improved from the first iteration.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[20606] viXra:1710.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-19 23:09:13

### The Set of Standard Numbers

Authors: Anders Lindman

The set of standard numbers D is constructed from an axiom of infinite fraction sum together with the power set of the set of all rational numbers in the form 2^-n. The power set contains all possible infinite binary sequences who represent the fraction part of the standard numbers together with the integers for the whole number part. The set of standard numbers includes the rational numbers and forms a field (D, +, *) similar to, yet distinct from the set of real numbers R.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[20605] viXra:1710.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-19 07:14:52

### Alter Coherence of Light

Authors: George Rajna

Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[20604] viXra:1710.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-19 07:26:39

### Elementary Formulas for Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito

This note presents some formulas for pi=3.141592...
Category: General Mathematics

[20603] viXra:1710.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-19 09:46:07

### Mistakes and Contradictions in the Michelson Morley Experiment

Authors: Walter Ruh
Comments: 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

In the following, it is shown that the Michelson & Morley experiment is subject to heavy mistakes. All considerations are based on the original publication, »AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, ARTICLE XXXVI On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether, by ALBERT A. MICHELSON and EDWARD W. MORLEY". 1. The experiment presents measurements and expects results in the evening at around 18:00. This is wrong! Anyone with a knowledge of the earth's rotation and the course around the sun can see that the Michelson and Morley experiment makes sense only at the high noon and at midnight. The "ether wind" is only at this time in the measurable direction to the measuring device. In the evening and in the morning, the ether wind is in any case perpendicular (from top to bottom or from bottom to top) to the horizontal measuring device. 2. The light path, as described, cannot be correct. The perpendicular deflected light path can never be against the "ether wind". 3. Intellectual bases for the experiment are incomplete and therefore incorrect. The assumptions and conditions do not correspond with the mathematics for this experiment. At the end is only one conclusion possible: The Michelson and Morley experiment is very roughly mistaken and therefore the results must be considered irrelevant.
Category: Classical Physics

[20602] viXra:1710.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 19:41:10

### Construction of Planar Multilayer Dyadic Green’s Functions by Fourier Expansion Method — Part I: Isotropic Media

Authors: Huai-Yi Xie

In this paper, we have derived planar multilayer dyadic Green’s functions by Fourier expansion method and have checked its correctness by comparing results for reflected electric fields from dipole emissions near such structures available in previous literature. Furthermore, we show how these dyadic Green’s functions can be applied to calculate reflected fields from a dipole source with arbitrary orientations. We believe our formulation will be powerful in the modeling of molecular fluorescence near these structures.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20601] viXra:1710.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 04:43:32

### An Elegant Solution to the Cosmological Constant Problem based on The Bohm-Poisson Equation

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 5 Pages. submitted to Physics Letters B

After applying the recently proposed Bohm-Poisson equation [1] to the observable Universe as a $whole$, and by introducing an ultraviolet (Planck) and infrared (Hubble) scale, one can naturally obtain a value for the vacuum energy density of the $same$ $magnitude$ as the extremely small observed vacuum energy density, and explain the origins of its $repulsive$ gravitational nature. Because Bohm's formulation of QM is by construction non-local, it is this non-locality which casts light into the crucial ultraviolet/infrared entanglement of the Planck/Hubble scales which was required in order to obtain the observed value of the vacuum energy density.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20600] viXra:1710.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 06:19:34

### Role of Main Components in the Rheology of Heavy Oil (In Russian)

Authors: S. O. Ilyin
Comments: 34 Pages. in Russian

A series of rheological properties of the main components (saturated compounds, light and heavy aromatic compounds, resins and asphaltenes), extracted from a typical sample of heavy oil extracted in tatarstan (russia), were consistently investigated. The viscosity and viscoelastic characteristics of these components are measured in a wide range of temperatures and deformation conditions, as well as their solutions in tetralin. Saturated hydrocarbons behave in a manner similar to paraffin oil, i. E. Demonstrate viscous-plastic behavior at low temperatures. For light aromatic compounds, non-newtonian behavior is characteristic, and heavy aromatic compounds, as well as resins and asphaltenes, behave like newtonian fluids. In their totality, the anomalous-rheological effects practically do not affect the rheology of heavy oil, which can be regarded as a newtonian fluid over a wide range of temperatures. The most significant value for the viscosity of heavy oil is the interaction of resins and asphaltenes. Concentration dependences of the viscosity of these components are qualitatively similar, but the viscosity of solutions of asphaltenes at high concentrations is much higher than the viscosity of equicomponent resin solutions. This reflects a lower critical concentration of asphaltenes, at which their formation occurs (up to the formation of graphene), compared to resins. An investigation of the rheology of the model "artificial" oil, from which the resins were removed, but contained a different amount of asphaltenes, showed that in this case the viscosity was higher than in the original oil. This indicates a stabilizing effect of the resins, which most likely contribute to the formation of emulsions, preventing further structure formation of the asphaltenes.
Category: Chemistry

[20599] viXra:1710.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 11:28:03

### Nuclear Quantum Gravity – A First Review

Authors: U. V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana
Comments: 14 Pages. Prespacetime Journal. (2017). 8(6): 777-791.

To have a unified model of nuclear quantum gravity, it seems quite reasonable to consider a large nuclear gravitational constant, $G_s \cong 3.3\pm 0.03 times 10^{28}$ $m^3/kg/sec^2$. In this context, we show practical applications pertaining to micro physics as well as macro physics. We would like to suggest that: (1) $G_s$ plays a crucial role in understanding quantum theory of light, photoelectric work functions, superconductivity, nuclear binding energy, nuclear root mean square charge radii, neutron-proton mass difference, nuclear stability, nuclear magnetic dipole moments, weak coupling angle, Fermi’s weak coupling constant, proton melting point and total energy of electron in Hydrogen atom etc.; (2) Nuclear binding energy can be understood with a single energy coefficient of magnitude 10 MeV. (3) Newtonian gravitational constant $G_N$ and the proposed $G_s$ play a joint role in understanding neutron star mass generation as well as proton mass generation; and (4) Considering $G_s$ as a characteristic feature of magnetism, celestial bodies ‘mass dependent’ magnetic dipole moments can be estimated.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20598] viXra:1710.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 13:34:47

### What is Behind Coulomb

Authors: Walter Ruh
Comments: 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

Starting from the deviation «of the good order» that Coulomb / Ampere disappears in energies, it was shown that behind the in the abstract unit Coulomb is a real value, composed of kilograms, meters and seconds. This gives the field equations a real substance which can represent power and energy in real terms. The results are indicative of a (forbidden) "model medium" without concluding that a medium exists in reality. The logic and physical beauty of this system is overwhelming. Ausgehend von der stossenden Abweichung «von der guten Ordnung», dass Coulomb/Ampere bei Energierechnungen verschwindet wurde aufgezeigt, dass hinter der abstrakten Einheit Coulomb ein realer Wert, zusammengesetzt aus Kilogramm, Metern und Sekunden zu finden ist. Dadurch bekommen die Feldgleichungen eine reale Substanz welche Leistung und Energie real darstellen kann. Die Resultate ergeben Indizien auf ein (verbotenes) "Modell-Medium", ohne zu folgern, dass ein Medium in Realität existiert. Die Logik und physikalische Schönheit dieser Systematik ist überwältigend.
Category: Classical Physics

[20597] viXra:1710.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 14:30:33

### Importance of Manchester Coding Using Micro-Controllers/Related Data Processing Mechanisms – An Interesting Insight into Manchester Coding & Smart Watch Applications.

Authors: N.T.Kumar, Thiago R, Sandro B, Vinicius R, Lisane V, Vanderlei P
Comments: 4 Pages. Manchester Coding & Applications - SmartWatch Applications-SAML21

Smart Watches are modern devices involving cutting edge technologies in all aspects of working and communicating with the surrounding environments by detecting parameters and also providing a means to transmit the related data for further processing via Computers/Tablets/Smart Phones etc..We wish to highlight the importance of “Manchester Coding” in the context of Smart Watches based on Micro- controllers for example SAML21 Series from ATMEL.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[20596] viXra:1710.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 15:14:30

### Prime Numbers as a Function of a Geometric Progression

Authors: Leif R. Uppström, Daniel Uppström

In mathematical literature it is asked for a computable function or efficient algorithm to find all, or at least a large subset, of the prime numbers. This paper shows that all primes can be characerised by their reciprocal period length L and its figure value R. These parameters are given for each prime after inversion to an infinitely repeated period and are used to group all primes into disjoint sets that arise as a function of a geometric progression. This theory suggests new ways to enumerate and find large primes.
Category: Number Theory

[20595] viXra:1710.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 23:07:44

### The Recursive Future Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure. {File Closing Version 4}. ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[20594] viXra:1710.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 23:30:00

### A Conjecture On The Nature Of Time

Authors: Felix M Lev

In our previous publications we argue that finite mathematics is fundamental, classical mathematics (involving such notions as infinitely small/large, continuity etc.) is a degenerate special case of finite one, and ultimate quantum theory will be based on finite mathematics. We consider a finite quantum theory (FQT) based on a finite field or ring with a large characteristic $p$ and show that standard continuous quantum theory is a special case of FQT in the formal limit $p\to\infty$. Space and time are purely classical notions and are not present in FQT at all. In the present paper we discuss how classical equations of motions arise as a consequence of the fact that $p$ changes, i.e. $p$ is the evolution parameter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20593] viXra:1710.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-19 01:55:50

### Proton and Antiproton Share Fundamental Properties

Authors: George Rajna

An asymmetry must exist here somewhere but we simply do not understand where the difference is. What is the source of the symmetry break? [13] They have successfully deciphered the total angular momentum (spin) of the nucleon, determining how it's shared among its constituents. [12] The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20592] viXra:1710.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-19 02:50:41

### An Approximation to the Prime Counting Function Through the Sum of Consecutive Prime Numbers

Authors: Juan Moreno Borrallo

In this paper it is proved that the sum of consecutive prime numbers under the square root of a given natural number is asymptotically equivalent to the prime counting function. Also, it is proved another asymptotic relationship between the sum of the first prime numbers up to the integer part of the square root of a given natural number and the prime counting function.
Category: Number Theory

[20591] viXra:1710.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 09:03:46

### Solution of Maxwell's Equations for a Capacitor with Alternating Voltage

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

A solution of the Maxwell equations for a variable voltage capacitor with a variable voltage is given, which is a development of inconsistency (corresponding to the energy conservation law) solution of the Maxwell equations for vacuum. It is shown that in an electromagnetic wave propagating through a capacitor, the flux of electromagnetic energy does not change with time. It is shown that there exists a longitudinal (along the radius) standing electromagnetic wave. For a simple verification of the findings, detailed proof is given.
Category: Classical Physics

[20590] viXra:1710.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 09:07:50

### Solution of Maxwell's Equations for a Capacitor with Alternating Voltage \\ Решение уравнений Максвелла для конденсатора с переменным напряжением

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 16 Pages. in Russian

A solution of the Maxwell equations for a variable voltage capacitor with a variable voltage is given, which is a development of inconsistency (corresponding to the energy conservation law) solution of the Maxwell equations for vacuum. It is shown that in an electromagnetic wave propagating through a capacitor, the flux of electromagnetic energy does not change with time. It is shown that there exists a longitudinal (along the radius) standing electromagnetic wave. For a simple verification of the findings, detailed proof is given. \\ Приводится решение уравнений Максвелла для конденсатора с переменным напряжением, которое является развитием непротиворечивого (соответствующего закону сохранения энергии) решения уравнений Максвелла для вакуума. Показано, что в электромагнитной волне, распространяющейся через конденсатор, поток электромагнитной энергии не изменяется во времени. Показано, что существует продольная (вдоль радиуса) стоячая электромагнитная волна. Для простой проверки полученных выводов приводится подробное доказательство.
Category: Classical Physics

[20589] viXra:1710.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 09:49:16

### Recurrence Relation for Calculating the Sequence of Primes

Authors: I. N. Tukaev

A recurrence relation is defined for calculating a sequence of prime numbers using the Riemann zeta function and the Euler product.
Category: Number Theory

[20588] viXra:1710.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 11:44:37

### Automatic Intelligent Translation of Videos

Authors: Shivam Bansal

There are a lot of educational videos online which are in English and inaccessible to 80% population of the world. This paper presents a process to translate a video into another language by creating its transcript and using TTS to produce synthesized fragments of speech. It introduces an algorithm which synthesyses intelligent, synchronized, and easily understandable audio by combining those fragments of speech. This algorithm is also compared to an algorithm from another research paper on the basis of performance.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[20587] viXra:1710.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 13:08:02

### Inertia

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov

We consider how inertia appears in the theory of emergent space-time-matter. The phenomenon of inertia is explained for the case of the presence of reflection symmetry (parity) in the wave function. This symmetry is broken only in weak interactions. For the case of weak interaction, there is no explanation for inertia, but there is an assumption that the development of a mathematical model based on the construction of universes from the field of the Metauniverse will justify the inertia for such a case.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20586] viXra:1710.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 14:47:30

### Salary Fluctuation Theory

Authors: Chuanli Chen

In this paper, based on my previous price theory, I will put forward my own labor market price determination theory, I will discuss the determination of price under different situations.
Category: Economics and Finance

[20585] viXra:1710.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 23:37:12

### Intuitive Geometric Significance of Pauli Matrices and Others in a Plane

Authors: Hongbing Zhang

The geometric significance of complex numbers is well known, such as the meaning of imaginary unit i is to rotate a vector with pi/2, etc. In this article, we will try to find some intuitive geometric significances of Pauli matrices, split-complex numbers, SU(2), SO(3), and their relations, and some other operators often used in quantum physics, including a new method to lead to the spinor-space and Dirac equation.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20584] viXra:1710.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 23:42:10

### General Brachistochrone Curve

Authors: Hongbing Zhang

In history, the problem of Johann Bernoulli's Brachistochrone Curve (BBC) was assumed the case that the force of gravity on the falling body is constant, for example, the case of near the surface of the Earth. In this article, we will propose and solve a new problem of the General Brachistochrone Curve (GBC), in case of the body falling in a large space of Newton gravity field, or in stronger Newton gravity field, in which the force of gravity is inversely proportional to the square of the height above the center of the star or planet.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20583] viXra:1710.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 23:46:11

### Matrix-Representations of Tensors

Authors: Hongbing Zhang

The metric tensor of Minkowski space-time, the electromagnetic field tensor, etc., are usually represented by 4x4 matrices in many textbooks, but in this paper we will demonstrate that this form of matrix-representation is unreasonable. We will introduce more reasonable rules of matrix-form for representing any (p,q)-type tensor.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20582] viXra:1710.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 01:23:27

### Interest Theory

Authors: Chuanli Chen

In this paper I will put forward my own interest theory. I will discuss the factors that could influence the real interest rate. I will discuss the relationship between the interest, money supply and money demand.
Category: Economics and Finance

[20581] viXra:1710.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 05:22:01

### A Framework for Pest Analysis Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Map: Case Study in a Vertical Farming Initiative

Authors: Wilmer Ortiz Choez, Marcos Quinteros Cortázar, Shirley Huerta Cruz, Katiuska Rubira Carvache

Recently, neutrosophic cognitive maps and its application in decision making have become a topic of great importance for researchers and practitioners alike. In this paper, a new model PEST analysis is presented based on neutrosophic cognitive maps static analysis. The proposed framework is composed of five activities, identifying PEST factors and sub-factors, modelling interrelation among PEST factors, calculate centrality measures, factor classification, and factors ranking. A case study developed in environment analysis for a vertical farming project was presented, ranking factor based in interrelation and incorporating indeterminacy in the analysis. Further works will concentrate extending the model for incorporating scenario analysis.
Category: General Mathematics

[20580] viXra:1710.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 05:23:34

### Competencies Evaluation Based on Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers and Decision Analysis Schema

Recently, neutrosophic sets and its application to decision making have become a topic of significant im-portance for researchers and practitioners. The present work addresses one of the most complex aspects of the formative process based on competencies: evaluation. In this paper, a new method for competencies evaluation is developed in a multicriteria framework.
Category: General Mathematics

[20579] viXra:1710.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 05:24:39

### Covering-Based Rough Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Yingcang Ma, Wanying Zhou, Qing Wan

Rough sets theory is a powerful tool to deal with uncertainty and incompleteness of knowledge in information systems. Wang et al. proposed single valued neutrosophic sets as an extension of intuitionistic fuzzy sets to deal with real-world problems. In this paper, we propose the covering-based rough single valued neutrosophic sets by combining covering-based rough sets and single valued neutrosophic sets.
Category: General Mathematics

[20578] viXra:1710.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 05:25:46

### Decision Support Based on Single Valued Neutrosophic Number for Information System Project Selection

Authors: Silvia Liliana Tejada Yepez

Neutrosophic sets and its application to decision support have become a topic of great importance for researchers and practitioners alike. In this paper, a new model for decision making in the selection of information system projects is presented based on single valued neutrosophic number (SVN-numbers) allowing the use of linguistic variables with multiples points of view from experts.
Category: General Mathematics

[20577] viXra:1710.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 05:26:53

### More On P-Union and P-Intersection of Neutrosophic Soft Cubic Set

Authors: R. Anitha Cruz, F. Nirmala Irudayam

The P-union, P-intersection, P-OR and P-AND of neutrosophic soft cubic sets are introduced and their related properties are investigated. We show that the Punion and the P-intersection of two internal neutrosophic soft cubic sets are also internal neutrosophic soft cubic sets.
Category: General Mathematics

[20576] viXra:1710.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 05:35:31

### Neutrosophy for Software Requirement Prioritization

Authors: Ronald Barriga Dias, Wilmer Ortiz Choez, Inelda Martillo Alcivar, Wilber Ortiz Aguilar

Software engineers are involved in complex decisions that require multiples viewpoints. A specific case is the requirement prioritization process. This process is used to decide which software requirement to develop in certain release from a group of candidate requirements. Criteria involved in this process can involve indeterminacy. In this paper a software requirement prioritization model is develop based SVN numbers. Finally, an illustrative example is presented in order to show the proposed model.
Category: General Mathematics

[20575] viXra:1710.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 05:36:23

### On New Measures of Uncertainty for Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Pinaki Majumdar

The notion of entropy of single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNS) was first introduced by Majumdar and Samanta in [10]. In this paper some problems with the earlier definition of entropy has been pointed out and a new modified definition of entropy for SVNS has been proposed.
Category: General Mathematics

[20574] viXra:1710.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 07:10:03

### An Extended Topsis for Multi-Attribute Decision Making Problems with Neutrosophic Cubic Information

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache

The paper proposes a new technique for dealing with multi-attribute decision making problems through an extended TOPSIS method under neutrosophic cubic environment. Neutrosophic cubic set is the generalized form of cubic set and is the hybridization of a neutrosophic set with an interval neutrosophic set. In this study, we have defined some operation rules for neutrosophic cubic sets and proposed the Euclidean distance between neutrosophic cubic sets.
Category: General Mathematics

[20573] viXra:1710.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 07:11:01

### Extension of Crisp Functions on Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Sabu Sebastian, Florentin Smarandache

In this paper, we generalize the definition of Neutrosophic sets and present a method for extending crisp functions on Neutrosophic sets and study some properties of such extended functions.
Category: General Mathematics

[20572] viXra:1710.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 07:12:13

### Multi Criteria Decision Making Using Correlation Coefficient Under Rough Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Rumi Roy, Tapan Kumar Roy, Florentin Smarandache

In this paper, we define correlation coefficient measure between any two rough neutrosophic sets. We also prove some of its basic properties. We develop a new multiple attribute group decision making method based on the proposed correlation coefficient measure.
Category: General Mathematics

[20571] viXra:1710.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 07:13:21

### Neutrosophic Regular Filters and Fuzzy Regular Filters in Pseudo-BCI Algebras

Authors: Xiaohong Zhang, Yingcang Ma, Florentin Smarandache

Neutrosophic set is a new mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. Pseudo-BCI algebra is a kind of non-classical logic algebra in close connection with various non-commutative fuzzy logics.
Category: General Mathematics

[20570] viXra:1710.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 07:15:08

### Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: S. Broumi, A. Dey, A. Bakali, M. Talea, F. Smarandache, L. H. Son, D. Koley

In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[20569] viXra:1710.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 12:58:45

### Cargo Cult Science – Electromagnetic Harmonics and Heterodynes

Authors: Frank H. Makinson

The process that produces harmonics and heterodynes are assumed to be well understood. The textbook definitions of these two terms are being tagged herein as cargo cult science because they are incomplete. Harmonics and heterodynes are an effect created when electromagnetic waves interact within a plasma of charged particles. The textbook descriptions of harmonics and heterodynes are based upon fundamental electromagnetic waves, sine waves that represent a single frequency, a special case. The textbook descriptions are based upon interactions that occur within electronic devices, which is a special case. For heterodynes, textbooks do not mention that the interaction within electronic devices are collinear, which is a special case. Radio astronomers are detecting signals coming from space that have spectral characteristics unlike anything taught in the textbooks. Contemporary radio astronomers would be the primary group of individuals that would be misled by the incomplete information provided in the textbooks.
Category: Astrophysics

[20568] viXra:1710.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 13:00:37

### Activation of Autophagy Process in Cancerous Cells at Quasi-Zero Gravity Environments

Authors: Fran De Aquino

Autophagy is a well-known process of cell death. In this work we show that it can be actived in cancerous cells at Quasi-Zero Gravity environments. The result is the total destruction of the cancerous cells without use of medicaments.
Category: Physics of Biology

[20567] viXra:1710.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 13:46:16

### Thermophysical Properties and Heat Transfer Using Nanofluids: a Review

Authors: Enrique Marcet Garcia, Eddy Martinez Padron, Marcelo Marcet Sanchez

Nanofluids are considered to offer significantly more advantages in heat transfer than conventional fluids. Recently theoretical and experimental research papers appeared in the literature on thermophysical properties of nanofluids and enhancement of heat transfer using suspensions of nanoparticles. The aim of this review summarizes the results of research papers about thermophysical properties and forced convection heat transfer with nanofluids.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[20566] viXra:1710.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 13:48:15

### Gnuplantex: a Novel Free Software for Analyzing Texture and Color in Plants; Its Industrial Application.

Authors: Enrique Marcet Garcia

In many industrial applications where plants are used as raw material in the production process, is important to perform a proper phytosanitary and quality control. To perform these controls is possible by raw materials visual inspection, however, to analyze texture and color in plants would allow identifying/quantifying problems as: nutrient deficiencies; diseases (caused by fungi, bacteria, etc.), as well as to identify problems in industrial process. The aims of this paper are: (1) to develop free software (GPL) for texture analysis (GLCM), color measurement (CIELab) and color-difference calculation using CIEDE2000; (2) software application in the analysis of Moringa oleifera Lam leaves. For programming the software we used Perl and wxBasic languages. GNUplantex is easy-to-use software. It is available at: http://www.2shared.com/file/tvzJPBy5/gnuplantex.html
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[20565] viXra:1710.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 14:04:05

### Gravitational Waves GW150914 and Supernova Sn1987a

Authors: Nikitin A P
Comments: 7 Pages. (RUS)

This article discusses two grand cosmological events: an explosion of blue supergiant - a star Sanduleak-69º 202 to form Supernova SN1987A, which remains unexplained, compared with at least a grand merger event black holes GW150914, from which the LIGO Collaboration account gravitational wave (GW). From the point of view of the theory of energy - electrodynamics, developed by the author, in physical terms, these two events are not fundamentally different: in all cases, the motion of matter must be radiated GW as part of the whole spectrum of radiation. It is predicted, along with the gravitational, neutrino and photon radiation from GW150914. By analogy with SN1987A, in the case of the merger of black holes after GW150914 GW signal through 10720 s ± 4000 s (~3h 00m 00s ± 1h 06m 40s) to come back to Earth the first neutrino signal (if option is possible that the first neutrino signal came earlier gravity) through 112.9·106 s (~3.6 years) after gravitational signal - the second neutrino signal through 66.031·106 s (~ 2.0924 years) after which the photon flash should be observed. Neutrino signals can be recorded on the IceCube Neutrino Observatory and other neutrino observatories.
Category: Astrophysics

[20564] viXra:1710.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 00:49:32

### The Middle Universe Revised

Authors: Justin White
Comments: 7 Pages. Do you keep a track of who downloads each paper?

The middle Universe is the universe we see rather than the speculative constructions of cosmology. Could the institutions of speculative astrophysics be handing down to us an inaccurate view of the universe. Schwarzschild's formula for a gravitational radius contains a mathematical fallacy. No black holes. Go figure.
Category: Astrophysics

[20563] viXra:1710.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 01:35:25

### Theorem of Prime Pair Distribution

Authors: Choe Ryujin

Theorem of prime pair distribution
Category: Number Theory

[20562] viXra:1710.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 04:53:35

### The Quantization of Space

Authors: Uta Volkenborn, Heinz Volkenborn
Comments: 10 pages, 2 figures

Abstract The fine-structure constant α=1/137 demands a quantization of space. For this purpose, we refer to a volume constant of electromagnetic processes, which takes effect as a volume quantum. This involves not only a re-evaluation of the Dirac equation but also, and above all, a determination of Einstein’s velocity vector as the fundamental property of these processes. A prerequisite is the linking of the hydrogen spectrum with the hydrogen nucleus.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[20561] viXra:1710.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 05:55:47

### Projection Gravitation, a Projection Force from 5-Dimensional Space-Time Into 4-Dimensional Space-Time

Authors: XiaoLin Li

A new gravity theory. Gravity is a projection force from 5-dimensional space-time into 4-dimensional space-time. The Lorentz symmetry is a projection of particle-wave symmetry from 5-dimensional space-time into 4-dimensional space-time. The gravity is an additional projection force of Lorentz symmetry. The new gravity is an extension to Lorentz symmetry. The new gravity can be seen as some kind of symmetry. Gravity only exists in 4-dimensional space-time. In 5-dimensional space-time, there not have gravity. Equivalence principle is invalid in the new gravitation. In the new gravitation, there does not have gravitational acceleration. In the new gravitation, there only have inertial coordinates, not have non-inertial coordinates. In the new gravitation, the gravity source is only the rest mass, not energy. The particle can’t be the gravity source if the particle not has rest mass. The photon not has gravity. But any particle can be affected by gravity. The photon is affected by gravity also. The gravitational mass is only equivalent to the rest mass. Under approximate weak gravity and approximate circular orbit condition, the new gravitation is equivalent to the General Relativity. The four classic experimental tests, the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of mercury, the red shift of light by the sun, the radar echo delay, are experimental tests to the new gravitation also. But even under approximate weak gravity condition, if the orbit is not approximate circular, if the orbit has higher eccentricity, there exists obvious difference between the General Relativity and the new gravitation. This difference can be a experimental test to distinguish which one is more realistic. The space-time is flat in the new gravitation, not is curved. In the new gravitation, the energy is conserved. The new gravitation is simpler than the General Relativity. In the new gravitation, the photon’s equivalent gravitational acceleration is twice of the acceleration in Newton Gravitation. In the new gravitation, there not exists black hole, but exists empty hole, and not exists space-time singularity and energy singularity. The new gravity has obvious scale effect. The new gravity has the scale factor. In gravity field, the scale factor determines the quantization results of particle’s motion. The new gravity perhaps is a force that inhibits the uncertainty of macroscopic objects.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20560] viXra:1710.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 09:09:35

### Quantum Simulator of Plant Metabolism

Authors: George Rajna

A quantum simulator is the preliminary stage of a quantum computer. [25] By finding materials that act in ways similar to the mechanisms that biology uses to retain and process information, scientists hope to find clues to help us build smarter computers. [25] Scientists have made a crucial step towards unlocking the "holy grail" of computing-microchips that mimic the way the human brain works to store and process information. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[20559] viXra:1710.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 09:12:45

### A Solution of the Fermat Conjecture

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá

It is obtained a solution of the Fermat conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[20558] viXra:1710.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 09:44:37

### Prime Set Representation

Authors: Steven Shawcross
Comments: 9 Pages. A version of this paper is copyrighted by Steven Shawcross, 2003.

The integer 2 satisfies the divisibility definition of a prime number: it is only divisible by itself and 1. The integer 1 also satisfies this definition, and yet, mathematicians generally do not consider 1 a prime. Rather 1 merits a class of its own, belonging neither to the prime nor composite class. In divisibility theory, 2 does occupy a special subclass within the class of prime numbers: it is the only even prime. This paper introduces a theory of numbers called the Prime Set Representation Theory. This theory utilizes the odd primes and does not rely on the primeness of 2. In Prime Set Representation Theory, the odd primes are building blocks of the theory; all integers, including 2, have representations in terms of them. The import of the theory is not to dislodge the integer 2 from its solitary, even-prime status. The theory's efficacy is a better understanding of the distribution of primes, twin primes, and primes of the form x^2 + 1. A natural extension of the theory yields valid and strikingly direct approximation formulas for these prime classifications. The same theory furnishes a new and improved approximation to the number of Goldbach pairs associated with general even number 2n (the improvement is relative to Sylvester's formula for Goldbach pairs, but the formula performs well vis-à-vis the Hardy-Littlewood formulas in the ranges tested).
Category: Number Theory

[20557] viXra:1710.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 10:05:28

### Brain Resting State, Landauer Principle and Carnot Cycle

Authors: Deli E, Tozzi A, Peters JF

The brain displays a low-frequency ground energy conformation, called the resting state, which is characterized by energy/information balance via self-regulatory mechanisms. Despite the high-frequency evoked activity accumulates information from the detail-oriented sensory processing of environmental data, nevertheless the brain’s automatic regulation is always able to recover the resting state. Indeed, we show that the two energetic processes are complementary and symmetric: while activation decreases temporal dimensionality via transient bifurcations, the ensuing brain’s response leads to procedures that satisfy the Landauer’s principle. Landauer’s principle, which states that information erasure requires energy, predicts heat accumulation in the system: this means that information accumulation is correlated with increases in temperature and with actions that recover the resting state. We explain how brain synaptic networks frame a closed system, similar to the Carnot cycle, where the information/energy cycle accumulates as energy of synaptic connections, and then dissipates in the resting state. In deep learning, representation of information might occur via the same mechanism.
Category: Mind Science

[20556] viXra:1710.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 11:27:47

### Agni God of Fire is Purely Scientific

Authors: Royan Rosche

Agni, the God of Fire is of pure scientific origin
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[20555] viXra:1710.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 13:36:27

### The Photoeffect by Dressed Photon

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 6 Pages. The original ideas

We calculate the photoelectric effect initiated by dressed photon. The photon propagator is composed from the electron positron pair.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20554] viXra:1710.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 16:05:16

### Using a Syntonized Free Fall Grid of Atomic Clocks in Ehlers-Pirani-Schild Weyl Space to Derive Second Order Relativistic GNSS Redshift Terms

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas

In GNSS, the improvement of atomic clocks will lead to Phi/c^2 in relativistic gravitational redshift three to four decades from today. Research towards a relativistic positioning system capable of handling this expected accuracy is all based upon the Schwarzschild metric as a replacement of todays GNSS Euclidian-Newtonian metric. The method employed in this paper to determining frequency shifts between atomic clocks is an intermediate Minkowski-EEP approach. This approach is based on relating two atomic clocks to one another through a background ensemble of frequency gauged clocks, a grid. The crucial grid of this paper, the Free Fall Grid or FFG, can be related to the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild P-CP Weyl space formalism, when applied to a central mass. The FFG second order in Phi/c^2 redshifts are derived for static to static, static to satellite and satellite to satellite atomic oscillators and then compared to GR-Schwarzschild and PPN (Parametrized Post Newtonian) results.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20553] viXra:1710.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 15:01:31

### Mach Principle and the Principle of Relativity: the Energy View

Authors: Nikitin A P
Comments: 22 Pages. (RUS)

The article is devoted to Mach's "many-sided" principle and relativity principle, which are considered from the point of view of the energy theory, in which all changes and interactions (including gravitational ones) are viewed not as power interactions and manifestations of space-time curvature, but as manifestations and consequences of motion matter, which occurs as a drain and the source of matter and is described as the movement of energy. The article gives an overview of the primary sources of these principles, created by the founders. In the course of the famous thought experiment with two bodies, along with the principle of Mach and the principle of relativity, which are surprisingly interconnected and intertwined, the energy dynamics of moving bodies and such a mysterious phenomenon as the mechanical motion of material bodies in space and time are explored.
Category: Classical Physics

[20552] viXra:1710.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 23:42:47

### Space-Time's Broken Infinity

Authors: Rodney Bartlett

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20551] viXra:1710.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 00:16:04

### Einstein Beyond Relativity

Authors: Rodney Bartlett

A little over 4 centuries ago, Galileo concluded - and possibly confirmed by experiment - that different weights hit the ground at the same time when dropped from a height (discounting air resistance). This agrees with Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity; which proposes that gravity is the curvature of space-time pushing objects towards, say, the surface of a planet. It says this curvature acts equally on all bodies, making massive and less massive ones fall at equal rates. However, Einstein published a paper in 1919 (four years after General Relativity) asking if gravitation plays an essential role in formation of matter's particles. If it does, there would be more gravity acting on a massive body and it would fall slightly faster. The rate at which different objects fall is the subject of a French-backed space experiment called Microscope. Einstein's 1919 paper did more than suggest limitations of his general relativity. It seems to have been the launching pad for his Unified Field Theory; which occupied the last 30 years of his life, sought to unite gravitation with electromagnetism, and proposed that this unified field connected all parts of time and space. While the unified field theory is generally considered a failure, my own conviction is that it could transform into a world-changing success through the application of quantum mechanics, something Einstein didn't approve of because he regarded it as incomplete.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20550] viXra:1710.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 01:31:22

### The Quantum Theory of the Electron and the Photon

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 87 Pages. I still plan to add a few more sections detailing the quantum behavior of the magnetic moment Hamiltionian, as has been done for the Schroedinger Hamiltionian. But the paper is sufficiently developed that sharing is warranted at this time.

Dirac’s seminal 1928 paper “The Quantum Theory of the Electron” is the foundation of how we presently understand the behavior of fermions in electromagnetic fields, including their magnetic moments. In sum, it is, as titled, a quantum theory of individual electrons, but in classical electromagnetic fields comprising large numbers of photons. Based on the electrodynamic time dilations which the author has previously presented and which arise by geometrizing the Lorentz Force motion, there arises an even-richer variant of the Dirac equation which merges into the ordinary Dirac equation in the linear limits. This advanced Dirac theory naturally enables the magnetic moment anomaly to be entirely explained without resort to renormalization and other ad hoc add-ons, and it also permits a detailed, granular understanding of how individual fermions interact with individual photons strictly on the quantum level. In sum, it advances Dirac theory to a quantum theory of the electron and the photon and their one-on-one interactions. Seven distinct experimental tests are proposed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20549] viXra:1710.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 03:32:34

### Salvaging Newton's 313 Year Old Corpuscular Theory of Light

Comments: 7 Pages. Accepted to Prespacetime Journal

As is well known – Newton's corpuscular model of light can explain the Law of Reflection and Snell's Law of Refraction. Sadly and regrettably – its predictions about the speed of light in different mediums runs contrary to experience. Because of this, Newton's theory of light was abandoned in favour of the wave theory. It [Newton's corpuscular model of light] predicts that the speed of light is larger in higher density mediums. This prediction was shown to be wrong by Foucault's 1850 landmark-ing experiment that brought down Newton's theory. The major assumption of Newton's corpuscular model of light is that the corpuscles of light have an attraction with the particle of the medium. When the converse is assumed, i.e., the corpuscles of light are assumed to not have an attraction-effect, but a repulsion-effect with the particles of the medium, one obtains the correct predictions of the speed of light in denser mediums. This assumption of Newton's corpuscles repelling with the particles of the medium – this, might explain why light has the maximum speed in any given medium.
Category: Classical Physics

[20548] viXra:1710.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 13:01:16

### Quantum Entanglement of 16 Million Atoms

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20547] viXra:1710.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 15:13:40

### Die Swastika Und Ihre Technische Bedeutung im Detail 2.2

Authors: Robert Stach

Aufgezeigt wird die Möglichkeit der Wechselwirkung zwischen der Rotationsenergie der Erde und ihrer Gravitationskraft zur Energieumwandlung ihrer Rotationsenergie in mechanische / elektrische Energie. Hinweise zum Michelson-Experiment (Bezugssysteme) und zur Konstanz der Lichtgeschwindigkeit
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[20546] viXra:1710.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 16:20:37

### The Modified KdV Equations

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

Here are introduced KdV type equations following the stationary solution which is the Weierstrass fonction of an elliptic curve.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20545] viXra:1710.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 03:22:03

### The Rest Frame of the Michelson-Morley Experiment as the Preferred Reference Frame in the Special Theory of Relativity

In order to explain the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein denied the existence of the absolute reference frame. It will be shown that all Einstein did was replace the absolute reference frame with another preferred reference frame: the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley apparatus. According to the Special Theory of Relativity (SRT ) , there is no preferred reference frame and all inertial reference frames are equivalent in predicting and analyzing the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. No reference frame, including the rest frame of the experiment, has any special significance different from other reference frames. It will be shown that the SRT analysis of the experiment violates this principle. This is because all other inertial observers moving relative to the Michelson-Morley apparatus do not know the outcome of the experiment until they get the experimental result of the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus. Only then can they use the Lorentz Transformation equations to ‘predict’ the outcome of the experiment in their own reference frames. If all inertial reference frames are really equivalent, why not first analyze the experiment in one of the reference frames moving relative to the apparatus, in which case there will be a fringe shift δ, and use Lorentz Transformation so that all other observers ( including the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus ) agree on the same fringe shift δ. The Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) is just another form of Lorentz ether theory ( LET): both depend on a preferred reference frame. In LET the ether is the preferred reference frame, while in SRT the rest frame of the experimental apparatus is the preferred reference frame. SRT only shifted the privilege of deciding the outcome of the experiment from the absolute reference frame to the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley experiment. The same hidden fallacy exists in the SRT analysis of the Trouton-Noble experiment. An alternative theory of absolute motion and the speed of light will be proposed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20544] viXra:1710.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 06:10:54

### Thoughts on Negative Heat Capacities

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies

By referring to well-established deductions from the Second Law of Thermodynamics and to the fact that concavity is the essence of this law, it is shown that the existence of negative heat capacities for closed systems is incompatible with the Second Law. However, it is seen that the heat capacity of an open system could be negative.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[20543] viXra:1710.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 06:26:21

### On the Statistical Nature of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies

It is intended here to consider the Second Law of Thermodynamics and various deductions made from it, especially the introduction of the quantity known as the entropy. The starting point will be the formulations of the law in classical thermodynamics. Attention will then move to so-called statistical thermodynamics to help illustrate the point that the Second Law of Classical Thermodynamics is certainly not statistical in nature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[20542] viXra:1710.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 06:26:01

### Relativity Explained

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

This paper explains some aspects of relativity and added some new inventions
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20541] viXra:1710.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 06:53:15

### More Speed Invention

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

This paper tries a new attempt to space travel at higher speeds
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20540] viXra:1710.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 07:23:08

### Spin Current Detection in Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna

A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20539] viXra:1710.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 08:51:55

### How to Effect a Composite Rotation of a Vector via Geometric (Clifford) Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith

We show how to express the representation of a composite rotation in terms that allow the rotation of a vector to be calculated conveniently via a spreadsheet that uses formulas developed, previously, for a single rotation. The work presented here (which includes a sample calculation) also shows how to determine the bivector angle that produces, in a single operation, the same rotation that is effected by the composite of two rotations.
Category: Geometry

[20538] viXra:1710.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-12 05:04:05

### Visualizing Zeta(n) and Proving Its Irrationality

Authors: Timothy W. Jones

Using concentric circles that form sector areas of rational areas, an adaptation of Cantor's diagonal method shows that zeta(2n+1), n>1, is irrational.
Category: Number Theory

[20537] viXra:1710.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-12 05:09:44

### Shortest Light Pulse Ever

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9]
Category: Condensed Matter

[20536] viXra:1710.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-12 07:40:37

### Observable Universe Topology and Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Alberto Coe

The standard cosmological model defines the Observable Universe as the region of the Universe observed from the earth at the present time ; all the signals that have arrived to the earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion .The fruitful formula of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle allow us to explore some issues concerning the observable universe . One of them is the possible topology of the universe according to recent cosmological data . The other one is the cosmological constant value , arising numerically from the Heisenberg principle . Finally will describe a numerical depiction about the evolution of the observable universe wich involves the Hubble parameter , the number of stars , the hydrogen molecule , the degrees of freedom of the hydrogen mulecule related to the amount of information of ordinary matter and the surface area of the observable universe as the universe’s event horizon .
Category: Classical Physics

[20535] viXra:1710.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-12 10:42:50

### Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

Authors: Advances in the Collective Interface

A byproduct of 2AI.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[20534] viXra:1710.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-12 11:04:15

### Chur-Type Theorems for K-Triangular Lattice Group-Valued Set Functions with Respect to Filter Convergence

Authors: Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

We prove some Schur and limit theorems for lattice group-valued k-triangular set functions with respect to filter convergence, by means of sliding hump-type techniques. As consequences, we deduce some Vitali-Hahn-Saks and Nikodym-type theorems.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[20533] viXra:1710.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-12 11:12:18

### Advances in the Collective Interface

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

A byproduct of 2AI.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[20532] viXra:1710.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 01:09:58

### Energy Content of °Kelvin and Heat Transfer Between Matter / Energie-Inhalt Von °Kelvin Und Wärmeübertragung Zwischen Materien

Authors: Walter Ruh
Comments: 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

This work provides the long-sought explanation for the heat transportation between matter. Outgoing from the fact that degrees Kelvin disappears in heat-energy calculations and easily transforms into Energy-units it has been recognized that for Kelvin there must be a physical base consisting of a certain quantity defined by the units of kg, m, s. The solution is old and long known. The Bolzmann constant is 1.38064*10^-23 J/K The exact statement of this constant is: The kinetic energy per degree Kelvin per atom of different kind (or per particle) is always 1.38064*10^-23 J. The full interpretation of the physical statement of this constant is not obvious: Each atom, each particle, has the same kinetic energy at the same temperature, which is 1.38064*10^-23 J per degree Kelvin. This explanation provides the detailed explanation for heat transfer. From the results the physical explanations for the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube and for "friction generates heat" is given. Diese Arbeit liefert die seit langem gesuchte Erklärung für den Wärmetransport zwischen Materie. Ausgehend von der Tatsache, dass Grad Kelvin bei der Berechnung der Wärmeenergie verschwindet und sich in Energieeinheiten umwandelt, wurde erkannt, dass es für Kelvin eine physikalische Grösse geben muss, die aus Wert und durch die Einheiten kg, m, s definiert ist. Die Lösung ist alt und seit langem bekannt. Die Bolzmann-Konstante ist 1.38064*10^-23 J / K. Die genaue Aussage dieser Konstante lautet: Die kinetische Energie pro Grad Kelvin pro Atom verschiedener Art (oder pro Teilchen) beträgt immer 1.38064*10^-23 J. Die vollständige Interpretation der physikalischen Aussage dieser Konstante ist nicht offensichtlich: Jedes Atom, jedes Teilchen hat dieselbe kinetische Energie bei der gleichen Temperatur, die 1,38064*10^-23*J pro Grad Kelvin ist. Diese Einsicht liefert eine detaillierte Erklärung für die Wärmeübertragung. Aus den Ergebnissen werden die physikalischen Grundlagen für das Ranque-Hilsch-Wirbelrohr und für "Reibung erzeugt Wärme" erklärbar.
Category: Classical Physics

[20531] viXra:1710.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 01:17:37

### The Modified Dirac Operator

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 5 pages, written in french

The Dirac operator is twisted by a symmetric automorphism, the Dirac-Lichnerowicz formula is proved. An application for the Seiberg-Witten equations is proposed.
Category: Geometry

[20530] viXra:1710.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 09:28:00

### Theory of Discrete Gravity

Authors: Mihir Kumar jha

Theory of everything (T.O.E), final theory or ultimate theory is a theoretical framework in the field of physics, which holds an ultimate key to unify all the fundamental forces of nature in a single field. In other words such theory can glue quantum mechanics with general relativity into a single framework. Many theories have been postulated over the decades but the dominant one includes string theory and loop quantum gravity. In this paper I would like to present a new framework which can unify quantum mechanics with general relativity by showing that the change in Riemannian metric or the bend in space time is always an integral multiple of planks constant and since gravity is the result due to bend in space-time, gravity itself is a discrete force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20529] viXra:1710.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 10:17:33

### Quest for the Ultimate Automaton

Authors: Alexandre Furtado Neto

Abstract A fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton is presented axiomatically using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. In this toy universe, the four forces of nature are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix. This is the first, raw, version of this document. I expect to make corrections in future releases.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20528] viXra:1710.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 10:30:41

### Fundamental Connection Between the Planck and Hubble Constants

Authors: Nikitin A P
Comments: 10 Pages. (RUS)

In this article it is stated that there is a fundamental connection between the basic constant of the quantum theory - the Planck constant h and the basic constant of astrophysics - the Hubble constant H, which states the material-energy unity of our world in theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20527] viXra:1710.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 10:47:52

### GRT Experiment: Supernova Sn1987a

Authors: Nikitin A. P.
Comments: 6 Pages. (RUS)

General relativity (GRT), created by the genius of Einstein from 1907 to 1915 as a geometric theory of gravity, developing special theory of relativity (STR), has been 100 years does not rest and excites minds. Since then, it performed many experiments to confirm with great accuracy GRT. In this paper, we propose to draw attention to the possibility of direct experimental verification of the dependence of the velocity of light by the gravitational potential, what Einstein wrote in 1911 in his article «On the effect of gravity on light propagation» [1, V1, p.172 ]. We assume that nature itself has put this experiment in space in the presence of "dark matter", namely: February 23, 1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud broke out amazing supernova SN1987A, from which the light came to Earth 2h 47m later neutrinos. On the basis of numerous observations are given an explanation of this fact in terms of changing the speed of light neutrinos, and depending on the time-varying gravitational potential of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[20526] viXra:1710.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 07:44:42

### Question 201: a Fractal Image

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito

This note presents a fractal image for f(z)=ln(1+g(z)).
Category: Geometry

[20525] viXra:1710.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 07:50:42

### Question 402: A Definite Integral

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito

This note presents a definite integral
Category: General Mathematics

[20524] viXra:1710.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 11:54:50

### Statistical Relationships Involving Benford's Law, the Lognormal Distribution, and the Summation Theorem

Authors: Robert C. Hall

Regarding Benford's law, many believe that the statistical data sources follow a Benford's law probability density function(1/xLn(10))when, in actuality, it follows a Lognormal probability density function. The only data that strictly follows a Benford's law probability density function is an exponential function i.e. a number (base) raised to a power x. The other sets of data conform to a Lognormal distribution and, as the standard deviation approaches infinity, approximates a true Benford distribution. Also, the so called Summation theorem whereby the sum of the values with respect to the first digits is a uniform distribution only applies to an exponential function. The data derived from the aforementioned Lognormal distribution is more likely to conform to a Benford like distribution as the data seems to indicate.
Category: Number Theory

[20523] viXra:1710.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 13:37:47

### Higher Order Logic( HOL) Based Configuration & Verification of Smart Watches – A Short Communication & Novel Suggestion to Develop an Informatics Framework

Authors: N.T.Kumar, Thiago R, Sandro B, Vinicius R, Lisane V, Vanderlei P
Comments: 4 Pages. HOL/JVM/Circadian Systems/Smart Watches/Hardware Configuration&Verification

In this short communication we focused on Higher Order Logic(HOL) based configuration and verification of hardware in the java virtual machine environment(JVM) using HOL-Isabelle system. Smart Watches are fast becoming excellent information processing devices to monitor health.Hence we wish to communicate our idea in the context of circadian systems and informatics applications
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[20522] viXra:1710.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 20:27:18

### Proof of Happy Ending Problem

Authors: Choe ryujin

Proof of happy ending problem
Category: Geometry

[20521] viXra:1710.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 21:03:23

### Matematical Certainty

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 2 Pages. Mathematical certainty often does not translate; but here the stringent analytical means of it's establishment are presented.

Mathematical certainty is defined in terms of sets and deterministic variables; in terms of the error root mean squared deviation.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[20520] viXra:1710.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 22:40:39

### About Longitudinal Waves of an Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev

Is shown the solution the problem scalar longitudinal waves without introducing any additional members in the canonical Lagrangian of the field or in the Maxwell equations that ensure the existence of a longitudinal wave component. The Lame equation for the electromagnetic field is obtained, which describes transverse and longitudinal waves, as well as the Fock-Podolsky wave equation for longitudinal electroscalar waves that do not have a magnetic component. It is shown that the terms of the Lorentz gauge condition describe a four-dimensional volume deformation of the electromagnetic field
Category: Classical Physics

[20519] viXra:1710.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 23:58:28

### Die Swastika Und Ihre Technische Bedeutung im Detail 2

Authors: Robert Stach

Wechselwirkung zwischen der Rotationsenergie der Erde und der Graviationskraft zur Gewinnung von elektr. Energie, Michelson- Experiment und die Realativitätstheorie
Category: Classical Physics

[20518] viXra:1710.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 13:27:10

### Electron Still Seems Round

Authors: George Rajna

JILA physicists have for the first time used their spinning molecules technique to measure the "roundness" of the electron, confirming the leading results from another group and suggesting that more precise assessments are possible. [18] The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20517] viXra:1710.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 17:03:35

### On the Validity of Quantum Physics Below the Planck Length

Authors: Joseph F. Messina

The widely held expectation that quantum physics breaks down below the Planck length ($10^{-33}$ cm) is brought into question. A possible experiment is suggested that might test its validity at a sub-Planckian length scale.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20516] viXra:1710.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 15:05:43

### Quantum Equitation in Empty Space Using Mutual Energy and Self-Energy Principle

Authors: shuang-ren Zhao

Abstract For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended this to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results is that a electron for example travel in the empty space from point A to the point B there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return wave corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these wave. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flow corresponding the above two flow. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the space is a complicated process and not only with one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further widen to to Dirac equation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20515] viXra:1710.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 20:58:30

### Mass Function

Authors: Harry Watson

Let Q denote a function from the nonnegative integers into the real numbers, such that: Q(0) = 1.000000509157; Q(1) = Q(0) * (4pi)); Q(2) = Q(0) * (4pi) * (4pi-1/pi); Q(3) = Q(0) * (4pi) * (4pi-1/pi) * (4pi-2/pi); Q(4) = Q(0) * (4pi) * (4pi-1/pi) * (4pi-2/pi) * (4pi-3/pi); Q(5) = Q(0) * (4pi) * (4pi-1/pi) * (4pi-2/pi) * (4pi-3/pi) * (4pi-4/pi). Consider Q(3) = 1836.15267389 and Q(5)=240773.8273. Q(3) is the CODATA value for the ratio of the proton mass to the electron mass. Q(5) approximates the mass ratio of the Higgs Boson to the electron. (The value of Q(5)/Q(3) is 131.1295246. If the CODATA value for the mass ratio of the proton to the electron is revised, it will only have to be changed in Q(0). The approximation Q(5)/Q(3) is compared with changing values of the mass ratio of the Higgs Boson to the proton. harry.watson@att.net
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20514] viXra:1710.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 23:07:27

### Is it so Hard to Prove the Poincare Conjecture?

Authors: Dmitri Martila

It is amazing to see, how the problems find their solutions. Even such extremely long as the 1200 pages of the ABC-hypothesis proof of the Japan Perelman'', which is needed to be consumed by the most brilliant men to come. And like the first PCs were huge but became compact, the large proofs can turn into very compact ones. \copyright
Category: Topology

[20513] viXra:1710.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 02:54:20

### Arrow of Time

Authors: Eran sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar

The arrow of time is the "one-way direction" or "asymmetry" of time. The thermodynamic arrow of time is provided by the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which says that in an isolated system, entropy tends to increase with time (Wikipedia). Nevertheless, this asymmetry of time is not intuitive based on the Einstein’s field equations that relate to space and time as one entity. Since space is symmetrical to all directions time is also expected to be a “two way direction”. Based on Einstein’s field equations mass curves space time and curvature of spacetime is actually what Newtonian physics refer to as potential energy or the gravitational field. Two major questions can arise from this field equation interpretation: 1. Mass m, has a well-defined inherent energy based on Einstein’s special relativity equation, = 2 .The mass curves space-time and this curvature adds potential energy to its surrounding based on Einstein’s field equations. What is the source of this added potential energy? 2. Since space-time is considered as a unified description and since space is symmetric to all directions, we expect that time should flow symmetrically both to the future and to the past. We know that this is not the case and time flows only towards the future.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20512] viXra:1710.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 03:59:19

### Advanced Bio-Inspired Computing

Authors: George Rajna

By finding materials that act in ways similar to the mechanisms that biology uses to retain and process information, scientists hope to find clues to help us build smarter computers. [25] Scientists have made a crucial step towards unlocking the "holy grail" of computing-microchips that mimic the way the human brain works to store and process information. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[20511] viXra:1710.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 05:04:24

### Grand Unification of 4 Forces According to the Quantum FFF Model by di-Monopole Repeller Rigid String Pressure.

Authors: Leo Vuyk

According to Quantum FFF Theory, ( Function Follows Form at the quantum scale) Mass is the potency of rigid string based Fermions and Bosons, to produce and radiate Gravitons by the collision process, between mass less but energetic oscillating transformable Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and.. more complex shaped compound Fermions or Bosons (W + Z+Higgs family). Gravity is assumed to be the statistical result of local dual opposing graviton pressure (instead of attraction) with opposing Axion Higgs field particles on fermions. A recent example of local vacuum pressure duality is called “Dipole Repeller” gravity by Yehuda Hoffman also suggested partly in line as Emergent Gravity by E. Verlinde. More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons photons per Planck time unit. Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field.. Black holes do not radiate gravitons but “eat” the local vacuum particles leading to a single repeller effect on the growing Black hole nucleus. The ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length and transfer information of monopole photons through the whole universe as long as they do not collide with fermions or bosons. The new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot of Axion Higgs particles, compressed together by the inflow of vacuum particles. As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus . In Quantum FFF Theory, the inertial mass effects of the earth and all atomic fermions is supposed to be originated by the real Lorentz polarization of all fermionic mass of the earth mainly pointing into the direction of motion around the sun, as the opposing effort for the resisting vacuum. Rigid string shaped Fermions are assumed to have a real propeller shape able to plow into the direction of motion through the local space time creating vacuum lattice. Bosons without a propeller shape ( Higgs and Z ) including black hole nuclei, seem to be not able to polarize and will present signals to be "stuck" in the local solar centered vacuum lattice.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20510] viXra:1710.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 05:15:07

### The 'Babylonian' Accounts of Society

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik

The accounts of society reviewed.
Category: Economics and Finance

[20509] viXra:1710.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 06:32:08

### Kurmet's First Theorem and Simple Proof Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Kurmet Sultan
Comments: 2 Pages. This is the Russian version of the manuscript.

The paper describes the First theorem of Kurmet and a simple proof of the Last theorem of Fermat, which was obtained on the basis of Kurmet's First Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[20508] viXra:1710.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 06:35:55

### Kurmet's Second Theorem and Simple Proof Catalan’s Conjecture

Authors: Kurmet Sultan
Comments: 2 Pages. This is the Russian version of the manuscript.

In this paper we describe the Second Theorem of Kurmet and give a simple proof of Catalan’s conjecture on the basis of Kurmet's Second Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[20507] viXra:1710.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 08:50:23

### Solving the Proton Spin Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna

They have successfully deciphered the total angular momentum (spin) of the nucleon, determining how it's shared among its constituents. [12] The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20506] viXra:1710.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 11:31:30

### The 4th Spatial Dimension W

Authors: Mauro Bernardini

This paper attempts to provide a new vision on the 4th spatial dimension starting on the known symmetries of the Euclidean geometry. It results that, the points of the 4th dimensional complex space are circumferences of variable ray. While the axis of the 4th spatial dimension, to be orthogonal to all the three 3d cartesinan axes, is a complex line made of two specular cones surfaces symmetrical on their vertexes corresponding to the common origin of both the real and complex cartesian systems.
Category: Geometry

[20505] viXra:1710.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 03:05:33

### FLT Proof N=4

Authors: Maik Becker-Sievert

Fermats Last Theorem n=4 One line proof
Category: Number Theory

[20504] viXra:1710.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 07:08:24

### Investigation of Connection Between the Moving Magnet Conductor Problem and the Special Theory of Relativity

The Moving Magnet Conductor problem is the problem of 'coincidence' of the effect of magnetic field in the reference frame of the magnet and the effect of electric field in the reference frame of the conductor, the effect being a definite current flowing in the conductor, for a magnet and a conductor in relative motion. In this paper, we will show that this problem will not lead to the theory of relativity, i.e. to the conclusion that absolute motion doesn't exist. This 'coincidence' occurs only in the special case in which at least one of the two ( either the magnet or the conductor ) is at absolute rest and hence is only a special case. In general, the magnet and the conductor can have a relative motion while having a common absolute motion. This is the case, for example, of a magnet - conductor experiment carried out on Earth, which has an absolute velocity of 390 Km/s . In such cases, the motion of the magnet and the motion of the conductor will have different effects even if the relative velocities are the same. We will apply Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) to this problem. In the case of light, the effect of absolute motion for co-moving light source and observer is to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the observer. Therefore, no fringe shift will occur in the Michelson-Morley experiment due to an apparent change of source position for the same reason that no (significant ) fringe shift will occur if the position of the source was actually, physically changed relative to the detector. Intuitively, AST can be stated as: the speed of light is equal to c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction, relative to the source, for a source moving with absolute velocity Vabs. This theory readily explains the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST applies not only to light sources, but also to all electromagnetic sources: sources of electric fields ( charges ) , sources of magnetic fields ( magnets or electromagnets ) and sources of gravitational fields. Therefore, for absolutely co-moving magnet and (infinitesimal) conductor, the effect of absolute velocity is to create an apparent change in position of the magnet as seen by the conductor. The procedure of analysis is to replace the real magnet with an apparent magnet and analyze the problem as if both the apparent magnet and the conductor are at rest. There will not be any current induced in the conductor because the conductor is not moving relative to the magnet ( hence relative to the apparent magnet ). Since the conductor is at rest relative to the magnet, it is also at rest relative to the apparent magnet and hence no current will be induced in the conductor. There will be no induced current in this case for the same reason that there will be no induced current in the case of magnet and conductor both at absolute rest. An intuitive way of stating the same theory is to assume that the magnetic field is carried by the real magnet, but will be distorted due to absolute motion. Therefore, absolute motion of a magnet can be detected by a co-moving observer from the distortion of its field. The magnetic field of a magnet moving with absolute velocity will become weaker in front of the magnet and stronger behind the magnet. The electric field of a charge in absolute motion will become weaker in front of the charge and stronger behind the charge.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20503] viXra:1710.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 08:00:16

### Reversal of Current Flow in a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna

The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20502] viXra:1710.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 08:46:09

### The Regular Polygons in a Circle .

Authors: Markos Georgallides

The Geometrical Inversion Mechanism . In article is presented the Algebraic and Geometric Solution , and the Geometrical Construction of all the n-Regular Polygons . The Method , is the Geometrical - Inversion on three circles , of the Alternate Interior angles of the Mechanism , where Extrema ( maximum or minimum Magnitude between two Positions which are the vertices of any two Sequent-Regular-Even-Polygons ) is expressed in this closed and bounded - interval , as the Inflection or Deflection of Coupler curves , and as the local maximum or minimum between the two Points , and which is their critical point .
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20501] viXra:1710.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 11:39:01

### Simple Relation Between Proton Radius, Bohr Radius and Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. Revised and abridged E-Letter (online: 10 October 2017) in http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6359/79/tab-e-letters

The radius of the proton has aroused a lot interest in recent years, since the reported values vary from 0.8751 fm to 0.8335 fm, where fm = 10-15m. Here the author shows that the former CODATA value obtained for hydrogen can be related to the ground state Bohr radius for hydrogen and the fine structure constant by a simple equation. The latter lower value obtained using muons could be due to the differences in the reduced masses of hydrogen and muon
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20500] viXra:1710.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 12:57:09

### Polynomial-time Integer Factorization Algorithms

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky

polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization reduced to a polynomial-time integer minimization problem over the integer points in a two-dimensional rational polyhedron with conclusion that P = NP and a polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization using enumeration of vertices of integer hull of those two-dimensional rational polyhedron
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[20499] viXra:1710.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 13:47:33

### Uogólnienie Transformacji Galileusza (In Polish)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 18 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

W artykule wyprowadzona została uogólniona transformacja Galileusza. Uzyskana transformacja jest podstawą wyprowadzenia nowej teorii fizycznej, którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru. Uogólnioną transformację Galileusza można wyrazić od prędkości względnych (26)-(27) lub od parametru delta(v) (37)-(38). Na postawie wniosków wynikających z eksperymentu Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a wyznaczony został parametr delta(v). Dzięki temu transformacja przyjmuje szczególną postać (80)-(81), która jest zgodna z eksperymentami, w których mierzono prędkość światła. Na podstawie otrzymanej transformacji wyznaczone zostały wzory na sumowanie prędkości oraz prędkość względną. Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania prowadzone przez jego autorów.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20498] viXra:1710.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 13:58:58

### The de-Composition of the Mechanical Force

Authors: Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

This paper is prepared to show the synthesis of the Newtonian mechanical force and its counter part the inertial force. It is shows that the Newtonian mechanical force splits into two counter forces when it is act upon a rigid body. The paper is also shows the derivation of the momentum and the kinetic energy that occur due to the presence of the inertial force.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20497] viXra:1710.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 16:11:25

### SOPE: A Spatial Order Preserving Encryption Model for Multi-dimensional Data

Authors: Eirini Molla, Theodoros Tzouramanis, Stefanos Gritzalis
Comments: 24 Pages. 37 figures, 2 tables, 60 references

Due to the increasing demand for cloud services and the threat of privacy invasion, the user is suggested to encrypt the data before it is outsourced to the remote server. The safe storage and efficient retrieval of d-dimensional data on an untrusted server has therefore crucial importance. The paper proposes a new encryption model which offers spatial order-preservation for d-dimensional data (SOPE model). The paper studies the operations for the construction of the encrypted database and suggests algorithms that exploit unique properties that this new model offers for the efficient execution of a whole range of well-known queries over the encrypted d-dimensional data. The new model utilizes wellknown database indices, such as the B+-tree and the R-tree, as backbone structures in their traditional form, as it suggests no modifications to them for loading the data and for the efficient execution of the supporting query algorithms. An extensive experimental study that is also presented in the paper indicates the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed encryption model for real-life d-dimensional data applications.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[20496] viXra:1710.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 01:50:30

### Proving the Erdös-Straus Conjecture from Infinite to Finite Equalities

Authors: Zhang Tianshu

We first classify all integers ≥2 into eight kinds, and that formulate each of seven kinds therein into a sum of three unit fractions. For remainder one kind, we classify it into three genera, and that formulate each of two genera therein into a sum of three unit fractions. For remainder one genus, we classify it into five sorts, and that formulate each of three sorts therein into a sum of three unit fractions. For remainder two sorts i.e. 4/(49+120c) and 4/(121+120c) with c≥0, we prove them by logical inference. But miss out 3587 concrete fractions to await computer programming to solve the problem that express each of them into a sum of three unit fractions.
Category: Number Theory

[20495] viXra:1710.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 02:30:13

### Никитин В. Н., Никитин И. В. А что там дальше? Скорость света в энергетической оболочке Вселенной уменьшается до нуля. За её пределами начинается Антивселенная со своими физическими законами.

Authors: A chto tam daleshe?

Скорость света в энергетической оболочке Вселенной уменьшается до нуля. За её пределами начинается Антивселенная со своими физическими законами.
Category: Astrophysics

[20494] viXra:1710.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 12:03:48

### Рhаsе Stаtе аnd Rhеоlоgу оf оrgаnоsiliсоn Nаnоpаrtiсlе Miхturеs with Linеаr роlymеrs (In Russiаn)

Authors: S.O. Iluin, V.V. Makarοva, M.Y. Roluakοva
Comments: 17 Pages. in Russiаn

Thе phаsе stаtе аnd thе rhеоlоgу оf соmpоsitiоns fоrmеd by linеаr pоlymеrs аnd funсtiоnаlizеd siliса nаnоpаrtiсlеs hаvе bееn studiеd. Thе study оf sоlubility shоwеd limitеd misсibility оf thе соmpоnеnts. Аs а rеsult, dеpеnding оn tеmpеrаturе аnd соmpоsitiоn, bоth hеtеrоgеnеоus systеms аnd hоmоgеnеоus соmpоsitiоns wеrе fоrmеd. Thе phаsе stаtе оf thе systеms dеtеrminеd thеir rhеоlоgiсаl prоpеrtiеs, whеrеаs thе соntеnt оf thе linеаr pоlymеr influеnсеd thеir visсоеlаstiсity. Thе hоmоgеnеоus sоlutiоns аnd thе dispеrsiоns with а lоw соntеnt оf еmulsifiеd phаsе wеrе Nеwtоniаn fluids, but thе соnсеntrаtеd hеtеrоgеnеоus systеms wеrе struсturеd аnd visсоplаstiс. If thе соmpоsitiоn оf thе mixturеs соrrеspоnds tо thе binоdаl сurvе, thеy еxhibit аn аnоmаly оf rhеоlоgiсаl prоpеrtiеs.
Category: Chemistry

[20493] viXra:1710.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 12:34:50

### A Simple Suggestion About Using Zeitzeiger “R” Software & Jvmr Towards Integration of “R” “JAVA” & “SCALA” to Perform Circadian Data Processing.

Authors: N.T.Kumar, Thiago R, Sandro B, Vinicius R, Lisane V, Vanderlei P
Comments: 4 Pages. A Simple Suggestion on using Zeitzeiger-R/JVMR/R/Java/Scala/HOL Frameworks to process Circadian Data

“Zeitzeiger is a package for regularized supervised learning on high-dimensional data from an oscillatory system. Zeitzeiger can quantify rhythmic behavior, make accurate predictions, identify major patterns and important features, and detect when the oscillator is perturbed.” We obtained inspiration from : https://github.com/hugheylab/zeitzeiger ; https://dahl.byu.edu/software/jvmr/ to process circadian data.In this communication,we wish to highlight our intention to experiment with an R package like ZEITZEIGER and jvmr providing a cross-platform interface between R,Scala and Java.
Category: Physics of Biology

[20492] viXra:1710.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 07:16:50

### Relative−Velocity Dependence: a Property of Gravitational Interaction

Authors: D.H.W. Reffer

Herein we propound the property, present its empirical law—a two Relative-Velocity Dependent (RVD) terms completion of Newton’s law of gravitation—and thereby solve some historic problems as: Solar cycle, apparent connection with Jupiter ’s revolution, and why the two periods do not quite coincide; about 2.9–4.5×1019 joules/yr from earth’s rotation slowdown (Secular retardation) “missing” in tidal effects and attributed to some “unknown mechanism”; and the “unknown” nature (and magnitude) of the “driving/propelling force” in Tectonic plates drift; moreover, the RVD completion of Newton’s gravity law predicts that tectonic plates drift, globally, to the west, not randomly, causing earthquakes and volcano eruptions to occur most probable at equinoxes (around March and September). The well-known formula of Perihelion advance is also derived. Several experiments are proposed, some feasible now. Keywords: solar cycle, perihelion advance, secular retardation, continental drift, earthquakes.
Category: Classical Physics

[20491] viXra:1710.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 06:45:37

### A New Lagrangian of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator Revisited

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

A better and symmetric new Lagrangian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has been proposed. The derived equation of motion is exactly the same as that derived from the first variation’s Lagrangian functional. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations. Although the better new Hamiltonian functional is off that derived from the first variation by a factor of two, it symmetric than in the previous paper.
Category: Classical Physics

[20490] viXra:1710.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 10:56:59

### Shrinking the Proton

Authors: George Rajna

The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton’s electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20489] viXra:1710.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 20:02:39

### On the Naturalness and Generality of the Principle of Relativity

Authors: Ramzi suleiman

Special Relativity theory postulates that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (the relativity postulate), and that the velocity of light in vacuum has the same value c in all inertial frames of reference (constancy of c postulate). We hereby show that relativity principle need not be postulated, since it follows from basic principles, without reliance on Lorentz transformations, or equivalently, reliance on the constancy of light postulate. The independency of the principle of relativity on the constancy of light postulate is featured by a different symmetry of Nature from the one constrained by the Lorentz transformations. We also show that that the same deductions apply to the relativity of simultaneity principle. Furthermore, we show that the symmetry of the laws of Nature, as being embedded in Nature itself, is a general law, which holds true for ALL systems of moving bodies, regardless of the velocity of the signal which carries information between one frame of reference to another, provided that the velocity of the information carrier is constant with respect to its source, and exceeds the relative velocities between the system's reference frames.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20488] viXra:1710.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 20:59:13

### A Law of Time Dilation Proportionality in Keplerian Orbits

Authors: Abed Peerally
Comments: 17 Pages. AN ORIGINAL RESEARCH FINDING INTEGRATING SR AND GR

We examine the Lorentz factor and the Schwarzschild solution in relation to the estimation and verification of time dilation particularly from available Global Positioning System data. We as a result detect the possible occurrence of a proportionality between time dilation effects of special and general relativity in free-fall motion in Keplerian orbits. This observation is then mathematically proved. The results show that gravitational time dilation during free fall in Keplerian orbits must be exactly double that caused in special relativity due to linear velocity. We propose that a law has to be enunciated in view of the proof provided, and of the experimental and technological verification of time dilation effects during the past six to seven decades. The importance of this finding as a universal phenomenon and in the further development of stable clocks and satellite technology is highlighted. 1.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20487] viXra:1710.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 21:43:29

### Astronomy and the Ultimate Culture: Cosmological Arguments in Philosophy and Philosophy

Authors: Abed Peerally
Comments: 13 Pages. TO UPLOAD A NEW PAPER

Research on human’s attachment to cosmological phenomena at least since the Neolithic Period may prove invaluable in modern scientific understanding of our ultimate realities. Of interest has been the archaeological research about the Neolithic Magic Cosmology. In more recent periods the Greek civilization and Hindu cosmological mythology amongst others engaged in various profound intellectual ways to understand and explain the cosmos. The last two millennia saw the progress of more modern civilizations in Asia and Europe resulting in the further empowerment of philosophy, religions and of astronomy. Astronomical discoveries in recent centuries have created particularly interesting philosophical and scientific reflections on the realities of the universe. But the last few decades have evolved differing scientific concepts which have made our notions of the universe and of existence more elusive to unfold thereby digging further the gaps between philosophy, religion and science. Interestingly studies on ancient human socio-religious cultures strongly suggest that human societies have an instinctive urge to unite their material experience with religious and cosmological beliefs, that is, with supernatural phenomena. This is intriguing because our own modern scientific literature clearly shows that many of even the most eminent of scientists see a supernatural character with our universe. Philosophy and religions in their theoretical ways have produced all that can be humanly interpreted on the origin and nature of the universe and existence. Since science has the objective role to explain natural phenomena including the manner the universe originated it should eventually be able to explain what the universe and existence stand from the manner scientific research on the origin of the universe develops in the decades to come. However the final decision as to whether the universe is a natural or supernatural emanation will obviously always remain a matter of personal judgment and choice.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20486] viXra:1710.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 22:05:08

### Astronomy and the Ultimate Culture: Elucidating the Origin of the Universe Will Spell the Integration of Science, Philosophy and Religion

Authors: Abed Peerally

The world of astronomy could be at a new and pivotal crossroad. In recent decades the controversial debate on the origin of the universe in relation to the conflict among science, philosophy and religion has reached a crescendo to the extent that humanity is quite confused on how to interpret the nature of the realities of the universe. Is science an atheistic endeavor and are philosophers and prophets of religion just scientific illiterates. Astronomy, the oldest and biggest branch of Science, has been intimately linked to human culture including philosophy and religion for millennia or even longer. Advances in cosmology and astrophysics on the one hand and the natural sciences on the other hand are now producing insights which could, in the coming decade, elucidate in quite concrete scientific details how most probably our universe originated and what could be the nature of the intriguing realities of the universe such as the nature of matter, life, energy, gravity, 2 the mind and consciousness amongst many other riddles. This paper will show a bit of the trends in relation to mindsets on the universe and its origin and will predict that in due course we will have a new way of profoundly looking at the universe, its realities and of the place of humanity in it. This new view of our ultimate realities, when it materializes and mature, would progressively bring science, philosophy and religion under a common umbrella, spearheaded by a new Scientific Cosmological Argument. Introduction
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20485] viXra:1710.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 01:22:16

### A Simple Model of Quantization: an Approach from Chaos Experimental Consequences and Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Moises Dominguez-Espinosa

There is a paradigm in Quantum Mechanics that explains quantization through normal vibration modes called Eigenstates that arise from Schrödinger wave equation. In this contribution we propose an alternative methodology of quantization by using basic concepts of mechanics and chaos from which a Toy Model is built.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20484] viXra:1710.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 03:04:30

### Non-Standard General Numerical Methods for the Direct Solution of Differential Equations not Cleared in Canonical Forms

Authors: Carlos Oscar Rodríguez Leal
Comments: 16 Pages. Paper writting in spanish. Paper presented at the VII International Congress of Numerical Methods, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

In this work I develop numerical algorithms that can be applied directly to differential equations of the general form f (t, x, x ) = 0, without the need to cleared x . My methods are hybrid algorithms between standard methods of solving differential equations and methods of solving algebraic equations, with which the variable x is numerically cleared. The application of these methods ranges from the ordinary differential equations of order one, to the more general case of systems of m equations of order n. These algorithms are applied to the solution of different physical-mathematical equations. Finally, the corresponding numerical analysis of existence, uniqueness, stability, consistency and convergence is made, mainly for the simplest case of a single ordinary differential equation of the first order.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[20483] viXra:1710.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 04:41:56

### Hubble's Law and Antigravity Higgs Boson and Gravity

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas

The theory of dynamic space has been conceived and written by Professor Physicist Naoum Gosdas, inspired from the principle of antithesis (opposition), because of which all natural phenomena are created. These phenomena are derived from the unique absolute dynamic space, which is structured with the fundamental elements, namely the dimension or distance or length, the elementary electric charges (units) and the forces, according to the principle of antithesis. However, due to the finite dimensions of the Universe and the opposition between existence (the Universe) and nonexistence (non space), a spherical deformity of the space occurred, which has created the equality of the peripheral and radial cohesive forces (Universal symmetry) and the Universal antigravity force, whereby the Hubble's Law is proved. The breaking of the above Universal symmetry, close to the Universe center, causes the Genesis of the primary form of matter, the first grand Cosmic event of Universe. The gravitational mass of the particle is defined as a stretching of the dynamic space by the core vacuum (Higgs boson) of the particle.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20482] viXra:1710.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 04:56:35

### A Comment About Determining the Mass Ratio of Proton and Electron

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky

the reason for writing this review was a strange situation with data published in CODATA 2014 the result of determining the ratio of masses of proton and electron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20481] viXra:1710.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 23:20:04

### Characterization of Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Copper (II) Chloride Using PXRD, DSC, and TGA/DTG

Authors: Alice Branton

Copper (II) chloride is an inorganic compound used as a source of copper ions for the treatment of several diseases like cancer, inflammation, hematological and neurological disorders. This article was aimed to evaluate the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of copper (II) chloride using PXRD, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Copper chloride was divided into two parts, one part of copper chloride was considered as control (no Biofield Treatment was provided), while second part received The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD analysis showed that the relative intensities of the characteristic diffraction peak in Alice’s treated sample were significantly changed from -77.37% to 205.56% compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the characteristic diffraction peak in the treated sample was altered from -14.29% to 40.01% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the melting point of the treated copper chloride was significantly increased by 2.91% with a reduced latent heat of fusion (∆H) by 28.73% compared to the control sample. The melting temperature of the 2nd peak in the treated sample was significantly increased by 7.08% with a significant enhancement of ∆H by 77.37% compared with the control sample. The decomposition temperature of the treated sample was increased by 2.36% with a significant reduction of the enthalpy of decomposition by 18.46% compared with the control sample. The TGA analysis revealed the three steps of thermal degradation. The percentage weight loss in the treated sample was decreased by 0.47% and 9.63% in the 1st and 2nd steps of degradation, respectively, while the weight loss in the 3rd step was increased by 2.45% compared with the control sample. The total weight loss in the treated sample was increased by 1.32% compared with the control sample. The DTG analysis showed that the maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd peaks of the Biofield Treated sample were increased by 1.20%, 2.00%, and 4.61% compared with the control sample. Briefly, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a polymorphic form of copper (II) chloride that could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated copper chloride would provide better therapeutic response against cancer, inflammation, wound healing, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[20480] viXra:1710.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 23:20:39

### The Influence of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Low Bioavailable Resveratrol in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

Authors: Alice Branton

Resveratrol is a natural dietary antioxidant polyphenol that believed to be effective in improving overall health. The biological activity of resveratrol is limited by its poor absorption and first-pass metabolism that lead to have very low plasma concentrations following oral administration. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton on resveratrol and rats through the measurement of plasma concentrations after oral administration of resveratrol. The test item, resveratrol was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. Additionally, one group of animals also received Biofield Energy Treatment under similar conditions. Resveratrol oral formulations were administrated by oral gavage at a dose of 150 mg/kg in groups viz. G1 (untreated resveratrol), G2 (Biofield Treated resveratrol) and G3 (Biofield Treated animals received untreated resveratrol) group. The results showed that resveratrol had a very low oral plasma exposure of 91.71 ng/mL in control group. The Biofield Treatment significantly enhanced the relative oral exposure (AUC0–t) of resveratrol by 23.35% in G2 group compared to the control group. The Biofield Treatment also improved plasma peak concentration (Cmax) of resveratrol by 125% and 28.5% in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared with the control group. Plasma concentrations of resveratrol in G1 was declined with a rapid elimination half-life (T1/2, 1.48 hours), followed by sudden increases in plasma concentrations 12 to 24 hours after the test item administration. These plasma concentrations resulted in a significant prolongation of the terminal elimination half-life of resveratrol. The oral elimination T1/2 of resveratrol in G2 and G3 were 4.67 and 9.0 hours, respectively as compared to the G1. The apparent oral plasma clearance of resveratrol decreased significantly by 54%, and 17.5% in G2 group and G3 group, respectively as compared to the control group. The mean residence time (MRTlast) of resveratrol significantly increased in G2 group (6.45 hours) and G3 group (7.70 hours), as compared to the control group. These data demonstrates greater bioavailability and total plasma level of resveratrol in rats which might be translated into better in vivo biological activity. Hence, The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be considered as an innovative strategy which opens new avenues to overcome poorly absorbed nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals and can also improve the therapeutic performance of orally active molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[20479] viXra:1710.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 07:10:22

### Review of Internal Inconsistencies in GRT and Comparisons to MTG

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 4 Pages. none

This paper is mostly philosophical in its nature thus avoiding many equations and computations, which casual readers do not necessarily understand. Paper investigates and compares side by side in detail assumptions with their logical consequences and resulting internal inconsistencies in both; the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the GRT has many such internal inconsistencies, which have to be corrected by unusual and difficult to believe assumptions that are not backed up by a typical experience one encounters in a real life, while the MTG avoids such problems. For the readers who are interested in proofs of discussed findings the paper provides internet links to papers where such proofs are available. The key differences between the GRT and MTG theories are: the gravitational mass dependence on velocity, the nature of “empty” space, the finite or infinite size of the Universe, the existence of Black Holes (BH) with their Event Horizons (EH), the creation of Universe by the Big Bang (BB), and the relation between the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature, and the Hubble constant that characterizes the velocity of receding Galaxies.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20478] viXra:1710.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 08:36:10

### My Electron and Positron. Annihilation, Particles and Antiparticles. my Photon.

Authors: A. I. Andreus
Comments: 3 Pages. In Russian

My electron and positron. Annihilation, particles and antiparticles. So we broke morals with the help of particles and antiparticles the next step and moved from the world to the anti-world, matter and antimatter appeared. Annihilation has become a part of science. There were concepts about the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Space and time have become a matter. Mathematical underpinnings confidently deduced physics in terms of its concept - from nature. There are some thoughts about experimental confirmations of electrino and positrino - the experience of observing cosmic objects - the starry sky above the head and the world inside us. The proposed work tezisno set out the essence of the doctrine of the novelty of the world view of nature for mankind. I proposed for protection "MY ELECTRON AND POSITRON. ANNIHILATION, PARTICLES AND ANTIPARTICLES. MY PHOTON ", which has already been more than half a century old, a claim to the discovery, and no one has disputed my authorship for this time, but I am not officially recognized either got. Designed copyright in the form of a trademark for protection, placed materials on their websites.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20477] viXra:1710.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 09:38:09

### The Pythagorean Ratios of Fundamental Physics Realized?

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo

From a mathematical perspective, the key to the universe lies at the central tenet of Pythagorean thought - that the universe can be explained by pure numbers, i.e. dimensionless ratios. A Planck constants hierarchy is created that postulates an undiscovered Planck constant - the Planck circumference, symbol (P). The Planck constants hierarchy produces dimensionless ratios, that allow for the first time the theoretical calculation of constants, e.g. the Planck momentum, Planck mass and Planck energy constants.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20476] viXra:1710.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 13:09:06

### Generalized Painlevé-Gambier Xvii Equation and Applications

Authors: L. H. Koudahoun, J. Akande, D.K.K. Adjaï, Y.J.F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia

This work exhibits a generalized Painlevé-Gambier XVII equation and its applications in physics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20475] viXra:1710.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 13:50:32

### The New Boson N

Authors: Luca Nascimbene

The elementary particles that make up the universe can distinguish in particle-matter, of a fermionic type (quark, neutrino and neutrino, mass-equipped) and force-particles, bosonic type, carrying the fundamental forces in nature (photons and gluons, , And the W and Z bosons, endowed with mass). The Standard Model contemplates several other unstable particles that exist under certain conditions for a variable time, but still very short, before decaying into other particles. Among them there is at least one Higgs boson, which plays a very special role. The bosonic N, is an elementary discovery discovery thanks to various electronic devices and sensors. All this is a physical-electronic theoretical study. This particle seen on the oscilloscope has a different shape from the other, in particular it moves by looking at the oscilloscope and has a round shape.
Category: Classical Physics

[20474] viXra:1710.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 15:48:59

### A Sieve for the Twin Primes

Authors: Henry L. Mitchell

We introduce a sieve for the number of twin primes less than N by sieving through the set {k ∊ ℤ+ | 6k < N}. We derive formula accordingly using the Euler product and the Brun. Sieve. We then use the Prime Number Theorem and Mertens’ Theorem. The main results are: 1) A sieve for the twin primes similar to the sieve of Eratosthenes for primes involving only the values of k, the indices of the multiples of 6, ranging over k = p ,5 ≤ p <√N 2) A formula for the approximate number of twin primes less than N in terms of the number of primes less than N 3) The asymptotic formula for the number of twin primes less than N verifying the Hardy Littlewood Conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[20473] viXra:1710.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-07 17:20:09

### Quantum Versus Classical Nature of the Early Universe and Its Consequences (Entanglement?)

Authors: Andrew Beckwith, Stepan Moskaliuk
Comments: 56 Pages. 2nd paper submitted as a conference proceedings paper for the Bogoliubov astroparticle and quantum foundations conference, in Kiev, Ukraine, September 2017

We look at early universe space-time which is characterized by a transition from Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time. In doing so we also invoke the geometry of Octonionic non commutative structure and when it breaks down as a trigger point for the release of entropy. Following Lloyd, as to entropy production with 1 count of entropy linked to one graviton via Ng Infinite quantum statistics, and we follow up on this modeling of entropy production by examining if we can relate the presumed graviton production with the behavior of Planck sized mini black holes, in the early phases of cosmological expansion. This analysis is in tandem with considerations as to what is essential as to accessing the quantum versus classical nature of the early universe, with the above listed as consequences. We close with the 2nd half of our work which is reviewing relic gravitons, and their role in presumed entanglement from a prior universe construction to the present universe, possibly for the unification of physical law, from cycle to cycle.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20472] viXra:1710.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 08:12:29

### A First Class Analysis, and Dissemination of Information of the September 11 Attacks

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi

In the September 11, 2001, nearly 3000 U.S. citizens were killed by terror attacks. A strong relationship existed between Palestinians, Qutbists, and jihadist groups with the Iranian government. Those days, Islamism in Europe had made strong connections with some Arabs and also Iranians. So, for example the al-Quds Mosque in Hamburg was not such an exception. There some attackers attended and met one another, forming the Hamburg cell. Al-Qaeda is an advocate of jihad. We consider Iran as a powerful propagator of radicalism mindset. In Afghanistan a series of meetings occurred in spring of 1999, involving Sheikh Mohammed, and Osama bin Laden. Atta became involved with the al-Quds Mosque. The Quds Force is described as “a military branch of Iran, active in dozens of countries". It is estimated, Iranians have at least hundreds of thousands of military troops just in Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, etc. Here we shall investigate the real causes of this brutal terrorist attack. In addition to a memorial, built at Ground Zero, other memorials have been built across the U.S. such as Flight 93 National Memorial, and Pentagon Memorial, following the terrorist attacks. Construction of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum began in August 2006. And it was opened to the general public in 2014. Just after the attacks President George W. Bush called it as "despicable acts of terror". Today we are trying hard to stand against the will of terrorists. Relatives of victims of the attacks won't ever forget such violations against humanity.
Category: Social Science

[20471] viXra:1710.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 08:26:51

### Quarks Never Found in Isolation

Authors: George Rajna

Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20470] viXra:1710.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 10:06:17

### The Determination Theory of Supply and Demand

Authors: Chuanli Chen

Whether the supply creates its own demand or the demand determines the supply has been a debate for one hundred years. In this paper, I will write my own perspective. I will analyze how the demand and supply interact with each other.
Category: Economics and Finance

[20469] viXra:1710.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 12:15:15

### Bell's Inequality is Violated in Classical Systems as Well as Quantum Systems

Authors: Shiro Ishikawa

Bell's inequality is usually considered to belong to mathematics and not quantum mechanics. We think that this makes it difficult to understand Bell's theory. Thus in this paper, contrary to Bell's spirit (which inherits Einstein's spirit), we try to discuss Bell's inequality in the framework of quantum theory with the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation. And we clarify that whether or not Bell's inequality holds does not depend on whether classical systems or quantum systems, but depend on whether a kind of simultaneous measurements exist or not. And further we assert that our argument ( based on the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation) should be regarded as a scientific representation of Bell's philosophical argument (based on Einstein's spirit).
Category: Quantum Physics

[20468] viXra:1710.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 12:16:31

### Mach's Principle

Authors: Peter J Carroll

This paper presents a quantitative equation for Mach’s Principle that appears to satisfy the requirements of most of the qualitative expressions of Mach’s Principle, and it suggests that the universe has spatial closure and a Transactional gravitational exchange mechanism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20467] viXra:1710.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 12:50:15

### Technical Notes On ImageJ/Fiji/ActogramJ/JikeRVM Based Actigraphy Informatics Platform – A Simple Suggestion to Perform Actigraphy Analysis Using JikesRVM as the Java Virtual Machine(JVM).

Authors: N.T.Kumar, Thiago R, Sandro B, Vinicius R, Lisane V, Vanderlei P
Comments: 3 Pages. Technical Notes & Short Communication on Actography using Image J Platform

“Actigraphy is a non-invasive method of monitoring human rest/activity cycles. A small actigraph unit,also called an actimetry sensor is worn for a week or more to measure gross motor activity. The unit is usually, in a wrist-watch-like package, worn on the wrist. The movements the actigraph unit undergoes are continually recorded and some units also measure light exposure. The data can be later read to a computer and analysed offline; in some brands of sensors the data are transmitted and analysed in real time.”[1-9].We are interested in focusing on the above mentioned research topic as per the title of this communication.Interested in suggesting an informatics and computational framework in the context of Actigraphy using ImageJ/Actigraphy Plugin by using JikesRVM as the Java Virtual Machine.
Category: Physics of Biology

[20466] viXra:1710.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-05 05:42:55

### A New Lagrangian of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

A new Lagrangian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has been proposed. The derived equation of motion is almost same as that of the conventional Lagrangian functional. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations. The new Hamiltonian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has also been derived.
Category: Classical Physics

[20465] viXra:1710.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-05 06:49:29

### Avaliação de Glebas

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 22 Pages. Areas Value Update of the excellent work of Eng. Hélio de Caires including the Vantage of the thing done (Vcf) and corrections due to the current legislation

Avaliação de Glebas Atualização do excelente trabalho do Eng. Hélio de Caires incluindo a Vantagem da coisa feita (Vcf) e correções devido à legislação atual
Category: Economics and Finance

[20464] viXra:1710.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-05 08:30:56

### Gravitational Wave Detectors on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna

A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[20463] viXra:1710.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-05 10:26:57

### The Unified Complex-Dynamic Origin of Time, Intention, Life, and Everything

Authors: Andrei P. Kirilyuk
Comments: 10 pages, 15 eqs, 15 refs; Paper presented at the FQXi essay contest 2016-2017, http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2774

Based on the unreduced, non-perturbative solution to arbitrary interaction problem, we show that any interaction process underlying real system dynamics and object properties gives rise to irreversible time flow, universally specified evolution purpose and meaningful intentions at higher levels of universally defined dynamic complexity. The new mathematics of real-world complexity contains thus well-specified intrinsic teleology due to its rigorously derived extension with respect to usual, “goal-free” and “mindless” theory. We outline major aspects and applications of that extended, naturally teleological and causally complete science framework, including critically important problem solutions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20462] viXra:1710.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 01:38:44

### Grand Unification Equation

Authors: Nikola Perkovic

In my attempt to eliminate the Landau Pole from QED by “borrowing” asymptotic freedom from QCD, I was successful in uniting the coupling constants of the two, respectively. This equation, together with the already established electroweak unification forms a basis, within the Standard Model, to experimentally test Grand Unification. The part that can be tested experimentally is the value of the strong coupling constant for the energy value of the QCD integration parameter Λ, offering such a prediction for the first time. It should be also noted that I was successful in eliminating the Landau Pole.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20461] viXra:1710.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 04:41:57

### Explaining the Mass Discrepancy in Galaxy Clusters

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi

Galaxy clusters and mass discrepancy blend and dwell together quite harmoniously. Mass discrepancy is always stumbled upon when galaxy clusters are studied. The orbital velocities of galaxies within galaxy clusters are unusually higher than expected and the observable baryonic matter alone cannot account for all the mass and gravity for the overall observed stability of the cluster. The presence of additional matter in the form of dark matter is required to explain the gravitational stability at such high velocities as baryonic matter is insufficient to explain the anomaly. In this paper I present a theory that looks into the actual reason for causing the mass discrepancy within galaxy clusters without involving dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[20460] viXra:1710.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:05:23

### The Use of Novel and Unique Biofield Energy Healing Treatment for the Improvement of Poorly Bioavailable Compound, Berberine in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

Authors: Alice Branton

Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid based herbal medicine, is widely used as nutraceutical supplement for the prevention and treatment of various diseases viz. hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, antiarrhythmic, antineoplastic, etc. The intestinal absorption and oral bioavailability of berberine is very low and almost negligible in humans. In this study, the relative oral bioavailability of berberine was studied, and the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on animals and berberine were investigated through the measurement of plasma concentrations after oral administration in rats. The test item, berberine chloride was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any Biofield Energy Healing Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. Additionally, one group of animals also received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment per se by Alice under similar conditions. Berberine oral formulations were made and administrated by oral gavage at a dose of 150 mg per kg in groups viz. G1 (untreated berberine), G2 (Biofield Treated berberine) and G3 (Biofield Treated animals were received untreated berberine) group. The results showed that berberine had a very low oral plasma exposure of 179.92 ng/mL in the control group. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly enhanced the relative oral exposure (AUC0–t) of berberine by 233.40% and 35.62% in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared to the control group. The Biofield Energy Treatment also improved plasma peak concentration (Cmax) of berberine by 37.7 and 1.4 times, in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared to the control group. The absorption rate constant (Ka) of berberine in Biofield Energy Treatment group significantly increased by 100% (p < 0.05) in G2 group as compared to the control group (G1). The apparent oral plasma clearance of berberine decreased significantly (p < 0.01) by 81%, and 50% in G2 group and G3 group, respectively as compared to the control group. The enhanced bioavailability of berberine might be due to the alteration its physicochemical properties and thermal properties by Biofield Energy Treatment. Biofield Energy Healing Treatment is considered as an innovative strategy which opens new avenues to overcome poorly absorbed drug/nutraceuticals/herbal extracts and can also improve the therapeutic performance of orally active molecules. Thereby, the Biofield Energy Treated berberine chloride having improved bioavailability can significantly increase in antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-ischemia, memory and cognition, inhibition of metabolic syndrome and neurodegenerative diseases.
Category: Chemistry

[20459] viXra:1710.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:06:15

### Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Alice Branton

Magnesium gluconate is usually used as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as well as to maintain the overall quality of life. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control (without Biofield Energy Treatment), while another part was treated with Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) remotely by the renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed that the relative peak intensities and crystallite sizes of the characteristic diffraction peaks in the treated sample were significantly altered from -73.55% to 17.21% and from -14.28% to 125.11%, respectively compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly increased by 19.29% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) of the treated sample was significantly increased by 2.03%, 70.92%, 142.25%, and 95.42%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of treated sample was significantly decreased by 21.34% compared to the control sample. The melting point of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (170.16°C) was decreased by 0.19% compared the control sample (170.48°C). The latent heat of fusion in the treated sample was increased by 3.11% compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis exhibited three steps thermal degradation and the total weight loss of the treated sample was increased by 0.29% compared to the control sample. The maximum thermal degradation temperatures (Tmax) of the 1st and 2nd peaks were decreased by 2.86% and 1.97%, respectively, while 2nd and 3rd peaks were increased by 1.14% and 0.94% respectively, in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The thermal analysis revealed that the thermodynamic stability of the treated sample was changed compared with the control sample. The Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a crystalline polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could show better powder flowability and appearance with altered thermal stability compared to the untreated sample. Hence, Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate would be advantageous in designing better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might provide better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, cancer, diabetes mellitus, stress, aging, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[20458] viXra:1710.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:07:00

### Evaluation of the Effect of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Pyridoxine Hydrochloride

Authors: Alice Branton

Pyridoxine hydrochloride is water-soluble B vitamin widely used for the prevention and treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency and other several diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of pyridoxine hydrochloride using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Pyridoxine hydrochloride was divided into two parts, one part of pyridoxine hydrochloride was considered as control (no Biofield Treatment was provided), while second part received The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the relative intensities and crystallite sizes of the most characteristic diffraction peaks in the Alice’s treated pyridoxine hydrochloride were significantly decreased from 1.59% to 44.47% and 6.31% to 28.28%, respectively compared with the control sample. Overall, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 5.55% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) (average mass-volume diameter) in Alice’s treated sample were significantly reduced by 13.87%, 9.95%, 7.87%, and 6.59%, respectively compared to the control sample. The specific surface area of treated sample was significantly increased by 13.67% compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting point of the treated sample was lower by 0.20% with a significant reduction of the latent heat of fusion by 24.52% compared with the control sample. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss in the treated sample was increased by 1.76% compared with the control sample. The DTG analysis indicated that the maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated sample was reduced by 0.88% compared to the control sample. Overall, the thermal analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated pyridoxine hydrochloride was declined compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® might lead to the production of a polymorphic form of pyridoxine hydrochloride which would be more soluble, absorbable, have a higher dissolution rate and be more bioavailable compared with the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated pyridoxine hydrochloride would be beneficial in the design of better nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations which might provide better therapeutic responses against vitamin B6 deficiency, sideroblastic anemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, pyridoxine-dependency seizures, metabolic disorders, pulmonary tuberculosis, hyperhomocysteinemia, cancer, anxiety, asthma, depression, dysmenorrhea, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[20457] viXra:1710.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:07:39

### Effect of The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment on the Pharmacokinetics of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] in Rats After a Single Oral Dose of Vitamin D3

Authors: Alice Branton

There are numerous scientific studies on vitamin D3 reported to have many important roles viz. in bone metabolism, osteoporosis, immunity, and useful in several diseases, e.g., cancers, cardio-vascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Surprisingly, there is little information available about the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the blood, which is the best indicator of vitamin D3 status after its oral absorption. However, the biological activity of vit-D3 is mediated via the formation of the active metabolite, 1-α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. There are several factors which affect its absorption and first-pass metabolism that lead to have very low plasma concentrations of both the metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1-α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) following an oral administration. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on vit-D3 and rats through the measurement of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations after the oral administration of vit-D3 in rats. The test item, vit-D3 was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control (without Biofield Energy Healing Treatment), while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. Additionally, one group of animals also received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment per se by the Healer under similar conditions. Vitamin D3 oral formulations were administrated by oral gavage at a dose of 500 µg per kg in groups viz. G1 (untreated Vitamin D3), G2 (Biofield Treated Vitamin D3) and G3 (Biofield Treated animals received untreated Vitamin D3) group. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly altered the relative oral exposure (AUC0–t) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by 54.62% in G2 group compared to the control group, G1. The Biofield Energy Treatment also altered plasma peak concentration (Cmax) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by 53.8% and 7.6% in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared to the control group. After oral administration, plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in control group (G1) declined with slow excretion rate and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 100.59 hours. The oral elimination half-life (T1/2) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in G2 and G3 were 69.09 hours and 55.76 hours, respectively. The mean residence time (MRTlast) and elimination rate constant (Kel) remained unaltered in all three groups. The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be an innovative strategy which opens new avenues to overcome poorly absorbed pharmaceuticals/nutraceuticals/herbal extracts and can improve the therapeutic performance of orally active molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[20456] viXra:1710.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:08:19

### A Study on the Effect of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)

Authors: Alice Branton

Vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol is a secosteroid nutraceutical used for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of cholecalciferol using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Cholecalciferol was divided into two parts, one part of cholecalciferol was considered as control (no Biofield Treatment was provided), while second part received The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the relative intensities of characteristic diffraction peak in the Alice’s treated cholecalciferol were significantly altered from -28.21% to 54.16% compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was altered from -40.02% to 83.20% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) in Alice’s treated sample were significantly reduced by 33.48%, 23.82%, 18.61%, and 22.08%, respectively compared to the control sample. The specific surface area of treated cholecalciferol was significantly increased by 32.72% compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis demonstrated that the melting point of the treated sample was higher by 0.24% with an enhanced latent heat of fusion (∆H) by 3.54% compared to the control sample. The decomposition temperature of the treated cholecalciferol was increased by 0.12% with a significant increase of the enthalpy of decomposition by 5.85% compared to the control sample. The melting temperature and ∆H of a second broad endothermic peak in the treated sample were increased by 0.18% and 73.87%, respectively compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis revealed that the weight loss in the treated sample was decreased compared with the control sample. The DTG analysis indicated that the maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated cholecalciferol was increased by 3.23% compared to the control sample. Overall, the thermal analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated cholecalciferol was improved compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® might lead to produce a polymorphic form of cholecalciferol which might have the improved solubility, bioavailability, and thermally stability as compared with the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated cholecalciferol would be beneficial to design better nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations, which could provide better therapeutic response against vitamin D deficiency i.e. rickets, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes mellitus, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[20455] viXra:1710.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:32:30

### Infinite Derivative Gravity and Exact Solutions of the Newton-Schroedinger Equation

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 13 Pages. Submitted to Physics and Astronomy International Journal

Exact solutions to the stationary spherically symmetric Newton-Schroedinger equation are proposed in terms of integrals involving $generalized$ Gaussians. The energy eigenvalues are also obtained in terms of these integrals which agree with the numerical results in the literature. A discussion of infinite-derivative-gravity follows which allows to generalize the Newton-Schroedinger equation by $replacing$ the ordinary Poisson equation with a $modified$ non-local Poisson equation associated with infinite-derivative gravity. Finally, we argue how to replace the nonlinear Newton-Schroedinger equation for a non-linear quantum-like Bohm-Poisson equation involving Bohm's quantum potential, and where the fundamental quantity is $no$ longer the wave-function $\Psi$ but the real-valued probability density $\rho$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20454] viXra:1710.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:47:13

### Disentanglement of Absolute Velocity and Doppler Effect

The true nature of absolute motion has eluded physicists for more than a century because they presumed absolute motion to be motion relative to the hypothetical ether. This author has developed a new interpretation of absolute velocity, Apparent Source Theory (AST ), that shows the ether does not exist, but absolute motion does. AST successfully explains the hitherto apparently contradicting experiments including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. An argument against the validity of absolute motion is that if absolute motion existed, it would have been detected in the Ives-Stilwell and the fast ion beam experiments.In this paper it is proposed that, unconventionally, absolute motion does not affect experiments of Doppler effect. Therefore, such experiments cannot prove or disprove absolute motion. Doppler effect is determined only by the source-observer relative velocity, by applying Exponential Doppler Effect theory [1] already proposed by this author. Absolute velocity results only in phase delay of light, and has no effect on Doppler effect and this would be a novel nature of motion and the speed of light. This is not the case for sound waves.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20453] viXra:1710.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 06:23:54

### Emergent Gravity by Dipole Repeller Rigid String Pressure the Origin of Quantum Gravity and Non Inertial Black Holes.

Authors: Leo Vuyk

According to Quantum FFF Theory, mass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons to be produced by the collision process, between mass less ring shaped Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or Emergent Gravity. More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit. Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field.. So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us. Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption. Non inertial black hole effects are the other side of the coin.. The ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length and transfer information of monopole photons through the whole universe as long no fermion or boson comes too close. So if the new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot then there is no graviton production supposed. As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus and the result of the Casimir absorption effect of the vacuum by the black hole nucleus. At the same time, gravitons are not leaving the black hole at all. In Quantum FFF Theory, the inertial mass effects of the earth and all atomic fermions is supposed to be originated by the real Lorentz polarization of all fermionic mass of the earth mainly pointing into the direction of motion around the sun, as the opposing effort for the resisting vacuum. Rigid string shaped Fermions are assumed to have a propeller shape able to plow into the direction of motion through the local spacetime creating vacuum lattice. Conclusion Bosons (Higgs, W and Z particles) seem to be not able to polarize and will present signals to be "stuck" in the local solar centered vacuum lattice. The LHC could perhaps be able to show this anti inertial mass effect created by the solar reference frame or solar LASOF ( Local Oscillating vacuum Frame).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20452] viXra:1710.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-04 13:02:59

### Dark Photon

Authors: George Rajna

The lack of so-called “dark photons” in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon’s magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[20451] viXra:1710.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-04 20:55:25

### Proof of Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Choe Ryujin

Proof of Riemann hypothesis
Category: Number Theory

[20450] viXra:1710.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-05 02:19:39

### ВОЙДЫ – ОСТАТКИ ЧЁРНЫХ ДЫР Никитин В.Н., Никитин И.В. Войд – Чёрное Облако, оставшееся после разрушения Чёрной Дыры.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

Войд – Чёрное Облако, оставшееся после разрушения Чёрной Дыры.
Category: Astrophysics

[20449] viXra:1710.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-04 09:43:29

### EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) Experiments and Physical Reality.

Authors: W.Berckmans

Efforts based on the results of sophysicated experiments and meant to fit EPR effects in the accepted paradigms of Physics, remain unsatisfactory. A valid Physical Reality model (see Ref1: vixra.org/abs/1604.0230) may help to solve the puzzle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20448] viXra:1710.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-04 10:06:22

### Comparative Studies of Five Fundamental Interactions and Unified Theory of Five Fundamental Interactions Established by Law of Conversation of Energy - No.5 of Comparative Physics Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua

As No.5 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the comparative studies of five fundamental interactions (gravitational interaction, electromagnetic interaction, weak interaction, strong interaction and quantum interaction), and focusing on the comparative studies of quantum interaction and other four fundamental interactions. The law of conservation of energy is put forward to deal with all kinds of fundamental interactions (including five fundamental interactions, and the sixth fundamental interaction that may appear in the future) with unified manner; in this process, there will be the unified theories of any two fundamental interactions, the unified theories of any three fundamental interactions, the unified theories of any four fundamental interactions, and so on. When law of conservation of energy can be used to deal with five fundamental interactions with unified manner, this unified theory of five fundamental interactions can be printed on a T-shirt.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20447] viXra:1710.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-04 07:09:33

### Analysis of Beggars in Modern Nepal

Authors: Arjun Dahal, Nikita Parajuli

This paper attempts to classify the beggars of modern Nepal according to their professional and their art of begging. By observing their principles of begging, we have classified them into 6 categories and each category has been explained in brief.
Category: Social Science

[20446] viXra:1710.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-03 08:50:43

### Quantizing Einstein Field Equations :The Hadrons Expansion Lattice Represent the Particles Behavior to Form Gravity

Authors: Yazzed T.Al-Harbi

In this paper we will show the provement of the hadrons existence mechanism. Its duo to the physical consequences of the spinning quarks and the color charge. When we simulate the supposed situation by mathematics we find that it's achieves the perfect understanding of the all physical interactions and all the mysteries of the particle physics with its measurements which proved experimentally.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20445] viXra:1710.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-03 11:01:23

### Proof of the Twin Prime Conjecture

Authors: Dieter Sengschmitt

I can proof that there are infinitely many twin primes. The twin prime counting function π2(n), which gives the number of twin primes less than or equal to n for any natural number n, is for lim⁡n→∞ π2(n)= 2 C2 [π(n)]^2/n where π(n) is the prime counting function and C2 is the so-called twin prime constant with C2=0,6601618…
Category: Number Theory

[20444] viXra:1710.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-03 11:14:12

### Theory of Universal Origins

Authors: Romeo D. Matshaba
Comments: 43 Pages. first published and copyright by: International Journal of Recent Research in Physics and Chemical Sciences (IJRRPCS) Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp: (1-7), Month: April 2017 – September 2017,

About a century ago, Albert Einstein realized how the Theory of Newton's Universal Gravitation was inadequate to describe nature and needed to be revised in order to be neatly incorporated into the relativistic scheme with its undesirable instantaneous force shortcomings. Since then we have come to adopt the relativistic high energy tensor theory of General Relativity, which saw its inception into mainstream physics in the year 1916. General Relativity has stood firm against varied tests, such as: gravitational lensing, perihelion of mercury, gravitational time dilation, PSR1913+16 etc, but with the steady advancement of Quantum Mechanics, and its overwhelming experimental success, we are yet again faced with the same problem that was faced a century ago, but this time, the problem is much worse, and the elephant in the room is General Relativity. The fact that General relativity and Quantum mechanics, share different views in the description of space and time or space-time, with quantum mechanics in favor of the latter and general relativity of the former; does not allow one to have a smooth transition from one representation to the other. This automatically implies that for scenarios where both quantum mechanics and gravity / general relativity are required, then that scenario is unsolvable with our current model of physics (hence either General Relativity or Quantum Mechanics is flawed). It becomes clear from the microscopic realm of quantum mechanics and the cosmological problems associated with General Relativity, such as dark energy, dark matter, the inflation force... perhaps a bit closer to home for general relativity being the singularities inherent in its own equations, and the very nature of General Relativity, allowing mostly approximate solutions (reason why most physicist, even today still cling to Newtonian dynamics), because of this and more a new theory of gravity is required – the much anticipated “Quantum Gravity” – just as it was required those many years ago. In the theory that I propose, we will see how from the most basic concepts of quantum mechanics, a theory of gravity can emerge that has the power to not only be mathematically simpler than General Relativity, explain dark energy, dark matter and inflation without any ad-hoc mechanisms, but also have the power to unify all the forces of nature into a single unified theory of everything.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20443] viXra:1710.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-03 16:37:46

### An Alternate Proof of the Prime Number Theorem

Authors: Robert C. Hall

An attempt is made to derive the probability density function of the sum of prime numbers, which is x/Ln(x). This does appear to be quite accurate in predicting the sum of prime numbers less than 100,000( within 0.124%). Given this assertion, an attempt is made to derive the probability density function of the distribution of the prime numbers themselves.
Category: Number Theory

[20442] viXra:1710.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-03 21:20:37

### Laws of General Solutions of Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Hong Lai Zhu

In this paper, four kinds of Z Transformations are proposed to get many laws of general solutions of mth-order linear and nonlinear partial differential equations with n variables. Some general solutions of first-order linear partial differential equations, which cannot be obtained by using the characteristic equation method, can be solved by the Z Transformations. By comparing, we find that the general solutions of some first-order partial differential equations got by the characteristic equation method are not complete.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[20441] viXra:1710.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-04 01:50:21

### The Statistical Proof of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Dmitri Martila

Derived the Statistics of the un-solved problems (conjectures). The probability, what a conjecture will be solved is 50 %. The probability, that a conjecture is true is p=37 %. The probability, what we get to know the latter is psi=29 %....
Category: Set Theory and Logic

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[8555] viXra:1710.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-19 20:09:02

### Construction of Planar Multilayer Dyadic Green’s Functions by Fourier Expansion Method — Part I: Isotropic Media

Authors: Huai-Yi Xie

In this paper, we have derived planar multilayer dyadic Green’s functions by Fourier expansion method and have checked its correctness by comparing results for reflected electric fields from dipole emissions near such structures available in previous literature. Furthermore, we show how these dyadic Green’s functions can be applied to calculate reflected fields from a dipole source with arbitrary orientations. We believe our formulation will be powerful in the modeling of molecular fluorescence near these structures.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[8554] viXra:1710.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-20 00:17:49

### An Elegant Solution to the Cosmological Constant Problem based on The Bohm-Poisson Equation

Authors: Carlos Castro

After applying the recently proposed Bohm-Poisson equation [1] to the observable Universe as a $whole$, and by introducing an ultraviolet (very close to the Planck scale) and an infrared (Hubble radius) scale, one can naturally obtain a value for the vacuum energy density which coincides $exactly$ with the extremely small observed vacuum energy density, and explain the origins of its $repulsive$ gravitational nature. Because Bohm's formulation of QM is by construction non-local, it is this non-locality which casts light into the crucial ultraviolet/infrared entanglement of the Planck/Hubble scales which was required in order to obtain the observed value of the vacuum energy density.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8553] viXra:1710.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-19 06:45:03

### Projection Gravitation, a Projection Force from 5-Dimensional Space-Time Into 4-Dimensional Space-Time

Authors: XiaoLin Li

A new gravity theory. Gravity is a projection force from 5-dimensional space-time into 4-dimensional space-time. The Lorentz symmetry is a projection of particle-wave symmetry from 5-dimensional space-time into 4-dimensional space-time. The gravity is an additional projection force of Lorentz symmetry. The new gravity is an extension to Lorentz symmetry. The new gravity can be seen as some kind of symmetry. Gravity only exists in 4-dimensional space-time. In 5-dimensional space-time, there not have gravity. Equivalence principle is invalid in the new gravitation. In the new gravitation, there does not have gravitational acceleration. In the new gravitation, there only have inertial coordinates, not have non-inertial coordinates. In the new gravitation, the gravity source is only the rest mass, not energy. The particle can’t be the gravity source if the particle not has rest mass. The photon not has gravity. But any particle can be affected by gravity. The photon is affected by gravity also. The gravitational mass is only equivalent to the rest mass. Under approximate weak gravity and approximate circular orbit condition, the new gravitation is equivalent to the General Relativity. The four classic experimental tests, the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of mercury, the red shift of light by the sun, the radar echo delay, are experimental tests to the new gravitation also. But even under approximate weak gravity condition, if the orbit is not approximate circular, if the orbit has higher eccentricity, there exists obvious difference between the General Relativity and the new gravitation. This difference can be a experimental test to distinguish which one is more realistic. The space-time is flat in the new gravitation, not is curved. In the new gravitation, the energy is conserved. The new gravitation is simpler than the General Relativity. In the new gravitation, the photon’s equivalent gravitational acceleration is twice of the acceleration in Newton Gravitation. In the new gravitation, there not exists black hole, but exists empty hole, and not exists space-time singularity and energy singularity. The new gravity has obvious scale effect. The new gravity has the scale factor. In gravity field, the scale factor determines the quantization results of particle’s motion. The new gravity perhaps is a force that inhibits the uncertainty of macroscopic objects. The new gravitation can derive out the result of the Planck Energy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8552] viXra:1710.0162 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-15 10:27:38

### An Experimental Work of Literature

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

The scientific process and its logical intuition
Category: Social Science

[8551] viXra:1710.0136 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-14 03:33:17

### Theory of Discrete Gravity

Authors: Mihir Kumar jha

Theory of everything (T.O.E), final theory or ultimate theory is a theoretical framework in the field of physics, which holds an ultimate key to unify all the fundamental forces of nature in a single field. In other words such theory can glue quantum mechanics with general relativity into a single framework. Many theories have been postulated over the decades but the dominant one includes string theory and loop quantum gravity. In this paper I would like to present a new framework which can unify quantum mechanics with general relativity by showing that the change in Riemannian metric or the bend in space time is always an integral multiple of planks constant and since gravity is the result due to bend in space-time, gravity itself is a discrete force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8550] viXra:1710.0135 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-17 17:26:10

### Quest for the Ultimate Automaton

Authors: Alexandre Furtado Neto

Abstract A fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton is presented axiomatically using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. In this toy universe, the four forces of nature are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix. This is the first, raw, version of this document. I expect to make corrections in future releases.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8549] viXra:1710.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-14 14:51:41

### Quantum Equations in Empty Space Using Mutual Energy and Self-Energy Principle

Authors: Shuang-Ren Zhao
Comments: 15 Pages. some math error is corrected. 3 picture is added.

For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding to the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found that the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge intencity flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the empty space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8548] viXra:1710.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-14 10:06:35

### Quantum Equations in Empty Space Using Mutual Energy and Self-Energy Principle

Authors: shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 15 Pages. some math error is corrected. 3 picture is added.

Abstract For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8547] viXra:1710.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-11 12:50:04

### Quantum Equations in Empty Space Using Mutual Energy and Self-Energy Principle

Authors: Shuang-ren Zhao

Abstract For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8546] viXra:1710.0110 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-13 16:26:37

### The 4th Spatial Dimension W

Authors: Mauro Bernardini
Comments: 4 Pages. this version corrects some accidental writing errors of the previous loaded version.

This paper attempts to provide a new vision on the 4th spatial dimension starting on the known symmetries of the Euclidean geometry. It results that, the points of the 4th dimensional complex space are circumferences of variable ray. While the axis of the 4th spatial dimension, to be orthogonal to all the three 3d cartesinan axes, is a complex line made of two specular cones surfaces symmetrical on their vertexes corresponding to the common origin of both the real and complex cartesian systems.
Category: Geometry

[8545] viXra:1710.0092 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-09 10:32:44

### Immeasurable Ecology

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

Social ecology and the Omega-Kardeshev scale.
Category: Astrophysics

[8544] viXra:1710.0091 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-09 05:35:51

### Relative-Velocity Dependence: a Property of Gravitational Interaction

Authors: D.H.W. Reffer

Herein we propound the property, present its empirical law—a two Relative-Velocity Dependent (RVD) terms completion of Newton’s law of gravitation—and thereby solve some historic problems as: Solar cycle, apparent connection with Jupiter’s revolution, and why the two periods do not quite coincide; about 2.9–4.5×1019 joules/yr from earth’s rotation slowdown (Secular retardation) “missing” in tidal effects and attributed to some “unknown mechanism”; and the “unknown” nature (and magnitude) of the “driving/propelling force” in Tectonic plates drift; moreover, the RVD completion of Newton’s gravity law predicts that tectonic plates drift, globally, to the west, not randomly, causing earthquakes and volcano eruptions to occur most probable at equinoxes (around March and September). The well-known formula of Perihelion advance is also derived. Several experiments are proposed, some feasible now. Keywords: solar cycle, perihelion advance, secular retardation, continental drift, earthquakes.
Category: Classical Physics

[8543] viXra:1710.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-16 08:38:43

### Review of Internal Inconsistencies in GRT and Comparisons to MTG

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 5 Pages. none

This paper is mostly philosophical in its nature thus avoiding many equations and computations, which casual readers do not necessarily understand. Paper investigates and compares side by side in detail assumptions with their logical consequences and resulting internal inconsistencies in both; the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the GRT has many such internal inconsistencies, which have to be corrected by unusual and difficult to believe assumptions that are not backed up by a typical experience one encounters in a real life, while the MTG avoids such problems. For the readers who are interested in proofs of discussed findings the paper provides internet links to papers where such proofs are available. The key differences between the GRT and MTG theories are: the gravitational mass dependence on velocity, the nature of “empty” space, the finite or infinite size of the Universe, the existence of Black Holes (BH) with their Event Horizons (EH), the creation of Universe by the Big Bang (BB), and the relation between the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature, and the Hubble constant that characterizes the velocity of receding Galaxies.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8542] viXra:1710.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-10 09:24:22

### Review of Internal Inconsistencies in GRT and Comparisons to MTG

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 4 Pages. version 2

This paper is mostly philosophical in its nature thus avoiding many equations and computations, which casual readers do not necessarily understand. Paper investigates and compares side by side in detail assumptions with their logical consequences and resulting internal inconsistencies in both; the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the GRT has many such internal inconsistencies, which have to be corrected by unusual and difficult to believe assumptions that are not backed up by a typical experience one encounters in a real life, while the MTG avoids such problems. For the readers who are interested in proofs of discussed findings the paper provides internet links to papers where such proofs are available. The key differences between the GRT and MTG theories are: the gravitational mass dependence on velocity, the nature of “empty” space, the finite or infinite size of the Universe, the existence of Black Holes (BH) with their Event Horizons (EH), the creation of Universe by the Big Bang (BB), and the relation between the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature, and the Hubble constant that characterizes the velocity of receding Galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[8541] viXra:1710.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-16 16:48:19

### My Electron and Positron. Annihilation, Particles and Antiparticles. my Photon.

Authors: A. I. Andreus
Comments: 7 Pages, in Russian and English of Google

My electron and positron. Annihilation, particles and antiparticles. So we broke morals with the help of particles and antiparticles the next step and moved from the world to the anti-world, matter and antimatter appeared. Annihilation has become a part of science. There were concepts about the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Space and time have become a matter. Mathematical underpinnings confidently deduced physics in terms of its concept - from nature. There are some thoughts about experimental confirmations of electrino and positrino - the experience of observing cosmic objects - the starry sky above the head and the world inside us. The proposed work tezisno set out the essence of the doctrine of the novelty of the world view of nature for mankind. I proposed for protection "MY ELECTRON AND POSITRON. ANNIHILATION, PARTICLES AND ANTIPARTICLES. MY PHOTON ", which has already been more than half a century old, a claim to the discovery, and no one has disputed my authorship for this time, but I am not officially recognized either got. Designed copyright in the form of a trademark for protection, placed materials on their websites.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8540] viXra:1710.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-12 08:56:19

### A First Class Analysis, and Dissemination of Information of the September 11 Attacks

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi

In the September 11, 2001, nearly 3000 U.S. citizens were killed by terror attacks. A strong relationship existed between Palestinians, Qutbists, and jihadist groups with the Iranian government. Those days, Islamism in Europe had made strong connections with some Arabs and also Iranians. So, for example the al-Quds Mosque in Hamburg was not such an exception. There some attackers attended and met one another, forming the Hamburg cell. Al-Qaeda is an advocate of jihad. We consider Iran as a powerful propagator of radicalism mindset. In Afghanistan a series of meetings occurred in spring of 1999, involving Sheikh Mohammed, and Osama bin Laden. Atta became involved with the al-Quds Mosque. The Quds Force is described as “a military branch of Iran, active in dozens of countries". It is estimated, Iranians have at least hundreds of thousands of military troops just in Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, etc. Here we shall investigate the real causes of this brutal terrorist attack. In addition to a memorial, built at Ground Zero, other memorials have been built across the U.S. such as Flight 93 National Memorial, and Pentagon Memorial, following the terrorist attacks. Construction of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum began in August 2006. And it was opened to the general public in 2014. Just after the attacks President George W. Bush called it as "despicable acts of terror". Today we are trying hard to stand against the will of terrorists. Relatives of victims of the attacks won't ever forget such violations against humanity.
Category: Social Science

[8539] viXra:1710.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-10 01:28:13

### The Determination Theory of Supply and Demand

Authors: Chuanli Chen

Whether the supply creates its own demand or the demand determines the supply has been a debate in economy science for one hundred years. In this paper, I will write my own perspective. I will analyze how the demand and supply interact with each other.
Category: Economics and Finance

[8538] viXra:1710.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-09 05:41:01

### Bell's Inequality is Violated in Classical Systems as Well as Quantum Systems

Authors: Shiro Ishikawa

Bell's inequality is usually considered to belong to mathematics and not quantum mechanics. We think that this makes it difficult to understand Bell's theory. Thus in this paper, contrary to Bell's spirit (which inherits Einstein's spirit), we try to discuss Bell's inequality in the framework of quantum theory with the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation. And we clarify that whether or not Bell's inequality holds does not depend on whether classical systems or quantum systems, but depend on whether a kind of simultaneous measurements exist or not. And further we assert that our argument ( based on the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation) should be regarded as a scientific representation of Bell's philosophical argument (based on Einstein's spirit).
Category: Quantum Physics

[8537] viXra:1710.0065 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-07 14:13:01

### Technical Notes On ImageJ/Fiji/ActogramJ/JikesRVM Based Actigraphy Informatics Platform – A Simple Suggestion to Perform Actigraphy Analysis Using JikesRVM as the Java Virtual Machine(JVM).

Authors: N.T.Kumar, Thiago R, Sandro B, Vinicius R, Lisane V, Vanderlei P
Comments: 3 Pages. Technical Notes & Short Communication on Actography using Image J Platform

“Actigraphy is a non-invasive method of monitoring human rest/activity cycles. A small actigraph unit,also called an actimetry sensor is worn for a week or more to measure gross motor activity. The unit is usually, in a wrist-watch-like package, worn on the wrist. The movements the actigraph unit undergoes are continually recorded and some units also measure light exposure. The data can be later read to a computer and analysed offline; in some brands of sensors the data are transmitted and analysed in real time.”[1-9].We are interested in focusing on the above mentioned research topic as per the title of this communication.Interested in suggesting an informatics and computational framework in the context of Actigraphy using ImageJ/Actigraphy Plugin by using JikesRVM as the Java Virtual Machine.
Category: Physics of Biology

[8536] viXra:1710.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-17 04:55:53

### Explaining the Mass Discrepancy in Galaxy Clusters

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi

Galaxy clusters and mass discrepancy blend and dwell together quite harmoniously. Mass discrepancy is always stumbled upon when galaxy clusters are studied. The orbital velocities of galaxies within galaxy clusters are unusually higher than expected and the observable baryonic matter alone cannot account for all the mass and gravity for the overall observed stability of the cluster. The presence of additional matter in the form of dark matter is required to explain the gravitational stability at such high velocities as baryonic matter is insufficient to explain the anomaly. In this paper I present a theory to account for the mass discrepancy within galaxy clusters without involving dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[8535] viXra:1710.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-07 01:36:36

### Exact Solutions of the Newton-Schroedinger Equation, Infinite Derivative Gravity and Schwarzschild Atoms

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 14 Pages. submitted to Physics and Astronomy International Journal

Exact solutions to the stationary spherically symmetric Newton-Schroedinger equation are proposed in terms of integrals involving $generalized$ Gaussians. The energy eigenvalues are also obtained in terms of these integrals which agree with the numerical results in the literature. A discussion of infinite-derivative-gravity follows which allows to generalize the Newton-Schroedinger equation by $replacing$ the ordinary Poisson equation with a $modified$ non-local Poisson equation associated with infinite-derivative gravity. We proceed to replace the nonlinear Newton-Schroedinger equation for a non-linear quantum-like Bohm-Poisson equation involving Bohm's quantum potential, and where the fundamental quantity is $no$ longer the wave-function $\Psi$ but the real-valued probability density $\rho$. Finally, we discuss how the latter equations reflect a $nonlinear$ $feeding$ loop mechanism between matter and geometry which allows us to envisage a Schwarzschild atom" as a spherically symmetric probability cloud of matter which curves the geometry, and in turn, the geometry back-reacts on this matter cloud perturbing its initial distribution over the space, which in turn will affect the geometry, and so forth until static equilibrium is reached.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8534] viXra:1710.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-08 05:32:31

### Analysis of Beggars in Modern Nepal

Authors: Arjun Dahal, Nikita Parajuli