[48] **viXra:0907.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Jonathan J. Dickau

**Comments:** 8 pages, This paper, in its current form, was submitted to the journal Quantum Biosystems.

It has been accepted from about 1980 that there is lateral specialization of brain usage
for humans, and it has more recently come to light that a lateral division of labor also takes
place in the brains of other animals. However; during that time there has been no universally
successful general model of cognitive lateralization. Instead, we have a topical landscape where
there is no clear consensus, various models are cited in support of different research results,
and there have been few comparative reviews of the available models as the topic has become too
broad. This paper suggests a unifying principle that accounts for many aspects of lateral
specialization in the brain, and offers tools to help develop a better general model of lateralization.
Simply put; the two halves of the brain appear to address opposite phases of directional processes.
While the left brain can take things apart and separate or distinguish the individual pieces,
the right brain appears better at assembling those pieces, seeing how they fit together, and
making them function as a congruent whole. But this same metaphor extends to a wide range of
transformations which are directional and/or reversible. The key element, which makes this idea
universal, is that many events in life are irreversibly directional, as they are tied to the
ongoing flow of time. That is; time itself is a directional process which compels all creatures
to move forward, in terms of our own evolution in time. This explains why even relatively
primitive creatures develop brains that are laterally specialized.

**Category:** Mind Science

[47] **viXra:0907.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Marvin E. Kirsh

**Comments:** 10 pages, This manuscript is currently in peer review, accepted
for conference proceeding (poster session)
"Non Duality and Science" (San Francisco Otober 2009)

Consider, in the study of the evolution of human beings, consciousness, and
intelligence, the hypothesis that men are a special instance of the reflection of nature,
and later in return to this notion, as unproven hypothesis, consider the dynamics of a
town meeting when asking about intelligence, consciousness, the genes or evolution,
when questioning to scientific rigor, the origin and nature of the logic that pervades
existence. If reasoning is a special (or specially evolved) property exclusive to
humans how might one account for its lowered or appearing absent property in other
species if each by necessity of the assumed hypothesis also reflect nature. Is there
a separate nature for each species (excuse the pun) or is the nature of each species
the same as a unique, one, nature (reflects) as a single unique entity.

**Category:** Mind Science

[46] **viXra:0907.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Marvin E. Kirsh

**Comments:** 4 pages, available at: Ludus Vitalis, vol. XVI, num. 30, 2008, pp. 225-228.

One may purport that ones' awareness of space for scientific purposes
comes about from a potential awareness of its' absence that is derived from
times when ones attention is not focused on it. Yet simply one might
extract the notion that space and entailed properties of it are elemental
- i.e. conceptually non reducible and that from which all emanates. The
words non-ethical induction, entailing the existence of ethical induction,
if compared in a corresponding manner (to indivisible space and the
attentive awareness of it), also entail that the ethics of induction in science
are dependant on attentive focus. In the following description, I will
attempt to draw some logical conclusions employing this analogy regardless
of its potential validity or invalidity and then relate these conclusions
to actual circumstances in order to lend them substance.

**Category:** Mind Science

[45] **viXra:0907.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Marvin E. Kirsh

**Comments:** 14 pages

The question addressed by the hard problem of philosophy (3), how cognitive
representation is acquired from the physical properties of self and the external, is
examined from a perspective originating with Boethius(14) that knowledge is dependant
on the nature of the perceiver and discussed with respect to the philosophy of George
Berkeley (1,2,7) concerning the existence of matter with respect to perception. An
account of the trails of history, scientific method, with respect to the naming and
delineation of the hard problem suggest that its topic of address is a factor of plural
elements-perceived as singular, a monism, only an aspect of its universality is
perceived. A surface aspect is what seduces scientifically and, as a result, a
confusion involving excessive abstraction and perceptually absent empirical fact,
is postulated to accompany a false morality-an inclination to conquer it from
scientific method is attributed to a seduction by naturally existing perplexity that
is intermingled with unknown physical elements, themselves rooted from the same
singular perplexity such that an ensuing interrogation targeted at the physical world
and unavoidingly overlapping with the strictly philosophical has taken place. An
invisible paper thin but sharp and self denigrating third facet to the commonly
known philosophical walls, within the perplexing and the logical incongruence's, an
artifact of perception and modeling of nature, results in a combined scientific
(physical) and philosophical (reflective) assailing of natural paradox in a pursuit
to summit human sufferings that are suggested to be, at least in part, of an
unnatural and physical origin. Included as a conceptual tool is a section that
discusses all possible human behavior as intuitively contained by the set of all
the possible paths of nature emerged up to present and continued to emerge.

**Category:** Mind Science

[44] **viXra:0907.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Marvin E. Kirsh

**Comments:** 12 pages, This manuscript is currently in peer review

The theory of relativity (1) is considered form a perspective of folklore. Abstracted
entities in the theory of relativity are stripped of units in order to provide explanation, to
expose an ordinary meaning that employs a fulcrum for visual description. It is suggested that
components of the theory's construction are not only unusually compatible with the religious and
spiritual but are also unaccounted for scientifically; they may not render the expected power
struggle of church doctrine with scientific notions but an opposite situation in which logical
contradiction at the root level of physical meaning and symbolism is absent and might exist only
with respect to active perceptual structuring, either functioning on the unknown or belief. This
situation, is projected to exist in a volatile mythological form as a 'fulcrum' like bridge
between points of dispersion in which the (invisible) entity of mass assumes an added social
(or physical) weight imposed by the assumption of the existence of massless space; especially,
should its' logically non excludable converse situation, of exclusively "mass and gravitational
force containing space" for all phenomenon, find future explanation and validity.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[43] **viXra:0907.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 11 pages

In the article the theory of capture of space bodies is given, which one does not exist in a
modern physics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[42] **viXra:0907.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 13 pages

The satellites of planets in the majority are grasped bodily and clear demonstrate the
exited state caused by continuous growth at the expense of a space material.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[41] **viXra:0907.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 15 pages

In the article is shown, that the planets are in quantum exited states and have appeared
as a result of capture bodily or in the greater part.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[40] **viXra:0907.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 6 pages

Bohm's micro-quantum ontological interpretation for closed systems in sub-quantal thermal equilibrium is
generalized to open macro-quantum coherent systems using the Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer Ansatz. A
connection to the Freeman-Vitiello model of the brain is suggested.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[39] **viXra:0907.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 13 pages.

In the article the different kinds of radiations are considered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[38] **viXra:0907.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 8 pages.

In the article the ionization potentials of atoms are considered, the similar electronic
structure of ions with identical number of electrons is shown and the formulas of calculation
of potentials of ionization of any multicharge ions are given.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[37] **viXra:0907.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-30 11:02:28*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 99 Pages.

Ancient African Oracle Patterns were spread through many cultures (Vedic, Judaic, Platonic, Chinese, Japanese, Ilm al Raml, Llullian Wheels, Tarot, and Computer Cellular Automata). Their 256 basic elements lead to the real Clifford algebra Cl(8) and thus to Cl(16) = Cl(8) x Cl(8) and to the Lie algebra E8 and a realistic E8 physics model. The article describes: History up to Tarot (pages 2-10); Earlier Heaven IFA Sequence (pages 11-13); Cl(8) Graded Structure (pages 14-19); Cellular Automata Dynamics (pages 20-38); African Oracle Structures (pages 38-45); 88 Equivalence Classes (pages 45-85); 256 Elementary Rule Patterns and Physics (pages 85-95); and Past and Future History (pages 96-99). Page numbers refer to pdf pagination of v4.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[36] **viXra:0907.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 33 pages.

In the article is given of a critic of a special and general relativity theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:0907.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 19 pages

In the article the radiation and reception of photons in different conditions is considered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[34] **viXra:0907.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 25 pages, 1 figure. Poster contribution to The Alternative Gravities and Dark Matter
Workshop, Edinburgh, UK, 20-22 April 2006

In the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author, cosmological
redshifts are caused by interactions of photons with gravitons.
Non-forehead collisions with gravitons will lead to an additional relaxation
of any photonic flux. It gives a possibility of another interpretation
of supernovae 1a data. Every massive body would be decelerated
due to collisions with gravitons that may be connected with the Pioneer
10 anomaly. This mechanism needs graviton pairing and "an
atomic structure" of matter for working it. Also an existence of black
holes contradicts to the equivalence principle: any black hole should
have a gravitational mass to be much bigger - about three orders - than
an inertial one.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[33] **viXra:0907.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 2 pages, no figure, Latex. Contribution to the International Meeting "Physical
Interpretations of Relativity Theory" (PIRT-09), Moscow, Russia, 6 - 9 July 2009.

The property of asymptotic freedom of the model of low-energy
quantum gravity by the author leads to the unexpected consequence:
if a black hole arises due to a collapse of a matter with some characteristic
mass of particles, its full mass should be restricted from the
bottom. For usual baryonic matter, this limit of mass is of the order
107M_{☉}

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32] **viXra:0907.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 25 pages

In the article the theory of hydrogen-like atoms is given and some details of an electron
motion in atom are described.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[31] **viXra:0907.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-28 07:40:47*

**Authors:** M. MADANI Bouabdallah

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

J.P. Gram (1903) writes p.298 in 'Note sur les zéros de la fonction zéta de Riemann' :
'Mais le résultat le plus intéressant qu'ait donné ce calcul consiste en ce qu'il révèle l'irrégularité qui se trouve dans la série des α. Il est très probable que ces racines sont liées intimement aux nombres premiers.
La recherche de cette dépendance, c'est-à-dire la manière dont une α donnée est exprimée au moyen des nombres premiers sera l'objet d'études ultérieures.'
Also the proof of the Riemann hypothesis is based on the definition of an application between the set P of the prime numbers and the set S of the zeros of ζ.

**Category:** Number Theory

[30] **viXra:0907.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 11 pages, Published in Int.J.Theor.Phys.37:1243-1252,1998

I apply the principle of event-symmetry to simple string models and discuss how these
lead to the conviction that multiple quantisation is linked to dimension. It may be that string
theory has to be formulated in the absence of space-time which will then emerge as a derived
property of the dynamics. Another interpretation of the event-symmetric approach which embodies
this is that instantons are fundamental. Just as solitons may be dual to fundamental particles
instantons may be dual to space-time events. Event-symmetry is then dual to instanton statistics.
In that case a unification between particle statistics and gauge symmetry follows on naturally
from the principle of event-symmetry. I build algebras which represent symmetries of superstring
theories extending event-symmetry but which are also isomorphic to an algebra of creation and
annihilation operators for strings of fermionic partons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29] **viXra:0907.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 18 pages, Published in Int.J.Theor.Phys.35:1037-1062,1996.

To accommodate topology change, the symmetry of space-time must be extended from the
diffeomorphism group of a manifold, to the symmetric group acting on the discrete set of space-time
events. This is the principle of event-symmetric space-time. I investigate a number of physical
toy models with this symmetry to gain some insight into the likely nature of event-symmetric
space-time. In the more advanced models the symmetric group is embedded into larger structures
such as matrix groups which provide scope to unify space-time symmetry with the internal gauge
symmetries of particle physics. I also suggest that the symmetric group of space-time could be
related to the symmetric group acting to exchange identical particles, implying a unification
of space-time and matter. I end with a definition of a new type of loop symmetry which is
important in event-symmetric superstring theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[28] **viXra:0907.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 33 pages.

The theory of elementary particles permitting to explain their constitution, sizes, bond
energy, possible channels of decay, spectrum of weights and other properties is offered.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[27] **viXra:0907.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Fangyu Li, Nan Yang, Zhenyun Fang, Robert M L Baker Jr., Gary V. Stephenson, Hao Wen

**Comments:** 33 pages.

Coupling system between Gaussian type-microwave photon flux, static
magnetic field and fractal membranes (or other equivalent microwave
lenses) can be used to detect high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs)
in the microwave band. We study the signal photon flux, background
photon flux and the requisite minimal accumulation time of the signal in
the coupling system. Unlike pure inverse Gertsenshtein effect (G-effect)
caused by the HFGWs in the GHz band, the the electromagnetic (EM)
detecting scheme (EDS) proposed by China and the US HFGW groups is
based on the composite effect of the synchro-resonance effect and the inverse
G-effect. Key parameters in the scheme is the first-order perturbative
photon flux (PPF) and not the second-order PPF; the distinguishable
signal is the transverse first-order PPF and not the longitudinal PPF; the
photon flux focused by the fractal membranes or other equivalent microwave
lenses is not only the transverse first-order PPF but the total
transverse photon flux, and these photon fluxes have different signal-to-noise
ratios at the different receiving surfaces. Theoretical analysis
and numerical estimation show that the requisite minimal accumulation
time of the signal at the special receiving surfaces and in the background
noise fluctuation would be ~ 10^{3} -10^{5} seconds for the typical laboratory
condition and parameters of h_{r.m.s.} ~ 10^{-26} - 10^{-30}/√Hz at 5GHz with
bandwidth ~1Hz. In addition, we review the inverse G-effect in the EM
detection of the HFGWs, and it is shown that the EM detecting scheme
based only on the pure inverse G-effect in the laboratory condition would
not be useful to detect HFGWs in the microwave band.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:0907.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 41 pages

In the article the general approach to the theory of fundamental particles is described

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[25] **viXra:0907.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Terrance Cameron Stewart

**Comments:** 18 pages. e-mail: TC_STEWART20 (at) YAHOO (dot) COM

This model proposes a minimally constructed replicating protocell
that exploits only a positive, a negative and a neutral amino acid
to build membranes, genes and ion channels. This transition from
chemical to biological evolution would result from a charged peptide
that can function as a template to fuse peptide fragments, and act
as a membrane gate.
The nucleic genetic code may have originated as a single base codon that
recognized three types of amino acid residue. A two base codon with three base
types could code for nine types of residue. An increase to four base types
would produce 16 residue possibilities. The modern code now utilizes a three
base codon and four base types to yield 20 types of amino acid. tRNA
synthetases and the genetic code appear to be linked together by mutual
evolution. The evolving transition to a nucleic code would support a greater
variety of amino acids and proteins, and thus complete the creation of life.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[24] **viXra:0907.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 26 pages.

In the article the theory of atomic nuclei is set up and the impact way of implementation
of thermonuclear reactions is offered.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[23] **viXra:0907.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 2 pages.

Under the data of possible daily variations of gravity acceleration, speed of gravitation
not less than in 106 times is exceeded speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:0907.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 33 pages, English and Spanish versions included.

Any tetradimensional theory of gravity that was a consistent
generalization of special relativity and no tolerating outstanding observers will get
superior speeds to the local light speed in void. In this article the theory of general
relativity from Einstein is refused because it is unable of carry out this requirement,
therefore a new alternative generalization is propose, the connected theory that
eliminates the black holes. A different light raises where the absolutely darnkness
was before.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:0907.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 7 pages. Published in INTEGERS 10 (2010), 201-209, (The Electronic Journal of Combinatorial Number Theory)

Diophantine m-tuples with property D(n), for n an integer, are sets of m positive integers
such that the product of any two of them plus n is a square. Triples and quadruples with this property
can be classed as regular or irregular according to whether they satisfy certain polynomial identities.
Given any such m-tuple, a symmetric integer matrix can be formed with the elements of the set placed in
the diagonal and with corresponding roots off-diagonal. In the case of quadruples, Jacobi's theorem for
the minors of the adjugate matrix can be used to show that up to eight new Diophantine quadruples can be
formed from the adjugate matrices with various combinations of signs for the roots. We call these
adjugate quadruples.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20] **viXra:0907.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Anthony Pinedo Araujo

**Comments:** 39 pages. This paper is written in Spanish. The title and the
abstact are written in both languages English and Spanish. The content is in Spanish.

Since Berry demostrated that the standard description of adiabatic
processes in quantum mechanics was incomplete, geometric phases have
been studied in many areas of physics. Both adiabatic and non-adiabatic
phase are described in detail, with the mathematical background. Then
we study the qbit, that is the principal unit of information of the quantum
computation, and its representation on the Bloch sphere. Finally we
find the general expression for geometric phases for qbits. Those final
expression are in fact related to the solid angle enclosed in the circuit on
the Bloch sphere.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:0907.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Yuri Danoyan

**Comments:** 3 pages

An attempt of interpretation and application
in modern physics "recipe" of Pauli:
"Division and reduction of symmetry
this then is the kernel of the brut!"

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[18] **viXra:0907.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 12 pages

The problems solving of a quantum mechanics is obtained by a classic way or with the
help of a corpuscular quantum mechanics

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:0907.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Dieter Gernert

**Comments:** 10 pages, Journal reference - Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp.233 – 243, 2008

After a short overview of arguments pro and contra peer reviews, examples of
gross misjudgement are compiled, followed by an attempt to identify some frequent, recurrent
patterns of unjustified rejection of scientific manuscripts. A few specific questions are
studied in more detail: the claim for still more precise and comprehensive definitions,
the right way of handling "parallel theories", and the frequent misuse of the term
"pseudoscience". Finally, practical rules to improve refereeing, and "basic rights of
authors" are proposed, together with a word of encouragement for future authors.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[16] **viXra:0907.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 21 pages

In the article the motion of a body on a circumference is updated and the hypothesis of
originating of a gravidynamic field is stated at motion of gravitational charges.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:0907.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 24 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Peter Fred

**Comments:** Pages.

Experiments show that the gravitational mass of a test mass will increase when heat conducts upwards through it. A ~489 gm copper hemisphere was placed above a 1000 W heat element and below and two ice-filled copper containers. After 400 seconds of heating, the gravitational mass of the hemisphere had increased by 9.6 % or 47gm. If the sun's warmth decreases earth's dayside surface gravity by as little as 0.08 %, the produced pressure imbalance at its center will be enough to account for its centripetal acceleration towards the sun. This calculation suggests that bound systems such as stars, planets, galaxies and clusters have residing in them powerful "threedimensional lever" that can be activated by the slight warmth of a outside source of heat. Since with all these objects heat conducts from their centers outwards, an experimentally backed means becomes available to explain why they are bound that does not depend on the putative dark matter or the mysterious attractive power of mass. Observations indicate that the cosmic star formation rate declines at z ≈ 1 . They also indicate that at zt=0.61-0.21+3.68(1σ) that cosmic acceleration commences. If the former causes the latter, an experimentally backed way becomes available to account for cosmic acceleration that does not involve vast amounts of energy coming out of the vacuum.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:0907.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 17 pages

In the article the motion of photons is reviewed in connection with miscellaneous
properties of light.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:0907.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 4 pages

Is offered neoclassical of the Planck formula construction and the degradation of
oscillators resulting in to originating of relict radiation is shown.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:0907.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 26 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 23 pages

From the observance of the HSS team and SCP team in 1998, they gained the mass density of the negative(HSS:
Ω_{M} = -0.38(±0.22), SCP: Ω_{M} = -0.4(±0.1) ), using field equations which do not have the cosmological constant.
In they thought, the quantity of the mass couldn't be a negative value, so the value was discarded. We have to know
that not the field equation has disposed the value, but our thought disposed that value. In the world of positive
mass, ground state is a point that energy is low, but in case of negative mass, ground state is a point that energy
is the highest. Accordingly, in the world of negative mass, energy level is filled from the highest to the lowest, and
stable state means the highest energy state, so the catastrophe to energy level of minus infinity never happens even if
negative mass spontaneously emits energy. Assuming that negative mass exists, Newton's Law of motion was derived
in between negative and positive masses and also between negative and negative masses. As a method for proving
the existence of negative mass, an explanation on the revolution velocity of the galaxy through negative mass has
been presented. In this process, the existence of spherical mass distribution was given; furthermore, explanation
was done using this, to show observation results where dark matter effect through negative mass is proportional to
distance r. If Ω_{M} is -0.38, universe's age is 14.225 Gyr. It is in the range estimated by other observations. Universe's
radius R is 96:76[_{-11:44}^{+12:13}]Gly = (85.32 ~ 108.89)Gly.
Assuming that negative mass and positive mass were born
together at the beginning of universe, it satisfies the various problems that previous dark matter and dark energy
possess, such as, centripetal force effects of galaxy and galaxy clusters from previous dark matters, mass effects that
is proportional to the distance r, repulsive force needed for expansion, dark energy that has positive values, low
interaction between dark matter when collision occurs between dark matter, deceleration expansion and acceleration
expansion of universe, formation of void, in
ation mechanism, fine tuning problem of mass density, collision of Bullet
cluster, universe's age, universe's size, the reason of that dark energy seems to has a small and non-zero value. Also,
we prove to the dark energy observation value (10^{-47}GeV^{4}). As a result, the necessity of observation focusing on
exact computation and detection of negative mass is stated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:0907.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** André Michaud

**Comments:** 21 pages

Calculation of the energy of localized electromagnetic particles by integration of
energy fields mathematically deemed spherically isotropic and whose density is
radialy decreasing from a lower limit of λα/2π to an infinite upper limit (∞), allowing
the definition of discrete local electromagnetic fields coherent with permanently
localized moving particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:0907.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** 15 pages

Four independent unrelated phenomena, none of which has an established explanation,
have now been extensively observed and a large amount of data substantiating the phenomena
have been developed. The phenomena are as follows.
- In 1933 F. Zwicky reported that the rotational balance of gravitational central
attraction and rotational centripetal force in galaxies appeared to be out of balance, that
a small additional centrally directed acceleration of unknown source appeared to be
needed and to be acting. Numerous galactic rotation curves confirm that there is such
an anomalous acceleration present and necessary in all rotating galaxies.
- In 1998 the Pioneer Anomaly was first reported. The anomaly is a small acceleration,
centrally directed [toward the Sun], constant, distance independent, and of unknown
cause, observed in the tracking of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from launch until
their near departure from the Solar System.
- In 2008 the Flybys Anomaly was first reported. The anomaly is unaccounted for
changes in spacecraft speed, both increases and decreases, for six different spacecraft
involved in Earth flybys from December 8, 1990 to August 2, 2005.
- Also in 2008 a previously unknown large scale flow of galaxy clusters all in the same
direction toward "the edge" of the observable universe was reported.
Analysis discloses that the first three have in common the same locally centrally directed,
small acceleration, one that is non-gravitational, distance independent, apparently constant, and
unaccounted for.
A cause and explanation of that common acceleration is presented. It is shown that the
fourth phenomenon is fully consistent with that same cause and explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:0907.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** David Martin Degner

**Comments:** 56 pages

The universe is made of a single elementary particle that is neither created nor destroyed.
I have named that particle the N particle. A one elementary particle model that makes physics as simple
as it can get is the ultimate in Occam's razor. This is a simple theory of everything. I analyze only
simple symmetries, usually just point sources or spherical objects, so the geometry is simple and the
equations are simple. Everything is at the level of introductory physics using calculus and some very
important pieces of the puzzle are at the middle school science level.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:0907.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Yuri Danoyan

**Comments:** 5 pages

Examples of physical evidencies supporting the Ratio 3:1 are given.
Concept of Metasymmetry and Broken Metasymmetry is introduced.
The 3:1 Ratio has been found as a numerical measure of Broken Metasymmetry(BM).
An attempt have been made for explanation of BM as total effect Bose-Fermi mixture.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:0907.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 3 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

This paper is an outline of a program for a realistic physics model unifying the Standard Model and Gravity, the details of which can be found in the pdf web book at vixra:0907.0006 The main points of the outline are that the physics model has: EPR structure similar to that of Joy Christian; E8 structure modified from that of Garrett Lisi; Cl(16) = Cl(8)xCl(8) Clifford Algebra structure anticipated by Ramon Llull; a Higgs mechanism produced by formation of M4 x CP2 spacetime as shown by work of Meinhard Mayer; Standard Model Gauge Groups produced therein as shown by work of N. A. Batakis; Conformal Gravity produced as in the MacDowell-Mansouri mechanism; a Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio produced by conformal structures similar to those of Irving Ezra Segal; Force Strength and Particle Mass calculations done using the Work of Hua Luogeng, particularly work on the Geometry of Complex Domains; and AQFT constructed from a Clifford Real-Periodicity-8 hyperfinite II1 von Neumann algebra factor. The key to the realism of the model is the Math of Hua Luogeng, which allows calculations in the model that meet Feynman's criterion: "The whole purpose of physics is to find a number, with decimal points, et! Otherwise you haven't done anything." The v2 update adds material about Gradings and Triality (pdf pages 12-19) and about E8 lattices (pdf pages 20-32).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:0907.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-11 14:06:11*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 473 Pages.

A physics model based on E8 constructed from the Cl(16) = Cl(8)xCl(8) Clifford algebra is described including: History of the Concepts; Technical Introduction; Description of the Structure of the Model; Summary of Calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Kobayahi- Maskaw Parameters, and the ratio Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter; Details of Calculations and of Structures of the Model. Version 2 revises neutrino mixing based on Daya Bay observations of March 2012.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:0907.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Barry D. O. Adams

**Comments:** 51 pages

We show that when left and right handed neutrinos a have majorana
mass matrix, local guage invariance produces a fifth force acting
between chiral charges on neutrinos and quarks. The force is a carried
by a massless (or low mass) 1-spin guage boson, we call an axiphoton.
The force is caused by a U(1) axial guage symmetry in the way as the
electromagnetic force. We expect from renormalisation that the force
constant, α_{a} is about 1/60 of the electromagnetic force constant α.
We show that this force can explain dark energy. Our model predicts
decaying right handed neutrinos in the eV-MeV range, and explain
the heating of the solar corona. Finally we show that the Tajmar
experiment detecting a force due to a rotating superconductor, may be
detection of our force.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:0907.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Rafael-Andrés Alemañ-Berenguer

**Comments:** 10 pages

Since the very begining of quantum theory there started a debate on the proper role of
space and time in it. Some authors assumed that space and time have their own algebraic operators.
On that basis they supposed that quantum particles had "coordinates of position", even though
those coordinates were not possible to determine with infinite precision. Furthermore, time in
quantum physics was taken to be on an equal foot, by means of a so-called "Heisenberg's fourth
relation of indeterminacy" concerning time and energy. In this paper, the proper role of space
and time in the core of non-relativistic quantum phsysics is analyzed. We will find that,
rigorously, that relation for time and energy shows a different root. For the role of space,
it will be discussed that there is no "coordinate of position" in the conceptual structure of
quantum physics because quantum particles are not point-like objects.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:0907.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Hilton Ratcliffe

**Comments:** A shortened version of this paper has been accepted for publication in the
proceedings of the 2nd Crisis in Cosmology Conference, Astronomical Society of the Pacific
conference proceedings, 2009.

One of the greatest challenges facing astrophysics is derivation of remoteness in cosmological
objects. At large scales, it is almost entirely dependent upon the well-established Hubble relationship
in spectral redshift. The comparison of galactic redshifts with distances arrived at by other means has
yielded a useable curve to an acceptable confidence level, and the assumption of scale invariance allows
the adoption of redshift as a standard calibration of cosmological distance. However, there have been
several fields of study in observational astronomy that consistently give apparently anomalous results
from ever-larger statistical samples, and would thus seem to require further careful investigation.
This paper presents a review summary of recent independent work, primarily (for galaxies and proto-galaxies)
by teams led by, respectively, D. G. Russell, M. Lopez-Corredoira, and H. C. Arp, and for galaxy clusters
and large-scale structures, those of N. A. Bahcall, J.C. Jackson, and N. Kaiser. Included also are several
other important contributions that will be fully cited in the text. The observational evidence is presented
here *per se* without attempting theoretical conclusions or extrapolating the data to cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:0907.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 10 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 5 pages

We prove that any 3x3 unitary matrix can be transformed to a magic matrix by multiplying its rows
and columns by phase factors. A magic matrix is defined as one for which the sum of the elements in any row
or column add to the same value. This result is relevant to recent observations on particle mixing matrices.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[1] **viXra:0907.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** submission to the 2008 FXQi essay contest on "The Nature Of Time". Published in Presapcetime Journal V2, p162-171

In relativity time is bound to space by the symmetries of spacetime. In the general theory the symmetry is
covariance under diffeomorphisms but in string theory this extends to the full permutation group acting on spacetime
events. This huge symmetry has profound implications for the nature of time, causality and the way we see our place
in the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory