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0909 Submissions

[61] viXra:0909.0062 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-30 11:27:52

The True Lost Symbol of our Conscious Cl(8)^8 Universe

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 51 Pages.

Dan Brown in his 2009 book "The Lost Symbol" said "... The ancients possessed profound scientific wisdom. ... Mankind ... had once grasped the true nature of the universe ... but had let go ... and forgotten. ... Modern physics can help us remember! ... the world need [s] this understanding ... now more than ever. ...", but the rest of his book fails to provide convincing support for that statement, although it does provide a clue: "... The secret hides within the Order Eight Franklin Square ... of the numbers 1 through 64 ...". The purpose of this paper is to support that statement in enough detail to convince a diligent reader that following that clue can show that the statement is true. To follow the clue: begin with the "Order Eight" Clifford Algebra Cl(8) whose 2^8 = 256 dimensions represent the 256 elements of the Ancient African IFA Oracle and the 256 Elementary Cellular Automata, so that the True Lost Symbol is the 8- dimensional HyperCube with 256 vertices as shown on the cover of this paper; then multiply (by tensor product) 8 copies of Cl(8) to produce Cl(64) whose 2^64 dimensions represent the first 10^(-34) seconds of the Zizzi Inflation Phase of our Conscious Universe and an event of Penrose-Hameroff Human Conscious Thought; then analyze the details of the 256 Cellular Automata and the E8 Lattices containing 256-vertex 8- dimensional HyperCubes to construct a realistic unified theoretical model of the Standard Model plus Gravity; then analyze the Fractal Structure of the Ancient African IFA Oracle; then apply the Ancient African IFA Oracle (and its subset the I Ching) to describe History, including the Future History of Global Finance. Readers can find further examples and more details on my web site at
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[60] viXra:0909.0061 [pdf] submitted on 30 Sep 2009

Cosmological Redshift, Compton Effect and Age of the Stars

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Compton effect, in conjunction with the age of the stars, might explain any case of light redshift.
Category: Astrophysics

[59] viXra:0909.0059 [pdf] submitted on 28 Sep 2009

Toward a Mininum Criteria of Multi Dimensional Instanton Formation for Condensed Matter Systems?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 23 pages, extension of "NEW S-S' PAIR CREATION RATE EXPRESSION IMPROVING UPON ZENER CURVES FOR I-E PLOTS; Modern Physics Letters B, Vol. 20, No. 14 (2006) 849-861", as written by the authors, with a so called 'minimum criterion' for formation of instanton structure in condensed matter systems. which the author eventually will send to a condensed matter journal. Has eight figures. Key part of text on pages 21-23, as discussion built about 7th and final question as to applications of false vacuum hypothesis, and instanton physics for condensed matter systems.

We present near the end of this document a promising research direction as to how to generalize a technique initially applied to density wave current calculations to questions of instanton formation in multi dimensional condensed matter systems. Initially we review prior calculations done through a numerical simulation that the massive Schwinger model used to formulate solutions to CDW transport in itself is insufficient for transport of soliton-antisoliton (S S') pairs through a pinning gap model of CDW transport. Using the Peierls condensation energy permits formation of CDW S S' pairs in wave functionals. This leads us to conclude that if there is a small spacing between soliton-antisoliton (S S') charge centers, and an approximate fit between a tilted washboard potential and the system we are modeling, that instantons are pertinent to current/transport problems. This requires a very large 'self energy' final value of interaction energy as calculated between positive and negative charged components of soliton-antisoliton (S S') pairs with Gaussian wave functionals as modeled for multi dimensional systems along the lines of Lu's generalization given below. The links to a saddle point treatment of this instanton formation are make explicit by a comment as to a cosmology variant of instanton formation in multi dimensions we think is, with slight modifications appropriate for condensed matter systems
Category: Condensed Matter

[58] viXra:0909.0058 [pdf] submitted on 28 Sep 2009

How a Randall-Sundrum Brane-World Effective Potential Influences Inflation Physics

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 12 pages, 2007 submission to STAIF conference, prior to author's interest in entropy/graviton production. mix as reflected in adaptation of Y. J. Ng's quantum infinite statistics as done by Beckwith, in 2009

In string theory, even when there are ten to the thousand power vacuum states, does inflation produce overwhelmingly one preferred type of vacuum state? We respond affirmatively to questions whether existence of graviton production is confirmable using present detector methodology. We use an explicit Randall-Sundrum brane-world effective potential as congruent with an inflationary quadratic potential start. This occurs after Bogomolnyi inequality eliminates need for ad hoc assumption of axion wall mass high temperature related disappearing. Graviton production has explicit links with a five-dimensional brane-world negative cosmological constant and a four-dimensional positive valued cosmological constant, whose temperature dependence permits an early universe graviton production activity burst. We show how di quarks, wave functions, and various forms tie into the Wheeler-De Witt equation. This permits investigating a discretized quantum bounce and a possible link to the initial phases of present universe's evolution with a prior universe's collapse to the bounce point - the initial starting point to inflationary expansion. This opens a possibility of realistically investigating gravitons as part of a space propulsion system and dealing with problems from a beam of gravity waves, which would create a g-force because the geodestic structure is near field. It can be applied to existing and to new space propulsion concepts.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[57] viXra:0909.0057 [pdf] submitted on 28 Sep 2009

How Can Brane World Physics Influence the Existence of a Relic Graviton Burst in the Onset of Inflation?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 25 pages, concept paper used as foundation of initial work given to STAIF 2007 and 2008, before the author was aware of the issue of confluence of classical and quantum predictions of relic particle prediction. Has a very different flavor of interpretation as far as how to understand the importance of relic graviton production.

We use an explicit Randall-Sundrum brane world effective potential as congruent with conditions needed to form a minimum entropy starting point for an early universe vacuum state. We justify this by pointing to the Ashtekar, Pawlowski, and Singh (2006) article about a prior universe being modeled via their quantum bounce hypothesis which states that this prior universe geometrically can be modeled via a discretized Wheeler - De Witt equation, with it being the collapsing into a quantum bounce point singularity converse of the present day universe expanding from the quantum bounce point so delineated in their calculations. In doing so, we use thermal/ gravitational inputs into our present universe, using a simplified model of graviton production similar to what was done by Wheeler in the 1970s for spin two gravitons . Doing so permits modeling of experimental conditions needed for directional graviton production which conceivably could be used for space craft in the foreseeable future once an experimental verification of early universe conditions for graviton production and power radiation are finalized. This leads to intense power production using a model for power production reported by Dr. Fontana in 2005 in the new frontiers section of STAIF. We report upon what we think is a range of intense graviton production parameters in the onset of cosmological inflation. This builds upon an idea of a semi resonant cavity effect for spin two gravitons, with the walls dissolving after ten to the minus 43 seconds, with a build up of temperature, and a steady energy insertion leading to , after axion wall collapse due to rising temperatures, a massive release of relic gravitons at the same time the initiation of inflation takes place. This answers the apparent incongruency of low entropy, low temperatures postulated by S. Carroll, and J. Chen, with a naturally occurring 'laboratory' as to necessary and sufficient conditions needed to model graviton production on a large scale.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[56] viXra:0909.0056 [pdf] submitted on 28 Sep 2009

Making a Wavefunctional Representation of Physical States Congruent with the False Vacuum Hypothesis of Sidney Coleman

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 15 pages. Mathematical / condensed matter joint piece designed to explain the congruence of the Bogomol’nyi inequality with the fate of the false vacuum hypothesis as given by Sidney Coleman. Foundational issue involved which was key to up dates as to my PhD dissertation, and subsequent work in terms of the tunneling Hamiltonian, and I-E curves in laboratory data taking. Note , the Bogomol’nyi inequality is a key work horse as to PARTICLE/ Astro physics, as is the false vacuum hypothesis

We examine quantum decay of the false vacuum in the driven sine-Gordon system and show how both together permit construction of a Gaussian wave functional. This is due to changing a least action integral to be similar with respect to the WKB approximation. In addition we find that the soliton-antisoliton (S-S') separation distance obtained from the Bogomol'nyi inequality permits after rescaling a dominant &phi2 contribution to the least action integrand. This is from an initial scalar potential characterized by a tilted double well potential construction.
Category: Condensed Matter

[55] viXra:0909.0055 [pdf] submitted on 28 Sep 2009

Incompatibility of the Relic Dark Energy Hypothesis with Physically Admissible Solutions to the Cosmic Ray Problem of Special Relativity

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 23 pages, 3 figures. Work done with Joe Lykken, FNAL, which was to show that Magueijo's propused revisions of Special relativity, the so called double special relativity hypothesis, was inconsistent with respect to cosmology. Accepted by FNAL theory division, rejected by a reviewer in GRG journal due to the fact that the derived scalar potential did not satisfy slow roll hypothesis of inflation. Non withstanding that the non compliance of the scalar potential with slow roll was cited to one of the primary faults of Magueijo's double special relativity

We offer evidence that the Trans Plankian hypothesis about Dark energy is incompatible with necessary and sufficient conditions for solving the cosmic ray problem along the lines presented by Magueijo et al. We can obtain conditions for a dispersion relationship congruent with the Trans Planckian hypothesis only if we cease trying to match cosmic ray data which is important in investigating special relativity. This leads us to conclude that the Trans Planckian hypothesis is inconsistent with respect to current astrophysical data and needs to be seriously revised .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[54] viXra:0909.0054 [pdf] submitted on 28 Sep 2009

Electrodynamics of a Classical Charge Density Wave Model with Random Pinning

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 18 pages, Constitutes one fifth of the author's PhD dissertation at the U. of Houston, in late 2001. Remainder of dissertation used Sidney Coleman's "fate of the false vacuum" article, plus the Schwinger equation, with chain couplings to fix short comings evident in the simulations presented in this document. 6 figures.

We have evidence that the classical random pinning model, if simulated numerically using a phase evolution scheme pioneered by Littlewood, gives dispersion relationships that are inconsistent with experimental values near threshold. These results argue for a revision of contemporary classical models of charge density wave transport phenomena. Classically, phase evolution equations are in essence driven harmonic oscillator models, with perturbing terms plus damping. These break down when we are adding more 'energy' into a measured sample via an applied electric field than is dissipated via a damping coefficient behavior in a phase evolution equation. We see the consequences of the breakdown of these phase evolution models in Charge Density Wave conductivity and dielectric functional graphs.
Category: Condensed Matter

[53] viXra:0909.0053 [pdf] submitted on 28 Sep 2009

Electro Mechanical Contributions to Low Frequency Dielectric Responses of Biological Cells in Colloidal Suspension

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 18 pages. Part of a different analogy to bio phyics dielectric constants explored by the author with Dr. Patrick Xie and Dr. James Claycomb at the Texas center for super conductivity, Houston, Texas, in early 2002.

We investigate electro-mechanical contributions to the low frequency dielectric response of biological cells in colloidal suspension. Prior simulations of biological cells in colloidal suspension yield maximum dielectric constant values about 103 in magnitude as the frequency of applied electric fields drops below the kHz range. Experimentally measured relative dielectric values in yeast cells , on the other hand, have maximal values up to 107 - 108 . We consider both electrical and mechanical energy stored in cellular suspension and show that low frequency mechanical contributions can give rise to dielectric constant values of this magnitude.
Category: Physics of Biology

[52] viXra:0909.0052 [pdf] submitted on 27 Sep 2009

Entropy Growth in the Early Universe , DM Models , with a Nod to the Lithium Problem

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 page slide show, given in the AP1 dark matter section hosted by Dr. Chardin, at the Paris observatory, in July 17th 2009 as a talk in the 12 Marcel Grossman meeting.

We outline how DM density profiles may be perturbed by entropy generation, and that in part due to relic graviton production. The interaction of gravitons as an entropy generator may influence relic neutrino and neutralino production, which would affect not only DM behavior, but in certain situations the relic abundance of Lithium in the early universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[51] viXra:0909.0051 [pdf] submitted on 25 Sep 2009

Entropy Growth in the Early Universe, and Confirmation of Initial Big Bang Conditions (Longer Version)

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 102 pages ( 5 pages removed ) of a presentation made by Dr. Beckwith at the Chongquing University department of physics, Chonguing University, PRC, as a guest of Dr. Fangyu Li, PRC, and his gravitational physics group. Done as a collaboration between Dr. Li's GW research group and US reseachers, as listed by

Survey of topics. beginning with break down of the quark-gluon plasma as a way to analyze early universe conditions, and presentation of opportunities as far as GW astronomy which may be presented if the li baker detector is put into operational usage.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[50] viXra:0909.0050 [pdf] submitted on 25 Sep 2009

Hypothetical Dark Matter/axion Rockets: Dark Matter in Terms of Space Physics Propulsion

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 pages . Version of document sent ( as latex ) to Hans Klaptor, as a contribution to the Dark 2009 conference, January, Christ Church, New Zealand 2009 as an invited talk by the conference chair, Dr. Klaptor

Current Proposed photon Rocket designs include the Nuclear Photonic Rocket design and the anti matter photonic rocket design (as proposed Eugene Sanger , 1950s, as reported in reference 1) This paper examines the feasibility of improving the thrust of a photon rocket via either use of WIMPS, or similar DM candidate. Would a WIMP, if converted to power and thrust enable / improve the chances of interstellar travel ?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[49] viXra:0909.0049 [pdf] submitted on 25 Sep 2009

On 2 + 2-Dimensional Spacetimes, Strings, Black-Holes and Maximal Acceleration in Phase Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro, J. A. Nieto
Comments: 41 Pages. This article appeared in the Int. J. Mod. Phys. A vol 22, no. 11 (2007) 2021.

We study black-hole-like solutions ( spacetimes with singularities ) of Einstein field equations in 3+1 and 2+2-dimensions. In the 3+1-dim case, it is shown how the horizon of the standard black hole solution at r = 2GNM can be displaced to the location r = 0 of the point mass M source, when the radial gauge function is chosen to have an ultra-violet cutoff R(r = 0) = 2GNM if, and only if, one embeds the problem in the Finsler geometry of the spacetime tangent bundle (or in phase space) that is the proper arena where to incorporate the role of the physical point mass M source at r = 0. We find three different cases associated with hyperbolic homogeneous spaces. In particular, the hyperbolic version of Schwarzschild's solution contains a conical singularity at r = 0 resulting from pinching to zero size r = 0 the throat of the hyperboloid H2 and which is quite different from the static spherically symmetric 3+1-dim solution. Static circular symmetric solutions for metrics in 2+2 are found that are singular at ρ = 0 and whose asymptotic ρ → ∞ limit leads to a flat 1+2-dim boundary of topology S1 x R2. Finally we discuss the 1+1-dim Bars-Witten stringy black-hole solution and show how it can be embedded into our 3 + 1-dimensional solutions with a displaced horizon at r = 0 and discuss the plausible stringy nature of a point-mass, along with the maximal acceleration principle in the spacetime tangent bundle (maximal force in phase spaces). Black holes in a 2 + 2-dimensional "spacetime" from the perspective of complex gravity in 1 + 1 complex dimensions and their quaternionic and octonionic gravity extensions deserve furher investigation. An appendix is included with the most general Schwarzschild-like solutions in D ≥ 4.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[48] viXra:0909.0048 [pdf] submitted on 24 Sep 2009

Dark Matter Planets

Authors: Jack Sarfatti
Comments: 3 Pages.

The experimental scattering evidence is that electrons and quarks are truly point-like showing no extended spatial structure. A finite charge at a point has infinite energy and would create a black hole. If the charge is extended in, for example, a spherical shell, then what glues the charge together? Niels Bohr evaded this by renouncing the ontological space-time world lines that was so useful to Feynman in the creation of his diagrams. David Bohm's ontological interpretation shows that Bohr was wrong about not being able to have well defined particle trajectories and classical field configurations under the influence of nonlocal entangled quantum potentials that encode all of quantum weirdness including the double slit experiment that Feynman called the "central mystery" of the elusive quantum principle. I proposed back in 1974 that electrons and quarks are quasi-Kerr type black holes with "hair" (internal electroweak-strong charges) in which the space warp is so large that they appear as point particles to the outside observer whilst being large to the inside observer. Indeed, the virtual plasma of fermion-antifermion pairs is the strong shortrange attractive "glue" that holds the repulsive electric charge together. There appears to be a fractal scale invariance that shows a similar "geon" (J. A. Wheeler) effect at planetary and galactic scales. In this first part of a series, I only consider stable dark matter spheres of planetary size.
Category: Astrophysics

[47] viXra:0909.0047 [pdf] replaced on 8 Mar 2010

Doppler Assisted Quantum Unification Allowing Relativistic Invariance

Authors: Peter Jackson
Comments: 29 Pages. Plus Ref's. Inc. 5 Figures. Article 1. From a 53 page (ex. Figs.) paper.

Free action photo electron cloud build up to accelerated particles is considered, including its relationship to quantum fields, E.M. wave propagation and particle non - conservation. Related implications from cross discipline experiment and observation are reviewed and analysed. Correlations between this, the standard model, field theory, cosmological shocks and halos, dark matter and astrophysical anomalies are drawn and a new model is derived and tested to explore its ability to remove anomalies and paradox. The conceptual model utilises Einstein's postulates of Special Relativity, and constancy of 'c', and his opinion that "We can't solve problems using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them." also the conclusions of his 1952 paper[1] that inertial reference frames in space are actually "an infinite number of motion with respect to each other." The historic pathway to, and assumptions following, the S.T.R. are reviewed against current data and an adjustment derived. A quantum mechanism for Doppler shifting emerges via 'Discrete Fields' which appears to allow Locality with the Reality Einstein sought from a Unified Field Theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[46] viXra:0909.0046 [pdf] submitted on 24 Sep 2009

Gravitational Redshift and Age of the Stars

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 6 Pages.

The gravitational redshift, in conjunction with the age of the stars, might explain any case of light redshift.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[45] viXra:0909.0045 [pdf] submitted on 24 Sep 2009

On n-ary Algebras, Branes and Polyvector Gauge Theories in Noncommutative Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 25 Pages. This article has been submitted to the J. Math. Phys.

Polyvector-valued gauge field theories in noncommutative Clifford spaces are presented. The noncommutative star products are associative and require the use of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. Actions for pbranes in noncommutative (Clifford) spaces and noncommutative phase spaces are provided. An important relationship among the n-ary commutators of noncommuting spacetime coordinates [X1,X2, ......,Xn] with the poly-vector valued coordinates X123...n in noncommutative Clifford spaces is explicitly derived [X1,X2, ......,Xn] = n! X123...n. The large N limit of n-ary commutators of n hyper-matrices leads to Eguchi-Schild p-brane actions for p + 1 = n. Noncommutative Clifford-space gravity as a poly-vector-valued gauge theory of twisted diffeomorphisms in Clifford spaces would require quantum Hopf algebraic deformations of Clifford algebras.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] viXra:0909.0044 [pdf] replaced on 25 Sep 2009

Entropy, GW, and the Question of the Degree of Classical Physics Contribution to Early GW Waves

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: A companion piece to of the Numerical analysis and applied mathematics special symposium organized by Christian Corda, in Rethymno, Crete, 18-22 September 2009

A first order presentation of the questions the author believes must be addressed for fufilling the promise of GW astronomy in terms of understanding the origins of our universe. Organized in five questions , and themes which end with asking if quantum foundations / structures to our cosmological space time are mandantory, or if T'Hoofts vision of quantum physics being a sub set to a larger 'deterministic quantum theory; as t;Hooft phrases the successor to quantum probability, as envisions it .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[43] viXra:0909.0043 [pdf] replaced on 25 Sep 2009

Entropy, Neutrino Physics, and the Lithium Problem Why Stars with no Lithium in Early Universe Exist

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 32 pages, and pre cursor of 3 page academic text requested by Dr Faessler for a special edition of the journal "Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics" (Editor: Amand Faessler) which has been made of the author in lieu of a successful presentation in the "International School of Nuclear Physics, 31st Course : Neutrinos in Cosmology, in Astro-, Particle- and Nuclear Physics, Erice-Sicily September 16-24, 2009"

We present a first principle argument for modeling changes in BBN which may affect the probability that super massive stars forming before galactic structures formed may have been sans Lithium 7. The author believes that relic neutrinos plus gravitons may play a role in damping and modifying the density fluctuations of early space time, which have chances to affect nucleosynthesis.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[42] viXra:0909.0042 [pdf] submitted on 22 Sep 2009

Entropy Growth in the Early Universe and Confirmation of Initial Big Bang Conditions

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 8 pages, AIP conference proceedings entry 1168, "Numerical analysis and applied mathematics, 2009, Reythmono, Crete" , Greece; a peer reviewed submission to 'Symposium: The big challenge of Gravitational waves, a New Window into the future', as organized by Dr. Christian Corda of the Associazione Scientifica Gallieo Galilei: pp 1077-1083 of AIP conference proceedings 1168

This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang level can be measured experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of this entropy increase is explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's (2007, 2008a, 2008b) revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that ΔS ≈ ΔNgravitonsis a starting point to the increasing net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities with ZPE analysis, it is important to note that the resulting ΔS ≈ ΔNgravitons ≠ 1088, that in fact it is much lower, allowing for evaluating initial graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized. The rapid increase in entropy so alluded to without near sudden increases to 1088 may be enough to allow successful modeling of relic graviton production for entropy in a manner similar to ZPE energy extraction from a vacuum state.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[41] viXra:0909.0041 [pdf] submitted on 21 Sep 2009

Does the Non-Locality of Quantum Phenomena Guarantee the Emergence of Entropy?

Authors: Jonathan J. Dickau
Comments: 23 Pages. Special thanks to Paola Zizzi, who invited this submission for the Quantum Spaces special issue of Entropy. It was later withdrawn by the author, but appears here as submitted, with a slight correction to the abstract.

Quantum-Mechanical objects and phenomena have a different nature, and follow a different set of rules, from their classical counterparts. Two interesting aspects are the superposition of states and the non-locality of objects and phenomena. A third aspect, that gives quantum-mechanical objects which have common roots a non-local connection, is quantum entanglement. This paper takes up the question of whether these three properties of quantum mechanical systems facilitate the action of entropy's increase, in terms of creating a condition where energy is dispersing, or going from being localized to being more spread out over time. Quantum Mechanics gives each quantum entity the nature of a container or vehicle for both energy and information, some part of which is necessarily non-local. The author feels that quantum-mechanical systems take on aspects of computing engines, in this context. He discusses how the onset of chaos is possible with even the simplest calculational processes, how these processes also result in complexity building, and why both of these dynamics contribute to the character of entropy as observed in ordinary affairs, or with macroscopic systems.
Category: Quantum Physics

[40] viXra:0909.0040 [pdf] submitted on 20 Sep 2009

Hydrogen Cloud Separation as Direct Evidence of the Dynamics of the Universe.

Authors: Lyndon Ashmore
Comments: 11 Pages. This paper was presented at the CCC2 conference at port Angeles Washington State and is to be published along with the procedings of this conference by ASP.

Despite the idea of an expanding universe having been around for nearly one hundred years there is still no conclusive, direct evidence for expansion. This paper examines the Lyman Alpha forest in order to determine the average temperature and the average separation of Hydrogen clouds over the aging of the universe. A review of the literature shows that the clouds did once become further and further apart (showing expansion?) but are now evenly spaced (an indication of a static universe?). Doppler parameters give an indication of the temperature and/or the degree of disturbance of the clouds and the evidence is that the temperature or degree of disturbance is increasing rather than decreasing as required by an expanding universe. Whilst these results do not support any cosmology individually, they do support one where the universe expanded in the past but that expansion has now been arrested and the universe is now static. A separate mechanism for redshift would be required to explain why, in this scenario, the Hydrogen Clouds are evenly spaced in the local universe - but have differing redshifts. High z hydrogen cloud separation can be used to give an independent estimate on the lower limit of the age of the universe in an expanding model and it is found that the age must be far greater than the presently accepted value of 13.8 billion years - if the H1 clouds are to achieve their present separations without some mechanism other than inflation being involved.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[39] viXra:0909.0039 [pdf] submitted on 16 Sep 2009

Formalistics of Generalization

Authors: Victor Porton
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the framework of ZF formally considered generalizations, such as whole numbers generalizing natural number, rational numbers generalizing whole numbers, real numbers generalizing rational numbers, complex numbers generalizing real numbers, etc. The formal consideration of this may be especially useful for computer proof assistants.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[38] viXra:0909.0038 [pdf] submitted on 16 Sep 2009

How the Classical World Got Its Localization: an Elementary Account of How the Age of the Universe May be Implicated in the Quantum-Classical Transition

Authors: C. L. Herzenberg
Comments: 11 Pages.

An expanding universe of finite duration appears to impose limits on the temporal and spatial extent of quantum waves. These limitations seem to be able to bring about localization for sufficiently large quantum objects that can resemble classical behavior. A threshold for a transition from quantum to classical behavior of a physical object is derived in terms of the magnitude of its moment of inertia.
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:0909.0037 [pdf] submitted on 15 Sep 2009

Nature of Planetary Matter and Magnetic Field Generation in the Solar System

Authors: J. Marvin Herndon
Comments: 8 Pages. Published in Current Science, Vol. 96, 25 April 2009

Understanding the nature of matter comprising the solar system is crucial for understanding the mechanism that generates the earth's geomagnetic field and magnetic fields of other planets and satellites. The commonality of matter in the solar system like that inside of earth, together with common nuclear reactor operating conditions, form the basis for generalizing the author's concept of nuclear georeactor geomagnetic field generation to planetary magnetic field generation by natural planetocentric nuclear fission reactors.
Category: Astrophysics

[36] viXra:0909.0036 [pdf] submitted on 15 Sep 2009

Internal Heat Production in Hot Jupiter Exo-Planets, Thermonuclear Ignition of Dark Galaxies, and the Basis for Galactic Luminous Star Distributions

Authors: J. Marvin Herndon
Comments: 4 Pages. Published in Current Science, Vol. 96, 10 June 2009

Geophysical and Astrophysical implications stemming from the discovery of nuclear fission just seventy years ago are only now becoming appreciated. The author's contributions are reviewed as background for his presentation here of fundamental, new concepts related to internal heat production in exo-planets, thermonuclear nuclear ignition of dark galaxies, and a basis for understanding the varied and heretofore inexplicable luminous star distributions observed in galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[35] viXra:0909.0035 [pdf] replaced on 17 Apr 2010

On Representing Particle By a Standing Luminal Wave-Revisiting de Broglie's Phase Wave

Authors: V.A.Induchoodan Menon
Comments: 12 Pages.

De Broglie when he introduced the concept of the phase wave to represent a particle, he assumed that in the rest frame of reference the particle will have the form of a standing vibration. According to the author, this was a serious mistake. He shows that instead, had de Broglie assumed a standing luminal wave structure for the particle, it would have led him to very exciting insights. The author shows that in a relativistic transformation the average energy and the momentum of the forward and the reverse waves forming the standing wave transform exactly like the energy and momentum of a particle. Besides, the plane wave expansion which is used to represent a particle in quantum mechanics is found to emerge directly from this standing wave structure. He proposes to extend the approach to incorporate the spin of the particle and also provide a simple explanation for the Pauli's exclusion principle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[34] viXra:0909.0034 [pdf] submitted on 14 Sep 2009

On Strategies Towards the Riemann Hypothesis :Fractal Supersymmetric QM and a Trace Formula

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 20 Pages. This article appeared in the Int. Jour. of Geom. Methods of Modern Physics, 4, no. 5 (2007) 881-895.

The Riemann's hypothesis (RH) states that the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta-function are of the form sn = 1/2 + iλn. An improvement of our previous construction to prove the RH is presented by implementing the Hilbert-Polya proposal and furnishing the Fractal Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanical (SUSY-QM) model whose spectrum reproduces the imaginary parts of the zeta zeros. We model the fractal fluctuations of the smooth Wu-Sprung potential ( that capture the average level density of zeros ) by recurring to P a weighted superposition of Weierstrass functions ΣW(x,p,D) and where the summation has to be performed over all primes p in order to recapture the connection between the distribution of zeta zeros and prime numbers. We proceed next with the construction of a smooth version of the fractal QM wave equation by writing an ordinary Schroedinger equation whose fluctuating potential (relative to the smooth Wu-Sprung potential) has the same functional form as the fluctuating part of the level density of zeros. The second approach to prove the RH relies on the existence of a continuous family of scaling-like operators involving the Gauss-Jacobi theta series. An explicit completion relation ( "trace formula") related to a superposition of eigenfunctions of these scaling-like operators is defined. If the completion relation is satisfied this could be another test of the Riemann Hypothesis. In an appendix we briefly describe our recent findings showing why the Riemann Hypothesis is a consequence of CT -invariant Quantum Mechanics, because < Ψs | CT | Ψs > ≠ 0 where s are the complex eigenvalues of the scaling-like operators.
Category: Number Theory

[33] viXra:0909.0033 [pdf] submitted on 14 Sep 2009

(Anti) de Sitter Relativity, Modified Newtonian Dynamics, Noncommutative Phase Spaces and the Pioneer Anomaly

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 24 Pages. This article appeared in Adv. Studies Theor. Phys., Vol. 2, no. 7 (2008) 309 - 332

It is shown how the de-Sitter Relativistic behaviour of the hyperbolic trajectory of Pioneer, due to the expansion of the Universe (non-vanishing cosmological constant), is the underlying physical reason for the observed anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer spacecraft of the order of c2/RH ~ 8.74 x 10-10 m/s2, where c is the speed of light and RH is the present Hubble scale. We display the explicit isomorphism among Yang's Noncommutative space-time algebra, the 4D Conformal algebra SO(4,2) and the area-bi-vector-coordinates algebra in Clifford spaces. The former Yang's algebra involves noncommuting coordinates and momenta with a minimum Planck scale λ (ultraviolet cutoff) and a minimum momentum p = h/R (maximal length R, infrared cutoff ). It is shown how Modified Newtonian dynamics is also a consequence of Yang's algebra resulting from the modified Poisson brackets. To finalize we study the deformed Kepler and free motion resulting from the modified Newtonian dynamics due to the Leznov-Khruschev noncommutative phase space algebra and which stems also from the Conformal algebra SO(4,2) in four dimensions. Numerical examples are found which yield results close to the experimental observations, but only in very extreme special cases and which seem to be consistent with a Machian view of the Universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32] viXra:0909.0032 [pdf] submitted on 14 Sep 2009

A Chern-Simons E8 Gauge Theory of Gravity in D = 15, Grand Unification and Generalized Gravity in Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 19 Pages. This article appeared in the International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics Vol. 4, No. 8 (2007) 1239–1257.

A novel Chern-Simons E8 gauge theory of gravity in D = 15 based on an octic E8 invariant expression in D = 16 (recently constructed by Cederwall and Palmkvist) is developed. A grand unification model of gravity with the other forces is very plausible within the framework of a supersymmetric extension (to incorporate spacetime fermions) of this Chern-Simons E8 gauge theory. We review the construction showing why the ordinary 11D Chern-Simons gravity theory (based on the Anti de Sitter group) can be embedded into a Clifford-algebra valued gauge theory and that an E8 Yang-Mills field theory is a small sector of a Clifford (16) algebra gauge theory. An E8 gauge bundle formulation was instrumental in understanding the topological part of the 11-dim M-theory partition function. The nature of this 11-dim E8 gauge theory remains unknown. We hope that the Chern-Simons E8 gauge theory of gravity in D = 15 advanced in this work may shed some light into solving this problem after a dimensional reduction.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31] viXra:0909.0031 [pdf] submitted on 11 Sep 2009

Entropy, Neutrino Physics, and the Lithium Problem; Why Stars with no Lithium in Early Universe Exist?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: Nine pages, part of source background for PPT which will be presented September 17th, 2009 in the Erice Nuclear physics school. Will be considerably refined for conference submission, in early November , 2009 for Nuclear physics journal which has proceedings of the 2009 nuclear physics school , Erice, Italy.

We review how graviton initial energy values are linkable to possible order of the Lorentz gravitational violation. Counter intuitively, the greatest Lorentz gravitational violation would be at lower to moderate initial velocity value conditions due to pre inflationary conditions. .We assume with rapid build up of graviton energies , convergence to flat space, Lorentz invariance as gravitons , due to a high level of initially extreme inflationary conditions speed up with introduction of massively boosted energies at the onset of the big bang. The coupling of neutrinos to gravitions would be enhanced as their wave lengths would initially be quite similar, i.e. very short. Consequences for the Lithium problem in stars, due to stellar formation, and gravitational perturbation on DM and will be discussed toward the end of this document. The neutrino / gravitational wave interaction leads to a damping factor in the intensity of GW of [1-5⋅(ρneutrino/ρ) + ϑ([ρneutrino/ρ]2 )] as far as relic GW as could be shown up in the CMBR data sets. This would have no bearing upon the peak of the frequency range, which is another matter entirely. The contention advanced, though is that proper analysis of the big bang, including initial treatment of nucleosynthesis may show a way forward to explain the recent discovery of early old stars with no lithium. Thereby closing one of the huge holes in the big bang, and lithium abundance.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30] viXra:0909.0030 [pdf] submitted on 10 Sep 2009

Proposal for Using Mix of Analytical Work with Data Analysis of Early CMB Data Obtained from the Jdem Nasa Doe Investigation

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 13 pages, taken from as Dr. Beckwith's 2005 successful white paper submission to the DETF for its preliminary study as to how to prepare data analysis from the CMB for the forecoming JDEM investigation.

This is a record of a successful White paper submission to the JDEM mission by Dr. Andrew Beckwith. University of Houston physics department / TcSAM. June 13 th. , 2005. Sent to : Rocky Kolb, Chair of the JDEM Dark matter search panel. Was part of back ground study for improving JDEM instrumentation performance in upcoming mission for Dark Energy investigations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29] viXra:0909.0029 [pdf] submitted on 10 Sep 2009

Value of High-Frequency Relic Gravitational Wave (HFRGW) Detection to Astrophysics and Fabrication and Utilization of the Li-Baker HFRGW Detector

Authors: Andrew Beckwith, Robert M L Baker Jr.
Comments: 13 pages, possible submission to SPESIF, 2010 as a paper, and talk, and also a source for open discussion of hard ware requirements for a HFGW detector, with applications to detection of astrophysical GW. Inputs to this document await commentary and feed back from the Gravwave team. (I.e. this document may undergo many revisions)

A number of applications of High-Frequency Relic Gravitational Wave (HFRGW) detection to astrophysics are identified and a means for detecting them is presented that is sensitive enough to provide useful data. Observation of relic gravitational waves will provide vital information about the birth of the Universe and its early dynamical evolution as well as enable significant direct inferences to be drawn about the value of the Hubble parameter of the early universe and the cosmological scale factor. Other astrophysical applications involve the entropy growth of the early Universe, an ability to rule out alternatives to inflation, to pinpoint the energy scale at which inflation took place and to provide clues about the symmetries underlying new physics at the highest energies. Several alternative HFRGW detectors are described and the proposed Li-Baker HFRGW detector, which is theoretically sensitive to GW amplitudes, A, as small as 10-32, is discussed in detail. It is recommended that plans and specifications for the Li-Baker HFRGW detector be prepared in order to expedite its fabrication.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[28] viXra:0909.0028 [pdf] submitted on 10 Sep 2009

How Can Gw/graviton Generation Has Semi Classical Features, and What the Implications Are for Cosmological re Acceleration of the Universe, and Initial Relic Entropy Generation in Term of the Importance of Dimensions.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 17 pages. For possible inclusion as entry into the ICAAM AIP conference proceedings, as a study/presentation for Dr. Christian Corda's GW work shop.

We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states. Secondly, if gravitational waves have semi classical features in their genesis, then the problem of how q(Z) under goes through an inflection point and how the rate of acceleration increases a billion years ago needs to be re examined. Additional dimensions are not the problem. Determining if GW/Gravitions are semi classical in their initial formulation at the source of the big bang, is. Also, semi classical and quantum entropy generating processes are compared, with the role of looking for over lap between them.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27] viXra:0909.0027 [pdf] submitted on 9 Sep 2009

A Proposal for a Unified Field Theory

Authors: Bruce Rout
Comments: 16 pages

A proposal outlining an approach to a unified field theory is presented. A general solution to the time-dependent Schrödinger Equation using an alternative boundary condition is found to derive the Heisenberg uncertainty formulae. A general relativity/quantum mechanical interaction between a photon and a gravitational field is examined to determine the degree of red shifting of light passing through a gravitational field. The Einstein field equations, complete with an arrangement of Faraday tensors, are presented with suggestions to determine the energy of a photon from Einstein's and Maxwell's equations. Schrödingers Equation is coupled with both the Einstein field equations and Maxwells equations to derive a possible foundation for string theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] viXra:0909.0026 [pdf] submitted on 9 Sep 2009

A First Order Singular Perturbation Solution to a Simple One-Phase Stefan Problem with Finite Neumann Boundary Conditions

Authors: Bruce Rout
Comments: 13 pages

This paper examines the difference between infinite and finite domains of a Stefan Problem. It is pointed out that attributes of solutions to the Diffusion Equation suggest assumptions of an infinite domain are invalid during initial times for finite domain Stefan Problems. The paper provides a solution for initial and early times from an analytical approach using a perturbation. This solution can then easily be applied to numerical models for later times. The differences of the two domains are examined and discussed.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[25] viXra:0909.0025 [pdf] submitted on 9 Sep 2009

Veneziano Amplitudes, Spin Chains, and String Models

Authors: Arkady L. Kholodenko
Comments: 35 pages

In a series of recently published papers, we reanalyzed the existing treatments of Veneziano and Veneziano-like amplitudes and the models associated with these amplitudes. In this work, we demonstrate that the already obtained new partition function for these amplitudes can be exactly mapped into that for the Polychronakos-Frahm spin chain model. This observation allows us to recover many of the existing string-theoretic models, including the most recent ones.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] viXra:0909.0024 [pdf] replaced on 6 Apr 2011

Dark Particles (Black Holes with the Reduced Planck Mass) Answers Dark Energy

Authors: John L. Haller Jr.
Comments: 9 pages

This paper argues a hypothetical "dark" particle (a black hole with the reduced Planck mass) gives a simple explanation to the open question of dark energy and has a relic density of only 17% more than the commonly accepted value. By considering an additional near horizon boundary of the black hole, set by its quantum length, the black hole can obtain an arbitrary temperature. Black body radiation is still present and fits as the source of the Universe's missing energy. Support for this hypothesis is offered by showing a stationary solution to the black hole's length scale is the same if derived from a quantum analysis in continuous time, a quantum analysis in discrete time, or a general relativistic analysis.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23] viXra:0909.0023 [pdf] submitted on 8 Sep 2009

Cosmic de Celebration Parameter Q(Z) Dependence Upon Gravitons? Implications for the DM Rocket/ram Jet Model

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 15 pages. Source of information for presentations on DM , and idea of DM rocket / ram jet as will in part be presented in both SPESIF, February 2010, and AIBEP, November 2009. Discussion of material of this document not involved with DM rocket are part of general back ground material for presentation by the author in ICAAM Crete, September 2009 at gravitational physics sub session run by Dr. Corda..AIBEP talk will have DM rocket/ ram jet, but also include laser physics

In the 12th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, July 9th, 2009, the author raised the issue of whether early graviton production could affect non-Gaussian contributions to DM density profiles. Another issue to consider, is if or not gravitons with mass affect DM profiles, but could also impact the cosmic acceleration of the universe, leading to an increase of acceleration one billion years ago, in a manner usually attributed to DE. Following Marcio E. S. Alves, Oswaldo D. Miranda, Jose C. N. de Araujo, 2009 in an article brought to the attention to the author by Christian Corda, the author, using his modification of Friedman equations, incorporating some brane models to allow for additional dimensions found that there is, for low graviton mass of the order of mgraviton ~ 10-65 grams similar behavior as noted by Alves, et al. 2009. If of mgraviton ~ 10-65 also is reconcilable as to KK dark matter models, which is under investigation, the new modeling super structure could have significant impact upon the DM rocket / ram jet proposal the author, Beckwith, brought up in the AIBEP meeting in Scottsville, Arizona. The author will high light what KK style gravitons, with a slightly different mass profile could mean in terms of his DM rocket proposal brought up in both Christ Church, Dark 2009, and in different form in SPESIF, 2009. I.e. value of up to 5 TeV , as opposed to 400 GeV for DM, which may mean more convertible power for a suitably designed platform.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[22] viXra:0909.0022 [pdf] submitted on 7 Sep 2009

The New Lorentz's Transformations

Authors: Xavier Terri Castañé
Comments: 1 page

The new "Lorentz's Transformations" are the new relational transformations
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21] viXra:0909.0021 [pdf] submitted on 7 Sep 2009

Observations of "Wisps" in Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Crab Nebula

Authors: N. F. Camus, S. S. Komissarov, N. Bucciantini, P. A. Hughes
Comments: 6 pages, Accepted as a paper in MNRAS

In this letter, we describe results of new high-resolution axisymmetric relativistic MHD simulations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae. The simulations reveal strong breakdown of the equatorial symmetry and highly variable structure of the pulsar wind termination shock. The synthetic synchrotron maps, constructed using a new more accurate approach, show striking similarity with the well known images of the Crab Nebula obtained by Chandra, and the Hubble Space Telescope. In addition to the jet-torus structure, these maps reproduce the Crab's famous moving wisps whose speed and rate of production agree with the observations. The variability is then analyzed using various statistical methods, including the method of structure function and wavelet transform. The results point towards the quasi-periodic behaviour with the periods of 1.5 - 3 yr and MHD turbulence on scales below 1 yr. The full account of this study will be presented in a follow up paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[20] viXra:0909.0020 [pdf] replaced on 14 Sep 2009

Polyvector-valued Gauge Field Theories and Quantum Mechanics in Noncommutative Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 14 pages, this article has been submitted to Mod Phys Letts A" (instead to IJMPA)

The basic ideas and results behind polyvector-valued gauge field theories and Quantum Mechanics in Noncommutative Clifford spaces are presented. The star products are noncommutative and associative and require the use of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. The construction of Noncommutative Clifford-space gravity as polyvector-valued gauge theories of twisted diffeomorphisms in Clifford-spaces would require quantum Hopf algebraic deformations of Clifford algebras.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] viXra:0909.0019 [pdf] submitted on 6 Sep 2009

Photorefractive Protein Bacteriorhodopsin, BR , as a Material for Holographic Data-Recording

Authors: Rafael-Andrés Alemañ-Berenguer, María Gomariz
Comments: 7 pages

The search of materials of biological origin with specific estates of potential technologic applications whose structure and functions come out from a process of adaptive evolution experienced by the organisms in extreme environments, is one of the most active fields in the modern biophysics. In short, the protein bacteriorhodopsin, acts like a protonic bomb whose photocycle has demonstrated interesting implications in the technologies of optic storage of information by means of holographic methods. In the present work some results of the investigation undertaken by our group are exposed, consistent mainly in the study of the influence that working conditions (pH, state of aggregation of the environment, intensity and time of illumination, etc.) have over photophysical and photochemical states of bacteriorhodopsin as well as in the tracking of the possible presence of bacteriorhodopsin proteins and xantorhodopsin, in the salines of Santa Pola (Alicante, Spain).
Category: Physics of Biology

[18] viXra:0909.0018 [pdf] submitted on 6 Sep 2009

How Can One Look at if GW Generation Has Semi Classical Features, and What This Implies About Compression of Vacuum Wave States, and Coherence/de Coherence? Also, What About High Versus Low Frequencies as to Relic GW?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 12 pages. 3 pages of references put in as bibliography as to important GW papers.

We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed , possibly even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states. The coherent states would be amendable to nucleation by classical/ highly non linear processes which would be almost immediately eliminated by compression and squeezing. Even though that the general background of incoherency for relic GW is a given. Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high frequency will be presented, with the reason given why earlier string models did NOT favor low relic GW from the big bang.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:0909.0017 [pdf] submitted on 5 Sep 2009

Entropy Growth in the Early Universe, and the Search for Determining if Gravity is Classical or Quantum , Part II (Do Physical Laws/ Physics Parameter Constants Remain Invariant from a Prior Universe, to the Present Universe?)

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 18 pages, with the key to the validity of the paper in a way to confirm the plausibility of the equation, given at the bottom of the first page.

The invariance of physical law between a prior to a present universe is brought up, as a continuation of analyzing entropy in today's universe, and the relationship of entropy to information content in a prior universe. If or not there is enough information to preserve the amount of physical law also may play a role as to if or not additional dimensions for cosmological dynamics is necessary.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:0909.0016 [pdf] submitted on 5 Sep 2009

Entropy Growth in the Early Universe, and the Search for Determining if Gravity is Classical or Quantum, Part I (Confirmation of Initial Big Bang Conditions?)

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 23 pages.

We begin our inquiry by asking two questions. First, is there an approximate match up between the total entropy of the universe, and the sum total of entropy between super massive black holes at the center of spiral galaxies? Note that Sean Carroll in 2005 presented a black hole entropy value which could have a super massive black hole in the center of a galaxy having more than 1089 non dimensionalized units of entropy in value. This value would be greater than what H. J. de Vega calculated as the entropy value of the entire universe. And there are conceivably up to a million spiral galaxies. Secondly, we accept what De Vega presented about entropy, i.e. its approximate present day value was nearly reached during the end of the re heating of the universe, right after the big bang. If so, the second question is what initiated entropy growth in the beginning ? This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang level can be measured experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of this entropy increase is explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that gravitons ΔS ≈ ΔN is a starting point to the increasing net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities with ZPE analysis, it is important to note that the resulting/\] ΔS ≈ ΔNgravitons ≠ 1089, that in fact it is much lower, allowing for evaluating initial graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized.. Finally, the implications of if or not gravitons have mass will be reviewed as far as how graviton mass issues, and the nature of gravitational waves, may affect experimental measurements of relic big bang conditions. The relationship of some models of KK gravitons as having similar evolution equations to GW in GR models will be commented upon, with suggestions as to how that ties in DM values.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15] viXra:0909.0015 [pdf] replaced on 2012-09-05 15:22:13

Equivalence Between the Empty Microspace and the Cosmological Space

Authors: R.A.Isasi
Comments: 24 Pages. In this v.5, I have corrected, some typing and orthographic errors

In this article, we discuss the origin and nature oe the total photons number N of the CMB radiation, in relation with the critical baryon number Nb and the energy of the empty space. The CMB radiation is considered as a huge amplification of the phenomena at atomic scale originated in the past, as the background microwaves are the support of all the prints originated by posterior pertubations. This allows us to establish a connection between the microphysics and macrophysics by means of their redution to a problem of scale and dimensional analysis. Taking into account the mean wavelength of the CMB radiation, we can parametrize the total number of photons as an invariant number through the succesive evolutive phases. The equivalence between the electrical potential and the gravitational potential is establishes by the relativistic implications which are found in Millikan´s experiment. This generalization, makes it possible to extend the formula of Saha, used specifically in the inverse thermal ionization, and extend it to the gravitational collapse when the Universe had the size of 1.032 Mps. Furthermore, this scale unit,marks as much as the initial conditions , as the present one for the Hubble Law.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:0909.0014 [pdf] submitted on 3 Sep 2009

Conformal Kepler Solar System, Pioneer and 55 Cancri

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 30 Pages.

Irving Ezra Segal's Gravity based on the Conformal Group Spin(2,4) = SU(2,2) not only allows calculation of the present value of the ratio Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter = 0.75 : 0.21 : 0.04 ( see vixra 0907.0007 and 0907.0006 ) but also explains the Pioneer Anomaly and is consistent with an extension of Kepler's Polyhedral Model of Planetary Orbit Radii to include Uranus and Neptune by using the Cuboctahedron and the Rhombic Dodecahedron for the outer region where the Conformal Pioneer Gravitational Acceleration becomes effective. The Conformally Extended Kepler Polyhedral Model not only describes Our Solar System of the Sun and its Planets, but, as Poveda and Lara have shown, it also describes the only other presently known Star and Planets system with at least 5 planets, the system of 55 Cancri. Since both of the only two presently known Star-Planet systems with at least 5 planets obey the Conformally Extended Kepler Polyhedral Model, it seems likely that the model is not a mere numerological coincidence, but is in fact based on realistic physics related to Segal's Conformal Gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[13] viXra:0909.0013 [pdf] submitted on 3 Sep 2009

On the Coupling Constants, Geometric Probability and Complex Domains

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 9 pages, This article appeared in Progress in Physics vol. 2 April (2006) 46-53

By recurring to Geometric Probability methods it is shown that the coupling constants, αEM, αW, αC, associated with the electromagnetic, weak and strong (color) force are given by the ratios of measures of the sphere S2 and the Shilov boundaries Q3 = S2 x RP1, squashed S5, respectively, with respect to the Wyler measure ΩWyler[Q4] of the Shilov boundary Q4 = S3 x RP1 of the poly-disc D4 (8 real dimensions). The latter measure ΩWyler[Q4] is linked to the geometric coupling strength αG associated to the gravitational force. In the conclusion we discuss briefly other approaches to the determination of the physical constants, in particular, a program based on the Mersenne primes p-adic hierarchy. The most important conclusion of this work is the role played by higher dimensions in the determination of the coupling constants from pure geometry and topology alone and which does not require to invoke the anthropic principle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[12] viXra:0909.0012 [pdf] submitted on 3 Sep 2009

The Charge-Mass-Spin Relation of Clifford Polyparticles, Kerr-Newman Black Holes and the Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 21 pages, This article appeared in Foundations of Physics vol 34, no. 7 ( 2004 ) 107.

A Clifford-algebraic interpretation is proposed of the charge, mass, spin relationship found recently by Cooperstock and Faraoini which was based on the Kerr-Newman metric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. The components of the polymomentum associated with a Clifford polyparticle in four dimensions provide for such a charge, mass, spin relationship without the problems encountered in Kaluza-Klein compactifications which furnish an unphysically large value for the electron charge. A physical reasoning behind such charge, mass, spin relationship is provided, followed by a discussion on the geometrical derivation of the fine structure constant by Wyler, Smith, Gonzalez-Martin and Smilga. To finalize, the renormalization of electric charge is discussed and some remarks are made pertaining the modifications of the charge-scale relationship, when the spin of the polyparticle changes with scale, that may cast some light into the alleged Astrophysical variations of the fine structure constant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[11] viXra:0909.0011 [pdf] submitted on 3 Sep 2009

On Nonextensive Statistics, Chaos and Fractal Strings

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 16 pages, This article appeared in Physica A 347 (2005) 184-204

Motivated by the growing evidence of universality and chaos in QFT and string theory, we study the Tsallis non-extensive statistics (with a non-additive q-entropy) of an ensemble of fractal strings and branes of different dimensionalities. Non-equilibrium systems with complex dynamics in stationary states may exhibit large fluctuations of intensive quantities which are described in terms of generalized statistics. Tsallis statistics is a particular representative of such class. The non-extensive entropy and probability distribution of a canonical ensemble of fractal strings and branes is studied in terms of their dimensional spectrum which leads to a natural upper cutoff in energy and establishes a direct correlation among dimensions, energy and temperature. The absolute zero temperature (Kelvin) corresponds to zero dimensions (energy) and an infinite temperature corresponds to infinite dimensions. In the concluding remarks some applications of fractal statistics, quasi-particles, knot theory, quantum groups and number theory are briefly discussed within the framework of fractal strings and branes.
Category: Classical Physics

[10] viXra:0909.0010 [pdf] replaced on 4 Sep 2009

Entropy Growth in the Early Universe, and the Search for Determining if Gravity is Classical or Quantum , Part III (Is Gravity a Classical or Quantum Phenomenon at Its Genesis 13.7 Billion Years Ago?)

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: part III of a series of inter related articles in the process of finalization which discuss entropy in terms of the search for if or not gravity is a classical or quantum emergent "field" in relic conditions. 33 pages

In the 12th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, July 9th, 2009, the author raised the issue of whether early graviton production could affect non-Gaussian contributions to DM density profiles. Non gaussianity of evolving cosmological states is akin to asking if there is a way to get quantum contributions due to squeezed initial vacuum states which act highly non classscially. If particle counting algorithms in graviton production is important as for entropy, and if entropy perturbations affects the density profile of dark matter clumping prifiles, then there is room to ask to what degree initial perturbations affecting structure formation are due to classical/ non linear processes, or more quantum theoretic states. If squeezing of the initial vacuum states is essential in the relic conditions, then quantization is unavoidable. If squeezing is not essential, then coherent initial vacuum states may contribute in semi classical ways to GW production . The end result of this stated inquiry may be answering if or not gravity in the onset of inflation is a quantized field. Or if a highly non linear set of complex initial conditions for gravity can be stated using purely classical models, as T'Hooft, Corda, and others believe. Note, also that Bojowald as of 2008 has left the degree of squeezing of initial vacuum states in the region of space as an open problem. In Bojowald's model of a cosmological bounce, the degree of squeezing is a measure of what strength the "bounce" from an initial configuration of the universe takes, and how strongly quantum effects contribute to the evolution of the LQG cosmos, after inflation commences. Similar questions are being raised as to the necessity of squeezing of initial vacuum states and if or not coherency of initial states is initially largely achievable, before the rapid expansion of the universe commences. Finally, and not least is a series of questions as to what conditions which would either require high or low frequencies as to relic signals from the big bang. As it is, large spatial dimensions which could induce far lower initial frequencies for relic signals are popular in many string theory models. The author views this assumption as of debatable validity, as well as the assumption made by Arkani Hamid that largely does away with coherency of initial vacuum states and specifies highly quantum , low frequency generation of relic GW.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:0909.0009 [pdf] submitted on 3 Sep 2009

Discovery of a New Dimming Effect Specific to Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

Authors: Thomas B. Andrews
Comments: 42 pages

Because type Ia supernovae (SNs) are anomalously dimmed with respect to the at (qo = 0.5) Friedman Expanding Universe model, I was surprised to find that the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are not anomalously dimmed. Based on the absence of anomalous dimming in BCGs, the following conclusions were reached:

  • ⋅ Since the light from the SNs and BCGs traverses the same space, the current hypothesis of an accelerated expansion of the universe to explain the anomalous dimming of SNs is disproved.
  • ⋅ The cause of the anomalous dimming must be specific to the SNs.
The first conclusion is important since current research in dark energy and the cosmological constant was initiated based on the accelerated expansion hypothesis. The disproof of this hypothesis, therefore, casts serious doubts on the existence of dark energy and the cosmological constant. The second conclusion indicates that the occurrence of anomalous dimming depends on a basic difference between the SNs and BCGs. The only difference besides the obvious - that SNs are exploding stars and the BCGs are galaxies - is that the light curves of the SNs are limited in duration. Due on this difference, I discovered that SNs light curves are broadened at the observer by a new Hubble redshift effect. Since the total energy of the light curve is then spread over a longer time period, the apparent luminosity is reduced at the observer, causing the observed anomalous dimming of SNs. I also show that BCGs are not anomalously dimmed because their absolute luminosity is approximately constant over the time required for the light to reach the observer. The above conclusions also apply to Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) since gamma-ray "light" curves are limited in duration. Finally, the light curve broadening effect can be used to determine if the universe is expanding or static. In the expanding universe model, a light curve broadening effect is predicted due to time-dilation for the SNs, GRBs and BCGs. Consequently, if the universe is expanding, two light curve broadening effects should occur for the SNs and GRBs. However, if the universe is static, only one light curve broadening effect will occur for the SNs and GRBs. Fortunately, Golhaber has measured the width's of SNs light curves and conclusively showed that only one light curve broadening effect occurs. Consequently, the expanding universe model is logically falsified.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:0909.0008 [pdf] replaced on 21 Jul 2011

Dowsing Geometry and the Structure of the Universe

Authors: Jeffrey S. Keen
Comments: 50 pages, 38 Figures, 8 Tables.

Comprehension of the structure of the universe currently concentrates on attempting to link quantum physics with general relativity. Many researchers, including the author, believes that the solution lies not just in physics, but involves consciousness and cognitive neuroscience together with understanding the nature and perception of information. This paper combines these latter factors in a non-orthodox approach linked by geometry. Developing an analogy to X-ray crystallography and diffraction gratings may prove useful. We are not using electro-magnetic waves, but consciousness. Confidence in this approach is justified for several reasons. Some of the patterns observed when dowsing seem similar to those produced by diffraction gratings or x-ray crystallography. But in particular, as a result of numerous experimental observations, we know that waves are involved in dowsing. In the following data base of different geometries, researchers are invited to find if mathematical transformations exist that would explain relationships between the mind generated geometric patterns observed by dowsing, and the physical source geometry that creates those patterns. This should help demonstrate how dowsing, the universe, and consciousness are connected, and the mechanisms involved. An analogy is to Crick and Watson discovering the structure of DNA by using Rosalind Franklin's diffraction images. This paper is version 2 of a paper originally published in September 2009, and contains major updates to the following four geometries: - a straight line, 3 dots in a triangle, 1-circle, 2-circles, and "Bob's Geometry". Exciting discoveries are that equations for the mathematical transformation between physical objects and their perceived geometrical pattern are simple functions involving Phi (φ), with no arbitrary constants - i.e. true universal constants. Perceived patterns are affected by several local and astronomical forces that include electromagnetic fields, spin, and gravity. The findings formally confirm the connection between the structure of space-time, phi, the mind, and observations.
Category: Mind Science

[7] viXra:0909.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2012-03-05 11:43:58

The Spiral Structure of NGC 3198.

Authors: Bruce Rout
Comments: 9 Pages. Explanation of flat velocity rotation curve and distance measure to NGC 3198

Observations of NGC 3198 show a discrepancy between the rotational velocity and its apparent geometry which defies the predicted behaviour of Keplerian Dynamics. This paper reconciles this anomaly by considering the relativistic effect of gravity on galactic spiral arms over great distances in a rotating reference frame. Keplerian dynamics hold true in this analysis by considering the rotational behaviour of a cloud of stars as more accurate than that of a central mass with satellites at discrete orbits. A re-examination from first principles describes the spiral arms of NGC 3198 as a linear star cloud of near-uniform density which appears, from our local reference frame, as a non-uniform disc due to its rotation. The apparent non-uniform radial distribution of stars is described by delayed gravitational interactions over great distances in an accelerating reference frame whereby a uniform distribution of stars appears to occupy an increasing circumference. The theory is substantiated by deriving the shape of a linear star cloud of the dimensions and rotational velocity of NGC 3198 as it would appear from Earth, using Einstein's equations and Keplerian dynamics. Since the derived shape is congruent with the observed shape of NGC 3198, the exact shape and size of the resulting spiral can be used to determine its distance from Earth with great accuracy using simple trigonometry.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:0909.0006 [pdf] submitted on 1 Sep 2009

Particle Mass Levels

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 10 pages

Particles occupy mass levels and sublevels within two sequences that descend in geometric progression from the Planck Mass. The common ratios of the sequences are r1=1/π and r2=2/π. Sublevels are arranged in subsequences of common ratio r1/p, where p is a power of 2. Concise graphical evidence is provided for the sequences. Atomic nuclei with 2≤A≤10, α-particle nuclei with A≤20, all nuclei of double magic number, many ground state hadrons, the weak gauge bosons and the charged leptons are shown to occupy mass levels and sublevels characterised by small p. The mass levels and sublevels constitute a framework upon which broken symmetries are displayed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[5] viXra:0909.0005 [pdf] submitted on 1 Sep 2009

A Short Article On A Newly Proposed Model Of Cosmology

Authors: Dan Visser, Chris Forbes, Keith Lees
Comments: 2 pages

In this paper a new model of cosmology is proposed in an informal manner, with most results merely stated and not derived, in anticipation of a fuller, more mathematical paper to be published at a later date. A historical overview of its development is given and its main propositions and results are explained and evaluated.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4] viXra:0909.0004 [pdf] submitted on 1 Sep 2009

On Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics, Brownian Motion, Weyl Geometry and Fisher Information

Authors: Carlos Castro, Jorge Mahecha
Comments: 16 pages, This article appeared in Progress in Physics vol. 1 (2006) 38-45.

A new nonlinear Schrödinger equation is obtained explicitly from the (fractal) Brownian motion of a massive particle with a complex-valued diffusion constant. Real-valued energy plane-wave solutions and solitons exist in the free particle case. One remarkable feature of this nonlinear Schrödinger equation based on a ( fractal) Brownian motion model, over all the other nonlinear QM models, is that the quantum-mechanical energy functional coincides precisely with the field theory one. We finalize by showing why a complex momentum is essential to fully understand the physical implications of Weyl's geometry in QM, along with the interplay between Bohm's Quantum potential and Fisher Information which has been overlooked by several authors in the past.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:0909.0003 [pdf] submitted on 1 Sep 2009

Polyvector Super-Poincare Algebras, M, F Theory Algebras and Generalized Supersymmetry in Clifford-Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 17 pages, This article appeared in the Int. Journal of Mod. Phys. A 21, no.10 (2005) 2149.

Starting with a review of the Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford-Spaces, and the physical motivation behind this novel theory, we provide the generalization of the nonrelativistic Supersymmetric pointparticle action in Clifford-space backgrounds. The relativistic Supersymmetric Clifford particle action is constructed that is invariant under generalized supersymmetric transformations of the Clifford-space background's polyvector-valued coordinates. To finalize, the Polyvector Super-Poincare and M, F theory superalgebras, in D = 11, 12 dimensions, respectively, are discussed followed by our final analysis of the novel Clifford-Superspace realizations of generalized Supersymmetries in Clifford spaces.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:0909.0002 [pdf] submitted on 1 Sep 2009

Against the Tide :A Critical Review by Scientists of How Physics and Astronomy Get Done

Authors: Carlos Castro, Martín López-Corredoira, Juan Miguel Campanario, Brian Martin, Wolfgang Kundt, J. Marvin Herndon, Marian Apostol, Halton C. Arp, Tom Van Flandern, Andrei P. Kirilyuk, Dmitri Rabounski, Henry H. Bauer
Comments: 188 pages, published by Universal Publishers in 2008

Nobody should have a monopoly of the truth in this universe. The censorship and suppression of challenging ideas against the tide of mainstream research, the blacklisting of scientists, for instance, is neither the best way to do and filter science, nor to promote progress in the human knowledge. The removal of good and novel ideas from the scientific stage is very detrimental to the pursuit of the truth. There are instances in which a mere unqualified belief can occasionally be converted into a generally accepted scientific theory through the screening action of refereed literature and meetings planned by the scientific organizing committees and through the distribution of funds controlled by "club opinions". It leads to unitary paradigms and unitary thinking not necessarily associated to the unique truth. This is the topic of this book: to critically analyze the problems of the official (and sometimes illicit) mechanisms under which current science (physics and astronomy in particular) is being administered and filtered today, along with the onerous consequences these mechanisms have on all of us. Apart from the editors, Juan Miguel Campanario, Brian Martin, Wolfgang Kundt, J. Marvin Herndon, Marian Apostol, Halton C. Arp, Tom Van Flandern, Andrei P. Kirilyuk, Dmitri Rabounski and Henry H. Bauer, all of them professional researchers, reveal a pessimistic view of the miseries of the actual system, while a glimmer of hope remains in the "leitmotiv" claim towards the freedom in doing research and attaining an acceptable level of ethics in science.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[1] viXra:0909.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 Sep 2009

Renormalizable Yang-Mills Tetrad Gravity

Authors: Jack Sarfatti
Comments: 8 pages

Although Yang-Mills theory was developed for non-universal compact internal symmetry groups of subsets of matter fields, it should also work for the universal non-compact symmetry groups of all matter fields implied by the classical Einstein local equivalence principle. We introduce a new class of direct gravity couplings of rotating matter to the electromagnetic field that can be tested in principle especially in rotating superconductors.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory