[61] **viXra:0909.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

Dan Brown in his 2009 book "The Lost Symbol" said "... The ancients possessed profound scientific wisdom. ... Mankind ... had once grasped the true nature of the universe ... but had let go ... and forgotten. ... Modern physics can help us remember! ... the world need [s] this understanding ... now more than ever. ...", but the rest of his book fails to provide convincing support for that statement, although it does provide a clue: "... The secret hides within the Order Eight Franklin Square ... of the numbers 1 through 64 ...". The purpose of this paper is to support that statement in enough detail to convince a diligent reader that following that clue can show that the statement is true. To follow the clue: begin with the "Order Eight" Clifford Algebra Cl(8) whose 2^8 = 256 dimensions represent the 256 elements of the Ancient African IFA Oracle and the 256 Elementary Cellular Automata, so that the True Lost Symbol is the 8- dimensional HyperCube with 256 vertices as shown on the cover of this paper; then multiply (by tensor product) 8 copies of Cl(8) to produce Cl(64) whose 2^64 dimensions represent the first 10^(-34) seconds of the Zizzi Inflation Phase of our Conscious Universe and an event of Penrose-Hameroff Human Conscious Thought; then analyze the details of the 256 Cellular Automata and the E8 Lattices containing 256-vertex 8- dimensional HyperCubes to construct a realistic unified theoretical model of the Standard Model plus Gravity; then analyze the Fractal Structure of the Ancient African IFA Oracle; then apply the Ancient African IFA Oracle (and its subset the I Ching) to describe History, including the Future History of Global Finance. Readers can find further examples and more details on my web site at www.valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[60] **viXra:0909.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Compton effect, in conjunction with the age of the stars, might explain any case of
light redshift.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[59] **viXra:0909.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 23 pages, extension of "NEW S-S' PAIR CREATION RATE EXPRESSION IMPROVING UPON ZENER
CURVES FOR I-E PLOTS; Modern Physics Letters B, Vol. 20, No. 14 (2006) 849-861", as written by
the authors, with a so called 'minimum criterion' for formation of instanton structure in
condensed matter systems. which the author eventually will send to a condensed matter journal.
Has eight figures. Key part of text on pages 21-23, as discussion built about 7th and final
question as to applications of false vacuum hypothesis, and instanton physics for condensed
matter systems.

We present near the end of this document a promising research direction as to how to generalize
a technique initially applied to density wave current calculations to questions of instanton
formation in multi dimensional condensed matter systems. Initially we review prior calculations
done through a numerical simulation that the massive Schwinger model used to formulate solutions
to CDW transport in itself is insufficient for transport of soliton-antisoliton (S S') pairs
through a pinning gap model of CDW transport. Using the Peierls condensation energy permits
formation of CDW S S' pairs in wave functionals. This leads us to conclude that if there is a
small spacing between soliton-antisoliton (S S') charge centers, and an approximate fit between
a tilted washboard potential and the system we are modeling, that instantons are pertinent to
current/transport problems. This requires a very large 'self energy' final value of interaction
energy as calculated between positive and negative charged components of soliton-antisoliton
(S S') pairs with Gaussian wave functionals as modeled for multi dimensional systems along the
lines of Lu's generalization given below. The links to a saddle point treatment of this
instanton formation are make explicit by a comment as to a cosmology variant of instanton
formation in multi dimensions we think is, with slight modifications appropriate for
condensed matter systems

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[58] **viXra:0909.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 pages, 2007 submission to STAIF conference, prior to author's interest in entropy/graviton
production. mix as reflected in adaptation of Y. J. Ng's quantum infinite statistics as done by Beckwith, in 2009

In string theory, even when there are ten to the thousand power vacuum states, does inflation produce
overwhelmingly one preferred type of vacuum state? We respond affirmatively to questions whether existence
of graviton production is confirmable using present detector methodology. We use an explicit
Randall-Sundrum brane-world effective potential as congruent with an inflationary quadratic potential
start. This occurs after Bogomolnyi inequality eliminates need for ad hoc assumption of axion wall mass
high temperature related disappearing. Graviton production has explicit links with a five-dimensional
brane-world negative cosmological constant and a four-dimensional positive valued cosmological constant,
whose temperature dependence permits an early universe graviton production activity burst. We show how di
quarks, wave functions, and various forms tie into the Wheeler-De Witt equation. This permits investigating
a discretized quantum bounce and a possible link to the initial phases of present universe's evolution with
a prior universe's collapse to the bounce point - the initial starting point to inflationary expansion. This
opens a possibility of realistically investigating gravitons as part of a space propulsion system and
dealing with problems from a beam of gravity waves, which would create a g-force because the geodestic
structure is near field. It can be applied to existing and to new space propulsion concepts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:0909.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 25 pages, concept paper used as foundation of initial work given to
STAIF 2007 and 2008, before the author was aware of the issue of confluence of
classical and quantum predictions of relic particle prediction. Has a very different
flavor of interpretation as far as how to understand the importance of relic
graviton production.

We use an explicit Randall-Sundrum brane world effective potential as congruent with conditions needed
to form a minimum entropy starting point for an early universe vacuum state. We justify this by pointing
to the Ashtekar, Pawlowski, and Singh (2006) article about a prior universe being modeled via their
quantum bounce hypothesis which states that this prior universe geometrically can be modeled via a
discretized Wheeler - De Witt equation, with it being the collapsing into a quantum bounce point
singularity converse of the present day universe expanding from the quantum bounce point so delineated
in their calculations. In doing so, we use thermal/ gravitational inputs into our present universe,
using a simplified model of graviton production similar to what was done by Wheeler in the 1970s for
spin two gravitons . Doing so permits modeling of experimental conditions needed for directional graviton
production which conceivably could be used for space craft in the foreseeable future once an experimental
verification of early universe conditions for graviton production and power radiation are finalized. This
leads to intense power production using a model for power production reported by Dr. Fontana in 2005 in
the new frontiers section of STAIF. We report upon what we think is a range of intense graviton production
parameters in the onset of cosmological inflation. This builds upon an idea of a semi resonant cavity
effect for spin two gravitons, with the walls dissolving after ten to the minus 43 seconds, with a build
up of temperature, and a steady energy insertion leading to , after axion wall collapse due to rising
temperatures, a massive release of relic gravitons at the same time the initiation of inflation takes
place. This answers the apparent incongruency of low entropy, low temperatures postulated by S. Carroll,
and J. Chen, with a naturally occurring 'laboratory' as to necessary and sufficient conditions needed to
model graviton production on a large scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:0909.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 pages. Mathematical / condensed matter joint piece designed to explain
the congruence of the Bogomol’nyi inequality with the fate of the false vacuum hypothesis as given by Sidney Coleman.
Foundational issue involved which was key to up dates as to my PhD dissertation, and subsequent work in terms of the
tunneling Hamiltonian, and I-E curves in laboratory data taking. Note , the Bogomol’nyi inequality is a key work horse
as to PARTICLE/ Astro physics, as is the false vacuum hypothesis

We examine quantum decay of the false vacuum in the driven sine-Gordon
system and show how both together permit construction of a Gaussian wave
functional. This is due to changing a least action integral to be similar with
respect to the WKB approximation. In addition we find that the soliton-antisoliton
(S-S') separation distance obtained from the Bogomol'nyi inequality permits after
rescaling a dominant &phi^{2} contribution to the least action integrand. This is from an
initial scalar potential characterized by a tilted double well potential construction.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[55] **viXra:0909.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 23 pages, 3 figures. Work done with Joe
Lykken, FNAL, which was to show that Magueijo's
propused revisions of Special relativity, the so
called double special relativity hypothesis, was
inconsistent with respect to cosmology. Accepted
by FNAL theory division, rejected by a reviewer in
GRG journal due to the fact that the derived scalar
potential did not satisfy slow roll hypothesis of
inflation. Non withstanding that the non compliance
of the scalar potential with slow roll was cited to
one of the primary faults of Magueijo's double special
relativity

We offer evidence that the Trans Plankian hypothesis
about Dark energy is incompatible with necessary and sufficient
conditions for solving the cosmic ray problem along the lines
presented by Magueijo et al. We can obtain conditions for a
dispersion relationship congruent with the Trans Planckian
hypothesis only if we cease trying to match cosmic ray data
which is important in investigating special relativity.
This leads us to conclude that the Trans Planckian hypothesis
is inconsistent with respect to current astrophysical data
and needs to be seriously revised .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:0909.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 pages, Constitutes one fifth of the author's PhD dissertation
at the U. of Houston, in late 2001. Remainder of dissertation used Sidney Coleman's
"fate of the false vacuum" article, plus the Schwinger equation, with chain
couplings to fix short comings evident in the simulations presented in this
document. 6 figures.

We have evidence that the classical random pinning model, if simulated numerically using
a phase evolution scheme pioneered by Littlewood, gives dispersion relationships that are
inconsistent with experimental values near threshold. These results argue for a revision
of contemporary classical models of charge density wave transport phenomena. Classically,
phase evolution equations are in essence driven harmonic oscillator models, with perturbing
terms plus damping. These break down when we are adding more 'energy' into a measured sample
via an applied electric field than is dissipated via a damping coefficient behavior in a
phase evolution equation. We see the consequences of the breakdown of these phase evolution
models in Charge Density Wave conductivity and dielectric functional graphs.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[53] **viXra:0909.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 pages. Part of a different analogy to bio phyics dielectric constants
explored by the author with Dr. Patrick Xie and Dr. James Claycomb at the Texas
center for super conductivity, Houston, Texas, in early 2002.

We investigate electro-mechanical contributions to the low frequency dielectric
response of biological cells in colloidal suspension. Prior simulations of biological cells
in colloidal suspension yield maximum dielectric constant values about 10^{3} in magnitude
as the frequency of applied electric fields drops below the kHz range. Experimentally
measured relative dielectric values in yeast cells , on the other hand, have maximal
values up to 10^{7} - 10^{8} . We consider both electrical and mechanical energy stored in
cellular suspension and show that low frequency mechanical contributions can give rise
to dielectric constant values of this magnitude.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[52] **viXra:0909.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 page slide show, given in the AP1 dark matter section hosted by Dr.
Chardin, at the Paris observatory, in July 17th 2009 as a talk in the 12 Marcel Grossman
meeting.

We outline how DM density profiles may be perturbed by entropy generation, and that
in part due to relic graviton production. The interaction of gravitons as an entropy generator may influence relic neutrino and neutralino production, which would affect not only DM
behavior, but in certain situations the relic abundance of Lithium in the early universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:0909.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 102 pages ( 5 pages removed ) of a presentation
made by Dr. Beckwith at the Chongquing University department
of physics, Chonguing University, PRC, as a guest of Dr. Fangyu
Li, PRC, and his gravitational physics group. Done as a collaboration
between Dr. Li's GW research group and US reseachers, as listed
by Gravwave.com

Survey of topics. beginning with break down of the quark-gluon plasma
as a way to analyze early universe conditions, and presentation of
opportunities as far as GW astronomy which may be presented if
the li baker detector is put into operational usage.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:0909.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 pages . Version of document sent ( as latex ) to Hans
Klaptor, as a contribution to the Dark 2009 conference, January,
Christ Church, New Zealand 2009 as an invited talk by the conference
chair, Dr. Klaptor

Current Proposed photon Rocket designs include the Nuclear Photonic
Rocket design and the anti matter photonic rocket design (as proposed
Eugene Sanger , 1950s, as reported in reference 1) This paper examines
the feasibility of improving the thrust of a photon rocket via either use of
WIMPS, or similar DM candidate. Would a WIMP, if converted to power
and thrust enable / improve the chances of interstellar travel ?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:0909.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro, J. A. Nieto

**Comments:** 41 Pages. This article appeared in the Int. J. Mod. Phys. A vol 22, no. 11 (2007) 2021.

We study black-hole-like solutions ( spacetimes with singularities ) of Einstein
field equations in 3+1 and 2+2-dimensions. In the 3+1-dim case, it is
shown how the horizon of the standard black hole solution at r = 2G_{N}M can
be displaced to the location r = 0 of the point mass M source, when the radial
gauge function is chosen to have an ultra-violet cutoff R(r = 0) = 2G_{N}M if,
and only if, one embeds the problem in the Finsler geometry of the spacetime
tangent bundle (or in phase space) that is the proper arena where to incorporate
the role of the physical point mass M source at r = 0. We find three
different cases associated with hyperbolic homogeneous spaces. In particular,
the hyperbolic version of Schwarzschild's solution contains a conical singularity
at r = 0 resulting from pinching to zero size r = 0 the throat of the hyperboloid
H^{2} and which is quite different from the static spherically symmetric
3+1-dim solution. Static circular symmetric solutions for metrics in 2+2 are
found that are singular at ρ = 0 and whose asymptotic ρ → ∞ limit leads to a
flat 1+2-dim boundary of topology S^{1} x R^{2}. Finally we discuss the 1+1-dim
Bars-Witten stringy black-hole solution and show how it can be embedded
into our 3 + 1-dimensional solutions with a displaced horizon at r = 0 and
discuss the plausible stringy nature of a point-mass, along with the maximal
acceleration principle in the spacetime tangent bundle (maximal force in phase
spaces). Black holes in a 2 + 2-dimensional "spacetime" from the perspective
of complex gravity in 1 + 1 complex dimensions and their quaternionic and
octonionic gravity extensions deserve furher investigation. An appendix is
included with the most general Schwarzschild-like solutions in D ≥ 4.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[48] **viXra:0909.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The experimental scattering evidence is that electrons and quarks are truly point-like showing no extended
spatial structure. A finite charge at a point has infinite energy and would create a black hole. If the charge
is extended in, for example, a spherical shell, then what glues the charge together? Niels Bohr evaded this
by renouncing the ontological space-time world lines that was so useful to Feynman in the creation of his
diagrams. David Bohm's ontological interpretation shows that Bohr was wrong about not being able to
have well defined particle trajectories and classical field configurations under the influence of nonlocal
entangled quantum potentials that encode all of quantum weirdness including the double slit experiment
that Feynman called the "central mystery" of the elusive quantum principle. I proposed back in 1974 that
electrons and quarks are quasi-Kerr type black holes with "hair" (internal electroweak-strong charges) in
which the space warp is so large that they appear as point particles to the outside observer whilst being
large to the inside observer. Indeed, the virtual plasma of fermion-antifermion pairs is the strong shortrange
attractive "glue" that holds the repulsive electric charge together. There appears to be a fractal scale
invariance that shows a similar "geon" (J. A. Wheeler) effect at planetary and galactic scales. In this first
part of a series, I only consider stable dark matter spheres of planetary size.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[47] **viXra:0909.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 8 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Peter Jackson

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Plus Ref's. Inc. 5 Figures. Article 1. From a 53 page (ex. Figs.) paper.

Free action photo electron cloud build up to accelerated particles is considered, including
its relationship to quantum fields, E.M. wave propagation and particle non - conservation.
Related implications from cross discipline experiment and observation are reviewed and
analysed. Correlations between this, the standard model, field theory, cosmological shocks
and halos, dark matter and astrophysical anomalies are drawn and a new model is derived
and tested to explore its ability to remove anomalies and paradox. The conceptual model
utilises Einstein's postulates of Special Relativity, and constancy of 'c', and his opinion that
"We can't solve problems using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them."
also the conclusions of his 1952 paper[1] that inertial reference frames in space are actually
"an infinite number of spaces...in motion with respect to each other." The historic pathway to,
and assumptions following, the S.T.R. are reviewed against current data and an adjustment
derived. A quantum mechanism for Doppler shifting emerges via 'Discrete Fields' which
appears to allow Locality with the Reality Einstein sought from a Unified Field Theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[46] **viXra:0909.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The gravitational redshift, in conjunction with the age of the stars, might explain any
case of light redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:0909.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 25 Pages. This article has been submitted to the J. Math. Phys.

Polyvector-valued gauge field theories in noncommutative Clifford spaces
are presented. The noncommutative star products are associative and
require the use of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. Actions for pbranes
in noncommutative (Clifford) spaces and noncommutative phase
spaces are provided. An important relationship among the n-ary commutators
of noncommuting spacetime coordinates [X^{1},X^{2}, ......,X^{n}] with the
poly-vector valued coordinates X^{123...n} in noncommutative Clifford spaces
is explicitly derived [X^{1},X^{2}, ......,X^{n}] = n! X^{123...n}. The large N limit of
n-ary commutators of n hyper-matrices X_{i1i2}....in leads to Eguchi-Schild
p-brane actions for p + 1 = n. Noncommutative Clifford-space gravity as
a poly-vector-valued gauge theory of twisted diffeomorphisms in Clifford spaces
would require quantum Hopf algebraic deformations of Clifford
algebras.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] **viXra:0909.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** A companion piece to http://vixra.org/abs/0909.0042 of the Numerical analysis
and applied mathematics special symposium organized by Christian Corda, in Rethymno, Crete,
18-22 September 2009

A first order presentation of the questions the author believes must be addressed for
fufilling the promise of GW astronomy in terms of understanding the origins of our
universe. Organized in five questions , and themes which end with asking if quantum
foundations / structures to our cosmological space time are mandantory, or if
T'Hoofts vision of quantum physics being a sub set to a larger 'deterministic
quantum theory; as t;Hooft phrases the successor to quantum probability, as
envisions it .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:0909.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 32 pages, and pre cursor of 3 page academic text requested by Dr Faessler for a
special edition of the journal "Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics" (Editor: Amand Faessler)
which has been made of the author in lieu of a successful presentation
in the "International School of Nuclear Physics, 31st Course : Neutrinos in Cosmology,
in Astro-, Particle- and Nuclear Physics, Erice-Sicily September 16-24, 2009"

We present a first principle argument for modeling changes in BBN which may affect the
probability that super massive stars forming before galactic structures formed may have
been sans Lithium 7. The author believes that relic neutrinos plus gravitons may play a
role in damping and modifying the density fluctuations of early space time, which have
chances to affect nucleosynthesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:0909.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 pages, AIP conference proceedings entry 1168, "Numerical analysis and
applied mathematics, 2009, Reythmono, Crete" , Greece; a peer reviewed
submission to 'Symposium: The big challenge of Gravitational waves, a New
Window into the future', as organized by Dr. Christian Corda of the Associazione
Scientifica Gallieo Galilei: pp 1077-1083 of AIP conference proceedings 1168

This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang level can be measured
experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of this entropy increase is
explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's (2007, 2008a, 2008b)
revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's
infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that ΔS ≈ ΔN_{gravitons}is a starting point to the increasing
net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities with ZPE analysis, it is important to note
that the resulting ΔS ≈ ΔN_{gravitons} ≠ 10^{88}, that in fact it is much lower,
allowing for evaluating initial
graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used
to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized. The rapid increase in entropy so alluded to
without near sudden increases to 10^{88} may be enough to allow successful modeling of relic graviton
production for entropy in a manner similar to ZPE energy extraction from a vacuum state.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:0909.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Jonathan J. Dickau

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Special thanks to Paola Zizzi, who invited this submission for the Quantum
Spaces special issue of Entropy. It was later withdrawn by the author, but appears here as
submitted, with a slight correction to the abstract.

Quantum-Mechanical objects and phenomena have a different nature, and follow a different set
of rules, from their classical counterparts. Two interesting aspects are the superposition of
states and the non-locality of objects and phenomena. A third aspect, that gives quantum-mechanical
objects which have common roots a non-local connection, is quantum entanglement. This paper takes
up the question of whether these three properties of quantum mechanical systems facilitate the
action of entropy's increase, in terms of creating a condition where energy is dispersing, or
going from being localized to being more spread out over time. Quantum Mechanics gives each
quantum entity the nature of a container or vehicle for both energy and information, some part
of which is necessarily non-local. The author feels that quantum-mechanical systems take on aspects
of computing engines, in this context. He discusses how the onset of chaos is possible with even
the simplest calculational processes, how these processes also result in complexity building,
and why both of these dynamics contribute to the character of entropy as observed in ordinary
affairs, or with macroscopic systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[40] **viXra:0909.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Lyndon Ashmore

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This paper was presented at the CCC2 conference at port Angeles
Washington State and is to be published along with the procedings of this conference by ASP.

Despite the idea of an expanding universe having been around for nearly one hundred
years there is still no conclusive, direct evidence for expansion. This paper examines the
Lyman Alpha forest in order to determine the average temperature and the average
separation of Hydrogen clouds over the aging of the universe. A review of the literature
shows that the clouds did once become further and further apart (showing expansion?)
but are now evenly spaced (an indication of a static universe?). Doppler parameters give
an indication of the temperature and/or the degree of disturbance of the clouds and the
evidence is that the temperature or degree of disturbance is increasing rather than
decreasing as required by an expanding universe. Whilst these results do not support
any cosmology individually, they do support one where the universe expanded in the
past but that expansion has now been arrested and the universe is now static. A
separate mechanism for redshift would be required to explain why, in this scenario, the
Hydrogen Clouds are evenly spaced in the local universe - but have differing redshifts.
High z hydrogen cloud separation can be used to give an independent estimate on the
lower limit of the age of the universe in an expanding model and it is found that the age
must be far greater than the presently accepted value of 13.8 billion years - if the H1
clouds are to achieve their present separations without some mechanism other than
inflation being involved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:0909.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Victor Porton

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the framework of ZF formally considered generalizations, such as whole numbers generalizing
natural number, rational numbers generalizing whole numbers, real numbers generalizing
rational numbers, complex numbers generalizing real numbers, etc. The formal consideration
of this may be especially useful for computer proof assistants.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[38] **viXra:0909.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** C. L. Herzenberg

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An expanding universe of finite duration appears to impose limits on the temporal and
spatial extent of quantum waves. These limitations seem to be able to bring about
localization for sufficiently large quantum objects that can resemble classical behavior. A
threshold for a transition from quantum to classical behavior of a physical object is
derived in terms of the magnitude of its moment of inertia.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[37] **viXra:0909.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** J. Marvin Herndon

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Published in Current Science, Vol. 96, 25 April 2009

Understanding the nature of matter comprising the solar system is crucial for understanding the
mechanism that generates the earth's geomagnetic field and magnetic fields of other planets and
satellites. The commonality of matter in the solar system like that inside of earth, together with
common nuclear reactor operating conditions, form the basis for generalizing the author's concept
of nuclear georeactor geomagnetic field generation to planetary magnetic field generation by natural
planetocentric nuclear fission reactors.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[36] **viXra:0909.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** J. Marvin Herndon

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Published in Current Science, Vol. 96, 10 June 2009

Geophysical and Astrophysical implications stemming from the discovery of nuclear fission just
seventy years ago are only now becoming appreciated. The author's contributions are reviewed as
background for his presentation here of fundamental, new concepts related to internal heat
production in exo-planets, thermonuclear nuclear ignition of dark galaxies, and a basis for
understanding the varied and heretofore inexplicable luminous star distributions observed in galaxies.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[35] **viXra:0909.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

De Broglie when he introduced the concept of the phase wave to
represent a particle, he assumed that in the rest frame of reference the
particle will have the form of a standing vibration. According to the
author, this was a serious mistake. He shows that instead, had de
Broglie assumed a standing luminal wave structure for the particle, it
would have led him to very exciting insights. The author shows that
in a relativistic transformation the average energy and the momentum
of the forward and the reverse waves forming the standing wave
transform exactly like the energy and momentum of a particle.
Besides, the plane wave expansion which is used to represent a
particle in quantum mechanics is found to emerge directly from this
standing wave structure. He proposes to extend the approach to
incorporate the spin of the particle and also provide a simple
explanation for the Pauli's exclusion principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[34] **viXra:0909.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 20 Pages. This article appeared in the Int. Jour. of Geom. Methods of Modern Physics, 4, no. 5 (2007) 881-895.

The Riemann's hypothesis (RH) states that the nontrivial zeros of the
Riemann zeta-function are of the form s_{n} = 1/2 + iλ_{n}. An improvement
of our previous construction to prove the RH is presented by implementing
the Hilbert-Polya proposal and furnishing the Fractal Supersymmetric
Quantum Mechanical (SUSY-QM) model whose spectrum reproduces the
imaginary parts of the zeta zeros. We model the fractal fluctuations of the
smooth Wu-Sprung potential ( that capture the average level density of
zeros ) by recurring to P a weighted superposition of Weierstrass functions
ΣW(x,p,D) and where the summation has to be performed over all
primes p in order to recapture the connection between the distribution of
zeta zeros and prime numbers. We proceed next with the construction of
a smooth version of the fractal QM wave equation by writing an ordinary
Schroedinger equation whose fluctuating potential (relative to the smooth
Wu-Sprung potential) has the same functional form as the fluctuating part
of the level density of zeros. The second approach to prove the RH relies
on the existence of a continuous family of scaling-like operators involving
the Gauss-Jacobi theta series. An explicit completion relation ( "trace
formula") related to a superposition of eigenfunctions of these scaling-like
operators is defined. If the completion relation is satisfied this could be another
test of the Riemann Hypothesis. In an appendix we briefly describe
our recent findings showing why the Riemann Hypothesis is a consequence
of CT -invariant Quantum Mechanics, because < Ψ_{s} | CT | Ψ_{s} > ≠ 0
where s are the complex eigenvalues of the scaling-like operators.

**Category:** Number Theory

[33] **viXra:0909.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 24 Pages. This article appeared in Adv. Studies Theor. Phys., Vol. 2, no. 7 (2008) 309 - 332

It is shown how the de-Sitter Relativistic behaviour of the hyperbolic
trajectory of Pioneer, due to the expansion of the Universe (non-vanishing
cosmological constant), is the underlying physical reason for the observed
anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer spacecraft of the order of
c^{2}/R_{H} ~ 8.74 x 10^{-10} m/s^{2}, where c is the speed of light and R_{H} is
the present Hubble scale. We display the explicit isomorphism among
Yang's Noncommutative space-time algebra, the 4D Conformal algebra
SO(4,2) and the area-bi-vector-coordinates algebra in Clifford spaces.
The former Yang's algebra involves noncommuting coordinates and momenta
with a minimum Planck scale λ (ultraviolet cutoff) and a minimum
momentum p = h/R (maximal length R, infrared cutoff ). It
is shown how Modified Newtonian dynamics is also a consequence of
Yang's algebra resulting from the modified Poisson brackets. To finalize
we study the deformed Kepler and free motion resulting from the modified
Newtonian dynamics due to the Leznov-Khruschev noncommutative
phase space algebra and which stems also from the Conformal algebra
SO(4,2) in four dimensions. Numerical examples are found which yield
results close to the experimental observations, but only in very extreme
special cases and which seem to be consistent with a Machian view of
the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:0909.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 19 Pages. This article appeared in the International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics Vol. 4, No. 8 (2007) 1239–1257.

A novel Chern-Simons E_{8} gauge theory of gravity in D = 15 based on an octic E_{8}
invariant expression in D = 16 (recently constructed by Cederwall and Palmkvist) is
developed. A grand unification model of gravity with the other forces is very plausible
within the framework of a supersymmetric extension (to incorporate spacetime fermions)
of this Chern-Simons E_{8} gauge theory. We review the construction showing why the
ordinary 11D Chern-Simons gravity theory (based on the Anti de Sitter group) can be
embedded into a Clifford-algebra valued gauge theory and that an E_{8} Yang-Mills field
theory is a small sector of a Clifford (16) algebra gauge theory. An E_{8} gauge bundle formulation
was instrumental in understanding the topological part of the 11-dim M-theory
partition function. The nature of this 11-dim E_{8} gauge theory remains unknown. We
hope that the Chern-Simons E_{8} gauge theory of gravity in D = 15 advanced in this
work may shed some light into solving this problem after a dimensional reduction.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31] **viXra:0909.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Nine pages, part of source background for PPT which will be presented
September 17th, 2009 in the Erice Nuclear physics school. Will be considerably
refined for conference submission, in early November , 2009 for Nuclear physics
journal which has proceedings of the 2009 nuclear physics school , Erice, Italy.

We review how graviton initial energy values are linkable to possible order of the Lorentz gravitational
violation. Counter intuitively, the greatest Lorentz gravitational violation would be at lower to moderate
initial velocity value conditions due to pre inflationary conditions. .We assume with rapid build up of
graviton energies , convergence to flat space, Lorentz invariance as gravitons , due to a high level of
initially extreme inflationary conditions speed up with introduction of massively boosted energies at the
onset of the big bang. The coupling of neutrinos to gravitions would be enhanced as their wave lengths
would initially be quite similar, i.e. very short. Consequences for the Lithium problem in stars, due to
stellar formation, and gravitational perturbation on DM and will be discussed toward the end of this
document. The neutrino / gravitational wave interaction leads to a damping factor in the intensity of GW
of [1-5⋅(ρ_{neutrino}/ρ) + ϑ([ρ_{neutrino}/ρ]^{2} )]
as far as relic GW as could be shown up in the CMBR data
sets. This would have no bearing upon the peak of the frequency range, which is another matter entirely.
The contention advanced, though is that proper analysis of the big bang, including initial treatment of
nucleosynthesis may show a way forward to explain the recent discovery of early old stars with no
lithium. Thereby closing one of the huge holes in the big bang, and lithium abundance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:0909.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 13 pages, taken from http://home.fnal.gov/~rocky/DETF/Beckwith.pdf
as Dr. Beckwith's 2005 successful white paper submission to the DETF for its
preliminary study as to how to prepare data analysis from the CMB for the forecoming
JDEM investigation.

This is a record of a successful White paper submission to the JDEM mission by
Dr. Andrew Beckwith. University of Houston physics department / TcSAM. June 13 th. ,
2005. Sent to : Rocky Kolb, Chair of the JDEM Dark matter search panel. Was part
of back ground study for improving JDEM instrumentation performance in upcoming
mission for Dark Energy investigations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:0909.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith, Robert M L Baker Jr.

**Comments:** 13 pages, possible submission to SPESIF, 2010 as a paper, and talk, and also a source
for open discussion of hard ware requirements for a HFGW detector, with applications to detection
of astrophysical GW. Inputs to this document await commentary and feed back from the Gravwave team.
(I.e. this document may undergo many revisions)

A number of applications of High-Frequency Relic Gravitational Wave (HFRGW)
detection to astrophysics are identified and a means for detecting them is presented that is
sensitive enough to provide useful data. Observation of relic gravitational waves will
provide vital information about the birth of the Universe and its early dynamical
evolution as well as enable significant direct inferences to be drawn about the value of
the Hubble parameter of the early universe and the cosmological scale factor. Other
astrophysical applications involve the entropy growth of the early Universe, an ability to
rule out alternatives to inflation, to pinpoint the energy scale at which inflation took place
and to provide clues about the symmetries underlying new physics at the highest
energies. Several alternative HFRGW detectors are described and the proposed Li-Baker
HFRGW detector, which is theoretically sensitive to GW amplitudes, A, as small as 10^{-32},
is discussed in detail. It is recommended that plans and specifications for the Li-Baker
HFRGW detector be prepared in order to expedite its fabrication.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:0909.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 pages. For possible inclusion as entry into the ICAAM AIP
conference proceedings, as a study/presentation for Dr. Christian Corda's
GW work shop.

We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic
conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial
value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states. Secondly,
if gravitational waves have semi classical features in their genesis, then the problem of how q(Z) under
goes through an inflection point and how the rate of acceleration increases a billion years ago needs to be re
examined. Additional dimensions are not the problem. Determining if GW/Gravitions are semi classical in
their initial formulation at the source of the big bang, is. Also, semi classical and quantum entropy
generating processes are compared, with the role of looking for over lap between them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:0909.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Bruce Rout

**Comments:** 16 pages

A proposal outlining an approach to a unified field theory is presented.
A general solution to the time-dependent Schrödinger Equation
using an alternative boundary condition is found to derive the Heisenberg
uncertainty formulae. A general relativity/quantum mechanical
interaction between a photon and a gravitational field is examined to
determine the degree of red shifting of light passing through a gravitational
field. The Einstein field equations, complete with an arrangement
of Faraday tensors, are presented with suggestions to determine the energy
of a photon from Einstein's and Maxwell's equations. Schrödingers
Equation is coupled with both the Einstein field equations and Maxwells
equations to derive a possible foundation for string theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] **viXra:0909.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Bruce Rout

**Comments:** 13 pages

This paper examines the difference between infinite and finite domains
of a Stefan Problem. It is pointed out that attributes of solutions
to the Diffusion Equation suggest assumptions of an infinite domain
are invalid during initial times for finite domain Stefan Problems. The
paper provides a solution for initial and early times from an analytical
approach using a perturbation. This solution can then easily be applied
to numerical models for later times. The differences of the two domains
are examined and discussed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[25] **viXra:0909.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Arkady L. Kholodenko

**Comments:** 35 pages

In a series of recently published papers, we reanalyzed the existing treatments of
Veneziano and Veneziano-like amplitudes and the models associated with these amplitudes.
In this work, we demonstrate that the already obtained new partition function
for these amplitudes can be exactly mapped into that for the Polychronakos-Frahm spin
chain model. This observation allows us to recover many of the existing string-theoretic
models, including the most recent ones.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] **viXra:0909.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** John L. Haller Jr.

**Comments:** 9 pages

This paper argues a hypothetical "dark" particle (a black hole with the reduced Planck mass)
gives a simple explanation to the open question of dark energy and has a relic density of only
17% more than the commonly accepted value. By considering an additional near horizon boundary of
the black hole, set by its quantum length, the black hole can obtain an arbitrary temperature.
Black body radiation is still present and fits as the source of the Universe's missing energy.
Support for this hypothesis is offered by showing a stationary solution to the black hole's
length scale is the same if derived from a quantum analysis in continuous time, a quantum analysis
in discrete time, or a general relativistic analysis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:0909.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 pages. Source of information for presentations on DM , and idea of
DM rocket / ram jet as will in part be presented in both SPESIF, February 2010,
and AIBEP, November 2009. Discussion of material of this document not involved
with DM rocket are part of general back ground material for presentation by the
author in ICAAM Crete, September 2009 at gravitational physics sub session run
by Dr. Corda..AIBEP talk will have DM rocket/ ram jet, but also include laser physics

In the 12th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, July 9th, 2009, the author raised the issue of whether early graviton
production could affect non-Gaussian contributions to DM density profiles. Another issue to consider, is if
or not gravitons with mass affect DM profiles, but could also impact the cosmic acceleration of the
universe, leading to an increase of acceleration one billion years ago, in a manner usually attributed to DE.
Following Marcio E. S. Alves, Oswaldo D. Miranda, Jose C. N. de Araujo, 2009 in an article brought to
the attention to the author by Christian Corda, the author, using his modification of Friedman equations,
incorporating some brane models to allow for additional dimensions found that there is, for low graviton
mass of the order of m_{graviton} ~ 10^{-65} grams similar behavior as noted by Alves, et al. 2009. If
of m_{graviton} ~ 10^{-65} also is reconcilable as to KK dark matter models, which is under investigation, the
new modeling super structure could have significant impact upon the DM rocket / ram jet proposal the
author, Beckwith, brought up in the AIBEP meeting in Scottsville, Arizona. The author will high light what
KK style gravitons, with a slightly different mass profile could mean in terms of his DM rocket proposal
brought up in both Christ Church, Dark 2009, and in different form in SPESIF, 2009. I.e. value of up to 5
TeV , as opposed to 400 GeV for DM, which may mean more convertible power for a suitably designed
platform.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:0909.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 1 page

The new "Lorentz's Transformations" are the new relational transformations

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:0909.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** N. F. Camus, S. S. Komissarov, N. Bucciantini, P. A. Hughes

**Comments:** 6 pages, Accepted as a paper in MNRAS

In this letter, we describe results of new high-resolution axisymmetric relativistic
MHD simulations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae. The simulations reveal strong breakdown
of the equatorial symmetry and highly variable structure of the pulsar wind termination
shock. The synthetic synchrotron maps, constructed using a new more accurate
approach, show striking similarity with the well known images of the Crab Nebula
obtained by Chandra, and the Hubble Space Telescope. In addition to the jet-torus
structure, these maps reproduce the Crab's famous moving wisps whose speed and
rate of production agree with the observations. The variability is then analyzed using
various statistical methods, including the method of structure function and wavelet
transform. The results point towards the quasi-periodic behaviour with the periods of
1.5 - 3 yr and MHD turbulence on scales below 1 yr. The full account of this study
will be presented in a follow up paper.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20] **viXra:0909.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 pages, this article has been submitted to Mod Phys Letts A" (instead to IJMPA)

The basic ideas and results behind polyvector-valued gauge field theories
and Quantum Mechanics in Noncommutative Clifford spaces are
presented. The star products are noncommutative and associative and
require the use of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. The construction
of Noncommutative Clifford-space gravity as polyvector-valued gauge
theories of twisted diffeomorphisms in Clifford-spaces would require quantum
Hopf algebraic deformations of Clifford algebras.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:0909.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Rafael-Andrés Alemañ-Berenguer, María Gomariz

**Comments:** 7 pages

The search of materials of biological origin with specific estates of potential
technologic applications whose structure and functions come out from a process of
adaptive evolution experienced by the organisms in extreme environments, is one of
the most active fields in the modern biophysics.
In short, the protein bacteriorhodopsin, acts like a protonic bomb whose photocycle
has demonstrated interesting implications in the technologies of optic storage of
information by means of holographic methods.
In the present work some results of the investigation undertaken by our group are
exposed, consistent mainly in the study of the influence that working conditions (pH,
state of aggregation of the environment, intensity and time of illumination, etc.)
have over photophysical and photochemical states of bacteriorhodopsin as well as in
the tracking of the possible presence of bacteriorhodopsin proteins and xantorhodopsin,
in the salines of Santa Pola (Alicante, Spain).

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[18] **viXra:0909.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 pages. 3 pages of references put in as bibliography as to important GW papers.

We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic
conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed , possibly even coherent initial
value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states. The
coherent states would be amendable to nucleation by classical/ highly non linear processes which would be
almost immediately eliminated by compression and squeezing. Even though that the general background of
incoherency for relic GW is a given. Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic
GW should be high frequency will be presented, with the reason given why earlier string models did NOT
favor low relic GW from the big bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:0909.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 pages, with the key to the validity of the paper in a way to
confirm the plausibility of the equation, given at the bottom of the first page.

The invariance of physical law between a prior to a present universe is brought up, as a continuation of
analyzing entropy in today's universe, and the relationship of entropy to information content in a prior
universe. If or not there is enough information to preserve the amount of physical law also may play a role
as to if or not additional dimensions for cosmological dynamics is necessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:0909.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 23 pages.

We begin our inquiry by asking two questions. First, is there an approximate match up between the total
entropy of the universe, and the sum total of entropy between super massive black holes at the center of
spiral galaxies? Note that Sean Carroll in 2005 presented a black hole entropy value which could have a
super massive black hole in the center of a galaxy having more than 10^{89} non dimensionalized units of
entropy in value. This value would be greater than what H. J. de Vega calculated as the entropy value of the
entire universe. And there are conceivably up to a million spiral galaxies. Secondly, we accept what De
Vega presented about entropy, i.e. its approximate present day value was nearly reached during the end of
the re heating of the universe, right after the big bang. If so, the second question is what initiated entropy
growth in the beginning ? This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang
level can be measured experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of
this entropy increase is explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's
revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's
infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that gravitons ΔS ≈ ΔN is a starting point to the increasing
net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities with ZPE analysis, it is important to note
that the resulting/\] ΔS ≈ ΔN_{gravitons} ≠ 10^{89},
that in fact it is much lower, allowing for evaluating initial
graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used
to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized.. Finally, the implications of if or not
gravitons have mass will be reviewed as far as how graviton mass issues, and the nature of gravitational
waves, may affect experimental measurements of relic big bang conditions. The relationship of some
models of KK gravitons as having similar evolution equations to GW in GR models will be commented
upon, with suggestions as to how that ties in DM values.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:0909.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-05 15:22:13*

**Authors:** R.A.Isasi

**Comments:** 24 Pages. In this v.5, I have corrected, some typing and orthographic errors

In this article, we discuss the origin and nature oe the total photons number N of the CMB radiation, in relation with the critical baryon number Nb and the energy of the empty space. The CMB radiation is considered as a huge amplification of the phenomena at atomic scale originated in the past, as the background microwaves are the support of all the prints originated by posterior pertubations. This allows us to establish a connection between the microphysics and macrophysics by means of their redution to a problem of scale and dimensional analysis. Taking into account the mean wavelength of the CMB radiation, we can parametrize the total number of photons as an invariant number through the succesive evolutive phases. The equivalence between the electrical potential and the gravitational potential is establishes by the relativistic implications which are found in Millikan´s experiment. This generalization, makes it possible to extend the formula of Saha, used specifically in the inverse thermal ionization, and extend it to the gravitational collapse when the Universe had the size of 1.032 Mps. Furthermore, this scale unit,marks as much as the initial conditions , as the present one for the Hubble Law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:0909.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Irving Ezra Segal's Gravity based on the Conformal Group Spin(2,4) = SU(2,2) not only allows calculation of the present value of the ratio Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter = 0.75 : 0.21 : 0.04 ( see vixra 0907.0007 and 0907.0006 ) but also explains the Pioneer Anomaly and is consistent with an extension of Kepler's Polyhedral Model of Planetary Orbit Radii to include Uranus and Neptune by using the Cuboctahedron and the Rhombic Dodecahedron for the outer region where the Conformal Pioneer Gravitational Acceleration becomes effective. The Conformally Extended Kepler Polyhedral Model not only describes Our Solar System of the Sun and its Planets, but, as Poveda and Lara have shown, it also describes the only other presently known Star and Planets system with at least 5 planets, the system of 55 Cancri. Since both of the only two presently known Star-Planet systems with at least 5 planets obey the Conformally Extended Kepler Polyhedral Model, it seems likely that the model is not a mere numerological coincidence, but is in fact based on realistic physics related to Segal's Conformal Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:0909.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 9 pages, This article appeared in Progress in Physics vol. 2 April (2006) 46-53

By recurring to Geometric Probability methods it is shown that the coupling constants,
α_{EM}, α_{W}, α_{C}, associated with the electromagnetic, weak and strong (color) force
are given by the ratios of measures of the sphere S^{2} and the Shilov boundaries
Q_{3} = S^{2} x RP^{1}, squashed S^{5}, respectively, with respect to the Wyler measure
Ω_{Wyler}[Q_{4}] of the Shilov boundary Q_{4} = S^{3} x RP^{1} of the poly-disc D_{4} (8 real dimensions).
The latter measure Ω_{Wyler}[Q_{4}] is linked to the geometric coupling strength
α_{G} associated to the gravitational force. In the conclusion we discuss briefly other
approaches to the determination of the physical constants, in particular, a program
based on the Mersenne primes p-adic hierarchy. The most important conclusion of
this work is the role played by higher dimensions in the determination of the coupling
constants from pure geometry and topology alone and which does not require to invoke
the anthropic principle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12] **viXra:0909.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 21 pages, This article appeared in Foundations of Physics vol 34, no. 7 ( 2004 ) 107.

A Clifford-algebraic interpretation is proposed of the charge, mass, spin relationship found recently by
Cooperstock and Faraoini which was based on the Kerr-Newman metric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell
equations. The components of the polymomentum associated with a Clifford polyparticle in four dimensions
provide for such a charge, mass, spin relationship without the problems encountered in Kaluza-Klein compactifications
which furnish an unphysically large value for the electron charge. A physical reasoning behind
such charge, mass, spin relationship is provided, followed by a discussion on the geometrical derivation of
the fine structure constant by Wyler, Smith, Gonzalez-Martin and Smilga. To finalize, the renormalization
of electric charge is discussed and some remarks are made pertaining the modifications of the charge-scale
relationship, when the spin of the polyparticle changes with scale, that may cast some light into the alleged
Astrophysical variations of the fine structure constant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:0909.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 pages, This article appeared in Physica A 347 (2005) 184-204

Motivated by the growing evidence of universality and chaos in QFT and string theory, we study the
Tsallis non-extensive statistics (with a non-additive q-entropy) of an ensemble of fractal strings and branes
of different dimensionalities. Non-equilibrium systems with complex dynamics in stationary states may
exhibit large fluctuations of intensive quantities which are described in terms of generalized statistics. Tsallis
statistics is a particular representative of such class. The non-extensive entropy and probability distribution
of a canonical ensemble of fractal strings and branes is studied in terms of their dimensional spectrum which
leads to a natural upper cutoff in energy and establishes a direct correlation among dimensions, energy
and temperature. The absolute zero temperature (Kelvin) corresponds to zero dimensions (energy) and
an infinite temperature corresponds to infinite dimensions. In the concluding remarks some applications
of fractal statistics, quasi-particles, knot theory, quantum groups and number theory are briefly discussed
within the framework of fractal strings and branes.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:0909.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 4 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** part III of a series of inter related articles in the process of finalization which discuss
entropy in terms of the search for if or not gravity is a classical or quantum emergent
"field" in relic conditions. 33 pages

In the 12th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, July 9th, 2009, the author raised the issue of whether early graviton
production could affect non-Gaussian contributions to DM density profiles. Non gaussianity of evolving
cosmological states is akin to asking if there is a way to get quantum contributions due to squeezed initial
vacuum states which act highly non classscially. If particle counting algorithms in graviton production is
important as for entropy, and if entropy perturbations affects the density profile of dark matter clumping
prifiles, then there is room to ask to what degree initial perturbations affecting structure formation are due
to classical/ non linear processes, or more quantum theoretic states. If squeezing of the initial vacuum
states is essential in the relic conditions, then quantization is unavoidable. If squeezing is not essential, then
coherent initial vacuum states may contribute in semi classical ways to GW production . The end result of
this stated inquiry may be answering if or not gravity in the onset of inflation is a quantized field. Or if a
highly non linear set of complex initial conditions for gravity can be stated using purely classical models,
as T'Hooft, Corda, and others believe. Note, also that Bojowald as of 2008 has left the degree of squeezing
of initial vacuum states in the region of space as an open problem. In Bojowald's model of a cosmological
bounce, the degree of squeezing is a measure of what strength the "bounce" from an initial configuration of
the universe takes, and how strongly quantum effects contribute to the evolution of the LQG cosmos, after
inflation commences. Similar questions are being raised as to the necessity of squeezing of initial vacuum
states and if or not coherency of initial states is initially largely achievable, before the rapid expansion of
the universe commences. Finally, and not least is a series of questions as to what conditions which would
either require high or low frequencies as to relic signals from the big bang. As it is, large spatial dimensions
which could induce far lower initial frequencies for relic signals are popular in many string theory models.
The author views this assumption as of debatable validity, as well as the assumption made by Arkani
Hamid that largely does away with coherency of initial vacuum states and specifies highly quantum , low
frequency generation of relic GW.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:0909.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Thomas B. Andrews

**Comments:** 42 pages

Because type Ia supernovae (SNs) are anomalously dimmed with respect to the
at (q_{o} = 0.5) Friedman Expanding Universe model, I was surprised to find that the
brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are not anomalously dimmed. Based on the absence
of anomalous dimming in BCGs, the following conclusions were reached:

- ⋅ Since the light from the SNs and BCGs traverses the same space, the current hypothesis of an accelerated expansion of the universe to explain the anomalous dimming of SNs is disproved.
- ⋅ The cause of the anomalous dimming must be specific to the SNs.

[8] **viXra:0909.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 50 pages, 38 Figures, 8 Tables.

Comprehension of the structure of the universe currently concentrates on attempting
to link quantum physics with general relativity. Many researchers, including the
author, believes that the solution lies not just in physics, but involves consciousness
and cognitive neuroscience together with understanding the nature and perception of
information. This paper combines these latter factors in a non-orthodox approach
linked by geometry.
Developing an analogy to X-ray crystallography and diffraction gratings may prove
useful. We are not using electro-magnetic waves, but consciousness. Confidence in
this approach is justified for several reasons. Some of the patterns observed when
dowsing seem similar to those produced by diffraction gratings or x-ray
crystallography. But in particular, as a result of numerous experimental observations,
we know that waves are involved in dowsing.
In the following data base of different geometries, researchers are invited to find if
mathematical transformations exist that would explain relationships between the mind
generated geometric patterns observed by dowsing, and the physical source geometry
that creates those patterns. This should help demonstrate how dowsing, the universe,
and consciousness are connected, and the mechanisms involved. An analogy is to
Crick and Watson discovering the structure of DNA by using Rosalind Franklin's
diffraction images.
This paper is version 2 of a paper originally published in September 2009, and
contains major updates to the following four geometries: - a straight line, 3 dots in a
triangle, 1-circle, 2-circles, and "Bob's Geometry".
Exciting discoveries are that equations for the mathematical transformation between
physical objects and their perceived geometrical pattern are simple functions
involving Phi (φ), with no arbitrary constants - i.e. true universal constants.
Perceived patterns are affected by several local and astronomical forces that include
electromagnetic fields, spin, and gravity. The findings formally confirm the
connection between the structure of space-time, phi, the mind, and observations.

**Category:** Mind Science

[7] **viXra:0909.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-05 11:43:58*

**Authors:** Bruce Rout

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Explanation of flat velocity rotation curve and distance measure to NGC 3198

Observations of NGC 3198 show a discrepancy between the rotational velocity and its apparent geometry which defies the predicted behaviour of Keplerian Dynamics. This paper reconciles this anomaly by considering the relativistic effect of gravity on galactic spiral arms over great distances in a rotating reference frame. Keplerian dynamics hold true in this analysis by considering the rotational behaviour of a cloud of stars as more accurate than that of a central mass with satellites at discrete orbits. A re-examination from first principles describes the spiral arms of NGC 3198 as a linear star cloud of near-uniform density which appears, from our local reference frame, as a non-uniform disc due to its rotation. The apparent non-uniform radial distribution of stars is described by delayed gravitational interactions over great distances in an accelerating reference frame whereby a uniform distribution of stars appears to occupy an increasing circumference. The theory is substantiated by deriving the shape of a linear star cloud of the dimensions and rotational velocity of NGC 3198 as it would appear from Earth, using Einstein's equations and Keplerian dynamics. Since the derived shape is congruent with the observed shape of NGC 3198, the exact shape and size of the resulting spiral can be used to determine its distance from Earth with great accuracy using simple trigonometry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:0909.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 10 pages

Particles occupy mass levels and sublevels within two sequences that
descend in geometric progression from the Planck Mass. The common
ratios of the sequences are r_{1}=1/π and r_{2}=2/π. Sublevels are arranged in
subsequences of common ratio r^{1/p}, where p is a power of 2. Concise
graphical evidence is provided for the sequences. Atomic nuclei with
2≤A≤10, α-particle nuclei with A≤20, all nuclei of double magic number,
many ground state hadrons, the weak gauge bosons and the charged
leptons are shown to occupy mass levels and sublevels characterised by
small p. The mass levels and sublevels constitute a framework upon which
broken symmetries are displayed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:0909.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Dan Visser, Chris Forbes, Keith Lees

**Comments:** 2 pages

In this paper a new model of cosmology is proposed in an informal manner, with most
results merely stated and not derived, in anticipation of a fuller, more mathematical
paper to be published at a later date. A historical overview of its development is given
and its main propositions and results are explained and evaluated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:0909.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro, Jorge Mahecha

**Comments:** 16 pages, This article appeared in Progress in Physics vol. 1 (2006) 38-45.

A new nonlinear Schrödinger equation is obtained explicitly from the
(fractal) Brownian motion of a massive particle with a complex-valued
diffusion constant. Real-valued energy plane-wave solutions and solitons
exist in the free particle case. One remarkable feature of this nonlinear
Schrödinger equation based on a ( fractal) Brownian motion model, over
all the other nonlinear QM models, is that the quantum-mechanical energy
functional coincides precisely with the field theory one. We finalize by
showing why a complex momentum is essential to fully understand the
physical implications of Weyl's geometry in QM, along with the interplay
between Bohm's Quantum potential and Fisher Information which has
been overlooked by several authors in the past.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:0909.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 pages, This article appeared in the Int. Journal of Mod. Phys. A 21, no.10 (2005) 2149.

Starting with a review of the Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford-Spaces, and the physical motivation
behind this novel theory, we provide the generalization of the nonrelativistic Supersymmetric pointparticle
action in Clifford-space backgrounds. The relativistic Supersymmetric Clifford particle action is
constructed that is invariant under generalized supersymmetric transformations of the Clifford-space background's
polyvector-valued coordinates. To finalize, the Polyvector Super-Poincare and M, F theory superalgebras,
in D = 11, 12 dimensions, respectively, are discussed followed by our final analysis of the novel
Clifford-Superspace realizations of generalized Supersymmetries in Clifford spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:0909.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro, Martín López-Corredoira, Juan Miguel Campanario, Brian Martin, Wolfgang Kundt, J. Marvin Herndon, Marian Apostol, Halton C. Arp, Tom Van Flandern, Andrei P. Kirilyuk, Dmitri Rabounski, Henry H. Bauer

**Comments:** 188 pages, published by Universal Publishers in 2008

Nobody should have a monopoly of the truth in this universe. The censorship and suppression of
challenging ideas against the tide of mainstream research, the blacklisting of scientists, for
instance, is neither the best way to do and filter science, nor to promote progress in the human
knowledge. The removal of good and novel ideas from the scientific stage is very detrimental to
the pursuit of the truth. There are instances in which a mere unqualified belief can occasionally
be converted into a generally accepted scientific theory through the screening action of refereed
literature and meetings planned by the scientific organizing committees and through the
distribution of funds controlled by "club opinions". It leads to unitary paradigms and unitary
thinking not necessarily associated to the unique truth. This is the topic of this book: to
critically analyze the problems of the official (and sometimes illicit) mechanisms under which
current science (physics and astronomy in particular) is being administered and filtered today,
along with the onerous consequences these mechanisms have on all of us.
Apart from the editors, Juan Miguel Campanario, Brian Martin, Wolfgang Kundt, J. Marvin Herndon,
Marian Apostol, Halton C. Arp, Tom Van Flandern, Andrei P. Kirilyuk, Dmitri Rabounski and Henry H.
Bauer, all of them professional researchers, reveal a pessimistic view of the miseries of the actual
system, while a glimmer of hope remains in the "leitmotiv" claim towards the freedom in doing research
and attaining an acceptable level of ethics in science.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[1] **viXra:0909.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 8 pages

Although Yang-Mills theory was developed for non-universal compact internal symmetry
groups of subsets of matter fields, it should also work for the universal non-compact
symmetry groups of all matter fields implied by the classical Einstein local equivalence
principle. We introduce a new class of direct gravity couplings of rotating matter to the
electromagnetic field that can be tested in principle especially in rotating
superconductors.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory