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1005 Submissions

[110] viXra:1005.0112 [pdf] submitted on 31 May 2010

Fractal Operators in Non-Equilibrium Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 19 pages, This contribution represents a sequel to CSF 28, (2006), 913-922.

Relativistic quantum field theory (QFT) describes fundamental interactions between elementary particles occurring in an energy range up to several hundreds GeV. Extending QFT beyond this range needs to account for the imbalance produced by unsuppressed quantum fluctuations and for the emergence of non-equilibrium phase transitions. Our underlying premise is that fractal operators become mandatory tools when exploring evolution from low-energy physics to the non-equilibrium regime of QFT. Canonical quantization using fractal operators leads to the concept of "complexon", a fractional extension of quantum excitations and a likely candidate for non-baryonic Dark Matter. A discussion on the duality between this new field-theoretic framework and General Relativity is included.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[109] viXra:1005.0111 [pdf] submitted on 30 May 2010

M-theory

Authors: Min-Young Yun
Comments: 55 pages

The behavior of smallest unit that creating from superstring and quark is indeterminate, but can be described as one equation according to macroscopic-rules. So, it is easy to understand in all ages and countries, at any times and places. Newborns speak out the easiest word 'Mom' at the first time they speaking, which Decided the title of the theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[108] viXra:1005.0110 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Smarandache Zero Divisors

Authors: W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy
Comments: 5 pages

In this paper, we study the notion of Smarandache zero divisor in semigroups and rings. We illustrate them with examples and prove some interesting results about them.
Category: Algebra

[107] viXra:1005.0109 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-23 03:14:29

A New Equation for the Load Balance Scheduling Based on the Smarandache F-Inferior Part Function

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca
Comments: 6 Pages.

This article represents an extension of (Tabirca 2000a). A new equation for upper bounds is obtained based on the Smarandache f-inferior part function. An example involving upper diagonal matrices is given in order to illustrate that the new equation provide a better computation
Category: General Mathematics

[106] viXra:1005.0108 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-22 04:22:29

Faster than Light?

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 3 Pages.

The hypothesis formulated by Smarandache On the possibility that no barriers exist in the Universe for an object to travel at any speed is here shortly analyzed.
Category: General Mathematics

[105] viXra:1005.0107 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

On the Mean Value of the Additive Analogue of Smarandache Function

Authors: Yi Yuan, Zhang Wenpeng
Comments: 3 pages

see paper for abstract
Category: Number Theory

[104] viXra:1005.0106 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

An Introduction to the Smarandache Square Complementary Function

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 13 pages

In this paper the main properties of Smarandache Square Complementary function has been analyzed. Several problems still unsolved are reported too.
Category: Number Theory

[103] viXra:1005.0105 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Some New Results Concerning the Smarandache Ceil Function

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca
Comments: 7 pages

In this article we present two new results concerning the Smarandache Ceil function. The first result proposes an equation for the number of fixed-point number of the Smarandache ceil function. Based on this result we prove that the average of the Smarandache ceil function is Θ(n) .
Category: Number Theory

[102] viXra:1005.0104 [pdf] replaced on 25 Aug 2011

Factors and Primes in Two Smarandache Sequences

Authors: Ralf W. Stephan
Comments: 10 Pages

Using a personal computer and freely available software, the author factored some members of the Smarandache consecutive sequence and the reverse Smarandache sequence. Nearly complete factorizations are given up to Sm(80) and RSm(80). Both sequences were excessively searched for prime members, with only one prime found up to Sm(840) and RSm(750): RSm(82) = 828180 ... 10987654321.
Category: Algebra

[101] viXra:1005.0103 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Smarandache Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy
Comments: 203 pages

In this book for the first time we introduce the notion of Smarandache neutrosophic algebraic structures. Smarandache algebraic structures had been introduced in a series of 10 books. The study of Smarandache algebraic structures has caused a shift of paradigm in the study of algebraic structures.
Category: Algebra

[100] viXra:1005.0102 [pdf] replaced on 19 Jun 2010

The New Prime Theorem (45)-(70)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 33 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that the new prime theorems (45)-(70) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[99] viXra:1005.0100 [pdf] submitted on 28 May 2010

Mathematics is Physics

Authors: Dainis Zeps
Comments: 16 pages

In series of articles we continue to advance idea that mathematics and physics is the same. We bring forward two basic assumptions as principles. First is the primacy of life as opposed to dominating reductionism, and second - immaturity of epistemology. Second principle says that we have reached stage of epistemology where we have stepped outside simple perceptibility only on level of individuality (since Aristotle) but not on level of collective mind. The last stage have reached only most of religious teachings but not physical science that is still under oppressive influence of reductionism. This causes that what we call research in physical science turns out to be simply instrumental improvement of perception within visional confinement we call field of information. We discuss and try to apply principle that within field of information we can't invent or discover anything that doesn't existing.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[98] viXra:1005.0099 [pdf] submitted on 26 May 2010

Learning to Cooperate for Progress in Physics

Authors: Jonathan J. Dickau
Comments: 11 pages. The author plans to present this paper at the 11th Frontiers of Fundamental Physics conference, which is in Paris, France July 6-9, 2010.

At the 10th Frontiers of Fundamental Physics symposium, Gerard 't Hooft stated that, for some of the advances we hope to see in Physics in the future, there must be a great deal of cooperation between researchers from different disciplines, as well as mathematicians, programmers, technologists, and others. Accomplishing this requires a new mindset; however, as so much of our past progress has come out of a fiercely competitive process - especially since a critical review of our ideas about reality remains an essential part of making progress and checking our progress. We must also address the fact that some frameworks appear incompatible, as with relativity and quantum mechanics, which remain at odds despite years of attempts to find a quantum gravity theory. I explore the idea that playful exploration, using both left-brained and right-brained approaches to learning, allows resolution of conflicting ideas by taking advantage of our innate developmental strategies. It may thus foster the kind of interdisciplinary cooperation we are hoping to see.
Category: Mind Science

[97] viXra:1005.0098 [pdf] submitted on 26 May 2010

Block Universe

Authors: Amrit S. Sorli
Comments: 11 page

According to the formalism d = v*t fourth dimension of space-time X4 = i*c*t is spatial too. Time is not a fourth dimension of space-time. Material change i.e. motion run in a timeless space. Fundamental unit of numeric order t0,t1,t2,...,tn of material change is Planck time tp . We measure numeric order of material change with clocks. Material change tn-1 is "before" material change tn equivalently as natural number n-1 is "before" natural number n. Numeric order of material change runs in a timeless 4D space and has no duration. Space-time is a timeless phenomenon.
Category: Quantum Physics

[96] viXra:1005.0097 [pdf] replaced on 28 May 2010

A Brief and Elementary Note on Redshift

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 5 Pages.

A reasonable explanation of both redshifts: cosmological (without expansion of the universe) and intrinsic, is given using a single tired light mechanism. In the first case, the redshift is produced because the light interacts with microwaves. In the second, the interaction is with radio waves. And all this is compatible with a static universe with a space temperature of 2.7 oK.
Category: Astrophysics

[95] viXra:1005.0096 [pdf] submitted on 24 May 2010

The Sieve Method of the Number of Solutions of Goldbach Conjecture (A)

Authors: Tong Xin Ping
Comments: 3 Pages, In Chinese

We can find all solutions of Goldbach conjecture (A) ling in the closed interval [pr+1, N-pr-1], and we can obtain expression of the number of solutions of Goldbach conjecture (A).
Category: Number Theory

[94] viXra:1005.0095 [pdf] replaced on 25 May 2010

Mapping Penrose-Rindler Null Tetrads to the Advanced and Retarded Wheeler-Feynman-Aharonov Destiny & History Null Tetrads

Authors: Jack Sarfatti
Comments: 4 pages

This is a short mathematical note clarifying the use of Cramer's Transactional Interpretation in the Spinor Qubit Pre-Geometry of Wheeler's IT FROM BIT.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[93] viXra:1005.0094 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Quantum Smarandache Paradoxes

Authors: Gheorghe Niculescu
Comments: 2 pages

In this paper one presents four of the smarandacheian paradoxes in physics found in various physics sites or printed material.
Category: Quantum Physics

[92] viXra:1005.0093 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Smarandache Hypothesis: Evidences, Implications and Applications

Authors: Leonardo F. D. da Motta
Comments: 5 pages

In 1972, Smarandache proposed that there is not a limit speed on the nature, based on the EPR-Bell (Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, Bell) paradox. Although it appears that this paradox was solved recently, there are many other evidences that guide us to believe that Smarandache Hypothesis is right on quantum mechanics and even on the new unification theories. If Smarandache Hypothesis turns to be right under any circumstance, some concepts of modern physics would have to be "refit" to agree with Smarandache Hypothesis. Moreover, when the meaning of Smarandache Hypothesis become completely understood, a revolution on technology, specially in communication, will arise.
Category: Quantum Physics

[91] viXra:1005.0092 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Seven Conjectures in Geometry and Number Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 pages

In this short paper we propose four conjectures in synthetic geometry that generalize Erdos-Mordell Theorem, and three conjectures in number theory that generalize Fermat Numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[90] viXra:1005.0091 [pdf] submitted on 22 May 2010

The Relativity of Time. the Time of the Relativity

Authors: Xavier Terri Castañé
Comments: 5 pages

Demonstration without mathematical formulas of the theory of special and general relativity of Einstein is false.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[89] viXra:1005.0090 [pdf] replaced on 16 May 2011

A Pervasive Electric Field in the Heliosphere (Part II)

Authors: Henry D. May
Comments: 7 pages

In Part I of this paper [1] it was proposed that a static electric potential of about +800 MV is present in the heliosphere, sustained by the continual inflow of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) protons. Charge neutralization cannot occur because the solar wind and magnetic fields allow more protons than electrons to pass through the termination shock (TS) deeply into the heliosphere. The result is a quasi-static electric field, at dynamic equilibrium, inside the heliosphere. This paper adds some important details that were not included in Part I, and makes some clarifications. The presence of the heliospheric electric field opens up the possibility of accounting for the Pioneer Anomaly, and also the anomalous cosmic rays, as caused by electric fields.
Category: Astrophysics

[88] viXra:1005.0089 [pdf] replaced on 24 Jun 2010

Where Does Universal Expansion Equal Gravitational Attraction?

Authors: Chris O'Loughlin
Comments: 9 pages

A comparison of the attractive motion experienced by masses due to gravitational interaction over relatively short distances with the recessional motion of masses at relatively large distances (that adhere to the velocity increases described by Hubble's v = Hr relation) is presented to demonstrate the similarities between the two motions. Based on the similarities of the two motions, and the observation that gravitational acceleration decreases as distance increases while recessional acceleration decreases as distance decreases the distance at which the two accelerations are equal in magnitude but in opposite directions resulting in zero net acceleration is calculated and compared to similar results provided by Chernin et al. [1]. The summation of the attractive gravitational acceleration and the recessional acceleration is presented and plotted depicting a smooth, continuous transition from gravitational attraction to universal expansion. The underlying cause of these accelerations is not addressed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[87] viXra:1005.0088 [pdf] submitted on 21 May 2010

The New Prime Theorem (44)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function J2(ω) we prove that jPn + 9 - j contain infinitely many prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[86] viXra:1005.0087 [pdf] submitted on 21 May 2010

The New Prime Theorem (43)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that jP8 + k - j contain infinitely many prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[85] viXra:1005.0086 [pdf] submitted on 21 May 2010

The New Prime Theorem (42)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that jP7 + k - j contain infinitely many prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[84] viXra:1005.0085 [pdf] submitted on 21 May 2010

The New Prime Theorem (41)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that jP6 + k - j contain infinitely many prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[83] viXra:1005.0084 [pdf] submitted on 21 May 2010

The New Prime Theorem (40)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that jP5 + k - j contain infinitely many prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[82] viXra:1005.0083 [pdf] submitted on 21 May 2010

The New Prime Theorem (39)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that if J2(ω) ≠ 0 then there are infinitely many primes P such that each of jP4 + k - j is a prime, J2(ω) = 0 then there are finite primes P such that each of jP4 + k - j is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[81] viXra:1005.0082 [pdf] submitted on 21 May 2010

Infinite Smarandache Groupoids

Authors: A.K.S. Chandra Sekhar Rao
Comments: 6 pages

It is proved that there are infinitely many infinite Smarandache Groupoids.
Category: Algebra

[80] viXra:1005.0081 [pdf] replaced on 25 May 2010

The Evaporation of Common Sense

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 3 pages

Common sense left the human mind a hundred years ago. It was forced out by relativity theory. This wildly imaginative work of fiction displaced all the logic humankind had labored so long to establish. People loved it. They were set free of the constraints of disciplined thought. But today we have a problem: relativity and all it has sprouted has taken us down a blind alley.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[79] viXra:1005.0080 [pdf] submitted on 20 May 2010

Multi-Criteria Decision Making Based on DSmT-Ahp

Authors: Jean Dezert, Jean-Marc Tacnet, Mireille Batton-Hubert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 pages

In this paper, we present an extension of the multicriteria decision making based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) which incorporates uncertain knowledge matrices for generating basic belief assignments (bba's). The combination of priority vectors corresponding to bba's related to each (sub)-criterion is performed using the Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule no. 5 proposed in Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) of plausible and paradoxical reasoning. The method presented here, called DSmT-AHP, is illustrated on very simple examples.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[78] viXra:1005.0079 [pdf] submitted on 20 May 2010

Non Bayesian Conditioning and Deconditioning

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 pages

In this paper, we present a Non-Bayesian conditioning rule for belief revision. This rule is truly Non-Bayesian in the sense that it doesn't satisfy the common adopted principle that when a prior belief is Bayesian, after conditioning by X, Bel(X|X) must be equal to one. Our new conditioning rule for belief revision is based on the proportional conflict redistribution rule of combination developed in DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache Theory) which abandons Bayes' conditioning principle. Such Non-Bayesian conditioning allows to take into account judiciously the level of conflict between the prior belief available and the conditional evidence. We also introduce the deconditioning problem and show that this problem admits a unique solution in the case of Bayesian prior; a solution which is not possible to obtain when classical Shafer and Bayes conditioning rules are used. Several simple examples are also presented to compare the results between this new Non-Bayesian conditioning and the classical one.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[77] viXra:1005.0078 [pdf] submitted on 20 May 2010

An Experimental Evidence of Energy Non-Conservation

Authors: Yu Liang, Qichang Liang, Xiaodong Liu
Comments: 5 pages

According to Maxwell's theory, the displacement current in vacuum can produce electromotive force on conducting current. However, the displacement current in vacuum does not experience electromotive force from conducting current. The asymmetrical electromotive forces result in non-conserved energy transmission between any two coils involving displacement current and conducting current. In this work, we designed and performed the measurements for such effect. We observed the explicit evidences of non-conserved energy transmission between a toroid solenoid and a parallel plate capacitor. The measured energy increase is well predicted by the numerical estimation.
Category: Classical Physics

[76] viXra:1005.0077 [pdf] submitted on 19 May 2010

Fusion of Masses Defined on Infinite Countable Frames of Discernment

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Arnaud Martin
Comments: 5 pages

In this paper we introduce for the first time the fusion of information on infinite discrete frames of discernment and we give general results of the fusion of two such masses using the Dempster's rule and the PCR5 rule for Bayesian and non-Bayesian cases.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[75] viXra:1005.0076 [pdf] submitted on 19 May 2010

Degree of Uncertainty of a Set and of a Mass

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Arnaud Martin
Comments: 9 pages

In this paper we use extend Harley's measure of uncertainty of a set and of mass to the degree of uncertainty of a set and of a mass (bba).
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[74] viXra:1005.0075 [pdf] submitted on 19 May 2010

The Theory of Distributions Applied to Divergent Integrals of the Form (See Paper for Equation)

Authors: Jose Javier Garcia Moreta
Comments: 9 pages

In this paper we review some results on the regularization of divergent integrals of the form ... (see paper for full abstract)
Category: Functions and Analysis

[73] viXra:1005.0074 [pdf] replaced on 16 Aug 2010

Relating the Physical Structure and Properties of Quantum Space-time to Elementary Particles, Gravity, and Relativistic Phenomena

Authors: Gary Heen
Comments: 22 pages

Modern theory states that matter and energy in their most basic form exist in discrete amounts, or quanta. The author proffers that space-time also exists as discrete quanta, and derives a physical model of space-time and elementary particles. The hypothesis for this space-time model is that the quanta for matter and space-time are convertible states of the same elementary building block: the quantum mass unit.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[72] viXra:1005.0073 [pdf] replaced on 24 May 2010

Relativistic Effects of Relative Velocity of Material Change Start Above Photon Scale

Authors: Amrit S. Sorli
Comments: 2 pages

Constancy of the light velocity in different inertial systems and areas of space with different gravity implies that relativistic effects of relative velocity of material change start on the scale above photon.
Category: Quantum Physics

[71] viXra:1005.0072 [pdf] replaced on 23 May 2010

The Basis of Quantum Mechanics' Compatibility with Relativity Whose Impairment Gives Rise to the Klein-Gordon and Dirac Equations

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 14 pages, Also archived as arXiv:1005.2641 [physics.gen-ph].

Solitary-particle quantum mechanics' inherent compatibility with special relativity is implicit in Schrödinger's postulated wave-function rule for the operator quantization of the particle's canonical threemomentum, taken together with his famed time-dependent wave-function equation that analogously treats the operator quantization of its Hamiltonian. The resulting formally four-vector equation system assures proper relativistic covariance for any solitary-particle Hamiltonian operator which, together with its canonical three-momentum operator, is a Lorentz-covariant four-vector operator. This, of course, is always the case for the quantization of the Hamiltonian of a properly relativistic classical theory, so the strong correspondence principle definitely remains valid in the relativistic domain. Klein-Gordon theory impairs this four-vector equation by iterating and contracting it, thereby injecting extraneous negative-energy solutions that are not orthogonal to their positive-energy counterparts of the same momentum, thus destroying the basis of the quantum probability interpretation. Klein-Gordon theory, which thus depends on the square of the Hamiltonian operator, is as well thereby cut adrift from Heisenberg's equations of motion. Dirac theory confuses the space-time symmetry of the four-vector equation system with such symmetry for its time component alone, which it fatuously imposes, thereby breaching the strong correspondence principle for the free particle and imposing the starkly unphysical momentum-independence of velocity. Physically sensible alternatives, with external electromagnetic fields, to the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are derived, and the simple, elegant symmetry-based approach to antiparticles is pointed out.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[70] viXra:1005.0071 [pdf] replaced on 20 Jun 2011

Product of Distributions and Zeta Regularization of Divergent Integrals ∫ Xm-Sdx and Fourier Transforms

Authors: Jose Javier Garcia Moreta
Comments: 13 pages

Using the theory of distributions and Zeta regularization we manage to give a definition of product for Dirac delta distributions, we show how the fact of one can be define a coherent and finite product of Dirac delta distributions is related to the regularization of divergent integrals ... (see paper for full abstract)
Category: Functions and Analysis

[69] viXra:1005.0070 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Set Linear Algebra and Set Fuzzy Linear Algebra

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K Ilanthenral
Comments: 345 pages.

In this book, the authors define the new notion of set vector spaces which is the most generalized form of vector spaces. Set vector spaces make use of the least number of algebraic operations, therefore, even a non-mathematician is comfortable working with it. It is with the passage of time, that we can think of set linear algebras as a paradigm shift from linear algebras. Here, the authors have also given the fuzzy parallels of these new classes of set linear algebras. This book abounds with examples to enable the reader to understand these new concepts easily. Laborious theorems and proofs are avoided to make this book approachable for nonmathematicians. The concepts introduced in this book can be easily put to use by coding theorists, cryptologists, computer scientists, and socio-scientists. Another special feature of this book is the final chapter containing 304 problems. The authors have suggested so many problems to make the students and researchers obtain a better grasp of the subject. This book is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter briefly recalls some of the basic concepts in order to make this book self-contained. Chapter two introduces the notion of set vector spaces which is the most generalized concept of vector spaces. Set vector spaces lends itself to define new classes of vector spaces like semigroup vector spaces and group vector 6 spaces. These are also generalization of vector spaces. The fuzzy analogue of these concepts are given in Chapter three. In Chapter four, set vector spaces are generalized to biset bivector spaces and not set vector spaces. This is done taking into account the advanced information technology age in which we live. As mathematicians, we have to realize that our computer-dominated world needs special types of sets and algebraic structures. Set n-vector spaces and their generalizations are carried out in Chapter five. Fuzzy n-set vector spaces are introduced in the sixth chapter. The seventh chapter suggests more than three hundred problems. When a researcher sets forth to solve them, she/he will certainly gain a deeper understanding of these new notions.
Category: Algebra

[68] viXra:1005.0069 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Smarandache Semirings and Semifields

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy
Comments: 4 pages.

In this paper we study the notion of Smarandache semirings and semifields and obtain some interesting results about them. We show that not every semiring is a Smarandache semiring. We similarly prove that not every semifield is a Smarandache semifield. We give several examples to make the concept lucid. Further, we propose an open problem about the existence of Smarandache semiring S of finite order.
Category: Algebra

[67] viXra:1005.0068 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Randomness and Optimal Estimation in Data Sampling

Authors: M. Khoshnevisan, S. Saxena, H. P. Singh, S. Singh, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 63 pages.

The purpose of this book is to postulate some theories and test them numerically. Estimation is often a difficult task and it has wide application in social sciences and financial market. In order to obtain the optimum efficiency for some classes of estimators, we have devoted this book into three specialized sections.
Category: Statistics

[66] viXra:1005.0067 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

The Smarandache P and S Persistence of a Prime

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 5 pages.

The Smarandache P and S persistence of a prime
Category: Number Theory

[65] viXra:1005.0066 [pdf] submitted on 16 May 2010

Relativistic Mass Macrobodies

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 2 pages.

The relativistic growth of mass macrobodies differs from microparticles
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[64] viXra:1005.0065 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Smarandache Pseudo-Ideals

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy
Comments: 5 pages

In this paper we study the Smarandache pseudo-ideals of a Smarandache ring. We prove every ideal is a Smarandache pseudo-ideal in a Smarandache ring but every Smarandache pseudo-ideal in general is not an ideal. Further we show that every polynomial ring over a field and group rings FG of the group G over any field are Smarandache rings. We pose some interesting problems about them.
Category: Algebra

[63] viXra:1005.0064 [pdf] submitted on 15 May 2010

Santilli's Isoprime Theory

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 16 Pages

We establish the Santilli's isomathematics based on the generalization of the modern mathematics. (see paper for rest of abstract with equations)
Category: Number Theory

[62] viXra:1005.0063 [pdf] replaced on 3 Nov 2011

On Planetary Electromagnetism and Gravity

Authors: Ashwini Kumar Lal
Comments: 10 pages, 2 figures, new hypothesis for gravitation ; 'Published in International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (USA) , 2011, vol.1, no. 2, pp. 62-66'

Study of the interiors of the various terrestrial planets, as presented in the paper, leads to the possibility of planetary gravity being linked to the electromagnetism generated in the planetary interiors. Findings of the study undertaken suggest that Earth's gravitational attraction may be attributed to magnetic coupling experienced between Earth's electromagnetism and all the earthly objects - electrically charged or uncharged. More precisely, terrestrial gravity is deemed to be outcome of the bound state of the planetary electromagnetism.
Category: Astrophysics

[61] viXra:1005.0062 [pdf] replaced on 30 May 2010

Applications of Euclidian Snyder Geometry to Space Time Physics & Deceleration Parameter ( DM Generated DE Replacement?)

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 59 pages. 30 minute talk for the Dark Side of the Universe conference, Leon, Mexico, to be delivered in the morning of June 5 , 2010

Contains specific elaboration of material on Glinkas quantum gas hypothesis, as far as a counting algorithm, and also attempts to show possible commonality between semi classical theories, and brane world interpretations ( higher dimensions) while addressing the issue of what are the implications of a small graviton mass in 4 dimensions, i.e. the violations of the correspondence/ complimentarity principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[60] viXra:1005.0060 [pdf] replaced on 17 May 2010

The Galois Solvable Fourth Roots of Reality

Authors: Jack Sarfatti
Comments: 8 pages

Local observers are defined by orthonormal "non-holonomic" (aka "non-coordinate") tetrad gravity fields (Cartan's "moving frames"). The tetrads are spin 1 vector fields under the 6-parameter homogeneous Lorentz group SO1,3 of Einstein's 1905 special relativity. You can think of the tetrad gravity fields as the square roots of Einstein's 1916 spin 2 metric tensor gravity fields. We will see that we must also allow for spin 0 and spin 1 gravity because the spin 1 tetrads, in turn, are Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled quantum states of pairs of 2-component Penrose-Rindler qubits in the quantum pregeometry. The Wheeler-Feynman qubits are the square roots of the advanced and retarded null tetrads and can therefore be called the Galois solvable fourth roots of reality. The spherical wavefront tetrads are then formally the Bell pair states of quantum information theory. Penrose's Cartesian tetrads are a different choice from mine here. The different tetrad choices correspond to the different contours around the photon propagator poles in the complex energy plane of quantum electrodynamics. Both of his spinors in his spin frame are retarded in the same light cone, e.g. the forward cone. It seems that Penrose and Rindler implicitly answered Wheeler's question of how IT comes from BIT, but no one realized it until now.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[59] viXra:1005.0059 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-04 03:19:45

Geometric Axioms Entailing the Negation of the Continuum Hypothesis

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 14 Pages. Russian

In the article formulated are the geometric axioms from which it follows that the continuum power is more than the power of any well-ordered set.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[58] viXra:1005.0058 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Partition of a Set which Contains an Infinite Arithmetic (Respectively Geometric) Progression

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

We prove that for any partition of a set which contains an infinite arithmetic (respectively geometric) progression into two subsets, at least one of these subsets contains an infinite number of triplets such that each triplet is an arithmetic (respectively geometric) progression.
Category: Number Theory

[57] viXra:1005.0057 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Fuzzy and Neutrosophic Analysis of Periyar's Views on Untouchability

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Kandasamy
Comments: 385 pages

K.R.Narayanan was a lauded hero and a distinguished victim of his Dalit background. Even in an international platform when he was on an official visit to Paris, the media headlines blazed, 'An Untouchable at Elysee'. He was visibly upset and it proved that a Dalit who rose up to such heights was never spared from the pangs of outcaste-ness and untouchability, which is based on birth. Thus, if the erstwhile first citizen of India faces such humiliation, what will be the plight of the last man who is a Dalit? As one of the world's largest socio-economically oppressed, culturally subjugated and politically marginalized group of people, the 138 million Dalits in India suffer not only from the excesses of the traditional oppressor castes, but also from State Oppression - which includes, but is not limited to, authoritarianism, police brutality, economic embargo, criminalization of activists, electoral violence, repressive laws that aim to curb fundamental rights, and the non-implementation of laws that safeguard Dalit rights. The Dalits were considered untouchable for thousands of years by the Hindu society until the Constitution of India officially abolished the practice of untouchability in 1950.
Category: Social Science

[56] viXra:1005.0056 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Paradoxism's Main Roots

Authors: Florin Vasiliu
Comments: 62 pages

Paradoxism's Main Roots
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[55] viXra:1005.0055 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Reservation for Other Backward Classes in Indian Central Government Institutions Like Iits, Iims and Aiims a Study of the Role of Media Using Fuzzy Super FRM Models

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Kandasamy
Comments: 16 pages

The new notions of super column FRM model, super row FRM model and mixed super FRM model are introduced in this book. These three models are introduced specially to analyze the biased role of the print media on 27 percent reservation for the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in educational institutions run by the Indian Central Government. This book has four chapters. In chapter one the authors introduce the three types of super FRM models. Chapter two uses these three new super fuzzy models to study the role of media which feverishly argued against 27 percent reservation for OBCs in Central Government-run institutions in India. The experts we consulted were divided into 19 groups depending on their profession. These groups of experts gave their opinion and comments on the news-items that appeared about reservations in dailies and weekly magazines, and the gist of these lengthy discussions form the third chapter of this book. The fourth chapter gives the conclusions based on our study. Our study was conducted from April 2006 to March 2007, at which point of time the Supreme Court of India stayed the 27 percent reservation for OBCs in the IITs, IIMs and AIIMS. After the aforesaid injunction from the Supreme Court, the experts did not wish to give their opinion since the matter was sub-judice. The authors deeply acknowledge the service of each and every expert who contributed their opinion and thus made this book a possibility. We have analyzed the data using the opinion of the experts who formed a heterogeneous group consisting of administrators, lawyers, OBC/SC/ST students, upper caste students and Brahmin students, educationalists, university vice-chancellors, directors, professors, teachers, retired Judges, principals of colleges, parents, journalists, members of the public, politicians, doctors, engineers, NGOs and government staff.
Category: Social Science

[54] viXra:1005.0054 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Some Smarandache Problems

Authors: Mladen V. Vassilev-Missana, Krassimir T. Atanassov
Comments: 67 pages, Book in Romanian, French and English. Proposed and solved problems for students' mathematical competitions in number theory, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus.

During the five years since publishing [2], we have obtained many new results related to the Smarandache problems. We are happy to have the opportunity to present them in this book for the enjoyment of a wider audience of readers. The problems in Chapter two have also been solved and published separately by the authors, but it makes sense to collate them here so that they can be better seen in perspective as a whole, particularly in relation to the problems elucidated in Chapter one. Many of the problems, and more especially the techniques employed in their solution, have wider applicability than just the Smarandache problems, and so they should be of more general interest to other mathematicians, particularly both professional and amateur number theorists.
Category: Number Theory

[53] viXra:1005.0053 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Solved Problems of Geometry and Trigonometry for College Students.

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 171 pages

Solved problems of geometry and trigonometry for college students.
Category: Geometry

[52] viXra:1005.0052 [pdf] replaced on 27 Oct 2010

Tetron Model Building

Authors: Bodo Lampe
Comments: 12 pages, 1 table, 1 figure

Spin models are considered on a discretized inner symmetry space with tetrahedral symmetry as possible dynamical schemes for the tetron model. Parity violation, which corresponds to a change of sign for odd permutations, is shown to dictate the form of the Hamiltonian. It is further argued that such spin models can be obtained from more fundamental principles by considering a (6+1)- or (7+1)-dimensional spacetime with octonion multiplication.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[51] viXra:1005.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2012-11-30 07:05:53

Big Bang Model? : A Critical Review

Authors: Ashwini Kumar Lal
Comments: 26 pages, 5 figures, minor modification, published in 'Journal of Cosmology' (USA), 2010,Vol.6, pp.1533-1547

Inflationary Hot Big Bang Model is the generally accepted theory for the origin of the universe. Nonetheless, findings of the observational astronomy as also the revelations in the field of fundamental physics over the past two decades question validity of the 'Big Bang' model as a viable theory for the origin of the universe. This paper examines a few of the various factors which undermine the Big Bang theory, including the organization of galactic superstructures, the Cosmic Microwave Background, redshifts, distant galaxies,age of local galaxies, and the gravitational waves.
Category: Astrophysics

[50] viXra:1005.0050 [pdf] submitted on 14 May 2010

Theory Cannot Choose from Its Several Possible Interpretations

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 3 pages

A theory can be interpreted several different ways. Which interpretation is "the correct interpretation" is well nigh impossible to determine. For that reason, we select the one that best fits our concept of what reality is. That means we choose on the basis of metaphysics.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[49] viXra:1005.0049 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Only Problems Not Solutions

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 112 pages

The development of mathematics continues in a rapid rhythm, some unsolved problems are elucidated and simultaneously new open problems to be solved appear.
Category: Number Theory

[48] viXra:1005.0048 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Estimation of Mean in Presence of Non Response Using Exponential Estimator

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Mukesh Kumar, Manoj K. Chaudhary, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 pages

This paper considers the problem of estimating the population mean using information on auxiliary variable in presence of non response. Exponential ratio and exponential product type estimators have been suggested and their properties are studied. An empirical study is carried out to support the theoretical results.
Category: Statistics

[47] viXra:1005.0047 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

A Method of Solving Certain Nonlinear Diophantine Equations

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 pages

In this paper we propose a method of solving a Nonlinear Diophantine Equation by converting it into a System of Diophantine Linear Equations.
Category: Number Theory

[46] viXra:1005.0046 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

N-Linear Algebra of Type II

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 231 pages

This book is a continuation of the book n-linear algebra of type I and its applications. Most of the properties that could not be derived or defined for n-linear algebra of type I is made possible in this new structure: n-linear algebra of type II which is introduced in this book. In case of n-linear algebra of type II, we are in a position to define linear functionals which is one of the marked difference between the n-vector spaces of type I and II. However all the applications mentioned in n-linear algebras of type I can be appropriately extended to n-linear algebras of type II. Another use of n-linear algebra (n-vector spaces) of type II is that when this structure is used in coding theory we can have different types of codes built over different finite fields whereas this is not possible in the case of n-vector spaces of type I. Finally in the case of n-vector spaces of type II we can obtain neigen values from distinct fields; hence, the n-characteristic polynomials formed in them are in distinct different fields. An attractive feature of this book is that the authors have suggested 120 problems for the reader to pursue in order to understand this new notion. This book has three chapters. In the first chapter the notion of n-vector spaces of type II are introduced. This chapter gives over 50 theorems. Chapter two introduces the notion of n-inner product vector spaces of type II, n-bilinear forms and n-linear functionals. The final chapter 6 suggests over a hundred problems. It is important that the reader should be well versed with not only linear algebra but also nlinear algebras of type I.
Category: Algebra

[45] viXra:1005.0045 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

N-Linear Algebra of Type I and Its Applications

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 120 pages

With the advent of computers one needs algebraic structures that can simultaneously work with bulk data. One such algebraic structure namely n-linear algebras of type I are introduced in this book and its applications to n-Markov chains and n-Leontief models are given. These structures can be thought of as the generalization of bilinear algebras and bivector spaces. Several interesting n-linear algebra properties are proved. This book has four chapters. The first chapter just introduces n-group which is essential for the definition of nvector spaces and n-linear algebras of type I. Chapter two gives the notion of n-vector spaces and several related results which are analogues of the classical linear algebra theorems. In case of n-vector spaces we can define several types of linear transformations. The notion of n-best approximations can be used for error correction in coding theory. The notion of n-eigen values can be used in deterministic modal superposition principle for undamped structures, which can find its applications in finite element analysis of mechanical structures with uncertain parameters. Further it is suggested that the concept of nmatrices can be used in real world problems which adopts fuzzy models like Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Fuzzy Relational Equations and Bidirectional Associative Memories. The applications of 6 these algebraic structures are given in Chapter 3. Chapter four gives some problem to make the subject easily understandable. The authors deeply acknowledge the unflinching support of Dr.K.Kandasamy, Meena and Kama.
Category: Algebra

[44] viXra:1005.0044 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Fuzzy Interval Matrices, Neutrosophic Interval Matrices and Their Applications

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 304 pages

The new concept of fuzzy interval matrices has been introduced in this book for the first time. The authors have not only introduced the notion of fuzzy interval matrices, interval neutrosophic matrices and fuzzy neutrosophic interval matrices but have also demonstrated some of its applications when the data under study is an unsupervised one and when several experts analyze the problem. Further, the authors have introduced in this book multiexpert models using these three new types of interval matrices. The new multi expert models dealt in this book are FCIMs, FRIMs, FCInMs, FRInMs, IBAMs, IBBAMs, nIBAMs, FAIMs, FAnIMS, etc. Illustrative examples are given so that the reader can follow these concepts easily. This book has three chapters. The first chapter is introductory in nature and makes the book a self-contained one. Chapter two introduces the concept of fuzzy interval matrices. Also the notion of fuzzy interval matrices, neutrosophic interval matrices and fuzzy neutrosophic interval matrices, can find applications to Markov chains and Leontief economic models. Chapter three gives the application of fuzzy interval matrices and neutrosophic interval matrices to real-world problems by constructing the models already mentioned. Further these models are mainly useful when the data is an unsupervised one and when one needs a multi-expert model. The new concept of fuzzy interval matrices and neutrosophic interval matrices will find their applications in engineering, medical, industrial, social and psychological problems. We have given a long list of references to help the interested reader.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[43] viXra:1005.0043 [pdf] submitted on 12 May 2010

Proposing the Existence of a New Symmetry Called the Wick Symmetry-Representation of a Particle as a Primary Gas - VI

Authors: V.A.Induchoodan Menon
Comments: 21 pages

The author discusses the similarity between the expression for the state function of the primary gas representing a particle and that of the wave function. It is observed that the only difference between these two expressions is that in the former time appears as a real function while in the latter it appears as an imaginary function. He shows that the primary gas approach which treats time as a real and the quantum mechanical approach which treats time as imaginary are two ways of representing the same reality and points to a new symmetry called the Wick symmetry. He shows that the probability postulate of quantum mechanics can be understood in a very simple and natural manner based on the primary gas representation of the particle. It is shown that the zero point energy of the quantum mechanics is nothing but the energy of the thermal bath formed by the vacuum fluctuations in the Higgs field. He shows that the quantum mechanics is nothing but the thermodynamics of the primary gas where time has not lost its directional symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[42] viXra:1005.0042 [pdf] submitted on 11 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (20)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any there are infinitely many primes P such that each of jPP0 + j+1 is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[41] viXra:1005.0041 [pdf] submitted on 11 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (19)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any there are infinitely many primes P such that each of PP0 + 4n is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[40] viXra:1005.0040 [pdf] submitted on 11 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (18)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any there are infinitely many primes kPsuch that each of PP0 + (2j)2 is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[39] viXra:1005.0039 [pdf] submitted on 11 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (17)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any there are infinitely many primes kPsuch that each of PP0 + j(j+1) is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[38] viXra:1005.0038 [pdf] submitted on 11 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (16)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of jP5 + j +1 is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[37] viXra:1005.0037 [pdf] submitted on 11 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (15)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of P5 + 4n is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[36] viXra:1005.0036 [pdf] submitted on 11 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (14)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of P5 + (2j)2 is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[35] viXra:1005.0035 [pdf] submitted on 11 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (13)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of P5 + j( j +1) is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[34] viXra:1005.0034 [pdf] replaced on 12 May 2010

Our Artificial Reality Created by Theory

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 2 pages

Theory is a template, a schematic of what we think reality is. We see reality according to the template. What does not conform to the template is excised. For that reason, much that occurs in the world is not seen. That is how we miss the great discoveries going on right under our noses.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[33] viXra:1005.0033 [pdf] submitted on 11 May 2010

Covariant Isolation from an Abelian Gauge Field of Its Nondynamical Potential, Which, When Fed Back, Can Transform Into a "Confining Yukawa"

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 12 pages, Also archived as arXiv:1005.1101 [physics.gen-ph]

For Abelian gauge theory a properly relativistic gauge is developed by supplementing the Lorentz condition with causal determination of the time component of the four-vector potential by retarded Coulomb transformation of the charge density. This causal Lorentz gauge agrees with the Coulomb gauge for static charge densities, but allows the four-vector potential to have a longitudinal component that is determined by the time derivative of the four-vector potential's time component. Just as in Coulomb gauge, the two transverse components of the four-vector potential are its sole dynamical part. The four-vector potential in this gauge covariantly separates into a dynamical transverse four-vector potential and a nondynamical timelike/longitudinal four-vector potential, where each of these two satisfies the Lorentz condition. In fact, analogous partition of the conserved four-current shows each to satisfy a Lorentz-condition Maxwellequation system with its own conserved four-current. Because of this complete separation, either of these four-vector potentials can be tinkered with without affecting its counterpart. Since it satisfies the Lorentz condition, the nondynamical four-vector potential times a constant with dimension of inverse length squared is itself a conserved four-current, and so can be fed back into its own source current, which transforms its time component into an extended Yukawa, with both exponentially decaying and exponentially growing components. The latter might be the mechanism of quark-gluon confinement: in non-Abelian color gauge theory the Yukawa mixture ratio ought to be tied to color, with palpable consequences for "colorful" hot quark-gluon plasmas.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32] viXra:1005.0032 [pdf] submitted on 9 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (12)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of jP3 + j + 1 is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[31] viXra:1005.0031 [pdf] submitted on 9 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (11)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of P3 + 4n is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[30] viXra:1005.0030 [pdf] submitted on 9 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (10)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of P3 + (2 j)2 is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[29] viXra:1005.0029 [pdf] submitted on 9 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (9)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove that P, P15 + j(j+1)(j=1,...,7) contain no prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[28] viXra:1005.0028 [pdf] submitted on 9 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (8)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove that P, P9 + j(j+1)(j=1,...,7) contain no prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[27] viXra:1005.0027 [pdf] submitted on 9 May 2010

New Prime K-Tuple Theorem (7)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages

Using Jiang function we prove for any k there are infinitely many primes P such that each of P3 + j( j + 1) is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[26] viXra:1005.0026 [pdf] submitted on 10 May 2010

A Theory of Unified Gravitation

Authors: Gil Raviv
Comments: 255 Pages.

The theory presented here, entitled the theory of unified gravitation, holds that the nuclear strong interaction and gravitation are one and the same force. Detailed and relatively simple mathematics are shown to lead to an explicit strong/gravitational force equation that relies on only three independent parameters, identical to the parameters used in Newton's gravitational theory. The theory is applied on various distance scales to explain a broad range of phenomena, and is shown to provide an unparalleled level of agreement with observations, without requiring an assumption of dark matter, dark energy or inflation. Most notable is its ability to reproduce the morphologies of various types of galaxies and nebulae, as well as the complex structure of Saturn's main body of rings. Additional large-scale phenomena explained by unified gravitation include

  • The constant rotation curve observed in spiral galaxies
  • The nature of density waves in spiral galaxies
  • The mechanism underlying star formation and fragmentation
  • The parameters that determine galactic (or nebular) morphology and classification
  • The clustering of nearby galaxies, repulsion between distant galaxies, and the creation of galactic voids
  • The accelerated expansion of the universe
  • The cause of the observed redshift periodicity
  • The mechanism responsible for the creation of galactic and stellar wind
  • The sudden expansion of gas and matter observed in novae and supernovae
  • The formation of planetary ring systems and the composition of planets
  • The mechanism responsible for the creation of the planetary and galactic magnetic fields
  • A possible mechanism for the creation of the solar corona
  • The process of ionization that produces the vast amount of plasma in the universe.
On nuclear scale, the theory is demonstrated to account for the observed weak fall-off of the deep inelastic scattering cross section, and to provide a scaling behavior similar to the observed Bjorken scaling.
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1005.0025 [pdf] submitted on 10 May 2010

Proof of the 3n+1 Problem for N ≥ 1

Authors: Steffen Bode
Comments: 6 Pages.

I establish the existence of a unique binary pattern inherent to the 3n+1 step, and then use this binary pattern to prove the 3n+1 problem for all positive integers.
Category: Number Theory

[24] viXra:1005.0024 [pdf] replaced on 23 May 2010

Warp Drive Basic Science Written For "Aficionados". Chapter I - Miguel Alcubierre.

Authors: Fernando Loup
Comments: 37 Pages. The Warp Drive as a Dynamical Spacetime is one of the most interesting Spacetimes of General Relativity and is being heavily studied inside arXiv.org.See for example the arXiv papers 1001.4960, 0904.0141,0710.4474, gr-qc/0009013,gr.qc/0110086,gr.qc/9905084,gr.qc/9702026 or the Post Doctoral Dissertation Thesis gr-qc/9805037. We feel that it is time for viXra to have its own papers exclusively devoted to this Dynamical Spacetime:The Warp Drive

Alcubierre Warp Drive is one of the most exciting Spacetimes of General Relativity.It was the first Spacetime Metric able to develop Superluminal Velocities.However some physical problems associated to the Alcubierre Warp Drive seemed to deny the Superluminal Behaviour. We demonstrate in this work that some of these problems can be overcomed and we arrive at some interesting results although we used two different Shape Functions one continuous g(rs) as an alternative to the original Alcubierre f(rs) and a Piecewise Shape Function fpc(rs) as an alternative to the Ford-Pfenning Piecewise Shape Function with a behaviour similar to the Natario Warp Drive producing effectively an Alcubierre Warp Drive without Expansion/Contraction of the Spacetime. Horizons will exists and cannot be avoided however we found a way to "overcome" this problem.We also introduce here the Casimir Warp Drive.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23] viXra:1005.0023 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Considerations on New Functions in Number Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 20 pages

In this paper a small survey is presented on eighteen new functions and four new sequences, such as: Inferior/Superior f-Part, Fractional f-Part, Complementary function with respect with another function, S-Multiplicative, Primitive Function, Double Factorial Function, S-Prime and S-Coprime Functions, Smallest Power Function.
Category: Number Theory

[22] viXra:1005.0022 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Analysis of Social Aspects of Migrant Labourers Living with Hiv/aids Using Fuzzy Theory and Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 472 pages

Neutrosophic logic grew as an alternative to the existing topics and it represents a mathematical model of uncertainty, vagueness, ambiguity, imprecision, undefined-ness, unknown, incompleteness, inconsistency, redundancy and contradiction. Despite various attempts to reorient logic, there has remained an essential need for an alternative system that could infuse into itself a representation of the real world. Out of this need arose the system of neutrosophy and its connected logic, neutrosophic logic. This new logic, which allows also the concept of indeterminacy to play a role in any real-world problem, was introduced first by one of the authors Florentin Smarandache.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[21] viXra:1005.0021 [pdf] submitted on 11 Mar 2010

Neutrosophic Rings

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 154 pages

In this book we define the new notion of neutrosophic rings. The motivation for this study is two-fold. Firstly, the classes of neutrosophic rings defined in this book are generalization of the two well-known classes of rings: group rings and semigroup rings. The study of these generalized neutrosophic rings will give more results for researchers interested in group rings and semigroup rings. Secondly, the notion of neutrosophic polynomial rings will cause a paradigm shift in the general polynomial rings. This study has to make several changes in case of neutrosophic polynomial rings. This would give solutions to polynomial equations for which the roots can be indeterminates. Further, the notion of neutrosophic matrix rings is defined in this book. Already these neutrosophic matrixes have been applied and used in the neutrosophic models like neutrosophic cognitive maps (NCMs), neutrosophic relational maps (NRMs) and so on.
Category: Algebra

[20] viXra:1005.0020 [pdf] submitted on 8 May 2010

Confidence Intervals for the Pythagorean Formula in Baseball

Authors: David D. Tung
Comments: 27 Pages.

In this paper, we will investigate the problem of obtaining confidence intervals for a baseball team's Pythagorean expectation, i.e. their expected winning percentage and expected games won. We study this problem from two different perspectives. First, in the framework of regression models, we obtain confidence intervals for prediction, i.e. more formally, prediction intervals for a new observation, on the basis of historical binomial data for Major League Baseball teams from the 1901 through 2009 seasons, and apply this to the 2009 MLB regular season. We also obtain a Scheffé-type simultaneous prediction band and use it to tabulate predicted winning percentages and their prediction intervals, corresponding to a range of values for log(RS=RA). Second, parametric bootstrap simulation is introduced as a data-driven, computer-intensive approach to numerically computing confidence intervals for a team's expected winning percentage. Under the assumption that runs scored per game and runs allowed per game are random variables following independent Weibull distributions, we numerically calculate confidence intervals for the Pythagorean expectation via parametric bootstrap simulation on the basis of each team's runs scored per game and runs allowed per game from the 2009 MLB regular season. The interval estimates, from either framework, allow us to infer with better certainty as to which teams are performing above or below expectations. It is seen that the bootstrap confidence intervals appear to be better at detecting which teams are performing above or below expectations than the prediction intervals obtained in the regression framework.
Category: Statistics

[19] viXra:1005.0019 [pdf] submitted on 7 May 2010

Nonlinear Theory of Elementary Particles 1. Choice of Axiomatics and Mathematical Apparatus of Theory

Authors: A.G. Kyriakos
Comments: 12 Pages.

In the previous paper (http://vixra.org/abs/1003.0169), which can be considered as an introduction to the nonlinear theory, we have shown that the Standard Model (S?) is not an axiomatic, but an algorithmic theory. In the proposed article the simplest (minimum) axiomatics is examined from the point of view of the possible forms of its mathematical representation.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18] viXra:1005.0018 [pdf] submitted on 7 May 2010

Using Noetics to Determine the Geometric Limits of 3-Body Alignments that Produce Subtle Energies

Authors: Jeffrey S. Keen
Comments: 7 pages, 5 Figures.

Attempting to link quantum physics with general relativity is one current approach to the comprehension of the structure of the universe. However, this could be an impossible objective as recent theories suggest that gravity is not a fundamental force but a consequence of the way information about material objects is organised in space time (e.g. Reference 27). In this theory, gravity is analogous to the flow of water, and involves a holographic universe, information, entropy, and chaos theory. However, such theories do not explain acts of observations affecting the results of scientific experiments. Many researchers, (e.g. Reference 51), including the author, believe that understanding the structure of the universe lies not just in physics and the above concepts, but in addition involves consciousness and cognitive neuroscience together with understanding the nature and perception of information. As Noetics and dowsing involve all the latter factors, it is proving to be a powerful and relevant research tool. This paper combines these considerations in a non-orthodox, but heuristic approach, linked by geometry. A previous paper, (See Reference 24: http://vixra.org/abs/1001.0004), identified that geometric alignments of three bodies, be they 3 pebbles, 3 circles drawn on paper, or 3 astronomical bodies produce a subtle energy beam that can be detected by the mind and measured. Intriguingly, this beam has a divergence angle involving the inverse of the Fine Structure Constant (137). It has also been shown to instantaneously communicate conscious information across the solar system. These facts suggest, together with other findings, that this "consciousness beam" is linked to the structure of the universe. This avenue of research is now further developed, by quantifying the limits of the alignment of the 3-bodies that is required to produce the subtle energy beam. The findings are that for observations made near the outer of the 3 bodies, the alignment must be less than arcsine 1/4. But for observations near the middle body, this alignment must be within arcsine1/5. This article is a summary of the concepts which are augmented on the author's website http://www.jeffreykeen.co.uk/
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] viXra:1005.0017 [pdf] submitted on 5 May 2010

About an Identity and Its Applications

Authors: Mihály Bencze, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 pages

About an Identity and its Applications
Category: Number Theory

[16] viXra:1005.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2012-04-18 09:35:00

Generalization of a Remarkable Theorem

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Professor Claudiu Coandă proved, using the barycentric coordinates, a remarkable theorem. We generalize this theorem using some results from projective geometry relative to the pole and polar notions.
Category: Geometry

[15] viXra:1005.0015 [pdf] submitted on 4 May 2010

On Relating a 10-Dimensional and 11-Dimensional Duality Model of Quantized Space-Time to Elementary Particles

Authors: Gary Heen
Comments: 8 pages

It is suggested in this paper that space-time and matter are both derived from a common entity, the quantum mass unit. A 10-dimensional and 11-dimensional duality model of the quantum mass unit is presented diagrammatically, and a mathematical argument is put forth indicating how energetic photons interact with space-time, converting space-time into virtual particle pairs of matter and anti-matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1005.0014 [pdf] submitted on 4 May 2010

Tuning and What it Means to Physics

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 3 pages

In the 60s, the word was relevance; now it's tuning. For physics, it means striking a resonance between the world of making a profit and the preparation of physicists. The international effort is designed to solicit the input of industry in restructuring the physics curriculum. This spells trouble for physics departments.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[13] viXra:1005.0013 [pdf] submitted on 4 May 2010

The End of Science

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 4 pages.

The numerous errors, stored fundamental physics, have stopped its development
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[12] viXra:1005.0012 [pdf] replaced on 10 May 2010

Deceleration Parameter Q(z) and the Role of Nucleated GW 'gravition Gas' in the Development of DE Alternatives

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 9 pages, 3 figures. Key words inserted, PACS, and an additional figure put in, to discuss what may be needed in order to obtain a rate equation. Comparison with the case of solar axions , and their flux upon the Earth's surface raised. For possible presentation at the FF 11 conference, in Paris, pending their review. Already submitted to an IOP journal for review/ possible publication.

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe in five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if five dimensional geometries as given below give us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. A comparison with the quantum gas hypothesis of Glinka shows how stochastic GW/ gravitons may emerge in vacuum nucleated space, with emphasis upon comparing their number in phase space, as compared with different strain values
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1005.0011 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

The Neutrosophic Research Method in Scientific and Humanistic Fields

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 pages

The Neutrosophic Research Method is a generalization of Hegel's dialectic, and suggests that scientific and humanistic research will progress via studying not only the opposite ideas but the neutral ideas related to them as well in order to have a bigger picture of the whole problem to solve.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10] viXra:1005.0010 [pdf] submitted on 3 May 2010

Another Explanation of the Redshifts of the Pair Quasar-Galaxy NGC 7319

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 2 Pages.

The excess of redshift of the quasar might be produced in its interior by the transference of heat from the light waves to the radio waves.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1005.0009 [pdf] submitted on 3 May 2010

Concept and Method of Physimatics, Logic of Existence and the Logical Time Formula

Authors: Robert Gallinat
Comments: 12 pages

Conceptual approach and heuristic method for an investigation of the possible algebraic structure of the interdependence between mathematical and physical reality and about the connection between local, non-local and global properties in physics and mathematics, expressed by a General N-fold algebra (continued)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1005.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2 May 2010

The Improved of the Chen Jing Run Theorem

Authors: Tong Xin Ping
Comments: 3 Pages, In Chinese

Chen Jing Run proved that "On the representation of a large even integer as the sum of a prime and the product of at most two primes" and lower bound estimations of the number of solutions. Jiang Chun Xuan, Tong Xin Ping proved that "An even integer as the sum of a prime and the product of two primes" and compute formula of the number of solutions. This paper compares the accuracy of the three formulas
Category: Number Theory

[7] viXra:1005.0007 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

Smarandache Near-Rings and Their Generalizations

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy
Comments: 5 pages

In this paper we study the Smarandache semi-near-ring and nearring, homomorphism, also the Anti-Smarandache semi-near-ring. We obtain some interesting results about them, give many examples, and pose some problems. We also define Smarandache semi-near-ring homomorphism.
Category: Algebra

[6] viXra:1005.0006 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

Neutrality and Many-Valued Logics

Authors: Andrew Schumann, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 121 pages

This book written by A. Schumann & F. Smarandache is devoted to advances of non-Archimedean multiple-validity idea and its applications to logical reasoning. Leibnitz was the first who proposed Archimedes' axiom to be rejected. He postulated infinitesimals (infinitely small numbers) of the unit interval [0, 1] which are larger than zero, but smaller than each positive real number. Robinson applied this idea into modern mathematics in [117] and developed so-called non-standard analysis. In the framework of non-standard analysis there were obtained many interesting results examined in [37], [38], [74], [117].
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[5] viXra:1005.0005 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

Basic Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures and Their Application to Fuzzy and Neutrosophic Models

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 149 pages

Study of neutrosophic algebraic structures is very recent. The introduction of neutrosophic theory has put forth a significant concept by giving representation to indeterminates. Uncertainty or indeterminacy happen to be one of the major factors in almost all real-world problems. When uncertainty is modeled we use fuzzy theory and when indeterminacy is involved we use neutrosophic theory. Most of the fuzzy models which deal with the analysis and study of unsupervised data make use of the directed graphs or bipartite graphs. Thus the use of graphs has become inevitable in fuzzy models. The neutrosophic models are fuzzy models that permit the factor of indeterminacy. It also plays a significant role, and utilizes the concept of neutrosophic graphs. Thus neutrosophic graphs and neutrosophic bipartite graphs plays the role of representing the neutrosophic models. Thus to construct the neutrosophic graphs one needs some of the neutrosophic algebraic structures viz. neutrosophic fields, neutrosophic vector spaces and neutrosophic matrices. So we for the first time introduce and study these concepts. As our analysis in this book is application of neutrosophic algebraic structure we found it deem fit to first introduce and study neutrosophic graphs and their applications to neutrosophic models.
Category: Algebra

[4] viXra:1005.0004 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

Smarandache Non-Associative (SNA-) rings

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy
Comments: 13 pages

In this paper we introduce the concept of Smarandache non-associative rings, which we shortly denote as SNA-rings as derived from the general definition of a Smarandache Structure (i.e., a set A embedded with a week structure W such that a proper subset B in A is embedded with a stronger structure S). Till date the concept of SNA-rings are not studied or introduced in the Smarandache algebraic literature. The only non-associative structures found in Smarandache algebraic notions so far are Smarandache groupoids and Smarandache loops introduced in 2001 and 2002. But they are algebraic structures with only a single binary operation defined on them that is nonassociative. But SNA-rings are non-associative structures on which are defined two binary operations one associative and other being non-associative and addition distributes over multiplication both from the right and left. Further to understand the concept of SNA-rings one should be well versed with the concept of group rings, semigroup rings, loop rings and groupoid rings. The notion of groupoid rings is new and has been introduced in this paper. This concept of groupoid rings can alone provide examples of SNA-rings without unit since all other rings happens to be either associative or nonassociative rings with unit. We define SNA subrings, SNA ideals, SNA Moufang rings, SNA Bol rings, SNA commutative rings, SNA non-commutative rings and SNA alternative rings. Examples are given of each of these structures and some open problems are suggested at the end.
Category: Algebra

[3] viXra:1005.0003 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

N-Algebraic Structures and S-N-Algebraic Structures

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 209 pages

In this book, for the first time we introduce the notions of Ngroups, N-semigroups, N-loops and N-groupoids. We also define a mixed N-algebraic structure. We expect the reader to be well versed in group theory and have at least basic knowledge about Smarandache groupoids, Smarandache loops, Smarandache semigroups and bialgebraic structures and Smarandache bialgebraic structures.
Category: Statistics

[2] viXra:1005.0002 [pdf] submitted on 1 May 2010

Almost Unbiased Estimator for Estimating Population Mean Using Known Value of Some Population Parameter(s)

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Mukesh Kumar, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 14 pages

In this paper we have proposed an almost unbiased estimator using known value of some population parameter(s). Various existing estimators are shown particular members of the proposed estimator. Under simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR) scheme the expressions for bias and mean square error (MSE) are derived. The study is extended to the two phase sampling. Empirical study is carried out to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed estimator.
Category: Algebra

[1] viXra:1005.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 May 2010

Quantum Corrections to the Gravitational Potential and Orbital Motion

Authors: Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Vasile Mioc
Comments: 3 pages, Submitted to the ROAJ, Vol. 20 , No. 2, 2010

GRT predicts the existence of relativistic corrections to the static Newtonian potential, which can be calculated and verified experimentally. The idea leading to quantum corrections at large distances consists of the interactions of massless particles, which only involve their coupling energies at low energies. Using the quantum correction term of the potential we obtain the perturbing quantum acceleration function. Next, with the help of the Newton-Euler planetary equations, we calculate the time rates of changes of the orbital elements per revolution for three different orbits around the primary. For one solar mass primary and an orbit with semimajor axis and eccentricity equal to that of Mercury we obtain that Δωqu = 1.517x10-81 o/cy, while ΔMqu = -1.840x10-46 rev/cy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology