[55] **viXra:1007.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In note we calculate Proton and Neutron radii

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[54] **viXra:1007.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 22 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 66 Pages, originally published as a website in March 1996.

The cyclotron note books are a collection of essays about fundamental physics and metaphysics.
The central essay is about the principle of event-symmetric space-time, a new theory about how
to do quantum gravity. The style is more technical in some parts than in others. Each essay
can be read independently but if you find that one of them has terms which you don't understand
you may find them explained in an earlier one. The later ones may be too difficult for the
layman and even I don't understand the last one.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[53] **viXra:1007.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

A geometrical/mechanical model of the electron has been developed based
on the measured fine structure constant, anomalous magnetic moment, and a solution of
Einstein's equations of general relativity applied to electromagnetism. Properties such as
charge, mass and spin have been explained from a classical viewpoint, and then α and μ
calculated in agreement with experiment.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[52] **viXra:1007.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 11 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Yoshiro Nohara

**Comments:** 6 pages

The generalized Maxwell equations in vacuum are basically the equations for steady states, which
satisfy both energy and force conservation laws. However, superpositions of the steady states often
break those conservation laws, although the generalized Maxwell equations are kept. To study
those cases, we derived electromagnetic-dynamics equations, which include the generalized Maxwell
equations, energy and force conservation laws, and dynamics of scalar fields. These equations explain
that the scalar fields may work as the aether propagating the electromagnetic wave, and scalar waves
may work as the gravitational waves.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[51] **viXra:1007.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Valery P. Dmitriyev

**Comments:** 1 pages

Russian numerals fit into a rhymed mnemonic verse. Almost exact correspondence to names of respective Greek letters and many
parallels with Sanscrit, Greek, Latin, English and German numerals occur.

**Category:** Linguistics

[50] **viXra:1007.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 15 pages

A single mathematical model encompassing both quark and lepton mixing is described. This model exploits the fact that when a
3*×*3
rotation matrix whose elements are squared is subtracted from its transpose, a matrix is produced whose non-diagonal elements have a common absolute value, where this value is an intrinsic property of the rotation matrix. For the traditional CKM quark mixing matrix with its second and third rows interchanged (i.e., c - t interchange), this value equals one-third the corresponding value for the leptonic matrix (roughly,
0.05
versus 0.15). By imposing this and two additional related constraints on mixing, and letting leptonic *ϕ** _{23}*
be
maximal, a framework is defined possessing just two free parameters. A mixing model is then specified using values for these two parameters that derive from the solution to a simple equation, where this solution also accurately reproduces the fine structure constant. The resultant model, which is entirely free from parameters adjusted to fit the mixing data, possesses the following angles

[49] **viXra:1007.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 14 pages

The Special Theory of Relativity postulates that the velocity of light
would always be invariant at 186,000 miles per second at all inertial
frames. The paper examines this aspect of the Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1007.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 19 pages

The author after introducing the concept of the vean (vacuum
energy absorption) process shows that it not only crystallizes the
progressive nature of time but also causes gravitation and the
red shift of light emitted by far off galaxies [1]. He now shows
that the thermodynamics of the primary gas in a gravitational
field leads to the principle of equivalence and to its field
equations of general relativity. The curvature of the space-time
is seen to emerge from the anisotropy of the fluctuations in the
Higgs field in the neighborhood of a massive body arising from
the vean process. According to him unlike the currently
accepted interpretation of general relativity the gravitational
field based on the vean process does not exhibit non-linearity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[47] **viXra:1007.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 4 pages. In Chinese

By the Chinese Remainder Theorem, we can obtain Goldbach' Primes

**Category:** Number Theory

[46] **viXra:1007.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 2 pages. In Chinese

When i=1~r, the p and N are incongruent modulo p_{i}, The p is Goldbach' Primes

**Category:** Number Theory

[45] **viXra:1007.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 20 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** S. Halayka

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The possibility of Universe-scale black holes living in closed 3D space of constant
positive curvature was briefly considered in previous work. Further consideration
of this possibility is given here. A possible link between gravitation and
electromagnetism is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] **viXra:1007.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 3 pages. In Chinese

Use the inclusion-exclusion to show that the expression of the number of Goldbach' Primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[43] **viXra:1007.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 1 pages. In Chinese

By Eratosthenes' sieve method, we can obtain Goldbach' Primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[42] **viXra:1007.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Raymond W Jensen

**Comments:** 19 pages, Presented at the SPESIF-2010 Conference at JHU Applied Physics lab in Feb. 2010

Using a three-particle entangled system (triple), it is possible in principle to transmit
signals faster than the speed of light from sender to receiver in the following manner:
From an emitter, for every triple, particles 1 and 2 are sent to the receiver and 3 to the
sender. The sender is given the choice of whether or not to measure polarization of
particle 3. Meanwhile the receiver measures particle correlation vs. relative polarization
angle for the polarizers of particles 1 and 2. The particle 1 and 2 correlation statistics
depend on whether or not particle 3 polarization was measured, instantaneously. This
dependence is a basis for faster-than-light communication.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1007.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya, Mabedle Donald Ngobeni

**Comments:** 21 pages, 10 figures, 1 table.

Departing from the traditional case where one twin stays put while the other rockets into space, we consider
the case of identically accelerated twins. Both twins depart at uniform relativistic speeds in opposite directions for
a round trip from the Earth on their 21th birthday destined into space to some distant constellation that is a distance L_{0} in
the rest frame of the Earth. A "proper" application of the Special Theory of Relativity (STR) tells us that the Earth bound
observers will conclude that on the day of reunion, both twins must both have aged the same albeit their clocks (which where
initially synchronized with that of the Earth bound observers) will have registered a duration less than that registered by the
Earth bound observers. In the traditional twin paradox, it is argued that the stay at home twin will have aged more than
the traveling twin and the asymmetry is attributed to the fact that the travelling twin's frame of reference is not an inertial
reference frame during the periods of acceleration and deceleration making it illegal for the travelling twin to use the STR
in their frame, thus "resolving" the paradox. This same argument does not hold in the case considered here as both twins
will undergo identical experiences where each twin sees the other as the one that is in motion. This means, each twin must
conclude that the other twin is the one that is younger. They will conclude that their ages must be numerically different, thus
disagreeing with the Earth bound observers that their ages are the same. This leads us to a true paradox whose resolution is
found in the deduction that motion must be absolute. We provide a thought-experiment on how to measure absolute motion.
Through this thought-experiment, we extend the second postulate of the STR to include the direction of propagation of light,
namely that not only is the speed of light the same for all observers, but the direction of propagation as-well. Succinctly, the
speed of light along its direction of motion in the absolute frame of reference is the same for all observers in the Universe.
In an effort to try and resolve the symmetric twin paradox, we set-forth a relativistic aether model, which at best can be
described as the Special Theory of Relativity in Absolute Space. By recalibrating several experiments performed by other
researchers in the past, we find that the Earth's speed through the aether is in the range 240 ± 80 kms^{-1}.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1007.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-05 09:03:16*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

‘Action at a distance through empty space’ is an illogical assumption. An all-encompassing medium is essential to facilitate physical actions. Aether, used in aether-theories is too vague and it fails to describe many physical actions about 3D matter-bodies, logically. Alternative concept, presented in the book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’ envisages an all-encompassing medium, which has real constituent matter-particles, structure, properties and actions. For details, kindly refer to same [1].

**Category:** Classical Physics

[39] **viXra:1007.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** T. E. Raptis

**Comments:** 8 pages.

We analyze a theoretical example of parallel electric and magnetic fields in a
hypothetical anisotropic medium with varying susceptibility. We deduce the
polarization characteristics and we discuss the conditions under which this could be
utilized in electromagnetic invisibility.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[38] **viXra:1007.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 4 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 4 pages

In this short note we offer a new definition of entropy and derive an interesting
relationship between entropy and time. In light of this relationship, we show how
The Second Law of Thermodynamics can be interpreted as saying that every physical
process requires a lapse of time. In simple language, the Second Law says that
'everything happens over some positive time-interval'. This defines 'the arrow of time'.
This understanding of entropy maintains the reciprocal relationship between entropy
and temperature, makes entropy 'additive', and preserves the notion that entropy
provides a measure of 'available energy' to do work. What does change, however, is
the idea that entropy is a measure of disorder, and the Universe is doomed to
thermal death.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[37] **viXra:1007.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** S. Halayka

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In earlier work, it was found that the edges of a complete graph can
very nearly form a radially symmetric field at long distance in
at 2D and
3D space if the number of graph vertices is great enough. In this work, it
is confirmed that the edges of a complete graph can also very nearly form
a radially symmetric field in closed 2D and 3D space of constant positive
curvature if the graph is small compared to the entirety of the space in
which it lives and if the number of graph vertices is great enough.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[36] **viXra:1007.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** V.V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 11 pages

More than hundred years the opinion persists
that Michelson interferometer can not detect aether wind by
effects of first order with respect to the ratio *υ*/*c*. Below there will be shown
that the degenerations of the interfer-ometer's sensitivity to effects of first order can be lifted
changing the traditional configurations of the device. My experiment demonstrated that a two-media
device operating at effects of first order can reliably measure the shift of the interference fringe
(and thus the speed of "aether wind"), and much more successfully than by Michelson interferometer
operating at effects of second order. Unlike in the traditional approach, in the interferometer of
first order light rays (after splitting at semi-transparent plate) propagate in both orthogonal arms
to rebounding mirrors in a one optical medium (with the dielectric permittivity
ε_{1}), and return after reflection to a plate re-uniting them for
interference via another medium (with the dielectric permittivity ε_{2}).
The shift of interference fringe is reliably registered (in rotation of the interferometer by
90^{o}) even at gas light carrying pairs with arm's length up to 1 m. With this
the fringe shift appears to be proportional to *υ*/*c* and difference
ε_{1}–ε_{2}.

The experimental findings have been interpreted basing on
classical scheme of ray optics by two methods: 1) with the Fresnel model of dragging light by
moving optical medium neglecting terms quadratic in *υ*/*c* (including the
Lorentz contraction of the longitudinal to **v** arm as quadratic with respect to *υ*/*c*), 2)
with the classical theory of the frequency dispersion of moving dielectric media, supplemented by the accounting
classical and relativistic Doppler effects describing translatory motion (with velocity **v**) of particles of
interferometer light carriers in aether. From observations of the fringe shift on the interferometer of first order
with respect to *υ*/*c* there was found (at the latitude of Obninsk) the change of the horizontal
projection of the Earth's velocity relative to luminiferous aether in the limits 140<*υ*<480 km/s
depending on the local time of the day and night.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1007.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 2 pages.

When the p is congruent to N modulo p_{i}, the p is not Goldbach' Primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[34] **viXra:1007.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 2 pages.

When n/2 + x and n/2 - x or y and y + (N-y) are primes, they are Goldbach'
Primes. Put it another way, The Goldbach' Primes are symmetric primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[33] **viXra:1007.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Marian Dincă, J. L. Díaz-Barrero

**Comments:** 4 pages.

In this short note a new proof of a classical inequality involving the
areas of a pair of triangles is presented.

**Category:** Geometry

[32] **viXra:1007.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-11 19:14:18*

**Authors:** David D. Tung, S. Rao Jammalamadaka

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a new test of uniformity on the circle based on the
Gini mean difference of the sample arc-lengths. These sample arc-lengths,
which are the gaps between successive observations on the circumference of
the circle, are analogous to sample spacings on the real line. The Gini mean
difference, which compares these arc-lengths between themselves, is
analogous to Rao's spacings statistic, which has been used to test the uniformity
of circular data.
We obtain both the exact and asymptotic distributions of the Gini mean
difference arc-lengths test, under the null hypothesis of circular uniformity.
We also provide a table of upper percentile values of the exact distribution for
small to moderate sample sizes. Illustrative examples in circular data analysis
are also given. It is shown that a generalized Gini mean difference test has
better asymptotic efficiency than the corresponding generalized Rao's test in
the sense of Pitman asymptotic relative efficiency.

**Category:** Statistics

[31] **viXra:1007.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Raffaele Cogoni

**Comments:** 4 pages. Italian and English combined

The matter in the universe, is equipped with inertial and gravitational mass and thus weight,
this is due to the fact that interactions between bodies, traveling at a finite speed not
exceeding that of light.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[30] **viXra:1007.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** T. E. Raptis

**Comments:** 13 pages.

We report on a new general class of solutions of the Beltrami equation, with
special characteristics. We also provide examples of solutions that also satisfy Maxwell equations.
A subset of these solutions can be isolated which corresponds to "gauge" fields. A special
projective geometry of vacuum fields is also revealed and discussed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[29] **viXra:1007.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Cao

**Comments:** The paper is from a published book "The Alpha Torque" by Zhiliang Cao and Henry Cao.
The title was published by CreateSpace with the following eStore URL: https://www.createspace.com/3458701

In the center of the universe, there isn't a super massive black hole or any specific
energy holding the universe together. The source of this supposed energy is in the space
itself. The space itself is not a complete void. In fact, space itself has a simple movement.
This very movement dominates every aspect of physical existence. Nothing can exist without it.
The movement is called the Torque. This theory can make it easier to understand Quantum Physics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[28] **viXra:1007.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 294 pages

In this book, the authors introduce the notion of Super linear
algebra and super vector spaces using the definition of super
matrices defined by Horst (1963). This book expects the readers
to be well-versed in linear algebra.

**Category:** Algebra

[27] **viXra:1007.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Amal

**Comments:** 280 pages

The concept of supermatrix for social scientists was first
introduced by Paul Horst. The main purpose of his book was to
introduce this concept to social scientists, students, teachers and
research workers who lacked mathematical training. He wanted
them to be equipped in a branch of mathematics that was
increasingly valuable for the analysis of scientific data.

**Category:** Social Science

[26] **viXra:1007.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 410 pages

The systematic study of supermatrices and super linear
algebra has been carried out in 2008. These new algebraic
structures find their applications in fuzzy models, Leontief
economic models and data-storage in computers.

**Category:** Algebra

[25] **viXra:1007.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Sean C. Williams

**Comments:** 15 pages

An abstract method is described for predicting stable isotopes using simple number
theory based on a system of predefined combinations, or "Blocks", of protons and
neutrons. Each Block is made up of a prime number of protons, and a binary power
increase in the number of neutrons. Predictions using the Block system fully includes
all the stable isotopes.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[24] **viXra:1007.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 61 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that the new prime theorems (341)-(390) contain infinitely many
prime solutions and no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[23] **viXra:1007.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Bruce Rout

**Comments:** 6 pages

There has been some controversy over the validation of using the
period/luminosity relationship of Cepheid variables to measure the
distance to galaxies[2]. We present here a statistical analysis of distance
variations for 21 galaxies between Cepheid variables and Roxy's Ruler.
The analysis shows there is no systemic error in Measurements to
galaxies using Cepheid variables and that such measurements are valid within
well defined degrees of error.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1007.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** J. Bar-Sagi

**Comments:** 15 pages

The electromagnetic wave quantum-energy depends only on its frequency, not on the emitting
system's radiation power. The proportionality constant between the frequency and the quantumenergy
of the electromagnetic wave, the Planck's constant is in the essence of quantum mechanics.
This constant is known experimentally but till now there was no clue for calculating its value
on a theoretical basis. In the present work a methodology for calculating a lower bound for
Planck's constant is presented, based on simple principles. In order to get a reasonable good
lower bound it is necessary to have a model of a relativistic oscillator whose period is independent
of its energy and which efficiently radiates electromagnetic energy. It is highly desired that
the mathematics involved is simple enough to enable good insight into the results. Such a model
can also be used for other investigations, and therefore, in this work a potential that conserves the
vibration period of symmetric oscillators at relativistic velocities is found and analyzed. The
electrically charged system of constant period is used to calculate a lower bound H_{m} of the
Planck's constant h . The value of H_{m} is smaller than h by a factor very close to √3 . The
explanation of this factor also explains the value of Planck's constant. From this value the fine
structure constant value is calculated and a new interpretation of this constant obtained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[21] **viXra:1007.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 16 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Peter Jackson, R K Nixey

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

We uncover an observer frame error which influenced physics at a critical time. Refraction due to
relative motion was considered from the wrong inertial frame, including by Lodge in his 1893 showing
a light path 'dragged' by the new medium[1] in his Stellar Aberration paper following Michelson's
null result. In the frame of the moving medium (Earth) the light path reverses, refracting towards
the normal. Jones's (1970) glass disks experiment used Lodge's observer frame.[2] We show that use
of the correct observer frame is essential for Special Relativity (SR), and how the error erroneously
disproved Stokes Ether Drag theory, which Michelson supported, engendering incorrect assumption and
paradox. We extend Young's experiment, and consider Huygens-Fresnel Principle,[3] wave/particle coupling,
scattering and implications on vacuum fields. Through extinction, bow shocks and FM, SR's postulates
are confirmed, but important clarifications emerge at Maxwell's field limits, allowing replacement of
an assumption with a quantum mechanism deriving SR, using mutually exclusive systems. We find extra
predictive powers, symmetries and the ability to resolve perceived paradox and anomalies. New
perspectives on Stokes, Raman and beyond arise from a local reality model using Einstein's 1952 view
that 'space' is actually; "infinitely many spaces in relative motion."

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1007.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 61 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that the new prime theorems (191)-(240) contain infinitely many
prime solutions and no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[19] **viXra:1007.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 1 page

The Formula of the Particle Radii

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1007.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 14 pages

This paper explains the behavior of the entire universe from the smallest to the largest
scales,found an equation that changed the universe: F-bar = -mc^{2}/R, established the
expansion theory of the universe without dark matter and dark energy, It shows that gravity
is action-at-a-distance and that a gravitational wave is unobservable.Thus,a new universe
model is suggested that the universe has a centre consisting of the tachyonic matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1007.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 11/12 pages, v2 in Italian, v3 in English

This short paper explores intriguing analogies between helical structures of electron
and elementary particles and circular supercoiled DNA. I propose a strong relation
between the dispositions Lk=Tw+Wr (Lk=const., changing Twist and Writhe) and
the quark compositions Q=I3+Y/2 (examples: Q=const., varying Isospin an
Hypercharge; or Strangeness S or Y=const. varying Charge and Isospin).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1007.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Rajesh Singh, Jayant Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 64 pages

This volume is a collection of five papers. Two chapters deal with problems in statistical
inference, two with inferences in finite population, and one deals with demographic problem.
The ideas included here will be useful for researchers doing works in these fields.

**Category:** Statistics

[15] **viXra:1007.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 pages

We define a class of sequences {a_{n}} by a_{1} = a and a_{n+1} = P(a_{n}), where P is
a polynomial with real coefficients. For which a values, and for which polynomials P
will these sequences be constant after a certain rank? Then we generalize it from
polynomials P to real functions f.
In this note, the author answers this question using as reference F. Lazebnik & Y.
Pilipenko's E 3036 problem from A. M. M., Vol. 91, No. 2/1984, p. 140.
An interesting property of functions admitting fixed points is obtained.

**Category:** Number Theory

[14] **viXra:1007.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K Ilanthenral

**Comments:** 469 pages

This book for the first time introduces the notion of special
set linear algebra and special set fuzzy linear algebra. This
is an extension of the book set linear algebra and set fuzzy
linear algebra. These algebraic structures basically exploit
only the set theoretic property, hence in applications one
can include a finite number of elements without affecting
the systems property. These new structures are not only
the most generalized structures but they can perform multi
task simultaneously; hence they would be of immense use
to computer scientists.

**Category:** Algebra

[13] **viXra:1007.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 61 pages

Using Jiang function J_{2}(ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (291)-(340) contain infinitely many
prime solutions and no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[12] **viXra:1007.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Diego L. Rapoport

**Comments:** 89 page.

We present a conception that surmounts the Cartesian Cut -prevailing in science- based
on a representation of the fusion of the physical 'objective' and the 'subjective' realms.
We introduce a mathematical-physics and philosophical theory for the physical realm and
its mapping to the cognitive and perceptual realms and a philosophical reflection on the
bearings of this fusion in cosmology, cognitive sciences, human and natural systems and
its relations with a time operator and the existence of time cycles in Nature's and human
systems. This conception stems from the self-referential construction of spacetime through
torsion fields and its singularities; in particular the photon's self-referential character, basic
to the embodiment of cognition ; we shall elaborate this in detail in perception and neurology.
We discuss the relations between this embodiment, bio-photons and wave genetics,
and the relation with the enactive approach in cognitive sciences due to Varela. We further
discuss the relation of the present conception with Penrose's theory of consciousness related
to non-computatibility -in the sense of the Goedel-Turing thesis- of quantum processes in
the brain.

**Category:** Mind Science

[11] **viXra:1007.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Marian Dincă, Şcoala Generală

**Comments:** 1 page.

In the paper given a new proof the two inequalities using unitary method.

**Category:** Geometry

[10] **viXra:1007.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Andrea Gregori

**Comments:** 30 pages.

We consider superconductivity in the light of the quantum gravity theoretical framework
introduced in [1]. In this framework, the degree of quantum delocalization depends on the
geometry of the energy distribution along space. This results in a dependence of the critical
temperature characterizing the transition to the superconducting phase on the complexity of
the structure of a superconductor. We consider concrete examples, ranging from low to high
temperature superconductors, and discuss how the critical temperature can be predicted
once the quantum gravity effects are taken into account.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[9] **viXra:1007.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 404 pages.

This book introduces the concept of neutrosophic bilinear
algebras and their generalizations to n-linear algebras, n>2.

**Category:** Algebra

[8] **viXra:1007.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Frederick E. Alzofon

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Correction of an omission in A. Einstein's operational definitions of time and
space intervals in the special theory of relativity leads to an improved phenomenological
and conceptual foundation for a previously proposed unified field theory. In combination
with Einstein's researches on the fluctuation in energy of black body radiation, there results
a "new and simple idea" of the kind Professor Richard Feynman felt to be
necessary for the solution of the cosmological constant problem. A brief description of
the formalism of the theory is presented. The infinite zero-point energy of the vacuum
is eliminated. A model for the origin of inertial mass and dark matter-energy is deduced.
The resulting relation between observed matter and dark matter-energy leads to a restriction
on their magnitudes. The magnitudes of the latter quantities are then estimated
from astronomical data. A model is proposed for the origin of the gravitational field in
terms of a dynamic process at the basis of the proposed theory. The success of the special
theory of relativity in predicting the results of three crucial observations establishing
the validity of the general theory of relativity and the elimination of the infinite vacuum
energy suggest that the unified field theory can lead to a solution of the cosmological
constant problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1007.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the vast reaches of space between galaxies, we find dust.
Where did it come from, this dust? We hypothesize it is
generated by light escaping from the galaxies. We then make
a quantum leap and suggest our Universe began from light
escaping from other universes.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[6] **viXra:1007.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** R.D. Bateson

**Comments:** 19 pages.

In this paper we discuss a causal network approach to describing relativistic quantum
mechanics where each vertex on a causal net represents a possible point event or particle
observation. By constructing the simplest causal net based on Reichenbach-like conjunctive
forks in proper time we can exactly derive the 1+1 dimension Dirac equation for a
relativistic fermion and correctly model quantum mechanical statistics. Symmetries of the
net provide various quantum mechanical effects such as quantum uncertainty and wavefunction,
phase, spin, negative energy states and the effect of a potential. The causal net can be
embedded in 3+1 dimensional space-time and is consistent with the conventional Dirac equation.
In the low velocity limit the causal net approximates to the Schrödinger equation and Pauli
equation for a fermion in an electromagnetic field. Extending to different momentum states
the net is compatible with the Feynman path integral approach to quantum mechanics that
allows calculation of well known quantum phenomena such as diffraction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1007.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-22 05:57:29*

**Authors:** Jose Javier Garcia Moreta

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

· ABSTRACT: We give a possible interpretation of the Xi-function of Riemann as the
Functional determinant det ( E - H ) for a certain Hamiltonian quantum operator in
one dimension
2
2 d V (x)
dx
- + for a real-valued function V(x) , this potential V is
related to the half-integral of the logarithmic derivative for the Riemann Xi-function,
through the paper we will assume that the reduced Planck constant is defined in units
where h =1 and that the mass is 2m =1.In this case the Energies of the Hamiltonian
operator will be the square of the imaginary part of the Riemann Zeros 2
n n E =g Also
trhough this paper we may refer to the Hamiltonian Operator whose Energies are the
square of the imaginary part of the Riemann Zeros as H or 2 H (square) in the same
case we will refer to the potential inside this Hamiltonian either as 2 V (x) or V (x) to
simplify notation.
· Keywords: = Riemann Hypothesis, Functional determinant,

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4] **viXra:1007.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** A.K.S.Chandra Sekhar Rao

**Comments:** 4 pages.

The notion of completely regular element of a semigroup is applied to characterize
Smarandache Semigroups. Examples are provided for justification.

**Category:** Algebra

[3] **viXra:1007.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 19 pages

The author after clarifying the concepts of imaginary time and
reversible time shows that progressive time which is experienced
by macroscopic systems is a direct result of the vean (vacuum
energy absorption) process which also leads to the collapse of
wave function apart limits to entanglements [1]. He now shows
that the vean process could result in a gradient in the energy of
the vacuum fluctuations in the Higg's field near a massive body
which in turn could produce the gravitational field. According to
the author, the accumulation of the mass by a particle by the
vean process would be so small that an electron would have
increased its rest mass by only 10% over a period of 1 billion
years. It is shown that part of the red shift observed in distant
galaxies could be attributed to the reduced mass of electrons in
the distant past. He suggests that the observed expansion of
universe could be a direct result of the vean process.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1007.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 61 pages

Using Jiang function J_{2}(ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (241)-(290) contain infinitely many
prime solutions and no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[1] **viXra:1007.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 11 pages

It is generally considered that the Doppler effect, predicted by the theory of
special relativity of Einstein, is an indirect proof for the correctness of the Lorentz
transformations. In this article it appears the formula for the Doppler effect from the new
relational transformations. We also study the relationship between the Doppler effect and the
time dilation of Einstein's special relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology