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1010 Submissions

[61] viXra:1010.0064 [pdf] submitted on 31 Oct 2010

The New Prime Theorems (791)-(840)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 71 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This is the Book proof. No great mathematicians study prime problems and prove Riemann hypothesis in AIM, CLAYMI, IAS, THES, MPIM, MSRI. In this paper using Jiang function J2 (ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (791)-(840) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions. From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution πk(N0,2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[60] viXra:1010.0063 [pdf] submitted on 29 Oct 2010

Dark Matter and Visible Matter Fundamentally Related in New Cosmological Model and Recalculated.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 7 pages

A new surface energy-value for dark matter is calculated, derivated from a perspective of a "higher order universe". A universe of dark energy, dark- and visible matter, and a dark energy force. A fundamental connection between dark matter and visible matter is related to dark energy (viXra-paper 1010.0014 in particular is the reference for this novum [5]. The surface energy-density of dark matter seems to be a factor 5 to 20 times higher than earlier predicted value-ranges by the CDMS-project and the Fermi-satelite. Also the produced energies through particle-collissions by LHC CERN will not be enough to achieve the dark matter surface energy-value. The "fact" some of these projects have announced some vaque "bliebs" might be due to a new phenomenon in the search of dark matter. It could be caused by "three dimensional time", which is embedded as a "new duality" in the new model, the "Twin-Tori cosmological Model (TTM)"[1,2,3,4]. The "three dimensional time" might cause dark matter taking unknown paths before detection. This paper has calculated the surface energy-density value for dark matter on 1 TeV in a surface of 6.4 x 10 -48 [m2].
Category: Mathematical Physics

[59] viXra:1010.0062 [pdf] replaced on 17 Jan 2011

A New Theoretical Technique for the Measurement of Highfrequency Relic Gravitational Waves

Authors: R. Clive Woods, Robert M L Baker Jr., Fangyu Li, Gary V. Stephenson, Eric W. Davis, Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 27 pages, considerably refined document over the last version.

It is generally accepted that under most models of the early universe evolution, highfrequency gravitational waves (HFGWs) were produced. They are referred to as "relic" highfrequency gravitational waves or HFRGWs and their detection and measurement could provide important information on the origin and development of our Universe - information that could not otherwise be obtained. So far three instruments have been built to detect and measure HFRGWs, but so far none of them has achieved the required sensitivity. This paper concerns another detector, originally proposed by Baker in 2000 and patented, which is based upon a recently discovered physical effect (the Li effect); this detector has accordingly been named the "Li-Baker detector." The detector has been a joint development effort by the P. R. China and the United States HFGW research teams. A rigorous examination of the detector's performance is important in the ongoing debate over the value of attempting to construct a Li-Baker detector and, in particular, an accurate prediction of its sensitivity will decide whether the Li-Baker detector will be capable of detecting and measuring HFRGWs. Its sensitivity and noise sources as well as other operational concerns are discussed here. The potential for useful HFRGW measurement is theoretically confirmed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[58] viXra:1010.0061 [pdf] submitted on 29 Oct 2010

On Gravitational Collapse

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 7 pages, Research artical submitted to PMC Physics A

Gravitational collapse of diffuse material has been investigated using a new solution of Einstein's equations of general relativity. This replaces the theory of black-hole formation developed for the standard vacuum solution of Schwarzschild. The bodies which now form have reasonable physical properties, such as nuclear hard core density in collapsed stars, or 104kg/l in galactic centres, and only 1kg/l in quasars. Accreting material converts to kinetic energy and radiation, so that a singularity cannot be produced.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[57] viXra:1010.0060 [pdf] submitted on 28 Oct 2010

Let's Flying by Wing

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 83 pages, in Chinese

Mathematical Combinatorics & Smarandache Multi-Spaces
Category: Geometry

[56] viXra:1010.0059 [pdf] submitted on 28 Oct 2010

Hertz's Ideas on Mechanics

Authors: Henri Poincaré, Nicolae Mazilu
Comments: 15 pages, translated to English

Rarely, if ever, was the human spirit under a closer critical scrutiny than in the following masterpiece of the great scientist of the 19th and 20th centuries, Henri Poincaré. The work itself is seldom cited. Yet, the reader can find in it all the objections that can be raised against the main scientific inventions of the human spirit. They are still valid today, exactly as they were more than a century ago, or three centuries ago, for that matter. It is, first and foremost, advisable to pay close attention to the definition of central forces as given by Poincaré. Like all of the classics of science, he understood them with a string attached: their magnitude should depend only on the distance between points. Einstein himself used the definition of central forces in that connotation when he judged the whole system of the classical mechanics and introduced the general relativity. However, the very first definition of the central forces, as it appears in Newton's Principia, doesn't ask anything of the kind. What can we say, but repeat with Nietzsche: the first reaction is usually the right one! It is also advisable to pay attention to the critique of the concept of energy: it stands even today as it was then, in this work of Poincaré. Yet, in spite of the overwhelming cases against energy, the theoretical physics doesn't seem to stop speculating upon the kinds of energy that might exist in the world. Finally, it is worth paying attention to the criticism of the way in which Hertz assigns matter through a hypothesis: it seems like the hypothesis of missing mass of today. It is our conviction that this masterpiece is not quite known to the English speaking readers. This is why we undertook here the burden of its translation. We hope to give it another chance, in order to have, at least nowadays, more than a century from its first publication, the impact it deserves on the human spirit.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[55] viXra:1010.0057 [pdf] submitted on 28 Oct 2010

Koide's Formula Follows from Nonlinear Dynamics of Quantum Fields

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 2 pages

In this brief report we argue that Koide's formula arises from universal attributes of nonlinear dynamics in field theory. Feigenbaum scaling not only provides a natural paradigm for generating particle masses and coupling charges, but also a basis for understanding the family structure of fermions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[54] viXra:1010.0056 [pdf] submitted on 27 Oct 2010

The Tetron Model as a Lattice Structure: Applications to Astrophysics

Authors: Bodo Lampe
Comments: 14 pages

The tetron model is reinterpreted as an inner symmetry lattice model where quarks, leptons and gauge fields arise as lattice excitations. On this basis a modification of the standard Big Bang scenario is proposed, where the advent of a spacetime manifold is connected to the appearance of a permutation lattice. The metric tensor is constructed from lattice excitations and a possible reason for cosmic inflation is elucidated. Furthermore, there are natural dark matter candidates in the tetron model. The ratio of ordinary to dark matter in the universe is estimated to be 1:5.
Category: Astrophysics

[53] viXra:1010.0055 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Generalization of the Theorem of Menelaus Using a Self-Recurrent Method

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

This generalization of the Theorem of Menelaus from a triangle to a polygon with n sides is proven by a self-recurrent method which uses the induction procedure and the Theorem of Menelaus itself.
Category: Geometry

[52] viXra:1010.0054 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

A Class Of Separate-Type Estimators For Population Mean In Stratified Sampling Using Known Parameters Under Non-Response

Authors: Manoj K. Chaudhary, Rajesh Singh, Mukesh Kumar, Rakesh K. Shukla, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 pages

The objective of the present paper is to propose a family of separate-type estimators of population mean in stratified random sampling in presence of nonresponse based on the family of estimators proposed by Khoshnevisan et al. (2007). Under simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR) the expressions of bias and mean square error (MSE) up to the first order of approximation are derived. The comparative study of the family with respect to usual estimator has been discussed. The expressions for optimum sample sizes of the strata in respect to cost of the survey have also been derived. An empirical study is carried out to shoe the properties of the estimators.
Category: Statistics

[51] viXra:1010.0053 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Relativity in Combinatorial Gravitational Fields

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 12 pages

A combinatorial spacetime (CGj t) is a smoothly combinatorial manifold C underlying a graph G evolving on a time vector t. As we known, Einstein's general relativity is suitable for use only in one spacetime. What is its disguise in a combinatorial spacetime? Applying combinatorial Riemannian geometry enables us to present a combinatorial spacetime model for the Universe and suggest a generalized Einstein's gravitational equation in such model. For finding its solutions, a generalized relativity principle, called projective principle is proposed, i.e., a physics law in a combinatorial spacetime is invariant under a projection on its a subspace and then a spherically symmetric multisolutions of generalized Einstein's gravitational equations in vacuum or charged body are found. We also consider the geometrical structure in such solutions with physical formations, and conclude that an ultimate theory for the Universe maybe established if all such spacetimes in R3. Otherwise, our theory is only an approximate theory and endless forever.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[50] viXra:1010.0052 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Neutrosophic Degree of a Paradoxicity

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

A paradox is called a statement <P> which is true and false in the same time. Therefore, if we suppose that statement <P> is true, it results that <P> is false; and reciprocally, if we suppose that <P> is false, it results that <P> is true.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[49] viXra:1010.0051 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Biography of Scientist, Writer, and Artist Florentin Smarandache at 55

Authors: Mihàly Bencze
Comments: 5 pages

Dr. Florentin Smarandache is a polymath: as author, co-author, translator, co-translator, editor, or co-editor of 143 books and 183 scientific papers and notes. On December 10th, 2009, he was 55 years old.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[48] viXra:1010.0050 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Limits of Recursive Triangle and Polygon Tunnels

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 pages

In this paper we present unsolved problems that involve infinite tunnels of recursive triangles or recursive polygons, either in a decreasing or in an increasing way. The "nedians or order i in a triangle" are generalized to "nedians of ratio r" and "nedians of angle α" or "nedians at angle β", and afterwards one considers their corresponding "nedian triangles" and "nedian polygons". This tunneling idea came from physics.
Category: Geometry

[47] viXra:1010.0049 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Open Questions About Concatenated Primes and Metasequences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

We define a metasequence as a sequence constructed with the terms of other given sequence(s). In this short note we present some open questions on concatenated primes involved in metasequences.
Category: Number Theory

[46] viXra:1010.0048 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Generalization and Alternatives of Kaprekar's Routine

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 pages

We extend Kaprekar's Routine for a large class of applications. We also give particular examples of this generalization as alternatives to Kaprekar's Routine and Number. Some open questions about the length of the iterations until reaching either zero or a constant or a cycle, and about the length of the cycles are asked at the end.
Category: Number Theory

[45] viXra:1010.0047 [pdf] submitted on 26 Oct 2010

Part I: The Intrinsic Motion of Time, Space, and Gravity

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 9 pages

Part I of this paper is in response to Scientific American's Special Issue: A Matter of Time" (Sept. 2002) and the article therein by Paul Davies: "That Mysterious Flow" (page 40-47), in which he claims that the motion of time is an illusion, that time itself does not actually move. In this, as in various other papers (see my website), I advance the contrary premise that space and time both exhibit intrinsic dimensional motions as gauged by the fundamental constants c, T, G (where c is the speed of light, T is the intrinsic motion of time (also gauged by c as the duration (measured by a clock) light requires to travel a given distance in vacuum), and G is the universal gravitational constant). Whereas "c" regulates the metric relationship between space, time, and light (free electromagnetic energy), "G" regulates the entropic relationship between space, time, and mass (bound electromagnetic energy). (See: "A Description of Gravitation".)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] viXra:1010.0046 [pdf] submitted on 26 Oct 2010

Running of Electromagnetic and Strong Coupling Constants

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 10 pages

The observed variation of the electromagnetic coupling constant α, seen in high energy e+e- → e+e- collisions, has been explained in terms of work done compressing the energetic electron. A simple monotonic law has been found, which describes how the electron tries to resist compression, without transmutation. Variation of the strong coupling constant αs has also been analysed in terms of effective work done compressing the gluon field within a proton's component parts.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[43] viXra:1010.0045 [pdf] submitted on 26 Oct 2010

Is Octonionic Quantum Gravity in the Pre-Planckian Regime of Space Time Violated? Input from a Worm Hole Bridge from Another Universe Considered as a Model for Examining This Issue.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith, L Glinka
Comments: 12 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt equation may permit the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field. We claim that the addition of the wormhole could be equated to an initial configuration of the Einstein field equations, allowing for high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGW) at the onset of inflation. The virtual worm hole with a large fluctuation permits the interior region to tunnel into a nascent cosmology with a large vacuum energy defined by that fluctuation in energy. The universe or cosmology it tunnels from is unaffected from this, other than having a tiny bit of vacuum energy "robbed." The worm hole is a high energy, but zero temperature, virtual fluctuation. Use of this construction may permit us to ask if Octonionic quantum gravity[1] constructions are relevant in the pre Planckian regime of space time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[42] viXra:1010.0043 [pdf] submitted on 26 Oct 2010

Bhaskaracharya Quadratics and Spade Sequences

Authors: Nathaniel S. K. Hellerstein
Comments: 13 pages

In this article I generalize on a word problem by Bhaskaracharya. The resulting quadratics are trivial to solve; but composing them, so that they have whole number solutions, is not trivial. In this article I discover a class of sequences, which I call "Spade Sequences" as homage to a hero of detective fiction, which generate both Bhaskaracharya quadratics and their solutions. The article ends with a list of such word problems, presented as a problem set with answer key.
Category: Number Theory

[41] viXra:1010.0042 [pdf] replaced on 23 Aug 2011

Motions of Observable Structures Ruled by Hierarchical Two-Body Gravitation in the Universe

Authors: Yongfeng Yang
Comments: 11 pages, 7 figures and 2 tables. Cites as: Yang, Y. Y., Proceeding of the 18th annual conference of the NPA, College Park, Maryland University, USA, Vol.8: 712-721 (2011).

In the past, various scenarios have been presented to account for the formation of the solar system and our galaxy, but ever-increasing observations prove these conceptions to be incomplete. Here we propose, all objects in the universe are organized in an orderly series of hierarchical two-body systems with gravitation. Within these systems, the two components of each two-body system are orbiting around the barycenter of this system, and at the same time each two-body system is orbiting around the barycenter of a superior two-body system. Based on this hierarchical two-body association, an approximate uniform velocity feature for all stars in a galaxy, and galaxies in a cluster, is determined. Under the effect of gravitation, a successive hierarchical orbital shrinkage results in high redshifts of distant galaxies and planar (disc) rotational profile of large-scale structures like the solar system and galaxy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[40] viXra:1010.0041 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-09 17:07:15

Inertia

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 9 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Inertia is a property that causes macro bodies to respond sluggishly to external efforts. Since no other entity that can prevent instantaneous action by external efforts on a free macro body or maintain its constant state of motion is known, phenomenon of inertia is usually attributed to matter itself, in negative sense. 3D matter is inert; it has no ability to move, act or oppose external efforts. Property of inertia rightly belongs to universal medium, whose action moves 3D matter-bodies. Property of inertia is due to latticework-structures in universal medium. Only when mechanism of action of external effort and mechanism of motion of 3D matter-bodies, as envisaged in the book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, are understood, nature of inertia will be clear.
Category: Classical Physics

[39] viXra:1010.0040 [pdf] replaced on 29 Oct 2010

Retro-causal Holographic Dark Energy Coherent Vacuum Super-Solid Tetrad Emergent Gravity

Authors: Jack Sarfatti
Comments: 20 pages

A short review of experiments and theory suggesting that the universe is a hologram image projected retro-causally from our future event horizon. "A series of quantum experiments shows that measurements performed in the future can influence the present. Does that mean the universe has a destiny and the laws of physics pull us inexorably toward our prewritten fate?" Discover Magazine "Back From The Future" http://discovermagazine.com/2010/apr/01-back-from-the-future
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[38] viXra:1010.0039 [pdf] submitted on 25 Oct 2010

Fusion of Imprecise Qualitative Information

Authors: Xin-De Li, Xian-Zhong Dai, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 340 pages

In this paper, we present a new 2-tuple linguistic representation model, i.e. Distribution Function Model (DFM), for combining imprecise qualitative information using fusion rules drawn from Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) framework. Such new approach allows to preserve the precision and efficiency of the combination of linguistic information in the case of either equidistant or unbalanced label model. Some basic operators on imprecise 2-tuple labels are presented together with their extensions for imprecise 2-tuple labels. We also give simple examples to show how precise and imprecise qualitative information can be combined for reasoning under uncertainty. It is concluded that DSmT can deal efficiently with both precise and imprecise quantitative and qualitative beliefs, which extends the scope of this theory.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[37] viXra:1010.0038 [pdf] submitted on 25 Oct 2010

Two Applications of Desargues' Theorem

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Ion Pătraşcu
Comments: 6 pages

In this article we will use the Desargues' theorem and its reciprocal to solve two problems.
Category: Geometry

[36] viXra:1010.0037 [pdf] submitted on 25 Oct 2010

On the Ability of Matter in the Aggregate to Increase Specific Heat near the Absolute Zero of Temperature: a Comment on Arxiv:1010.0259

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 2 pages

Arxiv:1010.0259, now withdrawn, presents analysis to show that on approach to the absolute zero of temperature, the specific heat of matter in the aggregate, such as ultrathin wires that do not enter the state of superconductivity, increases. There is good reason to expect that this is true, which we will show in the present paper, which moves us to urge that Arxiv:1010.0259 be restored.
Category: Condensed Matter

[35] viXra:1010.0035 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-21 08:01:40

A Philosophical And Mathematical Theory Of Everything

Authors: Stein Sivertsen
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this theory I measure the "light speed" per duration of "X particle motions". This basic definition of C exclude the term time (the fourth dimension). Instead it include the term "motion inside a particle" ("a particle's spin" may be a better term). Then, in chapter B1 to B9, I first show the 9 consequenses of this new expression in a philosophical description. In chapter C, I show how these consequenses can be used to explain "The quantum theory of wave / particle duality and the phenomenon of wave collapse". In chapter D the consequenses is described in depth in the mathematical form. I will espesially draw your attention to chapter D 3 wich shows two clear-cut predictions. 1. The gravity-ratio between two particle-positions, relative to a reference object/particle (for instance a sun), will sharply drop for the particles farthest away from us, from 12 billion lightyears and farther away. 2. C, the speed limit, is slightly higher inside dense matter than the observed light speed in vacuum out in the universe. This theory shows that not only is mass and "time" relative, in reference to the "constant" C, but also gravity and electromagnetism is relative, here in reference to the constant edge of our universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[34] viXra:1010.0034 [pdf] submitted on 22 Oct 2010

Shape Function of Directional Solidification Interface under Two-Dimensional Heat Conduction Condition

Authors: Lunyong Zhang, Jianfei Sun, Hongbo Zuo, Dawei Xing, Jiecai Han
Comments: 17 pages

The interface shape function for the pure material directional solidification system with temperature disturbances on the heater and cooler is derived. It is approximately a fraction function including cosine terms in the denominator and the numerator. Calculation of the function shows the interface shape can respond to the temperature disturbance. When both the solidification rate V and the interface cooler distance α determined by the boundary temperatures are lower than critical value deteimined by a formula, the interface shape changes from sinusoidal wave to figures pattern with the increase of the rate or the distance. Once the rate or the distance reaches the critical value, the interface branches at the bottom of the grooves between figures and then the branches expand along the sidewall of the figures with further increase of the rate or the distance. According to that, we conclude that the sinusoidal interface shape assumption always used by the interface instability analyses is not always valid and the interface shape in Hele-Shaw solidification experiments in fact maybe is not planar but a cellular interface with quite small amplitude, and the role of temperature disturbance should be considered in experiments studying solidification interface stability.
Category: Condensed Matter

[33] viXra:1010.0033 [pdf] submitted on 22 Oct 2010

Does Causal Discontinuity as Postulated in the Pre Planckian State Affect / Create Conditions for the Break Down of Non Commutative Geometry Necessary for Quantum Effects?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith, L Glinka
Comments: 6 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt equation[1] permits the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field [2]. As both Beckwith and Glinka[3] postulated the existence of at least a brief period of causal discontinuity in the vicinity of Pre Planckian physics space time, the question is does the construction as given by Crowell[1] for an Octonionic non associator which leads to the commutation relations between position x and momentum p of quantum mechanics still hold up? Crowell's derivation heavily depends upon a value of the path integral of the [xi,pj] over spatial variation equal to - constant times T(ijk). Here, T(ijk) is a structure constant, which we claim would go to zero if a discontinuity exists, leading to x.p = p.x in the neighborhood of pre Planckian space time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32] viXra:1010.0032 [pdf] submitted on 18 Oct 2010

Is a Vev Due to the Bunch-Davies Vacuum Fluctuation a Way to Obtain Octonionic Quantum Gravity in the Planckian Regime of Space Time? Yes, But Only After Planck Time Tplanck

Authors: Andrew Beckwith, L Glinka
Comments: 15 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt equation permits the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field. We claim that our model and the addition of the wormhole is tied to an initial configuration of the Einstein field equations, allowing for high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGW) at the onset of inflation. We examine Bunch-Davies vacuum fluctuations[1] of a scalar field, (see paper for equation), if we use the wave function for an average value of the Hubble parameter (see paper for equation) , with VeV resulting from Ψ of a pseudo time dependent WdW wave function [2],[3], and H from initial values of the Friedman equation. The benefit from defining the Bunch-Davies vacuum fluctuation this way is that there would be a way to obtain partial time evolution of the VeV and also to ask if Octonionic quantum gravity[2] constructions are relevant in the Planckian regime of space time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31] viXra:1010.0031 [pdf] submitted on 18 Oct 2010

How to Use the Cosmological Schwinger Principle for Energy Flux, Entropy, and "Atoms of Space Time", for Creating a Thermodynamics Treatment of Space-Time

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 pages

We make explicit an idea by, T. Padmanabhan in DICE 2010 [1], as to finding "atoms of space time" permitting a thermodynamic treatment of emergent structure similar to Gibbs treatment of statistical physics. I.e. an ensemble of gravitons, is used to give an 'atom' of space time congruent with relic GW . The idea is to reduce the number of independent variables to get a simple emergent space time structure of entropy. An electric field, based upon the Cosmological Schwinger principle is linked to relic heat flux, with entropy production tied in with candidates as to inflaton potentials. The effective electric field links with the Schwinger result, 1951, of an E field leading to pairs of e+ e- charges nucleated in space-time volume V.t . Note that in most inflationary models, the assumption is for a magnetic field, not electric field. An electric field permits a kink anti kink construction of an emergent structure. Also an E filed allows for an emergent relic particle frequency range between one to 100 Giga Hertz. The novel contribution is a relic E field, instead of a B field, in relic space time "atom$quot; formation and vacuum nucleation of the same.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30] viXra:1010.0030 [pdf] replaced on 3 Nov 2010

About Speed of Light and Time Dilation

Authors: Alvydas Jakeliunas
Comments: 3 pages

Here are discussed two hypotheses how gravitation may effect speed of light. Both of them well explain known behavior of quantum in gravitation, therefore they can be useful to generate new ideas for new experiments to test current theories and to find new phenomenas. Here is also proposed a new view to well known time dilation phenomena.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29] viXra:1010.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-20 17:21:53

On Neutral Particle Gravity with Nonassociative Braids

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 24 Pages.

Some years ago, Bilson-Thompson [1] characterised the fundamental leptons and quarks using simple three strand ribbon diagrams. These diagrams are interpreted in an abstract categorical language, which underlies an information theoretic quantum gravity. More recently, Graham Dungworth [2] has discussed the astrophysical consequences of this non local quantum gravity, under a symmetry restoring extension of the braid set that doubles the matter sector to include mirror matter. The resulting low energy particle set is reinterpreted in the categorical framework for localization, which considers neutral particle oscillations to be responsible for gravity. A few quantitative observational consequences, such as CPT violation in the neutrino sector, are discussed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[28] viXra:1010.0028 [pdf] submitted on 16 Oct 2010

Ever-Present Lambda and the Quantum Potential of Spacetime

Authors: Willard Mittelman
Comments: 18 pages

An approach to dark energy is presented that combines ideas of causal set theory with a Machian perspective and a treatment of spacetime as a condensate, yielding a "quantum potential of spacetime" Q whose density ρQ acts as an effective Λ that satisfies the uncertainty relation ΔVΔΛ ~ 1 of unimodular relativity. In contrast to the ever-present Λ of causal set theory, ρQ's value is always non-negative, and the nonlocality of Q ensures that ρQ is spatially homogeneous, in accordance with observation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27] viXra:1010.0027 [pdf] replaced on 23 Jun 2011

Postscript and Commentary on the Tetrahedron Model

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 10 pages

Our first consideration is the bottom line of the Tetrahedron Model diagram (the line representing the spacetime metric and gravity), connecting the Symmetry and Entropy poles. The spacetime metric has two major expressions: 1) metric particles or "bosons" (derived from the Symmetry pole); and 2) the structural and regulatory dimensional metric field of spacetime (derived from the Entropy pole). The metric field is a conservation mechanism of spacetime, created by: 1) its embedded intrinsic motions, light, time, and gravitation; 2) its regulators, the universal gauge constants "c" and "G"; 3) the energy and symmetry conserving forces of inertia. The particle aspect of this line I refer to as "metric particles", the bosons or field vectors (force carriers) of the forces, such as the photon, the graviton, the IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons) of the weak force, and the gluons of the strong force "color" charges. Bosons (except for the massive weak force IVBs) are massless and travel at velocity c; they appear to be produced or transmitted by the metric as vibrations or similar disturbances of its structure (hence the several massless varieties all have the same velocity "c"). Bosons are evidently not composed of quarks or leptons like the fermions of ordinary matter, and most basically, they do not appear to be the product of the symmetry-breaking process that produced ordinary fermions in the "Big Bang" - they do not appear to be the asymmetric halves of particle-antiparticle pairs, but rather whole particle units, complete in themselves and unchanged since the very beginning of the Cosmos - like the dimensions themselves. The "Intermediate Vector Bosons" (IVBs) of the weak force are unusual in that they are very massive bosons, whereas all other bosons are massless. For a discussion of these unusual weak force bosons (and the related "Higgs" boson), see: "The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs".
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] viXra:1010.0026 [pdf] submitted on 14 Oct 2010

Paradoxism's Manifestos and International Folklore

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 157 pages

The book is structured in two parts as follows: - in the first part, the theory of paradoxism through its first six published worldwide manifestos (1983-2010); - in the second part, the paradoxism collected from the international (English, French, Spanish/Arabic, and Romanian) folklore in images and paradoxist situations. PARADOXISM is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive use of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, odds, anti-clichés, deviations of senses, against-the-grain speech, nonsense, paraphrases, oxymorons, inversions, digressions, paradoxes, semiparadoxes, etc. in creations. It was set up and led by the writer Florentin Smarandache since 1980's, who said: "The goal is to enlargement of the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements. But especially the counter-time, counter-sense creation. Also, to experiment."
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[25] viXra:1010.0025 [pdf] submitted on 13 Oct 2010

Combinatorial Maps with Normalized Knot

Authors: Dainis Zeps
Comments: 14 pages

We consider combinatorial maps with fixed combinatorial knot numbered with augmenting numeration called normalized knot. We show that knot's normalization doesn't affect combinatorial map what concerns its generality. Knot's normalization leads to more concise numeration of corners in maps, e.g., odd or even corners allow easy to follow distinguished cycles in map caused by the fixation of the knot. Knot's normalization may be applied to edge structuring knot too. If both are normalized then one is fully and other partially normalized mutually.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[24] viXra:1010.0024 [pdf] replaced on 26 Oct 2010

The Fine Structure Constant and the Quark and Lepton Mixing Angles

Authors: J. S. Markovitch
Comments: 23 pages

The fine structure constant and the quark and lepton mixing angles are shown to arise naturally in the course of altering the symmetry of two algebraic identities. Specifically, the symmetry of the identity x2 = x2 is "broken" by making the substitution xnxn - yp on its left side, and the substitution xx - z on its right side, where p equals the order of the identity; these substitutions convert the above identity into the equation x2 - y2 = (x - z)2. These same substitutions are also applied to the only slightly more complicated identity (x/a)3 + x2 = (x/a)3 + x2 to produce this second equation (x3 - y3) / a3 + x2 - y3 = (x - z)3 / a3 + (x - z)2. These two equations are then shown to share a mathematical property relating to dz/dy, where, on the second equation's left side, this property helps define the special case (x3 - y3) / a3 + x2 - y3 = (103 - 0.13) / 33 + 102 - 0.13 = 137.036, an equation which incorporates a value close to the experimental fine structure constant inverse. Moreover, on the second equation's right side, this same special case simultaneously produces values for the sines squared of the mixing angles. Specifically, the sines squared of the leptonic angles φ12, φ23, and φ13 appear as 0.3, 0.5, and not larger than roughly 1/30 000, respectively; and the sines squared of the quark mixing angles θ12 and θ13 appear as 0.05, and close to 1/90 000, respectively. Despite closely mirroring so many experimental values, including the precisely-known fine structure constant, the above mathematical model requires no free parameters adjusted to fit experiment.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[23] viXra:1010.0023 [pdf] submitted on 11 Oct 2010

Symmetries in Evolving Space-time and Their Connection to High-Frequency Gravity Wave Production

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 pages

Linking a shrinking prior universe via a wormhole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt equation permits the formation of a short-term quintessence scalar field. We claim that our model and the addition of the wormhole is tied to an initial configuration of the Einstein field equations, allowing for high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGW) at the onset of inflation. This is due to symmetries in space-time, which enable the creation of highfrequency gravitational waves. The duration of a wormhole thermal bridge between prior and present universes is less than Planck's time duration, but has consequences up to our present cosmological era. This also leads to phase transition changes that form a template for graviton production. The initial conditions so created also suggest optimal environmental conditions for advanced spacecraft propulsion systems.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[22] viXra:1010.0022 [pdf] submitted on 10 Oct 2010

Paradoxism and Folklore (Romanian), Book by Florentin Smarandache

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 139 pages, In Romanian

Polemics regarding the paradoxism are presented in the first part of this book through literary and social-political essays and interviews. In the second part, you'll see the paradoxism's actuality in today's contemporary society: by cliches, proverbs' deviations, and especially by the quotidian images taken from Internet - with political parables and ironies and with this primitive... modernization of the country (Romania). Look how present is the paradoxism in our life!
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21] viXra:1010.0021 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-14 03:07:18

On Smarandache Rings II

Authors: A K S Chandra Sekhar Rao
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper we show that a commutative semisimple ring is always a Smarandache ring. We will also give a necessary and sufficient condition for group algebra to be a Smarandache ring. Examples are provided for justification.
Category: General Mathematics

[20] viXra:1010.0020 [pdf] replaced on 25 Jan 2011

Energy Content of Gravitation as a Way to Quantify Both Entropy and Information Generation in the Early Universe

Authors: Andrew Walcott Beckwith
Comments: 8 pages, 1 figure. Accepted for publication in February 2011, by the Journal of Modern Physics: Material used in recent work as of this month for companion piece to the Octonian gravity work submitted to Nova Book publishers

Based upon Alcubierre's formalism about energy flux of gravitational waves, as well as Saunder's treatment of temperature dependence of the Hubble parameter in the early universe , we initiate a particle count treatment of gravitons, and subsequent entropy generation which gives , via the standard model treatment of the FRW metric a way to explain/ justify a value of entropy of the order of S ~ 106 - 107 at the very onset of inflation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1010.0019 [pdf] submitted on 9 Oct 2010

Research on Number Theory and Smarandache Notions

Authors: Z. Wenpeng
Comments: 151 pages

This Book is devoted to the proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Number Theory and Smarandache Notions held in Tianshui during April 24-25, 2010. The organizers were myself and Professor Wangsheng He from Tianshui Normal University. The conference was supported by Tianshui Normal University and there were more than 100 participants. We had one foreign guest, Professor K.Chakraborty from India. The conference was a great success and will give a strong impact on the development of number theory in general and Smarandache Notions in particular. We hope this will become a tradition in our country and will continue to grow. And indeed we are planning to organize the seventh conference in coming March which will be held in Weinan, a beautiful city of shaanxi.
Category: Number Theory

[18] viXra:1010.0018 [pdf] submitted on 9 Oct 2010

Symmetrically Reproducing Quark and Lepton Mass, Charge, and Generation

Authors: J. S. Markovitch
Comments: 4 pages

It is shown that a particle set possessing electric charges, masses, and weak couplings that coincide with those of the quarks and leptons can be produced with the aid of the symmetry of the cuboctahedron. Specifically, it is shown that small powers of 4.1, in combination with the constants 0.1 and 3, are useful in economically reproducing the quark and lepton masses, and that these small powers-and thereby the masses they represent-can be joined automatically with their correct values for charge and generation with the aid of cuboctahedral symmetry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[17] viXra:1010.0017 [pdf] replaced on 16 Dec 2010

Resolution of Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Pankaj Mani
Comments: 5 pages

The Riemann hypothesis is proved to be true which states that all the non-trivial zeros of Riemann zeta function lie along the line R(z)=1/2 for 0<R(z)<1. The work done here clarifies that there is no need to find out the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function to prove the Riemann hypothesis true as the Riemann hypothesis must be true for the functional equation satisfied by the zeta function to exist itself structurally in mathematics.
Category: Number Theory

[16] viXra:1010.0016 [pdf] replaced on 21 Oct 2010

The Mass of the Higgs Boson Should be Zero

Authors: John Michael Williams
Comments: 3 pages

If the Higgs boson does mediate a vacuum coupling which gives all particles mass, then it should not itself be massive.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15] viXra:1010.0015 [pdf] submitted on 7 Oct 2010

The Arrow of Time Problem: Answering if Time Flow Initially Favouritizes One Direction Blatantly

Authors: Andrew Beckwith, Lukasz Glinka
Comments: 18 pages, Published in Prespacetime Journal 1(9), pp. 1358-1375 (November 2010)

The following article begins an analysis of if by first principles there is a way to show time unidrectionality at the start of creation. Recently J. Vaccarro appealed to Kaon physics to show how time asymmetry could be violated after the big bang, as well as how and why time asymmetry vanishes later. We examine the nature of the evolution Hamiltonian after stepping through Vacarro's analysis and go to where we think it needs to be improved. This answers questions to if both the CPT theorem and related physics are manifestly violated, or not violated at the beginning of emergent space time, via judicious use of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, a base of quantum cosmology and quantum gravity. We initially detail the limits of a derivation given the authors by Vaccaro which claims using of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, and suggest ways to suppress the CPT violation, as suggested by Kaon physics after inflation at the onset of inflation, using refinements suggested by the authors. We propose to support the Kauffmann treatment of CPT violation as the useful one, as well, and will be part of long term solutions to this problem. Note that though, Vaccaro incorrectly identifies a Euclidian representation of the Hamiltonian (energy) function as equal to the Hamiltonian constraint, which leads to identifying the Schrodinger equation used for Kaon physics with the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, as H|ψ> = 0 as written by Vaccaro is still usual non-relativistic time-dependent quantum mechanics and not necessarily linkable to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, which in the result of primary quantization of the Hamiltonian constraint and has manifestly absent time, in the vicinity of a 'quantum bounce', or singularity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:1010.0014 [pdf] replaced on 1 Jun 2011

Deeper Properties Through Dark and Visible-Matter in a New Cosmological Twin-Tori Model (TTM).

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 5 pages

A new cosmological model, named the Twin-Tori Model (TTM)[1], postulates a dark energy force Fde , which empowers the dynamic of a lower order universe, well known as the big bang. In this paper I introduce the 1st derivative F'de of this dark energy force to reveal deeper properties of the TTM, such as: why quantummechanics exists in the big bang, why dark matter and visible matter are equally responsible for gravity in galaxies for 1/4 of the density of dark matter at a specific length, why the big bang universe is recalculated by subquantumlevel-information below the Plancklength, and why the impression of space-expansion is due to the higher order cosmological model TTM.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[13] viXra:1010.0013 [pdf] replaced on 2013-11-25 09:05:44

Thought-Experiment Provides a Formula for (New) Dark Energy Force (Version-3).

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 11 Pages. Version-3 is only textual modified and not mathematically altered. It services a better understanding of the beginning of the Double Torus framework.

A (new) ‘dark energy force-formula’ was introduced on April 10 2004 by Dan Visser, Almere, the Netherlands on his website (reference 1a). The (new) formula was picked up by a PhD-mathematician and -Physics, Christopher Forbes (UK), in the summer of 2009, leading to email-contact among them, and resulting in a publication of a general mathematical expression, whereof Dan’s (new) ‘dark energy force-formula’ indeed resulted from the general expressing (reference 2). Additional an amount of (new) dark energy resulted too. Afterwards Dan published his derivation of the (new) force in the Vixra-archive on October 7 2010 (in retrospective). He called his mathematical exercises a ‘thought-experiment’. That had as result the (new) ‘dark energy force-formula’. In the versions following (version-2 and -3) only textual changes were made for servicing a better understanding of the thought-experiment, of course without altering the original mathematical content. Further development was focussed on working–out the (new) dynamics in the Double Torus hypothesis. This is a hypothesis that claims the Big Bang cosmology can no longer be maintained as the model for the universe. The main issue in ‘Dan’s-thought-experiment’ is a scaling-away-principle’,which is characterized by ‘scaling-away’ two black holes from each other (small and large), as well as ‘melting them together’ and making them ‘temperature connected’. Then an observer would receive the same evaporation-radiation from both black holes at the same time. These three exercises (scaling-away, melting-together and temperature-connection) had the aim to keep entropy conserved in the universe. However, ‘scaling-away’ causes a ‘change of dark information’ at the surface of one or the other black hole. Such a change had to correspond to a ‘new force’. That was further exercised, analyzed, synthesized, combined and translated as a mathematical thought-experiment. The result: Dan’s (new) ‘dark energy force-formula’.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[12] viXra:1010.0012 [pdf] replaced on 20 Dec 2010

On a Generalized Theory of Relativity

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 40 pages

The General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is essentially a theory of gravitation. It is built on the Principle of Relativity. It is bonafide knowledge, known even to Einstein the founder, that the GTR violates the very principle upon which it is founded i.e., it violates the Principle of Relativity; because a central equation i.e., the geodesic law which emerges from the GTR, is well known to be in conflict with the Principle of Relativity because the geodesic law, must in complete violation of the Principle of Relativity, be formulated in special (or privileged) coordinate systems i.e., Gaussian coordinate systems. The Principle of Relativity clearly and strictly forbids the existence/use of special (or privileged) coordinate systems in the same way the Special Theory of Relativity forbids the existence of privileged and or special reference systems. In the pursuit of a more Generalized Theory of Relativity i.e., an all-encampusing unified field theory to include the Electromagnetic, Weak & the Strong force, Einstein and many other researchers, have successfully failed to resolve this problem. In this reading, we propose a solution to this dilemma faced by Einstein and many other researchers i.e., the dilemma of obtaining a more Generalized Theory of Relativity. Our solution brings together the Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Weak & the Strong force under a single roof via an extension of Riemann geometry to a new hybrid geometry that we have coined the Riemann-Hilbert Space (RHS). This geometry is a fusion of Riemann geometry and the Hilbert space. Unlike Riemann geometry, the RHS preserves both the length and the angle of a vector under parallel transport because the affine connection of this new geometry, is a tensor. This tensorial affine leads us to a geodesic law that truly upholds the Principle of Relativity. It is seen that the unified field equations derived herein are seen to reduce to the well known Maxwell-Procca equation, the non-Abelian nuclear force field equations, the Lorentz equation of motion for charged particles and the Dirac equation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1010.0011 [pdf] replaced on 2012-02-18 01:49:51

The Inner Connection Between Gravity, Electromagnetism and Light

Authors: Faycal Ben Adda
Comments: 14 Pages. This is the last version accepted for publication in Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics

In this paper, we prove the existence of an inner connection between gravity and electromagnetism using a different procedure than the standard approaches. Under the assumption of the invariance of the ratio of the Gravitational force to the Electric force in an expanding space-time, we prove that gravity is naturally traceable to the surrounding expanding medium.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1010.0010 [pdf] submitted on 4 Oct 2010

Space's Nuclear Air-Conditioner

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 2 pages

We established in a previous paper that an atom entering the extreme cold regions of space has to come to thermal equilibrium with its surroundings. It does this by ingesting its extranuclear electrons into the nucleus. At that point the nucleus evaporates. Since nuclei of atoms lower than iron on the periodic table released heat in the process of their formation, heat has to be absorbed when those nuclei disrupt. Thus the extreme cold of space is maintained by nuclear evaporation.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1010.0009 [pdf] submitted on 4 Oct 2010

The Contraction of Radiation and Matter in a Gravitational Field: a Comment on Vixra:1009.0067

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 4 pages

The author of viXra:1009.0067 claims that radiation experiences a contraction in energy in a gravitational field, such as that of the Earth. Why, then, did Pound-Rebka measure an increase in energy of radiation?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1010.0008 [pdf] submitted on 4 Oct 2010

Two Triangles with the Same Orthocenter and a Vectorial Proof of Stevanovic's Theorem

Authors: Ion Pătraşcu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 pages

In this article we'll emphasize on two triangles and provide a vectorial proof of the fact that these triangles have the same orthocenter. This proof will, further allow us to develop a vectorial proof of the Stevanovic's theorem relative to the orthocenter of the Fuhrmann's triangle.
Category: Geometry

[7] viXra:1010.0007 [pdf] submitted on 3 Oct 2010

Behavior of Quantum in Gravitation

Authors: Alvydas Jakeliunas
Comments: 1 page

Here is proposed a new equation for speed of light in gravitation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1010.0006 [pdf] replaced on 17 Oct 2010

Power Structures in Finite Fields and the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Alessandro Dallari
Comments: 46 pages

Some tools are discussed, in order to build power structures of primitive roots in finite fields for any order qk; relations between distinct roots are deduced from m- and shift-and-add- sequences. Some heuristic computational techniques, where information in a m- sequence is built from below, are proposed. Full settlement is finally viewed in a physical scenario, where a path leading to the Riemann Hypothesis can be enlighted.
Category: Number Theory

[5] viXra:1010.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2 Oct 2010

Proposed Problems of Mathematics (Vol. II)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 74 pages, Mathematical problems for student competitions, translated from Romanian and French into English by the author.

The first book of "Problèmes avec et sans ... problèmes!" was published in Morocco in 1983. I collected these problems that I published in various Romanian or foreign magazines (amongst which: "Gazeta Matematica", magazine which formed me as problem solver, "American Mathematical Monthly", "Crux Mathematicorum" (Canada), "Elemente der Mathematik" (Switzerland), "Gaceta Matematica" (Spain), "Nieuw voor Archief" (Holland), etc. while others are new proposed problems in this second volume. These have been created in various periods: when I was working as mathematics professor in Romania (1984-1988), or co-operant professor in Morocco (1982-1984), or emigrant in the USA (1990-1997). I thank to the Algebra Department of the State University of Moldova for the publication of this book.
Category: General Mathematics

[4] viXra:1010.0004 [pdf] submitted on 1 Oct 2010

The New Prime Theorem (741)-(790)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 71 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This is the Book proof. No great mathematicians study prime problems and prove Riemann hypothesis in AIM, CLAYMI, IAS, THES, MPIM, MSRI. In this paper using Jiang function J2 (ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (741)-(790) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime solutions. From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution πk(N0,2) ≥ 1. This is the Book theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[3] viXra:1010.0003 [pdf] submitted on 1 Oct 2010

On the Experimental Failure to Detect Dark Matter

Authors: Joseph F. Messina
Comments: 2 pages

It is argued that the failure of dark matter experiments to verify its existence may be attributable to a non-Planckian 'action,' which renders dark matter's behavior contradictory to the consequences of quantum mechanics as it applies to luminous matter. It is pointed out that such a possibility cannot be convincingly dismissed in the absence of a physical law that prohibits an elementary 'action' smaller than Planck's. It is further noted that no purely dark matter measurement of Planck's constant exists.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1010.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-23 22:10:04

The Godel's «first Theorem on the Incompleteness of Formal Arithmetic» is not Even a Plausible Hypothesis

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 8 Pages. Rassian

In this article it’s proved that consistent derivation of the «Godel formula» is possible only in the theory where it’s forbidden to talk about proofs adequately. Godel’s assumptions have not been derivated from unconditional meta-mathematical axioms.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[1] viXra:1010.0001 [pdf] replaced on 10 Nov 2010

The Ecopoesis Model: Did Free Oxygen Fuel the Origin of Life?

Authors: Raul A. Félix de Sousa
Comments: 39 pages. KEYWORDS: origin of life, geochemical cycles, biogenic elements, oxygen, palaeoatmosphere, homochirality

A model for biopoesis is proposed where a complex, dynamic ecosphere, characterised by steep redox potentials, precedes and conditions the gradual formation of organismal life. A flow of electrons across the Archean hydrosphere, proceeding from the reducing constituents of the lithosphere and pumped by the photolytic production of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is the central feature of this protobiological environment. The available range of electrochemical potentials allows for the geochemical cycling of biogenic elements. In the case of carbon, carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions are essential steps, as in today's organisms. Geochemical evidence for high levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth's early atmosphere and the biological relevance of carboxylations are the basis for a hypercarbonic conception of the primitive metabolic pathways. Conversion of prochiral chemical species into chiral molecules, inherent to hypercarbonic transformations, suggests a mechanistic method for the generation of homochirality through propagation. The solubility of oxygen in lipid materials points to an aerobic course for the evolution of cellularity.
Category: Biochemistry