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1011 Submissions

[76] viXra:1011.0077 [pdf] replaced on 15 Jan 2011

On "Discovering and Proving that π is Irrational"

Authors: Li Zhou
Comments: 7 pages.

We discuss the logical fallacies in an article appeared in The American Mathematical Monthly [6], and present the historical origin and motivation of the simple proofs of the irrationality of π.
Category: Number Theory

[75] viXra:1011.0076 [pdf] submitted on 30 Nov 2010

Implementing Proper Length on a Graph in R3 Via Polymerization Produces Negligible Entropy When Accounting for the Distinctness of Scattering Probability Distributions

Authors: S. Halayka
Comments: 6 pages.

A graph model of general relativity is discussed. The relationship between entropy and the incompressibility of information is highlighted.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[74] viXra:1011.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2012-05-03 03:28:42

Is Mass Constant in a Gravitational Field?

Authors: Zhan Likui
Comments: 14 pages, 4 figures, 3586 words, In English

In a black hole, no force can prevent matter from collapsing into a point, a gravitational singularity. The problem of the singularity is always a difficult one. We attempt to discussion gravitation from another angle in this work. Based on experimental analysis and theoretical verification, a hypothesis regarding mass in gravitational fields is presented. It can avoid the problem of singularity, and the meaning of gravitation is simple to determine.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[73] viXra:1011.0074 [pdf] submitted on 30 Nov 2010

Evolutionary Sequence of Spacetime/intrinsic Spacetime and Associated Sequence of Geometry in a Metric Force Field. Part II.

Authors: Akindele J. Adekugbe
Comments: 20 pages. Submitted to Progress in Physics

Graphical analysis of the geometry of a curved 'three-dimensional' absolute intrinsic metric space, (an absolute intrinsic Riemannian metric space) φM3, which is curved onto the absolute time/absolute intrinsic time 'dimensions' (along the vertical), as a curved hyper-surface, and projects a flat three-dimensional proper intrinsic metric space φE'3 underlying its outward manifestation namely, the flat proper physical Euclidean 3-space φE'3, both as flat hyper-surfaces along the horizontal, isolated in part one of this paper, is done. Two absolute intrinsic tensor equations, one of which is of the divergenceless form of Einstein free-space field equations and the other which is a tensorial statement of local Euclidean invariance on φM3, are derived. Simultaneous (algebraic) solution of the equations yields the absolute intrinsic metric tensor and absolute intrinsic Ricci tensor of absolute intrinsic Riemann geometry on the curved absolute intrinsic metric space φM3, in terms of an isolated absolute intrinsic curvature parameter. Relations for absolute intrinsic coordinate projections into the underlying flat proper intrinsic space are derived. A superposition procedure that yields resultant absolute intrinsic metric tensor and resultant absolute intrinsic Ricci tensor, as well as resultant absolute intrinsic coordinate projection relations when two or a larger number of absolute intrinsic Riemannian metric spaces co-exist, are developed. Finally the fact that a curved 'three-dimensional' absolute intrinsic metric space φM3 is perfectly isotropic (that is, all directions are perfectly the same) and is consequently contracted to a 'onedimensional' absolute intrinsic metric space denoted by φρ, which is curved onto the absolute time/absolute intrinsic time 'dimensions' along the vertical and that the underlying projective three-dimensional flat proper intrinsic metric space φE'3 is perfectly isotropic and is consequently contracted to a straight line one-dimensional isotropic proper intrinsic metric space φρ' along the horizontal, with respect to observers in the physical proper Euclidean 3-space φE'3 that overlies φρ', are deduced.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[72] viXra:1011.0073 [pdf] submitted on 30 Nov 2010

Evolutionary Sequence of Spacetime/intrinsic Spacetime and Associated Sequence of Geometries in a Metric Force Field. Part I.

Authors: Akindele J. Adekugbe
Comments: 11 pages. Submitted to Progress in Physics

Having isolated a four-world picture in which four symmetrical universes in different spacetime domains coexist and in which an isolated two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime underlies the four-dimensional spacetime in each universe, and having shown that the special theory of relativity rests on a four-world background elsewhere, we review the geometry of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime in a long-range metric force field within the four-world picture in the four parts of this paper. We show within an elaborate programme that the four-dimensional metric spacetime and its underlying two-dimensional intrinsic metric spacetime undergo two stages of evolution in the sequence of absolute spacetime/absolute intrinsic spacetime → proper spacetime/proper intrinsic spacetime → relativistic spacetime/relativistic intrinsic spacetime in all finite neighborhood of a long-range metric force field and that these are supported by a sequence of spacetime /intrinic spacetime geometries. The programme takes off in this first paper by isolating two classes of three-dimensional Riemannian metric space namely, the conventional three-dimensional Riemannian metric space and a new 'three-dimensional' absolute intrinsic Riemannian metric space.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[71] viXra:1011.0072 [pdf] submitted on 29 Nov 2010

The Age and Size of the Universe.

Authors: J. Dunning-Davies
Comments: 3 pages.

The possible implications of some reported high-valued red-shifts for both the age and size of the Universe are examined on the basis of presently accepted theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[70] viXra:1011.0071 [pdf] submitted on 29 Nov 2010

Can the Universe be Represented by a Superposition of Spacetime Manifolds?

Authors: Raymond Jensen
Comments: 15 pages, To appear in 2011 SPESIF Proceedings.

In this article it is argued, that the universe cannot be modeled as a space-time manifold. A theorem of geometry provides that null geodesics on a space-time manifold which begin at the same point with the same initial tangent vector are unique. But in reality, light originating from a single point with a given initial direction does not travel along a unique null geodesic path when a massive object attracts it, in particular when the massive object is in an indefinite location. Therefore, the universe cannot be described as a space-time manifold. It is then argued that the universe is a superposition of space-time manifolds, where the manifolds form a Hilbert space over the complex numbers.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[69] viXra:1011.0070 [pdf] submitted on 29 Nov 2010

Determinants of Population Growth in Rajasthan: An Analysis

Authors: V.V. Singh, Alka Mittal, Neetish Sharma, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 12 pages

Rajasthan is the biggest State of India and is currently in the second phase of demographic transition and is moving towards the third phase of demographic transition with very slow pace. However, state's population will continue to grow for a time period. Rajasthan's performance in the social and economic sector has been poor in past. The poor performance is the outcome of poverty, illiteracy and poor development, which co-exist and reinforce each other. There are many demographic and socio-economic factors responsible for population growth. This paper attempts to identify the demographic and socio-economic variables, which are responsible for population growth in Rajasthan with the help of multivariate analysis.
Category: Statistics

[68] viXra:1011.0069 [pdf] submitted on 29 Nov 2010

PDEs and Symmetry : an Open Problem

Authors: Elemér E Rosinger
Comments: 7 pages

A simple and basic problem is formulated about symmetric partial differential operators. The symmetries considered here are other than Lie symmetries.
Category: General Mathematics

[67] viXra:1011.0068 [pdf] replaced on 14 Dec 2010

Nonassociative Octonionic Ternary Gauge Field Theories

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 20 pages, submitted to J. Phys. A : Math and Theor.

A novel (to our knowledge) nonassociative and noncommutative octonionic ternary gauge field theory is explicitly constructed that it is based on a ternary-bracket structure involving the octonion algebra. The ternary bracket was defined earlier by Yamazaki. The field strengths Fμν are given in terms of the 3-bracket [Bμ,Bν, Φ] involving an auxiliary octonionic-valued scalar field Φ = Φaea which plays the role of a "coupling" function. In the concluding remarks a list of relevant future investigations are briefly outlined.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[66] viXra:1011.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-27 08:35:09

The Origin of Space and Time

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 12 Pages. adding new section

Fundamentally, the dimensionality of spacetime is a matter of energy conservation: three dimensions are sufficient to establish an entropic domain in which the basic thermodynamic requirements necessary to conserve the energy of free forms of electromagnetic energy (light, EM radiation, etc.) are present; likewise, four dimensions are necessary to meet the conservation requirements of bound forms of electromagnetic energy (mass/matter).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[65] viXra:1011.0066 [pdf] submitted on 26 Nov 2010

On the Accelerating Universal Expansion

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 25 pages

Repulsive gravity at large distances has been included in the universal solution of Einstein's equations by introducing a cosmological constant, which excludes the dark energy interpretation. For an external-coordinate-observer cosmological model, the big-bang singularity has been replaced by a granular primeval particle, and expansion is controlled by the velocity of light. Then problems inherent in the standard model do not arise, and no inflation phase is necessary. It is advantageous to truncate the graviton field at a maximum radius, which is related to proton dimensions through the ratio (e2/Gm2). This governs the onset of universal repulsion at around 7Gyr, in rough agreement with observations of Type Ia supernovae.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[64] viXra:1011.0065 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-16 08:31:43

Apertures for Excitation of Algebraically Self-Dual E/M Fields

Authors: T. E. Raptis
Comments: 15 Pages. Corrected Typos in main text

We propose a technique for setting up parallel (self-dual) stationary electromagnetic fields in the context of transformation optics. Several paradoxes that may appear in this regime are discussed. A particular type of communication based on stationary patterns through Aharonov-Bohm interferometry is also introduced as an alternative to a previous proposal by Putthof.
Category: Classical Physics

[63] viXra:1011.0064 [pdf] replaced on 29 Nov 2010

Why Natural Selection Cannot Explain Biological Evolution

Authors: Stephen P. Smith
Comments: 17 pages

The indifferent process of natural selection has been dubbed "the blind watchmaker" by Richard Dawkins. Arguments against natural selection are presented that relate to both ontology (reason-based) and epistemology (evidence-based), and the belief that the blind watchmaker drives evolution is revealed to be only a stipulation, at best. The belief is found coming from a metaphysical preference towards naturalism. A new account of evolution is presented that does not hold naturalism as a preference, and permits teleological (or guided) evolution and vitalism. This new account departs from the hidden agenda of naturalism, and fully discloses its preference towards self-evidence in its pursuit of truth.
Category: Mind Science

[62] viXra:1011.0063 [pdf] replaced on 23 May 2011

The Intrinsic Motions of Matter

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 10 pages

Intrinsic motions are the expression of conservation law and cosmic order in matter. The Universe, and everything in it, is always in some type of motion, whether absolute, relative, intrinsic, entropic, atomic, biological, or evolutionary.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[61] viXra:1011.0062 [pdf] submitted on 25 Nov 2010

The Black Hole Catastrophe: A Reply to J. J. Sharples

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 29 pages

A recent Letter to the Editor (Sharples J. J., Coordinate transformations and metric extension: a rebuttal to the relativistic claims of Stephen J. Crothers, Progress in Physics, v.1, 2010) has analysed a number of my publications in Progress in Physics. There are serious problems with this treatment which should be brought to the attention of the Journal's readership. Dr. Sharples has committed errors in both mathematics and physics. For instance, his notion that r = 0 in the so-called "Schwarzschild solution" marks the point at the centre of the related manifold is false, as is his related claim that Schwarzschild's actual solution describes a manifold that is extendible. His post hoc introduction of Newtonian concepts and related mathematical expressions into Schwarzschild's actual solution are invalid; for instance, Newtonian two-body relations into what is alleged to be a one-body problem. Each of the objections are treated in turn and their invalidity fully demonstrated. Black hole theory is riddled with contradictions. This article provides definitive proof that black holes do not exist.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[60] viXra:1011.0061 [pdf] replaced on 24 Jan 2011

Reflections on the Future of Particle Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 50 pages

Quantum Field Theory (QFT) lies at the foundation of the Standard Model for particle physics (SM) and is built in compliance with a number of postulates called consistency conditions. The remarkable success of SM can be traced back to a unitary, local, renormalizable, gauge invariant and anomaly-free formulation of QFT. Experimental observations of recent years suggest that developing the theory beyond SM may require a careful revision of conceptual foundations of QFT. As it is known, QFT describes interaction of stable or quasi-stable fields whose evolution is deterministic and time-reversible. By contrast, behavior of strongly coupled fields or dynamics in the Terascale sector is prone to become unstable and chaotic. Nonrenormalizable interactions are likely to proliferate and prevent full cancellation of ultraviolet divergences. A specific signature of this transient regime is the onset of long-range dynamic correlations in space-time, the emergence of strange attractors in phase space and transition from smooth to fractal topology. Our focus here is the impact of fractal topology on physics unfolding above the electroweak scale. Arguments are given for perturbative renormalization of field theory on fractal space-time, breaking of discrete symmetries, hierarchical generation of particle masses and couplings as well as the potential for highly unusual phases of matter which are ultra-weakly coupled to SM. A surprising implication of this approach is that classical gravity emerges as a dual description of field theory on fractal space-time.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[59] viXra:1011.0060 [pdf] submitted on 24 Nov 2010

New Lewis Structures Through the Application of the Hypertorus Electron Model

Authors: Omar Yépez
Comments: 12 pages

The hypertorus electron model is applied to the chemical bond. As a consequence, the bond topology can be determined. A linear correlation is found between the normalized bond area and the bond energy. The normalization number is a whole number. This number is interpreted as the Lewis's electron pair. A new electron distribution in the molecule follows. This discovery prompts to review the chemical bond, as it is understood in chemistry and physics.
Category: Chemistry

[58] viXra:1011.0059 [pdf] submitted on 23 Nov 2010

A Possible Connection Between "Inflation" and the "Big Crunch"

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 4 pages

In Alan Guth's theory of inflation, "repulsive gravity" is produced by the "negative pressure" of a supercooled "Higgs inflaton field" in a "false vacuum". This "repulsive gravity" drives the expansion of space (restoring the "true vacuum") during the brief period of inflation which initiates the Universe. There is a curious similarity between this conception of the mechanics of inflation and the notion of a "rebound" at the end of a cosmic life cycle or "Big Crunch" in a closed, cyclic Universe. This "rebound" is the explosion of a cosmic-sized black hole which has exhausted all external supplies of space, and so can no longer create the gravitational field and time dimension necessary to contain its energy content, which exists largely or wholly in the form of gravitationally bound light (due to proton decay within the black hole's event horizon). (See: "Entropy, Gravitation, and Thermodynamics".)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[57] viXra:1011.0058 [pdf] submitted on 23 Nov 2010

New Perspectives on the Classical Theory of Motion, Interaction and Geometry of Space-Time

Authors: A. R. Hadjesfandiari
Comments: 73 pages

By examining the theory of relativity, as originally proposed by Lorentz, Poincare and Einstein, a fundamental theory of general motion is developed. From this, the relationship between space-time and matter is discovered. As a result, the geometrical theory of interaction is introduced. The corresponding geometrical theory of electrodynamics resolves the origin of electromagnetic interaction, as a vortex-like field, and clarifies some of the existing ambiguities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[56] viXra:1011.0057 [pdf] replaced on 5 Dec 2010

Is an Algebraic Cubic Equation the Primitive Instinct Beyond Electromagnetic and Nuclear World?

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 16 pages

Everyone lives his or her life instinctively. Does the instinct originate from the natural world? If the instinct is a rational process, is the natural world rational? Unfortunately, people have not found any rational principle behind the natural world. Because human activities are realized directly through electromagnetic and nuclear forces of entropy-increase, people are difficult to recognize the principle. Compared to the large-scale structure of galaxies, human bodies and their immediate environment are the "microscopic" world. The electromagnetic and nuclear forces which rule the world, however, disappear in the formation of large-scale galaxy structures. Similarly they disappear in the formation of the solar system. My previous papers found many evidences that galaxies are rational. This paper shows that large-scale galaxy structure must originate from an algebraic cubic equation.
Category: Astrophysics

[55] viXra:1011.0056 [pdf] submitted on 23 Nov 2010

The Energetic Aspect of the First Axiom of Mechanics

Authors: Edmundas Jauniškis
Comments: 4 pages

A new approach to the axiom of mechanics. The energetic approach of the first axiom of mechanics. The principles and the concept of mechanical movement keeps changing. Mechanics is closely related to thermodynamics.
Category: Classical Physics

[54] viXra:1011.0055 [pdf] submitted on 23 Nov 2010

The Hearth Wave Equation (Mass Formation and Evolution)

Authors: Vincenzo Sicari
Comments: 1 page

There are various physics phenomenon which can find a simple explanation in linking gravity and electromagnetism. Einstein's Relativity can simply explain only the mass because he considered time as a scalar rather than a vector. The intension of this paper is to propose a new point of view, treating time as a three-dimensional vector, finding three vector value formula by three-dimensional space-time formula (curvature formula), finding a new symmetry on the plane for a wave equation substitute for Maxwell's symmetrical wave, only E and only B, not E and B linked. This linking is in error; in fact they are a two sum effect. The electromagnetic wave in space has, as well known, three energy component: B field E field and wave length (frequency). This energy is acknowledged, but we must see the wave like an elastic chain of single wavelets (a string of individual wavelets).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[53] viXra:1011.0054 [pdf] replaced on 24 Nov 2010

Four Comments on "The Road to Reality" by R Penrose

Authors: Elemér E Rosinger
Comments: 8 pages

Four comments are presented on the book of Roger Penrose entitled "The Road to Reality, A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe". The first comment answers a concern raised in the book. The last three point to important omissions in the book.
Category: General Mathematics

[52] viXra:1011.0053 [pdf] submitted on 22 Nov 2010

Champs, Vide, et Univers Miroir

Authors: L. Borissova, D. Rabounski
Comments: 263 pages, première édition en langue française, traduit de l'anglais et édité par Patrick Marquet, American Research Press, Rehoboth (NM), USA

Cet ouvrage est la traduction française du livre "Fields, Vacuum and the Mirror Universe" publié originalement en anglais en 2009, par les physiciens Larissa Borissova et Dmitri Rabounski, enrichi de nouveaux exposés. Le livre propose une analyse physico-mathématique nouvelle en élaborant une théorie des observables dans le cadre de la relativité générale. Dans leur célèbre livre de référence "Théorie des Champs", Lev Landau et Evgeny Lifshitz ont décrit de manière très complète le mouvement des particules dans les champs électromagnétique et gravitationnel. Les méthodes d'analyse covariante alors en vigueur depuis le milieu des années 30 ne prenaient pas encore en compte les concepts de quantités physiquement observables (grandeurs chronologiquement invariantes ou plus précisément grandeurs dites "chronométriques") de la relativité générale. Les auteurs ont donc voulu insister sur la nécessité d'étendre cette perspective mathématique à la théorie physique existante en l'appliquant au mouvement des particules se déplaçant dans les champs électromagnétiques et gravitationnels. De plus, l'étude des mouvements d'une particule douée de moment de rotation intrinsèque, n'a pas été entreprise dans ce contexte par Landau et Lifshitz. C'est pourquoi un exposé séparé du livre a été entièrement consacré à ce type de mouvement particulier. Les auteurs ont également ajouté un chapitre redéfinissant les éléments d'algèbre tensorielle et d'analyse dans le cadre des invariants chronométriques. L'ensemble de cet ouvrage se présente alors comme une contribution supplémentaire à la "Théorie des Champs".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[51] viXra:1011.0052 [pdf] replaced on 22 Dec 2010

Space, Time and Units-Fundamental Vision

Authors: G. V. Sharlanov
Comments: 13 pages

The change of the units between two "time-spatial domains" with different gravitational potentials is analyzed in the article, as a consequence of the nature of space and time which are mutually connected with each other in the warped spacetime of the Universe. The main topic of the article is: New definition of the postulate "invariance of the speed of light" - "uncertainty principle of the macro-world". Other topics concerned: The change of the SI base units (second and metre) and the speed of light in the Gravitational Field are analyzed while discussing of the article of Albert Einstein "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light". The change of the SI base units (second and metre) in Field without Gravity is analyzed, and then conclusion about Special Theory of Relativity is made. new universal hierarchical structure of the SI System is proposed, where the "second" and "metre" stay at the highest level. The main principle of the hierarchical place of any unit is also proposed. The consequences of this article directly reflect on cosmology and give explanations of a lot of problems (such as: "the accelerated expansion of the Universe", "the problem with the dark matter", etc.).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[50] viXra:1011.0051 [pdf] submitted on 21 Nov 2010

Adiabatic Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Shehrin Sayed
Comments: 4 pages

The expansion of the universe is proved to be an adiabatic process. The proposed idea shows good agreement with the observable universe and can explain some basic characteristics of the universe. It is also showed that the first kind of Friedmann model contradicts with the observable universe. The proposed idea also indicates that the size of the universe is finite.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[49] viXra:1011.0050 [pdf] submitted on 20 Nov 2010

Recording and Reproduction of Pattern Memory Trace in EEG by Direct Electrical Stimulation of Brain Cortex

Authors: Andrey G. Shapkin, Michael V. Taborov, Yuriy G. Shapkin
Comments: 9 pages

This study demonstrates the capability of external signal recording into memory and the reproduction of memory trace of this pattern in EEG by direct AC electrical stimulation of rat cerebral cortex. Additionally, we examine shifts of the DC potential level related to these phenomena. We show that in the course of memory trace reproduction, consecutive phases of engram activation and relaxation are registered and accompanied by corresponding negative and positive DC shifts. The observed electrophysiological changes may reflect consecutive activation and inhibition phases of neural ensembles participating in engram formation.
Category: Mind Science

[48] viXra:1011.0049 [pdf] submitted on 21 Mar 2010

Ultra Polemics with Upper and Lower Cases

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 129 pages, in Romanian

A short history on Smarandache's avant-garde movement called "paradoxism" in Romanian, English, Portuguese, French, Spanish. Also, polemics and manifestos on paradoxism, new literary species introduced by the author (paradoxist distichs, dualistic distichs, tautological distichs, etc.), reviews, interviews.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[47] viXra:1011.0048 [pdf] submitted on 21 Mar 2010

Besides and Behind Paradoxism

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 127 pages, in Romanian

"Besides and Behind Paradoxism" comprises essays, in Romanian language, on Florentin Smarandache's literary non-paradoxist work (especially his diaries and metaphoric verses), by Silviu Popescu, Marian Barbu, Titu Popescu, Daniel Deleanu, Alexandru Lungu, Evelina Oprea, Lucian Chisu, Ion Radu Zagreanu, Ion Rotaru. Interviews by Florentin Smarandache with Octavian Blaga, Ada Cirstoiu, Mihail I. Vlad, A. D. Rachieru, Emil Burlacu, Veronica Balaj, Ion Stanica (Radio France Internationale). Florentin Smarandache in correspondence with 32 writers, among them: Andre Peragallo, Nancy Wilson, Gloria Badarau, Bernardo Schiavetta, Beverly J. Kleikamp, Jessie Hraska, Olof G. Tandberg, Harriet G. Hunt, Al. Cistelecan, Paul Goma, Dan Danila, Constantin Corduneanu, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[46] viXra:1011.0047 [pdf] submitted on 21 Mar 2010

On New Functions in Number Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 98 pages, in Romanian

New functions introduced in number theory by the author are presented, studied, generalized some of them, and contributions of other mathematicians to these functions are also showed up.
Category: Number Theory

[45] viXra:1011.0046 [pdf] submitted on 21 Mar 2010

Hermeneutics of Paradoxism

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 122 pages, in Romanian

"Paradoxism's Hermeneutics" includes selected by the editor articles on paradoxism, in Romanian language, articles written by Marian Barbu, George Bajenaru, Radu Enescu, Ovidiu Ghidirmic, Dumitru Ichim, Alexandru Lungu, Mircea Marinescu, Ion Rotaru, Geo Vasile, etc. Paradoxism in science, arts and letters was set up by Florentin Smarandache in 1980 and then used in many creations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[44] viXra:1011.0045 [pdf] submitted on 21 Mar 2010

New Functions in Number Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 120 pages, in Romanian

Definitions, constructions, properties, and solved and unsolved problems on Smarandache type functions are presented in this book.
Category: Number Theory

[43] viXra:1011.0044 [pdf] submitted on 19 Nov 2010

Explanation of the Parameters of the S. Marinov's Curve

Authors: Vincenzo Sicari
Comments: 3 pages

Explanation of the parameters of the S. Marinov's curve
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[42] viXra:1011.0043 [pdf] replaced on 13 Dec 2010

Cosmological and Intrinsic Redshifts

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 5 pages

In a recent article, a single tired light mechanism, based in the interaction between electromagnetic waves, has been proposed for explaining both redshifts: cosmological (without expansion of the universe) and intrinsic. A second paper specifies that said interaction would be the scattering. This article is to reinforce and clarify the whole idea.
Category: Astrophysics

[41] viXra:1011.0042 [pdf] replaced on 20 Nov 2010

A Complete Graph Model of the Schwarzschild Black Hole

Authors: S. Halayka
Comments: 3 pages

A complete graph model of the Schwarzschild black hole
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[40] viXra:1011.0041 [pdf] submitted on 18 Nov 2010

Photon Diffraction

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures

In this article two types of diffraction are considered: the macroscopic diffraction occurs whether with electromagnetic waves or with photon beams like light, the photon diffraction or nanoscopic diffration occurs only with photons. The difference between the two diffractions depends on both the width of the slot and the wavelength of radiation. This consideration proves further that electromagnetism and optics, including in optics infrared, visible, ultraviolet and X radiation, have a different physical nature: electromagnetism is characterized by waves, optics by photon beams. The frequency band employed by infrared radiation represents the point of connection between the two diffractions and the two physical behaviours.
Category: Classical Physics

[39] viXra:1011.0040 [pdf] submitted on 17 Nov 2010

Rayleigh Benard Convection: a Hydrodynamics Analysis

Authors: Zhe Wu
Comments: 7 pages, the article will be submitted to 'Journal of Fluids and Structures'

see paper
Category: Classical Physics

[38] viXra:1011.0039 [pdf] submitted on 17 Nov 2010

Some Orbital and Other Properties of the 'Special Gravitating Annulus'

Authors: Guy Moore, Richard Moore
Comments: 40 pages

Our obtaining the analytical equations for the gravitation of a particular type of mathematical annulus, which we called a 'Special Gravitating Annulus' (SGA), greatly facilitates studying its orbital properties by computer programming. This includes isomorphism, periodic and chaotic polar orbits, and orbits in three dimensions. We provide further insights into the gravitational properties of this annulus and describe our computer algorithms and programs. We study a number of periodic orbits, giving them names to aid identification. 'Ellipses extraordinaires' which are bisected by the annulus, have no gravitating matter at either focus and represent a fundamental departure from the normal association of elliptical orbits with Keplerian motion. We describe how we came across this type of orbit and the analysis we performed. We present the simultaneous differential equations of motion of 'ellipses extraordinaires' and other orbits as a mathematical challenge. The 'St.Louis Gateway Arch' orbit contains two 'instantaneous static points' (ISP). Polar elliptical orbits can wander considerably without tending to form other kinds of orbit. If this type of orbit is favoured then this gives a similarity to spiral galaxies containing polar orbiting material. Annular oscillatory orbits and rotating polar elliptical orbits are computed in isometric projection. A 'daisy' orbit is computed in stereo-isometric projection. The singularity at the centre of the SGA is discussed in relation to mechanics and computing, and it appears mathematically different from a black hole. In the Appendix, we prove by a mathematical method that a thin plane self-gravitating Newtonian annulus, free from external influence, exhibiting radial gravitation that varies inversely with the radius in the annular plane, must have an area mass density which also varies inversely with the radius and this exact solution is the only exact solution.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[37] viXra:1011.0038 [pdf] submitted on 17 Nov 2010

Interval Linear Algebra

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 249 pages

This Interval arithmetic or interval mathematics developed in 1950's and 1960's by mathematicians as an approach to putting bounds on rounding errors and measurement error in mathematical computations. However no proper interval algebraic structures have been defined or studies. In this book we for the first time introduce several types of interval linear algebras and study them.
Category: Algebra

[36] viXra:1011.0037 [pdf] submitted on 14 Nov 2010

Lattice Rationals

Authors: Nathaniel S. K. Hellerstein
Comments: 17 pages

This paper redefines the addition of rational numbers, in a way that allows division by zero. This requires defining a "compensator" on the integers, plus extending least-common-multiple (LCM) to zero and negative numbers. "Compensated addition" defines ordinary addition on all ratios, including the 'infinities' n/0, and also 'zeroids' 0/n. The infinities and the zeroids form two 'double ringlets'. The lattice rationals modulo the zeroids yields the infinities plus the 'wheel numbers'. Due to the presence of the 'alternator' @ = 0/-1, double-distribution does not apply, but triple-distribution still does.
Category: Algebra

[35] viXra:1011.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-05 14:03:26

The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs: Part V

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 10 Pages.

The IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons) are the field vectors (force carriers) of the weak force. The IVBs reconstitute (or revisit) the very energy dense, early metric of spacetime (during the "Big Bang"), and their mass is the probable consequence of the binding energy necessary to condense, compact, and/or convolute the spacetime metric to a particular symmetric energy state, defined by a specific force-unification era (such as the Electroweak Era, for instance), with a specific energy density and temperature. Originally, the "W" IVBs were indistinguishable from the early dense metric of which they were a part - the energy level of electroweak unification. The "Electroweak Era" (EW) existed from 10(-12) to 10(-35) seconds after the Big Bang, when collision energy exceeded 100 GEV and the temperature exceeded 10(15) Kelvins. During this time (a tiny fraction of a second in human terms) the whole of spacetime - the whole Cosmos - was in effect a single huge "W" IVB within which all the transitions of "identity" within the lepton family of particles (including the heavy leptons), and all the transitions of "flavor" within the quark family of particles (including quarks of the heavy baryons or "hyperons"), could take place freely without restriction or energy barriers (during the EW Era, quark and lepton families were unified among themselves, but quarks remained separate from leptons.) (See: Brian Greene: "The Fabric of the Cosmos", page 270, Knopf, 2004.)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[34] viXra:1011.0034 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Le Mouvement Littéraire Paradoxiste

Authors: Constantin M. Popa
Comments: 39 pages

The author studies the paradoxism, a movement originated by the dissident mathematician Florentin Smarandache in 1980's and based on usage of paradoxes and contradictions in arts, literature, philosophy, mathematics, science. The author compare paradoxism with other avant-gardes of the first part of the twenty's century.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[33] viXra:1011.0033 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Chinese Neutrosophy and Taoist Natural Philosophy

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jiang Zhengjie
Comments: 152 pages

While Taoism is based on the union of opposites, Neutrosophy considers the union of opposites and the neutralities in between them. We thought that Neutrosophy and traditional Chinese Dialectics may be combined, and establish the Chinese Neutrosophy concept, with its premise about the existence of the universal absolute main body, whose existence may be theoretically proven through the establishment of Taoist Natural Philosophy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32] viXra:1011.0032 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Subjective Questions and Answers for a Mathematics Instructor of Higher Education

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 pages

This article of mathematical education reflects author's experience with job applications and teaching methods and procedures to employ in the American Higher Education. It is organized as a standard questionnaire.
Category: Education and Didactics

[31] viXra:1011.0031 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

A Generalization of an Inequality of Tchebychev

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 1 pages

Demonstration by recurrence on m .
Category: Number Theory

[30] viXra:1011.0030 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

A Generalization of the Inequality of Minkowski

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 1 pages

If p is a real number...
Category: Number Theory

[29] viXra:1011.0029 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

A Generalization of the Inequality of H&oulm;lder

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 pages

One generalizes the inequality of Hödler thanks to a reasoning by recurrence. As particular cases, one obtains a generalization of the inequality of Cauchy-Buniakovski-Scwartz, and some interesting applications.
Category: Number Theory

[28] viXra:1011.0028 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

Generalizations of Degargues Theorem

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 1 pages

Let's consider the points...
Category: Geometry

[27] viXra:1011.0027 [pdf] submitted on 20 Mar 2010

A Generalization of the Inequality Cauchybouniakovski-Schwarz

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 pages

Let us consider the real numbers...
Category: Number Theory

[26] viXra:1011.0026 [pdf] submitted on 12 Nov 2010

The Effects of Gravity on the Mind's Perception

Authors: Jeffrey S. Keen
Comments: 6 pages

This paper demonstrates that by using Noetics, the mind can quantitatively track the earth's annual elliptical orbit around the sun, due to the change in the earth-sun gravitational attraction. These measurements have a remarkable correlation coefficient of 0.9999 to the inverse of the Newtonian gravitational force raised to the power of 6.
Category: Mind Science

[25] viXra:1011.0025 [pdf] submitted on 12 Nov 2010

The Parameters of S. Marinov's Curve (Evidence for My Three-dimensional Time and my new Wave Formula)

Authors: Vincenzo Sicari
Comments: 2 pages

There are various physics phenomenon which can find a simple explanation in linking gravity and electromagnetism. Einstein's Relativity can simply explain only the mass because he considered time as a scalar rather than a vector. The intension of this paper is to propose a new point of view, treating time as a three-dimensional vector, finding three vector value formula by three-dimensional space-time formula (curvature formula), finding a new symmetry on the plane for a wave equation substitute for Maxwell's symmetrical wave, only E and only B, not E and B linked. This linking is in error; in fact they are a two sum effect. The electromagnetic wave in space has, as well known, three energy components: B field E field and wave length (frequency). This energy is acknowledged, but we must see the wave like an elastic chain of single wavelets (a string of individual wavelets).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] viXra:1011.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2012-07-22 23:10:55

Introduction to the Higgs Boson Papers

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 15 Pages.

Although I had heard about, read about, and wondered about the "Higgs boson" for years, I simply couldn't get a "feel" for this particle, mostly because I was unable to place it within any overall, coherent scheme of physical phenomena. I didn't want to believe in its reality, but I hadn't wanted to believe in the reality of the "W" and "Z" IVBs, either. Having eaten a large serving of humble pie with the discovery of these particles in the early 1980s at CERN, I was not eager for second helpings from the Higgs, so I kept searching for its conservation role. What finally broke the impasse for me was the article by Gordon Kane in Scientific American (and there is much else in this article I don't agree with), which mentioned there could be more than one Higgs boson. (See: "The Mysteries of Mass" by Gordon Kane, Scientific American , July 2005, pp. 41-48.) That idea allowed me almost immediately to "do my thing", which is the construction of General Systems hierarchies, using the "phase transition" energy levels, or force- unification symmetric energy states, as benchmarks for the four sequential steps of a weak force decay "cascade" from the "Multiverse" to "ground state" atomic matter in our universe, with one step allotted to each of the four forces as they joined (or separated from) the unification hierarchy, and one Higgs boson identifying each unified-force energy plateau. (See: "Table of the Higgs Cascade".) (On July 4, 2012, CERN announced the tentative discovery of a massive, Higgs-like boson, at 126 GEV on the LHC at Geneva, Switzerland.)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[23] viXra:1011.0023 [pdf] replaced on 11 Nov 2010

The Dirac Equation in Accelerating Frames

Authors: Jack Sarfatti
Comments: 4 pages

I predict a new translational-rotational coupling in rotating frames that may have been missed hitherto. This eq. 1.12 below should give rise to new physics of clamped charges in rotating capacitors for example. Since accelerating frames are also locally equivalent to Newton's gravity force there may be some new quantum mechanical effects here as well.
Category: Mind Science

[22] viXra:1011.0022 [pdf] submitted on 11 Nov 2010

Consciousness-mediated Spin Theory: The Transcendental Ground of Quantum Reality

Authors: Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu
Comments: 34 pages

It is our comprehension that Conciousness is both transcendent and immanent as simialarly understood in Hinuism. The transcendetal aspect of Conciousness produced and influences reality through self-referential spin as the interactive output of Conciousness. In turn, relaiuty produces and influences immanent aspect of Conciousness as the interactive inout to Conciousness through self-referential spin. The spin-mediated copnsciousness theory as originally proposed has mainly dealt with the immenant aspect of Conciousness which is driven by the self-referential spin processes. This paper focuses and "e;regurgitates" on the transcendental aspect of Conciousness which drives the self0referential spin processes.
Category: Mind Science

[21] viXra:1011.0021 [pdf] submitted on 11 Nov 2010

Experimental Support of Spin-mediated Consciousness Theory from Various Sources

Authors: Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu
Comments: 29 pages

This paper summarizes experimental support to spin-mdeiated conciousness theory from variuos sources including the results of our own. Ind oing so we also provide explanations bases on this theory to experimental phenomena such as out-of-body experience and sensed presence. quantum-like cognitive functions and optical illusions. Whether one agrees or not with the spin-mediated consciousness theory is for one alone to judge. In any event, the importance of the experimental results mentioned in this paper is obvious: quantum effects play important roles in brain/cognitive functions despite of the denials and suspicions of the naysayer and skeptics.
Category: Mind Science

[20] viXra:1011.0020 [pdf] submitted on 11 Nov 2010

Current Landscape and Future Direction of Theoretical & Experimental Quantum Brain/Mind/Consciousness Research

Authors: Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu
Comments: 10 pages

The issues surrounding quantum brain/mind/conciousness research are both confusing and complex. If one can manage to grasp these issues, one may find that the past of this field has been fruitful and its future is indeed very promising. The current landscape and past achievements in this filed have already been discussed by our colleagues as pointed herein. This editorial mainly attempts to classify/clarify some of the major issues and discuss what are lying ahead. Whatever difficulties may still remain, recent experimental results by several groups including those of the aauthors' own make it very clear that quantum effects play important roles in brain functions despite of the denials and suspicions of the naysayer and skeptics
Category: Mind Science

[19] viXra:1011.0019 [pdf] submitted on 11 Nov 2010

On Reduction

Authors: Nathaniel S. K. Hellerstein
Comments: 33 pages

In this paper I discuss "reduction", a.k.a. "reciprocal addition"; addition conjugated by reciprocal. I discuss reduction's definition, its laws, its graphs, its geometry, its algebra, its calculus, and its practical applications. This paper contains a problem set with answer key.
Category: Algebra

[18] viXra:1011.0018 [pdf] replaced on 21 Dec 2010

The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons): A General Systems Perspective (parts II, III, IV)

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 10 pages

The IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons) are the field vectors (force carriers) of the weak force. The IVBs reconstitute the very dense, early metric of spacetime (during the "Big Bang"), and their mass is the probable consequence of the binding energy necessary to condense, compact, and/or convolute the spacetime metric. Originally, the "W" IVBs were indistinguishable from the early dense metric of which they were a part - the energy level of electroweak unification. The "Electroweak Era" existed from 10(-12) to 10(-35) seconds after the Big Bang, when collision energy exceeded 100 GEV and the temperature exceeded 10(15) Kelvins. During this time (a tiny fraction of a second in human terms) the whole of spacetime - the whole Cosmos - was in effect a single huge "W" IVB within which all the transitions of "identity" within the lepton family of particles (including the heavy leptons), and all the transitions of "flavor" within the quark family of particles (including quarks of the heavy baryons or "hyperons"), could take place freely without restriction or energy barriers (quark and lepton families were unified among themselves, but quarks remained separate from leptons.) (See: Brian Greene: "The Fabric of the Cosmos", page 270, Knopf, 2004.)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1011.0017 [pdf] submitted on 10 Nov 2010

Another Look at the Cosmological Model of Omnès

Authors: Henry D. May
Comments: 7 pages

The cosmological model of Roland Omnès was abandoned more than 30 years ago because it failed to show that coalescence was able to continue long enough to produce aggregations as large as the masses of galaxies. It was also determined that a universe containing antimatter galaxies is inconsistent with observations of cosmic annihilation radiation. This paper explores the implications of a simple assumption that suggests a reevaluation of those objections is needed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1011.0016 [pdf] replaced on 6 Apr 2011

In Support of Comte-Sponville

Authors: Elemér E Rosinger
Comments: 165 pages.

When I was a small boy, about two years old, on occasion, I had some nightmares. One morning I mentioned that to my Mother, and she replied, in a most natural matter of course manner, as if it had been about a simple and trivial issue, that next time, when I would again have such a nightmare, I should simply remember that I was dreaming, that all it would only be in a dream, and then I should just wake up ... Since my Mother's reply came so instantly, smoothly, and without the least emotion, let alone dramatization, I simply took it as such ... And next time, when a nightmare came upon me during my dream, I simply did, and yes, I managed rather naturally to do, what my Mother had told me to do ... And never ever I would again have nightmares for more than a mere moment, before I would manage to wake up from them ... Later, nightmares would, so to say, even avoid me completely...
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[15] viXra:1011.0015 [pdf] submitted on 8 Nov 2010

Gravitational Energy Cannot Be Negative: a Comment on The Grand Design

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 3 pages

The authors of The Grand Design treat the gravitational energy of a large astronomical object as a negative quantity. The formula used to calculate gravitational energy is GM 2 r , in which all quantities are positive. Even if mass were considered to be negative, the square of the mass is a positive quantity. All other quantities in the formula are positive because G is positive, and since there is no such physical thing as a negative radius, r is positive. The authors have simply affixed a negative sign in front of the formula, which is neither correct mathematically nor physically. We show in this paper that the correct treatment of gravitational energy leads to the conclusion that Earth's gravitational energy produces Earth's space. Earth has its own space, as does every astronomical object in the Universe. The general overall space of the Universe, therefore, is a series of interacting spaces.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] viXra:1011.0014 [pdf] submitted on 8 Nov 2010

Identity Charge and the Origin of Life

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 4 pages

"Identity" charge (also known as "number" charge) is the fundamental charge of the weak force and the most important of the particle charges. Identity charge is the symmetry debt of light's anonymity, or complete lack of identity. One photon cannot be distinguished from another, but the elementary leptonic particles are distinct from photons and from each other, and hence carry identity charges. Neutrinos are the explicit or "bare" form of identity charge, which is also carried in a "hidden" or implicit form by the massive leptonic elementary particles - electrons and their heavier kin. Single elementary particles cannot enter or leave the 4-dimensional realm of manifest reality without a conserving identity charge - the functional equivalent of a human "soul" or a citizen's passport. The utility of identity charge (in terms of symmetry conservation) is to facilitate particle-antiparticle annihilations by helping particles identify their appropriate "anti-mates" in a timely fashion - ensuring a conserved pathway for elementary particles returning to their original state of symmetry (light). For more on the function of identity charge see: "Identity Charge and the Weak Force", and "The Origin of Matter and Information".
Category: Biochemistry

[13] viXra:1011.0013 [pdf] submitted on 8 Nov 2010

Nonlinear Theory of Elementary Particles: 5.the Electron and Positron Equations (Linear Approach)

Authors: Alexander G. Kyriakos
Comments: 18 pages.

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the mechanism of generation of massive fermions - electron and positron. The presented below theory describes the electron and positron mass production by means of breakdown of massive intermediate boson without the presence of Higgs's boson. It is shown that nonlinearity is critical for the appearance of fermions' currents and masses. Here is considered only the linear form of equations. The analysis of nonlinear forms will be making in the following chapter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[12] viXra:1011.0012 [pdf] submitted on 7 Nov 2010

Mach Principle Applied to Rotary Motion: Centrifugal Force in a Spinning Reference Frame as a Consequence of Gravitational Interaction with the Universe

Authors: Leonid I. Filippov
Comments: 11 pages, 8 figures, In Russian

The mass point is moving along the circle of a radius at angular velocity of ω and interacts with the spherical domain of 3.1026m radius, with a uniform mass and 10-26 kg/m3density. As a result of the treatment we arrive at the formula for a centrifugal force F = m,ω2.a.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1011.0011 [pdf] submitted on 6 Nov 2010

Re-Identification of the Many-World Background of Special Relativity as Four-World Background. Part II.

Authors: Akindele O. J. Adekugbe
Comments: 15 pages. Paper to appear in Progress in Physics vol.1, 2011, pp. 25-39.

The re-identification of the many-world background of the special theory of relativity (SR) as four-world background in the first part of this paper (instead of two-wold background isolated in the initial papers), is concluded in this second part. The flat two-dimensional proper intrinsic spacetime, which underlies the flat four-dimensional proper spacetime in each universe, introduced as ansatz in the initial paper, is derived formally within the four-world picture. The identical magnitudes of masses, identical sizes and identical shapes of the four members of every quartet of symmetry-partner particles or objects in the four universes are shown. The immutability of Lorentz invariance on flat spacetime of SR in each of the four universes is shown to arise as a consequence of the perfect symmetry of relative motion at all times among the four members of every quartet of symmetry-partner particles and objects in the four universes. The The perfect symmetry of relative motions at all times, coupled with the identical magnitudes of masses, identical sizes and identical shapes, of the members of every quartet of symmetry-partner particles and objects in the four universes, guarantee perfect symmetry of state among the universes.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1011.0010 [pdf] submitted on 6 Nov 2010

Re-Identification of the Many-World Background of Special Relativity as Four-World Background. Part I.

Authors: Akindele O. J. Adekugbe
Comments: 22 pages. Paper to appear in Progress in Physics, vol.1, 2011, pp. 3-24.

The pair of co-existing symmetrical universes, referred to as our (or positive) universe and negative universe, isolated and shown to constitute a two-world background for the special theory of relativity (SR) in previous papers, encompasses another pair of symmetrical universes, referred to as positive time-universe and negative time-universe. The Euclidean 3-spaces (in the context of SR) of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe constitute the time dimensions of our (or positive) universe and the negative universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces of our universe and the negative universe and the Euclidean 3-spaces of or our universe and the negative universe constitute the time dimensions of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe. Thus time is a secondary concept derived from the concept of space according to this paper. The one-dimensional particle or object in time dimension to every three-dimensional particle or object in 3-space in our universe is a three-dimensional particle or object in 3-space in the positive time-universe. Perfect symmetry of natural laws is established among the resulting four universes and two outstanding issues about the new spacetime/intrinsic spacetime geometrical representation of Lorentz transformation/intrinsic Lorentz transformation in the two-world picture, developed in the previous papers, are resolved within the larger four-world picture in this first part of this paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:1011.0009 [pdf] replaced on 13 Dec 2010

Generalized Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Saurav Dwivedi
Comments: 10 pages.

Quantum theory brought an irreducible lawlessness in physics. This is accompanied by lack of specification of state of a system. We can not measure states even though they ever existed. We can measure only transition from one state into another. We deduce this lack of determination of state mathematically, and thus provide formalism for maximum precision of determination of mixed states. However, the results thus obtained show consistency with Heisenberg's uncertainty relations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:1011.0008 [pdf] replaced on 3 May 2010

Global and Local Gauge Symmetries: Part V

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 9 pages.

We observe that the "local gauge symmetry currents" (the field vectors of the forces, or components thereof), are in the case of both the spacetime metric (time) and the electromagnetic force (magnetism), derived from an implicit expression embedded in the original global symmetry state. Magnetism, for example, occurs in its primordial state as the magnetic half of an electromagnetic wave, or light. Likewise, time occurs in an implicit and suppressed state ("frequency") in the global metric of space, again as gauged by the global energy and metric constant c (frequency x wavelength = c). This naturally leads us to suspect the same relationship should hold for the two particle forces (strong and weak forces) - we should find the precursors of their local, material gauge currents in the primordial and symmetric global metric of light and space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1011.0007 [pdf] submitted on 4 Nov 2010

A New Face of the Multiverse Hypothesis: Bosonic-Phononic Inflaton Quantum Universes

Authors: Lukasz Glinka
Comments: 12 pages, published in Prespacetime Journal 1(9), pp. 1395-1402 (November 2010)

The boson-phonon duality due to inflaton energy is presented in the context of quantum universes discussed recently by the author. The duality leads to bonons, i.e. the bosonic-phononic quantum universes. This state of things manifestly corresponds to the Lewis-Kripke modal realism, and physical presence of Multiverse in Nature.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1011.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2 Nov 2010

Equivalent Photon Model of Matter

Authors: Juan Carlos Alcerro Mena
Comments: 11 pages

An unpublished observation made in the theory of relativity, reveals a reality of higher spatial dimensions which implies a new model of matter, called equivalent photon model of matter, which displays every particle with rest mass greater than zero, as a photon in a fourdimensional space (without referring to the space-time). This gives an alternative derivation of quantum physics, also can observe the reality behind special relativity, arise physical predictions that not are covered by the existing physical theory and spontaneously arises the concept of fivedimensional space-time, with its fourth spatial axis of compact type.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1011.0005 [pdf] submitted on 3 Nov 2010

La Prova! a Last (T.o.e.)

Authors: Vincenzo Sicari
Comments: 38 pages

My theory states that our space-time (energy) is 6-dimensional; three spatial and three time, but only if the energy and thus the mass is considered as the effect of curvature.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1011.0004 [pdf] submitted on 3 Nov 2010

The Economical Expression of the Muon-, Neutron-, and Proton-Electron Mass Ratios

Authors: J. S. Markovitch
Comments: 6 pages

It is demonstrated that the proton-, neutron-, and muon-electron mass ratios may be expressed precisely and economically with the aid of two constants that derive from twin approximations of the fine structure constant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[3] viXra:1011.0003 [pdf] submitted on 3 Nov 2010

Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm: III. The Big Bang

Authors: Royce Haynes
Comments: 11 pages, Paper 3 in series of 3, "Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm", submitted to Apeiron, November 2, 2010.

In the first paper in this series, we described a "cosmic fabric" which served as the birthplace of our universe: spin-oriented hydrogen atoms at zero Kelvin in a matrix perhaps infinite and (almost) eternal. In the second paper we described how a portion of the cosmic fabric ultimately condensed into a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), the "primeval atom". In this third paper we describe the Big Bang itself, an implosion-explosion event involving nuclear fusion of hydrogen into the primordial mix of elements. Using the ZKBB model, one can calculate the approximate temperature of the Big Bang as 5.7 billion K. The explosion fragmented the remaining BEC, propelling billions of fragments of "cosmic shrapnel" out from the locus of the Big Bang, which ultimately evolved into the structures we see in our present universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1011.0002 [pdf] submitted on 3 Nov 2010

Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm: II. Bose-Einstein Condensation and the Primeval Atom

Authors: Royce Haynes
Comments: 8 pages, Paper 2 in series of 3, "Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm", submitted to Apeiron, November 2, 2010.

In the first paper in this series, we described the logic suggesting a "cosmic fabric", which served as the birthplace of our universe: a sparse distribution of spin-oriented hydrogen atoms at zero Kelvin, perhaps infinite and (almost) eternal. This second paper describes how a portion of this cosmic fabric could have condensed into a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This cold ball of highly concentrated matter may be the "primeval atom", proposed by Georges Lemaître in 1931, as the starting point for our universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1011.0001 [pdf] submitted on 3 Nov 2010

Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm: I. Logic and the Cosmic Fabric

Authors: Royce Haynes
Comments: 13 pages, Paper 1 in series of 3, "Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm", submitted to Apeiron, November 2, 2010.

This is the first in a series of papers describing an alternative paradigm for the history of the universe. The Zero Kelvin Big Bang (ZKBB) theory is compared to the prevailing paradigm of the Standard Big Bang (SBB), and challenges the notion that the universe is "all there is". Logic suggests that the Big Bang was not a creation event, but that the universe did have a beginning: a "cosmic fabric" of pre-existing matter, in pre-existing space. Instead, the ZKBB was a transitional event between that "beginning" and our present universe. Extrapolating entropy back in time (as SBB does for matter and energy) and applying simple logic suggests a "cosmic fabric" consisting of the simplest, stable particles of matter, at the lowest energy state possible: singlet state, spin-oriented atomic hydrogen at zero Kelvin, at a density of, at most, only a few atoms per cubic meter of space, infinite and (almost) eternal. Papers II and III in this series describe formation of an atomic hydrogen Bose-Einstein condensate as Lemaître's primeval atom, followed by an implosion-explosion Big Bang.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology