[52] **viXra:1012.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Yu Liang, Qichang Liang

**Comments:** 3 pages

We proposed a new technology that generates propulsion force via electromagnetic
interaction between a toroidal solenoid and a parallel plate capacitor. It is shown
that the charge on the capacitor experience none-zero Coulomb force in the electric
field induced by the alternating current in the solenoid, while the capacitor exert
zero force to the solenoid. This technology can be used as electric propulsion in
aerospace engineering.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[51] **viXra:1012.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 9 pages, entry for FQXi essay contest "Is Reality Digital or Analog?"

It has been suggested that reality works like a quantum computer, but such claims are just
words if they are not backed up by sound mathematics. In pursuit of the fundamental
equations I look to string theory where physicists led by Mike Duff have noticed useful
connections between the quantum gravity of black holes and quantum information theory.
By building on my earlier work on universal symmetry in string theory and using links
between elliptic curves and hyperdeterminants, I find intriguing clues that these
connections may be deep as well as useful. Ultimately any theory of the foundations of
physics must explain why there are four forces and three generations of fermions. In
string theory this would be a consequence of the choice of vacua. If a consistent
formulation of string theory constructed from quantum bits can be found, it may be
possible to understand the vast landscape of possibilities better and reverse engineer
the program that codes our universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[50] **viXra:1012.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 9 pages, v3 in Italian, v2 in English, corrections to the tables, and a new table added.

There are 32 possible combinations of symmetry operations that define the external symmetry of
crystals. These 32 possible combinations result in the 32 crystal classes.
But for a radar engineer it is inevitable to associate “32” to “5 bits”.
I submit a tentative classification of the 32 crystal classes with a 5 bit classification, obviously with
a (tentative) physical meaning of each bit.
Each bit means a physical property.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[49] **viXra:1012.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 8 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 12 pages, The physically most appropriate linear mapping into a Schroedinger equation of such an oscillatory classical system that has a symmetric, positive-definite coupling-strength matrix is given in general closed form.
Also archived as arXiv:1101.0168 [physics.gen-ph].

The time-dependent Schrödinger equation with time-independent Hamiltonian matrix is a homogeneous
linear oscillatory system in canonical form. We investigate whether any classical system that itself
is linear, homogeneous, oscillatory and conservative is guaranteed to linearly map into a Schrödinger
equation. Such oscillatory classical systems can be analyzed into their normal modes, which are mutually
independent, uncoupled simple harmonic oscillators, and the equation of motion of such a system linearly
maps into a Schrödinger equation whose Hamiltonian matrix is diagonal, with h times the individual simple
harmonic oscillator frequencies as its diagonal entries. Therefore if the coupling-strength matrix of
such an oscillatory system is presented in symmetric, positive-definite form, the Hamiltonian matrix of the
Schrödinger equation it maps into is h-bar times the square root of that coupling-strength matrix. We obtain
a general expression for mapping this type of oscillatory classical equation of motion into a Schrödinger
equation, and apply it to the real-valued classical Klein-Gordon equation and the source-free Maxwell
equations, which results in relativistic Hamiltonian operators that are strictly compatible with the correspondence
principle. Once such an oscillatory classical system has been mapped into a Schrödinger
equation, it is automatically in canonical form, making second quantization of that Schrödinger equation
a technically simple as well as a physically very interpretable way to quantize the original classical system.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[48] **viXra:1012.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 8 pages, Also archived as arXiv:1012.5120 [physics.gen-ph].

It has recently been shown that the classical electric and magnetic fields which satisfy the sourcefree
Maxwell equations can be linearly mapped into the real and imaginary parts of a transverse-vector
wave function which in consequence satisfies the time-dependent Schrödinger equation whose Hamiltonian
operator is physically appropriate to the free photon. The free-particle Klein-Gordon equation for scalar
fields modestly extends the classical wave equation via a mass term. It is physically untenable for complexvalued
wave functions, but has a sound nonnegative conserved-energy functional when it is restricted to
real-valued classical fields. Canonical Hamiltonization and a further canonical transformation maps the
real-valued classical Klein-Gordon field and its canonical conjugate into the real and imaginary parts
of a scalar wave function (within a constant factor) which in consequence satisfies the time-dependent
Schrödinger equation whose Hamiltonian operator has the natural correspondence-principle relativistic
square-root form for a free particle, with a mass that matches the Klein-Gordon field theory's mass term.
Quantization of the real-valued classical Klein-Gordon field is thus second quantization of this natural
correspondence-principle first-quantized relativistic Schrödinger equation. Source-free electromagnetism
is treated in a parallel manner, but with the classical scalar Klein-Gordon field replaced by a transverse
vector potential that satisfies the classical wave equation. This reproduces the previous first-quantized
results that were based on Maxwell's source-free electric and magnetic field equations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[47] **viXra:1012.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Peter C. Chindove

**Comments:** 5 pages.

It would seem to me that paragraphs like this serve one main purpose - to
make the reader aware of the reputation of the author and their ability to satisfy
the proposition made by the chosen title. Basically, by the time the reader has
read this abstract they will have become either more eager or more suspicious.
In my estimation, this is a kind of courtship ritual among scientists. I am
like a peacock, I spread my feathers and type/whisper 'whype' sweet things that
entice you into some kind of delusion.
Sadly, for you, you have neither heard of me nor are you at this stage frothing
at the mouth, chomping at the bit to read on. But, surely you must be mad to
stop here.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[46] **viXra:1012.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 95 pages.

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This
is the Book proof. No great mathematicians study prime problems and prove Riemann
hypothesis in AIM, CLAYMI, IAS, THES, MPIM, MSRI. In this paper using Jiang function
J_{2}(ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (841)-(890) contain infinitely many prime
solutions and no prime solutions. From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution
(see paper). This is the Book theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[45] **viXra:1012.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Lawrence B. Crowell

**Comments:** 13 pages.

The holographic principle of black holes tells us the field theoretic information of strings on the event
horizon is completely equivalent to field theoretic information in the spacetime one dimension larger outside.
This physics is observed on a frame stationary with respect to the black hole. The question naturally arises;
what physics is accessed by the observer falling through the event horizon on an inertial frame? This paper
examines this and demonstrates a duality between the two perspectives. This question is important for the
black hole small enough to exhibit fluctuations comparable to its scale. A sufficiently small quantum black
hole will be composed of strings in a superposition of interior and exterior configurations or states

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] **viXra:1012.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** A.Takahashi, A. Kitamura, Y. Sasaki, Y. Miyoshi, A. Taniike, R. Seto, Y. Fujita

**Comments:** 18 pages, This is a preprint of our paper to J. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science,
Vol.4, to be published in 2011.

The PdO-coated layer of Pd-nano-particle may arrange fractal nano-dips on its surface when D(H)-gas
is charged and de-oxidation molecules (D2O or H2O) are released.
Fractal nano-dips may make local deep adsorption potentials, through which rapid penetration of D-atoms
(ions) into deeper Pd-local lattice (Bloch potential) O-sites of nano-particle may be induced, to realize
full or over-full D(H) loaded state (x>1.0) of PdDx in a short time of the Phase-I process. Formation of
D-clusters, such as 4D/TSC on surface may be enhanced at nano-dips. A phenomenological model of quasi-free
D-motion under constraint of the Bloch potential within a global mesoscopic potential well is proposed
for the Phase-II phenomena, where nuclear heating by 4D fusion reactions may rather steadily take place.
Generation of collective mesoscopic potential well (CMPW) will make a Pd nano-particle with PdO working
as “mesoscopic catalyst” which realizes very large D(H)-loading ratios and anomalously large chemical heat
releases both for H-gas and D-gas loading.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[43] **viXra:1012.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Jose Alverez Lopez

**Comments:** 23 pages.

The Lorenatzian "contraction" for length, time, mass and
temperature - taken as functions of a dimensional equation
- enable the author to define the mathematical structure
of the constants of nature. In this way the a priori
determinaation of all the constants of nature has been
rendered possible

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1012.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 31 pages.

This work is a continuation of the prespacetime model described previously. Here we show
how in this model prespacetime generates: (1) energy-momentum-mass relationship as
transcendental Law of One, (2) self-referential Matrix Law with energy-momentum-mass
relationship as the determinant, (3) dual-world Law of Zero and (4) immanent Law of
Conservation of in the external/internal World which may be violated in certain processes.
We further show how prespactime generates, sustain and makes evolving elementary
particles and composite particles incorporating the genesis of self-referential Matrix Law.
In addition, we discuss the ontology and mathematics of ether in this model. Illustratively,
in the beginning there was prespacetime by itself e^{0}=1 materially empty and it began to
imagine through primordial self-referential spin (see paper) such that it created the self-referential Matrix Law, the external
object to be observed and internal object as observed, separated them into external world
and internal world, caused them to interact through said Matrix Law and thus gave birth to
the Universe which it has since sustained and made to evolve.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[41] **viXra:1012.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 31 pages.

In the beginning there was prespacetime (GOD) by itself e
^{0}=1 materially empty and
spiritually restless. And it began to imagine through primordial self-referential spin
(see paper) such that it created the
self-referential Matrix Law, the external object to be observed and internal object as
observed, separated them into external world and internal world, caused them to interact
through said Matrix Law and thus gave birth to the Universe which it has since passionately
loved, sustained and made to evolve. In short, this work is the continuation of our hypothesis
of scientific genesis, sustenance & evolution of the Universe and all creations within (the
principle of existence).

**Category:** Mind Science

[40] **viXra:1012.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** A.Takahashi, A. Kitamura, Y. Miyoshi, H. Sakoh, A. Taniike, R. Seto, Y. Fujita

**Comments:** 11 pages, This is a preprint of our paper to Proceedings of JCF11 Meeting,
Japan CF-Research Society, to be published in 2011.

Discussions with brief summary of the Kobe group’s experiments are given. Phenomenological
modeling on mechanisms are made for explaining observed anomalies in D(H)-overloading and high
heat-power release rates from nano-palladium-particles and binary metal PdNi nano-particles
dispersed in/on ZrO2 ceramics supporter flakes under D(H)-gas loading at room temperature. Roles
of PdO layer and Pd-ad-atoms (incomplete outer shell) of nano-Ni-core are modeled as mesoscopic
catalysts which have sub-nano-holes (SNH) on nano-particle-surfaces. SNH may realize strong
sticking force for D(H)-gas to dissociate and diffuse rapidly into inner local lattice sites.
During the beginning process, 4D/TSC cluster fusions with 1watt/g-Pd(or PdNi) may happen on
surface. By the very over-loading (x>>1) states in the later region of Phase-I and in the
Phase-II after saturation, TSC formation inside nano-particles may be strongly enhanced by the
non-linearly coupled QM oscillation (high free energy states of deuterons in local Bloch
potentials) under the deep mesoscopic global collective potential well.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[39] **viXra:1012.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-09 11:43:32*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Abstract: All natural (inertial) motions are in straight lines. Rotating motion or motion in circular path is the result of simultaneous straight-line motions of 3D matter-particles of a macro body, in different directions at differing linear speeds, appropriate to their locations in it. A macro body, moving in circular path, is under a constant inward effort. It simultaneously has two linear motions; one linear (centripetal) motion due to centripetal effort towards center of circular path and another linear motion due its momentum in a direction deflected outward from tangent to circular path. Outward component of linear motion gives rise to assumption of imaginary ‘centrifugal force’. Centripetal motion not only compensates outward component of linear motion but also deflects direction of linear motion inward. Explanations on rotary motion with respect to absolute (inertial) reference frame can give real parameters without use of imaginary entities. Work, invested by external effort about a macro body, continues to act even after cessation of external effort, until it is stabilized and macro body’s motion attains steady state. Phenomenon of inertial delay operates not only during application of external effort but also during its cessation. Ignoring this fact caused the assumption that direction of instantaneous linear motion of a macro body, moving in a circular path, is tangential to its path. In following explanation, motion of a macro body in circular path is described, in accordance with alternative concept, presented in the book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’. For details, kindly refer to same [1].

**Category:** Classical Physics

[38] **viXra:1012.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Boris Hikin

**Comments:** 9 pages

It is shown that writing the metric tensor in dimensionfull form is mathematically more
appropriate and allows a simple interpretation of the gravitational constant as an emergent
parameter. It is also shown that the value of the gravitational constant is due to the
contribution of all the particles in the Universe. Newton's law of gravitation is derived from
atomic considerations only. The Dirac's large number is related to the number of particles
in the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1012.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper the inconsistency of contemporary quantities of energy and momentum in QM,
TR and CF are demonstrated .To correlate these quantities inevitability of installation rest
momentum po and total momentum
pt according to TR rest and total energy concept is required. It is explained that: (see paper)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1012.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Mohd Shukri Abd Shukor

**Comments:** 30 pages

A new approach in deriving Sum of Power series using reverse look up method, a
method where a mathematical formulation is constructed from set of data. Faulhaber [1]
derived a general equation for Power sums and calculated the terms up to (Part V)

**Category:** Number Theory

[35] **viXra:1012.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Mohd Shukri Abd Shukor

**Comments:** 19 pages

A new approach in deriving Sum of Power series using reverse look up method, a ,method where
a mathematical formulation is constructed from set of data. Faulhaber [1] derived a general equation for
Power sums and calculated the terms up to (Part IV)

**Category:** Number Theory

[34] **viXra:1012.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Mohd Shukri Abd Shukor

**Comments:** 19 pages

An extension of Sum of Power formulation into alternating system. The general
formulation is given as follows:

**Category:** Number Theory

[33] **viXra:1012.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Mohd Shukri Abd Shukor

**Comments:** 18 pages

Sums of Power mainly deal with positive integer power p (i.e. p ε^{+} Z). In this paper, I
would like to show that the sums of power that I had formulated in paper part I [1] also can be
applied to the non-integer power p. The sums of power for positive non-integers (i.e. SPPNI) in
this paper still adopting the same general sums of power formulation. However, the value of m has
no bound and it is used as precision control. The larger the value of m used, the more accuracy the
result would be.

**Category:** Number Theory

[32] **viXra:1012.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Mohd Shukri Abd Shukor

**Comments:** 47 pages

Sum of Power had gathered interest of many classical mathematicians for more than two thousand
years ago. The quests of finding sum of power or discrete sum of numerical power can be traced back
from the time of Archimedes in third BC then to Faulhaber in the sixteen century. Until today there is
no closed form sums of power formulation for an arithmetic progression has been found. Many
mathematicians were involved in this research and many approaches have been introduced but none is
found to be conclusive. The generalized equation for sums of power discovered in this research has
been compared to Faulhaber’s sums of power for integers and it is found that this new generalized
equation can be used for both integers and arithmetic progression, thus offering a new frontier in
studying symmetric function, Fermat’s last theorem, Riemman’s Zeta function etc.

**Category:** Number Theory

[31] **viXra:1012.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 16 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 9 pages

A class of non-Cartesian physical systems, [7], are those whose
composite state spaces are given by signicantly extended tensor products.
A more detailed presentation of the way such extended tensor products
are constructed is oered, based on a step by step comparison with the
construction of usual tensor products. This presentation claries the
extent to which the extended tensor products are indeed more general
than the usual ones.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[30] **viXra:1012.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Noel Eberz

**Comments:** 6 pages

While entitled ‘differently’ is a big order, it is not so much refutation but alternative views
essentially ‘decoded’ from the multiple disciplines of general science. These four concise
assertions can find correlation with both the fine and large scale structure of the universe:
Time as only Now,
Mass as the confinement of Energy,
Defining a base energy form – Optical Gre theory,
Interpreting an electromagnetic Space fabric.
In concert these ideas are interpreted in three parts:
Why Mass & Energy are different or are they?
Justifying an Electromagnetic Space fabric
Originality in decoding Complexity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1012.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 6 pages, this note has been submitted for consideration by the Hadronic Journal

Attention is drawn to a newly suggested modification to the matter/antimatter theory advanced by
Omnès in 1969. The new suggestion is dependent on the existence of supermassive black holes and is
an attempt to invalidate the major objections to that earlier version of the theory. Here it is
noted that many of the results derived apply equally well if the massive body involved is a Michell
dark body. Mention is also made of the alternative theory advanced in 2006 by Santilli.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[28] **viXra:1012.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Muhammad Aslam, Saleem Abdullah

**Comments:** 14 pages

We consider the intuitionistic fuzzi?cation of the concept of several
Γ-ideals in Γ-LA-semigroup S, and investigate some related properties of
such Γ-ideals. We also prove in this paper the set of all intuitionistic fuzzy
left(right) Γ-ideal of S is become LA-semigroup. We prove In Γ-LA band
intuitionistic fuzzy right and left Γ-ideals are coincide..

**Category:** Algebra

[27] **viXra:1012.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Gabriel Di Lemos Santiago Lima

**Comments:** 16 pages

This work is intended to rediscuss the relation between gauge symmetry and current conservation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[26] **viXra:1012.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Gabriel Di Lemos Santiago Lima

**Comments:** 19 pages

This work is intended to estabilish the equivalence between gauge and non-gauge abelian models.
Following a technique proposed by Harada and Tsutsui, it is shown that the Proca and chiral
Schwinger models may be equivalent to correspondent gauge invariant ones. Finally, it is shown
that a gauge invariant version of the chiral Schwinger model, after integrated out the fermions, can
be identified with the 2-D Stueckelberg model without the gauge fixing term.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[25] **viXra:1012.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 27 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Gabriel Di Lemos Santiago Lima

**Comments:** 16 pages

Reviewing a path-integral procedure of recovering gauge invariance from anomalous effective
actions developed by Harada and Tsutsui in the 80's, it is shown that there is another way to achieve
gauge symmetry, besides the one presented by the authors, which may be anomaly-free, preserving
current conservation. It is also shown that the generalization of Harada-Tsutsui technique to other
models which are not anomalous but do not exhibit gauge invariance allows the identification of
the gauge invariant formulation of the Proca model with the Stueckelberg model, leading to the
interpretation of the gauge invariant mapping as a generalization of the Stueckelberg mechanism.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[24] **viXra:1012.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Sicari

**Comments:** 2 pages

There are various physics phenomenon which can find a simple explanation in linking gravity and
electromagnetism. Einstein’s Relativity can simply explain only the
mass because he considered time as a scalar rather than a vector. The intension of this
paper is to propose a new point of view, treating time as a three-dimensional vector,
finding three vector value formula by three-dimensional space-time formula (curvature formula),
finding a new symmetry on the plane for a wave equation substitute for
Maxwell’s symmetrical wave, only E and only B, not E and B linked. This linking
is in error; in fact they are a two sum effect. The electromagnetic wave in space has,
as well known, three energy component: B field E field and wave length (frequency).
This energy is acknowledged, but we must see the wave like an elastic chain of single
wavelets (a string of individual wavelets).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] **viXra:1012.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 2 pages, Published in "Progress in Physics," Vol. 1, 2011.

It is argued that the failure of particle dark matter experiments to verify its existence may be attributable
to a non-Planckian ‘action,’ which renders dark matter’s behavior contradictory to the consequences
of quantum mechanics as it applies to luminous matter. It is pointed out that such a possibility
cannot be convincingly dismissed in the absence of a physical law that prohibits an elementary ‘action’
smaller than Planck’s. It is further noted that no purely dark matter measurement of Planck’s constant
exists. Finally, the possibility of a non-Planckian cold dark matter particle is explored, and found to be
consistent with recent astronomical observations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[22] **viXra:1012.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 9 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 24 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.” (part 6)

**Category:** Number Theory

[21] **viXra:1012.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 9 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 25 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.” (part 5)

**Category:** Number Theory

[20] **viXra:1012.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 6 pages

The following open problem is presented and motivated : Are there
physical systems whose state spaces do not compose according to either
the Cartesian product, as classical systems do, or the usual tensor
product, as quantum systems do ?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[19] **viXra:1012.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 6 pages

Within quantum measurement there is the sharp dierence in the dynamics
between the case when the eigenstate of the prepared quantum
system is different from any of those of the measuring device, and on
the other and, when it is the same with one of those of the measuring
devices. It is argued that here one may face a "second measurement
problem".

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1012.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages

The general solution to Einstein’s vacuum field equations for the point-mass in all
its configurations must be determined in such a way as to provide a means by which
an infinite sequence of particular solutions can be readily constructed. It is from
such a solution that the underlying geometry of Einstein’s universe can be rightly
explored. I report here on the determination of the general solution and its consequences
for the theoretical basis of relativistic degeneracy, i. e. gravitational collapse and the
black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1012.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 10 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 36 pages

A proposal to reconstruct physics from simple physically realistic first principles is outlined
using a Beautiful Universe model. Just one type of ‘building block’ is used: a
spherically-symmetrical charged node spinning with angular momentum in units of Planck’s
constant (h). Rotating nodes magnetize and self-assemble as a regular face-centered cubic
attice to form the vacuum, radiation and matter. Three space and one time dimension are
derived from the lattice and node interactions. Mutual repulsion between nodes with their
like poles aligned accounts both for the accelerating expansion of the universe (dark energy)
and the vacuum pressure on matter (dark matter). A spinning node transfers its angular momentum
to adjacent nodes by rotating on an orthogonal axis, thus creating an electromagnetic field with
forward momentum. The spin rate of the node receiving the momentum, its ‘density’ determines the
variable rate c_{v} at which it receives the radiation. In a vacuum c_{v} is the maximum, c_{0} the
velocity of light. Two or more adjacent nodes locked together through a tensegrity of attractive
(+ -) and repulsive electrostatic forces form as matter. The surrounding nodes twist and orient
their axes to form magnetic, gravitational or electrostatic fields. The inverse-square law and
E=mc_{0}^{2} are derived from the resulting geometry. Motion of matter is a self-convolution of an
energy pattern in the lattice. This links Newtonian force and mass directly to domino-like transfer
of momentum between nodes, in units of h, whereby a collision causes a relativistic contraction
of an object’s length. Doppler shifts in the signals used by an outside observer to measure
the moving object causes a further contraction in the estimated length, equivalent to time
dilation. The two effects explain a result of Special relativity in classical terms. Using
the Hamiltonian Analogy and the idea of a node index of refraction n=c_{0}/c_{v} General Relativity
is reduced to the dynamics of energy transport along streamlines made up of nodes of different
rotation. Variable velocity along curved streamlines is acceleration and hence gravity. Quantum
probability is derived from the electric field of a dipole wave in the lattice where Heisenberg’s
uncertainty relations emerge naturally from the resulting geometry. Cosmological inflation, but
not a Big-Bang singularity would result from initial conditions of nodes in their closest
proximity to each other. The outline of a discrete calculus needed to describe the model’s
interactions is presented. Some experiments are proposed to test various aspects of the model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1012.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 15 pages

In the present paper it is shown that a fully correspondence between the quantum and the electromagnetic
forms of the Dirac electron theory exists, so that each element of the Dirac theory has the known
electrodynamics meaning and vice-versa.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[15] **viXra:1012.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 28 pages

This table may be read like an English paragraph. Row one recapitulates the the creation of matter in the
"Big Bang". The universe begins with light, free electromagnetic energy - a perfectly symmetric form of
energy. The role of gravity at this stage is to provide sufficient negative energy to counterbalance the
positive energy of the "Creation Event", such that the cosmos is born from a state of zero net energy and
charge. The intrinsic motion of light (which is the entropy drive of light) creates space, the expanding and
cooling entropy/conservation domain of free energy. The interaction of high-energy light with the metric
structure of spacetime creates virtual particle-antiparticle pairs of primordial leptoquarks (leptoquarks are
primordial leptons broken into three subunits, the quarks). (See: "The Particle Table".) Symmetry is
maintained so long as there are equal numbers of particles vs antiparticles. Row one ends with symmetrybreaking
of the primordial leptoquark pairs and the production of single (matter) baryons and leptons by the
action of the Higgs boson and the weak force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs). (See: "Table of the Higgs
Cascade".) (Although leptoquark particle-antiparticle pairs are produced in equal numbers, electrically
neutral antimatter leptoquarks apparently decay at a slightly faster rate than their matter counterparts.) The
sub-elementary quarks carry fractional charges necessary to the production of electrically neutral
leptoquarks, allowing the neutrals to live long enough to undergo asymmetric weak force decays. These
decays should also produce leptoquark neutrinos, which are "dark matter" candidates. (See: "The Origin of
Matter and Information".)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1012.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 28 pages

Much of Mathematics, and therefore Physics as well, have been
limited by four rather consequential restrictions. Two of them are ancient
taboos, one is an ancient and no longer felt as such bondage, and the
fourth is a surprising omission in Algebra. The paper brings to the
attention of those interested these four restrictions, as well as the fact
that each of them has by now ways, even if hardly yet known ones, to
overcome them.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[13] **viXra:1012.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** T. E. Raptis

**Comments:** 18 pages

In this short presentation we introduce a new
architecture capable of exhibiting a primordial type of volition
in a simplified modularized version of M. Minsky’s hive-mind.
In this model, three relatively independent computational cores
which themselves can also be whole multi-agent systems are
engaged in an endless interaction each one representing the
internal “imaginative” world, the external world interface and
the arbitrator or Internal Observer. Volition then is expected to
occur as the result of an endless antagonism for control between
the internal and the external world models.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[12] **viXra:1012.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 20 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Gary V. Stephenson

**Comments:** 90 pages

With the assumption that the current mission of the International Space Station (ISS) will draw to
a close by 2020, redeployment options are explored and contrasted for ISS components in the
post-2020 timeframe. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) redeployment options explored include a depot
assembly facility and a refueling facility. Beyond LEO redeployment options explored include an
assembly and refueling facility at the Earth-Moon L1 Lagrange point, a solar observing and / or
energy collection facility at the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point, an astronomical observation
facility at the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point, a lunar orbiting facility, and a Martian orbiting
facility. The cost of boosting ISS components to new orbits is considered as part of the study of
these latter options, as is any retrofit or modification of components required by these new
missions. Logistics requirements are also included in the cost of each option. All architectural
options are analyzed using Living Systems Theory [Miller, 1978] and the Hatley-Pirbhai context
diagram template. Technical risk and maturity is analyzed, and a parametric cost model is
developed. Cost benefit analyses are performed for each of the selected redeployment missions
using Pugh matrix and quality functional deployment (QFD) methodologies for an overall
recommendation based on the currently enunciated goals as described by the 2009 Augustine
Commission on human space flight (HSF).

**Category:** Astrophysics

[11] **viXra:1012.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 18 pages

The recently proposed and partly developed "Grossone Theory" of Y
D Sergeyev is analyzed and partly clarified.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[10] **viXra:1012.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 9 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 27 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.” (part 4)

**Category:** Number Theory

[9] **viXra:1012.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 9 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 25 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.” (part 3)

**Category:** Number Theory

[8] **viXra:1012.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 9 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 25 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.” (part 2)

**Category:** Number Theory

[7] **viXra:1012.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 27 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.” (part 1)

**Category:** Number Theory

[6] **viXra:1012.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 11 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** J Kokošar

**Comments:** 11 pages

The main argument against the relativistic mass is that it does not tell us
anything more than the total energy tells us, although it is not incorrect. It is shown
that this is not true, because new aspects of special relativity (SR) can be noticed. One
reason for this denition is to show a relation between time dilation and relativistic
mass. This relation can be further used to present a connection between space-time
and matter more clearly, and to show that space-time does not exist without matter.
This means a simpler presentation than is shown with Einstein's general covariance.
Therefore, this opposes that SR is only a theory of space-time geometry. Phenomenon
of increasing of relativistic mass with speed can be used for a gradual transition from
Newtonian mechanics to SR. The postulates, which are used for the denition of SR,
are therefore still clearer and the total derivation of the Lorentz transformation is
clearer. Such derivation also gives a more realistic example for the debate regarding
Du's claims. It gives also some counter-arguments for some details of debate about
physical nonexistence of dimensionful units and quantities. These details are why
three elementary units exist and why a direct physical measurement is not the only
possibility for physical existence. Such derivation thus shows that relativistic mass is
dierently presented to us as relativistic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1012.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Sicari

**Comments:** 1 page

An image is an "interpretation of the real world" that forms in the brain and represents reality for us.

**Category:** Archaeology

[4] **viXra:1012.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 6 pages, in Chinese

This paper is to discuss the six details in the Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture (A):...

**Category:** Number Theory

[3] **viXra:1012.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto

**Comments:** 41 pages

This article suggests a preliminary version of a Cantorian
superfluid vortex hypothesis as a plausible model of nonlinear
cosmology. Though some parts of the proposed theory
resemble several elements of what have been proposed by
Consoli (2000, 2002), Gibson (1999), Nottale (1996, 1997,
2001, 2002a), and Winterberg (2002b), it seems such a
Cantorian superfluid vortex model instead of superfluid or
vortex theory alone has never been proposed before.
Implications of the proposed theory will be discussed
subsequently, including prediction of some new outer planets
in solar system beyond Pluto orbit. Therefore further
observational data is recommended to falsify or verify these
predictions. If the proposed hypothesis corresponds to the
observed facts, then it could be used to solve certain unsolved
problems, such as gravitation instability, clustering, vorticity
and void formation in galaxies, and the distribution of planet
orbits both in solar system and also exoplanets.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[2] **viXra:1012.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Arkadiusz Jadczyk

**Comments:** 7 pages, To appear in Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

We study in some detail the structure of the projective quadric Q'
obtained by taking the quotient of the isotropic cone in a standard pseudohermitian
space H_{p,q} with respect to the positive real numbers R^{+} and,
further, by taking the quotient ~Q = Q'/U(1). The case of signature (1. 1)
serves as an illustration. ~Q is studied as a compactication of RxH_{p-1,q-1}

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[1] **viXra:1012.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 12 pages, Also archived as arXiv:1011.6578 [physics.gen-ph].

Classical equations of motion that are first-order in time and conserve energy can only be quantized
after their variables have been transformed to canonical ones, i.e., variables in which the energy is the
system's Hamiltonian. The source-free version of Maxwell's equations is purely dynamical, first-order in
time and has a well-defined nonnegative conserved field energy, but is decidedly noncanonical. That should
long ago have made source-free Maxwell equation canonical Hamiltonization a research priority, and
afterward, standard textbook fare, but textbooks seem unaware of the issue. The opposite parities of the
electric and magnetic fields and consequent curl operations that typify Maxwell's equations are especially
at odds with their being canonical fields. Transformation of the magnetic field into the transverse part of
the vector potential helps but is not sufficient; further simple nonnegative symmetric integral transforms,
which commute with all differential operators, are needed for both fields; such transforms also supplant
the curls in the equations of motion. The canonical replacements of the source-free electromagnetic fields
remain transverse-vector fields, but are more diffuse than their predecessors, albeit less diffuse than the
transverse vector potential. Combined as the real and imaginary parts of a complex field, the canonical
fields prove to be the transverse-vector wave function of a time-dependent Schrödinger equation whose
Hamiltonian operator is the quantization of the free photon's square-root relativistic energy. Thus proper
quantization of the source-free Maxwell equations is identical to second quantization of free photons that
have normal square-root energy. There is no physical reason why first and second quantization of any
relativistic free particle ought not to proceed in precise parallel, utilizing the square-root Hamiltonian
operator. This natural procedure leaves no role for the completely artificial Klein-Gordon and Dirac
equations, as accords with their grossly unphysical properties.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics