[122] **viXra:1103.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Giancarlo Gazzoni

**Comments:** 54 pages.

Classical semi-empirical analysis of beta decay, decays to electron capture and the phenomena of "cold fusion"
This article dealt with a statistical empirical decays b + b -., with empirical formulas semiclassical. derivate da semplici osservabili
macroscopiche. derived from simple macroscopic observables.
In this way, we can find and "isolate" sensitive variables which determine the rate of decay of nuclei." and we can begin to
understand how to intervene "to artificially change the natural rate of decay, and find ways to invalidate, fission and fuse nuclei in
terms of energy" cool "
We can identify the underlying mechanism that allows this type of decays, and we can understand why the decay times, for b + ,
electron capture and decay a are the same when the decay modes occur simultaneously.
We can understand the mechanisms of the mysterious so-called Cold Fusion. and explain how weak mergers occur in environments
with very low energy density.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[121] **viXra:1103.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** K.J. Abraham, Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 12 pages.

We point out that the so-called 'radiative return' events e+e- → Z are suited to the study of
nonstandard physics, particularly if the vector bosons are emitted into the central detector
region. An effective vertex is constructed which contains the most general gauge invariant e+e-Z
interaction and its phenomenolgocial consequences are examined. Low Energy Constraints on the
effective vertex are discussed as well.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[120] **viXra:1103.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 20 pages.

The complete density matrix for all polarization configurations in the process B* → t+tbar,
where B* is an off-shell Z or photon and t is the top quark, is calculated numerically including
oneloop QCD corrections. The analysis is done in the framework of the helicity formalism. The results
are particularly suited for top quark production at the Linear Collider, but may be useful in other
circumstances as well. Relations to LEP and Tevatron physics are pointed out.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[119] **viXra:1103.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 10 pages.

New interactions in top-quark production and decay are studied under the conditions of
the Tevatron upgrade.
Studying the process q+qbar → t+tbar → b+mu+nu+tbar it is shown how the lepton rapidity
and transverse energy distribution are modified by nonstandard modifications of the g-t-tbar- and
the t-b-W-vertex.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[118] **viXra:1103.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** K.J. Abraham, Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 14 pages.

We study NLO QCD corrections as relevant to hadronic W decay in W pair production at a future 500
GeV e+e- linac, with particular emphasis on the determination of triple gauge boson vertices. We
find that hard gluon bremstrahlung may mimic signatures of anomalous triple gauge boson vertices
in certain distributions. The size of these effects can strongly depend on the polarisation of the
initial e+e- beams.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[117] **viXra:1103.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Andreas Blumhofer, Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 24 pages.

The Standard Model is extended by a SU(2)L singlet of vector leptoquarks. An
additional SU(4) gauge symmetry between right-handed up quarks and right-handed leptons is
introduced to render the model renormalizable. The arrangement is made in such a way that no
conflict with low energy restrictions is encountered. The SU(2)L singlet mediates interactions
between the right-handed leptons and up type quarks for which only moderate low energy
restrictions exist.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[116] **viXra:1103.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 7 pages.

I discuss one-loop QCD corrections to the forward backward asymmetry of the bquark
in a way appropriate to the present experimental procedure. I try to give
insight into the structure of the corrections and elucidate some questions which
have been raised by experimental experts. Furthermore, I complete and comment
on results given in the literature.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[115] **viXra:1103.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 26 pages.

The complete set of matrix elements for all polarization configurations in top quark
decays is presented including higher order QCD corrections. The analysis is done
in the framework of the helicity formalism. The results can be used in a variety of
circumstances, e.g. in the experimental analysis of top quark production and decay
at Tevatron, LHC and NLC. Relations to LEP1 and LEP2 physics are pointed out.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[114] **viXra:1103.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 22 pages.

The future goals of particle physics are classified from a theorist's point of view.
The prospects of mass and mixing angle determination and of the top quark and
Higgs boson discovery are discussed. It is shown that the most important progress
will come from LHC and NLC. These machines should be planned and developed
as quickly as possible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[113] **viXra:1103.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe, Andreas Ruffing

**Comments:** 22 pages.

The sensititivity of various future polarization experiments to the first moment
Δg of the polarized gluon density is elucidated in detail. It is shown
to what extent the first moment can be extracted from the future data as
compared to the higher moments. We concentrate on two processes which in
the near future will become an important source of information on the polarized
gluon density, namely the photoproduction of open charm to be studied
at CERN (COMPASS) and SLAC and the production of direct photons at
RHIC.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[112] **viXra:1103.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 7 pages.

Universe is following Euclid Spaces. In Euclidean geometry points do not exist , but their
position and correlation is doing geometry and physics . The universe cannot be created ,
because becomes and never is . According to Euclidean geometry , and since the position
of points ( empty Space ) creates geometry and Spaces , the trisection of any angle exists in
these Spaces and in this way. Infinite points exist always between points.

**Category:** Geometry

[111] **viXra:1103.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro

**Comments:** 6 pages

Defining the concept of power in an uncontroversial manner has proven to be difficult.
Considering it is a significant concept for all of the social sciences, finding an
uncontroversial way of conceptualizing it is necessary. This work proposes that a manner
of conceptualizing power can be obtained through trapping the concept inside a
competition, which allows us to conceptualize based on the competition. Concepts of
power proposed in different fields of social sciences are discussed in the light of
competition-trapping, which lead us to the conclusion that the ways power has been
defined in the fields relate with important competitions to them, supporting the idea that
power seems to be best understood as a competition-dependent concept. This model also
allows us to understand the concept without considering any definition used for it as being
incorrect.

**Category:** Social Science

[110] **viXra:1103.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-25 08:51:14*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Currently, analyses of ‘Brownian motion’ are limited to its relevance to other scientific phenomena. Observed motion of a microscopic solid particle, suspended in a liquid, is attributed to assumed random motion of liquid molecules, which is one of many assumptions of ‘kinetic theory’. There is neither a logical cause nor a mechanism nor a known mover, acting on liquid molecules. Hence, root cause of Brownian motion remains a mystery. Aim of this article is to explain a logical mechanism for random motion of molecules of liquid macro body, based on structural behavior of its matter-particles, rather than to analyse observed motion and its significance to other phenomena.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[109] **viXra:1103.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** K.J. Abraham, Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 20 pages

One loop QCD corrections to hadronic W decay are calculated for arbitrary W polarizations
. The results are applied to W pair production and decay at LEP200.
We focus on the corrections to angular distributions with particular emphasis on
azimuthal distributions and correlations. The relevance of our results to the experimental
determination of possible nonstandard triple gauge bosons interactions is
discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[108] **viXra:1103.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-11 06:16:58*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We consider that the action at a distance is carried out by virtual carriers of the force,
which are created and annihilated in the vacuum by the field in a time less than that of
the Heisenberg's uncertainty.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[107] **viXra:1103.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Jalil Olia, Vahid Afshinmehr

**Comments:** 20 pages

In this paper we applied a finite element method to finding the effects on the
reverberation times of common irregularities like curved surfaces, non-parallel walls
and large open-walled ante-rooms, found in auditoria. The number of modes having
a reverberation time in a specified time interval is expressed as a function of the
total allowed degrees of freedom and it is shown that even when the number of
degrees of freedom of the model is large there is, in general, no one dominant group.
Curved surfaces in particular lead to a situation where some modes have very long
reverberation times, leading to bad acoustics. In such situations a knowledge of the
offending mode shapes give an indication on where to position absorptive material
for optimum effect.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[106] **viXra:1103.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Michael J Savins

**Comments:** 8 pages

There is considerable evidence to suggest that many apparent quasar galaxy pairs,
actually are pairs despite their difference in red shift. Therefore, the light leaving the
quasar must be gravitationally red shifted at source. However, one might expect the
quasar to be blue shifted relative to the galaxy in view of the truly gigantic amount of
energy being released ejecting huge volumes of material at relativistic speed. The
problem then is how to account for the difference, what mechanism is capable of turning
a blue shift into a considerable red shift other than cosmological expansion? The answer
is time or more precisely the rate of flow of time. A quasar alters the rate of flow of time
in its locality by the following Rt = E/m + -ma. The quasar by attempting to reverse time
in its vicinity slows down the universal rate of flow of time in its locality. This slow
down of the rate of flow of time or time dilation results in light leaving the quasar being
far red shifted at source. This rules out a black hole as being a candidate for the quasar as
black holes and galaxies share the same time frame, this means it has to be a white hole
which is time reversed in comparison to the rest of the universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[105] **viXra:1103.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Ludwik Kowalski

**Comments:** 6 pages, to be used to promote debates

Mathematics is like theology; it starts with axioms (self-evident truths) and uses
logical derivation to justify consecutive claims. Science is different; here claims are
justified by reproducible experimental observations, not by pure logic. This does not
interfere with peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between mathematicians and
scientists. The situation can be contrasted with relations between some selfappointed
theologians and self-appointed scientists. No one benefits from the
endless "we know better" conflicts. Is it possible to avoid such conflicts? The topic
was discussed over the Internet, as illustrated in this article.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[104] **viXra:1103.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Somnath Mukherjee

**Comments:** 11 pages

It has by now established that the universe consists
of roughly 25 percent dark matter and 70 percent
dark energy. Parametric lagrangian from an
exact k-essence lagrangian is studied of an unified
dark matter and dark energy model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[103] **viXra:1103.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 May 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 45 pages (the final 28 pages are c++ program source file)

The concept of rational structure was suggested in 2000. A flat material distribution
is called the rational structure if there exists a special net of orthogonal curves on the
plane, and the ratio of mass density at one side of a curve (from the net) to the one at the
other side is constant along the curve. Such curve is called a proportion curve. Such net of
curves is called an orthogonal net of proportion curves. Eleven years have passed and a rational
sufficient condition for given material distribution is finally obtained. This completes
the mathematical basis for the study of rational structure and its galaxy application. People
can fit the stellar distribution of a barred spiral galaxy with exponential disk and dual-hand
structure by varying their parameter values. If the conjecture is proved that barred galaxies
satisfy a rational suffcient condition then the assumption of galaxy rational origin will be
established.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[102] **viXra:1103.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-06 11:37:23*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The axiomatization of general theory of relativity (GR) is done. The axioms of GR are compared with the axioms of the metric theory of relativity and the covariant theory of gravitation. The need to use the covariant form of the total derivative with respect to the proper time of the invariant quantities, the 4-vectors and tensors is indicated. The definition of the 4-vector of force density in Riemannian spacetime is deduced.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[101] **viXra:1103.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Udrea Sergiu

**Comments:** 7 pages.

Light as a wave needs a medium of propagation. The ether is the medium through
which propagate light waves. Light shows a surprising number of properties that
were difficult to explain relatively to the ether, but which must appear as naturals,
a normal result of the properties of ether. The ether must support the phenomena
related to light, particles and their interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[100] **viXra:1103.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Martiros Khurshudyan

**Comments:** 4 pages.

In this article we present a new variant of Chess Game. This work is not written for attempt
to propogate the Chess Game or to present whole beauty of the Game. We know that
figures from ordinary Chess are faithful by means given by the definition at 'A New figure of
the game and its properties' section. The aim here is different, here we want to make a new
Game by playing with faithfulness of the figures. Directed by that motivation, we introduce a
New Type Game Figure: Mindless Figure. This figure has very interesting property, it can
not remember its past and its future do not known. And such property gives such name to
our figure. From the future writing, our New Figure can be considered as a mirrow, which
can reflect the properties of the other figures. In the coming sections of the article the
following are presented and discused: discription of the new figure, general rules are for
manage the game and the figure, final proposition and mechanisms of deciding of a winner.
As general, the subject of the Game is the same as for the original Chess Game: 'kill the
King' of Your opponent [1]. At the end a Conclusion is given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[99] **viXra:1103.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Juan R. Gonzalez-Alvarez

**Comments:** 10 pages; formatted using the new CSReport package; Entry for 2011 FQXi
Essay Contest "Is Reality Digital or Analog?"

We offer answers to several foundational questions asked in this FQXi ESSAY CONTEST about
the continuum and discrete aspects of Nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[98] **viXra:1103.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Mark Sverdlov

**Comments:** 18 pages.

Subjective, limited perception makes people unable to objective understanding reality.
Nevertheless, it provides a basis for them to feel united nature and its interconnection,
modeling not only the area left by them, but also going far beyond its limits. It is
possible on basis of the model of the physical interconnections to understand biological
and other processes including the social ones, as well as the development of humankind,
starting from its beginning all the way to our time and near future. One can see the
possibilities of the influence on this development in limited, but significant for human
beings, areas.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[97] **viXra:1103.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 11 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 25 pages.

I present a generalization of quantum electrodynamics which includes Dirac
magnetic monopoles and the Salam magnetic photon. This quantum electromagnetodynamics
has many attractive features. (1) It explains the quantization
of electric charge. (2) It describes symmetrized Maxwell equations. (3) It is
manifestly covariant. (4) It describes local four-potentials. (5) It avoids the unphysical
Dirac string. (6) It predicts a second kind of electromagnetic radiation
which can be verified by a tabletop experiment. An effect of this radiation may
have been observed by August Kundt in 1885. Furthermore I discuss a generalization
of General Relativity which includes Cartan's torsion. I discuss the
mathematical definition, concrete description, and physical meaning of Cartan's
torsion. I argue that the electric-magnetic duality of quantum electromagnetodynamics
is analogous to the spin-mass duality of Einstein-Cartan theory. A
quantum version of this theory requires that the torsion tensor corresponds to
a spin-3 boson called tordion which is shown to have a rest mass close to the
Planck mass. Moreover I present an empirically satisfied fundamental equation
of unified field theory which includes the fundamental constants of electromagnetism
and gravity. I conclude with the remark that the concepts presented
here require neither Grand Unification nor supersymmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[96] **viXra:1103.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 5 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Michael J Savins

**Comments:** 3 pages.

The Pioneer anomaly is due to time dilation that is caused by the gravity of the Solar
System. As pioneer leaves the solar System the rate of flow of time increases causing a
doppler blue shift relative to our perspective. This blue shift reduces the expected red
shift so the red shift is not as far red shifted as expected. The craft is where it is supposed
to be, it just appears to be closer to us than it is.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[95] **viXra:1103.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Michael J Savins

**Comments:** 20 pages.

Much knowledge has been discovered about the Universe and is readily available. The Phoenix
Theory attempts to re-interpret it in a simple and intuitive manner that better fits what we see.
The Phoenix theory builds upon Einstein's theories of Relativity and General Relativity. His
simple equation E = mc^{2} explains a lot more about the universe than it has been credited with.
This theory fills in many of the missing details and attempts to complete the picture.
Everything in the universe is made of energy. This theory attempts to explain the relationship
between mass, energy and time in a cyclic universe, matter, antimatter ad infinitum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[94] **viXra:1103.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 11 pages. In English

This paper follows "Astrophysics at home. Micrometeorites" posted in Vixra on 15 Feb 2011.
As Jon Larsen says: "Up until now splendid research on MMs has been executed at secure localities
(the South Pole well, prehistoric layers beneath the Indian Ocean, at the Greenland ice cap, etc), but
consistent research in order to identify the similar objects found for instance in our populated areas,
is practically absent".
I present here a lot of new specimens found in a city environment, photos, a lot of questions and
few answers.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[93] **viXra:1103.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 20 pages.

A family of quantumness spaces is identified and precisely defined.
They are spaces which characterize the difference between states given
by classical compositions of systems, and on the other hand, states
corresponding to their quantum compositions. Consequently, the
quantum composition of systems is reduced to two classical compositions.
A family of rankings is also defined for the respective family of
quantumness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[92] **viXra:1103.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 3 pages.

What would most of us do with only three hours of
electricity per day? Yet that is what Dr. Sabiha Al-Jabbar
did when she was working on her PhD in Baghdad. She
had to design her experiments so that she could have
the results she needed before the lights went out.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[91] **viXra:1103.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 11 pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY.
The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of
FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a
consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to
convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to
explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, Comets and even Ball
Lightning.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[90] **viXra:1103.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-05 04:28:50*

**Authors:** Dimitar Valev

**Comments:** 6 pages, minor changes, paper is published in Am. J. Space Sci., 2013, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 145-149

Three new mass dimension quantities have been derived by dimensional analysis, in addition to the famous Planck mass mp ~ 10^(-8) kg. These masses have been derived by means of fundamental constants – the speed of light (c), the gravitational constant (G), the Plank constant (h_bar) and the Hubble constant (H). The enormous mass m1 ~ 10^53 kg practically coincides with the Hoyle-Carvalho formula for the mass of the observable universe. The extremely small mass m2 ~ 10^(-33) eV has been identified with the minimum quantum of energy, which seems close to the graviton mass. It is noteworthy that the Planck mass appears geometric mean of the masses m1 and m2. The mass m3 ~ 10^7 GeV could not be unambiguously identified at present time. Besides, the order of magnitude of the total density of the universe has been estimated by this approach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[89] **viXra:1103.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Raymond W. Jensen

**Comments:** 7 pages.

It is shown here using elementary quantum mechanics that a method exists for transmitting signals faster
than the speed of light. The method relies on measurement of the uncertainty of momentum for one photon of each
pair. The uncertainty is affected by whether momentum or position is measured for the partners, due to Heisenberg's
uncertainty principle. For each pair the effect is instantaneous; so if the measurement of momentum uncertainty, done
on one end, is distant from the momentum/position measurement switching done on the other end, then such behavior
can be utilized for faster-than-light signaling.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[88] **viXra:1103.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Martiros Khurshudyan

**Comments:** 2 pages.

In this article we considered an open problem. One of the problems in the list of open
problems of General Number Theory, existing in [1], [2] is the Brocard`s Problem, asking to
find integer values of n, for which n! + 1 = m^{2}. 'Introduction' section is dedicated to the
statement of the main problem. We presented some historical overview and known facts
about this problem in the 'Historical overview and known facts' section , based on
information presented in the web [1], [2]. In the section 'Variants of the Problem' several
variants of the Problem are presented by author based on more general n! + A = k^{2} [4]
equation and asked to find solutions for them.

**Category:** Number Theory

[87] **viXra:1103.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Martiros Khurshudyan

**Comments:** 3 pages.

In this paper we are going to describe a board game for two players. In this issue are
presented basic rules and necessary conditions for describing a winner. Two type of boards
are presented for the same rules for the game. In this issue have not presented analyses or
winning strategies for the game. Possible generalization schemes of the game are presented
at the end of article

**Category:** General Mathematics

[86] **viXra:1103.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 8 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 6 pages.

In this paper we prove *R ^{n}* =

[85] **viXra:1103.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 6 pages.

On the afternoon of July 19, 1978 this proof was disproved by Chinese mathematics institute
of Academia Sinica. How tragic! We rewrite this paper.

**Category:** Number Theory

[84] **viXra:1103.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 13 pages. In chinese

The assumption that the mass distribution of spiral galaxies is rational was
suggested 11 years ago. The rationality means that on any spiral galaxy disk
plane there exists a special net of orthogonal curves. The ratio of mass density
at one side of a curve (from the net) to the one at the other side is constant
along the curve. Such curve is called a proportion curve. Such net of curves is
called an orthogonal net of proportion curves. I also suggested that the arms
and rings are the disturbance to the rational structure. To achieve the minimal
disturbance, the disturbing waves trace the orthogonal or non-orthogonal proportion
curves. I proved 6 years ago that exponential disks and dual-handle structures
are rational. Recently, I have also proved that rational structure satisfies a
cubic algebraic equation. Based on these results, this paper ultimately demonstrates
visually what the orthogonal net of proportion curves looks like if the superposition
of a disk and dual-handle structures is still rational. That is, based on the
natural solution of the equation, the rate of variance along the 'radial'
direction of the logarithmic mass density is obtained. Its image is called the
'basket graph'. The myth of galaxy structure will possibly be resolved based the
further study of 'basket graphs'.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[83] **viXra:1103.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** John R. Dixon

**Comments:** 5 pages.

We consider the Bell's Theorem setup of Gill et. al. (2002). We present a
\proof of concept" that if the source emitting the particles can predict the settings of the
detectors with sufficiently large probability, then there is a scenario consistent with local
realism that violates the Bell inequality for the setup.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[82] **viXra:1103.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephan J. G. Gift

**Comments:** 8 pages.

The one-way speed of light relative to a moving observer is determined using
the range measurement equation of the Global Positioning System. This equation has
been rigorously tested and verified in the Earth-Centred Inertial frame where light signals
propagate in straight lines at constant speed c. The result is a simple demonstration of
light speed anisotropy that is consistent with light speed anisotropy detected in other
experiments and inconsistent with the principle of light speed constancy. This light speed
anisotropy was not observed before because there has been no direct one-way
measurement of light speed relative to a moving observer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[81] **viXra:1103.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 21 pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows Superluminal Travel within
the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The
Alcubierre Warp Drive discovered in 1994 and the Natario Warp Drive discovered in 2001. However
as stated by both Alcubierre and Natario themselves the Warp Drive violates all the known energy
conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor(the right side of the Einstein Field Equations)
for the Einstein tensor G_{00} is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a classical
point of view the negative energy is forbidden the quantum theory allows the existence of very small
amounts of it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre himself. But the stress
energy momentum tensor of both Alcubierre and Natario Warp Drives have the speed of the ship raised
to the square inside its mathematical structure which means to say that as fast the ship goes by then
more and more amounts of negative energy are needed in order to maintain the Warp Drive. Since the
total energy requirements to maintain the Warp Drive are enormous and since quantum theory only
allows small amounts of it,many authors regarded the Warp Drive as unphysical and impossible to be
achieved. We compute the negative energy density requirements for a Warp Bubble with a radius of
100 meters(large enough to contain a ship) moving with a speed of 200 times light speed(fast enough to
reach stars at 20 light-years away in months not in years)and we verify that the negative energy density
requirements are of about 10^{28} times the positive energy density of Earth!!!(We multiply the mass of
Earth by c^{2} and divide by Earth volume for a radius of 6300km). However both Alcubierre and Natario
Warp Drives as members of the same family of the Einstein Field Equations requires the so-called Shape
Functions in order to be mathematically defined. We present in this work two new Shape Functions one
for the Alcubierre and another for the NatarioWarp Drive Spacetimes that allows arbitrary Superluminal
speeds while keeping the negative energy density at "low" and "affordable" levels.We do not violate any
known law of quantum physics and we maintain the original geometries of both Alcubierre and Natario
Warp Drive Spacetimes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[80] **viXra:1103.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-19 03:51:43*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Keywords: Logistic equation; evolution of population; prognosis of Human population; reactive environment; catastrophes theory; Abel ODE

Here are presented a key points of new universal model for evolution of population in reactive environment: 1) generalization of the Logistic equation to the case of reactive environment for models of population dynamics in biology (also, for the model of exhaustion of main resources in geology, or for filling of an ecological niches in ecology, or for modeling of the capacities of a proper markets in economics), 2) new type of asymptotic solution for such equation (which is tested on human population growth), 3) reduction of such an equation to Abel ODE in general case.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[79] **viXra:1103.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Dainis Zeps

**Comments:** 12 pages.

Quanta mathematica instrumentalis, from Latin, might mean How much mathematics
for physical applications. But we try to give this expression another meaning.
We discuss how mathematics and its instrumental nature could serve as paradigm
for other human activities and science in general. We introduce notions of higher
observer and field of information. We discuss question why we are to study and develop
mathematics more diligently than we do in natural way.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[78] **viXra:1103.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Subhajit Ganguly

**Comments:** 6 pages.

The issues regarding the functioning and growth of an ideal economic society is the
subject of investigation here. One basic guideline for such a society is that it must have total
control over its economics and that money cannot drive such a society from pillar to post. The
equal right of every individual over the basic amenities to live and grow and equal right of every
individual over the resources, ensuring no misuse of the society's resources may be taken care
of by controlling the market through a control-parameter, decided upon by the society.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[77] **viXra:1103.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 2 pages.

Symmetric equations are introduced that reproduce the fine structure constant inverse and
the muon-, neutron-, and proton-electron mass ratios near their experimental limits.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[76] **viXra:1103.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Martiros Khurshudyan

**Comments:** 3 pages.

The aim of this article is presents an open problem of Mathematics. We will talk and present shortly Collatz
problem and conjecture to make clear our motivation for new problem. Introduction to the original Collatz problem is
given as in [1],[2],[3],[4]. From our point of view a very properly introduction to the main problem. A genaralization is
proposed as well as three questions are asked to a reader at the end of article, after definition of our problem. We
thought, it is possible to develop a mathematical game based on Collatz problem. We leave this idea for future works.

**Category:** Number Theory

[75] **viXra:1103.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 27 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Ludwik Kowalski

**Comments:** 4 pages. I plan to publish the attached note in a physical science journal.

A tabletop prototype of a new kind of nuclear reactor was demonstrated recently at the
University of Bologna. This note addresses conceptual difficulties associated with the
reported features of the device.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[74] **viXra:1103.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-14 10:36:33*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Originally published in 'General Science Journal'

Two equal volumes of water, one slightly warmer than the other, when placed in similar external conditions to freeze, warmer water is noticed to freeze before the other. This phenomenon, (called Mpemba effect), is the result of difference in rate of inter-atomic movements during cooling stages of macro bodies with different initial temperatures.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[73] **viXra:1103.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-04 03:24:03*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Spherical orthogonal coordinate system agrees with plane orthogonal coordinate system in coordinates, length, and angle of an intersection. Using spherical orthogonal coordinate system, we can realize complex sphere to which complex number is indicated with no stereographic projection. By the coordinate transformation of the inversion which is characterized by swap of origin and point at infinity, three-dimensional orthogonal coordinates are transformed into new coordinates, namely three-dimensional spherical orthogonal coordinates, however coordinates and so forth are constant.

**Category:** Geometry

[72] **viXra:1103.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Martiros Khurshudyan

**Comments:** 3 pages.

Geometry it is not a word, moreover it is not just mathematical research area. It is art,
it is the base of our Nature, it is language of Nature. The aim of this article is to present
how Thales`s theorem is working for simple cases, when we need to divide a geometrical
object into equal parts: mainly, we considered the problem of dividing a straight segment
of length N into n equal parts. On the base of this simple case, we proposed a
generalizations of the problem. We presented they as questions. Purpose of this article is
to ask to find solutions for the questions. It seems, that for the positive answer, here must
be developed geometrical techniques.

**Category:** Geometry

[71] **viXra:1103.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Xianzhao Zhong

**Comments:** 7 pages.

In a system, coupling between the large number of charged particles
will induce potential Φ. When temperature T and potential Φ concurrently
exist in the system, the particle potential energy and kinetic energy would
satisfy the probabilistic statistical distribution. Based on such consideration,
we established the quantum statistical distribution for the particle. When
temperature T → 0, and the potential is extremely low, all the particles in
the system would approach the ground-state-level distribution.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[70] **viXra:1103.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 9 May 2011*

**Authors:** Jorge de Sousa e Meneses

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is accepted from the beginning that nothing can escape from the Universe and a
distance is found at which the expansion and compression of the space around a mass
are in equilibrium. With this in mind the density of the space is calculated. The
value obtained matches the value obtained experimentally by measuring cosmologic redshifts.
Applying this concept to the mass of the Universe a second equation is found. This
equation, together with the first one, allows the age of the Universe to be calculated
and a value is found which is between the normally accepted limits. The same equations
allow the deduction of the density equation calculated by Milne and the relativistic
equation deduced by Friedmann. Finally, with these equations, the relation between
the mass of the Universe, the speed of light and the universal constant of gravitation
is found. This relation indicates possibly new areas of investigation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[69] **viXra:1103.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** T. E. Raptis

**Comments:** 30 pages. submitted in "Chaos, Solitons & Fractals"

A set of fundamental objects is presented that facilitates derivation of some new results with
special interest in a variety of topics including Chu spaces, dynamical systems, symbolic dynamics
and the theory of polynomials. Three alternative representations of the power set of binary
patterns in their associated exponential intervals are presented in terms of polynomials and
a natural conjecture on their fractal structure is deduced. Practical applications in Automata
theory and Digital Signal Processing are proposed based on special functions defined on the
new representation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[68] **viXra:1103.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Yoël Lana-Renault

**Comments:** 9 pages

Based on the "Aspin Bubbles" theory, we will demonstrate that the force of
gravity between two neutral matters is always a residue of the electrical forces that act
among their elementary particles.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[67] **viXra:1103.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Yoël Lana-Renault

**Comments:** 10 pages with 4 figures

Based on the "Aspin Bubbles" theory, we propose a velocity function v(r) for
light that is exclusively dependent on the gravity g(r) that exists at each point P(r) of
space, and with which, by applying the laws of refraction, the gravitational deflections
of light measured up to this point are obtained .

**Category:** Astrophysics

[66] **viXra:1103.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 4 Dec 2011*

**Authors:** Marco Ripà

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this paper, we show the internal relations among the elements of the circular sequence (1,12,21,123,231,312,1234,2341,...). We illustrate one method to minimize the number of the "candidate prime numbers" up to a given term of the sequence. So, having chosen a particular prime divisor, it is possible to analyze only a fixed number of the smallest terms belonging to a given range, thus providing the distribution of that prime factor in a larger set of elements. Finally, we combine these results with another one, also expanding the study to a few new integer sequences related to the circular one.

**Category:** Number Theory

[65] **viXra:1103.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 6 pages

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY.
The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL
differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW
splitting and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy into real energy by
entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain the cyclic Big Bang, quick Galaxy- and Star
formation, down to Sunspots, Comets, Ball Lightning and even Ice Volcanoes on Titan.
Five posters are presented in this paper, as an quick overview of the former letters submitted to viXra.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[64] **viXra:1103.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 pages, 3 tables, two figures.; Has arguments in simplified form as to what will be brought up for
presentation by the author in rencontres de Moriond, in a GW symposium

We examine whether gravitational waves would be generated during the initial phase, δ_{0} of the
universe when triggered by changes in space-time geometry; i.e. We hope to find traces of the breakdown
of the Entropy/QM space-time regime during δ_{0}. In particular, we look at if higher dimensions affect the
relative strength of Ω_{GW} , and comment as to how this magnitude may affect opportunities for detection of
GW from relic sources. In particular, we will explain the reason why GW O of the pre big bang model
is so strong, up to 10 to the - 6 power, while the Ω_{GW} of ordinary inflation is so weak. In relic
conditions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1103.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 26 pages, submitted to the Journal of Physics A : Math and Theor

Nonassociative Octonionic Ternary Gauge Field Theories are revisited
paving the path to an analysis of the many physical applications of Exceptional
Jordan Strings/Membranes and Octonionic Gravity. The old
octonionic gravity constructions based on the split octonion algebra Os
(which strictly speaking is not a division algebra) is extended to the full
fledged octonion division algebra O. A real-valued analog of the
Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian L = R involving sums of all the possible contractions
of the Ricci tensors plus their octonionic-complex conjugates is presented.
A discussion follows of how to extract the Standard Model group (the
gauge fields) from the internal part of the octonionic gravitational connection.
The role of Exceptional Jordan algebras, their automorphism
and reduced structure groups which play the roles of the rotation and
Lorentz groups is also re-examined. Finally, we construct (to our knowledge)
generalized novel octonionic string and p-brane actions and raise
the possibility that our generalized 3-brane action (based on a quartic
product) in octonionic flat backgrounds of 7, 8 octonionic dimensions may
display an underlying E7,E8 symmetry, respectively. We conclude with
some final remarks pertaining to the developments related to Jordan exceptional
algebras, octonions, black-holes in string theory and quantum
information theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[62] **viXra:1103.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 8 pages, 9 figures.

In scientific literature the Esaki junction is considered a typical system of
quantum physics and its behavior is explained with the theory of probability. In
this article we prove that the functioning of the Esaki junction can be explained
very well without making use of the theory of probability but only by means of
deterministic physical reasonings. This research is the first step in order to show
that it is possible to think on a theory of quantum physics which is able to
leave probability aside for a complete and exhaustive understanding of physical
phenomena which happen in the microphysical world.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[61] **viXra:1103.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Ibrahim Mutlay

**Comments:** 8 pages

It is intended here to propose descriptive explanations for the
basic statistical concepts. Although most of them are highly familiar to
us, their conventional descriptions have vague sides. Especially it was
focused on the absolute probabilistic uncertainty which was
characterized by momentum of the measurement device and the system which
was measured.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[60] **viXra:1103.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** John R. McWhinnie

**Comments:** 14 pages

This paper shows that the theory that we know as the Theory
Of Relativity is more accurately described as A Theory Of Information. Explained
from an informational perspective and the conclusions that its author,
Albert Einstein came to, come into question through the natural viewpoint
as the entire theory being simply about the transfer of information between
informational systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[59] **viXra:1103.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Javier Bootello

**Comments:** 7 pages

The solution to the unexplained anomalous precession of the perihelion of
Mercury, was the first success of GR (Einstein 1915), event which is near to
reach its first centenary. We propose in this paper, to update the classic test of
relativity, studying the gradual progression of one-orbit precession, not only in
its perihelion, but also along a complete trajectory around the Sun. Just to
underline GR results, we have confronted it with other virtual and
mathematical potentials which, leading to an identical secular advance of the
perihelion, offer different equations of motion with only theoretical meaning.
Spacecraft Messenger will begin to orbit Mercury next March 18, and during
twelve months, both will make 4.2 revolutions around the Sun. That event
should afterwards allow us, to measure and draw accurately, the geometry of
the whole geodesic orbit as an open free-fall path, isolated from other planets
gravitational interference. This update must verify the GR issues with modern
standards, throughout an accessible test to perform, with clear results, unlike a
complex test, expensive and with uncertain conclusions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[58] **viXra:1103.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 107 pages, dissertation, Dr. rer. nat. obtained from the University
of Dortmund on 19 July 2001

This PhD thesis examines the thermodynamical properties of spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains which are
coupled to Einstein phonons. One result of this study is that these spin-phonon systems undergo a
phase transition similar to a spin-Peierls transition (cf. Physical Review B 60 (1999) 12125-12133
and Physical Review B 65 (2002) 144438). Another result is that in the undimerized phase the critical
exponent nu depends on both the phonon frequency and the spin-phonon coupling constant. This means
that these spin-phonon systems change the universality class continuously with the spin-phonon
coupling (cf. arXiv: cond-mat/9912150v1).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[57] **viXra:1103.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 6 pages, published in: Science and Technology in Homeric Epics; ed. S. A.
Paipetis, Series: History of Mechanism and Machine Science, Vol. 6
(Springer, 2008, ISBN: 978-1-4020-8783-7), pp. 509-514

Good fiction imitates facts. Plato declared that his Atlantis tale is philosophical fiction
invented to describe his fictitious ideal state in the case of war. I suggest that Plato used three
historical elements for this tale. (i) Greek tradition on Mycenaean Athens for the description
of ancient Athens, (ii) Egyptian records on the wars of the Sea Peoples for the description of
the war of the Atlanteans, and (iii) oral tradition from Syracuse about Tartessos for the
description of the city and geography of Atlantis.

**Category:** Archaeology

[56] **viXra:1103.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages

Careful reading of the reported geometry of Einstein's gravitational field reveals
that the physicists have committed fatal errors in the elementary differential
geometry of a pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold. These elementary
errors in mathematics invalidate much of the reported physics of Einstein's
gravitational field. The consequences for astrophysical theory are significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1103.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 15 pages

The notion of black holes voraciously gobbling up matter, twisting spacetime
into contortions that trap light, stretching the unwary into long spaghetti-like
strands as they fall inward to ultimately collide and merge with an infinitely
dense point-mass singularity, has become a mantra of the astrophysical community.
There are almost daily reports of scientists claiming that they have again
found black holes again here and there. It is asserted that black holes range in
size from micro to mini, to intermediate and on up through to supermassive behemoths
and it is accepted as scientific fact that they have been detected at the
centres of galaxies. Images of black holes interacting with surrounding matter
are routinely included with reports of them. Some physicists even claim that
black holes will be created in particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron
Collider, potentially able to swallow the Earth, if care is not taken in their production.
Yet contrary to the assertions of the astronomers and astrophysicists
of the black hole community, nobody has ever found a black hole, anywhere, let
alone imaged one. The pictures adduced to convince are actually either artistic
impressions (i.e. drawings) or photos of otherwise unidentified objects imaged
by telescopes and merely asserted to be due to black holes, ad hoc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1103.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 pages

Using a manifold with boundary various line-elements have been proposed as solutions
to Einstein's gravitational field. It is from such line-elements that black holes,
expansion of the Universe, and big bang cosmology have been alleged. However, it
has been proved that black holes, expansion of the Universe, and big bang cosmology
are not consistent with General Relativity. In a previous paper disproving the black
hole theory, the writer made an error which, although minor and having no effect on
the conclusion that black holes are inconsistent with General Relativity, is corrected
herein for the record.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[53] **viXra:1103.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 4 pages

The alleged existence of so-called Planck particles is examined. The various methods
for deriving the properties of these "particles" are examined and it is shown that their
existence as genuine physical particles is based on a number of conceptual flaws which
serve to render the concept invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[52] **viXra:1103.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is demonstrated herein that:-

1. The quantity 'r' appearing in the so-called "Schwarzschild solution" is
neither a distance nor a geodesic radius in the manifold but is in fact the
inverse square root of the Gaussian curvature of the spatial section and
does not generally determine the geodesic radial distance (the proper radius)
from the arbitrary point at the centre of the spherically symmetric
metric manifold.

2. The Theory of Relativity forbids the existence of point-mass singularities
because they imply infinite energies (or equivalently, that a material
body can acquire the speed of light in vacuo);

3. Ric=R_{μν} =0 violates Einstein's 'Principle of Equivalence' and so does
not describe Einstein's gravitational field;

4. Einstein's conceptions of the conservation and localisation of gravitational
energy are invalid;

5. The concepts of black holes and their interactions are ill-conceived;

6. The FRW line-element actually implies an open, infinite Universe in
both time and space, thereby invalidating the Big Bang cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1103.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 12 pages

The so-called 'Schwarzschild solution' is not Schwarzschild's solution,
but a corruption of the Schwarzschild/Droste solution due to David
Hilbert (December 1916), wherein m is allegedly the mass of the source
of the alleged associated gravitational field and the quantity r is alleged
to be able to go down to zero (although no proof of this claim
has ever been advanced), so that there are two alleged 'singularities',
one at r=2m and another at r=0. It is routinely alleged that r=2m
is a 'coordinate' or 'removable' singularity which denotes the so-called
'Schwarzschild radius' (event horizon) and that the 'physical' singularity
is at r=0. The quantity r in the usual metric has never been
rightly identified by the physicists, who effectively treat it as a radial
distance from the alleged source of the gravitational field at the origin
of coordinates. The consequence of this is that the intrinsic geometry
of the metric manifold has been violated in the procedures applied to
the associated metric by which the black hole has been generated. It is
easily proven that the said quantity r is in fact the inverse square root
of the Gaussian curvature of a spherically symmetric geodesic surface
in the spatial section of Schwarzschild spacetime and so does not denote
radial distance in the Schwarzschild manifold. With the correct identification
of the associated Gaussian curvature it is also easily proven
that there is only one singularity associated with all Schwarzschild metrics,
of which there is an infinite number that are equivalent. Thus, the
standard removal of the singularity at r=2m is actually a removal of
the wrong singularity, very simply demonstrated herein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1103.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 27 pages

The so-called 'Schwarzschild solution' is not Schwarzschild's solution, but a corruption,
due to David Hilbert (December 1916), of the Schwarzschild/Droste solution,
wherein m is allegedly the mass of the source of a gravitational field and the quantity
r is alleged to be able to go down to zero (although no proof of this claim has
ever been advanced), so that there are two alleged 'singularities', one at r=2m and
another at r=0. It is routinely asserted that r=2m is a 'coordinate' or 'removable'
singularity which denotes the so-called 'Schwarzschild radius' (event horizon) and that
the 'physical' singularity is at r=0. The quantity r in the so-called 'Schwarzschild
solution' has never been rightly identified by the physicists, who, although proposing
many and varied concepts for what r therein denotes, effectively treat it as a radial
distance from the claimed source of the gravitational field at the origin of coordinates.
The consequence of this is that the intrinsic geometry of the metric manifold
has been violated. It is easily proven that the said quantity r is in fact the inverse
square root of the Gaussian curvature of a spherically symmetric geodesic surface in
the spatial section of the 'Schwarzschild solution' and so does not in itself define any
distance whatsoever in that manifold. With the correct identification of the associated
Gaussian curvature it is also easily proven that there is only one singularity
associated with all Schwarzschild metrics, of which there is an infinite number that
are equivalent. Thus, the standard removal of the singularity at r=2m is, in a very
real sense, removal of the wrong singularity, very simply demonstrated herein. This
has major implications for the localisation of gravitational energy i.e. gravitational
waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1103.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 4 pages

The proponents of the black hole make much fanfare of the quantity r that appears in
the so-called "Schwarzschild solution". They treat this issue with complicated
mathematics and thereby confuse those not versed in the relevant mathematics. They
routinely claim that this r is the radius, one way or another. However, this is false
because it is not even a distance in "Schwarzschild" spacetime since it is easily
proven that it strictly plays the role of the inverse square root of the Gaussian
curvature of the spherically symmetric geodesic surface in the spatial section of
"Schwarzschild" spacetime and so does not itself denote any distance whatsoever in
"Schwarzschild" spacetime. Now one does not even need to understand the abstruse
mathematics surrounding this issue to see that the black hole is invalid, making this
complicated mathematical matter irrelevant, as I now show.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1103.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 8 pages

All arguments for the black hole are based upon the same fundamental idea in that they
conceive of a region that in actual fact does not exist. This fictitious region the relativists call
the 'interior', i.e. the region they think is contained by their a spherically symmetric surface
they call the 'event horizon'. But there is no such region. The notion comes from a failure to
recognise that the centre of spherical symmetry of the problem at hand is not located where
they think it is, at their r = 0. I shall discuss this now in more detail.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1103.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 pages

It is claimed that the LIGO and LISA projects will detect Einstein's gravitational waves. The
existence of these waves is entirely theoretical. Over the past forty years or so no Einstein
gravitational waves have been detected. How long must the search go on, at great expense to
the public purse, before the astrophysical scientists admit that their search is fruitless and a
waste of vast sums of public money? The fact is, from day one, the search for these elusive
waves has been destined to detect nothing. Here are some reasons why.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1103.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-29 01:15:26*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

It is often claimed that cosmology became a true scientific inquiry with the advent of the General Theory of Relativity. A few subsequent putative observations have been misconstrued in such a way as to support the prevailing Big Bang model by which the Universe is alleged to have burst into existence from an infinitely dense point-mass
singularity. Yet it can be shown that the General Theory of Relativity and the Big Bang model are in conflict with well-established experimental facts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1103.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 13 pages

The physicists have misinterpreted the quantity 'r' appearing in the socalled
"Schwarzschild solution" as it is neither a distance nor a geodesic
radius but is in fact the inverse square root of the Gaussian curvature
of a spherically symmetric geodesic surface in the spatial section of
the Schwarzschild manifold, and so it does not directly determine any
distance at all in the Schwarzschild manifold - in other words, it determines
the Gaussian curvature at any point in a spherically symmetric
geodesic surface in the spatial section of the manifold. The concept of
the black hole is consequently invalid. It is also shown herein that the
Theory of Relativity forbids the existence of point-mass singularities
because they imply infinite energies (or equivalently, that a material
body can acquire the speed of light in vacuo), and so the black hole
is forbidden by the Theory of Relativity. That Ric=R_{μν} = 0 violates
Einstein's 'Principle of Equivalence' and so does not describe Einstein's
gravitational field, is demonstrated. It immediately follows that Einstein's
conceptions of the conservation and localisation of gravitational
energy are invalid - the General Theory of Relativity violates the usual
conservation of energy and momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1103.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 pages

The notion of black holes voraciously gobbling up matter, twisting spacetime into
contortions that trap light, stretching the unwary into long spaghetti-like strands as they
fall inward to ultimately collide and merge with an infinitely dense point-mass
singularity, has become a mantra of the astrophysical community, so much so that even
primary-school children know about the sinister black hole, waiting patiently, like the
Roman child's Hannibal, for an opportunity to abduct the unruly and the misbehaved.
There are almost daily reports of scientists claiming that they have again found black
holes again here and there. It is asserted that black holes range in size from micro to mini,
to intermediate and on up through to supermassive behemoths. Black holes are glibly
spoken of and accepted as scientific facts and it is routinely claimed that they have been
detected at the centres of galaxies. Images of black holes having their wicked ways with
surrounding matter are routinely included with reports of them. Some physicists even
claim that black holes will be created in particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron
Collider, potentially able to swallow the Earth, if care is not taken in their production. Yet
despite all this hoopla, contrary to the assertions of the astronomers and astrophysicists of
the black hole community, nobody has ever found a black hole, anywhere, let alone
'imaged' one. The pictures adduced to convince are actually either artistic impressions
(i.e. drawings) or photos of otherwise unidentified objects imaged by telescopes and
merely asserted to be due to black holes, ad hoc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1103.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 pages, one figure, three tables. Predictions of page 8 will be proved rigorously in the near future.

We examine whether gravitational waves would be generated during the initial phase,
of the universe when triggered by changes in spacetime geometry; i.e. We hope to find
traces of the breakdown of the Entropy/QM spacetime regime during initial phase change
induced by the geometry of space time alterations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1103.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 May 2011*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 12 pages.

This article explains what is a Point, a Positive Space and a negative Anti-Space for their
equilibrium, how points exist and their correlation also in Spaces .
Any two points A,B on Spaces consist the first dimensional Unit AB, which has infinite bounded
Spaces, Anti-Spaces and Sub-Spaces on unit AB .
It is proved that when points A, B exist in a constant distance ds = AB, which is then a Restrained
System of this Unit, then equilibrium under equal and opposite Impulses Pa, Pb on points A, B .
This means that any distance AB of the Space is a DIPOLE
or [ FMD = AB - Pa, Pb ], which is the first material unit .
The unique case where at the points of Space and Anti-Space exist null Impulses, then is the Primary
Neutral Space and it is obvious that the infinite Dipole ds = 0 → AB → ∞ move in
this P.N.S . The position of points on Space /Space, Anti-Space/ Anti-Space
Space / Anti-Space, Anti-Space / Space, creates (+) matter (-) antimatter (±) Neutral matter
which moves in this Space with finite velocity and in case of the bounded Neutral Space AB,
which may have zero Inertia, moves with infinite velocity .
Since Neutral Space is the interval between Impulse ( which Impulse is the Principle of movement )
and Spaces ( which Spaces are the medium of movement ), therefore, Motion can alternatively occur
itself as that of a Dipole = matter ( which is particle ) and as that of Impulses Pa, Pb ( which
is a wave ) in the Neutral matter and Neutral Anti-matter . [ The one thing, say the light, is then
as Particle and as Wave Structure ]
Following the principle < Cause on → Communicator → the Obvious > is then
explained that, Monads, can reproduce themselves through their bounded Communicator ( we may
refer this as the DNA of the Monad ) .
Following Euclidean logic for Spaces, and since one may use them as the first dimensional
Unit ds = 0 → AB → ∞ in Geometry, Algebra, etc either as Dipole ds = AB,
[ FMD = AB - Pa, Pb ] and since also Primary Neutral Space is proved
to be Homogenous and Isotropic, then also in Mechanics and Physics and in all laws of
Universe .

**Category:** Geometry

[41] **viXra:1103.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 20 pages

This article was sent to some specialists in Euclidean Geometry for criticism .
The geometrical solution of this problem is based on the four Postulates for Constructions
in Euclid geometry

**Category:** Geometry

[40] **viXra:1103.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 82 pages, book, in German

This book describes how between 1984 and 2004 the author developed his theory that Plato's
Atlantis tale is to a large part philosophical fiction which includes independent historical
elements. The Atlantis tale refers to the Mycenaean Athens, the war of the Sea Peoples, and
to the Bronze Age Tartessos. This theory found world-wide media interest since 2004. Moreover
Jürgen Spanuth's Atlantis = Helgoland (North Sea) theory is discussed in detail. In addition
the historical elements of the Argonautika and the Gilgamesh epos are examined.

**Category:** Archaeology

[39] **viXra:1103.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 2 pages

Literary evidence supports the following view.
Tartessos and Tarshish were identical. Tartessos
was the model for Plato's Atlantis. The
Tartessians traded with precious metals,
especially with silver. Among their trade
partners were the Phoenicians, the Hebrews, and
the Greeks. The capital of Tartessos lay in the
Donana National Park. Tartessos existed from
the tenth to the sixth century BC.

**Category:** Archaeology

[38] **viXra:1103.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 5 pages, A shorter version of this paper has appeared in: Abstracts
of the 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter
Nuclear Science, Dagomys, Sochi, Russia, 25 June - 1 July 2007, pp. 114 - 115

The cold fusion neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts can
be explained by the extended micro hot fusion scenario. I describe the model
and present the experimental evidence.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[37] **viXra:1103.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 4 pages

IIn this paper we prove (...) has infinitely many nonzero integer solutions. We prove
(...) has no nonzero integer solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[36] **viXra:1103.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this short note we mathematically prove that if we assume that
the speed of light is constant, then light propagates as a wave.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1103.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 4 pages

The wave-particle duality of photons, as hypothesized by Einstein, was well accepted
by the early 1920's. De Broglie's bold hypothesis in 1924, that all matter
likewise has a wave-particle duality added further fuel to the fire in the development
of Quantum Mechanics. It seared into the minds of physicists the wave-particle duality
of Nature. Needless to say, this counter intuitive and bold assertion mystified the World
beyond any sensible comprehension by common sense. The question often asked by ordinary
people is "what is the matter with de Broglie waves?" We provide just this answer and
demystify this 'matter' in this short paper.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[34] **viXra:1103.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 13 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this article we'll obtain through the duality method a property in relation to the contact
cords of the opposite sides of a circumscribable octagon.

**Category:** Geometry

[33] **viXra:1103.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 pages

In this article will prove some theorems in relation to the triplets of
homological triangles
two by two. These theorems will be used later to build triplets of triangles
two by two trihomological.

**Category:** Geometry

[32] **viXra:1103.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 22 pages, three figures, 4 tables. Provides foundations of GW astronomy as being developed by Chonqujing University department of physics

We ask if Octonionic quantum gravity [1] is a relevant consideration near the
Planck scale. Furthermore, we examine whether gravitational waves would be
generated during the initial phase, and look into multiple universe generation.
And an Ergodic mapping which may allow multiple universe embedding of Octonionic
gravity as a starting point to inflation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1103.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 16 pages

An interesting symmetry on multiplication of numbers found by
Prof.Smarandache recently. By considering integers or elements in groups on
graphs, we extend this symmetry on graphs and find geometrical symmetries.
For extending further, Smarandache's or combinatorial systems are also
discussed on general mathematical systems in this paper, particularly, the CC
conjecture presented by myself six years ago, which enables one to construct
symmetrical systems in mathematical sciences.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[30] **viXra:1103.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Marco Ripà

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this paper we provide an inverse proof of the relation between a particular class of double sums
and tetrahedral numbers. Thus, we present a compact formula to reduce the number of calculations
necessary to solve such a kind of problems. The initial identity is confirmed "a posteriori" using
the formula mentioned above.

**Category:** Algebra

[29] **viXra:1103.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Andrea Gregori

**Comments:** 141 pages

We investigate the string configuration that, in the framework of the theoretical scenario introduced
in [1], corresponds to the most entropic configuration in the phase space of all the
configurations of the universe. This describes a universe with four space-time dimensions,
and the physical content is phenomenologically compatible with the experimental observations
and measurements. Everything is determined in terms of the age of the universe, with
no room for freely-adjustable parameters. We discuss how one obtains the known spectrum
of particles and interactions, with massive neutrinos, no Higgs boson, and supersymmetry
broken at the Planck scale. Besides the computation of masses and couplings, CKM matrix
elements, cosmological constant, expansion parameters of the universe etc..., all resulting,
within the degree of the approximation we used, in agreement with the experimental observations,
we also discuss how this scenario passes the tests provided by cosmology and the
constraints imposed by the physics of the primordial universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[28] **viXra:1103.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 17 Pages, 4 Figures, 7 Tables.

Several respected scientists believe that is not possible to comprehend the
fundamentals of science without understanding consciousness and the mind. This
paper explores this concept and attempts to further the knowledge of the structure of
space-time by linking the mind with fundamental geometry. Using the well
documented technique of dowsing abstract geometrical shapes, this paper details the
findings for dowsing shapes containing angles common in tetrahedral geometry,
vesica pices, and in many branches of science. The postulation is that these
frequently found angles cannot be a coincidence, but reflect the structure of spacetime.
Observations made by several independent experienced dowsers have confirmed the
creation of subtle energy beams, subtle energy cones, energy flows, vortices, as well
as geometric and arithmetic separation distances. Interesting comparisons are made
between identical abstract and solid geometries. The conclusions provide further
evidence for consciousness beings linked into the structure of universal space-time,
and is augmented by local space-time variables such as the earth's spin, magnetism,
gravity, and orientation also affecting the mind's perception.

**Category:** Mind Science

[27] **viXra:1103.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 5 pages.

We accept the statement that "carriers in graphene
are described not by the Schrödinger equation" as a
challenge to show that electrons in graphene can be
described by the Schrödinger equation.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[26] **viXra:1103.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** I. V. Grossu

**Comments:** 2 pages.

Inspired by existing theories that consider modifications of Newton's law for extragalactic
systems, I propose, as an alternative to dark matter, the existence of a new force, constructed
in an analog way with the magnetic field. In this context, an encouraging qualitative agreement
with the rotation curves of disk galaxies was obtained. It is important to emphasis on the very
basic level of the treatment presented in this paper. Further analyses along those lines are
currently in progress.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[25] **viXra:1103.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-18 08:30:24*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Light is flow of three-dimensional matter-corpuscles, each corpuscle accompanied by separate set of distortions in universal medium. Together, they constitute radiation of photons. For existence, it is essential for matter-core of a photon to move at the highest possible linear speed, at which universal medium can move it. This limit endows light with constancy of its linear speed. Constancy of linear speed is related to and hence depends on nature of universal medium in region of space, where light is radiated. This essay very briefly describes mechanism of light’s motion and stabilizing mechanism of its linear speed, as envisaged in alternative concept, presented in the book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’. For details, kindly refer to same [1].

**Category:** Classical Physics

[24] **viXra:1103.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Janko Kokošar

**Comments:** 19 pages

Formulae for the masses of elementary particles obtained with guessing
are presented in the article. A derivation, which tries to physically interpret these
formulae, was also made afterward. Said simplified, it is obtained that particle masses
are varying quickly that they are mainly zero and sometimes roughly equal to Planckian
mass, while we, as measurers, measure a particle mass only as a time average. Then the
arguments, why it is possible that those formulae are not contradictory with known
physical facts, and why it is necessary that something like should exist to describe
the masses of elementary particles, are listed. The formulae and models are realistic
according to the known physics. It is shown also an example which can be verified
with a statistical analysis. Some findings are shown, which can survive although maybe
formulae will not survive.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] **viXra:1103.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-05 03:46:15*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 18 Pages. 18

Quantum FFF (Function Follows Form) theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast oscillating massless Higgs particles, oscillating along a complex chiral tetrahedral vacuum lattice, which has the ability to transfer Photon and Graviton information in bunches of oscillations, through the vacuum lattice with the local speed of light.
As a consequence there are no attraction forces on propeller shaped Fermions.
Only the sum of the different kinds of vacuum impulses by zero point Casimir effects in combination with the local vacuum oscillation spectrum coming from all directions on Fermions are responsible for all energetic phenomena in the universe.
As a consequence New physics will be needed and the introduction of Quantum based monopole radiation fields like the electric and magnetic fields.
The gravity of Black Holes is assumed to be based on the zero point oscillation spectrum only without the opposing repulsive gravitons. Black holes don’t emit gravitons because according to Q-FFF theory, they are massless and harbour a nucleus of massless Higgs alike Quantum knots only able to absorb the incoming oscillating vacuum particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] **viXra:1103.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith

**Comments:**
6 pages, one table. An entry into the 11 DSTA conference, in Lotz, Poland, in December 5-8, 2011m
put in to facilitate mathematical development and continuation/ improvement of a suggestion brought
up by Dr. R. Penrose which the author was
priviliged to attend in summer , 2007, at the inagural opening of the new Penn State gravitational
physics center.

We present how a Gaussian mapping, combined with what we hope to turn
into a strange attractor for re cycling prior universe matter-energy may enable
quantum gravity to form. And embed it in a larger- non linear theory. The key
development to be worked upon would be turning into a strange attractor the
supposition R. Penrose made as to re cycling the 'history' of the universe without the
necessity of a 'big crunch', i.e. a contracting universe. The nature of the attractor
would be instrumental in helping us come up with conditions enabling the evolution
of pre Planckian embedding of non linear ' analog reality' ( 'classical' ) physics
meshing into, with an increase in degrees of freedom into 'digital reality' ( 'quantum
mechanics') and de facto quantum gravity , at the start of Planckian space time. This
Planckian space time would mark the beginning of inflation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1103.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Andrea Gregori

**Comments:**
73 pages.

We investigate the most general "phase space" of configurations, consisting of all possible
ways of assigning elementary attributes, "energies", to elementary positions, "cells". We discuss
how this space possesses structures that can be approximated by a quantum-relativistic
physical scenario. In particular, we discuss how the Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and
a universe with a three-dimensional space arise, and what kind of mechanics rules it. String
Theory shows up as a complete representation of this structure in terms of time-dependent
fields and particles. Within this context, owing to the uniqueness of the underlying mathematical
structure it represents, one can also prove the uniqueness of string theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] **viXra:1103.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Javier Bootello

**Comments:**
3 pages.

This article presents a virtual gravitational potential, which could
explain some recent astronomical singularities: the secular increase of the
eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon and the increase of the Astronomical Unit.
Anyway, it is a theoretical potential without any proof of its physical reality.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[19] **viXra:1103.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:**
11 pages, 3 tables. Submitted by invitation to Advances in Astronomy. Coverse material part of presentation for

This document will briefly outline some of the issues pertinent to early inflation and how it affects both
strain readings for a GW detector, GW wave lengths, the number of gravitons which may be collected per
phase space, among other issues. Different inflation models will also be briefly alluded to.explain in part
what may be happening, as far as rates of alternations of wavelengths of GW 's from their genesis in terms
of pre inflation to inflationary generation. We also mention a standard as far as GW measurement and how
the 'metric' of measurement varies between the different models To summarize we state that the best
chances for relic GW measurements are Ω_{GW} ~ 10^{6} are in the 1Hz < f < 10 GHz range. This
according to the pre big bang models, and the QIM model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1103.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:**
15 pages, 3 figures. Submitted to Advances in Astronomy

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe
in five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if five dimensional geometries as given
below give us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. One noticeable datum, that a
calculated inflaton φ (t) may partly re-emerge after fading out in the aftermath of inflation. The
inflaton may be a contributing factor to, with non zero graviton mass, in re acceleration of the
universe a billion years ago. Many theorists assume that the inflaton is the source of entropy. The
inflaton also may be the source of re acceleration of the universe, especially if the effects of a re
emergent inflaton are in tandem with the appearance of macro effects of a small graviton mass,
leading to a speed up of the rate of expansion of the universe one billion years ago, at red shift value
of Z ~ .423. The key formula, for joint DM-DE shows up in terms of deceleration parameter, Q(z).
The choice of the DM-DE eqn. may eventually illuminate how early BBN may affect the formation
of low levels of lithium for early star formation which we reference toward the end of this document.
We also discuss what is necessary for not only proper BBN, but also to the implications for 'atoms'
of space time congruent with relic GW production, i.e. the thermodynamics of emergent structure.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1103.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:**
6 pages

Geographic north and south poles are key points in global atmospheric
dynamics. Taking chaos theory into account, any large perturbation in the
local atmospheric velocity field at the geographic poles, has the potential of
effecting weather patterns all over the globe. Generating thermal upcurrents
in the atmosphere at the geographic poles using heat from nuclear reactor,
opens up the possibility of benign global weather control - and a globally
temperate climate.

**Category:** Climate Research

[16] **viXra:1103.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:**
17 pages, 9 Figures, 3 Tables.

Using the well documented technique of dowsing abstract geometrical shapes, this
paper details the findings for 2-body interaction starting with 2 abstract circles and
then extending the observations to 2 physical objects. Interesting comparisons are
made between identical abstract and solid geometries. As any two bodies separate,
observations made by several independent experienced dowsers have confirmed the
creation of subtle energy beams, vortices, Cornu spirals, null points, resonance
effects, and bifurcation. This complex pattern is affected dynamically during the
separation process. The conclusions provide further evidence for consciousness
beings linked into the structure of universal space-time, and is augmented by local
space-time variables such as the earth's spin, magnetism, gravity, and orientation also
affecting the mind's perception.

**Category:** Mind Science

[15] **viXra:1103.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:**
22 pages.

D.Zagier(1984) and K.Inkeri(1990) said[7] Jiang mathematics is true, but Jiang determinates
the irrational numbers to be very difficult for prime exponent p>2.In 1991 Jiang studies the
composite exponents n=15,21,33,...,3p and proves Fermat last theorem for prime exponent
p>3[1].In 1986 Gerhard Frey places Fermat last theorem at elliptic curve ,now called a Frey
curve.Andrew Wiles studies Frey curve.In 1994 Wiles proves Fermat last
theorem[9,10].Conclusion:Jiang proof is direct and very simple,but Wiles proof is indirect and
very complex. If China mathematicians and Academia Sinica had supported and recognized
Jiang proof on Fermat last theorem,Wiles would not have proved Fermat last theorem,because
in 1991 Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem[1].Wiles has received many prizes and awards,
he should thank China mathematicians and Academia Sinica.To support and to publish Jiang
Fermat last theorem paper is prohibited in Academia Sinica.
Remark. Chun-Xuan Jiang,A general proof of Fermat last theorem(Chinese),Mimeograph
papers,July 1978. In this paper using circulant matrix,circulant determinant and permutation
group theory Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem for odd prime exponent. (6 again)

**Category:** Number Theory

[14] **viXra:1103.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:**
8 pages.

If the process of wave function collapse of two entangled particles into mirror symmetrical states,
is the basic process for all created particles, then we should live inside one part of a mirror
symmetrical entangled copy MULTIVERSE with one central origin.
We will give it the name: Raspberry Multiverse.
Even human choice making should be subjected to this mirror symmetrical process.
Benjamin Libet described a choice experiment, which we could use to measure how many copy universes there should be.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13] **viXra:1103.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:**
14 pages.

D.Zagier(1984) and K.Inkeri(1990) said[7] Jiang mathematics is true, but Jiang
determinates the irrational numbers to be very difficult for prime exponent p>2.In 1991
Jiang studies the composite exponents n=15,21,33,...,3p and proves Fermat last theorem for
prime exponent p>3[1].In 1986 Gerhard Frey places Fermat last theorem at elliptic
curve ,now called a Frey curve.Andrew Wiles studies Frey curve.In 1994 Wiles proves
Fermat last theorem[9,10].Conclusion:Jiang proof is direct and very simple,but Wiles proof
is indirect and very complex. If China mathematicians and Academia Sinica had supported
and recognized Jiang proof on Fermat last theorem,Wiles would not have proved Fermat
last theorem,because in 1991 Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem[1].Wiles has received
many prizes and awards, he should thank China mathematicians and Academia Sinica.To
support and to publish Jiang Fermat last theorem paper is prohibited in Academia Sinica.
Remark. Chun-Xuan Jiang,A general proof of Fermat last theorem(Chinese),Mimeograph
papers,July 1978. In this paper using circulant matrix,circulant determinant and
permutation group theory Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem for odd prime exponent. (3)

**Category:** Number Theory

[12] **viXra:1103.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Nikiforos A. Sideris

**Comments:**
137 pages.

The first Edition of this work was published as a book in English under the
title "THE FIRST 10^{-35} SECONDS" (ISBN: 960-630-425-6) in Athens on 2005.
The circulation of this book however was restricted mainly in the little community
of the Greek physicists. Thanks to the very smart development of the viXra.org. I
considered that it would be good to present it to the wide International Physics
Community in electronic form since the ideas and findings from my work bring new
information in the sectors of Elementary Particle Physics and in Cosmology. Some of
these new results are based on other works of mine that have already been published
mainly in the international journal Physics Essays and also in my new book published
in Greek under the title "The Machinary of Newtonian Gravitation and the fallacies of
General Relativity" (ISBN: 978-960-8160-49-1). I hope that for many physicists will be
useful to be informed that to many as yet unsolved problems of physics, this presentation
will give answers that may be discussed. I thank in advance and I congratulate the viXra.
organization for their contribution to transfer to the physics community new ideas that
perhaps, to my opinion, will bring a little restlessness to some of the top leading minds
of the contemporary physics. Perhaps this is one of the reasons that new ideas are
prevented to be exposed by some of the top journals on physics. But the ancient Greeks
had a proverb: Nothing can be hidden under the Sun.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1103.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-26 16:43:29*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 7 Pages. version 2 removes a ommission the notation of the formula, however renewed analysis implies no change in calculated results

This paper announces dark energy to be measured as a cosmic microwave background frame in the Double Torus hypothesis. This Double Torus (CMB)-frame is related to a specific quantum-state of dark energy and dark matter. In addition this paper also refers to a planned dark energy interferometer-project, which is expected to be operational in 2014. Both aspects can be combined in order to get a better expectation and interpretation of the detection of dark energy. This paper has motivated me to calculate a specific value for the Double Torus dark energy. The calculated value is about 4 x 10^-114 [X.s] in 6.4 x 10^-48 [m^2]. A new kind of spin-quantum-state [X.s] is introduced as a property of dark energy in the Double Torus. Probably this paper might be of interest to the dark energy interferometer-project. It surely is of importance for the discrepancy that exists in vacuum energy density.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10] **viXra:1103.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-28 07:35:00*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles.
In our former paper “3-Dimensional String based alternative particle model.”
we presented a possible solution based on complex 3-D ring shaped particles.
We will give it the name: FFF Theory. (Function Follows Form Theory)
Now this paper presents the possible consequences of such a 3-D string particle system for Black holes.
Recent clumpy Dark matter observations around Dwarf galaxies, seem to support the new paradigm black hole of Q-FFF theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1103.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:**
14 pages.

D.Zagier(1984) and K.Inkeri(1990) said[7] Jiang mathematics is true, but Jiang determinates
the irrational numbers to be very difficult for prime exponent p>2.In 1991 Jiang studies the
composite exponents n=15,21,33,...,3p and proves Fermat last theorem for prime exponent
p>3[1].In 1986 Gerhard Frey places Fermat last theorem at elliptic curve ,now called a Frey
curve.Andrew Wiles studies Frey curve.In 1994 Wiles proves Fermat last
theorem[9,10].Conclusion:Jiang proof is direct and very simple,but Wiles proof is indirect and
very complex. If China mathematicians and Academia Sinica had supported and recognized
Jiang proof on Fermat last theorem,Wiles would not have proved Fermat last theorem,because
in 1991 Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem[1].Wiles has received many prizes and awards,
he should thank China mathematicians and Academia Sinica.To support and to publish Jiang
Fermat last theorem paper is prohibited in Academia Sinica.
Remark. Chun-Xuan Jiang,A general proof of Fermat last theorem(Chinese),Mimeograph
papers,July 1978. In this paper using circulant matrix,circulant determinant and permutation
group theory Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem for odd prime exponent. (6)

**Category:** Number Theory

[8] **viXra:1103.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:**
14 pages.

D.Zagier(1984) and K.Inkeri(1990) said[7] Jiang mathematics is true, but Jiang determinates
the irrational numbers to be very difficult for prime exponent p>2.In 1991 Jiang studies the
composite exponents n=15,21,33,...,3p and proves Fermat last theorem for prime exponent
p>3[1].In 1986 Gerhard Frey places Fermat last theorem at elliptic curve ,now called a Frey
curve.Andrew Wiles studies Frey curve.In 1994 Wiles proves Fermat last
theorem[9,10].Conclusion:Jiang proof is direct and very simple,but Wiles proof is indirect and
very complex. If China mathematicians and Academia Sinica had supported and recognized
Jiang proof on Fermat last theorem,Wiles would not have proved Fermat last theorem,because
in 1991 Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem[1].Wiles has received many prizes and awards,
he should thank China mathematicians and Academia Sinica.To support and to publish Jiang
Fermat last theorem paper is prohibited in Academia Sinica.
Remark. Chun-Xuan Jiang,A general proof of Fermat last theorem(Chinese),Mimeograph
papers,July 1978. In this paper using circulant matrix,circulant determinant and permutation
group theory Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem for odd prime exponent. (5)

**Category:** Number Theory

[7] **viXra:1103.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:**
16 pages.

D.Zagier(1984) and K.Inkeri(1990) said[7] Jiang mathematics is true, but Jiang
determinates the irrational numbers to be very difficult for prime exponent p>2.In 1991
Jiang studies the composite exponents n=15,21,33,...,3p and proves Fermat last theorem for
prime exponent p>3[1].In 1986 Gerhard Frey places Fermat last theorem at elliptic
curve ,now called a Frey curve.Andrew Wiles studies Frey curve.In 1994 Wiles proves
Fermat last theorem[9,10].Conclusion:Jiang proof is direct and very simple,but Wiles proof
is indirect and very complex. If China mathematicians and Academia Sinica had supported
and recognized Jiang proof on Fermat last theorem,Wiles would not have proved Fermat
last theorem,because in 1991 Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem[1].Wiles has received
many prizes and awards, he should thank China mathematicians and Academia Sinica.To
support and to publish Jiang Fermat last theorem paper is prohibited in Academia Sinica.
Remark. Chun-Xuan Jiang,A general proof of Fermat last theorem(Chinese),Mimeograph
papers,July 1978. In this paper using circulant matrix,circulant determinant and
permutation group theory Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem for odd prime exponent. (4)

**Category:** Number Theory

[6] **viXra:1103.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari, Masato Kobori

**Comments:**
13 pages.

The concept of simulating chosen information channels of a linear incoherent imaging system by
projecting reference signals is proposed and the system's ability to restore severely distorted but
stationary images is experimentally demonstrated. A particular instrument's object field is divided
into N discrete 'points' whose individual simulated outputs is measured at N particular sampling
points; the NxN output matrix F is the transfer matrix of the system, and being empirically derived,
it precisely accounts for all diffractions, aberrations, distortions, peculiarities of the chosen object
points and sensor size and distribution. As such F can become the basis for eliminating algorithmhardware
mismatch in various restoration schemes. Calibration allows treating the instrument as an
unknown 'black box', and imaging through a severely and arbitrarily distorting hardware is
demonstrated. Other uses of F are to add or subtract the outputs of separate instruments viewing the
same object on a pixel-by-pixel basis, and as a graphically or digitally presented measure of the
instrument's local transfer function, and hence of image quality.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[5] **viXra:1103.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:**
4 pages.

This brief report suggests a straightforward solution for the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model using
dimensional regularization of quantum field theory (QFT). Our viewpoint breaks away from traditional
approaches to the hierarchy problem based on supersymmetry (SUSY), technicolor, extra-dimensions,
anthropic arguments, fine-tuning or gauge unification near the Planck scale.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1103.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:**
4 pages.

A theory of everything , or, grand unified theory (which Einstein had been working on
without success, with Superstring Theory now being a good candidate), is one which unites
all the forces of nature, viz., gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force and the
weak nuclear force. Important as this theory might be, it is lacking in one important
fundamental aspect, viz., the role of consciousness, which could in fact be considered the
most fundamental aspect of physics. This paper explains that a theory of consciousness is
more important than a theory of everything or grand unified theory and should be the
theory of everything instead, or, at least, a part of the theory of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1103.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:**
35 pages.

D.Zagier(1984) and K.Inkeri(1990) said[7] Jiang mathematics is true, but Jiang
determinates the irrational numbers to be very difficult for prime exponent p>2.In 1991
Jiang studies the composite exponents n=15,21,33,...,3p and proves Fermat last theorem for
prime exponent p>3[1].In 1986 Gerhard Frey places Fermat last theorem at elliptic
curve ,now called a Frey curve.Andrew Wiles studies Frey curve.In 1994 Wiles proves
Fermat last theorem[9,10].Conclusion:Jiang proof is direct and very simple,but Wiles proof
is indirect and very complex. If China mathematicians and Academia Sinica had supported
and recognized Jiang proof on Fermat last theorem,Wiles would not have proved Fermat
last theorem,because in 1991 Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem[1].Wiles has received
many prizes and awards, he should thank China mathematicians and Academia Sinica.To
support and to publish Jiang Fermat last theorem paper is prohibited in Academia Sinica.
Remark. Chun-Xuan Jiang,A general proof of Fermat last theorem(Chinese),Mimeograph
papers,July 1978. In this paper using circulant matrix,circulant determinant and
permutation group theory Jiang had proved Fermat last theorem for odd prime exponent.

**Category:** Number Theory

[2] **viXra:1103.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:**
7 pages.

The Fermat last theorem controversy is an argument between
20th century mathematicians Jiang Chun-Xuan(1992) and
Andrew Wiles(1995) over who has first proved Fermat last
theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[1] **viXra:1103.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-12-11 02:20:47*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 20 Pages. 20

Abstract,
In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles.
In this paper we present a possible solution based on complex 3-D ring shaped particles, which are equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface.
The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Higgs particle, supplied with the 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after some sort of mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function.
Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Higgs is interpreted as a massless transformer particle able to create the universe by transform its shape after real mechanical collision and merge with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics