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1107 Submissions

[52] viXra:1107.0062 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-22 15:01:52

Gravitational Theory with Local Conservation of Energy

Authors: D.T. Froedge
Comments: 18 Pages.

The presentation here is based on the presumption that the total energy of a particle and photon in a gravitational field is localized and conserved. A mass particle thus entering a static gravitational field has an increasing velocity, but a decreasing rest mass, or a mass defect. The total energy is conserved. This also means that as a photon rises in a gravitational field there is no loss of energy, and therefore a photon escapes the most intense field, precluding the formation of a black hole. Since there is no energy change in an accelerating particle technically gravitation is not a force. It will be shown that such a theory of gravitation can be developed, that properly predicts known dynamic, has proper covariant transformations, the proper Shapiro velocity, and does not require formulation in curved space. Noether’s theorem definitively shows that contrary to all other forces, energy cannot be conserved nor localized in a Riemannian gauge field representation. It is presumed here that this is a flaw in GR, and it is asserted here that Noether’s theorem is not an indicator of a physical reality, but an indicator of the approximate nature of GR. This can best be tested in the observation of the properties of objects cited to be black holes. There are points of this development that are testable, and provable or disprovable in experiments on Black Holes and, Event Horizons.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[51] viXra:1107.0061 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-29 08:14:30

Homogeneity and Anisotropy of Universal Medium

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 9 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Matter is the only substance that can provide objective reality and positive existence in space. (Real) universal medium should be made of matter. It should be homogeneous and fill entire space, outside 3D matter-particles, without voids (empty space). At the same time, it should be flexible enough to have properties of perfect fluid. Anisotropic nature, which allows relative motions within, requires that universal medium should be structured by sub-particles and each of its constituent matter-particles has lot of (apparently) vacant space around it, to allow relative movements. This article attempts to describe, how these contradicting properties are simultaneously achieved in the universal medium, proposed in alternative concept, presented in the book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’.
Category: Classical Physics

[50] viXra:1107.0060 [pdf] replaced on 17 Aug 2011

Clifford Algebra, 3 and 4-Dimensional Analytic Functions with Applications. Manuscripts of the Last Century.

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 63 pages, v2 in Italian, v3 in English

The greatest revolution in the number from the days of Pythagoras. The similarity between quantum mechanics and electromagnetism. Are we a three-dimensional television show? These and other fascinating topics are addressed by the author in this paper at once popular and mathematical, which leads us to a world still largely unexplored. Are we facing with what is (up to now) the true language of Physics? "Clifford's algebra - he called it 'geometric algebra' - is now well recognized as the natural algebra for describing physics in 3-space, but it hasn't yet caught on in engineering, or even in standard treatments of electricity and magnetism or fluid dynamics, where vector analysis with its ugly cross product still holds sway" (Mark Buchanan, Nature Physics 7, 442, 2011). But can physics laws be derived from Clifford algebra and analytic functions? And why? From simple postulates of geometrical nature (or, I mean, which simply precisely define our language) it seems that we arrive at equations of relativistic dynamics, electromagnetism, fluid dynamics and quantum mechanics. Issues covered more or less in depth in this paper are: numbers and algebra, the analysis and the δ* operator, analytic functions in 3 and 4 dimensions, Maxwell's and Dirac equations, analytic functions in circular waveguides, analytic functions in four dimensions, i.e. spherical cavity, Physical Optics and heuristic derivation of the Hydrogen spectral lines. Many disciplines are then influenced by this approach in a way that the paper often only suggests, so as it suggests several areas of future development. I mulled over these topics for more than 40 years, and I then summarized in an unpublished manuscript dated March 2000, which is almost entirely reported here in his complete, also if naïve, form.
Category: Quantum Physics

[49] viXra:1107.0059 [pdf] submitted on 29 Jul 2011

The Modern African

Authors: Garreth H. Gothaven
Comments: 8 pages

The problem as it exists today is one of identity. What do I, as an African youth have to offer the world in terms of culture worthy of respect. What do we as Africans offer our children, that which they can be proud of and be willing to hand down to their own children, without any generation obtaining the familiar attitude of it being backward? A possible solution to the mindset shift that has left continental Africans branded as paddlers of H.I.V. Exploring some sources of the masochistic attitude, that many have toward their own cultural identity.
Category: Social Science

[48] viXra:1107.0058 [pdf] submitted on 29 Jul 2011

A Law of Energy Creation

Authors: Ranganath G Kulkarni
Comments: 20 pages, Published in the General Science Journal

The energy density of free space is constant and negative. Energy, which comes from free space according to the law of energy creation, is created at a constant rate. Matter or energy that is created contains equal amounts of positive and negative energy. Therefore, the total energy of the body is zero. This law offers insights on the beginning and end of the universe, as well as how this cycle continues.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[47] viXra:1107.0057 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-27 18:02:44

Theory of Electron

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 17 Pages.

The solution with no singularity of wave equation for E-M fields is solved not to Bessel function, which's geometrical size is little enough to explain all effects in matter's structure: strong, weak effect or even other new ones. The mathematic calculation leaded by quantum theory reveals the weak or strong decay and static properties of elementary particles, all coincide with experimental data, and a covariant equation comprising bent space is proposed to explain mass.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[46] viXra:1107.0054 [pdf] submitted on 25 Jul 2011

Introductory Questions About Symbolic Values

Authors: S. Halayka
Comments: 4 pages

Many distinct concepts including data, memes, and information are introduced. This manuscript aims to highlight the important role that unconscious physical reality plays in the creation and transmission of symbolic values.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[45] viXra:1107.0051 [pdf] submitted on 24 Jul 2011

An Intriguing Correlation Between the Distribution of Star Multiples and American Adults

Authors: Alon Retter
Comments: 4 pages

It is a known fact that like people, many stars are single while most others tend to couple in binaries, yet the two distributions have not been compared so far. The distribution of 4559 brightest nearby stars was matched with that of American adults at the age of 18-65 years. It was found that the mean values of the distributions of star multiples and US households are almost identical (2.04 vs. 2.03). Moreover, a strong resemblance between the two curves is evident. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that this result is significant at a confidence level higher than 97%. Apparently, there should be no connection between the two populations, thus this striking result may supply some clues about the way Nature works.
Category: Astrophysics

[44] viXra:1107.0050 [pdf] submitted on 24 Jul 2011

A Methods of Neutrosophic Logia to Answer Queries in Relational Database

Authors: Smita Rajpal, M.N. Doja, Ranjit Biswas
Comments: 10 pages

Today Databases are Deterministic. An item belongs to the database is a probabilistic event, or a tuple is an answer to the query is a probabilistic event and it can be extended to all data models. Here we will discuss probabilistic relational data. Probabilistic relational Data are defined in two ways, Database is deterministic and Query answers are probabilistic or Database is probabilistic and Query answers are probabilistic. Probabilistic relational databases have been studied from the late 80's until today. But today Application Need to manage imprecision's in data. Imprecision can be of many types: non-matching data values, imprecise queries, inconsistent data, misaligned schemas, etc.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[43] viXra:1107.0049 [pdf] submitted on 24 Jul 2011

Studies in Sampling Techniques and Time Series Analysis

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 72 pages

This book has been designed for students and researchers who are working in the field of time series analysis and estimation in finite population. There are papers by Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache, Shweta Maurya, Ashish K. Singh, Manoj Kr. Chaudhary, V. K. Singh, Mukesh Kumar and Sachin Malik. First chapter deals with the problem of time series and the rest of four chapters deal with the problems in estimation in finite population.
Category: Statistics

[42] viXra:1107.0048 [pdf] submitted on 24 Jul 2011

Higgs 2011: Will LEE Hide the Higgs ?

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 5 Pages.

An ATLAS plot at EPS HEP 2011 showed 3 Higgs state peaks: low mass state (Higgs mass around 150 GeV) middle mass state (Higgs mass around 200 GeV) high mass state (Higgs mass around 250 GeV) A preliminary CMS plot for EPS HEP 2011 showed the same 3 Higgs state peaks but for the plot shown at EPS HEP 2011CMS used a Look Elsewhere Effect (LEE) that flattened the 200 GeV and 250 GeV peaks into insignificance. Since the same location of the 3 peaks was independently shown by ATLAS the CMS use of LEE was improper so CMS should remove the LEE processing from its plot. (References are included in the body of the paper and in linked material.)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[41] viXra:1107.0047 [pdf] submitted on 24 Jul 2011

MCS Physics Article 5: Relativity's Nightmare Universe

Authors: Meir Amiram
Comments: 4 pages

I describe a universe in which all universal matter is of zero rest mass and is traveling at the speed of light (this class of universe is hereinafter abbreviated ALSU). In this universe motion through space is a result of constant rate repetition of discrete swift microscopic leaps averaging to a smooth-like motion at C in the macroscopic scale. All matter in this universe is composed of EMPs (see Article 1), and the difference between photons whose speed of light is recognized in the macroscopic scale of reality and between particles whose speed of light is not recognized as motion in the macroscopic scale, is in the symmetry of their EMP based structures. While bosons have semispherical structural symmetry, fermions have spherical structural symmetry. Photons thus follow geodesic lines in their motion, while other elementary ALSU particles are exercising their microscopic light speed leaps, frenetically joggling around a local mid point, with the directional leap of each EMP in their construction being cancelled out by a consequent leap of another EMP moving in the opposite direction. In such a universe particles and photons are on an equal footing, they are constructed from the same building blocks, have the same speeds, the same ticking rate of time, the same zero rest mass and the same light speed mass per each EMP participating in their construction. The physicists residing in this ALSU unfortunately live in the macroscopic world, and are thus unaware of said equal footing. Since they are able to recognize only the macroscopic averages of the microscopic light speed leaps of particles, they mess up everything: they relate to fermionic particles as if they are at rest, to their light speed masses as if they were rest masses, and to small differential values in the particles' light speeds as absolute small speeds. Consequently they invent relativity theories, and finally become confused of the inconsistency of such theories with the quantum realm. I guess you will not be surprised to find out that according to MCS Physics this hypothetical universe is the one in which we happen to reside.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[40] viXra:1107.0046 [pdf] submitted on 24 Jul 2011

MCS Physics Article 4: Energy

Authors: Meir Amiram
Comments: 8 pages

I deduce that the interaction between EMPs and space "units" (hereinafter spacents) is the origin of Energy and that mass is nothing more or less than "amount of kinetic energy". This allows me to conclude that dark energy does not exist. I further deduce that the EMP is the minimal photon in nature and that EMPs move through space in the speed of light, not only when participating in photon constructions but also as constituents of fermionic matter. Fermionic matter does not exhibit, however, motion at the speed of light in the macroscopic scale of reality due to the spherical symmetry arrangement of the EMPs from which it is constructed. In the microscopic realm, however, fermionic matter is frenetically joggling at the speed of light. Accordingly, all universal matter is of zero rest mass. What we actually measure as the Mass of particles and bodies, is their light speed mass. Photons exhibit C in the macroscopic world due to their open non spherical structure. I postulate that statistically speaking, due to the relatively long idleness interval T2, elementary particle interactions are taken against a standing still universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[39] viXra:1107.0045 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-08 11:38:28

A Different Approach to Logic

Authors: Mauro Avon
Comments: 201 Pages.

The paper is about an approach to logic that differs from the standard first-order logic and other known approaches. It should be a new approach the author has created proposing to obtain a general and unifying approach to logic and a faithful model of human mathematical deductive process. We list the most relevant features of the system. In first-order logic there exist two different concepts of term and formula, in place of these two concepts in our approach we have just one notion of expression. The set-builder notation is enclosed as an expression-building pattern. In our system we can easily express second-order and all-order conditions (the set to which a quantifier refers is explicitly written in the expression). The meaning of a sentence will depend solely on the meaning of the symbols it contains, it will not depend on external `structures'. Our deductive system is based on a very simple definition of proof and provides a good model of human mathematical deductive process. The soundness and consistency of the system are proved, as well as the fact that our system is not affected by the most known types of paradox. The paper provides both the theoretical material and two fully documented examples of deduction. The author believes his aims have been achieved, obviously the reader is free to examine the system and get his own opinion about it.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[38] viXra:1107.0044 [pdf] submitted on 22 Jul 2011

EPS HEP 2011 and E8 Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 17 Pages.

Experimental results announced at EPS HEP 2011 are compared with some predictions of my E8 Physics model, including 3 Higgs states: low mass state (Higgs mass around 145 GeV/c2) middle mass state (Higgs mass around 180 GeV/c2) high mass state (Higgs mass around 240 GeV/c2) My view is that the EPS HEP 2011 results support my E8 Physics model. Some prospects for the future exploration by the LHC are briefly discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[37] viXra:1107.0043 [pdf] submitted on 21 Jul 2011

Potential Alternative to Solar System Gravitational Singularities

Authors: Javier Bootello
Comments: 6 pages, Comments and annotations are welcome

This article presents a gravitational potential, which could explain some astronomical singularities: the secular increase of the eccentricity of the Moon and the increase of the Astronomical Unit. This potential is also consistent with the solution to the unexplained anomalous precession of the perihelion of Mercury, which was the first success of General Relativity, event which is near to reach its first centenary.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[36] viXra:1107.0042 [pdf] submitted on 21 Jul 2011

Matter Over Anti-Matter Explained in a Double Torus.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 4 pages

September 1 2009 a new cosmological hypothesis was proposed to imagine the universe otherwise. Many institutional scientists still try to implement their results into the commonly accepted Big Bang theory. I am one of the two scientists who propose a Double Torus as a new shape for the universe. Several 'papers' are hosted at 'vixra' about this subject. This paper adds an explanaition to these afore published papers and in particular explains the 'dominance of matter over anti-matter', deduced from the earlier derived 'dark energy force formula' and the perspective of the Double Torus.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[35] viXra:1107.0041 [pdf] submitted on 21 Jul 2011

Algebraic Structures Using Super Interval Matrices

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 289 pages

In this book, super interval matrices using the special type of intervals of the form [0, a] are introduced. Several algebraic structures like semigroups, groups, semirings, rings, semivector spaces and vector spaces are introduced. Special fuzzy linear algebras are introduced using the concept of super fuzzy interval matrices.
Category: Algebra

[34] viXra:1107.0040 [pdf] submitted on 21 Jul 2011

Quick and Easy Derivation of the Electron's Electromagnetic Mass: a Comment on Physics-Uspekhi 54 (4) 371-374 (2011)

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 3 pages

Obtaining the electron's electromagnetic mass has just been made much easier now that the electron has been measured to be aspheric. We show here that the electron can be modeled as a right circular cylinder whose front face is connected to its back face. We show that there must be a circulating magnetic field along the axis of this ring.
Category: Classical Physics

[33] viXra:1107.0039 [pdf] submitted on 21 Jul 2011

Pseudo-Smarandache Functions of First and Second kind

Authors: A. S. Muktibodh, S.T. Rathod
Comments: 9 pages

In this paper we define two kinds of Pseudo-Smarandache functions. We have investigated more than fifty terms of each pseudoSmarandache function. We have proved some interesting results and properties of these functions.
Category: Number Theory

[32] viXra:1107.0038 [pdf] submitted on 20 Jul 2011

There Exist Povm Measurements that Contradict the Quantum Measurement Postulate for Discrete, Degenerate Systems

Authors: Raymond Jensen
Comments: 16 pages

A 1986 experiment involving a two-particle entangled system is analyzed, and it is shown that: (1) the measurement results of that experiment are in contradiction to the discrete degenerate form of the quantum measurement postulate (DDQMP) and (2) the measurements done in the experiment are of the positive operator valued measure (POVM) type. Thus there exist POVM measurements which contradict the DDQMP. A modification to the DDQMP is provided which agrees with the experimental results. The modified DDQMP is then applied to a proposed experiment involving a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31] viXra:1107.0037 [pdf] submitted on 20 Jul 2011

On the Zitterbewegung

Authors: Elemér E Rosinger
Comments: 4 pages

An extension of the zitterbewegung phenomenon is suggested together with a solution to the measurement problem and the claimed incompleteness of quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30] viXra:1107.0036 [pdf] submitted on 20 Jul 2011

A Critical and Thorough re-Analysis of the Null Result of the Michelson and Morley Experiment

Authors: Roald C. Maximo
Comments: 5 pages

It has happened sometimes in the history of scientific development, that a misinterpretation of a phenomenon or an experiment by a renowned scientist, will spread thereafter under the mantle of his authority without anyone bothering to verify the veracity of those arguments and check for its correctness. With time it becomes so settled that any attempt to deny it will meet with strong opposition. The word of this or that distinguished scientist is irrefutable and only a fool would dare to question it. This kind of attitude has caused serious harm to the scientific development over the centuries and led research in many areas astray. The last century has not been different. I'm coming back again and again to this issue, always in a somewhat different and more explicit mode because this is an emblematic case of what has been said above. In two previous papers1 we got to demystify the phenomenon of stellar aberration and show that there is nothing magic with light and, as has been demonstrated, there is no violation of the constancy of the speed of light in applying Eddington's rain drops analogy. Since there is a straight correlation, as will be readily shown, between the phenomenon of light aberration and the M/M experiment, we shall start making a rapid pass through it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29] viXra:1107.0035 [pdf] replaced on 10 Sep 2011

The Differential Coordinate Transformation in the General Relativity Theory

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 7 pages

[This paper deals with] the differential coordinate transformation in the general relativity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[28] viXra:1107.0034 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-01 16:43:00

On the Origin of Dynamics, Report of a Research Project

Authors: Ir J.A.J. (Hans) van Leunen
Comments: 568 Pages.

Collection of papers written by Ir J.A.J. (Hans)van Leunen The main subject of this collection is a new model of physics The collection also contains papers about related subjects
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1107.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-03 20:24:03

Three Magnetic Dipoles Provide a Physically Realistic Simulation of the Repulsive-Attractive Nature of the Strong Force and of the Cabibbo Angle

Authors: Vladimir F. Tamari
Comments: 10 Pages. Appendix III was added to the original paper in January 2016

The Strong Force is unique in that it changes from repulsive to attractive as the distance between two quarks increases, and rapidly approaches a steady level thereafter. Unlike the inverse square law related to the surface area of a sphere, there is as yet no simple physical explanation for this phenomenon. It is demonstrated that the inductive forces between three magnetic dipoles symmetrically arrayed and tilted around a circle, will result in a repulsive force acting radially on any one one of them at close proximity, that changes to an attractive force with increase of distance. The forces are most like the Strong Force when the tilt is at around 13°, remarkably similar to the Cabibbo Angle relating the Strong and Weak reactions. These results encourage development of Tamari's Beautiful Universe (BU) model of a universal lattice entirely made up of magnetic dipoles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[26] viXra:1107.0032 [pdf] submitted on 17 Jul 2011

Evidence for The Hubble Sphere Model of Cosmological Redshift and Dark Energy

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Hubble sphere model uses a single equation of frequency versus distance to describe the linear and non-linear cosmological redshift data. The non-linear portion of the cosmological redshift curve is what has been interpreted as Dark Energy, an unnecessary phenomena that can easily be described by the interaction of Hubble spheres, where the gravitational and electromagnetic forces are limited to the range of the Hubble radius. Analysis of Type Ia supernovae data reveals the simple, 3rd-order polynomial predicted by the Hubble sphere model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[25] viXra:1107.0031 [pdf] submitted on 16 Jul 2011

Atlas of Atomic Nuclear Structures (According to the BSM-SG Unified Theory)

Authors: Stoyan Sarg
Comments: 30 Pages.

The Atlas of Atomic Nuclear Structures (ANS) is one of the major output results of the Basic Structures of Matter - Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG), based on an alternative concept of the physical vacuum. The atlas of ANS illustrates the material structure of the elementary particles and atomic nuclei as they are revealed in BSM-SG. While they exhibit the same interaction energies as the Quantum Mechanical models, they are not point-like structures. The atlas also provides information about the spatial arrangement of the protons and neutrons in the atomic nuclei, atoms and molecules. The Z-number trend of the nuclear build-up follows a shell structure that complies strictly with the row-column pattern of the Periodic table, while obeying the Hund's rules and Pauli exclusion principle. The nuclear structures of the stable isotopes exhibit a higher degree of symmetry. The trend of faster increase of the number of neutrons in comparison to the protons in heavier elements and their spatial positions play a role in redistribution of the repulsive Coulomb forces between protons. The proposed physical models could find applications in different fields, such as the chemistry, nanotechnology, biomolecules and deeper understanding of the nuclear stability and reactions..
Category: Classical Physics

[24] viXra:1107.0030 [pdf] replaced on 20 Jul 2011

On the Quantities of Energy and Momentum in Contemporary Physics

Authors: Peter Sujak
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper discusses the meaning and role of the quantities of energy and momentum in the definition relations of relativistic, quantum and classical mechanics with focus on kinetic and total relativistic energy, on the definition of the de Broglie momentum hypothesis and using momentum and energy in Schrodinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:1107.0029 [pdf] replaced on 21 Jul 2011

The Retarded Phase Factor in Wireless Power Transmission

Authors: Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, we present the coupling equations involving retarded phase factor in wireless power transmission. Negative resistance can be achieved in specific range of distance between two resonators. The law of energy conservation is valid when the retarded phase factor is equal to one.
Category: Classical Physics

[22] viXra:1107.0028 [pdf] submitted on 15 Jul 2011

The Gravitation Dependence of the Speed of the Light and the Pioneer 10&11 Acceleration Anomaly Explanation

Authors: Gocho Sharlanov
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the article the "ether" is considered to be the "warped space-time of the Universe" itself. Unambiguous results for the presence of anisotropy of the speed of light are obtained up to now. The approach in this paper is that fairness requires that experiments have to be related to the reference system, associated with the space itself, where the Earth moves and warps the space around. The results: - Constant speed of light in time-spatial domains with equal gravitational potential. - Explanation of the anomaly in the acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 at escaping from the Sun's gravity with "acceleration of the speed of the electromagnetic radiation" emanated from the spacecrafts.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21] viXra:1107.0027 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-28 18:09:43

Not so Fast, DR. Einstein

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: 36 Pages

The Special Theory of Relativity is disproved here using simple high school algebra. The theory of relativity is LACED throughout and therefore clouds modern scientific thinking. As with Aristotle’s theory about everything being made of earth, air, fire, and water, or that a heavier canon ball will fall to earth faster than a lighter wooden ball, said theories standing for over 2000 years, Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity is also wrong and has stood intact for over 100 years.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20] viXra:1107.0026 [pdf] replaced on 4 Aug 2011

The Anti-Neutron Model of the Atom

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: 6 Pages.

We propose a simple universal theory/model of the atom composed of anti-neutrons, electrons, positrons, and neutrinos which better explains fusion, fission, radioactivity, electromagnetic radiation, gravity, electric force, magnetic force, and the strong force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1107.0025 [pdf] submitted on 14 Jul 2011

The Unified Field Theory, Theory of Everything and More About Nature

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper takes a look at the formulating of the unified field theory and the theory of everything. It shows how a unified field theory and theory of everything may be obtained. It also brings up a number of new and controversial concepts relating to nature.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18] viXra:1107.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2012-10-30 08:08:54

The Principle of Proportionality of Mass and Energy: New Version

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 17 Pages. Caspian Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2012, Vol. 1, No. 13, P. 1 – 15.

The essence of mass and its relation to the relativistic energy is considered. It is assumed that the rest energy is equal to the total binding energy of the body and can be found through the energies of fundamental fields associated with the substance of the body. Mass as a measure of inertia is calculated by relativistic energy and relativistic momentum. The conclusion is made that after radiation of energy from a system the mass of the system must not decrease, but increase. The opposite case is heating of bodies by external sources, which must be accompanied by an increase in entropy and decrease in the mass of the bodies. On the basis of strong gravitation the mass defect of atomic nuclei is explained. Conclusions of the general theory of relativity and the covariant theory of gravitation with respect to the mass and energy of gravitational field are opposite – in the general theory of relativity, relativistic energy and mass of a body are reduced by the mass-energy of its own gravitational field, and in the covariant theory of gravitation the mass-energy of the gravitational field increases the relativistic energy and body mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1107.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-17 20:44:11

A Way Out of the Dark Age in Cosmology

Authors: Hartmut Traunmüller
Comments: 23 Pages. Withdrawn in order to be replaced by several more narrowly focused papers

Current doctrines relevant to cosmology are criticized for not being well founded, not being based on definitions and unquestionable first principles alone or violating such principles. This concerns inertia as an action of space in classical mechanics and general relativity, simultaneity in special relativity, creation out of nothing, and the plethora of means that guard the Big Bang paradigm against falsification (dark matter, cosmic inflation, dark energy, size evolution of galaxies, etc.). It is shown that a kinematic spacetime theory characterized by Lorentz symmetry can be derived from geometry alone. The foundation for a dynamic spacetime theory is also laid. It is characterized by a substratum that expands since it is pulled into gravitational potential wells. This expansion explains the cosmic redshift, Olber's paradox and the finiteness of gravitational forces in an infinite world. The apparent magnitude of type Ia supernovae, the angular size and the surface brightness of distant galaxies are shown to compare favorably with the new approach. It is suggested that the energy that is lost by redshifting light is the source of the CMBR. The cosmic energy cycle, whose existence the approach implies, and the super-Newtonian cohesion of galaxies and clusters remain yet to be understood.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1107.0020 [pdf] replaced on 12 Jul 2011

Proving the Theorem of Wigner by an Exercise in Simple Geometry

Authors: Manfred Buth
Comments: 6 pages

The leading idea of this paper is to prove the theorem of Wigner with concepts and methods inspired by geometry. The exercise mentionned in the title has two functions: On the one hand it can serve as a pedagogical text in order to make the reader acquainted with the essential features of the theorem and its proof. On the other hand it will turn out to be the core of the general proof.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1107.0019 [pdf] submitted on 11 Jul 2011

Why Does Quantum Mechanics not Scale Up?

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 18 pages

Quantum mechanics (QM) has the problem of lacking a coherent conceptual foundation, even if its quantitative algorithms are functionally adequate. This paper appraises the conceptual logic beneath quantum mechanics, using as the point of reference a novel alternative conceptual framework called the cordus conjecture. If the cordus conjecture is correct then the comparison suggests that quantum mechanics is conceptually fallacious in several areas: (1) Particles need not be zero-dimensional points after all. (2) Bell's theorem is refuted as being not universally applicable, and the principle of locality also fails. (3) The wavefunction is a mathematical approximation of a deeper reality, and superposition is not a physical state. (4) Superposition confounds positional and causal (temporal) variability, and this causes the weirdness of the QM interpretations. (5) Cordus identifies the factors that cause decoherence and (6) explains why quantum mechanics does not scale up to macroscopic objects. (7) It is fallacious to consider fields and particles as independent phenomena. Instead they are closely coupled in the cordus, and this explains the measurement context. Several core principles of QM are thereby refuted. The paradox of Schrödinger's Cat is explained as an artefact of these flawed premises. The paper also explains why the mathematical machinery of quantum mechanics is a reasonable approximation to reality, even if the concepts are not. The mathematics works, at least within a certain scale-range where: (a) things look like particles and the proposed cordus structure is not evident (i.e. not too small) and (b) where body-coherence is attainable (i.e. not too large). Outside of that range quantum mechanics seems neither conceptually nor mathematically relevant. The same analysis predicts QM is unlikely to scale down to the next deeper level of physics. The implications are that QM is profoundly deficient in its conceptual foundations, and is only an approximation of a deeper and more logically consistent mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1107.0018 [pdf] replaced on 14 Jul 2011

Note on the Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Edward Fredkin
Comments: 1 page

We describe a hypothetical apparatus for making arbitrarily accurate simultaneous successive measurements of a particle's positions, momenta, energies and times.
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:1107.0017 [pdf] submitted on 10 Jul 2011

Recalculation-mechanism of the Big Bang in a Double Torus Universe.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 5 pages

Here in this 'paper' a deeper analysis of the 'dark energy force formula' in the Double Torus Cosmology is made. Earlier 'papers' were posted as 'pre-papers' in the vixra-archive. These are subject to a new cosmological hypothesis, being further described in higher order mathematics in the near future by Christopher Forbes. I have found evidence through an unexpected interpretation of CMB results, that the 'dark energy force formula' appears to be a functional 'recalculation-mechanism' for quantum gravity.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[12] viXra:1107.0016 [pdf] submitted on 6 Jul 2011

A Self-Similar Model of the Universe Unveils the Nature of Dark Energy

Authors: Alfredo G. Oliveira
Comments: 21 pages, 7 figures

This work presents a critical yet previously unnoticed property of the units of some constants, able of supporting a new, self-similar, model of the universe. This model displays a variation of scale with invariance of dimensionless parameters, a characteristic of self-similar phenomena displayed by cosmic data. The model is deducted from two observational results (expansion of space and invariance of constants) and has just one parameter, the Hubble parameter. Somewhat surprisingly, classic physical laws hold both in standard and comoving units, except for a small new term in the angular momentum law that is beyond present possibilities of direct measurement. In spite of having just one parameter, the model is as successful as the ΛCDM model in the classic cosmic tests, and a value of H0 = 64 kms-1Mpc-1 is obtained from the fitting with supernovae Ia data from Union compilation. It is shown that in standard units the model corresponds to Big Bang cosmologies, namely to the ΛCDM model, unveiling what dark energy stands for. This scaling (dilation) model is a one-parameter model that seems able of fitting cosmic data, that does not conflict with fundamental physical laws and that is not dependent on hypotheses, being straightforwardly deducted from the two observational results above mentioned.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1107.0013 [pdf] submitted on 5 Jul 2011

Identification of Nature's Rationality via Galaxy NGC 5921

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 12 Pages

Weakly interacted galaxies present very simple body structure. They are either three-dimensional objects resembling ellipsoids or flat-shaped disks showing spiral disturbance. Elliptical galaxies present little dust and gas but spiral galaxies demonstrate arms and rings which are characterized by containing a huge amount of dust and gas. Since arms and rings are linear-shaped, the body structure of spiral galaxies may be a textured one as earth-bound materials always are. This led to the concept of rational structure which is based on proportion curves. The proportion curves for normal spiral galaxies are all equiangular spirals which trace or cut through arms consistently. This paper demonstrates the spider-shaped proportion curves for barred spiral galaxies. It shows for the seventh galaxy (NGC 5921) that the curves do trace or cut through arms or rings consistently. More examples of barred galaxies will be studied for the testification of Nature's rationality.
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1107.0012 [pdf] submitted on 5 Jul 2011

Identification of Nature's Rationality Through Galaxy NGC 5701

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 12 Pages

Weakly interacted galaxies present very simple body structure. They are either three-dimensional objects resembling ellipsoids or flat-shaped disks showing spiral disturbance. Elliptical galaxies present little dust and gas but spiral galaxies demonstrate arms and rings which are characterized by containing a huge amount of dust and gas. Since arms and rings are linear-shaped, the body structure of spiral galaxies may be a textured one as earth-bound materials always are. This led to the concept of rational structure which is based on proportion curves. The proportion curves for normal spiral galaxies are all equiangular spirals which trace or cut through arms consistently. This paper demonstrates the spider-shaped proportion curves for barred spiral galaxies. It shows for the sixth galaxy (NGC 5701) that the curves do trace or cut through arms or rings consistently. More examples of barred galaxies will be studied for the testification of Nature's rationality.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1107.0011 [pdf] submitted on 5 Jul 2011

Identification of Nature's Rationality with Galaxy NGC 4930

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 12 Pages

Weakly interacted galaxies present very simple body structure. They are either three-dimensional objects resembling ellipsoids or flat-shaped disks showing spiral disturbance. Elliptical galaxies present little dust and gas but spiral galaxies demonstrate arms and rings which are characterized by containing a huge amount of dust and gas. Since arms and rings are linear-shaped, the body structure of spiral galaxies may be a textured one as earth-bound materials always are. This led to the concept of rational structure which is based on proportion curves. The proportion curves for normal spiral galaxies are all equiangular spirals which trace or cut through arms consistently. This paper demonstrates the spider-shaped proportion curves for barred spiral galaxies. It shows for the fifth galaxy (NGC 4930) that the curves do trace or cut through arms or rings consistently. More examples of barred galaxies will be studied for the testification of Nature's rationality.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1107.0010 [pdf] replaced on 5 Jul 2011

Rigidly Rotating Disk Dust in the Special Relativity

Authors: A. Rozenkevich
Comments: v1 in Russian (6 pages), v2 in English (6 pages)

A mathematical derivation of geometry is rigidly rotating disk dust, taking into account special relativity. Based on this formula are defined geometric forms a rotating disk, sphere and torus.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1107.0009 [pdf] submitted on 5 Jul 2011

MCS Physics Article 3: Hubble Expansion

Authors: Meir Amiram
Comments: 10 pages

Based on Richard Feynman's argument in rejection of Fatio/Le-Sage's gravity, I indicate that dark energy, or the "something" that pushes galaxies apart must do its magic without killing inertia of the galactic matter rotational motion. I then turn to investigate the Hubble expansion: independent studies from different areas of physics reveal that the age of the universe is closely 13.7Gy. This substantially corresponds to the inverse of the Hubble parameter H0. I suggest that our era is not unique: the age of the universe at any given time ATB is equal to the inverse of the Hubble parameter at the given time. I propose to substitute the conventional Hubble parameter H0 which relates to expansion of distances, by a volumetric form of the same, vH0, corresponding to the volumetric expansion of space. A formula is derived accordingly, which connects between the volumetric Hubble parameter at any given age of the universe, the volumetric Hubble parameter at any other given age, and the time separation between these two ages. Logical study of the formula reveals that the Hubble expansion is analogous to, and may actually result from, an addition of constant amount of space "units" per a unit of time, into the universe. I postulate that space itself possesses the peculiar property of interacting with matter in a selective manner which on the one hand results with a drag thereby producing the universal expansion, and on the other complies with Feynman's argument and does not result with an inertia killing drag. In the initiation of the bang, the first constant amount entered a zero volume gravity free universe, since gravity depends on the presence of space, and was able to occur only after a time delay T2 (see Article 2) each EMP must experience before it builds up its field and before it can respond to fields generated by others. In the absence of gravity, no energy nor inflaton were required for initiating the bang and for dragging the elementary particles apart merely by space units entering in between. I further postulate that as a phenomenon of space, gravity is distributed volumetrically. Consequently, for cosmological distances the propagation of gravity becomes slower than the expansion of space, thus receding galaxies are gravitationally unbounded. It follows that the Hubble expansion does not require any sort of energy, since there is no gravitational attraction to defeat, nor inertia to produce.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1107.0008 [pdf] submitted on 4 Jul 2011

Generalized Fermat's Last Theorem (6)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

In this paper we prove ...(see paper) part 6
Category: Geometry

[5] viXra:1107.0007 [pdf] submitted on 4 Jul 2011

Generalized Fermat's Last Theorem (5)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

In this paper we prove ...(see paper) part 5
Category: Geometry

[4] viXra:1107.0006 [pdf] submitted on 4 Jul 2011

Generalized Fermat's Last Theorem (4)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

In this paper we prove ...(see paper) part 4
Category: Geometry

[3] viXra:1107.0005 [pdf] submitted on 3 Jul 2011

Lobe Exterioare si Cvazilobe Interioare Cercului Unitate

Authors: Mircea Eugen Selariu
Comments: 18 pages, In Romanian

LOBE EXTERIOARE SI CVAZILOBE INTERIOARE CERCULUI UNITATE
Category: Geometry

[2] viXra:1107.0004 [pdf] submitted on 3 Jul 2011

Born's Reciprocal Gravity in Curved Phase-Spaces and the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 23 pages, submitted to Foundations of Physics

The main features of how to build a Born's Reciprocal Gravitational theory in curved phase-spaces are developed. The scalar curvature of the 8D cotangent bundle (phase space) is explicitly evaluated and a generalized gravitational action in 8D is constructed that yields the observed value of the cosmological constant and the Brans-Dicke-Jordan Gravity action in 4D as two special cases. It is found that the geometry of the momentum space can be linked to the observed value of the cosmological constant when the curvature in momentum space is very large, namely the small size of P is of the order of (1/RHubble). More general 8D actions can be developed that involve sums of 5 distinct types of torsion squared terms and 3 distinct curvature scalars R,P, S. Finally we develop a Born's reciprocal complex gravitational theory as a local gauge theory in 8D of the deformed Quaplectic group that is given by the semi-direct product of U(1, 3) with the deformed (noncommutative) Weyl-Heisenberg group involving four noncommutative coordinates and momenta. The metric is complex with symmetric real components and antisymmetric imaginary ones. An action in 8D involving 2 curvature scalars and torsion squared terms is presented.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1107.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 Jul 2011

On the Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 5 pages.

Special Relativity Theory (SRT) has two postulates, one stating that the laws of physics are the same for all observers, and the other stating that the speed of light is the constant 186,000 miles per second, regardless of any reference frames. As a result of these postulates, SRT renders predictions such as: 1) No object can travel faster than 186,000 miles per second (the speed of light itself); 2) On approaching the speed of light, a moving object contracts in length in the direction of motion, while 3) a clock traveling with the object slows down; 4) The mass of an object multiplied by the square of the speed of light gives energy ( E = mc2 ); i.e., mass could be converted to energy and vice versa; 5) Observers do not agree on the simultaneity of events - two events that are simultaneous for one observer might not be simultaneous for another. There are evident inconsistencies among these predictions. There is also a philosophical problem relating to the nature of reality. Could there be more than one reality in Nature; that is, can reality be subjective, and only a matter of interpretation? This paper explores the evident inconsistencies and the philosophical problem by developing arguments and providing numerical examples.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology