[71] **viXra:1110.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 12 Pages, 14 Figures, an Appendix.

Although there is much ancient folk lore and horticultural documentation regarding
Fairy Rings, they are not often associated with mind science and astronomical events.
Fortuitously, a Fairy Ring suddenly appeared on the grass in a friend's garden. On
prompt investigation, apart from the usual necessary biological conditions, the
essential trigger that probably created this particular Fairy Ring was a rare
combination of the intersection of 2 psi-lines, coupled with a conjunction of Venus at
the time of a new moon. As this is another example of cosmic events significantly
affecting life on earth, together with the influence of the mind, the author felt there
was sufficient scientific interest to document these findings for the benefit of other
researchers, even though the sudden appearance of the phenomenon has been known
for many thousands of years. Subsequent research proved conclusively that the psilines
(or psi-tracts) were created by smugglers for their navigation.

**Category:** Mind Science

[70] **viXra:1110.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-19 08:30:04*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The manuscripts objectives are to establish Khovanov homology as a new mathematical framework of superstring theory within D5-D6 branes to show what string theory is by establishing a universal law of nature by embedding stochastic quantization states as evolutionary Fock spaces: demonstrating the rate of natural laws between differentiated quantum universes by using the cosmological wave-function to determine the Jones polynomial in D3-D4 branes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[69] **viXra:1110.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Mihai Gheorghe

**Comments:** 130 pages.

In this book, a new theory is developed which has as a starting point the
Planck quantum of mass-space-time and can answer the five big unsolved problems
of modern physics:
the unification of general relativity with quantum mechanics;
deterministic formulation of fundaments of quantum mechanics;
the description of different particles and forces in physics using one single
theory;
the elimination of adjustable variables in physics of elementary ;
the nature of the phenomena known as the dark energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[68] **viXra:1110.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Guang-Sheng Chen

**Comments:** 6 pages.

In this paper, by some properties of Local fractional integral, we establish the
generalized Mean value theorems for Local Fractional Integral.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[67] **viXra:1110.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Vasili Baranau

**Comments:** 37 pages.

We propose a universal approach in the framework of the lattice Boltzmann
method (LBM) to modeling constant velocity constraints and constant temperature
constraints on curved walls, which doesn't depend on dimensionality, LBM scheme,
boundary geometry; which is numerically stable, accurate and local and has a good
physical background. This technique, called a maximum entropy method, utilizes the idea
of recovering unknown populations on boundary nodes through minimizing node state
deviation from equilibrium while assuring velocity or temperature restrictions. Also,
theoretical justifications of a popular Zou-He boundaries technique and isothermal
boundaries algorithm are provided on the basis of the method derived. Finally, while
conducting numerical benchmarks, typical straight boundaries algorithm (Zou-He) was
compared to a typical curved boundaries algorithm (Guo-Zheng).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[66] **viXra:1110.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Nilgün Sönmez, Catalin Barbu

**Comments:** 4 pages.

In this study, we give a hyperbolic version of the Smarandache's
theorem in the Poincaré upper half-plane model.

**Category:** Geometry

[65] **viXra:1110.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Stoyan Sarg

**Comments:** 37 pages. The material was firstly presented in a plenary talk at the Tesla Science conference, 7-10 July, 2011, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

According to the BSM-Supergravitation Unified theory the space known as a physical vacuum contains two types
of Zero Point Energy (ZPE): a Static and a Dynamic. The first, much stronger energy, is behind the strong
nuclear forces, while the second one, weaker, is associated with the existence and propagation of the Electrical
and Magnetic fields. The Static ZPE is accessible by the nuclear reaction, while the Dynamic ZPE could be
accessed by a physical effect called a Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[64] **viXra:1110.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 5 pages

Contemporary physics does not explain, how the energy and momentum are
transported with the particle (body) by means of the elementary quanta of
action, when the velocity of the particle has the speed of light or decrease
from the relativistic case to the nonrelativistic. We applied simple model of
the energy-momentum transport wave function for the elementary quanta of
action connected with the gravitational and electrostatic interaction [1] and
we have found one equation, which describes unification of the gravitation
and electrostatic interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[63] **viXra:1110.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-14 01:29:54*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Hadronic Journal, February 2012, Vol. 35, No. 1, P. 35 - 70.

The integral equations for calculation of metric, equations of substance motion, as well as equations for gravitational and electromagnetic fields in covariant theory of gravitation are obtained by means of variation of action functional. In covariant form stress-energy tensor of gravitational field, strength tensor of gravitational field and 4-current of mass are determined. The meaning of the cosmological constant and its relation to the components of energy density in action functional are explained. The results obtained prove the validity of Mach's principle, assuming that gravitation effects are due to the flows of gravitons. The idea that metric can be entirely determined by variables describing fields’ properties is substantiated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[62] **viXra:1110.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Valery P. Dmitriyev

**Comments:** 6 pages

Physical vacuum can be seen as a turbulent ideal fluid. Particles of matter originate from primordial inclusion in the fluid of the empty space. The proton is modeled by a hollow bubble stabilized due to positive perturbation of the averaged turbulence energy and accompanying drop of the pressure on the wall of the cavity.

The antiproton can be created only in the pair with the proton: extracting from the medium a ball *V* of the fluid and
inserting it into another place of the medium. The intrusion into the medium of the redundant void thus performed is
concerned with a huge amount of the energy *p*_{0}*V* needed in order to expand the fluid by the volume
*V* against the background pressure *p*_{0}. Still, because of the free energy of the system tendency to
decrease, the redundant void will be shortly canceled to the continuum.

Creation of the electron–positron pair requires a relatively small energy ~*p*_{0}Δ*V*, where
Δ*V* << *V*, which is the work of the elastic deformation of the turbulent medium. The resulting radial stress
arising in the turbulent fluid corresponds to the electric field of the elementary charge. The system can be stabilized
merging the small cavity Δ*V* of the positron with the large bubble *V* of a neutron.

Thus, the total number of protons turns out to be equal to total number of electrons, where, being a void, the proton should
be classified as particle, and, being an islet of the fluid, the electron should be classified as antiparticle.

Key words: physical vacuum, turbulent fluid, cavities, particles, antiparticles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[61] **viXra:1110.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro

**Comments:** 4 pages

Considere uma área na qual não há população, então não há circulação de bens e
serviços. Se um grupo de pessoas sem riqueza decide popular a área, eles não podem
viver através de serem prestadores de serviços ou comerciantes, já que não há ninguém
para pagar por seus serviços ou prover lucro para o comércio na área. A única maneira
de pessoas sem riqueza sobreviverem é através de fazer uso dos recursos naturais (bens)
da região ou produzir bens, então elas terão algo com o qual trocar com prestadores de
serviços e comerciantes, atiçando-os para a área com advinda demanda por serviços e
bens. Quanto às pessoas que têm riqueza e se instalam em uma área inabitada, elas irão
querer trazer trabalhadores para ter suas necessidades satisfeitas sem a necessidade de
longa locomoção. Aqui nós propomos que a ignição, o começar, do crescimento
econômico numa dada localidade geográfica só pode tomar duas formas comuns
(dependente da produção de bens e dependente da instalação de indivíduos com
condições financeiras na área). Fora do patamar comum, discutem-se três formas
excepcionais (dependente do turismo, dependente da prestação de serviços que utilizam
telecomunicação, ou seja, 'exportação de serviços' e dependente do comércio cuja
clientela é transeunte) e 26 (vinte seis) formas mistas, que ocorrem em regiões onde a
ignição se dá simultaneamente por uma junção entre as formas.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[60] **viXra:1110.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 377 pages

Our WORLD is a multiple one both shown by the natural world and human beings. For
example, the observation enables one knowing that there are infinite planets in the universe.
Each of them revolves on its own axis and has its own seasons. In the human
society, these rich or poor, big or small countries appear and each of them has its own system.
All of these show that our WORLD is not in homogenous but in multiple. Besides,
all things that one can acknowledge is determined by his eyes, or ears, or nose, or tongue,
or body or passions, i.e., these six organs, which means theWORLD consists of have and
not have parts for human beings. For thousands years, human being has never stopped his
steps for exploring its behaviors of all kinds.

**Category:** Geometry

[59] **viXra:1110.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** J. Marvin Herndon

**Comments:** 6 pages

High resolution images of Mercury's surface, from the MESSENGER spacecraft, reveal many
bright deposits associated with irregular, shallow, rimless depressions whose origins were attributed
to volatile-related activity, but absent information on the nature and origin of that volatile matter.
I describe planetary formation, unlike the cited models, and show that primordial condensation from an
atmosphere of solar composition at pressures of one atmosphere or above will lead to iron condensing
as a liquid and dissolving copious amounts of hydrogen, which is subsequently released as Mercury's core
solidifies and escapes from the surface, yielding the observed pit-like features with associated
highly-reflecting matter. The exiting hydrogen chemically reduces some iron compound, probably iron
sulfide, to the metal, which accounts for the bright deposits.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[58] **viXra:1110.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro

**Comments:** 6 pages

Considere riqueza circulando em uma dada localidade geográfica, já que há circulação
de bens e serviços. O que pode causar que a circulação deles diminua, estagne ou
enfrente crescimento lento nesta localidade? Somente a riqueza não circular na região,
isto é, não haver demanda. Então, o que faz com que economia de oferta seja pensada
como uma opção viável para muitos e qual seu papel no crescimento de uma economia?
Aqui nós discutimos crescimento e contrastamos a lógica da economia de demanda com
a escola de pensamento da economia de oferta, através de uma perspectiva baseada na
ignição econômica, prosseguindo do nosso trabalho prévio no assunto. Com isto,
pretendemos mostrar que tanto economia de oferta quanto de demanda tem um dado,
mas específico e não relacionado, papel no crescimento econômico e que o único fator
que influencia o crescimento é se a riqueza está circulando na dada localidade
geográfica. O presente trabalho se foca na discussão do pós-ignição de uma economia
humana.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[57] **viXra:1110.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 pages

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein's gravity field equation and acceleration
in the spherical skin's
condition, prove that the spherical inner solution don't exist .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:1110.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 5 pages

We mathematically proved that the inertial forces, which appears in a noninertial
frame of reference, such as accelerating and rotating reference frame,
are equivalent to the real forces which appears, when the body moves in the
gravitomagnetical field. We will remind the rotating bucket with water
problem with the new proposal of the solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1110.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 8 pages

It is easy to check that both algebraic equation Det(^p - m) = 0 and Det(^p + m) = 0 for
4-spinors u- and v- have solutions with (see paper) The same is true for higherspin
equations. Meanwhile, every book considers the p0 = Ep only for both u- and v- spinors of
the (see paper) representation, thus applying the Dirac-Feynman-Stueckelberg procedure
for elimination of negative-energy solutions. Recent works of Ziino (and, independently, of
several others) show that the Fock space can be doubled. We re-consider this possibility on the
quantum field level for both s = 1/2 and higher spins particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[54] **viXra:1110.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 2 pages

If we imbue Bohr's electron in the hydrogen atom with spin,
the total energy number n consists of the electron's spin energy
and the electron's orbital energy. If we define the spin energy
number to be 1/2, then the orbital energy number is (n-1/2).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[53] **viXra:1110.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Minas Sakellakis

**Comments:** 6 pages

This article deals with the phenomenon of life,and shows how can a different approach
change all that we know about it.Making the simpliest and most objective assumption that the
difference between earth and other planets is just that there is a huge number of chemical
reactions near the surface of earth(even a stone travelling in the universe can admitt that,
because life means nothing for the stone).These chemical reactions , although
partially(organism per organism) they seem to have self sustaining and self organizing
properties that violate the laws of thermodynamics,when they are seen as a whole, they seem
to be more random ,and not violating the laws of thermodynamics.This is very difficult for a
person to realize(especially if you are living in big cities), because we see things from inside
the whole system, and so it is very difficult to judje objectively what is life.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[52] **viXra:1110.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-31 11:13:50*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 7 Pages. A revised version of the original paper

We argue that the phenomenon of the cosmological
acceleration can be easily and naturally explained from first principles of quantum theory
without involving empty space-time background, dark energy and other artificial notions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1110.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Thomas Evans

**Comments:** 14 pages

Graviton-graviton scattering near a weakly coupled string theory

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[50] **viXra:1110.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Thomas Evans

**Comments:** 19 pages

It is the underlying purpose of the author throughout this and subsequent related
papers to consider the examination of conjectures such as the Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer
conjecture, the Riemann Hypotheses, as well as a number of other misunderstood or
unacknowledged phenomena. It is the author's hope that through such considerations,
both autonomous and presented herein, that it may become evident that the introduction
of fundamental, new practices is a necessity to any advancement in the directions of the
aforementioned. This represents the first in a series of eight (8) papers regarding these
materials. Throughout the remaining 7 the author presents, to a much greater degree of
rigor, the basic theory of analytic gauge functions, associated phenomenology, and there
from a solution to the (two) above conjectures. This paper facilitates an introduction to
the theory of analytic gauges. In the first section the author presents a re-examination of
the concepts of geometries of connections. Very briefly introduced are the basic concepts
of analytic numbers, analytic fields, analytic gauge functions, etc.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[49] **viXra:1110.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Thomas Evans

**Comments:** 9 pages

Presented is a new determination of conditions proving the Riemann
Hypothesis of any global L-function, drawing heavily on conceptual and mathematical
parallels from quantum theory, specifically those summarized by Bohm in his 1951 text.
We present a proof of this for a special case concerning the function ζ(s) , defined by
Riemann in his seminal 1859 paper, "On the number of primes less than a given number".
A new method of defining a system of inverted concatenations at the simple pole(s) of a
global L-function is introduced and used to finalize our proof.

**Category:** Number Theory

[48] **viXra:1110.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Lunyong Zhang, Hongbo Zuo, Zhiyong Yuan, Ji Zhou, Jianfei Sun, Dawei Xing, Jiecai Han

**Comments:** 17 pages

The tridimensional morphology and etching kinetics of the etch pit on the C-{0001}
plane of sapphire crystal (a-Al2O3) in KOH molten were studied experimentally. It was shown that
the etch pit takes on tridimensional morphologies with triangular symmetry same as the symmetric
property of the sapphire crystal. Pits like centric and eccentric triangular pyramid as well as
hexagonal pyramid could be observed, but the latter is much less in density. Analyses show the side
walls of the etch pits belong to the {1 0 } family, and the triangular pit contains edges full
composed by Al3+ ions on the etching surface so it is more stable than the hexagonal pit since
whose edges on the etch surface contains Al2+ ions. The etch pits developed in manner of kinematic
wave by the step moving with constant speed controlled by the chemical reaction with activation
energy of 96.6KJ/mol between Al2O3 and KOH.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[47] **viXra:1110.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-12-22 01:08:04*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A simple quantum relativistic model of muon-tau neutrino oscillations in the OPERA experiment is presented. This model suggests that the two components in the neutrino beam are separated in space. Being created in a meson decay, the muon neutrino emerges 18 meters ahead of the beam's center of energy, while the tau neutrino is behind. Both neutrinos have subluminal speeds, however the advanced start of the muon neutrino explains why it arrives in the detector 60 ns earlier than expected. Our model does violate the special-relativistic ban on superluminal signals. However, usual arguments about violation of causality in moving reference frames are not applicable here. The invalidity of standard special-relativistic arguments is related to the inevitable interaction-dependence of the boost operator, which implies that boost-transformed space-time coordinates of events with interacting particles do not obey linear and universal Lorentz formulas.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[46] **viXra:1110.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 4 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 90 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This is
the Book proof. No great mathematicians study prime problems and prove Riemann hypothesis in
AIM, CLAYMI, IAS, THES, MPIM, MSRI. In this paper using Jiang function we prove
that the new prime theorems (1141)-(1190) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime
solutions. From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution. This is the Book
theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[45] **viXra:1110.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Mohammad Mansouryar

**Comments:** 60 pages.

A hybrid car with two propulsions of compressed-air and electricity is outlined.
To fill up the compressed-air tanks, two methods of electrical and manual air are proposed.
The electric propulsion is based on two collections of storing batteries and capacitors. The
desired batteries are lithium-ion [1] and the desired capacitors are supercapacitors [2], in
which they could store a significant amount of electric energy.

**Category:** Climate Research

[44] **viXra:1110.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 pages.

The paper describes the relation between quantum particles,
consciousness, the unified field theory and relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1110.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 3 pages. This paper is published in the Journal Progress in Physics.

This brief paper traces comments on the article [2]. This article, a preprint, has recently
received an attention, raising errors related to the timing process within the OPERA
Collaboration results in [1], that turns out to be a wrong route by which serious science
should not be accomplished. A peer-reviewed status should be previously considered to
assert that [2] claims a solution for the superluminal results in [1]. Within [2], it seems
there is an intrinsical misconception within its claimed solution, since an intrinsical
proper time reasoning leads to the assumption the OPERA collaboration interprets a
time variation as a proper time when correcting time intervals between a GPS frame
and the grounded baseline frame. Furthermore, the author of [2] seems to double radio
signals, doubling the alleged half of the truly observed time of flight, since the Lorentz
transformations do consider radio signals intrinsically by construction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[42] **viXra:1110.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** S.A. Orwin O'Dowd

**Comments:** 22 pages.

Adolph Meyer's theme of the integrative function is placed in the context of
Ribot on personality and Joseph Breuer on effort and the contrast of sthenic
and asthenic ideation.. The kind of analysis pursued by Meyer is taken in
this way back to the language of constitutional medicine, and specifically
Berthold Stiller's asthenia, and Janet's related concept of psychical insufficiency.
Conversion hysterias are placed as the metabolic face of the same
syndrome group, with consciousness emerging as the interface between
metabolism and environment. The pattern of psychopathology as a whole is
analysed in terms of the tonic and phasic processes, as understood by A.R.
Luria, following Pavlov and Vygosky. Their neurology is further reinterpreted
in the light of Merleau-Ponty on the embodiment of significance in
the gestalt. Integrative interactions arising show a contrast of harm-avoidance
and reward-dependence, colouring habituation with motivational
style. The disruption of learning is traced to confusion in the generic sense
that merges with noise, whereby Meyer's insistence that mental disorder is
a product of unfortunate circumstances is extended to the internal,
physiological environment, consistent with the growth of both supportive
therapies and detoxification and rehabilitation programs.

**Category:** Mind Science

[41] **viXra:1110.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Prateek Goel

**Comments:** 6 pages.

Relationship between irrational constants Phi and e (including new equations, possible implications)

**Category:** Number Theory

[40] **viXra:1110.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** G. Quznetsov

**Comments:** 8 pages. Progress in Physics, v.4, 2011, pp.13-16

An event with positive energy transfers this energy photons which carries it
on recorders observers. Observers know that this event occurs, not before it
happens. But event with negative energy should absorb this energy from
observers. Consequently, observers know that this event happens before it
happens. Since time is irreversible then only the events with positive
energy can occur. In single-particle states events with a fermion have
positive energy and occurences with an antifermion have negative energy. In
double-particle states events with pair of antifermions have negative energy
and events with pair of fermions and with fermion-antifermion pair have
positive energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[39] **viXra:1110.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Henry D. May

**Comments:** 5 pages.

An enormous amount of effort has been expended over the past sixty years in
attempts to understand the cause of the solar wind, with virtually no progress toward
developing an understanding of the precise processes involved in the acceleration process.
Here I show how the solar wind can be accounted for simply as a consequence of the
acceleration of thermal protons and ions by electrodynamic forces from an electric field which
pervades the heliosphere.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[38] **viXra:1110.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 168 pages. A free ebook of author’s 15 selected papers on low-energy
quantum gravity.

A collection of author's papers on low-energy quantum gravity is
presented in the book. These papers were written in the last
decade. In the papers, main results of author's work in a
non-geometrical approach to quantum gravity are described, among
them: the quantum mechanism of classical gravity giving a
possibility to compute the Newton constant; asymptotic freedom at
short distances; an interaction of photons with the graviton
background leading to the important cosmological consequences; the
time delay of photons due to interactions with gravitons. A
quantum mechanism of classical gravity based on an existence of
this sea of gravitons is described for the Newtonian limit. This
mechanism needs graviton pairing and "an atomic structure" of
matter for working it. If the considered quantum mechanism of
classical gravity is realized in the nature, then an existence of
black holes contradicts to Einstein's equivalence principle. It is
shown that in this approach the two fundamental
constants - Hubble's and Newton's ones - should be connected between
themselves. The theoretical values of the constants are computed.
In this approach, every massive body would be decelerated due to
collisions with gravitons that may be connected with the Pioneer
anomaly and the problem of dark matter. It is shown that the
predicted and observed values of deceleration of NASA probes are
in good agreement.
It is also shown by the author that if gravitons are super-strong
interacting particles nd the low-temperature graviton background
exists, the basic present-day cosmological conjecture about the
nature of redshifts may be false. In this case, a full magnitude
of cosmological redshift would be caused by interactions of
photons with gravitons. Non-forehead collisions with gravitons
will lead to a very specific additional relaxation of any photonic
flux. It gives a possibility of another interpretation of
supernovae 1a data - without any kinematics and introduction of
dark energy. A few possibilities to verify model's predictions are
considered: the specialized ground-based laser experiment; a
deceleration of massive bodies and the Pioneer anomaly; a
non-universal character of the Hubble diagram for soft and hard
radiations; galaxy/quasar
number counts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[37] **viXra:1110.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Jose Javier Garcia Moreta

**Comments:** 7 pages

We study the sums (see paper) evaluated over the
zeros and the imaginary part of the zeros of the Riemann Zeta function
by two methods, the first method involves the use of the Hadamard
product formula for the Riemann Xi-function, the second one uses the
Riemann-Weill explicit formula , which relates a sum over the imaginary
part of the zeros with another sum over prime numbers , we have
managed to prove that the sum (see paper)

**Category:** Number Theory

[36] **viXra:1110.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 216 pages

The study of DSm linear algebra of refined labels have been done by
Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert, and Xinde Li.
In this book the authors introduce the notion of DSm vector spaces
of refined labels. The reader is requested to refer the paper as the basic
concepts are taken from that paper

**Category:** Algebra

[35] **viXra:1110.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Stephan J. G. Gift

**Comments:** 7 pages

The one-way speed of light in an East-West direction over short distances is
examined by exploiting the successful operation of the Global Positioning System. This
system has been rigorously and extensively tested and verified in the Earth-Centred
Inertial frame, a frame that moves with the Earth as it revolves around the Sun but does
not share the Earth's rotation. The result is a simple demonstration of one-way light
speed variation depending on the direction of propagation that indicates the need for a
change in the practice of the routine application of the principle of light speed constancy
in the frame of the Earth

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1110.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 6 pages

In this paper are discussed the physical consequences of using the fourvector
field of velocity (V_{g})^{μ} in gravitation and gravitomagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1110.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Glen Gilchrist

**Comments:** 6 pages

Surface albedo is an important concept, useful in explaining how closed systems
(such as the Earth - Atmosphere) respond to incident radiant energy. Specialist,
calibrated equipment is used by geo-scientists to measure ambient and reflected
radiation from subject sources - this is often cost prohibitive within a teaching
environment. A "semi" calibrated method is presented, utilising simple digital
photography of both reference and subject sample. Using the "levels" function built
into freely available image editing software, a simple algorithm is presented that
allows a relative reflectance of the sample image to be calculated. Processing this
with relation to a calibrated image allows for the simple determination of surface
albedo. Using this method, albedo levels within 3% of a calibrated meter are
obtained.

**Category:** Climate Research

[32] **viXra:1110.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** R Wayte

**Comments:** 20 pages

Baryons are considered to be intricate particles having real geometrical
structure, based on our previous proton design. Inherent baryon spin is proportional to
mass and radius. The well-known octets and decuplets fit into groups where masssquared
and quantised-action are related. Magnetic moments are described in terms of
a positive spin-loop and orbiting temporary electron(s). Lifetime of a baryon is
governed by action of guidewave coherence around these structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[31] **viXra:1110.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 32 pages

Recently Superluminal Neutrinos have been observed in the OPERA experiment at CERN.Since the
neutrino possesses a non-zero rest mass then according to the Standard Model,Relativity and Lorentz
Invariance this Superluminal speed result would be impossible to be achieved.This Superluminal OPERA
result seems to be confirmed and cannot be explained by errors in the measurements or break-ups in the
Standard Model,Relativity or Lorentz Invariance. In order to conciliate the Standard Model,Relativity
and Lorentz Invariance with the OPERA Superluminal Neutrino we propose a different approach: Some
years ago Gauthier,Gravel and Melanson introduced the idea of the micro Warp Drive:Microscopical
particle-sized Warp Bubbles carrying inside sub-atomic particles at Superluminal speeds. These micro
Warp Bubbles according to them may have formed spontaneously in the Early Universe after the Big
Bang and they used the Alcubierre Warp Drive geometry in their mathematical model.We propose
exactly the same idea of Gauthier,Gravel and Melanson to explain the Superluminal Neutrino at OPERA
however using the Natario Warp Drive geometry.Our point of view can be resumed in the following
statement:In a process that modern science still needs to understand,the OPERA Experiment generated a
micro NatarioWarp Bubble around the neutrino that pushed it beyond the Light Speed barrier.Inside the
Warp Bubble the neutrino is below the Light Speed and no break-ups of the Standard Model,Relativity
or Lorentz Invariance occurs but outside the Warp Bubble the neutrino would be seen at Superluminal
speeds.Remember that the CERN particle accelerators were constructed to reproduce in laboratory
scale the physical conditions we believe that may have existed in the Early Universe so these micro
Warp Bubbles generated after the Big Bang may perhaps be re-created or reproduced inside particle
accelerators. We believe that our idea borrowed from Gauthier,Gravel and Melanson can explain what
really happened with the neutrinos in the OPERA experiment

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1110.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 3 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 90 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This is
the Book proof. No great mathematicians study prime problems and prove Riemann hypothesis in
AIM, CLAYMI, IAS, THES, MPIM, MSRI. In this paper using Jiang function we prove
that the new prime theorems (1091)-(1140) contain infinitely many prime solutions and no prime
solutions. From (6) we are able to find the smallest solution. This is the Book
theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[29] **viXra:1110.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 2 pages

This paper touches on the subject of whether light really needs a medium, which is termed the
luminiferous ether, for its transmission as is in the case of sound which requires a fluid such as air or
liquid as the medium for its transmission, and the subject of the velocity of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1110.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-16 03:31:46*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Version2 is written after my paper “Duonistic Neutrinos Violate Relativity”. A theoretical calculation with a new dark energy force formula discloses the correctness of the experimental faster-than-light-neutrinos in the CERN-San Grasso experiment. The formulation in this paper theoretically confirms that Einstein’s Relativity could be violated. This introduces the obligation to accept a new cosmological model, called the Double Torus hypothesis . The theoretical calculation in this paper is based on a new momentum of dark energy force. This paper theoretically calculates 62.8 nanosecond for the experimental detected early-arrival of muon-neutrinos related to how light-in-vacuum would have arrived. This is a marvelous close match compared to the ((60.7 ± 6.9 (stat.) ± 7.4 (sys.)) nanosecond found during the ‘neutrino-flight path’ from CERN to San Grasso in the OPERA-project. However, this version-2 paper also makes clear neutrinos can only go faster-than-light in neutrino-pairs: I call these pairs Duonistic Neutrinos! Just as in the paper “Duonistic Neutrinos Violate Relativity”. This paper presents the set of equations to prove that.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[27] **viXra:1110.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Stephan J. G. Gift

**Comments:** 8 pages

In a paper in 1910 Tolman pointed out that the light speed invariance postulate
of special relativity requires that the time for light to traverse a fixed distance between
two points is independent of the movement of those points relative to the light source.
The range equation of the GPS is used to directly test this proposition. This equation has
been rigorously tested and verified in the Earth-Centred Inertial frame where light signals
propagate in straight lines at constant speed c. The result is a simple demonstration of
light speed anisotropy that is consistent with light speed variation detected in other
experiments and inconsistent with the light speed invariance postulate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1110.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 13 pages, submitted to Physics Letters B

Superluminal particles are studied within the framework of the Extended
Relativity theory in Clifford spaces (C-spaces). In the simplest
scenario, it is found that it is the contribution of the Clifford scalar component
π of the poly-vector-valued momentum which is responsible for
the superluminal behavior in ordinary spacetime due to the fact that the
effective mass M = (see paper)
is imaginary (tachyonic). However, from
the point of view of C-space, there is no superluminal (tachyonic) behavior
because the true physical mass still obeys M2 > 0. Therefore, there are
no violations of the Clifford-extended Lorentz invariance and the extended
Relativity principle in C-spaces. Furthermore, to lowest order, there is no
contribution of terms involving powers of the Planck mass (1/m2P ) indicating
that quantum gravitational effects do not play a role at this order.
A Born's Reciprocal Relativity theory in Phase Spaces leads to modified
dispersion relations involving both coordinates and momenta, and whose
truncations furnish Lorentz-violating dispersion relations which appear in
Finsler Geometry, rainbow-metrics models and Double (deformed) Special
Relativity. These models also admit superluminal particles. A numerical
analysis based on the recent OPERA experimental findings on alleged
superluminal muon neutrinos is made. For the average muon neutrino
energy of 17 Gev, we find a value for π = 119.7 Mev that, coincidentally,
is close to the mass of the muon m_{μ} = 105.7 Mev.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1110.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 9 pages, This essay was first submitted to the 2nd FQXi essay contest in early october 2009. The link can be found here:
http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/577

The Lorentz Transformations imply that time and length are in some sense interconvertible,
much in contrast to our ordinary intuitions. This paper attempts to present an approach which is
supposed to make it intuitively evident that time and length are in fact interconvertible and,
furthermore, that this approach is compatible with two well-known phenomena predicted by SR, namely
time dilation and length contraction. This is accomplished by demonstrating how a clock can be used
as a ruler, and vice versa, leading to the realization that length contraction and time dilation
directly imply each other in the context of the motion of the same measurement device.
What makes both kinds of measurements using the same device really possible in the first place is the
existence of a finite upper limit on motion. Because of this limit, length measurements cannot be
completed without involving the passage of time, and time measurements cannot be completed without
involving finite displacement. But that means any clock or ruler really measures both time and length.
Hence one constraint on what is fundamentally possible in physics is our ability to build measurement
devices that can be exclusively used just as rulers or just as clocks

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1110.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 6 pages

An important debate in the philosophy of science, whether an instrumentalist or realist view
of science correctly characterizes science, is examined in this paper through the lens of a related
debate, namely whether science is a social construct or not. The latter debate arose in response
to Kuhn's work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, in which he argued that while there
exists a process through which scientific understanding evolves from primitive to increasingly
refined ideas, it does not describe progress 'toward' anything. Kuhn's work was then used to
argue that there is no such thing as a knowable objective reality, a view much in agreement
with that of the instrumentalist.
This paper argues that a generalized version of the correspondence principle applied to a
theory's domain of validity is an exclusive feature of science which distinguishes it from socially
constructed phenomena and thereby supports the realist position. According to this argument,
progress in science can be characterized as the replacement of old paradigms by new ones with
greater domains of validity which obey the correspondence principle where the two paradigms
overlap. This characterization, however, is susceptible to the instrumentalist objection that it
does not fit the transition from Aristotelian to Newtonian physics. In response, it is required
that this argument depend on the intactness of certain core concepts in the face of experimental
challenge within some regions of the theory's original domain of validity. While this requirement
saves the argument and even offers an answer to the question of what it would take for our most
established theories in physics, relativity and quantum theory, to suffer the same fate as
Aristotelian physics, it also defers a conclusive resolution to the debate between instrumentalists
and realists until it can be determined whether an ultimate theory of nature can be found.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[23] **viXra:1110.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 8 pages

The speed of light postulate, one of the two fundamental assumptions upon which the special theory
of relativity (SR) is based, still seems as mysterious today as when it was first introduced. This paper
presents a derivation of the postulate from three axioms:1) A definition of motion in proper time that
captures most of the mathematical aspects of SR except for the speed of light postulate itself, 2) An
axiom concerning the nature of the existence of entities which do not age, and finally 3) an axiom which
defines existence in a spacetime to be transitive. The second axiom is motivated by an apparent paradox
inherent in the structure of SR, called the existence paradox, pertaining to entities which do not age. The
duration of existence of such entities in their proper frame is precisely equal to zero, which would normally
be interpreted to be consistent with non- existence and inconsistent with the empirical evidence for the
existence of such entities. The resolution of this apparent paradox is guided by a quasi-philosophical
principle, called the Principle of least Speciality. The second axiom presents a resolution to the existence
paradox that follows this principle while at the same time providing the essence of the explanation for
the speed of light postulate. Given the three axioms, it is straightforward to show that the speed of light
postulate is a logical consequence. Furthermore, this framework implies a direct experimentally testable
prediction that is, according to currently prevailing views, unexpected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1110.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 19 pages

Ever since quantum mechanics was first developed, it has been unclear what it really tells us about
reality. A novel framework, based on 5 axioms, is presented here which offers an interpretation of quantum
mechanics unlike any considered thus far: It is postulated that physical objects can exist in one of two
distinct modes, based on whether they have an intrinsic actual spacetime history or not. If they do,
their mode of existence is actual and they can be described by classical physics. If they do not, then
their mode of existence is called actualizable and they must be described in terms of an equal-weight
superposition of all possible actualizable (not actual) histories.
The distinction is based on an axiom according to which there exists a limit in which spacetime reduces
to a one-dimension reduced version, called areatime, and that objects which merely actualizably exist
in spacetime actually exist in areatime. The operational comparison of the passage of time for such
objects to the passage of time for a spacetime observer is postulated to be made possible by what is
called an angular dual bilateral symmetry. This symmetry can be decomposed into the superposition of
two imaginary phase angles of opposite sign. To mathematically describe the spacetime manifestation
of objects which actually exist in areatime, each actualizable spacetime history is associated with an
actualizable path, which in turn is associated with the imaginary phases. For a single free particle, the
complex exponent is identified with a term proportional to its relativistic action, thus recovering the
path integral formulation of quantum mechanics.
Although based on some highly unfamiliar ideas, this framework appears to render at least some of
the usual mysteries connected with quantum mechanics amenable to simple conceptual understanding.
It also appears to connect the foundations of quantum theory to the foundation of the special theory
of relativity while clarifying its relationship to the general theory of relativity and yields a testable
prediction about a type of experiment, as yet unperformed, which under the current paradigm is utterly
unexpected, namely, that the gravitational field of radiation is zero. The paper concludes with some
speculations about how the theory may be extended to a metatheory of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[21] **viXra:1110.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 10 pages

After a providing a review of the EPR paradox which draws a distinction between what is here called
the locality and the in
uence paradoxes, this paper presents a qualitative overview of a framework recently
introduced by this author in which spacetime is assumed to emerge from areatime. Two key assumptions
from this framework allow one to make the notion of quantum effects originating from `outside' spacetime
intelligible. In particular, this framework assumes that until a quantum object is measured, it does not
actually exist in spacetime and that there are connections between quantum particles in areatime which
are independent of metric relations in spacetime. These assumptions are then shown to permit one to
conceptually understand both the locality and the in
uence paradoxes, and lead to the overall conclusion
that spacetime is emergent in the sense that a very large number of discrete events which correspond to
`measurements' in quantum mechanics aggregate to give rise on a large scale to the apparently smooth
reality we experience in our daily lives.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20] **viXra:1110.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 7 pages

The quantum superposition principle, which expresses the idea that a system can exist simultaneously
in two or more mutually exclusive states is at the heart of the mystery of quantum mechanics. This paper
presents an axiom, called the principle of actualizable histories, which naturally leads to the quantum
superposition principle. However, in order to be applicable to massive systems, it requires introducing a
novel distinction between actualizable and actual mass. By means of arriving in conjunction with two
previously introduced axioms at the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, it is shown that
actualizable mass is the central concept of mass in quantum theory, whereas actual mass is the central
concept in classical theories, and in particular general relativity. This distinction sharply segregates the
domains of validity of the two theories, making it incompatible with any theory of quantum gravity which
does not respect this segregation. Finally, an experiment is suggested to test this idea.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:1110.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 9 pages

The quantum phase has profound effects on quantum mechanics but its physical origin is currently
unexplained. This paper derives its general form from two physical axioms: 1) in the limit in which space
goes to zero, spacetime reduces to a constant quantity of areatime, and 2) the proper time dimensions
of areatime and of spacetime are orthogonal but can be compared to each other according to what will
here be called an angular dual bilateral symmetry. The mathematical derivation and the explanation of
the physical origin of the quantum phase from these two axioms is straightforward and implies that the
quantum phase is intimately related to the quantization of spacetime.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1110.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 5 pages

This paper makes a case for ontology, the study of existence, to be explicitly and formally incorporated
into foundational physics in general and the wave function collapse of quantum mechanics in particular.
It introduces a purely ontological distinction between two modes of physical existence-actualizable and
actual- into the conventional mathematical representation of the wave function collapse, and examines the
implications of doing so, arguing that this may lead to insights that permit one to understand seemingly
mysterious aspects of the wave function collapse, such as 'Schrödinger's cat paradox', as well as how
quantum theory in general and Einstein's general theory of relativity relate to one another. A specific
empirical prediction is given, which if confirmed, may move ontology outside the exclusive purview of
philosophy.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1110.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-01 13:19:27*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Gravity is the force conquering the structure of the universe. By recognizing the components of the universe, we are estimating the quantity of components composing the universe through size of gravity and gravitational potential energy (GPE). In this paper, it is being shown that the universe can be born and expanded through pair creation of positive energy (mass) and negative energy (mass) from zero energy condition. Also, GPE is composed by 3 units of U++, U--, and U-+ when negative and positive energy exists, U-+ (GPE between negative mass and positive mass) has positive values and is the component that makes repulsive gravitational effect. U-+ corresponds with the inner energy of the system and can be interpreted as dark energy. The force by U-+ is F = (4piG/3)k_h(t)Mρr = (1/3)Λ(t)Mc^2r shaped. Also, situations in which U-+ has much higher value than |U--| + |U++| depending on the distribution of negative mass and positive mass is possible. This doesn't mean that 72.1% of dark energy independently exists, but means that explanation from GPE occurring from 4.6% of negative energy, which is the same as 4.6% of positive energy, is possible. Moreover, 4.6% of negative energy is the energy which is inevitably required from zero energy, which is the most natural total energy value in the universe. This discovery implies that our belief that size of gravitational effect and size of components of the universe would always 1:1 correspond was wrong. We set up each model from the birth of universe to the present, and calculated GPE using computer simulation in each level. As a result, we could verify that “pair creation model of negative mass and positive mass” explains inflation of the early universe and decelerating expansion, and present accelerating expansion in time series.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1110.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Akindele (Adekugbe) Joseph

**Comments:** 18 pages

The hierarchy of masses/intrinsic masses of a particle or body in a hierarchy of spacetimes
/intrinsic spacetimes in a universe, isolated in the first part of this paper, is extended
to the hierarchies of other physical parameters/intrinsic parameters. Spacetime
and intrinsic spacetime are proposed to be composed of the ponderable (or metric) gravitational
components and the non-ponderable (or affine) dynamical components, and the
mass and intrinsic mass of a particle or body as composed of the ponderable (or metric)
gravitational components and non-ponderable (or affine) dynamical components. The
constant speed of 'signals', c = 300,000 Km/s, is separated into the constant dynamical
speed of electromagnetic waves, c
= 300,000 Km/s in vacuo and the constant static
(or gravitational) speed of gravitational waves cg = 300,000 Km/s, where cg being a
static (or gravitational) speed, is not made manifest in actual translation through space
of the massless graviton. The time dimension ct is likewise split into the metric static
(or gravitational) component cg t and the affine dynamical component c
t. The static
(or gravitational) speed of gravitational waves cg is incorporated into the gravitational
local Lorentz transformation (GLLT)in the context of the theory of gravitational relativity
(TGR) on flat spacetime and the absolute intrinsic line element, absolute intrinsic
metric tensor and absolute intrinsic Ricci tensor of the metric theory of absolute intrinsic
gravity (MAIG) on curved 'two-dimensional' absolute intrinsic spacetime in every
gravitational field of the present theory, developed in a previous paper, while the dynamical
speed c
of electromagnetic waves should appear in local Lorentz transformation
(LLT) of the special theory of relativity (SR), derived on flat spacetime in an external
gravitational field in the present theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1110.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Akindele (Adekugbe) Joseph

**Comments:** 23 pages

Three stages of evolutions of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime and mass/intrinsic mass in
a universe are isolated. The ab initio absolutely immaterial state of a universe with flat
'four-dimensional' absolute-absolute spacetime containing absolute-absolute rest mass
and its underlying flat 'two-dimensional' absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic spacetime
containing absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic rest mass, evolved into an intermediate
absolute material state with flat 'four-dimensional' absolute spacetime containing absolute
rest mass and its underlying flat 'two-dimensional' absolute intrinsic spacetime
containing absolute intrinsic rest mass, at the first stage; followed by evolution into
yet an intermediate relative material state with flat four-dimensional proper spacetime
containing rest mass and its underlying flat two-dimensional proper intrinsic spacetime
containing intrinsic rest mass, at the second stage. These are then followed by evolution
into a final relative material state with flat four-dimensional relativistic spacetime containing
relativistic (or inertial) mass and its underlying flat two-dimensional relativistic
intrinsic spacetime containing relativistic intrinsic mass (or intrinsic inertial mass), at
the third (and final) stage. The three stages commenced and progress simultaneously
and are still on-going in every universe at present. The second and third stages of evolutions
of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime and mass/intrinsic mass in a universe, correspond
to the first and second stages in a gravitational field, already developed in the previous
papers. The associated hierarchies of spacetimes and masses (comprising of three layers
of space-time-mass) in every universe is highlighted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1110.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 4 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 21 pages

The continuity equation is specified in quaternionic format. It means that the density
and current of the considered "charge" is combined in a quaternionic probability amplitude distribution
(PAD). Next, the Dirac equation is also put in quaternionic format. It is shown that it is a special
form of continuity equation. Further it is shown that two other quaternionic continuity equations can
be derived from the quaternionic Dirac equation. The square and the squared modulus of the PAD play an
essential role in these new equations. Further, a whole series of equivalent equations of motions is
derived from the possible flavor couplings. The corresponding particles are identified. The mass of
the particles can be computed from their fields. In this way all of the particles in the standard
model can be identified.
The interpretation of these extra equations leads to the insight that when fermions take a new position,
they must step over a forbidden region. Finally, the role of the quaternionic covariant derivative is
explained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1110.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Great Pumpkin by Halloween 2011 should give 5/fb of data to the LHC. That data may support or reject my E8 Physics model with 3 Higgs-Tquark states: low mass state (Higgs mass around 145 GeV) middle mass state (Higgs mass around 180 GeV) high mass state (Higgs mass around 240 GeV) In my E8 Physics model, the Higgs is not a simple single particle but is related to the Primitive Idempotents of the real Clifford algebra Cl(8) ( see vixra 1109.0037 and tony5m17h.net/ClCl4Cl16.pdf ). Such a Higgs is part of a 3-state Higgs-Tquark system based on Higgs as a Tquark condensate similar to descriptions in the works of Yamawaki, Hashimoto, et al in hep-ph/9603293, hep-ph0311165, etc.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12] **viXra:1110.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Lukasz Andrzej Glinka

**Comments:** 7 pages

The mass of a photon is one of the most intriguing ideas of theoretical
physics, and their existence is consistently justified in the
light of certain experimental data. In this paper the proposal for
explanation of the nonzero photon mass in frames of the waveparticle
duality is concisely presented. The standard formulation
of the wave-particle duality is modified by the constant frequency
field, which can be interpreted as the Zero-Point Frequency field.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1110.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Lukasz Andrzej Glinka

**Comments:** 8 pages

Recently, on the conference "Quantum Theory and Gravitation"
held in Zürich on June 14-24, 2011, V.F. Mukhanov has been
presented talk "Massive Gravity" discussing the relationships between
massive gravitational waves and Cosmological Perturbations
of the Minkowski background. His crucial result was modification
of the Newtonian potential of universal gravitation due to
a multiplicative constant equal to 4=3.
However, this presentation has been stirred up my negative
opinion. The controversy has been caused by absence of a lot of
details, what have been made the talk manifestly misleading. The
lecturer did not respond to my questions satisfactory.
Mukhanov's deductions are at most half-true, and they can be
easily verified by straightforward calculations. In this paper I explain
shortly what is right and what is wrong in the approach
propagated by Mukhanov. Particularly, I shall to show that restoration
of the Newton law of universal gravitation is unambiguous.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1110.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Lukasz Andrzej Glinka

**Comments:** 21 pages

Despite consistency of the Higgs mechanism, experimental data
have not revealed existence of the Higgs particle. Moreover, the
Higgs mechanism explains why photon is massless, while another
experimental data reveal very small but detectable photon mass.
In this manner the crucial problem is to combine abstract ideas of
the Standard Model with the verified experimental data to obtain
constructive physical picture.
In this paper we discuss two alternative consistent mass generation
mechanisms which are based on charged scalar field and the
O(2) symmetric Higgs potential. Both the mechanisms for abelian
fields of the Standard Model lead to nonzero photon mass, but predict
distinguishable mass of the new neutral scalar boson. Both
the models are similar to the Higgs mechanism. The scenarios
base on existence of a new scalar neutral boson c and an auxiliary
scalar neutral field j which can be interpreted as a dilaton. In the
first model a new scalar particle is massive, and the value of its
mass can be estimated by the present day experimental limits on
the photon mass. In the second model dilaton is massless and a
new scalar particle has a mass which can be determined only by
experimental data. The mass of a photon in this model does not
depend on the mass of a Higgs-like particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1110.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Lukasz Andrzej Glinka

**Comments:** 30 pages

In this paper the constructive and consistent formulation of
quantum gravity as a quantum field theory for the case of higher
dimensional ADM space-times, which is based on the author previous
works, is presented. The present model contains a certain
new contribution which, however, do not change the general idea
which leads to extraordinary simple treatment of quantum gravity
in terms of fundamental notions of quantum field theory, like
e.g. the Fock space, quantum correlations, etc. We discuss the way
to establishing the dimension of space and the relation to string
theory of the model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1110.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Lukasz Andrzej Glinka

**Comments:** 29 pages

The most recent notifications from OPERA Collaboration of
CERN Geneva report highly probable existence of faster-than-light
neutrinos. Such a state of affairs has been also detected earlier in
radio galaxies, quasars and recently in microquasars. The usual
scenario explaining superluminal speeds is based on a black hole
contained in these sources producing the high speed mass ejection.
Superluminal speeds are, however, plainly and efficiently explainable
within the framework of Special Relativity, in which the
Einstein postulates, the Minkowski energy-momentum space, and
both the Poincaré and the Lorentz symmetries remain unchanged,
but the energy-momentum relation is deformed. In this paper superluminal
deformations of Special Relativity, complementing the
Einstein theory at faster-than-light speeds, are studied in the context
of CERN neutrinos. For full consistency we propose to apply
the non-parallelism hypothesis, the deformation derived ab initio,
and the concept of measured speed of light which can be higher
than c. We show that such a theory is able to explain both superluminal
speed as well as mass of neutrino.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1110.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Rafael-Andrés Alemañ-Berenguer

**Comments:** 9 pages

Theoretical research has paid little attention to the influence on chemical
kinetics of the motion of reference frames where chemical reactions are carried on. In
order to improve this situation, in this paper the main chemical-kinetics relations with
regards to inertial and gravitational frames in the relativistic range are developed, and
also some simple experiments designed to test their scope are suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1110.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 pages

Order and information (in the negentropic sense) are built upon charge conservation - the symmetry debts of
light - symmetry transformed from a 2-D (or 3-D) atemporal, non-local, massless free energy form (light) to
a 4-D, temporal, local, and massive bound energy form (charged elementary particles). With charge comes
quantized mass, time, and gravity - the asymmetric "gang of four" necessary to conserve all the energy,
entropy, and symmetry of the light that created atomic matter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1110.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 8 pages

The Theory of Reference Frames considers two speeds of light: the physical speed which
is an universal constant and the relativistic speed which instead is variable and depends
on the relative speed between the considered reference frames. We analyse physical
consequences of the not constant speed of light as per principles of the Theory of
Reference Frames which makes use of different relativistic transformations of space-time.
Specifically we consider variation of mass, relativity of space-time and the revealing
physical effect concerning the muon average life. At last we make a few considerations
about the recent experiment on the speed of muon neutrino from CERN to LNGS.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1110.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 13 pages. This paper can also be found at deep blue, the University of Michigan's
repository, at http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/86651

Written at a level appropriate for an educated lay audience, this paper
attempts to give a primarily conceptual overview of a framework recently
introduced in reference [3] by this author, which attempts to clarify what
quantum mechanics tells us about reality. Physicists may find this
paper useful because it focuses on the central ideas of the framework at a
conceptual level, thereby lessening their unfamiliarity, an unavoidable
feature of truly novel ideas. The author hopes that this article will motivate
physicists to seriously evaluate the mathematical details of the framework
given in the original reference.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1110.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 4 pages

In this work, we combined a power source with a single wire phase retarded circuit in
parallel. When a load resistor is connected to this combination, the single wire phase
retarded circuit supplies most current to the load resistor so that the supplied current from
the source is reduced. It is observed that the consumed power in the load resistor is larger
than the supplied power from the source. It is anticipated that this technology can be used
to generate electric power.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[2] **viXra:1110.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-06 00:45:15*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 14 Pages. A revised version published in Physical Review D, Vol. 85, Issue 6, 065003 (2012).

de Sitter symmetry on quantum level implies that operators describing a given system satisfy
commutation relations of the de Sitter algebra. This approach gives a new perspective on fundamental
notions of quantum theory. We discuss applications of the approach to the cosmological constant
problem, gravity, and particle theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1110.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 6 pages

This paper describes a method of tracking the electromagnetic
dipole, with a three-dimensional representation of the dipole being
graphically displayed in real-time so as to provide diagnostic
information about a patient's heart. By knowing the coordinates
and orientation of the heart dipole and comparing this data with a
healthy heart, cardio-specialists may be able to determine where
damaged tissue is located or other diseases in progress.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology