[98] **viXra:1201.0129 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-02 21:09:02*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We explore, in depth, Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity and cite noted physicists Daniel Gezari, Reginald Cahill, Danielle Sasso, Rodney Bartlett, and Johannes Valks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[97] **viXra:1201.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-30 15:34:13*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 86 pages. Portuguese.

This note collection is related to an analysis throughout the paper viXra:1112.0066.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[96] **viXra:1201.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-30 23:59:08*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

The basic challenge of quantum TGD is to give a precise content to the notion of generalization Feynman diagram and the reduction to braids of some kind is very attractive possibility inspired by zero energy ontology. The point is that no n>2-vertices at the level of braid strands are needed if bosonic emergence holds true.

- For this purpose the notion of algebraic knot is introduced and the possibility that it could be applied to generalized Feynman diagrams is discussed. The algebraic structrures kei, quandle, rack, and biquandle and their algebraic modifications as such are not enough. The lines of Feynman graphs are replaced by braids and in vertices braid strands redistribute. This poses several challenges: the crossing associated with braiding and crossing occurring in non-planar Feynman diagrams should be integrated to a more general notion; braids are replaced with sub-manifold braids; braids of braids ....of braids are possible; the redistribution of braid strands in vertices should be algebraized. In the following I try to abstract the basic operations which should be algebraized in the case of generalized Feynman diagrams.
- One should be also able to concretely identify braids and 2-braids (string world sheets) as well as partonic 2-surfaces and I have discussed several identifications during last years. Legendrian braids turn out to be very natural candidates for braids and their duals for the partonic 2-surfaces. String world sheets in turn could correspond to the analogs of Lagrangian sub-manifolds or two minimal surfaces of space-time surface satisfying the weak form of electric-magnetic duality. The latter opion turns out to be more plausible. Finite measurement resolution would be realized as symplectic invariance with respect to the subgroup of the symplectic group leaving the end points of braid strands invariant. In accordance with the general vision TGD as almost topological QFT would mean symplectic QFT. The identification of braids, partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets - if correct - would solve quantum TGD explicitly at string world sheet level in other words in finite measurement resolution.
- Also a brief summary of generalized Feynman rules in zero energy ontology is proposed. This requires the identification of vertices, propagators, and prescription for integrating over al 3-surfaces. It turns out that the basic building blocks of generalized Feynman diagrams are well-defined.
- The notion of generalized Feynman diagram leads to a beautiful duality between the descriptions of hadronic reactions in terms of hadrons and partons analogous to gauge-gravity duality and AdS/CFT duality but requiring no additional assumptions. The model of quark gluon plasma as s strongly interacting phase is proposed. Color magnetic flux tubes are responsible for the long range correlations making the plasma phase more like a very large hadron rather than a gas of partons. One also ends up with a simple estimate for the viscosity/entropy ratio using black-hole analogy.

[95] **viXra:1201.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-31 00:01:40*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The history of the modern measurements of absolute motion has a long - more than century beginning from Michelson-Morley 1887. The earliest measurements assumed aether hypothesis. Cahill identifies the velocity as a velocity with respect to some preferred rest frame and uses relativistic kinematics although he misleadingly uses the terms absolute velocity and aether. The preferred frame could galaxy, or the system defining rest system in cosmology. It would be easy to dismiss this kind of experiments as attempts to return to the days before Einstein but this is not the case. It might be possible to gain unexpected information by this kind of measurements. Already the analysis of CMB spectrum demonstrated that Earth is not at rest in the Robertson-Walker coordinate system used to analysis CMB data and similar motion with respect to galaxy is quite possible and might serve as a rich source of information also in GRT based theory. In TGD framework the situation is especially interesting since sub-manifold gravity implies that maximal signal velocity depends on the space-time sheet and this effect might show itself in Mickelson-Morley type experiments. Also the motion of space-time sheets with respect to each other might be detectable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[94] **viXra:1201.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-31 00:05:33*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

A summary about how various ideas about TGD have developed is given. This is a response to a request of Mark McWilliams. I try to represent the development chronologically but I must confess that I have forgotten precise dates so that the chronology is not exact. Very probably I have also forgotten many important ideas and many side tracks which led nowhere. Unavoidably the emphasis is on the latest ideas and there is of course the risk that some of them are not here to stay. Even during writing process some ideas developed into more concrete form. A good example is the vision about what happens in quantum jump and what the unitarity of U-matrix really means, how M-matrices generalize to form Kac-Moody type algebra, and how the notion of quantum jump in zero energy ontology (ZEO) reproduces the basic aspects of quantum measurement theory. Also a slight generalization of quantum arithmetics suggested itself during the preparation of the article.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[93] **viXra:1201.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-31 00:07:44*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The comparison of TGD with inflationary cosmology combined with new results about TGD inspired cosmology provides fresh insights to the relationship of TGD and standard approach and shows how TGD cures the lethal diseases of the eternal inflation. Very roughly: the replacement of the energy of the scalar field with magnetic energy replaces eternal inflation with a fractal quantum critical cosmology allowing to see more sharply the TGD counterpart of inflation and accelerating expansion as special cases of criticality. The rapid expansion periods correspond to phase transitions increasing the value of Planck constant and increasing the radius of magnetic flux tubes. This liberates magnetic energy and gives rise to radiation in turn giving rise to radiation and matter in the recent Universe just like the energy of inflaton field would give rise to radiation at the end of the inflation period in cosmic inflation.
The multiverse of inflationary scenarios is replaced with the many-sheeted space-time and one can say that the laws of physics are essentially same everywhere in the sense that the fundamental symmetries are the symmetries of standard model everywhere.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[92] **viXra:1201.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-31 00:09:19*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The inspiration for this article came from listening some very inspiring Harward lectures relating to QCD, jets, gauge-gravity correspondence, and quark gluon plasma. Matthew Schwartz gave a talk titled * The Emergence of Jets at the Large Hadron Collider*. Dam Thanh Son's talk had the title * Viscosity, Quark Gluon Plasma, and String Theory*. Factorization theorems of jet QCD discussed in very clear manner by Ian Stewart in this talk titled * Mastering Jets: New Windows into Strong Interaction and Beyond*. These lecture inspired several blog postings and also the idea about a systematical comparison of QCD and TGD. This kind of comparisons are always very useful - at least to me - since they make it easier to see why the cherished beliefs- now the belief that QCD is * the* theory of strong interactions - might be wrong

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[91] **viXra:1201.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-31 00:11:00*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The newest results about Higgs search using 4.9/fb of data have published and there are many articles in arXiv. The overall view is that there is evidence for something around 125 GeV. Whether this something is Higgs or some other particle decaying to Higgs remains to my opinion an open question. The evidence comes basically from Higgs to γγ decays. The signal is however too larger so that something else than Higgs might be in question. There are some ZZ and WW events. CMS represented also data for more rare events. There are also indications about something at higher masses. In TGD framework Higgs is not needed for the massivation and the simplest option is that Higgs does not exist. Higgs is effectively replaced with a scaled up copy of hadron physics with mass scale 512 times higher than that for ordinary hadron physics. In this article this option will be discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[90] **viXra:1201.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-01 05:46:30*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In TGD Universe gauge fields are replaced with topological field quanta. Examples are topological light rays, magnetic/electric flux tubes and sheets, and flux quanta carrying both magnetic and electric fields. Flux quanta form a fractal hierarchy in the sense that there are flux quanta inside flux quanta. It is natural to assume quantization of Kähler magnetic flux. Braiding and reconnection are the basic topological operations for flux quanta. The basic question is how the basic notions assigned with the classical gauge and gravitational fields understood in standard sense generalize in TGD framework.

- Superposition and interference of the classical fields is very natural in Maxwell electrodynamics and certainly experimentally verified phenomena. Also the notion of hologram relies crucially on the notion of interference. How can one describe the effects explained in terms of superposition of fields in a situation in which the theory is extremely non-linear and all classical gauge fields are expressible in terms of CP_2 coordinates and their gradients? It is also rather clear that the preferred extremals for Kähler action decompose to space-time regions representing space-time correlates for quanta. The superposition of classical fields in Maxwellian sense is impossible. How can one cope with this situation? The answer is based on simple observation: only the {\it effects} of the classical fields superpose. There is no need for the fields to superpose. Together with the notion of many-sheeted space-time this leads to elegant description of interference effects without any need to assume that linearization is a good approximation.
- Topological quantization brings in also braiding and reconnection of magnetic flux tubes as basic operations for classical fields. These operations for flux tubes have also Maxwellian counterparts at the level of field lines. Braiding and reconnection are in a central role in TGD Universe and especially so in in TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology. The challenge is to build a coherent overall phenomenological view about the role of topologically quantized classical fields in biology and neuroscience. For instance, one can ask what is the precise formulation for the notion of conscious hologram and whether magnetic flux tubes could serve as correlates of entanglement (or at least negentropic entanglement suggested by the number theoretic vision and identified as a basic signature of living matter).
- Topological quantization and the notion of magnetic body are especially important in TGD inspired model of EEG. The attempt to understand the findings of Persinger from the study of what is known as God helmet leads to a considerable progress in the understanding the possible role of topologically quantized classical fields in biology and neuro-science.

[89] **viXra:1201.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-31 00:20:44*

**Authors:** Theodore Charles III

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

VASP can be used to run various material simulations and molecular dynamics. VASP uses DFT with both LGA and GGA approximation-based pseudopotentials to calculate various material properties.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[88] **viXra:1201.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-30 04:01:12*

**Authors:** Prakhar bhatnagar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Magnetic monopole is a hypothetical particle with a single pole. In this paper a new mathematical structure for Dirac string has been proposed .Quantitative aspects and qualitative aspects of a monopole represented as a Dirac string have been highlighted. Magnetic bundle has been defined in a complex form and pole has been defined as composition of that bundle for single pole the pole variable is single. The pole can be considered as a group of threads or a point lying on a monopole magnet bundle for one pole the thread is single and one dimensional. The function is in complex form and defines magnetic bundle.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[87] **viXra:1201.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-30 04:28:53*

**Authors:** Hans Schäfer

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The current static view of the structure of matter leads to many phenomena wich are not understood,to fundamental contradictions between qt and classical physics and to an ever-increasing number of free parameters in the matimatical formalism.The paper develops a fundamental new understanding of a dynamic structure of matter, describing the quantum objecs as spiral energy flows, what leads to the immediate clarification of a large number of fundamental problems of quantum physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[86] **viXra:1201.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-29 15:21:39*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This version-2 of June 29 2013 comprehends important notes: My formulas used in the appendix (letter to the Nobel Committee) are much more analyzed afterwards in following ‘papers’. So this moment, June 29 2013, I decided to keep this paper active.

This paper describes an interim stage in the Double Torus hypothesis’ development. I also implemented a message of “Nobel Nominations in a New World” to the Nobel Committee. These seemingly different looking subjects are importantly connected in a plead to change the way Nobel-nominations are performed in a changing world with internet and alternative archives, such as viXra. The point is here, that institutional established physics and cosmology are blocking new ideas from the public domain. Therefore an appendix has been added to this paper to summarize in a nutshell, relativity, space-expansion, accelerated space-expansion and the one time-direction in the Big Bang Cosmology, in order to explain better what new dark energy is in the Double Torus. That message is meant for the Nobel Committee. Furthermore three-why’s are answered: Why are two extra time-directions needed in a new cosmology? Why is the introduction of dark mass, squared? Why would there be a Double Torus for New Cosmology? Also the basic-formulas are summarized, referring to my papers, such as the dark energy force formula from my thought-experiment, followed by its transformed-version: the force smaller than the smallest gravity. In the end New Dark Energy is formulated as a product of new dark mass (squared) and two extra time-directions from below the Planck scale. This marks that New Dark Energy could recalculate the established dual unitary-entangled quantum-spaces faster backwards in time than time goes forward in the Big Bang Cosmology! This affects the established quantum dynamics and classical reality towards the past and future differently than Einstein’s General Relativity is prescribing. The letter to the Nobel Committee is send by me, because no other institutions is doing that for me.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[85] **viXra:1201.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-29 08:27:19*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Assumptions, core concepts, and interrelatedness of these are introduced for quantum realism creation. Quantum realism is a new branch of science specifically allowed by Adenier's refutation of Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[84] **viXra:1201.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-28 19:50:22*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 92 Pages.

In this book we present the hypothesis that there is no speed barrier in the
universe - thus refuting the speed of light postulate.
While Einstein considered a relative space and relative time but the ultimate speed
of light, we do the opposite: we consider an absolute time and absolute space but no
ultimate speed, and we call it the Absolute Theory of Relativity (ATR).
We then parameterize Einstein’s thought experiment with atomic clocks,
supposing that we know neither if the space and time are relative or absolute, nor if the
speed of light is ultimate speed or not. We obtain a Parameterized Special Theory of
Relativity (PSTR). Our PSTR generalizes not only Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity,
but also our ATR, and introduces three more possible Relativities to be studied in the
future.
Afterwards, we extend our research considering not only constant velocities but
constant accelerations too.
Eventually we propose a Noninertial Multirelativity for the same thought experiment, i.e. considering non-constant accelerations and arbitrary 3D-curves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[83] **viXra:1201.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-29 23:29:22*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The recent European experiment in which neutrinos apparently travel faster than light does not violate general relativity. However, the explanation of this phenomenon lies in another experiment (the latter being in electrical engineering in 2009).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1201.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-20 11:19:47*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 28 Pages. It is introduced the Higgs field for W bosons pair generation

In this paper was re-visited the dual Ginzburg-Landau model for the calculation of Lorenz force, color magnetic gluons current, and the energy of vortex lines for a vortex triangular lattice type Abrikosov within a nucleon, to find their meaning. For now, it was found that these energies would correspond to the subatomic particles, , Higgs bosons, pion , and of nucleon itself. Also, it was determined the fusion temperature of two nucleons.
The model permits to explain the beta decay mechanism of radioisotopes to be the same as the dark counts in the case of superconductors, and to think in this context to the enhancement of beta decay for nuclear transmutation of radioactive waste.
A link with gravity is discussed. In this model to a superconductor analogue, we use the Higgs field , and hence a Higgs boson to generate by Schwinger effect pairs for beta decay calculation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[81] **viXra:1201.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-27 13:07:45*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages. perhaps my most important article to date

A brief overview of science and the politics of science, a 'quantum realism' accurate view of space and time, minimal attributes of space and time, a 'novel' view of time attributed to P.Y. Ulianov, and implications.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[80] **viXra:1201.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-26 21:15:22*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The conclusion of this paper contains a number of new and important points.

This paper takes a look at the formulating of the unified field theory and the theory of everything. It shows how a unified field theory and theory of everything may be obtained.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[79] **viXra:1201.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-27 10:57:02*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 171 Pages. The text of the book is in Portuguese.

This book presents a model named Ulianov Theory (UT) that creates a fictional universe in a "slow" process named “Small Bang”.
The UT is based on three basic concepts:
a) General Octo-Dimension Universe (GODU) - Space/time of eight dimensions where four of them are “normal dimensions” and four are “wraps dimensions”, and the time is a complex variable. The GODU also can be represented like for sub-spaces (each one whit three space dimensions and one complex time dimension) separated from each other by “time walls” and “space walls”.
b) Sphere Ulianov (Usphere) - Eight dimension spheres placed in GODU that held together to form special networks.
c) Hole Ulianov (Uhole) – The Uhole is an Usphere with zero radius and behaves as an elastic hole. One Uhole in a “time wall” have a mass propriety and “resist” to move in space. One Uhole in a “space wall” have a electrical charge propriety and “resist” to move in time.
The Small Bang begin whit one Uhole compressed by a radial force field (General Octo-Dimension Hole Force or GODHF). When the GODHF is removed, the Uhole expand and form one Usphere. Like the Usphere “wall” is made of Uholes, it’s also expand forming a Ulianov SpereNetworks (USN).
Like the USN initially expands only in imaginary time, to an observer in real time the “Small Bang Process” is instantaneous and will look like a Big Bang .
The UT model is defined over a complete scope, were the concepts of, force (Ulianov Force) and energy (Ulianov Energy) are defined from the Uhole elasticity propriety.
Based on these concepts the UT generated a fictional universe that begins in a Small Bang, from which arise particles similar to photons (Ulianov foton) electrons (Ulianov electron), protons (Ulianov proton), neutrons (Ulianov neutron), and neutrinos (Ulianov neutrino).
The UT model does a series of equations who are linked to laws observed in our universe, as the formulas of Newton gravitation law and Einstein's relativistic equations.
On this way the author note that despite the UT model is set to create a universe fictional, coincidentally it’s generated one universe that is very close to the universe in which we live…
This book was written in 2005 and registered in the National Library of Brazil, on 10.05.2007, with registration number 404616, in Book 754, Page 276.
The text of the book is in Portuguese.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[78] **viXra:1201.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-27 11:08:37*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The paper contains some new points on the velocity of light and a conclusion based on the recent discovery of superluminary motion of quantum particles at CERN.

@@This paper touches on the subject of whether light really needs a medium, which is termed the luminiferous ether, for its transmission as is in the case of sound which requires a fluid such as air or liquid as the medium for its transmission, and the subject of the velocity of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[77] **viXra:1201.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-27 07:01:20*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 427 Pages.

A broad outline of future discoveries concerning the workings of Nature, and of science's reconciliation with religion.
"If a complete unified theory was discovered, it
would only be a matter of time before it was
digested and simplified ... and taught in schools,
at least in outline. We should then all be able to
have some understanding of the laws that govern
the universe and are responsible for our
existence."
("A Brief History of Time" by Stephen Hawking,
Introduction by Carl Sagan)
I saw a video ("Hidden Dimensions: Exploring
Hyperspace") in which it was stated that
mathematicians are free to imagine anything while
physicists work in a very different environment
constrained by experiment, and that the American
physicist Richard Feynman (1918-1988) said
scientists work in a straitjacket. Well, Albert
Einstein (1879-1955) said "Imagination is more
important than knowledge" so let's see what
happens when we throw away everyday tradition
and conformity, let our imaginations fly (while
trying to stay grounded in science and
technology), and thus release science from its
straitjacket!

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[76] **viXra:1201.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-27 07:05:47*

**Authors:** U .V . S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Strange relations can not be ignored.

It seems that- quanta of the angular momentum and the strong interaction range - both are connected with the large scale structure of the universe. In the expanding universe `quanta' increases with increasing mass of the universe. By any chance if the noticed empirical relation is found to be true and valid, `rate of decrease in fine structure ratio' is a measure of cosmic rate of expansion. Considering the integral nature of number of protons (of any nucleus), integral nature of `hbar' can be understood.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[75] **viXra:1201.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-26 06:41:04*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Fairly recently, two announcements concerning astrophysical observations appeared. The first from NASA mentioned the fact that the Voyager 1 spacecraft had detected a 100-fold increase in the intensity of high-energy electrons from elsewhere in the galaxy diffusing into our solar system from outside; the other revealed that a new all-sky map showed the magnetic fields of the Milky Way with the highest precision and proceeded to point out that the origin of galactic magnetic fields remains unknown despite intensive research, although it seemingly assumed that they are constructed via dynamo processes, such as are said to occur in the interiors of the Earth and the Sun. Here it is pointed out that plasma cosmology/electric universe theory can, and does, offer viable solutions to these and other supposed problems faced by orthodox cosmology.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[74] **viXra:1201.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-26 04:55:39*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 10 Pages. A follow up paper in on the way.

The Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) measurements of Sunlight indicate that the Sun's SED is approximately that of a black body at a temperature of about 5777K. This fact has been known for quite some time now. What is surprising is that this fact has not been interpreted correctly to mean that the Sun's temperature is constant throughout its profile i.e. the temperature of the core right up to the Surface must be the same i.e. if Tsun(r) the temperature of the Sun at any radial point r, then Tsun(r)=5777K. From the fundamental principles of statistical thermodynamics, a blackbody is a body whose constituents are all at a constant temperature and such a body will exhibit a Planckian SED. For a body that has a nearly blackbody SED like the Sun (and the stars), this means the constituents of this body must, at a reasonable degree of approximation, be at the same temperature i.e. its temperature must be constant throughout. If the Sun is approximately a blackbody as experience indicates, then, the Standard Solar Model (SSM) can not be a correct description of physical and natural reality for the one simple reason, that the Solar core must be at same temperature as the Solar surface. Simple, the Sun is not hot enough to ignite thermonuclear fission at its nimbus. If this is the case, then how does the Sun (and the stars) generate its luminosity. A suggestion to this problem is made in a future reading that is at an advanced stage of preparation; therein, it is proposed that the Sun is in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium -- i.e., in a state of uniform temperature and further a proposal (hypothesis or conjecture) is set-forth that the Sun may very well be powered by the 104.17 micro-Hz gravitational oscillations first detected by Brookes el al. (1976), Severny et al. (1976). Herein, we verily prove that the SED of a body in hydrostatic equilibrium can not, in general be Planckian in nature, thus ruling out the SSM in its current constitution. Only in the case were the density index is \alpha_{\varrho}=2 (which implies a zero temperature index i.e. \alpha_{T}=0$), will the SED of such a body be Planckian.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[73] **viXra:1201.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-25 13:31:19*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article describes some advantages arising from
the manipulation of time by means of a complex
variable and discusses the possibility of
calculating the extent of the imaginary dimension of
time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[72] **viXra:1201.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-25 13:35:11*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This article introduces a new model for fundamental particles representation, named Ulianov String Theory (UST).
In the UST model, the space is composed of eight
dimensions, being four of them “rolled up” dimensions while the other four are ”ordinary” dimensions.
Moreover, in the UST, time dimension is modeled as a complex variable and can also be “rolled up”.
This new string model also defines point-like particles named Ulianov Holes (uholes), which, from the imaginary time collapse, is transformed into strings.
These strings allow generation of a series of structures, which can be associated to configurations of the observed matter and energy in our universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[71] **viXra:1201.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-25 13:38:07*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This article introduces a new model for the non-Euclidean spaces’ representation, in which the coordinates and distances are considered as digital nature. This model, called Ulianov Sphere Network (USN), presents a new way for visualizing the curved spaces, such as those defined in the context of the General Relativity Theory (GRT).
USN model has the potential to facilitate the calculation procedures concerning the problems handled by GRT, since it relies on a very simple mathematical formulation, which can be easily implemented in numerical computing systems.
The proposed model is a mathematical tool that facilitates the manipulation of non-Euclidean spaces, for the simple expedient of constructing over a continuous plain space, a network of hyperspheres that behaves as a non-Euclidean digital space.
Initially, the USN model has no real connection with the observed physics in our universe, being basically a theoretical abstraction. However, as will be shown in this article, the application of the UNS model allows inferring some formulas related to GRT and also with the Newton’s Law of Gravitation. Thus, the hypothesis that the USN model is actually somehow related to the physical basis of operation of our universe is not discarded.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[70] **viXra:1201.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-25 13:45:35*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In experiments for proton radius measurement that use muonic hydrogen, the value obtained was four percent below the expected standard value, which is not explained by quantum electrodynamics.
This article theoretically explains this results and presents an equation that calculates the proton radius, which coincides with the value obtained in muonic hydrogen experiments, with a difference of only 0.07 percent.
These results are based on Ulianov String Theory (UST), a new String Theory, which is able to model the most important particles in our universe as photons, protons, electrons, neutrons, muons and positrons.
The author believes that the experiment with Muonic Hydrogen represents a breakthrough in modern physics, because it points out flaws in the standard model and opens space for new theories that model the electron and proton as strings.
The experience with muonic hydrogen may lead to a model in which the electron is no longer a "small ball" orbiting the nucleus and it turns into a two-dimensional brane surrounding the nucleus. Thus, this experiment has the potential to be so important, such as the historical experience of the Michelson interferometer, which marked the end of the preponderance of the Newtonian mechanics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[69] **viXra:1201.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-25 14:05:51*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 213 Pages.

The authors have used the concept of finite complex modulo integers to construct non associative algebraic structures like groupoids, loops and quasi-loops.
Using these structures we built non associative complex matrix groupoids and complex polynomial groupoids.
The authors suggest over 300 problems and some are at the research level.

**Category:** Algebra

[68] **viXra:1201.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-25 23:39:24*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages. viXra removed my superscripts. E=mc2 is, to use BASIC notation, E=mc^2. And E=m1+0 is E=m^1+0

Recently, scientists have been excited by the possibility of finding the Higgs particle and Higgs field, which is supposed to give all matter its mass. Fortunately, they’re also excited at the possibility of discovering the Higgs doesn’t exist. That could open the way for many new things in science – here I’ll attempt to describe some of these new things. There’s no Standard Model Higgs particle. You can call the following description a non-SM Higgs if you like. It has several consequences which I’ll also describe. Consequences for gravity, dark energy, the Weinberg/Glashow/Salam electroweak unification, Einstein’s Unified Field Theory … Addressing this last person, I’ll refer to submission 519 (http://vixra.org/abs/1201.0088 - “Exactly Where Dr. Einstein Went Wrong” by Glenn A. Baxter) in “Relativity and Cosmology” which refers to http://www.k1man.com/c1.pdf and the latter’s statement that “E=mc2 appears to be incorrect and also much too simplistic”. In the 4th and 5th paragraphs, I’ll suggest that the formula is not entirely mistaken but would be more correctly stated as E=m1+0 .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[67] **viXra:1201.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-24 13:22:16*

**Authors:** Arnab Shome

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Recently opera researchers found neutrino is travelling faster than light thus violating special theory of relativity.Here I have tried to show that it can also be explained without violating special theory of relativity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[66] **viXra:1201.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-02 11:40:46*

**Authors:** U.V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It seems that- Bohr radius of hydrogen atom, quanta of the angular momentum and the strong interaction range - are connected with the large scale structure of the massive universe. In the accelerating universe, as the space expands, in hydrogen atom, distance between proton and electron increases and is directly proportional to the mass of the universe (which is the product of critical density and the Hubble volume). `Rate of decrease in fine structure ratio' is a measure of cosmic rate of expansion. Considering the integral nature of number of protons (of any nucleus), integral nature of `hbar' can be understood.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] **viXra:1201.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-30 17:35:05*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We present a simple quantum relativistic model of neutrino oscillations and propagation in space. Matrix elements of the neutrino Hamiltonian depend on momentum and this dependence is responsible for the observed neutrino velocity. It is possible to choose the Hamiltonian in such a way that neutrino velocity oscillates around c in a pattern synchronized with flavor oscillations. The velocity can exceed c during some time intervals. Due to low masses of the electron, muon and tau neutrino species, this superluminal effect is too small to be seen in experiments. The consistency of our model with fundamental principles of relativity and causality is discussed as well.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[64] **viXra:1201.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-24 23:47:00*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 6 pages in length; if a popularized introduction to my own work is desired, see reference #10

In 1957, Charles Misner and John Wheeler, in the “Annals of Physics”, claimed Albert Einstein’s latest equations demonstrated the unified field theory. It has been argued that the gravitational fields, if known everywhere but only for a limited time, do not contain enough information about their electromagnetism to allow the future to be determined, so Einstein's unified theory fails. Physicists also argue that a unified "theory of everything" must now include not just gravity
and electromagnetism, but also the weak and strong nuclear forces plus dark matter and dark energy. This article claims Misner and Wheeler were correct, and addresses all modern objections.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1201.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-29 11:28:49*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We show exactly where Dr. Einstein went wrong with Special Relativity by improperly crossing over from relativity physics to classic physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[62] **viXra:1201.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-23 06:30:16*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Submitted to the Int. J. Mod. Phys. A

It is rigorously shown how the static spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations
can furnish a $null$ naked singularity associated with a point mass source at $ r = 0$.
The construction relies in the possibility of having a metric $discontinuity$ at the location of the point mass. This result should be contrasted with the spacelike singularity described by the textbook black hole solution. It has been argued by some authors why one cannot get any information from the null naked singularity so it will not have any undesirable physical effect to an outside far away observer and cannot cause a breakdown of predictability. In this way one may preserve the essence of the cosmic censorship hypothesis. The field equations due to a delta-function point-mass source at $ r = 0 $ are solved and the Euclidean gravitational action (in $ \hbar $ units) corresponding to those solutions
is evaluated explicitly. It is found that it is precisely equal to the black hole entropy (in Planck area units). This result holds in any dimensions $ D \ge 3 $. We finalize by arguing why the Noncommutative Gravity of the spacetime tangent (co-tangent) bundle is the proper arena to study point masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[61] **viXra:1201.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-23 07:16:29*

**Authors:** Jorge Gabriel Ales Corona

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The quantum treatment of the gravity has resisted for over fifty years. The efforts were centered fundamentally in the search of the concept of “quantum gravitational field”. This article presents a new road that can allow solving this enigma. The gravitation would not have to be described with this concept; that is to say, a quantum gravitational field doesn't exist. In their place the gravity would be a simple stochastic phenomenon. The phenomena tend to occur in places of higher probability. The particles move, to be detected, to the places of greatest concentration of particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[60] **viXra:1201.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-22 22:35:07*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Here is a comparison, in 14 points, between the modern prevailing physics of many universities and mine. The reader has the task to judge the comparison and decide.
The nowadays’ prevailing physics is proceeding with problems and inconsistencies with the density of the Universe, with its expansion, with the acceleration and with the visibile borders of the Universe itself, with strange interpretations of the CMBR, with the justification of the mysterious dark matter, with the fast spinning of galaxies, with the absence of a convincing unification between two very similar forces, the gravitational and the electromagnetic ones, then with the mysterious and unjustifiable fourth dimension of the relativity, then with the unexplained existence and constancy of the c speed limit, with the apparently complete extraneousness of the microscopic and macroscopic worlds, then with the impossibility to provide a convincing explanation for the dimension of a galaxy, then with lost energies, with the apparent missing of the antimatter in the Universe, with the inability to justify the appearing of the Universe etc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[59] **viXra:1201.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-21 06:47:39*

**Authors:** Albert Zotkin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A complete Doppler formula for electromagnetic waves is presented here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[58] **viXra:1201.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-21 02:35:53*

**Authors:** S.N. Arteha

**Comments:** 223 Pages.

The present book is devoted to systematic criticism of the fundamentals
of the relativity theory (RT). The main attention is given to the new
logical contradictions of RT, since presence of such contradictions brings
”to zero” the value of any theory. Many disputable and contradictory
points of this theory and its corollaries are considered in detail in the
book. The lack of logical and physical grounding for fundamental concepts
in the special and general relativity theory, such as time, space,
the relativity of simultaneity etc., is demonstrated. A critical analysis of
experiments that resulted in the generation and establishment of relativity
theory is presented in the book. The detailed criticism of dynamical
SRT concepts is also given in the book. The inconsistency and groundlessness
in a seemingly ”working” section of the relativity theory – the
relativistic dynamics – is shown.
The given book can be of interest to students, post-graduates, teachers,
scientists and all mans, that independently meditate on fundamental
physical problems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:1201.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-20 15:02:26*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is shown that Einstein’s gravitational field equations imply the existence of negative masses. With the inclusion of negative masses, Dirac spinors can be composed of a large positive and likewise large negative mass. The gravitational interaction of these positive-negative masses is positive and leads to a helical motion and not to an unstable vacuum as claimed by Cavalleri and Tonni.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:1201.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-21 02:05:03*

**Authors:** V.N. Kochetkov

**Comments:** 68 Pages.

This article attempts to use the law of conservation of momentum of a
closed system for determining the values of the constants in the two possible
transformations of coordinates and times in inertial reference system

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1201.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-19 20:31:32*

**Authors:** Mircea Monu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

În 6 octombrie 2011, ziarul „Monitorul de Vȃlcea” a publicat articolul „Profet în Ţara Fizicii: Smarandache confirmat, Einstein infirmat?”, în care arătam că un experiment ştiinţific numit „Experimentul OPERA”, efectuat de către o echipă de savanţi de la CERN (iniţial, numit Centrul European de Cercetări Nucleare, acum, Laboratorul European pentru Fizica Particulelor Elementare) din Geneva (Elveţia), a demonstrat că particulele elementare neutrino se deplasează cu o viteză mai mare decât cea a luminii, ceea ce infirmă celebra Teorie a Relativităţii Restrânse, enunţată de fizicianul Albert Einstein (viteza luminii este viteză limită în Univers) şi, deci, confirmă „Ipoteza Smarandache” (nu există viteză limită în Univers), enunţată în anul 1998 de către matematicianul vâlcean Florentin Smarandache, născut la Bălceşti, în anul 1954.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[54] **viXra:1201.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-19 20:39:46*

**Authors:** M. Monu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

În articolul din 15 decembrie, scriam despre eforturile pe care le-a făcut vâlceano-americanul prof. univ. dr. Florentin Smarandache, născut la 10 decembrie 1954 în Bălceşti, de a veni din oraşul Gallup, statul federal New Mexico, SUA, unde predă matematica la Universitatea “New Mexico”, în Bucureşti, pentru a putea participa la festivitatea de înmânare a Premiilor Academie Române pe anul 2009 (aşa se acordă, după doi ani!), deoarece primise un premiu în domeniul ştiinţelor tehnice.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[53] **viXra:1201.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-19 20:43:23*

**Authors:** Monu Mircea

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

„Doctor honoris causa” este un titlu onorific acordat de instituţiile de învăţământ superior unei personalităţi de mare prestigiu, din ţară sau din străinătate, pentru realizări deosebite în domeniul ştiinţei, tehnicii şi culturii, pentru servicii de mare însemnătate aduse patriei şi umanităţii.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[52] **viXra:1201.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-19 20:47:55*

**Authors:** Fizician M. Monu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Un prim experiment, intitulat OPERA, după numele detecto-rului de neutrini, a confirmat o curajoasă ipoteză ştiinţifică a unui român – vâlceanul Florentin Smarandache.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[51] **viXra:1201.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-19 20:54:55*

**Authors:** M. Selariu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Profesoara W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, de la Institutul Indian de Tehnologie din Chennai - India, şi profesorul romȃn Florentin Smarandache, de la Universitatea New Mexico din Statele Unite, au primit Premiul statului New Mexico la categoria Ştiinţă şi Matematică pentru cartea lor “Algebraic Structures Using Natural Class of Intervals”, publicată de Editura de Educaţie din oraşul Columbus, în anul 2011.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[50] **viXra:1201.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-19 21:21:15*

**Authors:** I. Patrascu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Profesorul romȃno-american Florentin Smarandache, de la Universitatea New Mexico din Statele Unite, dedusese particule circulȃnd cu viteze mai mari decȃt viteza luminii într-o lucrare publicată, numită “There is no speed barrier in the universe” [Nu există nici o barieră de viteză în univers], în anul 1998, ca o extindere a unui manuscris din 1972 pe care l-a prezentat la Universitatea din Blumenau, Brazilia, într-un tur de conferinţe despre “Paradoxism în Literatură şi Ştiinţă” în 1993.
Articolul său se bazează pe Paradoxul Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (1935), pe o lucrare a lui Bohm (din 1951) şi pe Inegalităţile lui Bell (1964).

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[49] **viXra:1201.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-20 14:26:15*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We have shown that Dr. Einstein’s famous formula E = MC^2 is incorrectly derived. See www.k1man.com/c1 We have further suggested that E = MC^2 is not an identity, with implications for Dr. DeBroglie’s famous equation, λ = h/p, and Planck’s famous equation, E = hf, where f is the frequency in hertz and λ = c/f. See www.k1man.com/c4 We now propose that there exists a k, such that E = kMC^2, as a special case for electron – positron annihilation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[48] **viXra:1201.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-20 14:31:23*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 94 Pages.

We present a free physics textbook intended for an advanced college or university seminar course at the undergraduate or graduate levels. This physics text is also intended for post doctoral and independent physics researchers . A new theory/model of the atom is covered as well as relativity, electromagnetic radiation, probability, quantum electrodynamics, and thermodynamics. (94 pages, 5.11 MB)

**Category:** Classical Physics

[47] **viXra:1201.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-18 11:00:00*

**Authors:** V.N. Kochetkov

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In article attempt to show on a concrete example becomes that application of the special theory of relativity by consideration of movement of the closed mechanical system of bodies in inertial systems of readout can lead to that the impulse and kinetic energy of the closed system will be time functions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1201.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-17 12:15:33*

**Authors:** V.N. Kochetkov

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In article it is shown that use of laws of preservation of an impulse and energy of the closed mechanical system presumes to check up justice of the special theory of relativity theoretically.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1201.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-16 20:16:50*

**Authors:** U .V . S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Please circulate this article.

Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit, $F\_C\; \backslash cong\; \backslash left(\backslash frac\{c^\{4\}\; \}\{G\}\; \backslash right)<\backslash math>.\; It\; can\; be\; considered\; as\; the\; upper\; limit\; of\; the\; cosmic\; string\; tension.\; Weak\; force\; magnitude$ F\_W<\backslash math>\; can\; be\; considered\; as\; the\; characteristic\; nuclear\; weak\; string\; tension.\; In\; 3+1\; dimensions\; if\; strong\; interaction\; is\; really$ 10^\{39\}<\backslash math>\; times\; stronger\; than\; the\; strength\; of\; gravity,\; until\; the\; measurement\; of$ \backslash left(F\_C\; \backslash ;\backslash \&\backslash ;\; F\_W\backslash right)-<\backslash math>\; it\; can\; be\; assumed\; that$ \backslash frac\{F\_C\}\{F\_W\}\backslash cong\; N^2<\backslash math>\; where$ N<\backslash math>\; is\; Avogadro\; like\; number.$$$$$$

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] **viXra:1201.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-16 10:19:04*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 268 Pages.

This book is the companion volume of "Neutrosophic Interpretation of Tao Te
Ching,” its purpose is to extend the foundation and application range of “The
Analects of Confucius.” The reasons for this are as follows. Firstly, we are willing to
point out that The Analects of Confucius already has some limitations, because
many questions we are interested in cannot be answered within “The Analects of
Confucius.” For example, The Analects of Confucius basically discussed the
matters in China, however considering all possible situations it should matter in
foreign countries as well, i.e. the “global village.” This was impossible in Confucian
time. Secondly, if the original The Analects of Confucius is regarded as “The
Positive Analects of Confucius,” its opposite would be “The Negative Analects of
Confucius,” while the intermediate or compound state is “The Neutral Analects of
Confucius” or “The Neutrosophic Analects of Confucius.” Thus, our book presents
the way to extend the original The Analects of Confucius in various neutrosophic
interpretations.
本書是《道德經的中智學解讀和擴充—正反及中智道德經》的姊妹篇，其目的是試圖
從形式和內容上對《論語》進行求新、求變、求擴充的工作。首先我們願意指出，由於時
代的限制，《論語》具有很大的局限性，當代人感興趣的很多問題，在《論語》中根本不可
能涉及。舉例來說，《論語》討論的基本上都是中國的事情，然而考慮一切可能的情況，在
研究某些問題時，不但要考慮中國的事情，而且要考慮外國的事情，亦即考慮資訊網路時
代“地球村”的事情，這在孔子年代是不可能的。其次，如果將原有的“論語”視為“正
論語”，其對立面就是“反論語”，而處於中間或複合狀態的就是 “中性論語”（或“中智
論語”）。本書給出了對於原有的《論語》用中智學方法進行解讀和實施千變萬化的途徑，
使其可以在相當大的範圍內擴充。

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[43] **viXra:1201.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-16 10:44:27*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, D. Datta, H. S. Kushwaha, P. A. Jadhav

**Comments:** 181 Pages.

In this book the authors introduce and study the properties of natural class of intervals built using
(-∞, ∞) and (∞, -∞). The operations on these matrices with entries from natural class of intervals behave like usual reals. So working with these interval matrices takes the same time as usual matrices. Hence, when applying them to fuzzy finite element methods or finite element methods the determination of solution is simple and time saving.

**Category:** Algebra

[42] **viXra:1201.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-16 10:48:52*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In a similar way as passing from Euclidean Geometry to Non-Euclidean Geometry, we
can pass from Subluminal Physics to Superluminal Physics, and further to Instantaneous Physics.
In the lights of two consecutive successful CERN experiments with superluminal particles in the
Fall of 2011, we believe that these two new fields of research should begin developing.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[41] **viXra:1201.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-15 12:21:05*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Sun's motion around the solar system barycentre produces a small quadrupole moment in the gravitational energy of Mercury, which generates 7arcsec/cy precession of Mercury's perihelion.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[40] **viXra:1201.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-25 05:44:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The basic theory on which one chess program can be constructed is that there exists a general characteristic of the game of chess, namely the concept of entropy. We can think about the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[39] **viXra:1201.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-16 02:13:03*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

In previous papers the permutation group S_4 has been suggested as an ordering scheme for elementary particles, and the appearance of this finite symmetry group was taken as indication for the existence of a discrete inner symmetry space underlying elementary particle interactions. Here it is pointed out that a more suitable choice than the tetrahedral group S_4 is the pyritohedral group A_4 x Z_2 because its vibrational spectrum exhibits exactly the mass multiplet structure of the 3 fermion generations. Furthermore it is noted that the same structure can also be obtained from a primordial symmetry breaking S_4 --> A_4. Since A_4 is a chiral group, while S_4 is achiral, an argument can be given why the chirality of the inner pyritohedral symmetry leads to parity violation of the weak interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[38] **viXra:1201.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-15 22:14:03*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Ion Patrascu

**Comments:** 244 Pages.

This book is addressed to students, professors and researchers of
geometry, who will find herein many interesting and original results.
The originality of the book The Geometry of Homological Triangles
consists in using the homology of triangles as a “filter” through which
remarkable notions and theorems from the geometry of the triangle are
unitarily passed.
Our research is structured in seven chapters, the first four are
dedicated to the homology of the triangles while the last ones to their
applications.

**Category:** Geometry

[37] **viXra:1201.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-14 19:44:29*

**Authors:** D.J. Pons

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A novel conceptual model is described for time, one that is independent of existing theories. The cordus conjecture suggests that time consists of frequency oscillations of matter. The arrow is applied to time where irreversibility arises. The interconnectedness of matter, via its fields, creates a patchwork of temporal cause-and-effect. At its most basic level time originates with the frequency cycles of the particules of matter and photons. The rate of time is thus determined by the mass of the particule, in turn how it is assembled, from what subcomponents, and the external environment (hence also time-dilation). Thus time is locally generated, and cordus rejects the idea of an absolute clock. The forward arrow is only applied to the ticks of time when irreversibility arises. The paper explains how the irreversibility arises, in terms of the interaction between two volumes of matter and the statistically impossibility of returning all particules in the system to their original positions and states. Thus decoherence, irreversibility, entropy, cause-and-effect, and the arrow of time all arise at the same discontinuity in physics. There is a connectedness between volumes of matter that are at different geometric locations. A phenomena that occurs in one volume is communicated via photons, or massy particules, or fields, to other matter around it. This communication applies cause positional constraints on the recipient. The combination of connectedness, frequency, and irreversibility, results in temporal cause-and-effect. Thus human perceptions of time are a construct, with all the potential for illusion that implies, founded on a real physical principle of temporal causality. Time is a series of delayed irreversible interactions (temporal ratchets) between matter, not a dimension that can be traversed in both directions. Cordus provides a more basic concept of time from which quantum mechanics and general relativity emerge as different approximations. The resulting conceptual model provides a novel integration of quantum mechanics, general relativity, and the human-perception models of time.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[36] **viXra:1201.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-14 12:04:49*

**Authors:** Christopher D. Pierce

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

For the past decade, several archaeologists have advocated the development of middle-range theory as a way to give objective meaning to the archaeological record (e.g., Bettinger 1987; Binford 1977, 1983b; Thomas 1983, 1989; Torrence 1986). They argue that we must translate the static archaeological record into behaviorally dynamic terms by documenting causal linkages between relevant behaviors and their static material by-products. This is accomplished, they argue, by making observations today that establish signature patterns allowing the unambiguous recognition of particular dynamics from their static by-products, and inferring past dynamics from identification of signature patterns in the archaeological record. Further, it has been emphasized that the operations and products of middle-range theory must remain logically independent of the general theory we use to explain the past to avoid automatically confirming our ideas about the past through a tautology. This approach to middle-range research is flawed in two major respects. First, the justification of inferences relies on the establishment of universal behavioral laws and unambiguous signature patterns to validate the use of uniformitarian assumptions, neither of which can be accomplished in the manner proposed. Second, the tautological relationship between description and explanation is not only an unavoidable, but also a necessary aspect of science. Solutions to these problems lie in using the physical characteristics of the archaeological record itself as our source of knowledge about the past rather than translating the record into untestable behavioral reconstructions.

**Category:** Archaeology

[35] **viXra:1201.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-14 08:24:56*

**Authors:** Stephan J.G. Gift

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Accepted for publication in Applied Physics Research

Ether drift resulting from the rotation of the Earth has been detected. This was accomplished using GPS technology in a modified Michelson-Morley experiment. The original Michelson-Morley experiment searched for ether drift by observing round-trip light travel time differences using interference fringe shifts. This method is limited by length contraction effects that significantly reduce any fringe shifts. In the modified approach elapsed time for one-way light transmission is directly determined using GPS clocks. The method yields travel time differences for light transmission in the East-West direction but not in the North-South direction consistent with rotationally-induced ether drift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1201.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-12 07:35:06*

**Authors:** V. V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

From the first-principles of the relativistic theory of Lorentz-invariant addition of the speed of light (*c*/*n*) with speed (*υ*) of moving optical medium having a refractive index *n* >1 in the natural way there becomes clear the cause of the kinetic anisotropy of the speed of light, registered for more than 100 years in experiments like the Michelson&Morley (MM) experiment by non-zero amplitudes (*A*_{m}≠0) of the shift of interference fringe. Miller's measurement (1925) and my experiments (1968) showed (in my interpretation) that the cause of this anisotropy is always associated with the presence in the light carrying medium of polarizable particles translationally moving with respect to stationary aether. The anisotropy of refractive index *n *>1 of the light carrying medium is created by the electrodynamic connection between the polarization (Δε=*n*^{2}–1) of its particles and polarization (ε_{aether}=1) of the aether. The absence of anisotropy of the speed of light in vacuum (in the aether without particles) is proved not by the disputed attribution of MM type experiments to "negative, *A*_{m}=0", but rather by a recognition that they are non-negative. In this case, by the actual experimental dependence of *A*_{m}(Δε)≠0 is easily proved the absence of anisotropy in vacuum in the asymptotic limit of the zero fringe shift *A*_{m}(Δε→0)→0 at the beginning of the trend *A*_{m}(Δε).

Accounting for the effects of polarization of light-carrying media, of the first order of "smallness" (*n*^{2}–1)<<1 in the gases and the second order of magnitude (*n*^{2}–1)^{2}~1 in media of higher permittivity, plays a key role in the proposed relativistic interpretation of my measurements and all the famous experiments of MM type. Revising the calculations of *υ* from measurements of non-zero fringe shift (*A*_{m}≠0), described by MM, 1887; Miller, 1925; Kennedy, 1926; Illingworth, 1927; Joos, 1930, and many others, I found their principal error. They did not take into account not only the relativistic structure (*n*^{2}–1) of the polarization activity of particles of the luminiferous medium, but its real value *n* >1. As a result, they received the underestimated speed *υ* – units km/s.
Accounting for the relativistic structure of only the first (*n*^{2}–1) of the order of "smallness" in the gases immediately reveals (for the same non-zero measurements *A*_{m}≠0 of these authors) the real speed of "aether wind" *υ* as a few hundred km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1201.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-12 10:06:46*

**Authors:** K. Sandale

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

If one solves the electromagnetic wave equation in the Lorenz gauge for a charged particle moving with a uniform velocity, and then inserts this solution into the gauge condition, mathematically one gets the result that the current density must be the charge density times the velocity. Thus the field equations of electromagnetism through the gauge condition imply a correct velocity requirement for the current density four-vector, much like the field equations of General Relativity imply through the Bianchi Identities a correct acceleration requirement.
Likewise we can construct a velocity requirement for the stress-energy tensor from the gauge condition of the Linear Field Equations of gravitation. However, the correct velocity relationship will be implied only if the cosmological constant vanishes. Thus the cosmological constant must vanish.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1201.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-12 10:37:43*

**Authors:** K. Sandale

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The proof of Birkhoff's Theorem relies on a coordinate transformation to diagonalize the metric. This coordinate transformation is made to affect the vacuum region, but will nevertheless cause the matter in the non-vacuum region to have a different velocity in the new coordinate system than in the old coordinate system, because a coordinate transformation cannot be abruptly turned off where the two regions meet without violating the holonomy requirement. The effects of this coordinate transformation on the matter have never before been studied. In fact, the coordinate transformation turns out to cause part of a gravitationally collapsing mass distribution to at some point start to move backwards in time. This causes problems which invalidate the proof.
Furthermore, we provide an actual counterexample to Birkhoff’s Theorem: In the particular circumstance of a spherically symmetric thin shell of matter collapsing it is shown that the Bianchi Identities give results contrary to Birkhoff’s Theorem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1201.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-11 18:56:17*

**Authors:** Vic Kley, John Celenza

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The recent measurements of the Casimir effect by Wilson, et al1 established the existence of a pervasive background of charged particles in what has been perceived as an empty Universe. As a result, photons moving through what we have hitherto taken as a vacuum will be slowed5, while neutrino speed will be unaffected. All our measurements of the propagation of light and its wavelength have not been been corrected for this slowing.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1201.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-11 14:39:11*

**Authors:** William L. Stubbs

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A case is made for the fusion reactions apparently occurring in the original Fleischmann and Pons (F-P) experiments to be the result of free D+ ions formed at the anode during electrolysis colliding with deuterons trapped in the Pd lattice of the cathode, rather than trapped deuterons being squeezed together by the lattice. The data from the experiments show that the energy output of F-P cells was essentially proportional to the energy input, independent of the cathode size or the current strength, which implies that the cathode plays a passive role in the energy production. The number of D+ ions produced at the anode and their velocities are proportional to the current used in the cell, so that the number of D+ ions that survive the trip across the gap between the anode and the cathode is greater for greater currents. The larger numbers of D+ ions from the higher currents result in more collisions with trapped deuterons in the cathode producing more energy.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29] **viXra:1201.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-11 14:55:52*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In DT fusion 80% of the energy released goes into 14MeV neutrons, and only the remaining 20% into charged particles. Unlike the charged particles, the uncharged neutrons cannot be confined by a magnetic field, and for this reason cannot be used for a direct conversion into electric energy. Instead, the neutrons have to be slowed down in some medium, heating this medium to a temperature of less than 103K, with the heat removed fom this medium to drive a turbo-generator. This conversion of nuclear into electric energy has a Carnot efficiency of about 30%. For the 80% of the energy released into neutrons, the efficiency is therefore no more than 24%. While this low conversion efficiency cannot be overcome in magnetic confinement concepts, it can be overcome in inertial confinement concepts, by surrounding the inertial confinement fusion target with a sufficiently thick layer of liquid hydrogen and a thin outer layer of boron, to create a hot plasma fire ball. The hydrogen layer must be chosen just thick and dense enough to be heated by the neutrons to 100,000K. The thusly generated, fully ionized, and rapidly expanding fire ball can drive a pulsed magnetohydrodynamic generator at an almost 100% Carnot efficiency, or possibly be used to generate hydrocarbons.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[28] **viXra:1201.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-11 15:53:45*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

To explain Milgrom’s law (MOND) and the accelerated expansion of the universe, in both instances involving an acceleration of the same order of magnitude, it is assumed that the vacuum of space in a kind of plasma made up of an equal number of positive and negative mass Planck mass particles, gravitationally interacting with each other. This hypothesis leads to positive mass Dirac spinors, as composed particles, made up of positive and negative quasiparticles of this plasma. The formation of the positive mass Dirac spinors is accompanied by the emission of negative masses. The gravitationally self interacting positive mass spinors lead to the formation of a filamentary vortex tangle connecting neighboring galaxies with the galaxies formed by the Jeans instability of a cylindrical mass cylinder. This hypothesis not only explains the filamentary structure of the metagalaxy, but also Milgrom’s law by Newton’s gravitational force of a mass cylinder. The negative masses released during the formation of the positive mass Dirac spinors fill the space in between the positive mass filaments, explaining the observed voids.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1201.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-11 17:25:11*

**Authors:** John R. Smith, Milan Nikolic, Stephen P. Smith

**Comments:** 27 pages, 3 Figures & 3 Tables

Linear models have found widespread use in statistical investigations. For every linear model there exists a matrix representation for which the ReML (Restricted Maximum Likelihood) can be constructed from the elements of the corresponding matrix. This method works in the standard manner when the covariance structure is non-singular. It can also be used in the case where the covariance structure is singular, because the method identifies particular non-stochastic linear combinations of the observations which must be constrained to zero.In order to use this method, the Cholesky decomposition has to be generalized to symmetric and indefinite matrices using complex arithmetic methods. This method is applied to the problem of determining the spatial size (vertex) for the Higgs Boson decay in the Higgs -> 4 lepton channel. A comparison based on the chi^2 variable from the vertex fit for Higgs signal and t-tbar background is presented and shows that the background can be greatly suppressed using the chi^2 variable. One of the major advantages of this method over the currently adopted technique of b-tagging is that it is not affected by multiple interactions (pile up).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[26] **viXra:1201.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-11 04:36:26*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 96 Pages. 96

ABSTRACT
The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1201.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-14 13:08:28*

**Authors:** Marco Ripà

**Comments:** The paper is in Italian, 4 pages long. It is related to Graham number. Traditional Copyright "all rights reserved"

In this paper we present a super-fast hyperoperator plus a method to create a new hierarchy of hyperoperators. For comparison, applying it to a base n=2, the result will be far larger than Graham's number. Finally we show a very large number based on Graham's one.

**Category:** Number Theory

[24] **viXra:1201.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-10 09:29:35*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this work is given a new approach to the Open Question of professor Florentine Smarandache concerning the decreasing Tunnel for Orthocenter H on any triangle ABC . Circumcenter O , Centroid K and Ortocenter H lie on Euler line OH . The midpoint N of segment OH is the center of the nine - points circle which is passing from the three midpoints of each side and from the three feet of the altitudes , so this point N is orthic`s triangle circum center . This property of point N ( as it is the first link of a chain ) connects segment ( bar ) OH with an infinite set of segments OnHn of the orthic triangles where On coincides with point Nn-1 , that of each time midpoint of segments . This chain is the locus of point N and that of the repetitive ( rotating ) segment OnHn . On any triangle ABC and on the vertices of the triangle , is constructed an orthogonal hyperbola which passes from orthocenter and provides two fix points ( the foci ) in plane .
As a result is the Axial Symmetry to the two axis , the orthogonal x,y and that of asymptotes . Since orthocenter H changes position , then AH is altering magnitude and direction , therefore AH is a repetitive damped Vector Quantity which assumes its extreme in the opposite direction relative to the first or prior positions . The above property results to a Central Symmetry to one of the vertices A , B , C with the two hyperbolas and after following the greatest of sides a , b , c . Damped Vector AHn can then convergent to Hn which is the Orthocenter of AnBnCn and it is the extreme in opposite direction . i.e.
Orthocenter H… Hn limits to a point on a chain ( straight line or curved ) through A .

**Category:** Geometry

[23] **viXra:1201.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-10 12:12:20*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 8 Pages. None

We identify exactly where Special Relativity went wrong in 1905 and present a practical modern day and easily reproducible experiment to exactly verify the newly developed Special Relativity mathematical equations presented here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1201.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-28 00:00:33*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto, Pavel Pintr

**Comments:** 224 Pages.

The ongoing search of extrasolar planets is one of the most attractive fields of research in
astrophysics and astronomy nowadays. Up to now, 360 extrasolar planets have been discovered near stars
with similar mass as the Sun. There is also discovery related to the so-called Earth-like planets.
With regards to these discoveries, one intriguing question is whether there is relationship between
orbit distance of the planets and their stars. Various formulas have been suggested since 1990s, and they suggest that there may be reason to accept quantization of distances of those planets both in our solar system and also in extrasolar systems as well. This book discusses this issue (Rubcic & Rubcic), along with other interesting issues such as protoplanetary formation of solar system (Pintr, prof. Per\inova% , & dr. Luks\), precession in solar system (Pitkanen) and other topics.
Another line of thought explored herein is the correspondence between cosmological phenomena
and condensed matter physics, and therefore we can think that the quantization of orbit distances
can be caused by superfluid helium quantization. This issue is explored by F. Smarandache and V.
Christianto. Moreover, F. Smarandache also discusses possible new era of research that is
pertaining to superluminal physics and instantaneous physics. Ion Patrascu and D. Rabounski discuss superluminality from their perspectives. And M. Pereira discusses his Hypergeometrical Universe model.
This book is published after our previous book: Quantization in astrophyisics, Brownian motion,
and Supersymmetry which was released about five years ago. Perhaps the ideas presented herein
will have impact on discussions concerning quantum cosmology, which so far it cannot be observed. On the contrary, quantization at large scales can be observed. We hope that this volume will add a new chapter in our understanding of the Universe, from the viewpoint of quantization and
discretization at large scales.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[21] **viXra:1201.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-08 22:50:24*

**Authors:** D.J. Pons

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper provides a conceptual solution to the questions of what causes discoherence and where the limits of coherence might be. Coherence is reinterpreted from the cordus perspective, as being a state when all the particules have synchronised frequencies and phases thereof, i.e. a form of complementary frequency state synchronisation (CoFS). Alternatively coherence can be perceived as a special state of assembly where the particules provide for mutual preservation of the de-energised locations of each other. Cordus anticipates three mechanisms for discoherence. First, a coherent material cannot accept internal shear velocity. Second, higher temperatures lead to decoherence because phonons (internal thermal vibrations) disturb the stability. Third, more complex assemblies of matter are harder to put into coherence, and the complicating factors are expected to be the number of components in the assembly, and the variety of species (simplicity and purity). Accordingly, the upper limit for coherence could be a simple crystal, or perhaps even a virus, with a limited number of species (different molecules or elements), at low temperature. However this is thought to be an optimistic prediction. This model predicts that coherence is already unachievable at the assembly level of the smallest metal grains, mineral crystals, and cell organelles, at ambient temperature. Thus warm macroscopic objects and living creatures cannot be put into coherence or superposition. However there is no problem with having coherent domains within a discoherent body, e.g. molecules that are internally coherent. Single particules, such as electrons, are self-coherent under any conditions.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[20] **viXra:1201.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-09 04:31:33*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This article explains why the neutrinos apparently are travel faster than light in the OPERA and MINOS experiments. This will be do with base in the Coriolis effect, Witte effect and some relativistic effects observed by rotating the light clock proposed by Einstein.
These factors combined make the WURA effect (Witte-Ulianov Rotation Anisotropy effect) that generates a phase error between two clocks perfectly synchronized, due to rotation of the earth and its movement in space, during the travel time of a light signal between the clocks.
For the OPERA experiment, the WURA effect describe a systematic timer error, that generate a theoretical time reduction of about 77.2ns, a value very close to the neutrino anticipation that was observed experimentally in the OPERA.
This result indicates that in OPERA and MINOS the neutrinos are actually moving at the light speed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[19] **viXra:1201.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-07 03:26:04*

**Authors:** Mohammad Shafiq Khan

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Theory substantiated on the physical level in the article Foundation of Theory of Everything

Origin of life and understanding the universe had been the matter of inquisitors to mankind. A new theory is put forward here that could also be called ‘Revitalism’ compared to the vitalism of previous two centuries. So far science has not visualized that besides matter and electromagnetic radiation any other form of ‘energy’ can exist. Now having realized that there could be dark energy which has been proved to be existing (vide ‘energy theory of matter & cosmology’ written by the author in the same issue). Scientists with an open mind look for other forms of ‘energies’ so as to better understand the universe, matter and the life forms. There is an energy which acts as the source of life in different life forms. ‘Soul’ which is also in the form of energy, does not interact directly with the matter or electromagnetic radiation but interacts directly with the ‘energy’ which forms the source of life. So it would be a far more difficult proposition to understand the ‘energy’ which constitutes the ‘soul’. The study of ‘energy’ which forms the source of life is very much possible because it interacts with the matter when in the form of cells. A fresh view of all the life sciences is required so as to have the perfect understanding of phenomenon of life.

**Category:** Mind Science

[18] **viXra:1201.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-06 16:36:19*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

It is shown that the idea of a photon rocket through the complete annihilation of matter with antimatter, first proposed by Sänger, is not a utopian scheme as it is widely believed. Its feasibility appears to be possible by the radiative collapse of a relativistic high current pinch discharge in a hydrogen-antihydrogen ambiplasma down to a radius determined by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Through this collapse to ultrahigh densities the proton-antiproton pairs in the center of the pinch can become the upper GeV laser level for the transition into a coherent gamma ray beam by proton-antiproton annihilation, with the magnetic field of the collapsed pinch discharge absorbing the recoil momentum of the beam and transmitting it to the spacecraft. The gamma ray laser beam is launched as a photon avalanche from one end of the pinch discharge channel.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[17] **viXra:1201.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-08 03:57:51*

**Authors:** Mohammad Shafiq Khan

**Comments:** 33 Pages. Historial Article

The postulate of constancy of velocity of light irrespective of relative uniform motion of the source and the observer introduced by Albert Einstein in the article ‘On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies’ Albert Einstein (1905a) is absolutely consistent with the physical and experimental observations. The other postulate of ‘laws by which physical systems undergo change are not affected when referred to different inertial reference frames’ is in contradiction with all the derivations in the article. Since the change in any physical system; due to whatever reason; could be mainly in reference to the space and time of that physical system; whereas article derives that space and time of any physical system would be different in different inertial reference frames. This article will establish theoretically as well as experimentally that the concept of length contraction in the direction of motion, as proposed by Lorentz & FitzGerald to explain Michelson–Morley experiment is fundamentally incorrect. Consequently the concept of exchangeability of mass and energy as proposed by Einstein in the article ‘Does the Inertial of the Body Depend upon its Energy Content’ Albert Einstein (1905b) fails conceptually, theoretically as well as experimentally. The theoretical and experimental evidences against the concept of contraction of space in the direction of motion leads to the failure of space – time concept and every theory and concept associated with it. The obvious conclusions are space is finite & absolute, time is relative & emergent, matter is emergent and radiation is the electromagnetic work capacity dissipated by the matter which propagates in the medium of ether as a wave motion. Consequent upon these experimental and theoretical evidences this unique state of existence of the physical universe emerges which has been partly described in the article ‘Foundation of Theory of Everything; Non-living Things & Living Things’ Mohammad Shafiq Khan (2010b). This article discusses in detail the experimental evidences of the coordinate transformation between two coordinates system in uniform motion derived in Mohammad Shafiq Khan (2010b); which in turn shows that Lorentz transformation which Einstein physically interpreted in the article Albert Einstein (1905a) is fundamentally incorrect. Consequently the physics which evolved in twentieth century is shown to be incorrect including the formulae E=mc2 and mv=m0/(1-v2/c2)1/2 .The final conclusion is that space is finite & absolute and accordingly the Big Bang Theory is established to be baseless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1201.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-13 11:50:25*

**Authors:** Mohammad Shafiq Khan

**Comments:** 25 Pages. The article was published in Indian Journal of Science & Technology

For the first time in the human & scientific history the concepts of absolute space, emergent & relative time and aether or ether of classical physics (dark energy of modern physics now named as Luminiferous Energy) have been conceived simultaneously. The mystery of the above three concepts existed in the electromagnetic radiation or light as the phenomenon of electromagnetic radiations was not understood correctly resultantly the true nature of everything remained unknown to the mankind. A theistic Foundation of Theory of Everything: Non-living Things and Living Things’ is being proposed on purely scientific basis which would explain the yet unexplained concerns of human beings. The existence of ether is shown beyond any reasonable doubt and the electromagnetic properties of this medium have been defined. The mass, as we know it, is shown to be the manifestation of the energy; which constitutes the matter; due to the existence of ether resultantly the formula E=mc2 has been shown to be incorrect. The correct coordinate transformation instead of Galilean and Lorentz transformations has been derived. The very concept of space-time has been shown to be a mathematical misrepresentation. A unified theory of forces in nature has been proposed. The theistic Foundation of Theory of Everything also envisages the theory for living things with primary concern of the life of human beings. The characteristics of the ‘soul’ energy has been defined; besides proposal has been put forward regarding the characteristics of the ‘energies’ which being the source of life in all plants and animals. This article is in continuation of the author’s previous works (Mohammad Shafiq Khan, 2010a, b, c) [9] [10] [11].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1201.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-07 01:35:02*

**Authors:** Mohammad Shafiq Khan

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Historical article

A thorough review of the Michelson–Morley experiment reveals that the experiment had been not only misinterpreted but also misconceived. Under the theory & methodology adopted by Michelson & Morley the reasons of misconception and misinterpretation have been found to be: 1. Doppler Effect of light was not taken into account and 2. The motion of the solar system was not also taken into account. Since this experiment formed the basis of misinterpretation of absence of luminiferous ether in the space and as the consequence of absence of luminiferous ether the concept of length contraction in the direction of motion, theories of relativity, space–time concept and big bang theory were adopted. The basis of all these theories and concepts is challenged. The present article is the detailed and corrected version of the article ‘Ultimate Proof of Energy Theory of Matter & Cosmology’ Mohammad Shafiq Khan (2010a) necessitated by the article ‘Foundation of Theory of Everything; Non-living & Living Things’ Mohammad Shafiq Khan (2010b). This article finally explains the Michelson-Morley experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1201.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-13 11:27:53*

**Authors:** Mohammad Shafiq Khan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The article was published in Indian Journal of Science & Technology

A new theory ‘Energy Theory of Matter & Cosmology’, as an alternative theory, is proposed which could explain all the problems with different theories of physics, the main cause of which is space–time concept and resultantly the Big Bang Theory fails. Since it is established that the basic building substance of matter is ‘energy’ and it has to be under the influence of the Universal Creator this energy is converted into the matter. Energy is the name given to the basic substance of which the matter is made up of unlike the meaning as applies in the adopted main-stream physics. During the process of conversion of energy into particles, the particles attained high velocities and collisions of the particles started. These particles in the process of fusion emit radiation which finally have taken the form of Cosmic Background Radiation and under the influence of the conditions created by the Universal Creator and electromagnetic forces in different forms atoms, mainly hydrogen, started forming. Then these atoms under the influence of the gravitation force, which also being an electromagnetic force, started clustering and thereby stars and other astronomical bodies came into existence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1201.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-06 11:43:58*

**Authors:** Paul Hoiland

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A short rethink on the whole C as a constant issue.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1201.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-12 15:31:42*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Added paragraph about energy scale and degrees of freedom.

The duality between entropy and curvature is discussed. The possibility of a gravity-mediated local UV cutoff is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1201.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-03 15:47:59*

**Authors:** Muhammad Adeel Ajaib

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We propose that the early Universe was not Lorentz symmetric and that a gradual transition to the Lorentz symmetric phase occurred. An underlying form of the Dirac equation hints to such a transition for fermions. Fermions were coupled to space-time in a non-trivial manner such that they were massless in the Lorentz violating phase. The partition function is used as a transfer matrix to model this transition on a two level thermodynamics system that describes how such a transition might have occurred. The system that models this transition evolves, with temperature, from a state of large to negligible entropy and this is interpreted as describing the transition to a state with Lorentz symmetry. In addition to this, analogy is created with the properties of this system to describe how the fields were massless and how a baryon asymmetry can be generated in this model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1201.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-05 12:35:57*

**Authors:** Paul Hoiland

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In considering the multiverse idea one comes across the subject of the domain wall that seperates our cosmos from that original false vacuum domain. In general that domain and the wall itself effects the evolution of the cosmos.
But very few direct signatures would result.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1201.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-09 18:23:45*

**Authors:** Chun-Xan Jiang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

using fiang function we study the prime distribution in pythagorean triples

**Category:** Number Theory

[8] **viXra:1201.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-04 12:19:01*

**Authors:** Policarpo Yoshin Ulianov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In 1991, R. D. Witte performed an experiment to observe phase drift between two clusters of atomic clocks linked by a coaxial cable.
Surprisingly, data from Witte observations showed cyclical phase drift variation with a periodicity very close to one sidereal day, in a phenomenon which along the present paper will be called “Witte effect”.
Witte’s data were not accepted for publication, because they seemed to contradict the Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory.
The Witte effect was thus ignored by the prevailing scientific paradigm until 2006, when R. T. Cahill found that the results by the Witte experiment were correct and could be explainable in the context of general relativity, due to an anisotropy in the speed of light that arises from the interaction between gravitational fields.
Initially, Witte effect happens regardless the kind of signal is used to link the atomic clocks, be it RF (as used by Witte himself), light pulses or even bursts of neutrinos.
Associating the OPERA experiment to the one by Witte (theoretically or linking the OPERA clocks with a coaxial cable), initially it will be observed phase drifts that vary according to the sidereal time when the experiment is being performed, a concern that is not known to have been regarded by the physicists designing the OPERA experiment.
In the light of such facts, there are reasons to believe that the Witte effect explains why OPERA’s neutrinos seem to move at speeds above the light speed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1201.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-03 10:39:44*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The gravitational theory is the most accredited theory for explaining black holes. In this paper we present a new interpretation based on the relativistic theory that explains black holes as a consequence of the relativistic speed of departure between the speed of celestial system and the speed of both light and quantum rays at very high energy, calculated with respect to the observer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1201.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-02 10:03:43*

**Authors:** Edmundas Jauniskis

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conclusion: elektron flux is not transferred from the battery minus to plus. As analogy would be contacting vessels with unequal amount of liquid. There is a valve in connection of these vessels and when it is opened, the liquid runs into lower vessel filled with.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1201.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-02 06:30:56*

**Authors:** Hamid Reza Karimi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper an attempt is made to explain how and why the muon neutrinos flow faster than the speed of light in the OPERA neutrino experiment by using the theory of quantized space and time and internal structure of elementary particles derived from a new model of mine [1]. Also this paper shows that:
1-This motion is achieved by two velocities. The first is a speed of
in the time and length quanta. Then there is a velocity greater than that of light in the super dimension.
2-In these tests, muon neutrinos move with a velocity .
Only 23.98 m of this happens in the super dimension [2].

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1201.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-01 21:15:58*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Brain Schmidt is a joint Nobel Prize winner for Physics in 2011. He is an astronomer at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia, at the time of writing. He and his colleagues claim a black hole close binary system in Nova Scorpii. This Open Letter challenges the alleged black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1201.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-13 10:18:25*

**Authors:** N. Murata, Yoja Panchan

**Comments:** 21 Pages. The language of this article is Japanese.

In this paper, the mass derived from the g_equation is assumed to be the mass of quark-lepton, and is used to calculate the masses of the most common elementary particles.
The difference between the calculated results and observed values is within 3%.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1201.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-01 03:59:19*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper you will find a simple demonstration of the Navier-Stokes equation, while, most of times, in books, you find it broken into its vectorial components whose proofs are usually not so clear, so getting confused on the topic. Moreover, in the appendixes, you can also find an original proof of the Stokes’ (rotor) theorem, by the author of this paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1201.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-01 04:01:16*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 19 Pages. In Italian only

In this paper (for the moment only in Italian language - sorry) you can find an explanation of the basic chemical/physical behaviours of matter. In the opinion of the author, this is one of the best example of the power of the Scientific Method, to understand how could the human beings’ minds find the rules of the microscopic world by looking at them from the macroscopic one.

**Category:** Classical Physics