[90] **viXra:1204.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-30 17:26:23*

**Authors:** Keith D. Foote

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Alternative model of gravity.

This description of gravity is based on the Ultra-Space Field Theory. The Ultra-Space Field Theory is an associative field theory model, which describes the behavior patterns of kinetic energy, electrons, positrons, magnetic fields, gravity, and their predictable interactions. Joined positrons and electrons are described as the source of gravity. Additionally, Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity is reexamined and compared with the USF Theory’s model of gravity.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[89] **viXra:1204.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-25 06:41:24*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

in 1976 Jiang found new gravitational formula.
2013nobel physics prize is wrong

**Category:** Astrophysics

[88] **viXra:1204.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-29 17:47:38*

**Authors:** Bichara Sahely

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this short note, the the key to unlocking the secrets of quantum physics will be elucidated by exploring the fundamentals of Schrodinger's wave mechanics approach to describing quantum phenomenon. We will show that de Broglie's wave-particle duality hypothesis which lies at the heart of Schrodinger's wave-function \psi
produces a complex wave equation whose mathematical structure can be described by Euler's famous equation e^{i\theta}=cos(\theta)+isin(\theta)
which basically describes a helical wave in 3D space. By comparing and contrasting the electromagnetic wave with that of a helical wave which Euler's equation represents, we may have discovered the geometric basis for spin and helicity and antimatter with negative energies that Dirac uncovered in his relativistic reformulation of Schrodinger's equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[87] **viXra:1204.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-28 14:29:22*

**Authors:** George Kirakosyan

**Comments:** 22 pages, 10 figures, Article published in HADRONIC JOURNAL

The connection of alpha (α ≈1/137) to redistribution of intensities in interference of circularly polarized waves it has shown. Obtained number coincides to known one in reached accuracy: 10^-10. The photon represented as a quantum wave packet. The electron’s model proposed as Compton’s circularly polarized standing wave. The origins of the mass and static fields (charges) interpreted as a relativistic mass and pseudo static electromagnetic fields (“halos”) arising in interference of quanta. Electron’s magnetic moment and g value obtained with 10^-10 accuracy.
Physical interpretation of de Broglie’s wave is proposed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[86] **viXra:1204.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-28 18:43:37*

**Authors:** Glen Gilchrist

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Obtaining additional computational speed from a central processing unit by means of driving a computer system at clock frequencies higher than the default settings has long been used as a method to inexpensively “boost” the performance of a computer. With the emergence of so called smart-phones and the openness of the Android operating system, such tweaks have recently been applied to mobile handsets. This paper investigates the performance gains to an off the shelf handset with the custom Skatie Rom (C3C0, 2012) via means of a statistically designed experiment. A Taguchi Orthogonal Array was used to investigate 5 factors, each at 3 levels on the performance as measured with Aurora Softworks Quadrant application. Unsurprisingly the core CPU speed had the largest effect on overall performance, but we demonstrate that CPU Governor (lagfree) and the I/O Scheduler (noop) were also significant at p=0.000, whilst the size of the SD Card Cache is significant to p=0.065.

**Category:** Statistics

[85] **viXra:1204.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-10 00:44:58*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Allocation in blue color in the text differs from the published version (see "Conclusion", examples of elliptic integrals)

Here is presented a new type of exact solutions for photogravitational restricted 3-bodies problem (a case of spiral motion). A key point is that we obtain the appropriate specific case of spiral motions from the Jacobian-type integral of motion for photogravitational restricted 3-bodies problem (when orbit of small 3-rd body is assumed to be like a spiral). Besides, we should especially note that there is a proper restriction to the type of spiral orbital motion of small 3-rd body, which could be possible for choosing as the exact solution of equations for photogravitational restricted 3-bodies problem. The main result, which should be outlined, is that in a case of quasi-planar orbital motion (of the small 3-rd body) the asymptotic expression for component z of motion is proved to be given by the proper elliptical integral.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[84] **viXra:1204.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-27 09:27:47*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we will introduce the quasi-isogonal Cevians and we’ll emphasize on
triangles in which the height and the median are quasi-isogonal Cevians.

**Category:** Geometry

[83] **viXra:1204.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-27 09:29:37*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In [1] professor Ion Pătraşcu proves the following theorem:
The Brocard’s point of an isosceles triangle is the intersection of the medians and the
perpendicular bisectors constructed from the vertexes of the triangle’s base, and reciprocal.
We’ll provide below a different proof of this theorem than the proof given in [1] and [2].

**Category:** Geometry

[82] **viXra:1204.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-27 09:42:00*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Seiberg, Witten, and many other string theorists have suggested that superstring theory might lead to spacetime as an emergent approximation. Seiberg-Witten M-theory predicts supersymmetry in the form of particles. If nature is finite and digital and the Rañada-Milgrom effect fully explains so-called dark matter, then supersymmetry might exist in the form of symmetry principles within Wolfram’s mobile automaton. This hypothetical automaton is qualitatively described in Wolfram’s “A New Kind of Science”, Chapter 9. M-theory with the infinite nature hypothesis suggests questions and hypotheses based upon a curling-up (or compactification) of the 11-dimensional fundamental domain. Modified M-theory with the finite nature hypothesis suggests questions and hypotheses based upon a building-up of an approximation to the 11-dimensional domain. This hypothetical approximation is the result of the Wolframian updating parameter gradually building up time, space, and energy from Fredkin-Wolfram information below the Planck scale. If Wolfram is correct, then the monster group and the 6 pariah groups are essential for understanding the foundations of physics. If nature is finite and digital then the precise values of the free parameters of the Standard Model should be completely predictable. Modified M-theory with Wolfram’s automaton might underlie quantum field theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[81] **viXra:1204.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-27 06:21:14*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. English

It is shown, that change of image of heat and work in open systems
entails necessity to revise of conditions of material equilibrium, found
by Gibbs. Thus the chemical potential gives way to other potentials in
conformity with conditions of unambiguity of researched processes.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[80] **viXra:1204.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-27 06:46:41*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 19 Pages. 12 Figures, 8 Tables

This paper develops existing knowledge regarding psi-lines. The minimum size width and length that a psi-line can attain has been re-examined. This has led to a connection to the well established Megalithic Yard and to Feigenbaum’s Constant (δ), which leads to chaos theory and the ability of the mind to interact with space-time and the laws of physics.
Two different types of spiral that terminate psi-lines have been quantified. For example, each has a different orientated entry point, and they have different properties. They are shown to be 3-dimensional helical coaxial bicones with one apex angle involving the Golden Ratio (φ), and the other sine 1/3; both universal angles. The mathematics of the different types of spirals has been explored.
In the course of this research new discoveries have been made regarding the effect on psi-lines of the earth’s gravity, spin, and magnetism. In particular, magnetism has an important effect both on the brain and on the entry point of terminal psi-line spirals. The latter has led to a convincing example of remote macro entanglement.
Key Words
Mind; Consciousness; Psi-lines; Feigenbaum’s Constant; Golden Ratio; Magnetism; Entanglement; Chaos; Structure of the Universe; Cosmic and Subtle Energy; Dowsing.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[79] **viXra:1204.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-26 07:16:21*

**Authors:** Guang-Sheng Chen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we establish local fractional Hilbert transform in fractal space, consider
some properties of local fractional Hilbert Transforms.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[78] **viXra:1204.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-10 03:03:16*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a very severe syndrome leading to respiratory failure and subsequent mortality. Sepsis is the leading cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Thus, extracellular bacteria play an important role in the pathophysiology of ARDS. Overactivated neutrophils are the major effector cells in ARDS. Thus, extracellular bacteria triggered TH17-like innate immunity with neutrophil activation counts for the etiology of ARDS. Here, I use microarray analysis to describe TH17-like innate immunity related cytokine including TGF-β and IL-6 up-regulation in whole blood of ARDS patients. Innate TH17 related TLR1,2,4,5,8, HSP70, G-CSF, GM-CSF, complements, defensin, PMN chemokines, cathepsins, Fc receptors, NCFs, FOS, JunB, CEBPs, NFkB, and leukotriene B4 are all up-regulated. TGF-β secreting Treg cells play important roles in lung fibrosis. Up-regulation of Treg associated STAT5B and TGF-β with down-regulation of MHC genes, TCR genes, and costimulation molecule CD86 are noted. Key TH17 transcription factors, STAT3 and RORα, are down-regulated. Thus, the full adaptive TH17 helper CD4 T cells may not be successfully triggered. Many fibrosis promoting genes are also up-regulated including MMP8, MMP9, FGF13, TIMP1, TIMP2, PLOD1, P4HB, P4HA1, PDGFC, HMMR, HS2ST1, CHSY1, and CSGALNACT. Failure to induce successful adaptive immunity could also attribute to ARDS pathogenesis. Thus, ARDS is actually a TH17-like and Treg immune disorder.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[77] **viXra:1204.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-29 19:08:22*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Clean up of reference [7] in bibliography, spelling Mishra's name correctly, plus removal of typos

Makes linkage between electro weak information and present day information in terms of a T duality between Gravitinos and Gravitons. Elucidates how information content as underlined by Mach's principle in the electro weak to present era as being similar in information storage with respect to gravitinos ( EW ), and Gravitons (today). Motivation is to provide a reason for why the Plancks constant and fine structure constant remain invariant rather than change over time, as suggested by Dirac and others .

**Category:** Astrophysics

[76] **viXra:1204.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-27 01:19:55*

**Authors:** Mohammed Alzain Mohammed Ali

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We argue that the entropic origin of gravitation correctly reproduced general relativity and quantum mechanics, with a particular
treatment, where entropic gravity can be viewed as Maxwell's theory of gravity and thermodynamics. And this application will give us
more detailed knowledge on the origin of gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[75] **viXra:1204.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-23 14:19:54*

**Authors:** Malcolm H. Mac Gregor

**Comments:** 33 pages, 15 figures

The experimental lifetime systematics of the 36 long-lived quark and particle metastable ground states is displayed graphically on a logarithmic global alpha-grid spaced in powers of the fine structure constant alpha ~ 1/137 and centered on the pi± lifetime. The hadron lifetimes separate into four non-overlapping lifetime groups, each dominated by a single quark flavor. These in turn divide into slow flavor-breaking electroweak decays and fast flavor-conserving paired-quark and radiative decays, separated by alpha^4 lifetime gaps. The long-lived electroweak subgroups feature contral lifetime (CL) bands that map onto the alpha-grid lines, plus particles that are displaced by factors of 2, 3 or 4 from the CL. The quark lifetime dominance rule is c > b > s. The neutron and muon lifetimes lie on the global alpha-grid. The tauon lifetime fits into the c-quark lifetime group.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[74] **viXra:1204.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-05 13:18:22*

**Authors:** Steven Snyder

**Comments:** 158 Pages. 158

To date, a unification is needed with the application of Planck units which unifies not only the force of Newtonian gravity with the electromagnetic force, and the strong and weak nuclear forces, but also one which includes quantum field theory and relativity. Herein, a unification as such is accomplished in which the mathematical terms of the conventional fields and the corresponding forces are unified into one general function in Planck units, and the geometry (including internal structure) and functionality of certain aspects of the respective unified field constructed therefrom are described. Accordingly, the geometry and functionality of the unified field are applied for describing certain aspects of electromagnetic, gravitational, and nuclear interaction along with certain aspects of elementary particles (including antiparticles), atoms, molecules, and, at the macroscopic scale, certain aspects of astronomical bodies such as black holes, and, ultimately, certain aspects of the Universe as a whole (including dark matter, dark energy, and the big bang).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[73] **viXra:1204.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-25 21:19:54*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

gravity is a great mysery.no one has since given any machinery. in this paper we give a simple machinery.gravity is the tachyon entripetal force

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[72] **viXra:1204.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-22 15:10:05*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this invented transformer, a compensating coil is series connected with the secondary coil in opposite polarity. The magnetomotive forces generated by the loading current in the secondary coil and the compensating coil are cancelled out. The power can be delivered with zero input current in the primary coil when the turn number of secondary coil is the same as that of compensating coil. When a boost coil is added to the compensating coil, the input current in primary coil is phase inverted relative to its input voltage. A magnetic shunt is added to adjust the flux leakage of this transformer.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[71] **viXra:1204.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-21 07:12:50*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We present easy to understand mathematical disproof of Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity on the first page of this paper and discuss why all the so called existing “proofs” of Special Relativity are incorrect. We are in agreement with Dr. D. Sasso that “Special Relativity is obsolete.” See www.k1man.com/k

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[70] **viXra:1204.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-22 21:52:37*

**Authors:** Valery Skorobogatov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. There was no one picture

The analysis of the Lorentz transformation shows that it is the result of the rotation and translation in the ordinary Euclidean 4D space and therefore it is the transformation of Galileo in the essence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[69] **viXra:1204.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-18 13:14:24*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, R. Sujatha, R. S. Raja Duray

**Comments:** 162 Pages.

In this book the notions of erasure techniques to MRD codes and concatenated MRD codes are introduced.
Special type of concatenated supercodes using linear codes are given, which may find its application in networking.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[68] **viXra:1204.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-18 13:24:29*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The study is based on the following hypothesis with practical foundation:
- Premise 1 - if two members of university on two continents meet on the Internet and initiate interdisciplinary scientific communication;
- Premise 2 - subsequently, if within the curricular interests they develop an academic scientific collaboration;
- Premise 3 - if the so-called collaboration integrates the interests of other members of the university;
- Premise 4 - finally, if the university allows, accepts, validates and promotes such an approach;
- Conclusion: then it means the university as a system (the global academic system) has, and it is, exerting a potential function to provide communication, collaboration and integration of research and of academic scientific experience.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[67] **viXra:1204.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-18 18:13:41*

**Authors:** Glen A. Baxter

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We show what is fundamentally wrong with so called experimental proofs of Special Relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[66] **viXra:1204.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-18 23:12:33*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Our Universe can be described by an Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT) that is the Completion of the Union of all Tensor Products of a Building Block. This Fundamental Building Block can be embedded in the Real Clifford Algebra Cl(8,8). By the 8-Periodicity Property of Real Clifford Algebras, all Tensor Products of it are themselves Real Clifford Algebras, and the Completion of the Union of all Tensor Products is well-behaved and constitutes a generalized hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor AQFT. The purpose of this paper is to describe the structure of this Fundamental Building Block and its physical interpretation. The Fundamental Building Block is the Maximal Contraction of the E8 Lie Algebra that lives inside Cl(8,8). Since it leads to an AQFT, it is called the E8 Quantum Contraction (E8QC).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[65] **viXra:1204.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-18 09:37:00*

**Authors:** Rajesh Singh, Sachin Malik, A. A. Adewara, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the present study, we propose estimators based on geometric and harmonic mean
for estimating population mean using information on two auxiliary attributes in simple
random sampling. We have shown that, when we have multi-auxiliary attributes, estimators
based on geometric mean and harmonic mean are less biased than Olkin (1958), Naik and
Gupta (1996) and Singh (1967) type- estimator under certain conditions. However, the MSE
of Olkin( 1958) estimator and geometric and harmonic estimators are same up to the first
order of approximation.

**Category:** Statistics

[64] **viXra:1204.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-17 19:29:00*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this paper I will prove that oscillations are a basis for all the Universe, for all its essence and for all its existence. The showing up of a particle-antiparticle pair corresponds to the expansion of a small spring, while the next getting closer of those two particles in the pair, and its annihilation, is a recontracting and releasing of that small spring.
The showing up and the annihilation, on a small scale, correspond to the expansion and recontraction of the Universe, on a large scale. And here I also prove that, as chance would have it, either atomic systems (made of + and – particles), or the gravitational ones (such as the solar system or the Universe itself) unequivocally follow the Hooke’s Law, so they behave like springs! Therefore, the Universe is a large spring which oscillates between a Big Bang and a Big Crunch.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1204.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-18 06:01:16*

**Authors:** Sosale Chandrasekhar

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The key assumption of activated complex theory (ACT), that the AC is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the reactants, needs to be reconsidered. This is because the formation of the AC is slower than its collapse to product. However, this can be remedied by assuming that the AC is formed in a rapid pre-equilibrium as a thermally activated species, which collapses to products in a slow step involving the diffusion of another AC molecule (or solvent in the case of a unimolecular reaction). This implies a violation of the principle of microscopic reversibility (PMR), as also the relation between standard free energy change and equilibrium constant (ΔGo = -RTlnK). However, it may be argued that not only do these not apply to processes performed irreversibly, but also that irreversibility requires the breakdown of the PMR. Accordingly, catalysts may alter equilibrium constants, and enzymes may regulate biochemical processes in hitherto unsuspected ways.

**Category:** Chemistry

[62] **viXra:1204.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-22 12:28:39*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 5 pages

We propose novel technique for detecting gravitational waves using facilities at LIGO with certain changes and additions in the present setup. We suggest replacing the perfectly reflecting mirrors fixed at the ends of the arms of interferometer by exactly identical photo detectors. We propose to use high energy laser to ensure well defined quantized form for the radiation. We make provision to determine maximality of incident intensity of light packet falling on the photo detector and further make provision to check whether this peak intensity is simultaneous in reaching both the detectors. Simultaneity of reaching of peak intensity is used to provide high inputs to something like logical AND gate. These provisions like logical AND gate will be sending high output if and when peak intensity will hit both the photo detectors simultaneously. This high output of logical AND will be used to operate a counter to go one count up. We suggest utilizing the simultaneous arrival of light packets with exactly equal peak intensity at detector to give an up count in the counter. These light packets are running in two orthogonal arms, originally emerged from a pulsed laser source and split into two beams by beam splitter, We propose to measure counts that will be shown by the counter after a sufficiently long interval of time. Now, if over this sufficiently long period any gravitational waves will pass through the apparatus they will cause stretching and squeezing of interferometer arms in a reciprocal way and the pulses directed towards photo detectors from beam splitter will not reach these detectors simultaneously with exactly equal peak intensity. This will be causing turning on of the logical AND lesser number of times leading in effect to lesser number of counts that will be recorded by the counter. From this record of lesser number of counts, less than the expected number when no gravitational waves reach the apparatus, we can conclusively infer that gravitational waves have certainly passed through the apparatus! Instead of laser one may consider using a well regulated uniform beam of particles, like electrons, to fall on beam splitters with relevant replacements in the detection apparatus in place of perfectly reflecting mirrors and again using same methodology for the detection.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[61] **viXra:1204.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-17 09:06:11*

**Authors:** Berker Husam

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Vol.3, IJSER, March 2012

Focusing incoming coherent light to infinitesimally small spot with hologram and micro-sized aperture configuration reported. The design uses the optical Fourier transform in far field with Fraunhofer approximation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[60] **viXra:1204.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-16 19:05:40*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Considering the `molar electron mass' an attempt is made to study the 4 interactions in a unified manner. Charged leptons, nucleons and (integral charge) quark masses were fitted in a unified scheme. Based on the modified SUSY, Higgs charged fermion, its boson and the quark baryon and quark meson masses were fitted. Finally an attempt is made to fit and predict the new excited levels of the bottom and anti bottom mesons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[59] **viXra:1204.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-16 20:55:43*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Schizophrenia is a very common psychiatric disorder. However, its etiology and pathogenesis is still unknown. Current theory saying that neurotransmitter imbalance such as serotonin or dopamine only provides limited effectiveness in schizophrenia treatment by drugs changing serotonin and dopamine concentration. Despite of such treatment, majority of schizophrenia patients still have very poor prognosis. Thus, the neurotransmitter imbalance theory is not correct. Here, I propose that schizophrenia is actually a TH2 dominant autoimmune disorder. The candidate of autoantigen could be acetylcholine receptors of CNS. My theory can explain the positive as well as negative symptoms of schizophrenia. By microarray analysis of PBMCS, one-tenth of the total 519 significantly expressed genes are immune-related genes. Among them, TH2 related genes are significantly up-regulated including IL-4, histidine decarboxylase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, CCR9, IgE Fc receptor, GATA2, serotonin receptor, phospholipase A2, and prostaglandin D2 synthase. Besides, TH1 and TH17 related genes are down-regulated including CXCL5, cathepsin C, and neutrophil related S100 binding proteins. The new theory sheds a light to better control this detrimental illness. Anti-inflammatory agents could be used to manage schizophrenia in the near future.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[58] **viXra:1204.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-16 08:12:27*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The paper, based on the relativity of electric potential and the new Gauss’s law of electric field [1]，has obtained the equation for the distribution of electric field of basic electric charges and the relational expression for the energy of electric field, i. e. the equation for energy of electric charges. It is indicated that net residual electric charges have energy much higher than atomic energy. At the same time, it has resolved the problem of the divergence of electrons and electric field induced by current Coulomb’s law, and given new explanation for the concept of negative energy. It has enriched our understanding on energy. The equation for the relation between Planck’s constant and electric potential has been gotten.
Keywords：relativity of electromotive space-time；relativity of electric potential；new Gauss’s law of electric field；energy of electric charges，net residual energy of electric charges；equation for energy of electric charges；negative energy；negative kinetic energy; limit electric potential；limit of electric potential；equation for the relation between Planck’s constant and electric potential

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:1204.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-16 08:18:31*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based on the relativity of complex electromotive time-space, the paper deduced that the frequency of electromagnetic wave is related not only to the relative velocity of the reference system, but also to the potential of the reference system, that is, the effect of frequency shift. The redshift effect of ele3ctric potential and Doppler effect of the special relativity are its special cases. The redshift effect of electric potential is a new redshift, and plays an important role in cosmology.
Keywords：relativity of complex electromotive time-space；effect of frequency shift；complex motion；redshift effect of electric potential；Doppler effect

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:1204.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-16 08:31:26*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The relativity of electromotive space-time[1] expanded the space-time conception of the special relativity, and go some important result, of them, there are net residual electric charges—a form of existence of energy, lenticular effect of electric potential, redshift effect of electric potential, etc. They are all closely related to astrophysics. Therefore, according to these new physical effects, the author put forward the assumption that there exist possibly great number of net residual electric charges in our universe, which is shorten as assumption of electric universe. On the basis of the assumption, new explanation has been given for important astrophysical phenomena in universe such as redshift, radiation of microwave background, redshift of quasar, dark matter and dark energy, etc. Some new astrophysical phenomena such as evaporation effect of mass—electric charges have been predicted. Experimental methods to verify the assumption have been also given. The paper deals with the preliminary application of the relativity of electromotive space-time in cosmology.
Keywords: electric cosmos; assumption of electric universe；relativity of electromotive space-time; energy of net residual electric charges; redshift effect of electric potential；electric potential-cosmos redshift effect；lenticular effect of electric potential；evaporation effect of mass and electric charges；star of electric potential；dark matter；dark energy; telescope of electric potential

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1204.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-16 13:54:30*

**Authors:** Igor Elkin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

All theories of mechanics, using the speed of light in the calculations are based on using only the isotropic speed of light.Since it is believed that the experiment with an anisotropic velocitywill give the same result, so you can use only the isotropic version of the speed of light. It is shown that the error in a statement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1204.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-16 04:51:42*

**Authors:** Sosale Chandrasekhar

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Intriguing questions from the early history of quantum theory (QT) raise serious doubts about the accepted theory of black body radiation. (The Planck theory builds on the apparently flawed Rayleigh-Jeans approach.) Furthermore, the validity of the theory of diffraction, the basis of the wave theory of radiation and matter, seems uncertain. Together, these raise fundamental questions about the foundations of QT and its current status. The apparently symbiotic relationship between QT and the theory of atomic and molecular structure, a key paradigm of modern scientific thought, may be a misleading indicator of the validity of QT. The protocols deriving from the Schrödinger equation lead to quantized states, but only along with certain assumptions. It is argued that QT applies uniquely to the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter, and that its scope is not universal: thus, it is best regarded as a quasi-empirical formalism. It is possible that the uncertainty surrounding QT is a legacy of the troubled historical period during which it was founded. This apparently has fascinating implications for the history and philosophy of science in general.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[53] **viXra:1204.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-15 20:09:07*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We establish Santilli-Jiang isonumber theory based on the generalization of unit and zero.

**Category:** Number Theory

[52] **viXra:1204.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-15 13:32:52*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

The basic elementary constituent of the physical Universe is discovered. It is a dynamic bipolar relation of opposites (+/-) as a basic elementary building unit of matter, energy, space and time.
Energy being a motion has its basic manifestation in attraction and repulsion of opposites. Without acceptance of bipolarity principle of matter (space, energy) it is impossible to discover how matter and space are structured and constructed. As matter is spatial and space is material, so the elementary structural unit of space is at the same as the elementary building block of matter (energy). This simple fact has not been accepted by theoretical physic so far and the search for the essence of matter is far from the correct direction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[51] **viXra:1204.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-15 13:36:20*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is shown why black holes cannot exist and given the reason for repulsive forces which prevent gravitational collapse their creation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1204.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-15 14:07:58*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Three cosmologists were awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in physics for their “discovery” that the speed of cosmic expansion accelerates. This acceleration was deduced from observations showing that very distant supernovas look fainter and therefore, more distant than they should be by constant or decelerating cosmic expansion. But this interpretation is wrong and based on the misleading dogma that the light always moves towards us by a constant speed c.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1204.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-15 10:21:49*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

: In the short article I discuss a possible way to replace warp drive with an artificial wormhole generated around a craft in motion and thus use the ability of the wormhole to shorten distance between two points in space-time to replace a warp drive’s field effect. I also suggest just how such a field could be generated in the first place.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1204.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-15 03:27:47*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The paper discussed the basic effect of the relativity of electromotive space-time [1], i.e., the principle of quaternion electromotive superposition, effect of time expansion, effect of space contraction and their major particular cases, and put forward several prediction, testing method for the effect of time expansion of scalar electric potential for testing through experiment. At the same time, the equation to calculate the limit electric potential on the basis of experimental data was proposed. The paper is one on the basic effect of the author’s serial papers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1204.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-15 12:37:30*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The paper discussed in detail the covariant relation between relativity of electric potential and Maxwell equations, deduced new Maxwell equations. At the same time, the equation of relation between the velocity of light and the electric potential has been got, and two new physic effects, i.e., lenticular effect and frequency effect of electric potential, have been found. In addition, the paper has deduced the relation between electric potential and electromagnetic physic quantity of capacitance, resistance inductance. It is indicated that the present Maxwell equations are the approximation of the new Maxwell equations and tenable only under conditions of low electric potential. The paper is the fourth one of the serial papers of the author.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1204.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-09 12:43:59*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper is an updated version, the original paper published http://vixra.org in 2012 . Their titles are not exactly the same.

Through discussion on the physical meaning of the rapidity in the special relativity, this paper arrived at the conclusion that the rapidity is the ratio between absolute speed and the speed of light in vacuum. At the same time, the mathematical relations amongst rapidity, relative speed, and absolute speed were derived. In addition, through the use of the new definition of rapidity, the Lorentz transformation in special relativity can be expressed using the absolute speed of Newtonian mechanics, and be applied to high energy physics.
Keywords: rapidity; relative speed; absolute speed; special theory of relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1204.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-14 22:16:49*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The theory of the relativity of electromotive space-time is to study the transform of time and space of two electromotive inertial reference systems (with inertial movement and electric potential difference). It is a fundamental theory of theoretic physics based on the experimental facts of Einstein’s special relativity and the inversion proportional law of Coulomb’s force. It founded new physical space-time conception, i.e., space-time is composed of quaternion space and time and proposed some new basic concepts of physics, such as limit electric potential, quaternion potential etc., revealing the inherent relationship between electric potential—velocity and time—space. This paper discussed in detail the process of establishment of complex variable electromotive space-time relativity and quaternion electromotive space-time relativity as well as their various conversion forms. The paper is one on the basic theory of the author’s serial papers.
Keyword: theory of the relativity of electromotive space-time; theory of complex variable electromotive space-time relativity; quaternion electromotive space-time relativity; theory of the relativity of electric potential; special relativity; limit of electric potential; complex velocity; complex electric potential; quaternion velocity; quaternion electric potential; quaternion

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1204.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-14 12:14:30*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this short article one is confronted with some basic facts about global warming and with the one key area most of those in the Global Warming Camp's never mention or discuss.

**Category:** Climate Research

[43] **viXra:1204.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-14 12:23:30*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Thank you.

In the general relativity theory, in the Rindler’s coordinate theory, find the present accelerated theory’s problem, resurface Rindler’s coordinate theory that used the tetrad on the new method.The theory’s concept is that save Rindler’s coordinate transformation in the other way.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[42] **viXra:1204.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-14 09:23:39*

**Authors:** Ray Fleming

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The existing theory of the weak interaction has some troublesome issues with conservation of energy and limited range. Beta decay theory would be more complete if there were a mechanism that places the electron or positron decay product farther from the proton or neutron so that they would not be immediately reabsorbed. This is readily accomplished by a Hawking radiation type interaction between a virtual electron-positron pair and a proton or neutron and this type of interaction readily accounts for each form of beta decay.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[41] **viXra:1204.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-13 11:04:47*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We describe electromagnetic energy as a follow up to the author’s THE ANTI-NEUTRON MODEL OF THE ATOM. See www.k1man.com/c2 We identify the exact source and reason for “quantum” in quantum mechanics. A radio wave is continuous emissions, while light, X, and gamma are discrete because of the sudden deceleration of the electrons (inside the atom) when quickly stopping and thus generating electromagnetic emissions as electrons change energy states within the atom or inside the nucleus. That would explain a lot! Those "bursts" of electromagnetic energy are the "photon" (Planck/Einstein) bundles of energy, quite different from a mostly continuous (but kind of sudden accelerations/decelerations at the positive and negative peaks) of radio waves. But how do the "photons" interfere with one another? And how do the "photons" diffract? Quite important is the general view of E = MC^2, which the author has disproved as a general law for ALL matter in www.k1man.com/c1 E = MC^2 is/might be approximate for annihilation, as described in www.k1man.com/c2
This new approach will better address the "particle" wave duality quantum mechanics mystery.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[40] **viXra:1204.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-12 21:56:04*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This note identifies similarities between the cordus conjecture and string theory, and suggests opportunity for new research directions. To fully define a cordus particule requires 11 geometric independent-variables. This is the same number of dimensions predicted by some variants of string theory. There is also a similarity in the structural models, e.g. for the photon. The cordus model is physically descriptive and built with conceptual-design principles, whereas string theory provides a family of abstract mathematical models. Perhaps they are describing the same thing from different perspectives? Therefore we invite string theorists to consider whether the orthogonal spatial dimensions in their models could instead be interpreted as geometric independent-variables. Doing so would create new ways for interpreting string theories. Perhaps string theory might yet be a tool for the development of physically meaningful explanations for fundamental physics?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[39] **viXra:1204.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-12 21:15:39*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In $ a^2+b^2=c^2$ there are infinitely many primes a and c solutions.The generalized Pythagoren triples:$(a1)^2+(b1)^2+...+(bn)^2=(cn)^2 $ has infinitely many integer solutions.There are infinitely many primes a1=p such that c1,...
cn are all prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[38] **viXra:1204.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-12 21:49:32*

**Authors:** Mark Burgin, Joseph E. Brenner

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

Operators, as both conceptual and physical entities, are found throughout the world as a common feature of human mind, nature and society. As a reflection, operators are the basic tool in physics, quantum chemistry and genetics, playing an important role in other sciences. Operators, and what they operate, their substrates, targets or operands, have a wide variety of forms, functions and properties. We systematize and study operators which range from the most abstract formal structures and symbols in mathematics and standard logic to real entities, human and non-human, and are responsible for effecting changes at both the individual and social level. The emphasis of this paper is on the analysis and characterization of relations between natural operators and operators in science. This allows us to explain the success of the operator approach in physics.
By focusing on the nature and properties of operators in science and technology, we also acquire a possibility to achieve a more rigorous logical discussion of cognitive processes in the knowledge-centered information society. In this paper, we build an extensive classification of operators, demonstrate abundance of natural operators, explain how information operates in nature, analyze operators as a theoretical tool and describe to what extent a machine can be an operator. Studying self-operation, we explicate common features of several important phenomena, such as self-organization, self-regulation and self-management. Among our conclusions, we conjecture that the natural-social operator split provides a key criterion for determining what entities may be considered autonomous, morally responsible agents.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[37] **viXra:1204.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-12 10:43:16*

**Authors:** Wilber Valgusbitkevyt

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Finished solving it.

The proof for Goldbach's Conjecture is applicable here.

**Category:** Number Theory

[36] **viXra:1204.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-20 06:08:09*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Neutrinos-faster-than-light? The science-battle is not yet over! ‘Yes’, said the OPERA-team in September 22 2011. ‘No’, said the ICARUS-team in February 23 2012. But this paper carries on that it is undoubtedly correct that neutrinos can go faster-than-light. Neutrinos can only do that in neutrino-pairs: I call these pairs Duonistic Neutrinos! This paper presents the set of equations to prove that. The smallest gravity-acceleration g’ appears to be prior to the trajectory of single packaged neutrinos. OPERA and ICARUS might be right both in the end.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[35] **viXra:1204.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-11 01:53:23*

**Authors:** Alexander V. Pozdnyakov

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Russian

The microscopic model of detonation in condensed state is suggested. Nonempirical equations for detonation velocity and detonation pressure of individual explosive in con-densed state at theoretical density were deduced on the basis of this model. It is shown a good coincidence of experimental and calculated data that is not worse than in well-known models with Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson and Lennard-Jones-Devonshire equations of state.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[34] **viXra:1204.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-25 20:54:37*

**Authors:** Valery Skorobogatov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. There are sime unobjectionable errors

On the basis of the model of 4D matter it is shown that the effect in the experiment made by Michelson and Morley in 1887 is of the third order with respect to the ratio of the velocity of the motion to the speed of light, but not of the second order as it is accepted to consider mow.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1204.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-10 16:12:48*

**Authors:** Shekman Arieh

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Abstract. This article presents the shortest possible proof of Fermat's Last Theorem of any that have ever been published. It might be the one that Fermat had hinted about in his copy of Diophanti's Arithmetic Book.

**Category:** Number Theory

[32] **viXra:1204.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-10 16:25:49*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 4 Pages. English + Italian.

Often, and especially in the last days, there is who talks about a Universe which appears from “nothing”; but does talking about nothing make any sense? Moreover, is it possible to imagine a perfect nothing? We will see that it’s exactly in those questions that one can find the legitimation for the Universe and for the physical consistency of its existence.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[31] **viXra:1204.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-10 17:00:34*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper we show as the lightest Higgs boson, is directly linked to the existence of seven dimensions compacted
Kaluza-Klein type, and four extended. The model of a particle in a box allows us to calculate, using the extra dimensions
as entries in the well-known equations of this model, the mass of the lightest Higgs boson. This estimate coincides with
complete accuracy with that obtained in our previous work, "God and His Creation: The Universe", using the well known
quantum mechanical model of a particle in a spherically symmetric potential. Both load match and result in a mass for
the lightest Higgs boson of 126.23 Gev - 126.17 Gev

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30] **viXra:1204.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-10 19:04:05*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The anomalous heat production detected in Ni-H systems was recently explained based on the fact that electromagnetic fields of extremely-low frequencies (ELF) can increase the intensities of gravitational forces and overcome the intensity of the electrostatic repulsion forces, producing nuclear fusion reactions. This effect can provide a consistent and coherent explanation for anomalous heat production detected in Ni-H Systems, and shows that a Ni-H System can be easily transformed into a Hydrogen bomb. Here, a Ni-H bomb of 20 kilotons is engineered.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29] **viXra:1204.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-11 03:11:43*

**Authors:** Alessandro Forcella

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this article I show a relatively simple system that can provide
a net power that comes from the atmospheric pressure. The system uses
the pressure of a water column, and two other external devices to
create a cycle that has a net power output. The potential use of such
system is probably limited by many technical factors, but the system
serves as an example of how power can be extracted continuously from
the atmosphere.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[28] **viXra:1204.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-11 03:14:37*

**Authors:** Alessandro Forcella

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This is a study of a relatively simple system that seems to provide
an energy output greater than the visible energy input thanks to the
extraction of energy from the surrounding atmosphere. This is a theoretical
study, no experiments with real systems of this type has been performed
by the author. The idea of this system is the possibility of using
hydrostatic pressure to obtain compressed air to be used in various
ways, however the source of energy is not the water pressure but the
atmospheric pressure.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[27] **viXra:1204.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-11 08:21:19*

**Authors:** Herman Holushko

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper describes a simple experiment on detecting gyroscopic thrust demonstrated by Prof. Eric Laithwaite in 1974. In this experiment the gyroscope suspended on the line by one end of its rotation axis was deflecting from the pivot point during precession. In addition to the original setup the author has isolated the gyroscope from surrounding air and conducted a video recording of the experiment from two positions simultaneously. The recording of gyroscope position and orientation allowed author to determine the trajectory of the gyroscope and analyze the deflection dependency on gyroscope orientation. The results of this analysis indicate the existence of the external force acting on the gyroscope and causing the increase or decrease in linear momentum. It is suggested that the force is a result of the difference in aether pressure in front and at the back of the gyroscope rotor.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[26] **viXra:1204.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-09 08:40:23*

**Authors:** Fang Chen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this work, we continue to present some interesting problems in the Transylvanian Hungarian Mathematical Competition held in 2012.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[25] **viXra:1204.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-09 15:28:31*

**Authors:** Eric S Reiter

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Available on author's unquantum.net website and at uspto.gov since 2008

A quantum mechanical particle should go one way or the other at a beam splitter. We test this notion using the 5.5 MeV alpha-ray (He++) emitted singly from Americium-241 in spontaneous decay, a thin gold foil beam-splitter, and two surface barrier detectors. Coincident detection should only occur by chance, at an easily calculated rate. However, the method at hand shows coincident pulse rates greatly exceeding chance. In most cases the pulse heights in the two detectors past the beam splitter will add to the full height of an un-split alpha-ray. One might think the alpha was split into components. However, the available kinetic energy is far below the binding energy threshold required to perform such a split in either helium or the gold. We conclude the alpha matter-wave was split like a wave, in violation of quantum mechanics. The degree above chance was found to be a function of the gold alloy.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[24] **viXra:1204.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-31 14:50:37*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Key Words: KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory, Hamilton formalism, Yarkovsky effect, photogravitational restricted three-body problem, Jacobian-type integral of motion

Here are presented a key points of criticism of KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory in the application of main results to the field of celestial mechanics, especially in the case of restricted three-body problem.
The main paradox of KAM-theory is that an appropriate Hamilton formalism should be valid for the KAM dynamical systems, but Hamilton formalism could not be applied for restricted three-body problem (which is proved to have only the Jacobian-type integral of motion, but the integrals of energy, momentum are not invariants).
Besides, we should especially note that there is no analogue of Jacobian-type integral of motion in the case of photogravitational restricted three-bodt problem if we take into consideration even a negligible Yarkovsky effect.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[23] **viXra:1204.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-08 14:42:29*

**Authors:** Wilber Valgusbitkevyt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Reverse Modus Ponens followed by set theory using lines followed by considering the maximum number of colours that can be used using graph homomorphism.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[22] **viXra:1204.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-09 05:04:51*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 20 Pages. In Russian

The difficulties which have arisen on a way of generalisation of thermodynamics
on open polyvariant systems and irreversible processes are analyzed. The conclusion
about necessity of working out more general phenomenological theory considering
specificity of real processes in non-uniform systems, far from equilibrium becomes
(Кратко анализируются трудности, возникшие на пути обобщения термодинамики на открытые поливариантные системы и необратимые процессы. Делается вывод о необходимости разработки более общей феноменологической теории, учитывающей специфику реальных процессов в неоднородных системах, далеких от равновесия)

**Category:** Classical Physics

[21] **viXra:1204.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-07 01:30:00*

**Authors:** Sosale Chandrasekhar

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The earth’s gravity can be viewed as the centripetal force resulting from the coupling of its rotational and orbital motions. These motions were (presumably) set in train in the early universe, when the solar system formed from a spinning nebula. The original angular momentum of the nebula has (apparently) been largely conserved during the subsequent evolution of the solar system. In an idealized (frictionless) system, involving the circulation of an object around a centre at constant velocity, a centripetal force is exerted by the object towards the centre; in the case of the coupled rotational-orbital motion of the earth, the centripetal force would be directed towards its own centre. The law of conservation of angular momentum requires that the circulation continue ad infinitum in the absence of an external force. The gravity apparently experienced by objects approaching the earth, and the variation of gravity with latitude are explicable by extending the above ideas. (The estimated value of the above centripetal acceleration on the earth is 1.4x102 ms-2, which compares reasonably with the observed value of g of 9.8 ms-2, considering the approximations employed.)

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20] **viXra:1204.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-27 03:48:28*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** Portuguese. 88 pages. Version 2 has previous misprints corrected. Complete version in English with important derivations is being prepared.

Conforme aqui se explanará, resolvem-se as equações de campo da relatividade geral no contexto cosmológico com a inserção de um novo argumento quântico para o substrato cosmológico: o princípio de indeterminação de Heisenberg. A solução obtida naturalmente provê um \textit{cutoff} para a temperatura cósmica de fundo nos promórdios do universo, levando à mínima entropia inicial. Ademais, a solução que aqui se obtém concorda com as observações cosmológicas, e.g., prevê a correta temperatura cósmica de fundo atual e a densidade crítica observada, esta tendo explicação dentro da solução obtida, ainda que se preveja um universo de topologia espacial aberta, hiperbólica, para o setor do tipo espaço (\textit{slices} temporais do continuum $4$-dimensional).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1204.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-10 17:50:44*

**Authors:** Gubin Veaceslav

**Comments:** 2 pages

ABSTRACT
The calculated values of the ratio of vacuum energy (dark energy - 0.7160) and unobservable matter (dark matter - 0.2140) in a combined FRW metric ( static de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes with equal values of curvature radius – Friedman, A.A. periodical from minus to plus infinity time un-static Universe )

**Category:** Astrophysics

[18] **viXra:1204.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-19 13:18:12*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, understand Rindler coordinate theory that used the tetrad and it expand to be the new Rindler coordinate theory of the accelerated observer that has the initial velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1204.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-12 09:03:04*

**Authors:** Wilber Valgusbitkevyt

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Rewrote after Latex tutorials

For all even numbers 2X >= 4, if X >= 4, there exists a prime number X - A always such that X + A is also a prime number. For X = 2 and 3, 2X is 2 + 2 and 3 + 3. Hence, Goldbach Conjecture is true.

**Category:** Number Theory

[16] **viXra:1204.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-05 15:36:42*

**Authors:** Fang Chen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this work, we present some interesting problems in the Transylvanian Hungarian Mathematical Competition held in 2012.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[15] **viXra:1204.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-05 03:07:16*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 7 pages.

In this paper we obtain a new polynomial time algorithm for testing isomorphism of graphs. This algorithm is based on the idea of associating a rooted, unordered, pseudo tree with given graphs and thus reducing the isomorphism problem for graphs to isomorphism problems for associated rooted, unordered, pseudo trees. We show that isomorphism of the rooted, unordered, pseudo trees associated with graphs and so in effect isomorphism of given two graphs can be tested in polynomial (quadratic) time.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[14] **viXra:1204.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-05 03:17:19*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper proves that there is no black hole binary in Nova Scorpii. It was published in The Journal for Fundamental Physics and Chemistry in March 2012. It contains no mathematics and is written for a general audience so that any logical person can understand it let alone astronomers and physicists. Schmidt, who claims a black hole binary in Nova Scorpii is at the Australian National University and is a joint Nobel Prize winner for physics for 2011.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1204.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-03 12:14:35*

**Authors:** V.A. Etkin

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Russian

Attempts to define concept of energy are discussed and possibility to
return its like to primary sense of a working capacity measure is proved
Обсуждаются попытки определить понятие энергии и обосновывается возможность
вернуть ей близкий к изначальному смысл меры работоспособности системы

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12] **viXra:1204.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-04 03:08:58*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 7 pages.

We suggest two possible experiments to verify the mysterious passing of single photon through both the slits simultaneously. The first experiment aims to measure polarization of photons reaching the screen using polarization detectors fixed on the screen on both sides of the midway line made up of locus of points equidistant from both the slits and further using two types of synchronization setups. Again, using the same two types of synchronization setups, we suggest the second experiment which is based on a simple idea, justified by uncertainty principle. We suggest that we can distinguish between photons that have definitely gone through both the slits simultaneously and those other photons that have gone only through any single slit, either through the one on the left side or through the other on the right side, at a time. We fix in the second experiment photon detectors on the screen on both sides of the midway line made up of locus of points equidistant from both the slits. These experiments aim at achieving experimental confirmation for complementarity principle due to N. Bohr.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1204.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-11 13:33:07*

**Authors:** Christopher A. Laforet

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

The Universe is currently thought to be governed by four fundamental forces: Gravity, electromagnetism, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear. These forces are currently described using two incompatible theories: Quantum Mechanics, which describes the electromagnetic, strong, and weak forces, and General Relativity, which describes gravity. These theories are incompatible due to the fact that the model of gravity from General Relativity falls apart on the sub-atomic scales which Quantum Mechanics describes. This paper describes a mechanism for a repulsive force which is based on the Doppler effect of Special Relativity in which geodesics of Space-time have wavelike properties. Aside from the fundamental forces, the second law of Thermodynamics, expansion of the Universe, dark matter, and the results of the double slit experiment from quantum mechanics are examined in the context of this repulsive force. Furthermore, the Newtonian law of universal gravitation is shown to follow from the theory for near-earth low speed conditions, and the nature of the magnetic field is shown to be the result of the ordered motion of high-speed bodies (with no requirement for a separate electric charge property). The orbital structure of the atom is discussed and explained using this new model. Finally, the Universe is shown to have a fractal nature as a result of this model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1204.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-04 14:58:56*

**Authors:** Wilber Valgusbitkevyt

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Further elaboration on Victoria Hayanisel Theorems were explained.

In this paper, I am creating three new theorems called Victoria Hayanisel Theorem dedicated to Princess Eugenie of York to describe the state of numbers, circles, and lines.
Followed by the theorem, I am using the set theory and Fermat's Infinite Descent Method (if my method is different, I will name it) to show how the conjecture is true.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[9] **viXra:1204.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-03 20:03:25*

**Authors:** Wilber Valgusbitkevyt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There is a pattern for the arbitary sequence which can be divided into four groups to be formalized as a recursive formula which shows the conjecture is true.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[8] **viXra:1204.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-03 20:05:28*

**Authors:** Wilber Valgusbitkevyt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I used reverse modus ponens. The rest is just a regular 3rd year undergraduate mathematics.

**Category:** Number Theory

[7] **viXra:1204.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-03 20:08:46*

**Authors:** Wilber Valgusbitkevyt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Translate the graph into sets by using the shared vertexes as indexes. Then consider several different cases to see how the conjecture is true in each case.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[6] **viXra:1204.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-04 10:15:29*

**Authors:** Malcolm H Mac Gregor

**Comments:** 11 pages, 3 figures

Higgs mass-generation particle coupling constants g are calculated as suggested by Lederman and Hill, who use the top quark t as the reference Higgs mass. Accurate alpha-quantized coupling constants g are obtained for the metastable leptons, constituent quarks, proton, Bc meson, and W and Z gauge bosons, where alpha is the fine structure constant, and where the particle masses are the inertial masses of the states involved. An analogous set of inverse Higgs-like coupling constants f is also presented in which the electron serves as the reference mass, as suggested by the alpha-boosted mass generation structure of the experimental f and g coupling constant values.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1204.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-03 09:09:40*

**Authors:** Glen Gilchrist

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Luffa aegyptiaca (Luffa sponge gourd) is increasingly seen as both a source of vegetative nutrition and as a source of the “luffa” used as to exfoliate during bathing. As such, the commercial growing of Luffa aegyptiaca is increasingly being investigated using more intensive farming methods. Two factors traditionally used to promote / speed germination and emergence of vegetable seeds is investigated. It is concluded that temperature pre-treatment of the seeds (-12°C,24 hours) yields a p=0.004 significance in promoting emergence, whilst pre soaking (water, 18°C, 24hrs) yields p=0.821

**Category:** Biochemistry

[4] **viXra:1204.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-02 14:11:51*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 231 Pages.

In this book we introduce the notion of Non Associative Linear Algebras. We mainly use the concepts of loops and groupoids to build these structures. We have also introduced the concept of Non Associative Semi-Linear Algebras.
In the future, non-associative linear algebras will find applications in mathematical models that do not in general need to be associative.

**Category:** Algebra

[3] **viXra:1204.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-31 16:26:47*

**Authors:** Oleg Kupervasser

**Comments:** 128 Pages. Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, Volume 10, Issue 29 (July 2013), p. 21

The modern classical statistical physics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics and gravity theory are developed and well-known theories. The described theories are developed and well studied for a long time. Nevertheless, it contains a number of paradoxes. It forces many scientists to doubt internal consistency of these theories. However, the given paradoxes can be resolved within the frame-work of the existing physics, without introduction of new laws. Further, in the paper we discuss the paradoxes underlying classical statistical physics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, and non-quantum and quantum gravities. We suggest the approaches to solution of these paradoxes on basis universal arrow of time. The first one relies on the influence of the external observer (environment), which disrupts the correlations in the system and results in time arrows alignment. The basis of the second one is the limits of self-knowledge of the system in case of the observed system; the external observer and the environment are included in the considered system. We introduce the concepts of observable dynamics, ideal dynamics, and unpredictable dynamics. We contemplate the phenomenon of complex (living) systems from the point of view of these dynamics. Perspectives of practical use of Unpredictable systems for artificial intellect are considered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1204.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-18 22:39:33*

**Authors:** Kupervasser O. Yu., Voronov V.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. PRESENTED AT XIX ST.-PETERSBURG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE INTEGRATED NAVIGATIONAL SYSTEMS (MKINS2012)

This paper deals with the error analysis of a novel navigation algorithm that uses as input the sequence of images acquired from a moving camera and a Digital Terrain (or Elevation) Map (DTM/DEM). More specifically, it has been shown that the optical flow derived from two consecutive camera frames can be used in combination with a DTM to estimate the position, orientation and ego-motion parameters of the moving camera. As opposed to previous works, the proposed approach does not require an intermediate explicit reconstruction of the 3D world. In the present work the sensitivity of the algorithm outlined above is studied. The main sources for errors are identified to be the optical-flow evaluation and computation, the quality of the information about the terrain, the structure of the observed terrain and the trajectory of the camera. By assuming appropriate characterization of these error sources, a closed form expression for the uncertainty of the pose and motion of the camera is first developed and then the influence of these factors is confirmed using extensive numerical simulations. The main conclusion of this paper is to establish that the proposed navigation algorithm generates accurate estimates for reasonable scenarios and error sources, and thus can be effectively used as part of a navigation system of autonomous vehicles.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[1] **viXra:1204.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-04-01 04:41:14*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The information essence of the Universe dominates over its physical aspect. Its dynamic hierarchic information structure is a manifestation of a divine Mind with its Idea (Intelligence), so the Universe is rational and comprehensible for us. Our individual consciousness as a part of universal consciousness of God deals with information carried by energy. Only consciousness can give the real sense to information coming to us from the objective world through energy supporters. Divine universal as well as our individual consciousness (subject) create the internal side of the Universe reflecting its external side (object) represented by structured quantum energy as a holder of divine information structure and architecture. Information encodes the creative power of consciousness. The physical Universe (non-living and living Nature) with its unbelievably rich information contents is a true food for our senses and our mind in the process of our conscious cognition and creativity.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy