[106] **viXra:1205.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-12 15:41:07*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We show that it is possible to produce strong gravitational accelerations on the free electrons of a conductor in order to obtain electrical current. This allows the conversion of gravitational energy directly into electrical energy. Here, we propose a system that can produce several tens of kilowatts of electrical energy converted from the gravitational energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[105] **viXra:1205.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-24 10:38:39*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The author had published a paper on the solutions for the twin primes conjecture in an international mathematics journal in 2003 and had since then been working on the solutions for the Goldbach conjecture, which is another problem relating to the prime numbers. This paper, which comprises of 4 parts that are each self-contained, is a combination and modification of the author’s 2 papers published recently in another international mathematics journal. The expected mode of solving the Goldbach conjecture appears to be the utilisation of advanced calculus or analysis, e.g., by the summation, or, integration, of the reciprocals involving directly or indirectly the primes to see whether they converge or diverge, in order to get a “feel” of the pattern of the distribution of the primes. But, such a method of solving the problem has evidently not succeeded so far. Some other approach or approaches could be more appropriate. This paper brings up a number of such approaches.

**Category:** Number Theory

[104] **viXra:1205.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-31 08:17:57*

**Authors:** G. G. Nyambuya

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Two Full Research Papers on the Pioneer Anomaly and the Titius-Bode Law will follow this reading. These follow up papers put flesh to the theory here set-forth.

The Poisson-Laplace equation is a working and acceptable equation of gravitation which is mostly used or applied in its differential form in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) modelling. From a general relativistic standpoint, it describes gravitational fields in the region of low spacetime curvature as it emerges in the weak field limit. For none-static gravitational fields, this equation is not generally covariant. On the requirements of general covariance, this equation can be extended to include a time dependent component, in which case, one is led to the Four Poisson-Laplace equation. We solve the Four Poisson-Laplace equation for radial solutions, and apart from the Newtonian gravitational pole, we obtain four new solutions leading to four new gravitational poles capable (in-principle) of explaining e.g. the rotation curves of galaxies, the Pioneer anomaly, the Titius-Bode Law and the formation of planetary rings. In this letter, we focus only on writing down these solutions. The task to show that these new solutions might explain the aforesaid gravitational anomalies, has been left for separate future readings.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[103] **viXra:1205.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-31 09:48:30*

**Authors:** John R. McWhinnie

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Abstract. This paper follows on from my paper entitled ”The Origin of
Matter”. The two papers should be taken as one and thus this paper takes off
where the other finished. In this paper we shall lay down the processes and
the particles that lead to complex sub-atomic structures/particles.
1. Synopsis
The starting point of this paper shall be the Quark particle that current theory
predicts is the fundamental? (as far is presently known) building block of the
PROTON and Hadrons in general, We shall challenge this view after giving a
brief overview of the current accepted theory of the Quark as it refers to the
Proton in the Standard model. After which we shall present our alternative
theory which states that it is PHOTONS that are the fundamental blocks
of the PROTON. It is probably a good time to remind the reader that the
theory of the Quark is just that a theory as there is very little experimental
evidence of their existence due to the fact that they are very tightly bonded (
a question AS TO WHY that cannot be answered) and , as to date none have
been detected freely in order to examine them closer.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[102] **viXra:1205.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-31 01:12:57*

**Authors:** Chandru Iyer

**Comments:** Number of pages = 5

The observation that a moving clock runs slow is usually observed by a set of spatially separated, co-moving and synchronized clocks. The synchronization of these co-moving and spatially separated clocks is achieved by the Einsteinian synchronization convention. The universal validity of this convention has been debated by researchers for over a hundred years. In this paper we present the Doppler Effect as a phenomenon to eliminate the issues associated with the synchronization problem. The Doppler Effect involves two objects, the light source and the receptor in relative motion. The ratio of the frequencies expected to be observed by the receptor as estimated by the inertial frames co-moving with the source and the receptor respectively is (1-v2/c2), assuming that light travels at speed c in all directions with respect to the source and receptor respectively. The relativistic prediction is the geometric mean of these two estimates. The inertial frame co-moving with the source reconciles this difference by stating that the clock at the location of the moving receptor is running slow by a factor (1-v2/c2)1/2. A similar explanation is given by the inertial frame co-moving with the receptor – the clocks at the location of the moving source run slow by a factor (1-v2/c2)1/2, that is the actual emission frequency is less than what the source of light itself observes, due to the slow running of the clock co-moving with the source. Thus the relativistic Doppler Effect is reconciled with the predictions of the individual inertial frames by the slow running of moving clocks. This essentially means that moving clocks run slow – even when we do not use the Einsteinian synchronization convention and use the opportunity presented by the Doppler Effect to observe a ‘moving’ clock by a ‘stationary’ clock, assuming that the speed of light is c in all directions. This essentially means that a moving clock actually runs slow as compared to the usual statement that a ‘moving’ clock is observed to run slow (by ‘stationary’, spatially separated and synchronized (by a convention) clocks). The consequence of the actual slow running of moving clocks is discussed in the conclusion section.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[101] **viXra:1205.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-30 16:55:58*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

This updates the MCAS model. A simple Newtonian machine explains why electrons in an atom exist at specified (quantum) energies. The model explicitedly requires that electrons interact with the nucleus in some fashion.
Author's website is http://pages.swcp.com/~jmw-mcw

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[100] **viXra:1205.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-30 19:45:18*

**Authors:** A.Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. DSU document not part of conference proceedings, because DSU 2010 did NOT publish conference proceedings. It was accepted for a proceedings and then the organizers never delivered on that final step

Discussion of a joint DM and DE model if massive gravitons are stable. Presented at Dark side of the Universe in Leon, Mexico, 2010, represented here due to inexplicable non publishing of conference proceedings for DSU 2010, of Leon, Mexico. Kaluza Klein treatment of graviton leads to DM and if there exists massive gravitons up to the present day, contributions to DE are presented. The caveat being if the graviton with a slight rest mass can be a stable particle.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[99] **viXra:1205.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-30 19:54:04*

**Authors:** Richard A. Peters

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

￼This conjecture postulates the existence of a field of particles in space that I’ll call the temporal-inertial (TI) field, but will refer to simply as space or the field. This field provides a frame of reference for motion such that the motion of an object (sub-atomic particle, atom, clock, etc.) with respect to that field causes two effects. The velocity of an object with respect to the field causes time dilation for that object and the acceleration of an object with respect to the field causes the familiar inertial reaction force. It is argued that the successful functioning of the Global Positioning System requires that the Earth not move with respect to this TI field. This assertion demands that the TI field move with Earth and that the field must therefore be subject to gravity and orbit the Sun just as the Earth and planets. The response of the TI field to gravity requires particles of the field in the vicinity of Earth to accelerate toward the center of the Earth. As a result, gravitational time dilation and gravitational redshift in a reference frame within the field are caused by the velocity of the particles of this field relative to the reference frame, not directly by gravity itself. Lastly, it is argued that the gravitational force is mediated indirectly by the acceleration of the TI field relative to matter particles in the field. In response to the acceleration of the TI field by gravity, the field asserts a force on matter particles in the direction of the acceleration of the field relative to the matter particles, just as for the inertial force. Accordingly, matter particles are not directly subject to the gravitational force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[98] **viXra:1205.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-30 21:22:57*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Exact copy of the Rencontres Du Vietnam poster entry in 2011 by the author, and chosen to signify the main point of the Authors accepted contribution of the Republic of San Marino meeting in matter and Anti Matter, Sept 5 to Sept 9, 2011.

Represents g(u,v)=h(u,v)+n(u,v) which has h(u,v) entries in it due to gravitons with a slight non zero rest mass. The entries of h(u,v) have dramatic differences in terms of peak absolute magnitude, and the non vanishing of the heavy h(1,0) graviton induced term representing (1+1) geometry contravenes predictions of no relic gravitational waves and makes predictions if the prior universe was a single event a la Steinhardt or a multiverse in the form suggested by Tegmark.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[97] **viXra:1205.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-30 21:33:27*

**Authors:** A.W.Beckwith

**Comments:** 84 Pages. presents the main high lights of an EPR experiment involving gravitons which covers the same ground as the later Machian universe linkage between Gravititinos and Gravitons, in May 2012

Entanglement, EPR, and gravitons ? Speculation plus thoughts of the big picture of cosmology.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[96] **viXra:1205.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-30 10:44:17*

**Authors:** Leonel Pineda

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Language: Spanish

La teleportación es una tecnología cuántica única que transfiere un estado cuántico a una
localización arbitrariamente alejada usando un estado de entrelazamiento cuántico distribuido y la
transmisión de cierta información clásica. En el presente artículo se dará un bosquejo general al
entrelazamiento cuántico, fundamental para la teleportación cuántica y también se propondrá un
protocolo de comunicación.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[95] **viXra:1205.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-29 23:56:06*

**Authors:** Emmanuel Markakis, Christopher Provatidis, Nikiforos Markakis

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

This paper presents a deterministic process of finding all pairs (p,q) of odd numbers (composites and primes) of natural numbers ≥ 3 whose sum (p + q) is equal to a given even natural number 2n ≥ 6. Subsequently, based on the above procedure and also relying on the distribution of primes in the set of natural numbers, we propose a closed analytical formula, which estimates the number of primes which satisfy Goldbach’s conjecture for positive integers ≥ 6.

**Category:** Number Theory

[94] **viXra:1205.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-15 16:48:50*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 3 pictures, 14 illustrations, 7 references

This paper explains that planetary formation is stellar evolution. Planets are ancient stars and stars are young planets. The “star” is the nebular collapsing dust cloud that becomes the “planet”. It retains its spherical shape throughout its evolution, no nebular disk is needed. This common sense is ignored for reasons unknown by the author, but is probably because of graduate school not allowing students to think on their own for the sake of their careers.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[93] **viXra:1205.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-28 01:49:47*

**Authors:** David D. Tung

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

In this paper, we use statistical data mining techniques to analyze a multivariate data set of career batting performances in Major League Baseball. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used to transform the high-dimensional data to its lower-dimensional principal components, which retain a high percentage of the sample variation, hence reducing the dimensionality of the data. From PCA, we determine a few important key factors of classical and sabermetric batting statistics, and the most important of these is a new measure, which we call Offensive Player Grade (OPG), that efficiently summarizes a player’s offensive performance on a numerical scale. The determination of these lower-dimensional principal components allows for accessible
visualization of the data, and for segmentation of players into groups using clustering, which is done here using the K-means clustering algorithm. We provide illuminating visual displays from our statistical data mining procedures, and we also furnish a player listing of the top 100 OPG scores which should be of interest to those that follow baseball.

**Category:** Statistics

[92] **viXra:1205.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-25 21:14:23*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The structure of helical electromagnetic waves, with a longitudinal component, provides a mechanism that can account for Newtonian gravity instantaneous influence-at-a-distance. Basic electromagnetic principles applied to helical electromagnetic field structures identify a contiguous alignment from the point of origination to the point where the electromagnetic field has propagated. Once the electromagnetic field has propagated at the speed of light to some point, the influence of the field-to-field coupling may not be limited to the speed of light.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[91] **viXra:1205.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-25 22:01:25*

**Authors:** Jian-zhong Zhao

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The problem of a cylinder with a small spherical cavity loaded by an
equilibrium system of forces is suggested and discussed and its formulation of Saint-Venant's Principle is established. It is evident that finding
solutions of boundary-value problems is a precise and pertinent approach
to establish Saint-Venant type decay of elastic problems.
Keywords : Saint-Venant’s Principe, proof, provability, solution, decay, formulation,
cavity
AMS Subject Classifications: 74-02, 74G50

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[90] **viXra:1205.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-01 05:08:26*

**Authors:** Victor V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 14 Pages. English and Russian variants; in v2 misprints corrected

In 1877 Maxwell suggested the idea of measuring anisotropy of the speed of light *c* in aether by the observing
finite effects of the 2^{nd}-order of the kinetic relationship *υ*/*c*. He kept in mind translationally moving (with velocity *υ*) the light-carrying zones of the interferometer with cross beams. Maxwell's doubts were by caused smallness of relationship *υ*^{2}/*c*^{2}~10^{-8}, which may appear to be the main difficulty of monitoring the Earth's orbital velocity. Planning the experiments of 1881 and 1887 Michelson expected to obtain values of the effects of the 2^{nd}-order in thousands times higher (0.04 and 0.4, respectively) than Maxwell predicted. Even more surprising there appeared that the measure-ments gave the "zero" fringe shift. Basing on these measurements, in 1905 Einstein rejected Maxwell non-zero esti-mations, but has believed to Michelson "zero"-experiments, and postulated the refusal from the aether.

Miller built (1905-1925) more sensitive Michelson interferometers (MI) with a length beams *l*_{||}=*l*_{⊥} ~32 m. Over 20 years of their improvement he achieved repeatability of velocity of "aether wind" measurements in the range 5<*υ*<12 km/s. These evidences about the aether worried very much the author of the SRT. In 1926 in his article "My theory and Miller's experiments," Einstein said that those experiments "should" contain "fundamental error" because there must not be the anisotropy of the speed of light in vacuum. Otherwise, the SRT is not correct. Kennedy (1926), Illingworth (1927) and Joos (1930) were quick to verify it experimentally. Kennedy used helium in the MI, and Joos evacuated his MI. By such inadequate to Miller's experiment ways they obtained the velocity *υ* in 3–10 times less. But no one of them guessed that it was connected with ignorance of different contribution of the atoms polarization in the permittivity of the light-carriers consisting of the particles of air, helium and laboratory vacuum.

Below it is proved that the recognition of the aether as real medium without loss reconciles Maxwell's idea of the existence of anisotropy of the translationally moving material media with the Einstein's reasoning about the absence of anisotropy in "pure" vacuum. At the same time, the recognition of aether reconciles as well the positiveness of Miller's experiments (with non-zero fringe shift in the air) with an apparent "negative" experiments of Kennedy and Illingworth (in helium), and Joos's experiments - in laboratory vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[89] **viXra:1205.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-24 16:33:26*

**Authors:** Lawrence B. Crowell

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This essay received an honorable mention in the 2012 Essay Competition of the Gravity. Also at http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.4710

The holographic protection due to inflationary cosmology is a consequence of a quantum tricritical point. In this scenario a closed spacetime solution transitions into an inflationary de Sitter spacetime. Saturation of the holographic entropy bound is prevented by the phase change in the topology of the early universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[88] **viXra:1205.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-25 06:49:29*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

(n+a)= 2n+(a-n)=2n-(n-a)
proofs direct
Goldbach Conjecture , 1 is prime
Levys = Lemoine's Conjecture with a,n are primes
Polignacs Conjecture

**Category:** Number Theory

[87] **viXra:1205.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-24 19:28:09*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Extensions of Clifford algebra are presented. Applications in physics, especially
with regard to the flavor structure of Standard Model, are discussed. Modified gravity
is also suggested.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[86] **viXra:1205.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-19 00:13:12*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Abstract: By simple mechanics, it is impossible for a free macro body to orbit around another moving macro body, in any type of closed geometrical path. However, while considering two-body problems, relative parameters of macro bodies are considered with one of them steady in space. This simple method of mathematical analysis can give accurate prediction of their future relative parameters. Orbital path of a planetary body appears around its static central body. Circular/elliptical orbits around a static central body, being an imaginary figure, has no value other than to indicate relative positions of concerned macro bodies. All macro bodies, in nature, are moving. In cases of moving central bodies (real situations) or when there are more than two macro bodies in a system, relative considerations cannot describe their orbital paths. Due to phenomenal success of solution to two-body problem by relative considerations, a firm but erroneous belief has established that all planetary bodies move around their central bodies. Adamant belief in imaginary circular/elliptical orbital path is carried forward to three-body system to create an imaginary but unsolvable problem. Three-body problem (as considered today with respect to planetary motions) is unsolvable because real and imaginary situations are mixed in it. It is nothing but a deception from reality, adopted to create a baseless mystery.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[85] **viXra:1205.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-24 07:33:18*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Based on the big bang concepts- in the expanding universe, ‘rate of decrease in CMBR temperature’ is a measure of the cosmic ‘rate of expansion’. Modern standard cosmology is based on two contradictory statements. They are - present CMBR temperature is isotropic and the present universe is accelerating. In particle physics also, till today laboratory evidence for the existence of ‘dark matter’ and ‘dark energy’ is very poor. Recent observations and thoughts supports the existence of the ‘cosmic axis of evil’. Independent of the cosmic red shift and CMBR observations, cosmic acceleration can be verified by measuring the `rate of decrease' in the fine structure ratio. In this connection an attempt is made to study the universe with a closed and growing model of cosmology. If the primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other non-perturbative gravitational entities, it is also possible to assume that throughout its journey, the whole universe is a primordial (growing and rotating) cosmic black hole. Instead of the Planck scale, initial conditions can be represented with the Coulomb scale. Obtained value of the present Hubble constant is close to 70.75 Km/sec/Mpc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[84] **viXra:1205.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-24 05:45:54*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 14 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that a principle of a indistinguishability, underlying the special
and general theory of a relativity, it is expedient to replace on opposite to him
principle of discernability of processes that lead to the absoluteness theory
(В статье обосновывается целесообразность замены принципа неразличимости процессов, лежащего в основе СТО и ОТО, на противоположный ему принцип
их различимости, ведущий к теории абсолютности).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[83] **viXra:1205.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-29 03:56:44*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In 1976 in this paper we found a new gravitational formula

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1205.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-08 19:15:06*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, A. Praveen Prakash

**Comments:** 167 Pages.

The authors in this book have analyzed the socio-economic and
psychological problems faced by People with Disabilities
(PWDs) and their families. The study was made by collecting
data using both fuzzy linguistic questionnaire / by interviews in
case they are not literates from 2,15,811 lakhs people. This data
was collected using the five Non Government Organizations
(NGOs) from northern Tamil Nadu.

**Category:** Algebra

[81] **viXra:1205.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-23 20:05:38*

**Authors:** Mircea Eugen Şelariu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Prezentarea ar trebui să începă cu funcţiile beta excentrice, deoarece ele vor fi
utilizate în continuare şi la definirea şi prezentarea următoarelor FSM-CE, care sunt
funcţiile amplitudine excentrică, funcţii asemănătoare din multe puncte de vedere cu
funcţiile eliptice Jacobi amplitudine sau amplitudinus am(u,k).
Dar va începe cu fucţia “rege” radial excentric rexθ şi Rexα.

**Category:** Geometry

[80] **viXra:1205.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-23 20:44:04*

**Authors:** Azzam AlMosallami

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Through the meaning of time in the Modified Special Relativity Theory MSRT [23], we introduce an interpretation to the most problems in physics related to quantum tunneling [1-9,16], quantum entanglement [29-31], OPERA [26], ICARUS [27], and Sn 1987a [28].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[79] **viXra:1205.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-12 09:22:14*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 66 Pages.

Currently, there are two major theories for the pathogenesis of sepsis: hyperimmune and hypoimmune. Hyperimmune theory suggests that cytokine storm causes the symptoms of sepsis. On the contrary, hypoimmune theory suggests that immunosuppression causes the manifestations of sepsis. By using microarray study, this study implies that hyperactivity of TH17-like innate immunity and failure of adaptive immunity are noted in sepsis patients. I find out that innate immunity related genes are significantly up-regulated including CD14, TLR1,2,4,5,8, HSP70, CEBP proteins, AP1(JUNB, FOSL2), TGF-β, IL-6, TGF-α, CSF2 receptor, TNFRSF1A, S100A binding proteins, CCR2, formyl peptide receptor2, amyloid proteins, pentraxin, defensins, CLEC5A, whole complement machinery, CPD, NCF, MMP, neutrophil elastase, caspases, IgG and IgA Fc receptors(CD64, CD32), ALOX5, PTGS, LTB4R, LTA4H, and ICAM1. Majority of adaptive immunity genes are down-regulated including MHC related genes, TCR genes, granzymes/perforin, CD40, CD8, CD3, TCR signaling, BCR signaling, T & B cell specific transcription factors, NK killer receptors, and TH17 helper specific transcription factors(STAT3, RORA, REL). In addition, Treg related genes are up-regulated including TGFβ, IL-15, STAT5B, SMAD2/4, CD36, and thrombospondin. Thus, both hyperimmune and hypoimmune play important roles in the pathophysiology of sepsis.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[78] **viXra:1205.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-22 21:05:18*

**Authors:** Jian-zhong Zhao

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Statement of Modified Saint-Venant's Principle is suggested. The
axisymmetrical deformation of the infinite circular cylinder loaded by an
equilibrium system of forces on its near end is discussed and its formulation of Modified Saint-Venant's Principle is established. It is evident that
finding solutions of boundary-value problems is a precise and pertinent
approach to establish Saint-Venant type decay of elastic problems.
AMS Subject Classifications: 74-02, 74G50

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[77] **viXra:1205.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-22 14:09:09*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 3 Pages. English

The parameters characterising a deviation of system as whole from spatially homogeneous state are offered

**Category:** Classical Physics

[76] **viXra:1205.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-08 10:29:36*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 48 pages. Advances in Natural Science, 2012, Vol. 5, No. 4, P. 55 – 75.

In the framework of covariant theory of gravitation the Euler-Lagrange equations are written and equations of motion are determined by using the Lagrange function, in the case of small test particle and in the case of continuously distributed matter. From the Lagrangian transition to the Hamiltonian was done, which is expressed through three-dimensional generalized momentum in explicit form, and also is defined by the 4-velocity, scalar potentials and strengths of gravitational and electromagnetic fields, taking into account the metric. The definition of generalized 4-velocity, and the description of its application to the principle of least action and to Hamiltonian is done. The existence of a 4-vector of the Hamiltonian is assumed and the problem of mass is investigated. To characterize the properties of mass we introduce three different masses, one of which is connected with the rest energy, another is the observed mass, and the third mass is determined without taking into account the energy of macroscopic fields. It is shown that the action function has the physical meaning of the function describing the change of such intrinsic properties as the rate of proper time and rate of rise of phase angle in periodic processes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[75] **viXra:1205.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-21 14:15:46*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 4 pages

We propose novel technique for detecting gravitational waves using setup like LIGO and a robust square wave generator as source of waves generating stable square waves with high frequency using an appropriate crystal oscillator. This change in source will prove very effective for the process of detecting gravitational waves because even if with extremely small change in phase of two interfering waves reaching the beam splitter there will be detectable change in the amplitude due to the suddenly rising sharp edge of these almost but not exactly destructively interfering waves upon the passing of gravitational waves. This idea of achieving detectable amplitude of a portion of signal reaching the detector will make it possible to record extremely small phase difference generated due to passing of some gravitational waves through apparatus in the two interfering square wave beams. The change suggested in the gravitational wave detection experiment using high frequency well regulated square wave source will produce the following effects. When no gravitational waves will reach the apparatus the square waves from crystal oscillator will move towards beam splitter and will split into two square waves heading towards reflectors kept orthogonally to each other at equal distance from beam splitter at the ends of two interferometer arms and these waves will reflect back to interfere destructively so that no signal will reach the detector. But when some gravitational waves will be reaching the apparatus and further suppose there is squeezing along arm A and stretching along arm B of the interferometer as an effect these gravitational waves will be producing the (very small) phase difference in the interfering square waves reaching back to beam splitter. Now, however small may be this phase difference its undetectably small amount still will remain detectable because of sharp rise and fall of amplitude at edges of square wave because of its typical shape and so some detectable part of these interfering waves will pass towards detector to offer a conclusive proof for the existence of gravitational waves!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[74] **viXra:1205.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-22 01:13:12*

**Authors:** Valery P. Dmitriyev

**Comments:** 4 Pages. for educational purposes

The RLC circuit equation is derived step-by-step from basic equations of classical electrodynamics. The system is shown to be oscillating even if elements of the linear current would not interact with each other. Their mutual electromagnetic interaction due to acceleration of charges results in the phenomenon that looks like the increase of the effective mass of the charged particles. The increase of the mass makes the oscillations more persistent with respect to the damping caused by the friction.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[73] **viXra:1205.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-22 00:50:10*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Submitted to the Int. J. of Theor. Phys.

A rigorous construction of Clifford-space Gravity is presented which is compatible with
the Clifford algebraic structure and permits the derivation of the generalized connections
in Clifford spaces ( C-space) in terms of derivatives of the C-space metric.
We continue by arguing how Lanczos-Lovelock higher curvature gravity can be embedded into
gravity in Clifford spaces and suggest how this might also occur for extended gravitational theories based on f ( R ),
f ( R_{\mu \nu} ), .... actions, for polynomial-valued functions. Black-strings and
black-brane metric solutions in higher dimensions D > 4 play an important role in finding specific examples.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[72] **viXra:1205.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-20 11:09:22*

**Authors:** Terry Allen, Daniel Branscombe, Jim Bury

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

The musical staff notates Pitch Value Vectors whereas tablature, using fret numbers on string lines, denotes Position Value Vectors, forming a commuting algebra of Hilbert Spaces. In 2001 I demonstrated that music is semi-algebraic (Allen and Goudessenue).
Pitch Value Space is undefined without a connection to pitch, and when connected to pitch by a barycenter, becomes defined and complete.
A defined musical system must have at least 2 functions, the chromatic f(x) and the harmonic function g(x) that form a composite function with at most 1 common center (Music Multicentricity Theorem). Thus tonality is defined by the line of tonal projection that marries pitch to position to make a musical tone.
Since musical systems must have a tone generator (instrument or device) the music topos must be the triple composite function f⋅g⋅h where f(x) is a + b + c = 0 and g(x) > 0 is a scale center and h(x) > 0 an instrument center. A music cipher as defined here as an affine projection that marries R:Z pitch to position to compose a note [tone point as an orthonormal pair (position value, pitch value)]. The harmonic message is embedded in a musical system by the cipher which defines tonality, so that (harmony, tonality) is another orthonormal pair.
A cipher can also make a new note from one already known in a system.
The only algebraic operation in a musical topos is vector additions to a single barycenter according to a difference function defined by the complete lattice of the musical system, and according to the Boolean Arithmetic Operator of the Music Cipher which forms the geometry of tone value spaces by its prime ideals. The cipher model is therefore simple and natural compared to current music topology requiring two centers and several algebraic operators.
Music is composed by the finite union of notes and open intervals defined by the composite functions of the fundamental, the key, and the intonation algorithm.
Tonality, the sum total of every function, relation, and element in a musical system, is the same as the algebraic-logic interface (numeric key) of the pitch-position intonation algorithm that is precisely the triangle of cipher vectors formed between one logic and at least two algebraic sub lattices. The cipher vector defined by a complete musical lattice is also the same as the arithmetic tone values closure operator that defines tonal geometry. Specifically, the cipher is precisely the projection between the logic sub lattice and at least two algebraic sub lattices in the musical system, where the sub lattices all share the fundamental as 1 common center.
Therefore the cipher is equivalent to a point, a line, a triangle, and a sphere, reflections resulting from line-point duality in geometry. Without a common center for the R: Z cipher the musical clock is undefined: Euler's donut is dead.
The new model is a clock: the fundamental is the hour hand, the instrument position is the minute hand, and scale position is the third hand. Tonality, like time on the clock, is a vector as a composite of three functions with 1 fundamental in common. Therefore, tonality has at least two functions but at most one center.

**Category:** Topology

[71] **viXra:1205.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-20 16:05:13*

**Authors:** Tuomas Korppi

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

A homology theory based on both near-standard and non-near-standard
microsimplices is constructed. Its basic properties, including
Eilenberg-Steenrod axioms for homology and continuity with respect to resolutions
of spaces, are proved.

**Category:** Topology

[70] **viXra:1205.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-21 01:05:09*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is alleged by the Standard Cosmological Model that Einstein’s Universe is finite but
unbounded. Although this is a longstanding and widespread allegation, it is nonetheless
incorrect. It is also alleged by this Model that the Universe is expanding and that it
began with a Big Bang. These are also longstanding and widespread claims that are
demonstrably false. The FRWmodels for an expanding, finite, unbounded Universe are
inconsistent with General Relativity and are therefore invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[69] **viXra:1205.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-19 16:01:41*

**Authors:** Germán Paz

**Comments:** 44 Pages. Although the results that are considered as main results have not been published, some of the theorems in this paper appear in Gen. Math. Notes. See: On the Interval [n,2n]: Primes, Composites and Perfect Powers, Gen. Math. Notes, 15(1) (2013), 1-15.

This paper is a LaTeX document which combines previously posted papers 'Infinitely Many Prime Numbers of the Form ap±b' (viXra:1202.0063 submitted on 2012-02-18 19:13:46; url: http://vixra.org/abs/1202.0063) and 'Solution to One of Landau's Problems' (viXra:1202.0061 submitted on 2012-02-18 21:49:14; url: http://vixra.org/abs/1202.0061) into one paper. The information contained in this paper is the same as the information contained in those two original papers. No new information or results are being added. ABSTRACT. In this paper it is proved that for every positive integer 'k' there are infinitely many prime numbers of the form n^2+k, which means that there are infinitely many prime numbers of the form n^2+1. In addition to this, in this document it is proved that if 'a' and 'b' are two positive integers which are coprime and also have different parity, then there are infinitely many prime numbers of the form ap+b, where 'p' is a prime number. Moreover, it is also proved that there are infinitely many prime numbers of the form ap-b. In other words, it is proved that the progressions ap+b and ap-b generate infinitely many prime numbers. In particular, all this implies that there are infinitely many prime numbers of the form 2p+1 (since the numbers 2 and 1 are coprime and have different parity), which means that there are infinitely many Sophie Germain Prime Numbers. This paper also proposes an important new conjecture about prime numbers called 'Conjecture C'. If this conjecture is true, then Legendre's Conjecture, Brocard's Conjecture and Andrica's Conjecture are all true, and also some other important results will be true.

**Category:** Number Theory

[68] **viXra:1205.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-06-23 13:52:48*

**Authors:** Stephen Crowley

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Riemann zeta function can be written as the Mellin transform of the unit interval map w(x)=⌊x−1⌋(x⌊x−1⌋+x−1) multiplied by s((s+1)/(s-1)). A finite-sum approximation to ζ(s) denoted by ζw(N;s) which has real roots at s=−1 and s=0 is examined and an associated function χ(N;s) is found which solves the reflection formula ζw(N;1−s)=χ(N;s)ζw(N;s). A closed-form expression for the integral of ζw(N;s) over the interval s=-1..0 is given. The function χ(N;s) is singular at s=0 and the residue at this point changes sign from negative to positive between the values of N = 176 and N = 177. Some rather elegant graphs of ζw(N;s) and the reflection functions χ(N;s) are also provided. The values ζw(N;1−n) for integer values of n are found to be related to the Bernoulli numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[67] **viXra:1205.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-18 03:18:39*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Using the tachyonic theory we find the new gravitational formula(16) and establish the expansion theory of the universe see Fig.2,(22)-(25).We show that gravitons can be converted into the rest mass,see Fig.2,(24)-(25）。We point out that Newtonian theory is approximate and the general theory of relativity is wrong

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[66] **viXra:1205.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-17 11:09:09*

**Authors:** Patrick Linker

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The unification of Einstein's field equations with Quantum field theory is a problem of theoretical physics. Many models for solving this problem were done, i.e. the String Theory or Loop quantum gravity were introduced to describe gravity with quantum theory. The main problem of this theories is that they are mathematically very complicated. In this research text, there is given another description of gravity unified with Quantum field theory. In this case, gravity is described so that for weak gravitational fields the (semi)classical gravity desciption is equivalent.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] **viXra:1205.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-16 16:09:06*

**Authors:** Malcolm J Macleod

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The natural constants $G$, $h$, $e$ and $m_e$ are commonly used but are themselves difficult to measure experimentally with a high precision. Defining the Planck Ampere in terms of the square root of Planck momentum, referred to here as Quintessence momentum, and by assigning a formula for the electron as a magnetic monopole in terms of $e$ and $c$, a formula for the Rydberg constant can be derived. $G$, $h$, $e$ and $m_e$ can then each be written in terms of more precise constants; the speed of light $c$ (fixed value), the Rydberg constant (12 digit precision) and alpha, the fine structure constant (10 digit precision).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[64] **viXra:1205.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-17 09:03:32*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The pioneers of string theory have not convinced such critics as Philip Anderson, Sheldon Glashow, Robert B. Laughlin, and Burton Richter. Does nondeterministic M-theory need to be replaced by deterministic M-theory according to the ideas of J. Christian? Does nondeterministic M-theory need to be replaced by modified M-theory with Wolfram’s mobile automaton operating on a network of information below the Planck scale? If X is to M-theory as Kepler’s laws are to Newton’s theory of gravity, then what is X? There is overwhelming empirical evidence in favor of the Rañada-Milgrom effect because of two things: (1) the work of Milgrom, McGaugh, and Kroupa and (2) an easy scaling argument. Are the ideas of Witten, Christian, and Wolfram essential for understanding Milgrom’s acceleration law in terms of the foundations of physics?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[63] **viXra:1205.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-20 10:14:09*

**Authors:** Hartmut Traunmüller

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Accepted for publication in Astrophysics and Space Science

Early physical cosmologies were based on interpretations of the cosmic redshift for which there was insufficient evidence and on theories of gravitation that appear to be falsified by galactic dynamics. Eventually, the big bang paradigm came to be guarded against refutation by ad hoc hypotheses (dark matter, cosmic inflation, dark energy) and free parameters. Presently available data allow a more satisfactory phenomenological approach. Using data on magnitude and redshift from 892 type Ia supernovae, it is first shown that these suggest that the redshift factor (1 + z) is simply an exponential function of distance and that, for “standard candles”, magnitude m = 5 log[(1 + z) ln(1 + z)] + const. While these functions are incompatible with a big bang, they characterize certain tired light models as well as exponential expansion models. However, the former are falsified by the stretched light curves of distant supernovae and the latter by the absence of a predicted 1+z increase in the angular sizes of galaxies. Instead, the observations suggest that physical processes speed up and objects contract uniformly as an exponential function of time, standards of measurement not excluded, and only free waves being excepted. Distant events proceed, then, more slowly, while angular sizes remain unaffected, approximately as observed. Since all objects contract in proportion, the Universe retains a static appearance. A corresponding physical theory, which should also explain galactic dynamics, remains yet to be derived from first principles. A way to do this, satisfying also Mach’s principle, is vaguely suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[62] **viXra:1205.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-26 06:04:15*

**Authors:** Sanjeev Saxena

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Better fonts

In this note an elementary proof of Bernoulli's inequality for rational exponent is described. The proof is only based on the fact that for any n non-negative numbers, geometric mean can not exceed arithmetic mean

**Category:** General Mathematics

[61] **viXra:1205.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-15 20:30:25*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In 1991 with Abner Shimony as thesis advisor, J. Christian obtained his PhD in the foundations of quantum theory. As of 2012, he is affiliated with both Wolfson College of the University of Oxford and the Perimeter Institute in Waterloo, Ontario. From 2007 to 2012 Christian published some highly controversial work related to Bell’s theorem. Christian has proposed a parallelized 7-sphere model for a local, realistic theory that replaces quantum theory. This communication considers how his model might be relevant to a physical interpretation of M-theory. There is overwhelming empirical evidence in favor of the Rañada-Milgrom effect, at least as an approximation. Christian’s theory of local realism might be empirically valid if and only if the Rañada-Milgrom effect is empirically valid.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[60] **viXra:1205.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-15 07:13:39*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This article is based on the essay "Modified Wheelerian Perspective of Gravity" submitted to the Gravity Research Foundation 2012 Awards for Essays on Gravitation

John Wheeler’s famous statement “Matter tells space how to curve space tells matter how to move” converges into a surprising underlying machinery, through a discussion of the questions “is gravity space or within space”, “does force cause motion, or maybe motion causes force” and “what is the real gradient law of gravitational fields”. I conclude that space is gravity, and it consists of two ingredients, the concentration gradient of one of them among the other is the gradient of gravitational fields. The Newtonian inverse square law is a phenomenologically based interpretation of a real inverse square root law.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[59] **viXra:1205.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-15 12:49:20*

**Authors:** Emmanuel Markakis, Christopher Provatidis

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

This work presents the possibility of revising the standard model of subatomic composition of matter, extending the “inverse square law” from gravity and electric fields to also the thermal effects. It is shown that assuming only three proposed particles and only three relevant interactions, simple explanations can be provided for all natural phenomena, particularly those in which the existing theory does not provide documental and convincing answers. The paper starts with the description of a unique reaction between two types of the proposed subatomic particles thus producing the so-called ‘thermions’ that finally form an elastic Cubic Energy Grid under mechanical stress. Then the existence of the three known phases of matter is explained. The meaning of ‘heat’ is redefined without focusing on the usual kinetic energy of atoms and molecules. The elimination of anomalies in a closed system is explained through an asymmetrical oscillation. Also, the paper attempts a new interpretation of the creation of the universe from a huge electric discharge based on the simultaneous creation of the three subatomic particles. It describes ‘monopoles’ as the first quantized agglomerates of pure energy and explains why they bound to form ‘dipoles’, which later progressively form larger agglomerates. In the sequence, it describes the crystallization as a first resistance line that the nature foresight to avoid the self-destruction of the universe. The paper closes with possible models of electron and positron as well as of neutron and proton based on only the three proposed subatomic particles. At the same time, the equivalent mass of a thermion as well as the quanta of positive and negative electric charges is determined.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[58] **viXra:1205.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-15 14:18:13*

**Authors:** Jacob Biemond

**Comments:** 18 Pages, including 5 figures and 1 table

The gravitomagnetic vector potential and corresponding gravitomagnetic field generated by a rotating sphere with a homogeneous mass density are investigated. Outside the sphere both vector potential and field may coincide with the results from the ideal dipole model. For the axial gravitomagnetic field inside the sphere a new exact expression is derived. More general expressions for both vector potential and field inside the sphere are proposed and checked. Their validity is compared with series expansions for the equatorial gravitomagnetic vector potential and gravitomagnetic field. Application of Stokes’ theorem to the basic gravitomagnetic equation is compatible with the ideal dipole result for the gravitomagnetic field at the surface of the sphere. Starting from the basic gravitomagnetic equations, the validity of the general internal gravitomagnetic field is confirmed. Observations of two LAGEOS satellites, Gravity Probe B mission and planned ring-laser experiment are shortly discussed. Starting from the Maxwell equations, the present treatment can also be applied to the electromagnetic case. Analogous results are found for the electromagnetic vector potential and the electromagnetic field.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[57] **viXra:1205.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-23 13:25:40*

**Authors:** Neculai Agavriloaei

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The new approach of the matter waves concept initiated by Louis de Broglie in 1924 leads to a new model – the vacuum matter waves. By using the physics of time dilation, one can calculate a gravitational cutoff frequency, with respect to the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations, which is the upper bound of the frequency range of this new model. We described the properties of these new waves and outlined the connection between them and the dimensions at Planck length level. The calculation of velocity in circular orbits by using this new concept complies with the well-known equation, thus confirming this study. One of its consequences is that the structure of the physical vacuum is modified on the radial direction with the gravity source, but not modified on its tangential direction. This study places the space-time structure from subquantum level into a new light and makes the connection between this level and that of the planetary systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[56] **viXra:1205.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-16 10:21:09*

**Authors:** Rad H. Dabbaj

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper proposes a new theory of gravity called quantum electric gravity (QEG) based entirely on electromagnetic and quantum electrodynamics principles. Neutral atoms contain equal amount of positive and negative charge that enable them to interact by both attractive and repulsive forces. The absolute magnitudes of these forces should be exactly and symmetrically identical. However, from a quantum mechanical perspective the picture is subtly different. In quantum electrodynamics the response of intermolecular bonds to external bipolar (attractive and repulsive) force fields is not exactly and symmetrically identical. In particular, the van der Waals interactions exhibit a well known asymmetrical characteristic that tends to enhance attractive over repulsive energies and forces on a microscopic level. This leads the symmetry between the forces to breakdown and leaves a clear non-zero net force synonymous with and indistinguishable from the force of gravity. Quantum electric gravity is in line with Newton’s, can substantially account for many of the phenomena attributed to general relativity and successfully reconciles these theories with that of quantum mechanics. Remarkably, quantum electric gravity theoretically derives the underlying formula for the gravitational “constant” G and predicts its nonlinear behaviour at high field intensities.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[55] **viXra:1205.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-14 07:46:41*

**Authors:** Bassera Hamid

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

There must be a paradox if we consider black hole as singularity in space-time!
Indeed, if all black hole mass is concentrated in one point (the alleged singularity) and its horizon consists in a sphere of radius R, then by definition of the black hole there must be no energy at all between the singularity and its horizon - for any energy inside the horizon must be absorbed by the so-called singularity! - this sphere must be absolutely empty.
The question then is, by which means this singularity does communicate with the rest of the universe?
It simply can’t! Unless we accept that the horizon of the black hole is exactly its surface, so the black hole can’t be a singularity but a macroscopic object .

**Category:** Astrophysics

[54] **viXra:1205.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-13 21:56:47*

**Authors:** Moshe Wallace Callen

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Originally published Phys. Essays 22, 1 2009

This discussion demonstrates a theorem that, if some hypothetical metric g for either
field-space or spacetime exists which couples to spin-1/2 field/particles, one can define a class of
four-indexed spin-1/2 fields with which the standard model gauge group
is automatically associated due to topological and geometric considerations, regardless of the nature
of the field equation by which any specific field is defined. Specifically, for this class of fields,
which reduces to a physically equivalent unindexed field in flat space where the metric g
reduces to the Minkowski metric, gauge transformations become exactly identified with
covariant transformations under general reference frame transformations. This identification is used
to construct a novel source of CP violation which may help to explain the degree to which the
symmetry between matter and antimatter observed in the universe is broken. © 2009 Physics Essays
Publication.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[53] **viXra:1205.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-13 12:04:50*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

In this paper you can find around 15 numerical relations which supply the correct values for the main physical constants; these relations are based on a Universe described by just three numbers: its mass, its radius and its age. Later, in the paper, I will also give an explanation for the subsistence of all those relations, also proving that oscillations are a basis for all the Universe, for all its essence and for all its existence and all those physical constants are in perfect harmony with an oscillating Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[52] **viXra:1205.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-13 03:33:15*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This is the (possible) culmination of premonitions I've been having about the future of science for about 30 years. My ideas often come to me in a flash, almost fully formed. Sometimes I read something in a science magazine which gives me a feeling that it's incredibly special for some reason. Then I think about it for a few hours and end up writing down things that are insanely ridiculous according to present science (but I have no doubt everybody will accept them in the future). My latest article - I shouldn't call it mine because it feels like knowledge that belongs to the whole universe throughout all time - began with explanation of instant intergalactic and time travel which I then adapted into a scientific explanation for how magick spells work and how sex changes can be performed using only the mind. This last example relies on something which stimulates the emotions, and shows that emotion can be used to stimulate the mind's reasoning processes (of course, any medical doctor will tell you that it has only stimulated ridiculous insanity in my mind - a preconception reinforced by my lack of a university degree, or any formal qualifications beyond high school).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[51] **viXra:1205.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-12 15:36:23*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that appearance of inequalities in the equations of thermodynamics with transition
to irreversible processes it is generated by attempts to consider irreversibility, disregarding its
reasons – nonequilibrium of systems. The decision of a problem is offered, founded on
introduction of additional parametres of spatial heterogeneity and representation of the external
energy exchange through streams on its border
(Показано, что возникновение неравенств в уравнениях термодинамики с переходом
к необратимым процессам порождено попытками учесть необратимость, не учитывая
ее причины – неравновесности исследуемых систем. Предложено решение проблемы,
основанное на введении дополнительных параметров неравновесности и представлении
внешнего энергообмена неравновесной системы через потоки энергоносителя на её границе).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[50] **viXra:1205.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-09 04:00:54*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper let us consider the process of neutron decay whether when neutron is free or when neutron is inside nucleus. Decay produces always one proton, one electron and a third particle, that we identify rather with electron neutrino than with electron antineutrino that is an altogether similar particle to neutrino. Neutrino and antineutrino are here considered energy quantum particles with zero mass, zero electric charge and zero spin and have the spectrum of frequency into the gamma radiation. A new explanation in regard to the continuous spectrum of velocities of beta electrons is then given. Let us deduce at last the value of spin for a few important particles of the microphysical world and define the numeric relation between angular spin and magnetic spin with regard to electron.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[49] **viXra:1205.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-09 07:44:01*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Using elementary geometry we have performed an approach to Pi .this agrees to the fifth decimal place .

**Category:** Geometry

[48] **viXra:1205.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-09 10:53:39*

**Authors:** Ke Xiao

**Comments:** 61 Pages.

Feynman proposed searching for -α^(1/2)=-0.08542455 with the ± sign on the -α^(1/2) for the positive and negative charge, and may be related to π, ϕ, 2 and 5. We found α^(1/2)≈±log e/Φπ=±0.0854372 where Φ=1/ϕ=2cos(π/5). I/FQHE R_xy=± Z_0/2αν_i α^(1/2)=±log e^(±ϕ/Kπ) where Φ-ϕ-e-π in Euler Identity and K~{3,37,61} from 2^((p-1)) (p-1)!∈2^n n! are linked to Quantum theories. The energy-mass formula E=mc^2 and special relativistic mass m=γ m_0 established the particle rest-mass m_0 , mass-ratio m_i/m_e , mass-defect ∆m . The rest-mass of a particle can be quantized by the fine structure constant and the proton-electron mass ratio β_(p/e)=(α^(-3/2)-2α^(1/2)+α^2/πϕ^2-ηα^3)lnπ . The hydrogen atomic rest-mass is m_(1_H )=m_(p+)+m_e (1-α^2 ln10) in the Quantum Gravity. The high-energy W^± boson α_W^(1/2)=≈±(1-αsin^2 θ_w)log F/Φπ , where Fransén-Robinson constant F=∫_0^∞□(dt/(Γ(t)))=2.80777⋯ replaced e=∑_(n=0)^∞□(1/(Γ(n)))=2.71828⋯ We get the g-factors of particles (Leptons and Baryons).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[47] **viXra:1205.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-08 16:42:54*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that Einstein's postulate on equivalence of mass and energy contradicts
the law of energy conservation and not correspondence with bottom of fact
(Показывается, что постулат А.Эйнштейна об эквивалентности массы и энергии
противоречит закону сохранения энергии и не соответствует существу дела).

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[46] **viXra:1205.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-08 04:17:50*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Lewin said: Publish this paper in a refereed journal and once it is accepted buy yourself a first class ticket to Stockholm to pick up Nobel prize for physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[45] **viXra:1205.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-08 21:13:49*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A non-empirical alternative to the Koide formula is shown to approximate the charged lepton mass ratios.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[44] **viXra:1205.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-09 00:54:56*

**Authors:** Miroslav Sukenik, Jozef Sima

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In the present paper, the model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe is analysed. The model involves an assumption of the nonexistence of big bang, inflation phase of expansion, dark energy, and extradimensions. Utilizing the model allows localize the energy of gravitation field, quantify the gravitation field and establish the Universe wavefunction. The exact value of the mass of the Higgs boson (mH = 125.39 GeV) and the axion (max = 1.28 106 eV) is calculated. The value of the neutron dipole moment (1.8 1030 ecm) is predicted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1205.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-03 09:48:45*

**Authors:** Georgy Nikitin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodical (-20"..0") and “random (-46"..+15") deflections of the light beam relative to the Earth surface were measured on the distance of 1.52 m during 109 days. The systematic non-refractional deflection of light beam down to the center of the Earth with average value of 11".6 was discovered. The atmospheric refraction coefficient k was considered to be stable and equal to 0.14±0.05. The absolute optical gravimeter was suggested for the forecast of major earthquakes. It was determined that the Moon phases have impact on long-period deflections with two days lag.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[42] **viXra:1205.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-09 12:34:50*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Galilean Electrodynamics, Spring 2012, Vol. 23, Special Issues No. 1, P. 3 – 13.

The explanation of the red shift in spectra of remote galaxies and cosmic microwave background radiation from the concept of an expanding Universe seems inadequate, and invites other explanations. The present paper studies the idea of cosmic red shift and microwave background radiation as a consequence of interaction between photons and previously unknown particles. It shows that the overall mass of the new particles in the Universe has the same order of magnitude as the mass of all the nucleons. Thus the problem of invisible dark matter may be solved. The question must be raised about the need for the existence of dark energy. In particular, the effect of attenuation of radiation from the distant supernovas is considered to be the consequence of scattering of photons on the new particles, but not the result of the dark energy activity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1205.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-07 15:57:14*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 4 pages. A new technique for cumulative enhancement of phase difference.

We propose novel technique for detecting gravitational waves using facilities at LIGO with certain easy changes in the process of detecting gravitational waves based upon a novel technique of adding up of the extremely small phase difference in two laser beams generated through passing of one wavelength of a gravitational wave. The change suggested in performing of the gravitational wave detection experiment that is carried out at present will be aimed at achieving adding up such phase difference that is produced through passing of each successive wavelength such that the cumulatively obtained phase difference through passing of sufficiently many wavelengths of gravitational wave automatically becomes detectable. The new suggested experiment in brief will proceed as given below. We begin with usual experiment using high energy well regulated pulsed laser source. When one pulse of laser beam will be emitted to move towards beam splitter we remove the source and replace it by a perfectly reflecting mirror kept orthogonally to the direction of laser beam incident on the beam splitter, and further this mirror can be moved in backward/forward direction as per requirement, by keeping it orthogonal to the direction of incident laser beam. Suppose there is squeezing along arm A and stretching along arm B of the interferometer producing the (very small) phase difference in the interfering light waves reaching back to beam splitter and let this phase difference is undetectably small so that almost all light is directed back to this new perfectly reflecting mirror, the one that replaced the source. Now, keep this mirror at such distance that the light that will reflect back from this newly kept mirror that replaced the source to act as source and to proceed again to fall upon the beam splitter and again will start running through two arms of interferometer for second round there will be again squeezing along arm A and stretching along arm B of the interferometer. Because of such arrangement the same amount of phase difference will result again and this will add up in the phase difference created in the first round. After sufficiently many bounces on newly introduced perfectly reflecting mirror replacing the laser source this phase difference will build up to a value so that now all light will no more be directed towards mirror that replaced the source but some light will go towards detector to offer a conclusive proof for the existence of gravitational waves!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[40] **viXra:1205.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-07 20:38:15*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 98 Pages.

Using Jiang function we prove the new prime theorems(1541)-(1590)

**Category:** Number Theory

[39] **viXra:1205.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-07 10:51:34*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Presentation from the 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems discussing the mythology of the memristor in relation to the history of memory resistors.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[38] **viXra:1205.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-07 14:12:22*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In the following paper I will explain how I can derive Relativity and Newton's laws from just one equation: lamda*f=c
This equation can explain also, why Relativity is the perfect theory of universe while Newtonian Mechanics lake the ability to describe nature correctly. Unfortunately, because of our life experience, our mind was adapted to mechanical physics. Einstein's theory of Relativity enable us to translate Newtonian Mechanics to Relativistic Mechanic by using some mathematicl expression that Einstien gave us
And than solve the problem, and than translate the solution back to the familiar mechanical world.
It is also shown in that paper that our universe is entirely wavy. It is shown that space is bend by the electric field and bend much less by gravitational field. Therefore particle movement in straight line is rare. The curved space due to electrostatic force and the fine structure constant are responsible to quantum behavior of the atom.
I also found that wave of matter are circular. While light can move in straight lines.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1205.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-06 18:08:51*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 59 Pages.

Presentation from the 1st Memristor and Memristive Systems Symposium held at UC Berkeley in December 2008.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[36] **viXra:1205.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-06 20:29:08*

**Authors:** Gubin Veaceslav

**Comments:** 8 pages, 2 figures, English/Russian

This article is an attempt to understand the world in which we live.
The interpretation and calculation of concrete (fixed) values for Big Bang time, the dark energy, dark matter, the lambda constant, Hubble constant, redshift

**Category:** Astrophysics

[35] **viXra:1205.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-12 15:38:37*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Detonation velocities, greater than that generated by high explosives (~104m/s), can be achieved by using the gravitational technology recently discovered. This possibility leads to the conception of powerful shockwave weapons. Here, we show the design of a portable gravitational shockwave weapon, which can produce detonation velocities greater than 105m/s, and detonation pressures greater than 1010N/m2 .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[34] **viXra:1205.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-06 11:27:07*

**Authors:** Thierry DeMees

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We analyze here the influence of gravitomagnetism upon fast moving particles and we find a physical mechanism for the lifetime dilation of mesons at very high velocities. One of the later arguments in favor of the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) was the discovery of a lifetime dilation of high velocity mesons. However, it has also been found that the observed lifetime dilation didn't correspond to SRT predictions. Moreover, SRT neither General Relativity Theory (GRT) ever explained any physical mechanism. When using gravitomagnetism, it
becomes clear that not a time delay, but an self-inductive gravitomagnetic compression component is responsible for a delayed decay of the meson. We also find that relativistic mass doesn't exist, but that only the gravitational
field gets accumulated to high values when the object's speed is close to the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1205.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 11:38:26*

**Authors:** Thierry DeMees

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This publication concerns the fundamentals of the dynamics of masses interacting by gravitation. We start with the Maxwell analogy for gravitation or the Heaviside field, and we develop a model. This model ofdynamics, which we know takes in account the retardation of light, allow us to quantify the transfer of angularmovement point by point by the means of vectors, and to bring a simple, precise and detailed explanation to a largenumber of cosmic phenomena. And to all appearances, the theory completes gravitation into a wave theory.With this model the flatness of our solar system and our Milky way can be explained as being caused by an angularcollapse of the orbits, creating so a density increase of the disc. Also the halo is explained. The “missing mass” (darkmatter) problem is solved, and without harming the Keplerian motion law. The theory also explains the deviation of mass like in the Diabolo shape of rotary supernova having mass losses, and itdefines the angle of mass losses at 0° and at 35°16’.Some quantitative calculations describe in detail the relativistic attraction forces maintaining entire the fast rotatingstars, the tendency of distortion toward a toroid-like shape, and the description of the attraction fields outside of a rotaryblack hole. Qualitative considerations on the binary pulsars show the process of cannibalization, with the repulsion ofthe mass at the poles and to the equator, and this could also explain the origin of the spin-up and the spin-down process.The bursts of collapsing rotary stars are explained as well. The conditions for the repulsion of masses are alsoexplained, caused by important velocity differences between masses. Orbit chaos is better explained as well. Finally,the demonstration is made that gyrotation is related to the Relativity Theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[32] **viXra:1205.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 11:41:46*

**Authors:** Thierry DeMees

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Since one century, Gravitation has been in the spell of Einstein's Relativity Theory. Although during decades,dozens of scientists have provided evidences for the incorrectness of this theory. And often successfully, butwithout finding a sympathetic ear. Here we will discover what is wrong with the theory, and what brings a lot ofscientists -in spite of that- to not dump it. We will not only discover that the Relativity Theory of Einstein is atricked variant of the authentic Gravitation Theory, but we will also be able to form an idea about how and whyEinstein did this. Did Einstein cheat? is no attack on the person of Einstein, or on its working method. For that thereasons are too few. But it is a beautiful example, in these times, of a too long idolatry of a theory, just like it wasthe time before Galileo in astronomy and the time before Vesalius in medicine. Most remarkable is that the correctGravitation Theory is an older theory than the Relativity Theory itself. In Did Einstein cheat? both theories areexamined and compared, put in their historical and scientific context, and applied on some essential physicalphenomena: the progress of the perihelion of Mercury and the bending of the light close to the sun.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1205.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 11:45:52*

**Authors:** Thierry DeMees

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Observation of some huge spinning black holes in the centre of galaxies, and surrounded by orbiting stars, shows that stars close-by the black hole orbit at much higher speeds than normally expected, whereas the velocity of stars at higher distances suddenly falls down to normal values.In a former paper “On the shape of rotary stars and black holes” I found the analytic expressions for the forces on rotary stars and black holes, due to the gyrotation forces. These forces are generated by the second field of gravitation, based on the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation (or historically more correctly: the Heaviside Analogy for Gravitation). In earlier papers, I showed the great workability of this analytical method, at the condition that the “local absolute velocity” is defined in relation to a major gravitational field instead of the “observer system” as with GRT. I found so the detailed explanation for the double-lobes explosions of supernova, and for the equator explosions. Here, I deduct the velocity distribution of orbital objects nearby or farther away from rotary stars or black holes.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[30] **viXra:1205.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 11:48:43*

**Authors:** Thierry DeMees

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Black holes generally are defined as stellar objects which do not release any light. The Schwarzschild radius, derivedfrom GRT, defines the horizon radius for non-rotating black holes. The Kerr metric is supposed to define the “eventhorizon” of rotating black holes, and this metric is derived from generally “acceptable” principles. The limit for theKerr metric's horizon for non-rotating black holes is the Schwarzschild radius.By analyzing the horizon outcome for rotating and non-rotating black holes, using the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation(MAG) (or historically more correctly: the Heaviside Analogy for Gravitation, often called gravitomagnetism), Ifind that the Kerr metric must be incomplete in relation to the definition of “event” horizons of rotating black holes. Ifthe Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation (gravitomagnetism) is supposed to be “a good approach” of GRT, we may assumethat it is a valid analysis tool for the star horizon metrics.The Kerr metric only defines the horizons for light, but not the “mass-horizons”. I find both the “light-horizons” and thethe “mass-horizons” based on MAG. Moreover, I deduct the equatorial radii of rotating black holes. The probable originof the minutes-lasting gamma bursts near black holes is unveiled as well. Finally, I deduct the spin velocity of blackholes with a 'Critical Compression Radius'.The deductions are based on the findings of my papers “Did Einstein cheat?”, “On the geometry of rotary stars andblack holes” and “On the orbital velocities nearby rotary stars and black holes”.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[29] **viXra:1205.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 11:53:18*

**Authors:** Thierry DeMees

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In my paper “A coherent dual vector field theory for gravitation” is explained how simply the Gravitation Theory of Newton can be extended by transposing the Maxwell Electromagnetism into Gravitation. There exists indeed a second field, which can be called: co-gravitation-, Gyrotation- (which I prefer), gravito-magnetic field and so on. In this paper, I will call this global theory the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation (MAG) “Gyro-Gravitation”. One of the many consequences of this Gyro-Gravitation Theory that I have written down, is that Dark Matter does not exist. At least far not in the quantities that some ones expect, but rather in marginalized quantities. Many researchers suppose that disk galaxies cannot subsist without missing mass that, apparently, is invisible, and which has to be taken into account in the classic Newton-Kepler model to better explain the disk galaxies' shapes. An remarkable point is that Gyro-gravitation Theory is not only very close to GRT, but more important, easy to calculate with, and coherent with Electromagnetism. It is no coincidence that nobody found the same result with GRT, not because GRT would obtain some other result, but because it is almost impossible to calculate with it. A demonstration is again given in this paper, where I deduce the general equations for the orbital velocities of stars in disk galaxies, based on the assumption of a simple mass distribution of the initial spherical galaxy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[28] **viXra:1205.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 11:56:49*

**Authors:** Thierry DeMees

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This is the second paper dedicated to detailed calculations of disk galaxies. The first is “On orbital velocities in disk galaxies : “Dark Matter”, a myth?” [2] wherein I explain how to calculate the mass distribution of a disk galaxy and the orbital velocities of the stars, starting from a mass distribution of the originally spherical galaxy. This is based on the extended gravitation theory, called “Gyro-Gravitation” or gravitomagnetism. No existence of Dark Matter nor any other fancy supposition is needed at all in these calculations. The objective of this paper is to find the mathematical equations related to the time which is needed for the star's orbit to swivel down to the equator. The total diameter-change of the disk galaxy in the time can be found as well. Yet, these deductions are simplified by keeping constant the bulge's gyrogravitational properties during the process. I leave to the reader to experiment with time-dependent models of gyrogravitational fields in the bulge. An explanation for the very limited windings of our Milky Way's spirals is a direct consequence of this paper.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[27] **viXra:1205.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 12:01:22*

**Authors:** Thierry DeMees

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Several observational studies of the main belt asteroids showed a direct link between the evolution of the spin vectors and the inclination of their orbit. A study wherein the evolution of 25 main belt asteroids and 125 synthetic objects was computed over 1Myr (E. Skoglöv, A. Erikson, 2002) clearly quantified this link. Verification of these results with the observation of 73 asteroids confirmed the results. Non-gravitational (YORP-/Yarkovsky-) torques are not considered here. Following observational conclusions have been made by E. Skoglöv and A. Erikson:
- the spin oscillations' amplitude increases with increasing orbital inclination of the asteroid.
- the largest spin oscillations' amplitudes are found if the initial spin vector lays in the orbital plane.
- the spin obliquity differences are generally insensitive to the shape, composition and spin rate of the asteroids.
- there is a significant majority of asteroids with a prograde spin vector compared to retrograde ones.
- the spin vectors of prograde asteroids are more chaotic than the spin vectors of retrograde asteroids.
- there are very few asteroids having a spin vector that lays in the vicinity of the orbital plane.
- the heliocentric distance is relevant for the spin vector behaviour.
In this paper it was found that the gyro-gravitation theory, which is the closest Euclid theory to the General Relativity
Theory of Einstein, complies very well with these observations.
We find that the asteroid's tilt swings continuously during a full orbit. The theoretical values of the cyclic tilt variations are calculated.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[26] **viXra:1205.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 12:04:12*

**Authors:** Thierry DeMees

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the paper “The Gyro-Gravitational Spin Vector Torque Dynamics of Main Belt Asteroids in relationship with their Tilt and their Orbital Inclination” I found the excellent compliance between the observations and the extrapolations of E. Skoglöv and A. Erikson, 2002, and the theoretical deductions according the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation. This implies namely the existence of the second gravitational field : Gyrotation (Co-gravitation). Six of the seven observations are directly explained by the theory. The seventh observation : “there is a significant majority of asteroids with a prograde spin vector compared to retrograde ones” is explainable by supposing that the asteroids are created, like most of the planets are, prograde. The theory found that the asteroids' spins are expected to end-up as retrograde. Two factors play a role : the speed of change of tilt due to gyrotation, and the other influences like the perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn or the gravitational librations. Here, mainly the gyrotation part is studied analytically and graphically, and commented.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[25] **viXra:1205.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 12:10:12*

**Authors:** Thierry DeMees

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The centre of the Milky Way is populated with so-called super-massive black holes. In most of the papers and
books about black holes at the centre of galaxies, the mass is said to be gigantic.
In this paper, we will see how to calculate the mass of these super-massive black holes out of observational data,by using the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation, and we see how to make the difference between real physical mass and apparent (fictive) mass. We discover that so-called 'super-massive black holes' do not have huge masses at all but that they have an apparent mass that can be thousands times the real mass. This suggests that the energy of such black-holes could decrease very fast in relative terms.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[24] **viXra:1205.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 12:18:14*

**Authors:** Thierry DeMees

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The high redshift value of quasars is generally described by the Hubble constant, related to the Doppler-effect due to the expansion of the universe. In this paper, we look closer to the part of the redshift that is caused by gyro-gravitation, which is the analogue application of the electromagnetic Maxwell equations upon gravitation. The result of our analysis explains the possibility of a high value difference between the quasar redshift and the related galaxy redshift due to the quasar's rotation (spin). Moreover, we find results that are within the observed redshifts, based only on the expected quasar-radius of a few light-weeks, without the artifact of an expanding universe.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[23] **viXra:1205.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 12:26:02*

**Authors:** Thierry DeMees

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Light is an electromagnetic wave with a dynamic mass, and with a zero rest mass. A fourth parameter is gyrotation, the second field of the Newtonian gravitation, discovered by using the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation. Here, we apply gyrotation for light. The dynamics analysis of the gyro-gravitation parameters for light turns out in the possible existence of a very tiny light fatigue and a very tiny redshift as a direct consequence. This redshift however is frequency-dependent, unlike the other causes for redshift, as the Doppler effect, the Ashmore effect, the gravitational redshift and the temperature redshift. The discovery of this quadratically frequency-dependent redshift allows us to set up the basis for an universal cosmic distance measurement gauge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1205.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 03:09:06*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxer

**Comments:** 15 pages

Your author, Glenn A. Baxter, P.E., has joined NPA, the Natural Philosophical Alliance, and they have asked me to speak at their July, 2012 international conference (See www.k1man.com/H ) in New Mexico and submit a summary paper of my paper, Not So Fast, Dr. Einstein (See www.k1man.com/c1 ) for their 2012 conference transactions. I have accepted. See www.k1man.com/c13 Also asked and accepting to speak was Dr. Chung Y. Lo. Dr. Lo appears to agree with your editor’s conclusions about the many errors in Dr. Einstein’s relativity theory and derivations thereof, most notably
We have asked Dr. Lo to also speak and present a paper at the August, 2012 physics colloquium in Portland, Maine. Dr. Lo’s credentials are incredible (PhD from MIT), and joins he the very short list of world wide scientists at the doctoral level who challenge Dr. Einstein’s relativity theory. Heading this list is Dr. Daniele Sasso of Italy. We also feature papers by your editor and also Electrical Engineer Greg Volk who also disagrees with Dr. Einstein. Other authors include John Huang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1205.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-04 14:23:15*

**Authors:** James Dunn

**Comments:** 12 Pages. A system of developments to characterize quantum entanglement.

Electricity at one time was magical; and now mundane. The same is true of space and time. Once the foundations of space and time are understood as described in Chapter 5 – “Pathway”, the methodologies for controlling space, time, and gravity become understandable and attainable.
Additional developments are available that provide greater detail, but the intent here is to formulate and initiate a system of efforts for the characterizing of quantum entanglements with regard to relativity in uniform fields of
physics such as gravity, centripetal force, acceleration… while providing the administrative influence to sustain economic growth.
The pathway itself provides for predictable systems of opportunities and career pathways to elevate students in higher education as scientists/engineers to become business development professionals as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] **viXra:1205.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-05 17:48:58*

**Authors:** James Dunn

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Separable Control of Space, Time, Gravity, Energy, and more Functioned Quantum Entangled Singularities (QES) Relativistic Matter as entanglements amongst Higgs-Boson & Gravity moderators

Relativistic Energy from relationships of Space, Time, and Gravity

Relativistic Gravity from Entanglement Moderators Space from Scalar Functioned Entanglements Time from Causal Functioned Entanglements

Systems of Quantum Aliasing with Transfer Functions providing “Probability Aliasing” Singularity Mechanics supporting superposition of Relativistic Mechanics Sub-atomic particles formed by systems of functioned quantum entanglements
This QESdunn Theory of Everything (TOE) is based in modern experimentation techniques and a practical methodology pathway is provided herein that provides the tools to easily prove wrong the proposed relationships. Such attempts are encouraged.
QESdunn unifies not only Electromagnetism and Gravity, but also instantaneous properties of entanglement and gravitational aberration, as well as all anomalies of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:1205.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-04 05:53:24*

**Authors:** A.S.N. Misra

**Comments:** 8 Pages. I include an abstract with this upload as requested and also as the first paragraph of the PDF.

Here we argue that entropy is more fundamentally an analytical than an empirical concept, thus explaining its hitherto puzzling manifestation in the prime number distribution.
We suggest a precise formula for quantifying the presence of entropy in the continuum of positive integers and we use this breakthrough equation (connecting the world of pure mathematics with that of physics) to strongly suggest possible lines of proof of the Riemann hypothesis and the P versus NP problem and also the necessary primality of the number one.

**Category:** Number Theory

[18] **viXra:1205.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-04 07:17:15*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Russian

The contradiction of the STR with the law of mass preservation and with a number of modern thermodynamics positions is disclosed. Necessity to separate from concepts of the inert, electromagnetic, gravitational, etc. mass is shown.
(Вскрывается противоречие СТО с законом сохранения массы и рядом положений
современной термодинамики. Приводятся другие аргументы, подтверждающие необходимость расстаться с понятиями инертной, электромагнитной,
гравитационной и т.п. массы).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1205.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 17:23:45*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 92 Pages.

Neutrosophic Physics.
Let be a physical entity (i.e. concept, notion, object, space, field, idea, law, property, state, attribute, theorem, theory, etc.),

**Category:**

[16] **viXra:1205.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 14:06:47*

**Authors:** Hans Schäfer

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

a new modell of the universe that removes the fundamental flaws of the big bang modell. it explains the nature of dark matter, dark energy and other phenomena not understood so far.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[15] **viXra:1205.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 14:13:34*

**Authors:** Bill Gaede

**Comments:** 6 Pages. International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics

Classical and Quantum Mechanics invoke waves, wave-packets and particles to provide physical interpretations to electromagnetic phenomena. However, these illustrations are neither supposed to be taken literally nor are they advertised as genuinely depicting the real world. Their sole purpose is to represent invisible interactions classically in order to provide a measure of physicality to the mathematical descriptions. It is thus that certain experiments are simulated with extended waves and others with discrete wave-packets. Duality raises questions as to the ad hoc nature of the representation and to the usefulness of abstractions as didactic and explanatory tools. Here we suggest that light has been misdiagnosed. We propose an alternative model that provides a faithful physical interpretation to the fundamental properties of light. We replace the electromagnetic wave with a two-strand rope and simulate the wave-packet as a torsion propagating from atom to atom along this twined entity. The fundamental assumption is that all atoms in the Universe are interconnected. The rope hypothesis justifies and simulates basic features and behaviors of light such as straightness, speed, and orthogonality, and merges light with gravity into a single mechanism.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1205.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 14:17:24*

**Authors:** Bill Gaede

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ICBEC 2010, Hong Kong, China

Extrinsic agents such as extraterrestrial impacts and disease will not cause the extinction of Man, but rather the collapse of his artificial economy. We argue that there is no productive category of the economy beyond the Service Sector in which to shift the global work force. As the Agriculture, Manufacturing, and Service Sectors continue to shed workers in a bid to reduce costs, this inevitably feeds Unemployment. A global economic regime in which an ever decreasing pool of workers subsidizes an ever growing army of unemployed is axiomatically unsustainable and conduces to system breakdown. That fateful day, profit-minded agricultural corporations will have no further incentive to produce food or deliver it to the cities.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[13] **viXra:1205.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 08:45:16*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Memristive system models have previously been proposed to describe ionic memory resistors. However, these models neglect the mass of ions and repulsive forces between ions and are not well formulated in terms of semiconductor and ionic physics. This article proposes an alternative dynamic systems model in which the system state is derived from a second order differential equation in the form of a driven damped harmonic oscillator. Application is made to Schottky and tunneling barriers.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[12] **viXra:1205.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 08:51:54*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A dynamic systems model is proposed describing memory resistors which include a filament conductive bridge. In this model the system state is defined by both a dynamic tunneling barrier (associated with the filament-electrode gap) and a dynamic Schottky barrier (associated with the electron depletion width surrounding the filament-electrode gap). A general model is formulated which may be applicable to many different forms of memory resistor materials. The frequency response of the model is briefly discussed.
Keywords- mem-resistor, non-linear dynamic systems, RRAM, ReRAM, Schottky junction, tunneling junction

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[11] **viXra:1205.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 08:57:16*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A dynamic systems model has previously been proposed for mem-resistors based on a driven damped harmonic oscillator differential equation describing electron and ionic depletion widths in a thin semiconductor film. This paper derives equations for set, reset, and retention times based on the previously proposed model.
Keywords- mem-resistor, RRAM, ReRAM

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[10] **viXra:1205.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 09:04:50*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It has been erroneously asserted by the circuit theorist Leon Chua that all zero-crossing pinched hysteresis curves define memristors. This claim has been used by Stan Williams of HPLabs to assert that all forms of RRAM and phase change memory are memristors. This paper demonstrates several examples of dynamic systems which fall outside of the constraints of memristive systems and yet also produce the same type of zero-crossing hysteresis curves claimed as a fingerprint for a memristor. This establishes that zero-crossing hysteresis serves as insufficient evidence for a memristor.
Keywords- non-linear dynamic systems, memresistor, phase change memory, RRAM, ReRAM

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[9] **viXra:1205.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 09:13:44*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is a short response to a recent paper by Kim et al. [1] which correctly notes that the zero-crossing pinched hysteresis loop of a memristor or memristive system must hold for all amplitudes, for all frequencies, and for all initial conditions, of any periodic testing waveform, such as sinusoidal or triangular signals, which assumes both positive and negative values over each period of the waveform. An example is noted from the literature indicating that TiO2 memory resistors might not be considered either memristors or memristive systems given this constraint.
Keywords- non-linear dynamic systems, memresistor, RRAM, ReRAM

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8] **viXra:1205.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-15 21:32:04*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It has been claimed that pinched hysteresis curves are the fingerprint of memristors. This paper demonstrates that a linear resistor in parallel with a nonlinear, square law capacitor also produces pinched hysteresis curves. Spice simulations are performed examining the current vs. voltage behavior of this circuitry under different amplitudes and frequencies of an input signal. Based on this finding a more generalized dynamic systems model is suggested for ReRAM and neuromorphic modeling to cover a broader range of pinched hysteresis curves.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[7] **viXra:1205.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 08:18:42*

**Authors:** Timothy Eller, A. J. Kassler, F. Chen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

System science is an interdisciplinary field of science that studies the nature of complex systems in nature, society and science. The aim of this study is to present a case study on the experimental performance of solar pump dryer. The drying curves are formed by the measurement of the material moisture content as a function of time under constant drying air condition.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[6] **viXra:1205.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-02 15:22:11*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, I’ll introduce some comments regarded to the paper “support for the thermal origin of the Pioneer anomaly” Turyshev [3]. These comments introduce the lack of the thermal origin of the Pioneer anomaly, and may refute it. My comments also support the proposed explanations fall into new physics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[5] **viXra:1205.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-02 16:48:59*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter (P.E)

**Comments:** 10 pages

The author proves that the speed of light, relative to any observer, is not constant in www.k1man.com/c1 and also, by contradiction in this paper. This leads to mathematical disproof of Special Relativity and its derivatives such as Dr. Einstein’s famous mass – energy equivalence, E = MC^2, which he incorrectly derived. Thus the very foundation of 21st century physics is invalid. This leads to the anti-neutron theory/model of the atom as detailed in www.k1man.com/c2

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1205.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-02 18:26:11*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In 1971 a “missing memristor” was proposed by a circuit theorist named Leon Chua as a 4th fundamental passive circuit element defined by a non-linear relationship between electric charge and magnetic flux linkage. In 2008 a research group from Hewlett-Packard led by Stan Williams claimed credit for finding this “missing memristor” based on the observation of a zero-crossing hysteresis effect. I recently proved that the zero-crossing hysteresis effect can be produced by dynamic systems other than the memristor or more generalized memristive systems. In light of this development I address several public comments made by Stan Williams regarding the history of the memristor.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[3] **viXra:1205.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-02 23:20:08*

**Authors:** Jay Yoon

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I will present a proof of Euclid’s fifth postulate (I.Post.5) that proves, as an intermediate step, a proposition equivalent to it (I.32); namely, that in any triangle, the sum of the three interior angles of the triangle equals two right angles. The proof that I.32 implies I.Post.5 and vice versa is well-established and will be omitted for the sake of brevity. The proof technique is somewhat unorthodox in that it proves I.33, which states that straight lines which join the ends of equal and parallel straight lines in the same directions are themselves equal and parallel, before establishing I.32, contrary to the order in which the propositions are demonstrated in Euclid’s Elements.
Two triangle congruence theorems, namely the side-angle-side (I.4) and side-side-side congruence theorems (I.8) are employed in order to prove I.33 without recourse to I.Post.5 or any of its equivalent formulations. In addition, a parallelogram is constructed by an unorthodox method; namely, by defining the diagonals upon which the parallelogram’s sides will be determined prior to the sides themselves. The proof assumes the five common notions stated in Book I of The Elements without explicitly making a reference to them when they are used. Furthermore, a figure is presented with color-coded angles and sides, with angles of the same color being equal in measure and sides of both the same color and the same number of tick marks being equal in length. The sides *GH* and *EJ* enclosed by brackets are indicated to be equal in length, the reason for the different notation being that the tick marks were used in reference to the halves of *GH*, namely *OG* and *OH*. The tick marks then refer to the parts of *GH*, and the bracket refers to the whole of *GH*; the latter is then equated to *EJ* by I.33, which is proven before its use.

**Category:** Geometry

[2] **viXra:1205.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-21 14:05:42*

**Authors:** J.A.J. Van Leunen

**Comments:** 372 Pages.

All features of the Hilbert Book Model are described. The Hilbert Book Model is a simple model of fundamental physics that is strictly based on the axioms of traditional quantum logic. It uses a sequence of instances of an extension of a quaternionic separable Hilbert space that each represent a static status quo of the whole universe. The HBM applies quaternionic quantum state functions in order to offer a completely new view on the undercrofts of quantum physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1205.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-01 15:24:04*

**Authors:** Fang Chen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

@@In this work, we continue to present some interesting problems in the Transylvanian Hungarian Mathematical Competition held in 2012.

**Category:** General Mathematics