[136] **viXra:1211.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-30 19:09:20*

**Authors:** Lamont Williams

**Comments:** 7 pages

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments this year have shown the existence of a new boson that resembles the Higgs boson. Although it is known that this particle has couplings to other particles that increase with their masses, the spin of the newly discovered boson is undetermined as of yet. The Higgs boson has been predicted to be a spin 0 particle. The LHC boson is not a spin 1 particle, suggesting that it is likely spin 0 or spin 2. Using concepts from Temporal Energy Theory, this paper proposes that the LHC’s Higgs-like boson will likely be found to be a non-elementary spin 2 particle with positive parity, suggests what the particle is, and describes how this information relates to the predicted Higgs boson of the Standard Model and the generation of mass in objects.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[135] **viXra:1211.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-29 10:44:29*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This note supplements a recent article \cite{lamm} in which it was pointed out that the observed spectrum of quarks and leptons can arise as quasi-particle excitations in a discrete internal space. The paper concentrated on internal vibrational modes and it was only noted in the end that internal spin waves ('mignons') might do the same job. Here it will be shown how the mignon-mechanism works in detail. In particular the Shubnikov group $A_4 + S ( S_4 - A_4)$ will be used to describe the spectrum, and the mignetic ground state is explicitly given.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[134] **viXra:1211.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-29 09:03:31*

**Authors:** Nige Cook

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A very brief two-page summary of CO2 opposing “negative feedback” data ignored/discounted by all IPCC reports.

**Category:** Climate Research

[133] **viXra:1211.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-29 09:00:11*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Belyakov A.V. On the independent determination of the ultimate density of physical vacuum. Progress in Physics, 2011, v.2, 27–29.

In this paper, we attempt to present physical vacuum as a topologically non-unitary coherent surface. This representation follows with J.A.Wheeler’s idea about fluctuating topology, and provides a possibility to express some parameters of the unit space element through the fundamental constants. As a result, we determined the ultimate
density of physical vacuum without use of Hubble’s constant.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[132] **viXra:1211.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-11 16:23:57*

**Authors:** Leonard Freeman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Current theory states that the magnetic moment of a charged particle is constant, or invariant in a slowly changing magnetic field. It also states that the magnetic flux through a Larmor orbit is constant.
The current theory is closely examined, and found to have inconsistencies. A new theory is developed with new results for both the energy and magnetic moment of a charged particle. The new theory predicts particle behaviour which is opposite to convention: for example, that a plasma will decelerate as it moves through a decreasing magnetic field. Conversely it will accelerate into an increasing field. The magnetic field of the sun would then act as a restraining influence on solar plasma ejections.
The new theory is developed for two forms of the magnetic field: an inverse square law and an exponential. The theoretical results are compared with recent experimental results for the velocity, deceleration, time and heights of solar jets and spicules. The possible effect on Coronal Mass Ejections and Coronal Bright Fronts is also examined.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[131] **viXra:1211.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-28 16:30:19*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez [ed]

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Gilbey et al (2010) carried out a pilot study for ascertaining whether mild hypoxia led to more optimistic (or pessimistic) judgements about the likelihood of certain life events than otherwise. This article provides detailed descriptive information about the results of that research.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[130] **viXra:1211.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-28 22:15:30*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

While the periodic table arrangement is usefully interpreted in columns of similar behavior, it is erroneous to imply that the underlying orbitals are the same for all the elements in each column of a block. It is important to understand that much of the sub-orbital information has been excluded! From the standpoint of chemistry, the “rule of eight” would have provided better imagery on which to build an orbital system than was Bohr’s orb-turned-sphere. A sphere is useless from a chemical standpoint. Hybridization should not have to occur to explain the simplest of molecules. Simplicity would have the electrons occupying orbital spaces that are similar in shape. Only three orbital types are actually needed to describe the electron packing configurations of the elements. Octahedral, square-planar, and pyramidal coordination complexes of the transition elements follow logically without the need of hybridizing. This brief paper describes a rational packing of electrons around an atomic nucleus that ends up mimicking the familiar extended periodic table when compressed to similar behavior.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[129] **viXra:1211.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-28 15:34:33*

**Authors:** Adam G. Freeman, Policarpo Y. Ulianov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper presents a new cosmological theory entitled the "Small Bang” model, a variation
on the Big Bang theory, in which all of the energy and matter observed in the Universe are generated
from the process of cosmic inflation.
In the Small Bang model, each galaxy arises from a small seed given by an antimatter micro
black hole. In the cosmic inflation process this micro black hole grows exponentially, breaking up
pairs of virtual particles and attracting those composed by antimatter, while repelling the matter
particles relying on matter-antimatter repulsion interactions. At the culmination of this process, a
rotating matter cloud is formed and at its center is an Antimatter Super Massive Black Hole
(ASMBH).
The effect of the ASMBH mass over the galaxy rotation is very small. However if we
consider that the ASMBH has a large angular momentum, a significant influence over the galaxy
rotation should be observed. Thus, the authors believe that the effects currently attributed to some
kind of Dark Matter, can be explained in a model that considers the mass and angular momentum of
the ASMBH that exists at the center of each galaxy.
The Small Bang model also explains some open points in the Big Bang standard theory, like
the missing antimatter in the galaxy, the galaxy formation process and the relation between the super
massive black hole’s mass and the galaxy mass. This new model also eliminates problems associated
with the initial black hole singularity, like infinite temperature, by proposing a Universe that starts
with an empty and cold space with a Planck length diameter.
The Small Bang model also represents an innovation to the Big Bang model that has remained
virtually unchanged for over 70 years. These new ideas have potential to change the way
cosmologists perceive the forming of galaxies and of our Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[128] **viXra:1211.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-27 16:16:08*

**Authors:** Nige Cook

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

A review of the objective science agenda in James Delingpole’s book: Watermelons, How Environmentalists are Killing the Planet, Destroying the Economy and Stealing Your Child’s Future

**Category:** Climate Research

[127] **viXra:1211.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-27 12:21:37*

**Authors:** Akinbo Ojo

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

When absurdities are removed from Euclid's description of the properties of space, space acquires a physical reality rather than just being a mathematical abstraction. Supplemented with an equally self-evident postulate, that points have a lifetime and can emerge and disappear from nothing, the full power of a universe tiled with such points is presented. Our description is qualitative and not a fully mathematical one. Apart from confronting arguments and paradoxes against finite geometry, we are able to deduce speculative models for mass, charge, action at a distance, motion resulting from action and reaction, energy propagation and cosmogony utilizing the most elementary of constituents, space and time alone.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[126] **viXra:1211.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-27 05:34:11*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The wave-particle duality is related with the decreasing of the wavelength. It explains why an atomic electron does not radiate (Bohr atom). But there are discrepancies with the Pauli exclusion principle and the Fermi-Dirac statistics. The spin-orbit coupling resolves these discrepancies producing the fine structure splitting of the atom energy levels.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[125] **viXra:1211.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-14 10:20:46*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 69 Pages. This is the final version of the paper that will be published in January 2013 in Number 4, Volume 35, 2012 pp 401-468 of the Hadronic Journal

We demonstrate that Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles naturally confine their gauge fields, naturally contain three colored fermions in a color singlet, and that mesons also in color singlets are the only particles they are allowed to emit or absorb. SU(3)C QCD as it has been extensively studied and confirmed is understood in broader context, with no contradiction, to be a consequence of baryons being Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles. Protons and neutrons are naturally represented in the fundamental representation of this group. We use the t’Hooft monopole Lagrangian with a Gaussian ansatz for fermion wavefunctions to demonstrate that these monopoles can be made to interact only at very short range as is required for nuclear interactions, and we establish topological stability following symmetry breaking from an SU(4) group using the B-L (baryon minus lepton number) generator. Finally, the mass of the electron is accurately predicted based on the masses of the up and down quarks to about 3% from the experimental mean for the quark masses, and confinement of quarks occurs energetically via fantastically strong negative binding energies that accord very well with experimental nuclear data. All of this makes Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles worthy of serious consideration and further development as baryons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[124] **viXra:1211.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-26 13:35:01*

**Authors:** I.M. Hanafy, A.A.Salama, K. Mahfouz

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Neutrosophy has been introduced by Smarandache [3, 4] as a new branch of philosophy.
Salama et al. [5] in 2012 introduced the neutrosophic data. The purpose of this paper
is to introduce a new type of data called the neutrosophic data. After given the fundamental definitions of
neutrosophic set operations due to Salama [5], we obtain several properties, and discussed the relationship
between neutrosophic sets and others. Finally, we discuss and derived a fomula for correlation coefficient,
defined on the domain of neutrosophic sets.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[123] **viXra:1211.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-26 11:25:36*

**Authors:** Philip Maulion

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

My assumption is that the 'Presence' of the 'Sujet pensant' is inevitable, so he is not naked in its own contribution when he highlights the laws of Nature. We must take account of the proper time of the subject (TpS). Then, my assumption is that by revisiting a number of concepts or even intangible results of fundamental physics, it is possible to highlight the occurences that are in agreement vith the hypothesis of TpS. I propose two experiments which could today be implemented in order to confirm or deny this hypothesis.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[122] **viXra:1211.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-26 10:16:26*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The universe that the light’s velocity is instead of and is likely parallel universe names the -parallel universe.The theory is the special relativity theory in the -parallel universe. In this time, this -parallel universe is the universe that can treat inertial systems. In this universe, be able to consider that the light has the velocity instead of and the permittivity constant instead of , the permeability constant is instead of . Hence, In this theory, be able to consider that the light has the velocity instead of . Hence, In this theory, each -parallel universe has each light velocity. Each light velocity or each permittivity constant and each permeability constant distinguishes each -parallel universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[121] **viXra:1211.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-25 18:28:33*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 3 references

It is known via common sense and empirical observation that gravitational accretion of a celestial object to gain mass and to gain any sort of coherence as an Earth sized object is false. Therefore the very idea of an object gaining mass non-stop or gaining mass at all because of gravity is arbitrary and can be disregarded.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[120] **viXra:1211.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-25 13:54:27*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 1 picture, 14 references

It is hypothesized that the beginning formation of bedrock which encapsulates the cooling silicate magmas happens during late brown dwarf early blue dwarf stages of stellar metamorphosis.

**Category:** Geophysics

[119] **viXra:1211.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-19 05:52:35*

**Authors:** Jose Javier Garcia Moreta

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

ABSTRACT: We study a given exponential potential
aebx on the Real half-line which is possible
related to the imaginary part of the Riemann zeros. We extend alsostudy also our WKB method
to recover the potential from the Eigenvalue Staircase for the Riemann zeros, this eigenvalue
staircase includes the oscillatory and smooth part of the Number of Riemann zeros.
In this paper and for simplicity we use units so 2m1
Keywords: = Riemann Hypothesis, WKB semiclassical approximation, exponential potential

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[118] **viXra:1211.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-25 05:50:00*

**Authors:** Nige Cook

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The lower the cosmic ray intensity, the greater the temperature: precisely what the Wilson cloud chamber mechanism predicts for cloud cover such as cirrus (around 15,000 feet). Cosmic rays boost Wilson cloud cover, increasing Earth’s albedo, cooling the planet. Calder’s “theory” of Wilson cloud chamber is not an opinion or a “speculative theory”, it’s a hard fact-based theory, going back to the earliest days of nuclear physics. The “error bounds” in the hockey stick curve are the fiddle. It’s true that global warming exists. What’s not true is the fiddles and fudges used to censor out the true extent of natural variations in order deliberately to correlate recent temperature rises simplistically to CO2 rises. Earth’s temperature fluctuates widely, but this has less effect on tree ring growth and ice sublimation than the IPCC believes, because as the air temperature goes up the cirrus cloud cover increases which partially cancels the increased growth of trees and the increased sublimation of ice (both of which depend on sunlight exposure to trees and ice, not just air temperature as the IPCC assume). Try saying this, and you are into classic taboo territory, in which it is socially nice to tell lies and pretend that CO2 is causing the temperature rise in the contrived hockey stick, which mashes together a horizontal line from tree ring proxies where naturally variable temperature swings are cancelled out by corresponding cloud cover variations, to more recent satellite data which shows a real temperature swing upward which isn’t seen in the tree ring proxy falsehood. There is a 50% chance of increasing or decreasing natural temperature swings, since a variable can increase or decrease with time (two possibilities). CO2 has an effect, but due to negative feedback (increased cloud cover to reflect sunlight away as the earth warms up), there is a thermostat in place which the IPCC exclude from the entire range of their climate models. The IPCC assumes (without evidence) that 100% of the temperature rise since satellite data arrived has been due to CO2 and related greenhouse gases. This is a pseudoscientific assumption.

**Category:** Climate Research

[117] **viXra:1211.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-01 21:56:14*

**Authors:** D.L Bulathsinghala, K.A.I.L Wijewardena Gamalath

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As the particles originating from point-like entities are associated with infinite self energies, a postulate, that the scalar-potential associated with particles are bounded by the Planck scale potential is presented. By defining the self-energy of a particle in terms of its scalar-potential, equivalences between charge-energy and mass-energy are obtained. The electromagnetic energy-momentum equation and de-Broglie's electromagnetic wave-length and frequency associated with a charge particle in motion are derived. Relativistically covariant electromagnetic energy and momentum expressions are obtained, resolving the 4/3 discrepancy. The non-covariance nature of the present classical electrodynamics is discussed and how the proposed postulate makes it a fully covariant theorem with the rest of the classical electrodynamics is presented. How the electromagnetic energy-momentum equation could potentially resolve the stability-problem of a charge particle is discussed and thereby a theoretical explanation to electron's spin is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[116] **viXra:1211.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-24 02:12:29*

**Authors:** Guowu Meng

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Let ${\mathbb R}^{2k+1}_*={\mathbb R}^{2k+1}\setminus\{\vec 0\}$ ($k\ge 1$) and $\pi$: ${\mathbb R}^{2k+1}_*\to \mathrm{S}^{2k}$ be the map sending $\vec r\in {\mathbb R}^{2k+1}_*$ to ${\vec r\over |\vec r|}\in \mathrm{S}^{2k}$. Denote by $P\to {\mathbb R}^{2k+1}_*$ the pullback by $\pi$ of the canonical principal $\mathrm{SO}(2k)$-bundle $\mathrm{SO}(2k+1)\to \mathrm{S}^{2k} $. Let $E_\sharp\to {\mathbb R}^{2k+1}_*$ be the associated co-adjoint bundle and $E^\sharp\to T^*{\mathbb R}^{2k+1}_*$ be the pullback bundle under projection map $T^*{\mathbb R}^{2k+1}_*\to {\mathbb R}^{2k+1}_*$. The canonical connection on $\mathrm{SO}(2k+1)\to \mathrm{S}^{2k} $ turns $E^\sharp$ into a Poisson manifold.
The main result here is that the real Lie algebra $\mathfrak{so}(2, 2k+2)$ can be realized as a Lie subalgebra of the Poisson algebra $(C^\infty(\mathcal O^\sharp), \{, \})$, where $\mathcal O^\sharp$ is a symplectic leave of $E^\sharp$ of special kind. Consequently, in view of the earlier result of the author, an extension of the classical MICZ Kepler problems to dimension $2k+1$ is obtained. The hamiltonian, the angular momentum, the Lenz vector and the equation of motion for this extension are all explicitly worked out.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[115] **viXra:1211.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-03 15:01:33*

**Authors:** Michael J. Burns

**Comments:** 3 pages, mburns92003@yahoo.com

Tensor ranks are not relative. Each tensor type and symmetry denotes its own class of geometric objects, that are not really interpretable as members of another class. Coordinate free geometry is the real theory, so tensor notation with coordinates can only be taken as a distant translation. But there is a perverse tradition in academia to the contrary. Vectors are used to portray physical objects that are plainly nothing of the sort. This only adds confusion to the study of mechanics and electromagnetism. Even in cosmology the wrong tensor ranks and operators are used, invoking a system of compensating errors that eventually go uncompensated on the edge. The two Bianchi identities, with the exterior derivative as the operator, are the correct foundation for the theory. These identities are geometric in their essence, not based in coordinate algebra. By contrast, the cosmological constant is simply a mathematical error. And there is an analytic blunder to deal with - the failure to include (into the cosmological equation) the fictitious source density of the fictitious potential that derives from the noninertial Friedmann coordinates. The equivalence principle demands this inclusion. Awareness of artifacts while integrating from geometric initial conditions on the two Bianchi identities is the method to bypass these errors. Coordinate artifacts are a superset of real curvature, and form a background condition that cannot be handled completely at the dynamical equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[114] **viXra:1211.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-23 14:13:49*

**Authors:** David Grace, Tony Marshall, Xiaodong Hu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Smart Grid Networks present a modern solution for network automation and digital communication in order to improve the efficiency, sustainability and reliability of electricity distribution. The development of Smart Grid networks is not a simple matter. Electronic grids consist of a large number of systems, intelligent and regular electronic devices, substations, switching stations, dispatching centers and many other elements. This paper analyse the technological requirements of intelligent Smart Grid network with a focus on networking aspects, standards and protocols.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[113] **viXra:1211.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-23 08:49:53*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

E8 Physics emerges from fundamental spinor fermions to condense into a 26-dim String structure with strings as fermion World-Lines with each fundamental fermion being surrounded by a Quantum Cloud that has Kerr-Newman physical structure corresponding to a Schwinger Source region with complex harmonic Wyler/Hua Green's function propagator. The Wyler/Hua complex bounded domain structure allows realistic calculation of force strength constants and particle masses. This outline sketch omits many details which are covered in vixra 1108.0027

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[112] **viXra:1211.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-23 07:40:52*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "pygrametl: A Powerful Programming Framework for Extract-Transform-Load Programmers", which can be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1651291.1651301.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[111] **viXra:1211.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-22 18:28:27*

**Authors:** Irene Ng, Glenn Parry, Laura Smith, Roger Maull, Gerard Briscoe

**Comments:** 22 pages, 4 figures

Purpose: This paper presents a visualisation of the firm's offering from a Service-Dominant Logic (S-DLogic) perspective. The case of Rolls-Royce is presented as an avenue through which to explore an alternative view of the firm's value proposition, a visualisation informed by S-DLogic that could aid organisations in their transition from G-DLogic to S-DLogic.
Design/methodology/approach: Through integration of an operations management approach in process mapping and design and simulation with choice modelling in B2B marketing this paper operationalises some of the key aspects of S-DLogic, most notably focusing on the constructs of value and resources. This is explored through a single case; Rolls-Royce which provides access to a rich source of internal and customer data.
Findings: The study finds that the S-DLogic visualisation of the firm's value proposition in equipment-based service consists of its contribution to 11 value-creating activities towards value- in-use. The visualisation depicts both the highest possible bundle of benefits for the customer along with the resources and their costs associated with delivering those bundles. When brought together these enable the identification of the optimal bundle of value-creating activities from both customer and firms' perspective.
Practical implications: Our study suggests that the visualisation of the S-DLogic-informed value- creating service system can assist the firm in their transition from G-DLogic to S-DLogic through changing mindsets and interrogating existing boundaries and legacy knowledge in manufacturing.
Originality/value: This paper provides empirical evidence of the difference between a G-DLogic and S-DLogic view of the firm's value proposition. In so doing, extending existing literature on S-DLogic by contributing to a methodological and empirical gap. Notably, it makes abstract concepts of S- DLogic concrete, providing a pathway for future empirical work and begins the process of systematising a methodology in S-DLogic.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[110] **viXra:1211.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-26 06:15:14*

**Authors:** Carlos Perelman, Fang Fang, Garret Sadler, Klee Irwin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Inspired by the recent sums of the squares law obtained by Kovacs-Fang-Sadler-Irwin we derive the law of the sums of the squares of the areas, volumes and hyper-volumes associated with the faces, cells and hyper-cells of regular polytopes in diverse dimensions after using Clifford algebraic methods.

**Category:** Geometry

[109] **viXra:1211.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-22 12:14:14*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The observed Higgs boson at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) is the Avatar Higgs boson as the dual SM (Standard Model) Higgs boson-forbidden lepton condensate. The SM Higgs boson is filled with the forbidden lepton condensate to become the Avatar Higgs boson. The forbidden lepton is outside of the SM three lepton families, so the single forbidden lepton cannot exist alone, and the forbidden lepton can exist only in the forbidden lepton condensate as the composite of forbidden lepton-antilepton. Unable to decay into the SM leptons and quarks, the forbidden lepton condensate decays into diphoton to account for the observed excess diphoton deviated from the Standard Model. Other decay modes of the Avatar Higgs boson follow the decay modes of the SM Higgs boson as observed. The calculated mass of the forbidden lepton condensate is 128.8 GeV in good agreements with the observed 125 or 126 GeV. The Higgs boson is the Goldstone boson in the Standard Model for the electroweak interaction. The transformation (spontaneous symmetry breaking) between massive particle and massless particle is through the massless scalar Goldstone boson. The addition of the Goldstone boson to a massless particle results in a massive particle. Near the beginning of our universe, the addition of the Goldstone boson converted some massless particles to massive particles to differentiate different forces and particles. During this process for the symmetry breaking in the electroweak force, the remnant of the Higgs boson acquired the mass of the forbidden lepton condensate to become the Avatar Higgs boson. In this paper, the space-object structures, cosmology, and the periodic table of elementary particles are described.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[108] **viXra:1211.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-22 08:37:01*

**Authors:** Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón, Marisol García-Peña, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Paper in portuguese

The aim of this work was the study of prediction errors associated with four imputation methods applied to solve the problem of unbalance in experiments with genotype×environment (G×E) interaction. A simulation study was carried out based on four complete matrices of real data obtained in trials of interaction G×E of pea, cotton, beans and eucalyptus, respectively. The simulation of unbalance was done with random withdrawal of 10, 20 and 40% in each matrix. The prediction errors were found using cross-validation and were tested in classic intervals of
95% for missing data. For data imputation, algorithms were considered using models of additive effects without interaction and model estimates of additive effects with multiplicative interaction based on robust submodels. In general, the best prediction errors were obtained after imputation through an additive model without interaction.

**Category:** Statistics

[107] **viXra:1211.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-22 08:15:53*

**Authors:** Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón;, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Paper in portuguese

The objective of this work was to evaluate the convenience of defining the number of multiplicative components of additive main effect and multiplicative interaction models (AMMI) in genotype x enviroment interaction experiments in cotton with imputed or unbalanced data. A simulation study was carried out based on a matrix of real seed-cotton productivity data obtained in trials with genotype x environment interaction carried out with 15 genotypes at 27 locations in Brazil. The simulation was made with random withdrawals of 10, 20 and 30% of the data. The optimal number of multiplicative components for the AMMI model was determined using the Cornelius test and the likelihood ratio test onto the matrix completed by imputation. A correction based on the data missing in the Cornelius procedure was proposed for testing the hypothesis when the analysis is made from averages and the repetitions are not available. For data imputation, the methods considered used robust submodels, alternating least squares and multiple imputation. For analysis of unbalanced experiments, it is advisable to choose the number of multiplicative components of the AMMI model only from the observed information and to make the classical estimation of parameters based on the matrices completed by imputation.

**Category:** Statistics

[106] **viXra:1211.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-21 19:08:01*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez [ed]

**Comments:** 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Gilbey et al (2010) carried out a pilot study for ascertaining whether mild hypoxia led to more optimistic (or pessimistic) judgements about the likelihood of life events than otherwise.
Their results showed that a small group of participants did not change or only slightly changed their judgements about life events under normal and hypoxic conditions. That is, overall optimistic judgement did not change but remained slightly above average. Particular judgements did increase or decrease slightly depending on the condition, but perhaps not enough as for suggesting any sensible effect of mild hypoxia on judgement. Changes occurred in either direction, depending on the judgement, and so there was no tendency for just optimism (or pessimism) to appear more extreme under mildly hypoxic conditions than under normal conditions within this group.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[105] **viXra:1211.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-21 13:18:47*

**Authors:** Shyam S Chandramouli

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Many decision making problems that arise in Finance, Economics, Inventory etc. can be formulated as Markov Decision Problems (MDPs)
and solved using Dynamic Programming techniques. Further, to mitigate the statistical errors in estimating the underlying transition matrix or to exercise optimal control under adverserial setup led to the study of robust formulations of the same problems in Ghaoui and Nilim~\cite{ghaoui} and Iyengar~\cite{garud}. In this work, we study the computational methodologies to develop and validate feasible control policies for the Robust Dynamic Programming Problem. In terms of developing control policies, the current work can be seen as generalizing the existing literature on Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP) to its robust counterpart. The work also generalizes the Information Relaxation and Dual approach of Brown, Smith and Sun~\cite{bss} to robust multi period problems. While discussing this framework we approach it both from a discrete control perspective and also as a set of conditional continous measures as in Ghaoui and Nilim~\cite{ghaoui} and Iyengar~\cite{garud}. We show numerical experiments on applications like ... In a nutshell, we expand the gamut of problems that the dual approach
can handle in terms of developing tight bounds on the value function.

**Category:** Statistics

[104] **viXra:1211.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-21 15:03:01*

**Authors:** Jaivir Baweja

**Comments:** 1 page. Latex.

This document outlines some of the key problems in American mathematics education.
They are based on observations by a 15-year old aspiring mathematician
inside a high school honors algebra class. The results are very shocking.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[103] **viXra:1211.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-21 10:29:40*

**Authors:** Shyam S Chandramouli

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this current work, we generalize the recent Pathwise Optimization approach of Desai et al.~\cite{desai2010pathwise} to Multiple stopping problems.
The approach also minimizes the dual bound as in Desai et al.~\cite{desai2010pathwise} to find the best approximation architecture for the Multiple
stopping problem. Though, we establish the convexity of the dual operator, in this setting as well, we cannot directly take advantage of this property
because of the computational issues that arise due to the combinatorial nature of the problem. Hence, we deviate from the pure martingale dual approach
to \emph{marginal} dual approach of Meinshausen and Hambly~\cite{meinshausenhambly2004} and solve each such optimal stopping problem in the framework of
Desai et al.~\cite{desai2010pathwise}. Though, this Pathwise Optimization approach as generalized to the Multiple stopping problem is computationally
intensive, we highlight that it can produce superior dual and primal bounds in certain settings.

**Category:** Statistics

[102] **viXra:1211.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-21 10:45:49*

**Authors:** V.A.I.Menon, M.Rajendran, V.P.N.Nampoori

**Comments:** 8 Pages. The contents of the paper were presented at the 27th Annual IAPT Convention and Seminar on "Recent Trends in Photonics" held during 2-4 November, 2012 at the International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, India

The authors after showing that the confined helical wave structure of electron is a viable one
proposes that its confinement is effected by the interactions with a virtual shadow antiparticle created by the vacuum fluctuations that could be explained on the basis of the uncertainty principle. It is suggested that the two negative energy solutions of the Dirac equation pertains to this shadow particle. These interactions allow vacuum to act like a thermal bath with the confined helical wave attaining a state of equilibrium. It is shown that this equilibrium is not destroyed even when it is in uniform translational motion. This invariance of the equilibrium to the velocity transformation is another way of looking at the theory of relativity. He suggests that other particles may be formed by the confinement of corresponding composite waves which have oscillations in the appropriate fields. This would allow us to generalize the approach based on the confined helical wave to cover all particles

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[101] **viXra:1211.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-21 08:32:25*

**Authors:** Nige Cook

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

CERN’s Large Hadron Collider detected a possible difference in masses between the CMS detector channels for electromagnetic decay (h→γγ) and ATLAS’s weak boson decay chain detector (h→ZZ→4l); ATLAS gave 123.5 GeV for weak decay chain h→ZZ→4l, while CMS gave 126.5 GeV for h→γγ. We argue that if this mass difference is real (rather than a systematic detector miscalibration of some kind), it indicates a statistical relativistic effect: the Lorentz contraction in the direction of motion affects self-interactions of a moving spin-0 massless boson with its own field quanta, affecting weak and electromagnetic decays to a differing extent. So in a spectrum of massive spin-0 boson velocities produced by an LHC collision, the fastest moving massive spin-0 bosons could be more likely than expected to decay by double gamma emission; the slower ones might be expected to be more likely than expected to undergo weak decays and four lepton emissions. The higher the speed, the greater the slowing due to time-dilation on massive Z boson decay processes, whereas there is no time-dilation velocity effect for massless gammas (which go at light velocity in regardless).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[100] **viXra:1211.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-25 05:04:13*

**Authors:** Mavriche Adrian

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The present document starts from the relative existence of the electromagnetic field, reaching through mental experiments to its connection with the gravitational field, without the necessity to resort to other space - time dimensions or supplementary "exotic" particles. The final conclusion is that the field "electro-gravitational" and electromagnetic field with accelerated source are two different manifestations of the same single field dynamic. Whilst demonstrating why there are light sources with "flee" towards the red or blue of the light spectrum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[99] **viXra:1211.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-20 22:00:56*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 10 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez continued a previous study by Perezgonzalez and Gilbey (2010), attempting to predict Skytrax's 2011 Official World Airline Star rankings from average ratings that passengers had given to those airlines, independently, on Skytrax's website. The regression formula was based on a single variable, the average 'Customer review scoring', which is a cumulative average of past ratings, including those given during 2011.

**Category:** Social Science

[98] **viXra:1211.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-09 04:49:32*

**Authors:** Eduardo Calooy Roque

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

General formulas for generating sequences of Pythagorean triples ordered by c-b are studied in this paper. As computational proof, tables were made with a C++ script showing Pythagorean triples ordered by c-b and included as text files and screenshots. Furthermore, to enable readers to check and verify them, the C++ script which will interactively generate tables of Pythagorean triples from the computer console command line is attached. It can be run in Cling and ROOT CINT C/C++ interpreters or compiled.

**Category:** Number Theory

[97] **viXra:1211.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-20 22:29:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

These are 6 short “Snacks for the Mind” combined with excerpts from “Intergalactic Plus Time Travel; Hyperspace and Space-Time’s Nature”, “Tomorrow’s Science Today”, “A New Earth And A New Universe”, etc. I’ve changed sentences here and there in the last 4, in an attempt to express my main thoughts (they were all very brief at first but #5 has become lengthy and #6 has had a long PS/PPS added to it – the PS talks about immortality while the PPS talks about Infinity, ESP, God and Satan the Devil). The first 2 are things I’ve been thinking about during the last week or two.
Snack #1 - Cancer cells are incredibly difficult to eradicate completely. So let's take a lesson from the martial arts and use their own strength against them. Let them live - but only after they've been bioengineered to mutate back into healthy, functional cells and tissues that reproduce at a normal rate.
Snack #2 - Can radio telescopes and infrared telescopes be adapted to allow amateur astronomers to view celestial phenomena through clouds and rain?
Snack #3 - Reconciling the Dark Flow with the Poincare conjecture and Figure-8 Klein bottles to reinterpret parallel universes, cosmic strings and wormholes.
Snack #4 - Cosmic-Quantum Unification and Einstein being centuries ahead of his time + Intergalactic and Time Travel
Snack #5 - MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) that fits in your pocket or purse; De=Hv+G (Dark Energy = Hidden Variables + Gravitation)
Snack #6 - God's existence proven by combining the inverse-square law with quantum entanglement! This Physics of the Impossible means evolution is not the Origin of Species - origin is due to a suprapantheistic unity of spacetime's spatial, temporal, hyperspatial, material, personality and mental parts; forming a union with humans in a cosmic unification (we know this as God). But "evolution" is still responsible for changes (adaptations) within species.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[96] **viXra:1211.0120 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-22 08:13:15*

**Authors:** J.A.J. Van Leunen

**Comments:** 153 Pages.

The objects that occur in nature can be categorized in several levels. In this collection every level except the first level is built from lower level objects. This collection represents a simple model of nature. The model exploits the possibilities that mathematical concepts provide. Also typical physical ingredients will be used.
The paper splits the hierarchy of objects in a logic model and a geometric model. These two hierarchies partly overlap.
The underlying Hilbert Book Model is a simple self-consistent model of physics that is strictly based on quantum logic. This paper refines quantum logic to Hilbert logic such that it more directly resembles its lattice isomorphic companion, which is a separable Hilbert space. The HBM extends these static sub-models into a dynamic model that consists of an ordered sequence of the static sub-models.
The paper is founded on three starting points: • A sub-model in the form of traditional quantum logic that represents a static status quo. • A correlation vehicle that establishes cohesion between subsequent members of a sequence of such sub-models. • The cosmological principle.
Further it uses a small set of hypotheses. It turns out that the cosmological principle is already a corollary of the first two points.
The paper explains or indicates the explanation of all features of fundamental physics that are encountered in the discussed hierarchy which ranges from propositions about physical objects until composites of elementary particles. Amongst them are the cosmological principle, the existence of quantum physics, the existence of a maximum speed of information transfer, the existence of physical fields, the origin of curvature, the origin of inertia, the dynamics of gravity, the existence of elementary particles, the existence of generations of elementary particles and the existence of the Pauli principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[95] **viXra:1211.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-20 09:32:35*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 references

It is hypothesized that the empirically measured existence of a solid metal core in the Earth has falsified the theory of gravitation as a method for Earth formation. Therefore Einstein’s gravitational theory is not a theory to describe large scale structures. An explanation is provided.

**Category:** Geophysics

[94] **viXra:1211.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-20 06:36:09*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 711 Pages.

Exemple de bancuri din această culegere:
• Deoarece Dumnezeu nu reuşeşte să urmărească chiar totul, a creat bătrânele, băncile şi bancurile.
• Singura problemă a lui Bulă e că el singur îşi creează probleme.
• Savanţii au descoperit, în sfârşit, ce vrea femeia. Între timp, aceasta s-a răzgândit...
• Diferenţa dintre blonde şi verbe este că verbele pot fi şi neregulate.
• Bărbatul ideal nu bea, nu fumează, nu se drogează, nu înjură şi nu există.
• Tânără, drăguţă, bogată, sexy, fără obligaţii, 90-60-90, plină de viaţă, pătimaşă, exotică, sălbatică în pat, vând tractor.
• Vara, creierul unui poliţist este cât un bob de mazăre, deoarece se dilată de la căldură.

**Category:** Linguistics

[93] **viXra:1211.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-20 01:16:08*

**Authors:** V.A.I.Menon, M.Rajendran, V.P.N.Nampoori

**Comments:** 8 Pages. The contents of this paper has been presented at the 27th Annual IAPT Convention and Seminar on "Recent Trends in Photonics" held during 2-4 November, 2012 at the International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, India

The authors after showing that a confined helical wave possesses rest mass, electric charge and half spin [1][2] now proves that such a wave is a solution of the Dirac equation. Using the confined helical wave representation of electron, the authors explain in a simple manner why the eigen value for Dirac’s velocity operator is ± c while the average value of the velocity of the wave packet formed by its positive energy solutions is the particle velocity. Further, the confined helical wave representation is seen to be consistent with van der Waerden equation and the zig-zag picture of electron proposed by Pen Rose.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[92] **viXra:1211.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-19 16:27:13*

**Authors:** Germán Paz

**Comments:** 75 Pages. The result in this paper (as well as some other results) has been published in ''General Mathematics Notes''. Journal reference: On the Interval [n,2n]: Primes, Composites and Perfect Powers, General Mathematics Notes, 15(1) (2013), 1-15.

In this paper we prove that the interval $[n,9(n+3)/8]$ contains at least one prime number for every positive integer $n$. In order to achieve our goal, we use a result by Pierre Dusart and we also do manual calculations.

**Category:** Number Theory

[91] **viXra:1211.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-19 15:26:45*

**Authors:** Germán Paz

**Comments:** 29 Pages. In Spanish. // En español. - Un resumen de este trabajo está disponible en http://www.abcdatos.com/tutoriales/tutorial/v2200.html. Dicho resumen fue realizado por Carlos Giraldo Ospina (Lic. Matemáticas, USC, Cali, Colombia).

En este trabajo se propone una demostración de que existen infinitos números primos de las formas $2p+i$ y $2p-i$, con $p$ primo e $i$ entero positivo impar. Pruebas de teoremas más generales se proponen en los artículos viXra:1202.0061 y viXra:1202.0063. // In this paper we propose a proof that there exist infinitely many prime numbers of the forms $2p+i$ and $2p-i$, where $p$ is a prime number and $i$ is a positive odd integer. Proofs of more general theorems are proposed in the articles viXra:1202.0061 and viXra:1202.0063.

**Category:** Number Theory

[90] **viXra:1211.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-19 14:47:16*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 5 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez continued a previous study by Perezgonzalez and Gilbey (2010), attempting to predict Skytrax's 2011 Official World Airport Star rankings from average ratings that passengers had given to those airports, independently, on Skytrax's website. The regression formula was based on a single variable, the average 'Customer review scoring', which is a cumulative average of past ratings, including those given during 2011.

**Category:** Social Science

[89] **viXra:1211.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-19 13:56:24*

**Authors:** Stephen Crowley

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Maximum likelihood estimation of the negative binomial distribution via numerical
methods is discussed.

**Category:** Statistics

[88] **viXra:1211.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-19 12:13:13*

**Authors:** V.A.I.Menon, M.Rajendran, V.P.N.Nampoori

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Contents of this paper has been presented at 27th Annual IAPT Convention held during 2-4 November, 2012 at the International School of Photonics at Kochi, India

The authors show that that just as the rest mass and the spin, the electric charge of electron can also be attributed to its confined helical wave structure [1]. It turns out that the fine structure constant is the ratio of the electromagnetic field energy of the electron to its rest mass energy. The magnetic dipole moment of the electron also emerges in a simple manner from the confined helical wave structure of electron.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[87] **viXra:1211.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-24 07:39:51*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Added: Answer on Spinor problem. An extended passage on gauge invariance was added.

The Integrability of Maxwell's Equation (in Lorentz gauge) is shown and discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[86] **viXra:1211.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-11 09:48:42*

**Authors:** A. O. Adekugbe Joseph

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Change done because of error in the abstract

We derive the properties of the absolute-absolute spacetime containing the absolute-absolute rest masses of particles and bodies to complement the first part of this paper. We establish the perfect isotropy and consequently the spherical shape of the universal ‘three-dimensional’ absolute-absolute space and the absolute-absolute rest masses of particles and bodies contained in it, relative to observers in the flat physical spacetime of the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR), but that the ‘three-dimensional’ absolute-absolute space naturally contracts to an isotropic ‘one-dimensional’ absolute-absolute space containing lines of absolute-absolute rest masses of particles and bodies, (which has no unique orientation in the physical Euclidean 3-space) relative to observers in the flat physical spacetime. We show further that the universal spherical absolute-absolute space effectively contains a ‘massless dust particle’ of absolute zero rest mass and absolute zero extension at every point of it and is without a unique center, but must be replaced by the universal isotropic `one-dimensional’ absolute-absolute space with no unique base (or origin), containing a ‘massless dust particle’ of absolute zero rest mass and absolute zero extension at every point along its length, relative to observers in the flat physical spacetime of TGR. We also show that the universal absolute-absolute time ‘dimension’ is perfectly homogeneous relative to observers in the physical spacetime. We show that the concepts of co-moving coordinates (or frames), ‘everywhereness’ and simultaneity obtain in the absolute-absolute spacetime and its underlying absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic spacetime relative to observers in physical spacetime. Finally we demonstrate the impossibility (or non-existence) of absolute-absolute natural laws of physics in the absolute-absolute spacetime relative to observers in spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[85] **viXra:1211.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-30 07:21:42*

**Authors:** A. O. Adekugbe Joseph

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Change doen to the abstract

We show that the third layer of space-time-mass namely, the flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic spacetime containing the ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic rest masses of particles and bodies, in the derived spacetime/intrinsic spacetime diagrams in every gravitational field in the previous papers, is made manifest outwardly in flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime containing the ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute rest masses of particles and bodies, with respect to observers in the flat four-dimensional physical spacetime of the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR); that the flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime containing the absolute rest masses of particles and bodies is imperceptibly embedded in the flat four-dimensional spacetime containing the inertial masses of particles and bodies and that the ‘one-dimensional’ absolute-absolute space is an isotropic ‘dimension’ (with no unique orientation in the physical Euclidean 3-space, with respect to observers in the physical spacetime. We develop the Newtonian theory of absolute-absolute gravity (NAAG) and Newtonian theory of absolute-absolute motion (NAAM) on the flat absolute-absolute spacetime with respect to observers in the physical spacetime and show that these are the only theories that qualify to be described as Newton's mechanics in a Newtonian absolute space, which Leibnitz pointed out. We therefore identify the flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime as the Newtonian absolute spacetime (of classical mechanics); the ‘one-dimensional’ isotropic absolute-absolute space being the controversial Newtonian absolute space, the absolute-absolute time ‘dimension’ being the universal synchronous time coordinate that appears in the Gaussian line element and the absolute-absolute time being the universal absolute time parameter of classical mechanics. We conclude with a brief history of the controversies that the Newtonian absolute space concept has generated since Newton's time and the definite resolution of the controversies in the present theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[84] **viXra:1211.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-18 17:18:57*

**Authors:** Stuart J. Nettleton

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Asset turnover has been used for approximately a century in corporate capital allocation. Capital expansion coefficients have been used in the Leontief Dynamic Model but the use of asset turnover ratios to regulating production growth in Computable General Equilibrium models has been limited. This research investigates the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between productive assets and production of commodities. The hypothesis is tested in global economic data using static and chain probabilistic graphical model selection. It was found that the hypothesis is supported for a significant number of commodities. The confirmation of the hypothesis establishes that production to assets ratios for commodities are endogenous regulators of production growth.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[83] **viXra:1211.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-18 17:24:14*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez [ed]

**Comments:** 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Haller and Krauss (2000) carried out a study on common misinterpretations of tests of significance among German psychology students and academics, which partly replicates one done by Oakes (19863). Haller and Krauss found that most participants held at least one misinterpretation out of six presented. They also found that, overall, 100% of psychology students held one or more misinterpretations (mean=2.5), almost 90% of psychology researchers also held one or more misinterpretations (mean=2), and 80% of instructors of statistics in psychology also held one or more misinterpretations (mean=1.9). The authors thought worrisome the high percentage of instructors with misinterpretations, as these may pass those misinterpretations down to students. Another interesting result, one not highlighted by the authors, though, is the high percentage of researchers (including instructors when carrying out and publishing research) with misinterpretations, as these would perpetuate those when publishing, peer-reviewing others' publications, and making research-informed decisions (such as chairing committees, granting funding, etc).

**Category:** Social Science

[82] **viXra:1211.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-18 21:11:04*

**Authors:** Nikzad Babaii Rizvandi, Albert Y. Zomaya

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A survey of available techniques in hardware to reduce energy consumption

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[81] **viXra:1211.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-20 01:14:14*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

These are 6 short “Snacks for the Mind” (Food for Thought that I’ve written during the last 2 days). Actually, most of these snacks are from articles I posted to vixra months ago. I’ve only changed a few sentences here and there in the last 4, in an attempt to express my main thoughts very briefly (but still clearly). The first 2 are things I’ve been thinking about during the last week or two.
Snack #1 - Cancer cells are incredibly difficult to eradicate completely. So let's take a lesson from the martial arts and use their own strength against them. Let them live - but only after they've been bioengineered to mutate back into healthy, functional cells and tissues that reproduce at a controlled rate.
Snack #2 - Can radio telescopes and infrared telescopes be adapted to allow amateur astronomers to view celestial phenomena through clouds and rain?
Snack #3 - Reconciling the Dark Flow with the Poincare conjecture and Figure-8 Klein bottles to reinterpret parallel universes, cosmic strings and wormholes.
Snack #4 - Cosmic-Quantum Unification and Einstein being centuries ahead of his time + Intergalactic and Time Travel
Snack #5 - MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) that fits in your pocket or purse; De=Hv+G (Dark Energy = Hidden Variables + Gravitation)
Snack #6 - God's existence proven by combining the inverse-square law with quantum entanglement! This Physics of the Impossible means evolution is not the Origin of Species - origin is due to a suprapantheistic unity of spacetime's spatial, temporal, hyperspatial, material, personality and mental parts; forming a union with humans in a cosmic unification (we know this as God). But "evolution" is still responsible for changes (adaptations) within species.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[80] **viXra:1211.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-19 00:58:18*

**Authors:** Nasser Almismari

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This is a new method to express The power sums of (n^m) as a (m+1)th-degree polynomial equation of n, there is some methods like "Faulhaber's formula" and others gives the solution of the power sums. nevertheless my method is doing the same but it does not depend on Bernoulli numbers or integrals as it is a simple algebraic way giving a polynomial equation and proved in a elementary algebraic logic.

**Category:** Number Theory

[79] **viXra:1211.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-22 20:46:38*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 5 illustrations, 2 pictures

It is hypothesized a reason why Mars is covered with iron oxide on the surface and is also included artists conceptions of the surface conditions as it loses its water oceans from its shrinking magnetic field protection cause by the neutralization of the silicate interior

**Category:** Astrophysics

[78] **viXra:1211.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-14 16:04:32*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Nardozza

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A method for dealing with the product of step discontinuous and delta functions is proposed. A standard method for applying the above defined product of distributions to polyhedron vertices is analysed and the method is applied to a special case where the well known defect angle formula, for the discrete curvature of polyhedra, is derived using the tools of tensor calculus.

**Category:** Geometry

[77] **viXra:1211.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-17 20:07:28*

**Authors:** Scott Lifan Gu

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The earliest version of this paper is at: https://ia600801.us.archive.org/29/items/GuTest/GuTest.txt

Do computers already have human level intelligence? Could they understand and process the semantics of irrational numbers without knowing the exact values ? Human can. How about uncountable sets ? These are necessary to build sciences and real world modeling. Does human intelligence exceed the power of Turing Machine? This paper explains that behavior-based Turing Test cannot measure some intrinsic human intelligence, due to the bottleneck in expression, the bottleneck in capacity, and black box issue, etc. And it does not provide a progressive measurement up to human level intelligence. Similar issues exist in other current testing methods, due to the limitations of behavior-based, knowledge-based or task-based, etc. Measurements based on intrinsic mechanisms could provide better testing. This paper identifies several design goals, to further improve the measurement. Gu Test, a progressive generic intelligence measurement with levels and potential structures, is proposed based on these goals, to measure the intrinsic mechanism for semantics, potential and other intelligence. The semantics of irrational numbers and uncountable sets are identified as two test levels. More work need be done to expand the test feature sets and structures, and provide some suggestions for the direction of future Artificial Intelligence (AI) researches.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[76] **viXra:1211.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-17 14:18:22*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The problem of reference frames was a long standing one which existed and was confusing for hundreds of years since the time of Galileo, until the ‘solution‘ provided by Einstein. However, the whole theory of relativity is considered invalid in this paper and my other paper1 in which I have attempted to show that the speed of light is constant only relative to its source and that the whole relativity theory is based on a mistake made by Maxwell in his assumptions about ‘free’ space. Relativity theory gave no explanation as to why planetary orbits are non-circular. Even the explanations given by general relativity on bending of light near the sun and Mercury perihelion advance are based on the estimated mass of the sun , which I have shown in my other paper2 to be overestimated. The problems of non- circular orbits and perihelion advance are fundamental ones connected to the long standing problem of reference frames. Therefore, the problem of reference frames is still an unsolved problem. This paper hopefully provides the ultimate solution. There is an absolute reference point in the universe with respect to which nature defines and determines its simple, elementary and universal laws and phenomena. The laws of physics (Newton’s laws) have been implicitly defined with respect to reference frames that are fixed to and moving with the systems to which they are to be applied. Newton’s laws never correctly (exactly) predicted the phenomena of nature, such as non –circular planetary orbits and Mercury perihelion advance. The fundamental reason is that those elementary Newton’s laws were not defined with respect to the absolute reference point. Nature defines and determines its laws and phenomena with respect to that absolute reference point, where as Newton’s laws are implicitly defined with respect to reference frames fixed to and moving with natural systems to which they are to be applied. Ideally, the problem was that Newton formulated his laws which he never observed (exactly) happen physically. He never observed circular orbits, but he formulated laws implying circular orbits. Ideally, he should have stated the reference frame with respect to which his laws are defined AND observed exactly as formulated. All correct laws of physics should predict natural phenomena correctly if they are to be considered correct. The absolute reference point is what it is (an absolute reference) because it just happens that the laws of physics happen to be simple, elementary, universal and be able to predict natural phenomena correctly only when they are defined with respect to that point. Newton’s laws can predict planetary orbits correctly only if they are redefined with respect to the absolute reference point. The reference frame of the observer has no fundamental role. The problem of orbit prediction should be solved in an absolute reference frame, and the results transformed to the reference frame of the observer. Can we discover the absolute reference point in the universe? Theoretically, yes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[75] **viXra:1211.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-17 02:37:50*

**Authors:** Mohammad Mahdi Emami, Behrooz Arezoo

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I this paper, a simulation model of CNC feed-drive's servo-control system, witch could be utilized to design and develop CNC controllers, is presented. A precise model of machine tools components and controller, which we may call virtual machine, is employed as an experimental aid to carry out practical and economical test for verifying command generation modules.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[74] **viXra:1211.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-20 17:57:17*

**Authors:** Stephen Crowley

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Hawkes process having a kernel in the form of a linear combination of exponential functions ν(t)=sum_(j=1)^Pα_j*e^(-β_j*t) has a nice recursive structure that lends itself to tractable likelihood expressions. When P=1 the kernel is ν(t)=α e^(-β t) and the inverse of the compensator can be expressed in closed-form as a linear combination of exponential functions and the LambertW function having arguments which can be expressed as recursive functions of the jump times.

**Category:** Statistics

[73] **viXra:1211.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-11 20:50:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 6 Pages. published in Prespacetime Journal, Dec. 2012, http://www.prespacetime.com

In the present paper, we make some comments on a recent paper by Sivaram & Arun in The Open Astronomy Journal 2012, 5, 7-11 with title: ‘Primordial rotation of the Universe, Hydrodynamics, Vortices and angular momenta of celestial objects’, where they put forth an interesting idea on the origin of rotation of stars and galaxies based on torsion gravity. We extend further their results by hypothesizing the presence of quantized vortices in relation with the torsion vector. If the hypothesis is proven and observed, then it can be used to explain numerous unexplainable phenomena in galaxies etc. The quantization of circulation can be generalized to be Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rules, which are found useful to describe quantization in astrophysical phenomena, i.e. planetary orbit distances. Further recommendation for observation of the proposed quantized vortices of superfluid
helium in astrophysical objects is also mentioned.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[72] **viXra:1211.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-17 04:52:33*

**Authors:** Jacob Biemond

**Comments:** 16 Pages, including 1 figure and 4 tables

A comprehensive model for the explanation of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), predicting seven QPO frequencies has recently been presented. In this work it is applied to the observed QPOs of Scorpius X-1. The three highest QPO frequencies are assumed to arise from three circular tori: an inner torus with charge Q_{i}, a torus with mass m_{m} in the middle and an outer torus with charge Q_{o}, whereas the star bears a charge Q_{s} (three tori model).
As a consequence of a special interpretation of the gravitomagnetic theory, the three tori are subjected to a total number of four precessions. Expressions for the resulting four gravitomagnetic precession frequencies have recently been presented. It is argued that observation of Lense-Thirring precession need not to become manifest in this approach.
For the Kepler-like frequency of the torus with total mass m_{m} the additional contribution of the gravitational interaction between a mass element dm_{m} and the remaining mass in the torus is explicitly calculated for the first time. The contribution appears to be small.
Predictions of the new model are compatible with two sets of seven QPOs, extracted from observations of Sco X-1. The results are compared with corresponding observations and predictions for four other pulsars and two black holes. Estimates for the Lense-Thirring precessions are also compared with observed QPO frequencies.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[71] **viXra:1211.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-15 21:37:28*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez [ed]

**Comments:** 2 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Falk and Greenbaum (1995) carried out a study on common misinterpretations of the logic of tests of significance among Israeli psychology students, which partly replicates one by Oakes (1986). Typically, most of these misinterpretations confuse p-values (ie, the probability of the data when assuming that the null hypothesis is true) and, especially, statistical significance, with the probability of proving or disproving hypotheses (be this the null hypothesis or an alternative hypothesis).
Falk and Greenbaum found that almost 87% of the students held at least one misinterpretation out of the four presented. Most of the students misinterpreted p-values as the probability of the null hypothesis being true.

**Category:** Social Science

[70] **viXra:1211.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-15 15:15:50*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Relation between the three dimensionless physical constants, related to masses of neutron, proton and electron, is presented.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[69] **viXra:1211.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-14 18:56:30*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez [ed]

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Oakes (1986) carried out a study on common misinterpretations of the logic of tests of significance among British psychology academics. Typically, most of these misinterpretations confuse p-values (ie, the probability of the data when assuming that the null hypothesis is true) and, especially, statistical significance, with the probability of proving or disproving hypotheses (be this the null hypothesis or an alternative hypothesis). Another misinterpretation is the so-called "replication fallacy", which occurs when the p-value is assumed to represent the probability of finding similar results if the research were to be repeated.

**Category:** Social Science

[68] **viXra:1211.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-14 14:57:08*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Previous work has argued that many of the puzzling effects in quantum theory can be explained in principle as the emergent statistical outcome of "chaotic enough" nonlinear PDE, if no additional assumptions such as classical time-forwards statistics or renormalizations are grafted on to what can be deduced from the PDE. But what kinds of PDE could be suitable? This paper provides one (unified) candidate, based on a classical linkage of general relativity with a form of electroweak theory with modified Higgs field, hopefully yielding modified "quarks" as well as electrons as solitons. Ansatz included.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[67] **viXra:1211.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-27 11:58:05*

**Authors:** J. Bajnok

**Comments:** 6 Pages, 5 Figures

The phenomenon of the transverse Doppler effect provides an opportunity to validate the twin paradox (or clock paradox). Using this approach, a contradiction can be shown between the theory and the experimental results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[66] **viXra:1211.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-14 12:10:06*

**Authors:** V.A.I.Menon, M.Rajendran, V.P.N.Nampoori

**Comments:** 17 Pages. The contents of the paper were presented at 27th Annual IAPT Convention and Seminar on "Recent Trends in Photonics" held during 2-4 November, 2012 at the International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Tech., Kochi, India

We show that the energy and the momentum of the standing waves formed by trapping electromagnetic waves between two reflecting surfaces transform exactly like those of a point particle. When such a standing wave system is given translational motion, it is observed that its time-dependent part transforms into a plane wave while its space dependent part becomes the amplitude wave which gets compacted into the internal coordinates. Using the idea that the electromagnetic waves can have spatial amplitude, we show that if such a wave is confined after imparting spinning motion, a system of two confined helical waves is formed with the one travelling forward in time forming electron and the one travelling backward in time forming positron. The confined helical wave picture of the particle gives a simple explanation of Pauli’s exclusion principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[65] **viXra:1211.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-14 10:40:28*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 references

It is hypothesized that Venus is also a black dwarf star, more than likely older than the Earth.

**Category:** Geophysics

[64] **viXra:1211.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-14 10:59:09*

**Authors:** Natasha Lee, Joan Portmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The paper deals with the problems of characterization of simple graphical partitions belonging to the solid graphs, i.e. graphs, in which there are no four of vertices such that it is possible some shift of edges incidental to them and with characterization of the one class of steady graphs too. The necessary and sufficient
conditions for the partition belonging to the solid graph have been established.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[63] **viXra:1211.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-13 17:11:46*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article presents the results of a simulation on the nutritional balance of breakfast meals, carried out as part of a research on the nutritional composition of breakfast in New Zealand. A breakfast meal is understood as a combination of breakfast cereals with water, milk, non-dairy milk or yogurt.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[62] **viXra:1211.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-14 00:34:45*

**Authors:** Farrukh Ataev

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A new concept of exponential-geometric mean is introduced and its properties are analyzed.

**Category:** Number Theory

[61] **viXra:1211.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-13 13:49:49*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The ‘elliptical’ shape of planetary orbits results from motion of the solar system. The planetary orbits are essentially not elliptical. Motion of the solar system also results in the increase of the sizes of the orbits. The solar system is not only moving, but also moving with acceleration around an outward spiraling orbit. This acceleration leads to non fixed planetary orbits. Due to the acceleration of the solar system, the planets are moving in orbits that continuously increase in size. Thus, the planets are not actually moving in fixed orbits, but rather in a spiral path around the sun due to the acceleration of the sun so that the planets are always slightly receding away from the sun. (This effect is analogous with electromagnetism in which an accelerating charge radiates an EM wave). The acceleration of the solar system can be explained by the same factor causing acceleration of galaxies. Thus the paradigm of fixed orbits should be abandoned, according to this theory. If the solar system was not moving, the orbits would be circular and smaller. The apparent perihelion advance of Mercury may also be explained by this theory. It may be because of the non steady state condition and the accumulation of ‘errors’ throughout every revolution, and the position, speed and direction at the end of each revolution becomes the initial condition for the next revolution and hence the apparent perihelion advance in a complicated way. According to the theory proposed in this paper, a perihelion point always is at ninety degrees to the left of the sun (for counterclockwise revolution) when looking in the direction of motion of the solar system and cannot change in a steady state condition. Therefore, no sustainable orbital precession is possible in a steady state condition. However, there is no steady state condition in the solar system (at the small level of the observed perihelion advance of Mercury) because of the acceleration. We cannot talk about a perihelion point in a non steady state condition. The observed apparent advance of the perihelion is because of non steady state conditions. The orbits would be spherical and fixed and smaller if the solar system was at rest. One consequence of this theory is the need to review the calculated mass of the sun: the mass of the sun is actually smaller than what we know so far because it is calculated on the basis of the measured radius.
The acceleration of the solar system may be due to its spiraling outward orbit from the center of the universe. (in this paper, the whole concept of relativity and hence ‘expanding of space’ is discarded). The universe has a center. The acceleration of galaxies away from us may be a result of non linear and non uniform distribution of matter in the universe. The distribution of matter may be such that the overall density increases as we go away from the center. Thus every object in the universe is falling (spiraling and accelerating) towards outer space. Therefore, the observed red shift (acceleration) of galaxies may be due to their falling towards the higher density outwards away from us. On the cosmic scale, therefore, the distribution of matter (for example, directly proportional to the square of distance from the center; this should be checked mathematically) should be in such a way that the direction of the gravitational field is away from the center.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[60] **viXra:1211.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-13 09:11:35*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

Different from the system in classical mathematics, a
Smarandache system is a contradictory system in which an axiom behaves in at least
two different ways within the same system, i.e., validated and invalided, or
only invalided but in multiple distinct ways. Such systems exist extensively
in the world, particularly, in our daily life. In this paper, we discuss such a
kind of Smarandache system, i.e., non-solvable ordinary differential equation
systems by a combinatorial approach, classify these systems and characterize
their behaviors, particularly, the sum-stability and prod-stability of such
linear and non-linear differential equations. Some applications of such systems
to other sciences, such as those of globally controlling of infectious diseases,
establishing dynamical equations of instable structure, particularly, the
n-body problem and understanding global stability of matters with multilateral
properties can be also found.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[59] **viXra:1211.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-13 06:46:20*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The theory is the light velocity’s theory in the special relativity theory in the gravity field. You can consider that this gravity field treats the Earth gravity field. In this time, if Earth mass is and Earth radius is , the light’s velocity is instead of .Hence, In the Earth, every special relativity’s experiment is more accurate by using the light speed is measured in the Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[58] **viXra:1211.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-13 02:36:30*

**Authors:** V. A. Etkin

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Статья описывает методологические особенности энергодинамики как теории,обобщающей методы равновесной и неравновесной термодинамики на
нетепловые формы энергии и нетепловые машины
(The article describes the methodological features of energodynamics as a theory
generalizing the methods of equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics to nonthermal forms of energy and nonthermal engines)

**Category:** Classical Physics

[57] **viXra:1211.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-13 02:01:26*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkanen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In zero energy ontology (ZEO) lattices in the 3-D hyperbolic manifold defined by H^{3} (t^{2}-x^{2}-y^{2}-z^{2}=a^{2}) (and known as hyperbolic space to distinguish it from other hyperbolic manifolds emerge naturally. The interpretation of H^{3} as a cosmic time=constant slice of space-time of sub-critical Robertson-Walker cosmology (giving future light-cone of M^4 at the limit of vanishing mass density) is relevant now. ZEO leads to an argument stating that once the position of the "lower" tip of causal diamond (CD) is fixed and defined as origin, the position of the "upper" tip located at H^{3} is quantized so that it corresponds to a point of a lattice H^{3}/G, where G is discrete subgroup of SL(2,C) (so called Kleinian group). There is evidence for the quantization of cosmic redshifts: a possible interpretation is in terms of hyperbolic lattice structures assignable to dark matter and energy. Quantum coherence in cosmological scales would be in question. This inspires several questions. How does the crystallography in H^{3} relate to the standard crystallography in Eucdlidian 3-space E^{3}? Are there general results about tesselations H^{3}? What about hyperbolic counterparts of quasicrystals? In this article standard facts are summarized and some of these questions are briefly discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[56] **viXra:1211.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-13 02:03:16*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkanen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The blackhole information paradox is often believed to have solution in terms of holography stating in the case of blackholes that blackhole horizon can serve as a holographic screen representing the information about the surrounding space as a hologram. The situation is however far from settled. The newest challenge is so called firewall paradox proposed by Polchinsky et al.
These paradoxes strengthen the overall impression that the blackhole physics indeed represent the limit at which GRT fails and the outcome is recycling of old arguments leading nowhere. Something very important is lacking. On the other hand, some authors like Susskind claim that the physics of this century more or less reduces to that for blackholes. I however see this endless tinkering with blackholes as a decline of physics. If super string had been a success as a physical theory, we would have got rid of blackholes.
If TGD is to replace GRT, it must also provide new insights to blackholes, blackhole evaporation, information paradox and firewall paradox. This inspired me to look for what blackholes and blackhole evaporation could mean in TGD framework and whether TGD can avoid the paradoxes. This kind of exercises allow also to sharpen the TGD based view about space-time and quantum and build connections to the mainstream views.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[55] **viXra:1211.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-13 02:07:02*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkanen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The dynamics of quasicrystals looks to me very interesting because it shares several features of the dynamics of K\"ahler action defining the basic variational principle of classical TGD and defining the dynamics of space-ti preferred extremals of Kähler action.
Magnetic body carrying dark matter is the fundamental intentional agent in TGD inspired quantum biology and the cautious proposal is that magnetic flux sheets could define the grid of 3-planes (or more general 3-surfaces) defining quasi-periodic background fields favoring 4-D quasicrystals or more general structures in TGD Universe. Also 3-D quasicrystal like structures defined by grids of planes can be considered and 4-D quasicrystal structure could represent their time evolution.
Quite recently it has been reported that grids consisting of 2-D curved orthogonal surfaces characterize the architecture of neural wiring so that this hypothesis might make sense. This structure would be analogous to 2-D quasicrystal and its time evolution to 3-D quasicrystal.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[54] **viXra:1211.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-12 15:06:24*

**Authors:** Yu. N. Bratkov

**Comments:** 128 Pages.

This study belongs to comparative planetology and geodynamics. It prolongates "Geological flows" (arXiv:0811.3136v1) and "Flow dynamics of the Moon" (arXiv:1004.0450v1). Acquaintance with the above-mentioned papers is strongly recommended. Recall that geology and planetology are growed here over new conceptual basis. The new basis is high-speed fluid dynamics ant its similarity to superslow flows of solid planet surfaces. Caspian Seas, Mississippis, and Tycho Craters are new interesting objects of studying in this advanced comparative planetology. Highly unobvious relations between such flows are represented.

**Category:** Geophysics

[53] **viXra:1211.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-12 11:44:44*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Within the expanding cosmic Hubble volume, Hubble length can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. Product of ‘Hubble volume’ and ‘cosmic critical density’ can be called as the “Hubble mass”. The three proposed assumptions are, 1) within the Hubble volume, each and every point in free space is influenced by the Hubble mass, 2) ‘molar electron mass’ can be considered as the rest mass of a new heavy charged elementary particle and 3) atomic gravitational constant is Avogadro number times the classical gravitational constant. This is a new approach and may be given a chance in understanding the four fundamental cosmological interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[52] **viXra:1211.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-12 08:51:54*

**Authors:** Cogoni Raffaele

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is a procedure to find the prime numbers, in practice it is a simplification
the sieve of Eratosthenes

**Category:** Number Theory

[51] **viXra:1211.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-11 14:18:24*

**Authors:** Sean Wade

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is desirable to understand the movement of both matter and energy in the universe based upon fundamental principles of space and time. Time dilation and length contraction are features of Special Relativity derived from the observed constancy of the speed of light. Quantum Mechanics asserts that motion in the universe is probabilistic and not deterministic. While the practicality of these dissimilar theories is well established through widespread application inconsistencies in their marriage persist, marring their utility, and preventing their full expression. After identifying an error in perspective the current theories are tested by modifying logical assumptions to eliminate paradoxical contradictions. Analysis of simultaneous frames of reference leads to a new formulation of space and time that predicts the motion of both kinds of particles. Proper Space is a real, three-dimensional space clocked by proper time that is undergoing a densification at the rate of c. Coordinate transformations to a familiar object space and a mathematical stationary space clarify the counterintuitive aspects of Special Relativity. These symmetries demonstrate that within the local universe stationary observers are a forbidden frame of reference; all is in motion. In lieu of Quantum Mechanics and Uncertainty the use of the imaginary number i is restricted for application to the labeling of mass as either material or immaterial. This material phase difference accounts for both the perceived constant velocity of light and its apparent statistical nature. The application of Proper Space Kinematics will advance more accurate representations of microscopic, macroscopic, and cosmological processes and serve as a foundation for further study and reflection thereafter leading to greater insight.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1211.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-11 16:29:35*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 6 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez and Gilbey (2010) obtained a regression formula for predicting Skytrax's 2010 airline rankings from customer reviews. The research behind the study attempted to predict Skytrax Global Airline Ranking from average ratings that passengers had given to those airlines, independently, on Skytrax's website. The regression formula was based on a single variable (the average 'Customer review scoring').

**Category:** Social Science

[49] **viXra:1211.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-06 23:49:55*

**Authors:** Jorma Jormakka

**Comments:** Corrected the number of pages and added a small clarifying comment to the text.

The Clay Navier-Stokes proble is correctly solved. The answer from CMI is included. The article discusses why and how the Clay Navier-Stokes problem should be corrected.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[48] **viXra:1211.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-11 04:34:10*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Submitted to the International Journal of Theoretical Physics.

We continue with the study of Clifford-space Gravity and find some solutions to
the Clifford space ($ C$-space) generalized gravitational field equations which are obtained
from a variational principle based on the generalization of the Einstein-Hilbert-Cartan action.
The $C$-space connection requires $torsion$ and the field equations in $C$-space are $not$ equivalent to the ordinary gravitational equations with torsion in higher $2^D$-dimensions. We find specific metric solutions in the most simple case and discuss their difference with the metrics found in ordinary gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[47] **viXra:1211.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-10 14:00:40*

**Authors:** D.V. Lande

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Language: russian

Approaches to an assessment of discriminant power of words are considered. Approaches are checked on the literary work and an array of news messages. Proposed and implemented a method of visualization level uneven occurrence of words in texts.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[46] **viXra:1211.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-10 11:46:31*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 6 Pages. added a reference to a note on the black hole information paradox

As every circuit designer knows, the flow of energy is governed by impedance matching. Classical or quantum impedances, mechanical or electromagnetic, fermionic or bosonic, topological,... To understand the flow of energy it is essential to understand the relations between the associated impedances. The connection between electromagnetism and gravitation can be made explicit by examining the impedance mismatch between the electrically charged Planck particle and the electron. This mismatch is shown to be the ratio of the gravitational and electromagnetic forces between these particles

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[45] **viXra:1211.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-02 13:59:43*

**Authors:** Hosein Nasrolahpour

**Comments:** 7 Pages. A few formulas and references added.

We investigate the time evolution of the fractional electromagnetic waves by using the time
fractional Maxwell's equations. We show that electromagnetic plane wave has amplitude which
exhibits an algebraic decay, at asymptotically long times.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[44] **viXra:1211.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-09 17:26:04*

**Authors:** Robert S. Shaw

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Ionic current flowing through a membrane pore with a helical architecture may impart considerable torque to the pore structure itself. If the channel protein is free to rotate, it will spin at significant speeds. Order of magnitude estimates of possible rotation rates are presented, as well as a few arguments why such motion could improve ion transport.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[43] **viXra:1211.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-09 19:55:17*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In 2007 a mathematical model encompassing both quark and lepton mixing was introduced. As five years have elapsed since its introduction it is timely to assess the model's accuracy. Despite large conflicts with experiment at the time of its introduction, five of six predicted angles now fit experiment fairly closely. The one angle incorrectly forecast necessitates a small change to the model's original framework (essentially, a sign is toggled). This change retains most of the model's original economy, while being interesting in its own right. The model's predicted mixing angles in degrees are 45, 33.210911, and 8.034394 (new) for leptons; and 12.920966, 2.367442, and 0.190986 for quarks.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[42] **viXra:1211.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-10 00:53:16*

**Authors:** Jian-zhong Zhao

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Violating the law of energy conservation, Zanaboni Theorem is invalid and Zanaboni's proof is wrong. Zanaboni's mistake of " proof " is analyzed. Energy Theorem for Zanaboni Problem is suggested and proved. Equations and conditions are established in this paper for Zanaboni Problem, which are consistent with , equivalent or identical to each other. Zanaboni Theorem is, for its invalidity , not a mathematical formulation or
proof of Saint-Venant's Principle.
AMS Subject Classifications: 74-02, 74G50

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[41] **viXra:1211.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-30 01:45:32*

**Authors:** Alexander Kritov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this article the author gives a bunch of new hypothesis and presents new exact and simple relations between physical constant and numbers. The author briefly analyzes the discovered coincidences in terms of their accuracy and confidence but he leaves aside any physical explanation of the presented formulas. However all shown relations experience common nature of power of 2. As exact nature of this is unknown yet so it requires further investigation. Presented material may also be viewed as logical continuation and development of Dirac's-Eddington Large Numbers hypothesis (LNH). However opposite to Dirac's LNH two of presented ratios are not approximate but they have exact equality. This allows theoretical prediction of the Universe radius as well as calculation of exact value of the gravitational constant G which all fall within the rage of current measurements data and existing precision

**Category:** Classical Physics

[40] **viXra:1211.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-08 21:44:55*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez & Gilbey (2010a) obtained a regression formula for predicting Skytrax's 2010 airport rankings from customer reviews. The research behind the study attempted to predict Skytrax's Official World Airport Star rankings from average ratings that passengers had given to those airports, independently, on Skytrax's website. The regression formula was based on a single variable (the average 'Customer review scoring'), which is a simpler formula to calculate.

**Category:** Social Science

[39] **viXra:1211.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-08 12:33:29*

**Authors:** Iqbal Unnisa, W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 132 Pages.

In this book the authors introduce a new class of lattices called Supermodular Lattices, which is an equational class of lattices lying between the equational class of distributive lattices and modular lattices.
Several other new properties related with these lattices are introduced, described and developed.

**Category:** Algebra

[38] **viXra:1211.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-08 10:29:40*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

As suggested by the modern view and use of the "axiomatic method" in science, a view and use which has placed belief to a very simple deep level and thus far away from the "axioms", as similar approach is suggested in religions. This would create a joint framework upon which both science and religion be based, and could pursue their development in appropriate ways, including possible useful interaction. Within such a joint framework, science would focus on those Laws of Nature which act more or less instantly, while religion would - as has always done it - focus on the Laws of Nature which need not always manifest themselves immediately.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[37] **viXra:1211.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-07 16:57:42*

**Authors:** Jaivir B.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper provides an overview of the problems facing our mathematics education system today, their impacts on the future of mathematics, and how these problems can be resolved.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[36] **viXra:1211.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-26 06:49:29*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Thank you

In the general relativity theory, the Rindler coordinate theory’s mathematics modernizes and the Rindler coordinate theory expands to be the Rindler coordinate theory of the accelerated observer that have the initial velocity. First, find the Rindler coordinate theory with initial velocity that used the tetrad on the new method and discover the new inverse-coordinate transformation of the Rindler coordinate theory with the initial velocity. Specially, if , this theory treats that the observer with the initial velocity does slowdown by the constant negative acceleration in the Rindler’s time-space.And according to the accelerated system or the decelerated system, consider the Doppler effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1211.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-07 14:53:07*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Using complex hyperbolic functions of order 4m with 4m-1 variables we prove Fermat last theorem for exponents 4p and p ,where p is an odd prime.We rediscover the Fermat proof. The proof of FLT must be direct.But indirect proof of FLT is disbelieving.

**Category:** Number Theory

[34] **viXra:1211.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-07 15:42:40*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article provides a standard measure for improving communication in the financial sciences. It provides the inflator/deflator multiplier for calculating referential Japanese yen (rJPY, r¥). It is based on the average annual CPI for Japan (Rate Inflation, 2011).

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[33] **viXra:1211.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-07 13:25:27*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 114 Pages.

In this book the authors use set ideal of rings (or semigroups) to build topological spaces. These spaces are dependent on the set over which the set ideals are defined.
It is left as an open problem whether this newly constructed topological space of finite order increases the existing number of finite topological spaces.

**Category:** Algebra

[32] **viXra:1211.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-07 09:25:07*

**Authors:** D.V. Lande, S. M. Brajchewskiy

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Article is devoted to studying of behavior of thematic plots in news information flows. The model assuming three independent phases in the period of existence of the plot which allows to allocate a lot of typical profiles.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[31] **viXra:1211.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-07 09:36:50*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is shown that the description as a "frog" of John von Neumann in a recent item by the Princeton celebrity physicist Freeman Dyson does among others miss completely on the immesnely important revolution of the so called "von Neumann architecture" of our modern electronic digital computers.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[30] **viXra:1211.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-07 06:01:52*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Using complex hyperbolic functions of order 2n with 2n-1 variables we prove Fermat last theorem for exponents 6p and p,where p is an odd prime.The proof of FLT must be direct.But indirect proof of FLT is disbelieving.

**Category:** Number Theory

[29] **viXra:1211.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-06 15:44:02*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article provides a standard measure for improving communication in the financial sciences. It provides the inflator/deflator multiplier for calculating referential Canadian dollars (rCAD, r$). It is based on the average annual CPI for Canada (Statistics Canada, 2011).

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[28] **viXra:1211.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-27 13:25:20*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A rewriting system applied to the simplest algebraic identities is shown to yield second- and third-degree equations that share a property associated with the constant 137.036, which is a minimal case.

**Category:** Algebra

[27] **viXra:1211.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-05 21:50:33*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article provides a standard measure for improving communication in the financial sciences. It provides the inflator/deflator multiplier for calculating referential AUS dollars (rAUD, r$). It is based on the average annual CPI, weighted average of 8 capital cities, for all groups (Rate Inflation, 2011).

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[26] **viXra:1211.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-12 06:52:53*

**Authors:** Kimmo Rouvari

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Theory of Everything is The Holy Grail of Science.
Scientists all over the world have searched it for a long time, without any convincing outcome. The best effort so far has been so called M-theory, which can't be falsified. Presented theory is a new theoretical platform which functions as the true theory of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[25] **viXra:1211.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-05 16:07:20*

**Authors:** David Kelk, David Devine

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

arXiv is an e-print repository of papers in physics, computer science, and biology, amongst others.
viXra is a newer repository of e-prints on similar topics. Scienceography is the study of the writing of science.
In this work we perform a scienceographic comparison of a selection of papers from the physics section of each archive.
We provide the first study of the viXra archive and describe key differences on how science is written by these communities.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[24] **viXra:1211.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-06 16:32:29*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 1 Page. Poster presentation to be given on Nov. 10th. 2012 at Quadrennial Physics Congress, paper version to follow

The Feynman path integral is an essential part of our mathematical description of fundamental nature at small scales. However, what it seems to say about the world is very much at odds with our classical intuitions, and exactly why nature requires us to describe her in this way is currently unknown. We will describe here a possibility according to which the path integral may be the spacetime manifestation of objects existing in a lower-dimensional analog of spacetime until they give rise to the emergence of spacetime objects under a process that is currently labeled a ‘Quantum Measurement’. This idea is based on a mathematical distinction which at present does not appear to be widely appreciated.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[23] **viXra:1211.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-05 13:29:38*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We’ll prove now that there is a similar relation for the isometric cevians as Steiner's relation for the isogonal cevians.

**Category:** Geometry

[22] **viXra:1211.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-05 13:31:16*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we’ll discuss about a theorem which results from a duality transformation
of a theorem and the configuration in relation to the Euler’s line.

**Category:** Geometry

[21] **viXra:1211.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-05 13:01:21*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 71 Pages.

The Koide formula from physics is modified for use with the reciprocals of primes found in the intervals defined by the Fibonacci numbers. This formula's resultant values are found to alternate lower, higher, lower, higher, etc. from the interval (5,8] to the interval (514229,832040]. This pattern, inverted, is also shown to occur when the corresponding results are computed for non-primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20] **viXra:1211.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-05 09:52:47*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Discussion on Heaven

It may be agreed by most people that the growth of each person or country is driven by the power of gender. However, human's understanding of gender origin is very little, and is solely based on the phenomenon of life on Earth. If humans raise up their head and look at the universe, its preliminary answer may emerge. In the history of mankind, the first person who was surprised at the look of cosmic gender is possibly the famous French scientist Henri Poincare. He, at the conclusion of the preface to his book, `Hyptheses Cosmogoniques', states ``One fact that strikes everyone is the spiral shape of some nebulae; it is encountered much too often for us to believe that it is due to chance. It is easy to understand how incomplete any theory of cosmogony which ignores this fact must be. None of the theories accounts for it satisfactorily, and the explanation I myself once gave, in a kind of toy theory, is no better than the others. Consequently, we come up against a big question mark.'' Now that humans enter the era of twenty-first century, Dr. Jin He, based on sufficient evidences, shows that the spiral pattern of galaxies is the male character of the universe.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[19] **viXra:1211.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-05 08:56:34*

**Authors:** Wilhelmus de Wilde

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Our five senses ask for the reference of reference, which cannot be found in our causal material reality. We all have a subjective reality that is presented as a simultaneity sphere around our consciousness. Consciousness not being a material entity with length or volume, can be treated as a singularity. The cutting circles of the different spheres around the percipients form a foam (origin of decoherence) of objective mutual reality (history). Our Reductionist Causal Deterministic Universe (RCDU) is limited by the Planck Wall. Before that causality doesn’t exist , we call this “dimension” Total Simultaneity (TS).. The causal time-line (β-time) consists of entangled Alpha–probabilities (α-P’s) . Each “observer” is the origin of his own causal time lines. Free will makes the choice of an infinity of α-P’s in TS. Subjective individual time travel can happen without being conscious of the process (until now). We explain the double-slit experiment, the “spooky action at a distance”, the Many World Interpretation, Entropy, Time travel and free will. We indicate that the reductionist way of interpreting is only valid for a limited part of our reality and may not lead to the “truth” finding of the whole. The “emergent” way of approach may be more effective and create an understandable “being” of WHAT IS. (Parmenides, Greek Eleatic School of Philosophy, 515 BC) .

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[18] **viXra:1211.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-05 02:36:54*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The probability of occurrence of an event or that of the existence of a physical state has no relative existence in the sense that motion is strongly believed to only exist in the relative sense. If the probability of occurrence of an event or that of the existence of a physical state is known by one observer, this probability must be measured to have the same numerical value by any other observer anywhere in the Universe. If we accept this bare fact, then, the probability function can only be a scalar. Consequently, from this fact alone, we argue that the quantum mechanical wavefunction can not be a scalar function as is assumed for the Schroedinger and the Klein-Gordon wavefunctions. This has fundamental implications on the nature of the wavefunction insofar as translations from one reference system to the other is concerned.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1211.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-04 09:24:07*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 reference

It will be shown that big bang dogma prevents new scientific discovery. It is well established that stars cool and die to become what are called planets/exo-planets but the dogma of the entire universe being a specific age prevents reason and scientific discovery. It can be shown that Big Bang is simply a failure to effectively communicate the concept of “age”.

**Category:** Linguistics

[16] **viXra:1211.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-04 06:05:00*

**Authors:** H.Venkateswara Reddy, S.Viswanadha Raju, B.Ramasubba Reddy

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The proportionate increase in the size of the data with
increase in space implies that clustering a very large data set becomes
difficult and is a time consuming process. Sampling is one important
technique to scale down the size of dataset and to improve the
efficiency of clustering. After sampling, allocating unlabeled objects
into proper clusters is impossible in the categorical domain. To address
the problem, Chen employed a method called MARDL to allocate each
unlabeled data point to the appropriate cluster based on NIR and NNIR
algorithms. This paper took off from Chen’s investigation and analyzed
and compared the results of NIR and NNIR, leading to the conclusion
that the two processes contradict each other when it comes to finding
the resemblance between an unlabeled data point and a cluster. A new
and better way of solving the problem was arrived at that finds
resemblance between unlabeled data point within all clusters, while also
providing maximal resemblance for allocation of data in the required
cluster.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[15] **viXra:1211.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-04 06:06:43*

**Authors:** S.Maruthuperumal, G.Rosline Nesakumari, V.Vijayakumar

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

To overcome the weak robustness problem of embedding the
watermark in the spatial domain and to provide high authentication, the
present paper presents a novel watermarking scheme with two steps. In
the step one, the proposed method modifies the original image in
transform domain and identifies the pixel location to insert the
watermark bits in the difference values between the original image and
its reference image based on a novel fuzzy logic method. To provide
high authentication and security in the step two, the watermark bits are
embedded in the pixel location selected by step one using Region based
Even Odd (REO) Method. The Fuzzy Wavelet (FW) scheme of step one
eliminates the requirement of original image for the watermark
extraction. The experimental result indicates the efficacy of the
proposed method when compared with the various other methods.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[14] **viXra:1211.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-04 06:08:49*

**Authors:** Patil V.P.

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless network
without infrastructure. It is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a
self configuring network of mobile routers connected by wireless links.
The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves
arbitrarily, thus the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and
unpredictably. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or
may be connected to the larger Internet. There are various routing
protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR,
AODV and DSDV. This paper examines two routing protocols for mobile
ad hoc networks– the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV),
the table- driven protocol and the Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector
routing (AODV), an On –Demand protocol and evaluates both protocols
based on packet delivery fraction ,average end to end delay, throughput
and routing overhead while varying pause time. The performance
evaluation has been done by using simulation tool NS2 which is the main
simulator, NAM (Network Animator) and excel graph which is used for
preparing the graphs from the trace files. Simulation revealed that
although DSDV perfectly scales to small networks with low node speeds,
AODV is preferred due to its more efficient use of bandwidth.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[13] **viXra:1211.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-04 06:09:42*

**Authors:** Abdelrahman Elleithy, Gonhsin Liu, Ali Elrashidi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper we present a new model for the lifetime of wireless
sensor networks used for sea water communications. The new model for power
communications takes into consideration parameters such as power
consumption for the active mode, power consumption for the sleep mode,
power consumption for the transient mode, transmission period, transient mode
duration, sleep mode duration, and active mode duration. The power
communications model is incorporated in the life time model of wireless sensor
networks. The life time model takes into consideration several parameters such
as the total number of sensors, network size, percentage of sink nodes, location
of sensors, the mobility of sensors, power consumption when nodes move and
the power consumption of communications. The new model for power
consumption in communications shows more accurate results about the lifetime
of the sensor network in comparison with previously published results.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[12] **viXra:1211.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-05 12:18:34*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The bending of light near massive objects is not due to Newton’s gravitational field or Einstein’s curvature of space time, according to the theory being proposed in this paper. It is caused by the phenomenon of diffraction of light due to the huge size of the cosmic objects. The size of the object is so huge that its surface curvature is so small as not to allow a light beam to escape. The light beam can easily diffract around the surface of the object because the surface curvature is very small due to the its huge size. The black- hole effect requires two conditions: 1. Nearly spherical shape ( curved surface) of object 2. The size of the object should be greater than some critical size. Therefore, the observed bending of light beams by the sun (taken as an evidence to confirm the general theory of relativity) is not due to the Newtonian gravitational field of the sun or Einstein’s space –time curvature. Light scattered from the huge size object (the black- hole) and light passing by it are all diffracted around the surface. The size of the black-hole object is so enormous that light cannot get sufficiently far from it to escape its diffraction effect ; this means that the black hole has significant effect even on light rays very far away from it due to its cosmic size. Phenomena such as gravitational lensing can equally be explained by the theory presented in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1211.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-03 20:36:16*

**Authors:** Andrey Simonian (RUSSIA), Pyotr Svirov (RUSSIA)

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The main idea of our quantum gravity model is following: in usual quantum mechanics we can represent any state of the many-particle system as sum over products of one-particle functions, generally, a path integral.
In quantum gravity we also represent each state as such superposition. In the last part we try to make numerical calculations using our quantum gravity theory. In the case of interaction with arbitrary electromagnetic and gravitational field the wave function is similar.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1211.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-03 14:19:04*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

1. According to Huygens’ principle every point on the wave front becomes a source of a spherical wave. The sum of these secondary waves determines the form of the wave at any subsequent time. These secondary waves are assumed to travel only in the forward direction. According to the new theory proposed in this paper, however, these secondary waves are not spherical waves: their radiation pattern is the replica of the radiation pattern of the source of the wave . Thus if we put an obstacle between a radiating element and a point in space so that there is no direct propagation from the radiating element to that point, the amount of electromagnetic radiation received through diffraction at that point from the edge of the obstacle depends on the radiation pattern of the source. If the radiating element radiates very small power in the corresponding general direction, less EM waves will be received at that point than if it radiates much power in that corresponding direction. 2. According to our knowledge so far diffraction depends on frequency; lower frequencies are diffracted more than higher frequencies. According to the new theory proposed in this paper, however, diffraction directly depends on the radiation pattern of the source and hence of the radiation pattern of each point on the wave front. If we constructed an antenna for low frequency with the same sharp radiation pattern as an antenna for a very high frequency and tested diffraction, we would prove that diffraction is independent of frequency, according to the theory proposed in this paper.
3. According to our knowledge so far electromagnetic waves propagate in straight line in free space. According to the new theory presented in this paper, however, only radiation from a perfectly isotropic radiator travels in straight path! Therefore electromagnetic radiations from practical radiators such as an antenna are never isotropic, so electromagnetic waves radiated from these always propagates in spiral path around the source, in cosmic scales. Each tiny angular portion of the wave follows a different spiral path which directly depends on the gradient of intensity with respect to angle at that point, which in turn depends on the angular position in the radiation pattern. Natural sources of light (the sun and the stars) are nearly perfect isotropic radiators, so light from them should travel in straight path. We consider the sun and the stars as a single source and not the individual radiating atoms inside them.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9] **viXra:1211.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-03 11:39:44*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 picture

All stars form iron cores as they undergo metamorphosis. All the cooling, older stars in the universe have them.

**Category:** Geophysics

[8] **viXra:1211.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-03 11:32:14*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Textile storm surge barriers, sited at multiple locations, are literally extensions of the city’s world famous urban fabric—another manifestation of the dominance of the man-made city over local Nature. Textile Storm Surge Barriers (TSSB) are intended to preserve the City from North Atlantic Ocean hurricanes that cause sea waves impacting the densely populated and high-value real estate, instigating catastrophic, and possibly long-term, infrastructure and monetary losses. Complicating TSSB installation macro-project planning is the presence of the Hudson and other rivers, several small tidal straits, future climate change and other factors. We conclude that TSSB installations made of homogeneous construction materials are worthwhile investigating because they may be less expensive to build, and more easily replaced following any failure, than concrete and steel storm surge barriers, which are also made of homogeneous materials. We suppose the best macro-project outcome will develop in the perfect Macro-engineering planning way and at the optimum time-of-need during the early-21st Century by, among other groups, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. TSSB technology is a practical advance over wartime harbor anti-submarine/anti-torpedo steel nets and rocky Churchill Barriers used in the UK.

**Category:** Climate Research

[7] **viXra:1211.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-03 10:27:59*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we define a four-dimensional effective mass tensor that can be suitable for the describe of the weak gravitational interactions in GR. In the metric of the weak gravitational field the components of the effective mass tensor depend on the components of the metric tensor, what can suggest that this tensor can in GR exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1211.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-02 20:44:40*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Using complex hyperbolic function we prove Fermat last theorem for exponents 3p and p,where p is an odd prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[5] **viXra:1211.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-02 14:52:30*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein, Hua Lu, Torben Bach Pedersen

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This is a poster of the paper entitled "Towards a Unified Model of Outdoor and Indoor Spaces".

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[4] **viXra:1211.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-06 22:35:24*

**Authors:** V.A.I.Menon, M.Rajendran, V.P.N.Nampoori

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The authors show that the solutions of Maxwell’s equations in vacuum admit electromagnetic waves having oscillations not only in the electromagnetic field but also in spatial displacement which leads to the helical structure of the wave. In the conventional approach the path of the electromagnetic wave is represented by a straight line, and the sinusoidal (non-mechanical) oscillations of the electric and magnetic fields at every point on the straight line constitute the wave. But with the introduction of the spatial amplitude, the straight line path will have to be modified into a helical one. The reason why the existence of such a spatial component of the electromagnetic wave has remained unknown may be due to the fact that it falls outside the limits of accuracy of observation. It is obvious that the existence of the spatial amplitude will warrant the introduction of a new basic field. It has to be examined if this basic field could be identified with the Higgs field.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1211.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-02 08:57:56*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article treats that the angular momentum in the hydrogen atom.
If calculates the electron motion in the hydrogen atom , can do the quantization in the Bohr’s theory about the hydrogen atom. In this time, the electron’s orbit velocity is non-relativity velocity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1211.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-01 19:28:26*

**Authors:** David R.B. Stockwel, Anthony Cox

**Comments:** 16 Pages. First published 2009/8/27 at Landshape.org (http://landshape.org/enm/files/2011/01/walkerarticle.pdf)

Various authors have examined the strength of the equatorial Pacific overturning known as the Walker Circulation in both climate models and observations, attributing a generalized weakening to anthropogenic global warming. Here we review the analysis in Power and Smith [2007] using updated Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and NINO sea surface temperature indices. We find no significant long-term changes in the indices, although the SOI appears to have recovered from an anomalously low period from 1976 to 1998. The increasing sea surface temperature in the NINO4 region is not significant, nor representative of other NINO regions. The findings of a weakening Walker circulation appear to be premature, and the corresponding climate model projections cannot be substantiated at this time. The reports of weakening of horizontal atmospheric circulation in climate models should be regarded as an inconsistency and not as an indicator of anthropogenic climate change.

**Category:** Climate Research

[1] **viXra:1211.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-01 21:22:39*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Authors request the science community to kindly look into this new approach

Considering the Hubble volume, cosmic critical density, Hubble mass and Avogadro number - in this paper an attempt is made to fit and understand the mystery of cosmic, atomic and nuclear physical parameters. This is a new approach and may be given a chance in understanding the four fundamental cosmological interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory