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1304 Submissions

[146] viXra:1304.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-30 11:19:16

An Improved Diagram for Explaining Quantum Gravity

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 1 Page.

An improved diagram for explaining quantum gravity (N.C.: 30 April 2013) Ref.: http://vixra.org/abs/1302.0004, http://vixra.org/abs/1301.0188, and http://vixra.org/abs/1301.0187
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[145] viXra:1304.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-01 06:31:25

Proton Splitting As an Alternative Energy Source

Authors: Keith D. Foote
Comments: 4 Pages.

This thesis explores the concept of proton splitting as a possible energy source. Possible methods of initiating the split are presented.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[144] viXra:1304.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-30 09:19:26

Integration of Gravity & Electromagnetism in Terms of a Dirac Polarized Vacuum

Authors: Richard L. Amoroso
Comments: 44 Pages.

Conventionally Maxwell’s equations describe transverse elements described as ‘EM’ waves; but by utilizing the Einstein/de Broglie relations one can derive additional degrees of freedom so that Maxwell’s equations are not ‘cut off’ at the vacuum. Therefore one must employ the  fields in addition to the standard EM suggesting also that the photon is piloted. The two sets of coordinates for the EM or  fields are mutually exclusive and generally considered to be independent of each other. In this work a method is developed for integrating them in terms of a Dirac covariant polarized vacuum and extended theoretical perspectives.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[143] viXra:1304.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-30 09:25:39

“Shut The Front Door!”: Obviating the Challenge of Large-Scale Extra Dimensions and Psychophysical Bridging

Authors: Richard L. Amoroso
Comments: 13 Pages.

Physics has been slowly and reluctantly beginning to address the role and fundamental basis of the ‘observer’ which has until now also been considered metaphysical and beyond the mandate empirical rigor. It is suggested that the fundamental premise of the currently dominant view of ‘Cognitive Theory’ - “Mind Equals Brain” is erroneous; and the associated belief that the ‘Planck scale, ‘the so-called basement level of reality’, as an appropriate arena from which to model psycho-physical bridging is also in error. In this paper we delineate a simple, inexpensive experimental design to ‘crack the so-called cosmic egg’ thereby opening the door to largescale extra dimensions (LSXD) tantamount to the regime of the unified field and thus awareness. The methodology surmounts the quantum uncertainty principle in a manner violating Quantum Electrodynamics, (QED), a cornerstone of modern theoretical physics, by spectrographic analysis of newly theorized Tight-Bound State (TBS) Bohr orbits in ‘continuous-state’ transition frequencies of atomic hydrogen. If one wonders why QED violation in the spectra of atomic hydrogen relates to solving the mind-body (observer) problem; consider this a 1st wrench in a forthcoming tool box of Unified Field Mechanics, UF that will soon enough in retrospect cause the current tools of Classical and Quantum Mechanics to appear as stone axes. Max Planck is credited as the founder of quantum mechanics with his 1900 quantum hypothesis that energy is radiated and absorbed discretely by the formulation, E = hv. Empirically implementing this next paradigm shift utilizing parameters of the long sought associated ‘new physics’ of the 3rd regime (classicalquantum-unified) allows access to LSXD of space; thus pragmatically opening the domain of mental action for the 1st time in history. This rendering constitutes a massive paradigm shift to Unified Field Theory creating a challenge for both the writer and the reader!
Category: Physics of Biology

[142] viXra:1304.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-30 09:33:10

Cosmological Inconstant, Supernovæ 1a and Decelerating Expansion

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 15 Pages.

In 1998, two groups of astronomers, set out to determine the deceleration of the universe by measuring the recession speeds of type la supernovæ (SN1a), came to an unexpected conclusion: its expansion rate has been speeding up. To justify this acceleration, they suggested that the universe does have a mysterious dark energy and they have proposed a positive cosmological constant consistent with the image of an inflationary universe. They have bet on their distance revised upwards to explain the observed dimming of high-redshift SN1a. We consider that an accelerated expansion leads right to a «dark energy catastrophe» and we suppose rather that the universe knows a slowdown expansion under the positive pressure of a dark energy, otherwise called a variable cosmological constant. The dark luminosity of the latter would be that of a «tired light» which has lost energy with distance. We propose that the SN1a luminosity continually fades by interactions with cosmic magnetic fields, like the earthly PVLAS experiment which loses much more laser photons than expected by crossing a magnetic field. It goes in the sense of a «tired light» which has lost energy with distance and, therefore, a decelerated expansion of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[141] viXra:1304.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-30 09:37:32

Universal Quantum Computing; 3rd Gen Prototyping Utilizing Relativistic ‘Trivector’ R-Qubit Modeling Surmounting Uncertainty

Authors: Richard L. Amoroso, L.H. Kauffman, S. Giandinoto
Comments: 10 Pages.

We postulate bulk universal quantum computing (QC) cannot be achieved without surmounting the quantum uncertainty principle, an inherent barrier by empirical definition in the regime described by the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory - the last remaining hurdle to bulk QC. To surmount uncertainty with probability 1, we redefine the basis for the qubit utilizing a unique form of M-Theoretic Calabi-Yau mirror symmetry cast in an LSXD Dirac covariant polarized vacuum with an inherent ‘Feynman synchronization backbone’. This also incorporates a relativistic qubit (r-qubit) providing additional degrees of freedom beyond the traditional Block 2-sphere qubit bringing the r-qubit into correspondence with our version of Relativistic Topological Quantum Field Theory (RTQFT). We present a 3rd generation prototype design for simplifying bulk QC implementation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[140] viXra:1304.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-30 10:04:33

The Fundamental Limit and Origin of Complexity in Biological Systems: A New Model for the Origin of Life

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Paul J Amoroso
Comments: 17 Pages.

Generally unicellular prokaryotes are considered the most fundamental form of living system. Many researchers include viruses since they commandeer cellular machinery in their replication; while others insist viruses are merely complex infective proteins. New biological principles are introduced suggesting that even the prion, the infectious protein responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, qualifies as the most fundamental form of life; and remains in general concordance with the six-point definition of living systems put forth by Humberto Maturana and his colleagues in their original characterization of living organisms as a class of complex self-organized autopoietic systems in 1974.
Category: Physics of Biology

[139] viXra:1304.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-30 10:08:13

Elucidating the Trigger of Alzheimer's Disease: A Complex Anticipatory Systems Approach

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Paul J Amoroso
Comments: 14 Pages.

Recent discovery of ADDL protein (Amyloid β-Derived Diffusible Ligand) allows the trigger mechanism causing Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) to be described by principles of complex systems theory. This entails a teleological cosmology with inherent self-organized / anticipatory parameters introducing a life principle (élan vital) providing the action driving self-organization in autopoietic living systems. Interaction between this Noetic Field (élan vital) and brain is defined in terms of a Hamiltonian-Lagrange operator called the Noetic Effect. If mind/body interactions mediating this Noetic Effect drive the system away from equilibrium catastrophes causing protein misfolds may trigger the onset of AD. The discovery of ADDL also promises an AD vaccine.
Category: Physics of Biology

[138] viXra:1304.0165 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-30 11:03:13

Information Within Universe

Authors: Ioannis Hadjidakis
Comments: 2 pages

We disclose some thoughts about the role of information and how information is transmitted within Universe. This letter could be the backbone for a more extended work on this issue.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[137] viXra:1304.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-30 06:38:02

The Extended Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory :Division, Jordan, N-Ary Algebras, and Higher Order Finsler Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 17 Pages. Submitted to Foundations of Physics

We extend the construction of Born's Reciprocal Relativity theory in ordinary phase spaces to an extended phase space based on Quaternions. The invariance symmetry group is the (pseudo) unitary quaternionic group $ U ( N_+, N_-, {\bf H} ) $ which is isomorphic to the unitary symplectic group $ USp( 2N_+, 2 N_-, {\bf C} )$. It is explicitly shown that the quaternionic group $ U ( N_+, N_-, {\bf H} ) $ leaves invariant both the quadratic norm (corresponding to the generalized Born-Green interval in the extended phase space) and the tri-symplectic $ 2 $-form. The study of Octonionic, Jordan and ternary algebraic structures associated with generalized spacetimes (and their phase spaces) described by Gunaydin and collaborators is reviewed. A brief discussion on $n$-plectic manifolds whose Lie $ n$-algebra involves multi-brackets and $n$-ary algebraic structures follows. We conclude with an analysis on the role of higher-order Finsler geometry in the construction of extended relativity theories with an upper and lower bound to the higher order accelerations (associated with the higher order tangent and cotangent spaces).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[136] viXra:1304.0163 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-21 16:10:42

P vs. NP and Riemann Hypothesis Solution (Revised)

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

This problem has been solved by me over a year ago, and published. Today I am posting a more complex and complicated version, yet put in Layman terms. I hope by doing this it will garner the attention of Clay Mathematics as well as show logical input on its mathematical endeavors. Solving and coming up with a proof of the Riemann Hypothesis can lead to a change in computational mathematics, number theory, set theory, and logic ofcourse. The same goes to the P vs. NP.
Category: Number Theory

[135] viXra:1304.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-29 17:19:16

Theoretical Basis of in Vivo Tomographic Tracer Kinetics

Authors: Fabrice Pautot
Comments: 24 Pages.

In vivo tracer kinetics, as probed by current tomographic techniques, is revisited from the point of view of fluid kinematics. Proofs of the standard intravascular advective perfusion model from first premises reveal underlying assumptions and demonstrate that all single input models apply at best to undefined tube-like systems, not to the ones defined by tomography, \textit{i.e.} the voxels. In particular, they do not and cannot account for the circulation across them. More generally, it is simply not possible to define a single non-zero steady volumetric flow rate per voxel. Restarting from the fact that kinematics requires the definition of six volumetric flow rates per voxel, one for each face, minimalist, 4D spatiotemporal analytic models of the advective transport of intravascular tracers in the whole organ of interest are obtained. Their many parameters, plasmatic volumetric flow rates and volumes, can be readily estimated at least in some specific cases. Estimates should be quasi-absolute in homogeneous tissue regions, regardless of the tomographic technique. Potential applications such as dynamic angio-tractography are presented. By contrast, the transport of mixed intra/extravascular tracers cannot be described by conservation of the mass alone and requires further investigation. Should this theory eventually supersede the current one(s), it shall have a deep impact on our understanding of the circulatory system, hemodynamics, perfusion, permeation and metabolic processes and on the clinical applications of tracer tracking tomography to numerous pathologies.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[134] viXra:1304.0161 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-30 00:11:28

Ultrapolemici cu Litere Mari şi Mici (Ediția a II-a, Corectată și Repaginată)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 199 Pages.

Paradoxismul este un curent de avangardă care se bazează pe folosirea excesivă – atât în spaţiu mic, cât şi la nivel global al operei – de antiteze, antinomii, antipozi, oximoroane, contradicţii, aporii, situaţii paradoxale, plus experimente în literatură, filosofie, artă. Etimologic, evident: paradox+ism. Scopul este lărgirea sferei artistice prin elemente neartistice. Dar, mai ales, creaţia în răspăr, în contra-timp, în contra-sens. Se preconizează că sensul are un non-sens şi, reciproc, non-sensul are un sens. Ca motto se foloseşte paradoxul “Totul este posibil, chiar şi imposibilul!”. Iar emblema este o spirală, ca iluzie optică ori ca un cerc vicios. Direcţiile de dezvoltare cuprind crearea de lucrări literare, artistice, filosofice, chiar ştiinţifice, care să releveze contradicţii, antagonisme, plus experimente în acest scop.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[133] viXra:1304.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-29 05:33:34

Observation on Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Julien Laurendeau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, we are discovering something that looks a lot like Fermat's last theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[132] viXra:1304.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-28 11:56:36

Energy Transfers from Airborne Wind Turbine: Review and Comparison of Airborne Turbines.

Authors: Bolonkin Alexander
Comments: 28 Pages. Reseach of AirBorne Wind System

Ground based, wind energy extraction systems have reached their maximum capability. The limitations of current designs are wind instability and high cost of installations. The wind energy industry is in need of revolutionary ideas to increase the capabilities of wind systems. This article suggests a revolutionary innovation which produces a dramatic increase in power per unit at a lower cost per unit of energy extracted and is independent of prevailing weather. The main innovation consists of large free-flying air rotors positioned at high altitude for power and stable air stream, and two types (mechanical and electrical) of an energy cable transmission system between the air rotor and a ground system. The air rotor system flies at high altitude up to 10 km. Stability and control systems is provided which also enable changing altitude. This article includes the theory of airborne wind systems and provides the analysis of four examples having a high unit power output (up to 50 MW). The proposed examples provide the following main advantages: 1) Large power production capacity per unit - up to ten - hundred times more than conventional ground-based small rotor designs; 2) The rotor operates at high altitude of 0.5 - 10 km where the wind flow is strong and steady; 3) Installation cost per unit energy is low and 4) The installation is environmentally friendly (no propeller noise). Author also provides a brief review of other main wind systems/turbines describing their advantages and disadvantages. ------------------------------------------------
Keywords: wind energy, cable energy transmission, electric airborne transmission, utilization of wind energy at high altitude, air rotor, airborne wind turbines, windmills, Bolonkin.
Category: Classical Physics

[131] viXra:1304.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-31 10:13:46

Products of Generalised Functions

Authors: Vincenzo Nardozza
Comments: 16 Pages.

An elementary algebra of products of distributions is constructed. The constructed algebra is equivalent, although less general, of the full Colombeau algebra of generalised functions. However, the loss of generality is compensated by the fact that the new algebra of generalised functions is very convenient for practical calculations. An equivalent relation, among elements of the above algebra, is proposed and a linear space of generalised functions is constructed as a partition space of the elementary algebra with respect to the equivalent relation. The new space of generalized functions is used to prove interesting equalities involving products among elements of D'. A way of multiplying the defined generalised functions with polynomials is also given.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[130] viXra:1304.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-27 23:56:02

An Interpretation of the Squared Amplitude of a Solution of the Schrodinger Wave Equation

Authors: Tim C Jenkins
Comments: 8 Pages.

It is found that that from a mathematical standpoint the probability density given by a solution of the Schrodinger wave equation is determined by an underlying random variable which has a Chi-Square distribution with one degree of freedom, and that the resulting mean probability density agrees with its deterministic value in quantum mechanics. As a result quantum probability and interference patterns in particular, would obey the normal laws of probability.
Category: Quantum Physics

[129] viXra:1304.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-27 05:11:26

How an Effective “cosmological Constant” May Affect a Minimum Scale Factor, to Avoid a Cosmological Singularity.( Breakdown of the First Singularity Theorem )

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 Pages. May be after extensive revisions, submitted to Prespacetime

We examine the break down of Theorem 6.1.2 of Ellis, Maartens, and Mac Callum ( Cosmology) in lieu of Dr. Kauffman's results which imply a non zero initial radius of the universe. The theoretical construction which comes closest to this classical singularity theorem, is the Bianchi I universe model when we have a w = -1 equation of state. This though is not a precise fit, and if we apply an effective cosmological parameter as defined by Ellis, et.al,and put that into a Friedman equation, we have a complete break down of our analysis.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[128] viXra:1304.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-27 09:28:39

Foundations of Neutrosophic Logic and Set and Their Applications to Information Fusion

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 101 Pages.

Neutrosophy, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic set, and neutrosophic probability are presented. Also their applications to various scientific fields.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[127] viXra:1304.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-27 10:47:49

Watching the Clock: Quantum Rotation and Relative Time

Authors: Alan M. Kadin
Comments: 12 Pages. Submitted to Foundational Questions Inst. Essay Contest, April 14, 2013, http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1601

A consistent theory of nature must account for both microscopic quantum waves and macroscopic relativistic particle trajectories. In the recent "New Quantum Paradigm", locally realistic rotating vector fields comprise fundamental particles with spin. These same coherent quantum rotators constitute local clocks that define local time, in a way that agrees with general relativity to first order, but provides surprising new insights (e.g., no black holes). This paradigm avoids conventional paradoxes of quantum indeterminacy and entanglement. All information on quantum systems follows directly from the dynamics of real fields in real space; no further information is obtained by reference to abstract quantum Hilbert space. This simple but unconventional picture provides a consistent unified foundation for all of modern physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[126] viXra:1304.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-26 09:59:06

A Biased Classical Theory of Color – Hannay Angle and MacAdam Ellipse

Authors: Nicolae Mazilu
Comments: 11 Pages.

There is still much unfinished work, and understanding, in order to set the classical theory of light and colors on a physically firm basis. The present work advances a point of view touching this issue. The main starting thesis is that the Planck’s physical theory of light carries a special meaning, which allows us to select the general algebra to be used in treating the classical geometry of colors. This algebra is the one related to the SL(2,R) Lie group. In this framework, the classical MacAdam ellipse representing the uncertainty in deciding a color within trichromatic theory of colors, is closely related to the classical Hannay angle. This relation is explained. Further on, a special representation of trichromacy can result in a special representation of QCD itself. According to this representation, the QCD can be considered as the quantum counterpart of the classical theory of colors, much in the same manner in which the quantum mechanics is considered the quantum counterpart of the classical mechanics.
Category: Classical Physics

[125] viXra:1304.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-26 14:13:20

Some Thoughts on Special Relativity

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies.
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here an introduction to Wesley’s neomechanics is presented. It is shown to produce some of the same results as Special Relativity but without both the mathematical and philosophical basis of that subject. As with other work in which results associated with General Relativity are obtained without recourse to the fundamental bases of that subject, so here too the pre-eminent place afforded Special Relativity in modern science is called into question. The opportunity is taken to extend Wesley’s ideas to the case where the mass of the body when at rest is not constant.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[124] viXra:1304.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-28 14:30:03

Heuristic Study of the Concept of pq-Radial Functions as a New Class of Potentials

Authors: M.E.Hassani
Comments: 20 Pages; 7 References

The main purpose of the present paper is the heuristic study of the structure, properties and consequences of new class of potential functions results from the concept of pq-Radial functions which are fundamental family of solutions of second order pq-PDE.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[123] viXra:1304.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-23 11:54:29

The Higgs-like Bosons Couplings to Quarks

Authors: Mario Everaldo de Souza
Comments: 4 Pages.

The allowed and suppressed Higgs-like bosons couplings to quarks are identified. The relative ratios of strengths of allowed couplings are calculated. The latter is extremely important for experimentalists in the determination of the nature of the recently found Higgs boson and in the search for the charged Higgs-like bosons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[122] viXra:1304.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-26 01:22:37

Ppc GhEEms

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 8 Pages. This, and several more of my articles, also published at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rodney_Bartlett/?ev=pub_int_doc_dlext

This article is called Ppc GhEEms because it combines the P(oincare conjecture) + p(=mv) + c(=infinity) + G(ravitational constant) + h (Planck’s constant) + E(=hv) + E(=mc2) + ms (spin quantum number). If you start with a stutter and progress to the Dutch pronunciation of “ee” as “ay” in “say”, the article might be called P-peace Games”  My aims are to show - a new way of looking at relativistic mass increase and time dilation, infinity has 2 definitions (space-time going on and on forever; and the elimination of all distance), this elimination of distance unites here and there (entanglement) plus past and future (retrocausality) plus quantum mechanics and general relativity (theory of everything), the relation between E=hv and E=mc^2, h and G both apply to mass and to space-time, the warping of space in Einstein's General Relativity was extended by him to subatomic particles, electromagnetism and the nuclear forces may be regarded as modifications of gravitation because all forces are formulated from the same mathematical foundation of the universe, this math basis derives from human development of hidden variables called binary digits and figure-8 Klein bottles (which form the subuniverses - including ours - in the one infinite universe), our remote descendents travel to the distant past via a 5th-dimensional hyperspace and apply this maths which has been glimpsed by string theory to produce the Big Bang, the inverse-square's infinite aspect combines with eternal cosmic entanglement to produce infinity's 2nd definition (simultaneously, a universal intelligence we call God inevitably exists forever), parallel universes require infinitesimal separation and can't exist because of infinity's zero-separation definition, and I suspect Planck could have developed E=mc^2 if Einstein had been born a decade later.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[121] viXra:1304.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-26 04:21:44

How Massive Gravitons (and Gravitinos) may Affect and Modify The Fundamental Singularity Theorem (Irrotational Geodestic Singularities from the Raychaudhuri Equation)

Authors: A.W. Beckwith
Comments: 5 Pages. sent for review as part of a small Prespacetime publication

The author presents the consequences of what if Gravitinos in the Electroweak era, all 10^8 to 10^12 of them have an (almost) invariant energy from the beginning of cosmology. This in turn may lead to massive Gravitons. This invariant energy constitutes an initial energy value at the start of the universe which can be used to obtain, at the onset of inflation Kauffman’s lower bound to a non zero initial radius of the universe. We reference Theorem 6.1.2 of the book by Ellis, Maartens, and MacCallum in order to argue that if there is a non zero initial scale factor, that there is a partial breakdown of the Fundamental Singularity theorem which is due to the Raychaudhuri equation. The arguments for why the scale factor may not go to zero are reviewed, with suggestions as to linkage as to how to avoid the Anthropic principle in having continuity of from a prior to the present universe. We also look at how different models of contributing vacuum energy, initially may affect divergence from the first singularity theorem and its results. This document implicitly uses Salvoy’s (1983) results
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[120] viXra:1304.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-26 05:46:41

Nuclear Binding Energy, Fission and Fusion: Obviating a ‘Thermodynamic Ponzi Scheme’. A Historical Perspective

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 30 Pages.

It is argued that the scale of atomic masses rests far too heavily on two possibly dubious pieces of evidence. These are the nineteenth-century determination of the atomic weight of hydrogen, and early mass spectrographic work on the determination of atomic masses. The determination of the atomic weight of hydrogen is possibly prone to overestimation because of adventitious enrichment in deuterium during the experimental procedure. The mass spectrographic work is likely to be susceptible to both systemic and theoretical errors deriving from the assumptions employed; it is also possibly enmeshed in the confusion between the (then prevailing) chemical and physical scales of atomic weight. All these ambiguities may well have led to a dubious confirmation of the atomic mass of hydrogen. The idea of the ‘mass defect’, deriving from this work, formed a corner-stone of the subsequently developed theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus. A particular problem with the mass-defect idea is that, by mass-energy equivalence, heavier atoms would be less stable than lighter ones. (Thus, the mass defect may well be an artefact deriving from the inherent inaccuracies of early mass-spectrographic studies.) All this has apparently led to a dubious theory of nuclear structure. Thus, the balance between the electrostatic and strong forces should favour the latter with increasing atomic mass – contrary to current theory, which apparently neglects to take account of the predominance of nearest-neighbour interactions between nucleons. Consequently, the origins of nuclear energy, whether by fission or fusion, seem unclear. Taken as a whole, these arguments indicate a fundamental reappraisal of current theoretical ideas: It would appear that mass-energy equivalence may be involved more fundamentally and insidiously in the generation of nuclear energy; it is also possible that the radionuclides arise by the malformation of nuclei during their creation, a consequence of their mass and size.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[119] viXra:1304.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-25 11:08:31

The Undergraduate Scientific Research Communication Platform of Applied Mathematics——Mathematical Modeling and Application Association

Authors: Zhang Huiming
Comments: 10 Pages. In Chinese

Mathematical modeling and application association (Shumo association) is a undergraduate scientific research communication platform face to whole students in CCNU under the leadership of the university Youth League committee and relying on the school Youth League committee of department of mathematics and statistics.
Category: General Mathematics

[118] viXra:1304.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-25 11:11:23

The Creator's Quest for Humans

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 6 Pages. Wake up, humans! Do not be cheated by your landlords.

According to Western religion, galaxies are designed by the Creator. Dr. Jin He found many evidences that galaxies are rational distribution of stars. Rational structure in two dimension means that not only there exists an orthogonal net of curves in the plane but also, for each curve, the stellar density on one side of the curve is in constant ratio to the density on the other side of the curve. Such a curve is called a proportion curve or a Darwin curve. Such a distribution of matter is called a rational structure. There are plenty of evidences for rational galaxy structure. We list a few examples. Firstly, galaxy stellar distribution can be fitted to rational structure. Secondly, spiral arms can be fitted to Darwin curves. Thirdly, rational structure dictates New Universal Gravity which explains constant rotation curves elegantly. However, there has been no systematic study on rational structure. This letter presents a general partial differential equation whose solution must be rational structure. Also given in the letter is the geometric meaning of the equation. The general solution to the equation is called the Creator's open quest for humans which has not been answered yet.
Category: Astrophysics

[117] viXra:1304.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-25 11:24:37

A Note on Montort's Probability Expressions in the Problem of Rational Division of Stakes

Authors: Zhang Huiming
Comments: 6 Pages. In Chinese

In this paper, by using three kinds of ideas of probability theory, we proof the equivalence among three kinds of probability expressions in the problem of rational division of stakes by the method of mathematical analysis. In addition, different ideas of probability theory obtain the identity. Let one of the probability expressions be a function, we find the B-function is closely relate to the derivative the probability expression function. According to Beta distribution function, we proof that probability expression function in the problem of rational division is equal to the distribution function of Beta distribution.
Category: Statistics

[116] viXra:1304.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-25 11:57:09

Quantum Theory of Galactic Dynamics

Authors: James G. Gilson
Comments: 31 Pages.

Much of the introductory section of this paper is devoted to displaying some previously obtained formulae, incorporating a change of notation and variables and giving some explanation of the relation of the work to Newtonian gravitation theory. This section all refers to a quantisation of gravity concentrated on and limited to galaxies with totally spherically symmetric cores and halos. Only the radial variable r is involved and the emphasis is on the dark matter concept. All the following sections are devoted to generalising the theory to additionally incorporate a dependence of galactic structure on the and spherical angular coordinates. The theory is derived using Schr¨odinger quantum theory in much the same way as it was used in developing the theory of atomic structure. The theoretical structure to be developed in this papers is a hybrid formulation involving three fundamental theoretical facets, general relativity, Schr¨odinger quantum mechanics and a new theoretical version of isothermal gravity self equilibrium. The combined structure has only become possible because of the discovery of an infinite discrete set of equilibrium states associated with this later theory, the l parameter states. The configuration space structure of these states has been found to be available in Schr¨odinger theory from a special inverse square law potential which appears to supply an inverse cube self attraction to the origin that maintains galaxies in an isolated steady state self gravity quantum condition.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[115] viXra:1304.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-25 04:37:33

On Reference System of Life

Authors: Dainis Zeps
Comments: 8 Pages.

We consider the human thinking from the aspect of life, i.e., from conditions of being alive. Thus, we try to consider cognition how it would be considered in some unconventional outline, i.e., as the functionality of life from within the reference system of life, or, how we perceive world directly. We conjecture that this would give us right to consider mathematical thinking differently, i.e., as an aspect of life and thus in completely unconventional approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[114] viXra:1304.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-25 07:02:03

A Novel Neutrosophic Logic SVM (N-SVM) and Its Application to Image Categorization

Authors: Wen Ju, H. D. Cheng
Comments: 14 Pages.

Neutrosophic logic is a relatively new logic that is a generalization of fuzzy logic. In this paper, for the first time, neutrosophic logic is applied to the field of classifiers where a support vector machine (SVM) is adopted as the example to validate its feasibility and effectiveness. The proposed neutrosophic set is integrated into a reformulated SVM, and the performance of the obtained classifier N-SVM is evaluated under a region-based image categorization system. Images are first segmented by a hierarchical two-stage self-organizing map (HSOM), using color and texture features. A novel approach is proposed to select the training samples of HSOM based on homogeneity properties. A diverse density support vector machine (DD-SVM) framework is then applied to viewing an image as a bag of instances corresponding to the regions obtained from image segmentation. Each bag is mapped to a point in the new bag space, and the categorization is transformed to a classification problem. Then, the proposed N-SVM is used as the classifier in the new bag space. N-SVM treats samples differently according to the weighting function, and it helps to reduce the effects of outliers. Experimental results have demonstrated the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method which may find wide applications in the related areas.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[113] viXra:1304.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-24 17:00:58

Dynamical Systems Determinable by Discrete Samples

Authors: Ovidiu Ilie ŞANDRU, Luige VLĂDĂREANU, Alexandra ŞANDRU
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we shall define and study an important class of dynamic systems which allow to effectively determine their mathematical model exclusively on experimental basis. The usefulness of these results of mathematical nature, obtained by extending the Whittaker-Shannon sampling theory, will be highlighted through an applied example from the field of optoelectronics.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[112] viXra:1304.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-24 17:02:49

Invertible Dynamic Systems

Authors: Ovidiu Ilie ŞANDRU, Luige VLĂDĂREANU, Alexandra ŞANDRU
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the notion of invertible dynamic system, we indicate a very general method to determine the inverse of such a system and we give evidence of the numerous applications of the subclass of dynamic systems defined by this notion.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[111] viXra:1304.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-24 20:39:15

From the Waveguided Gravity to the Periodic Waveguided Multiverse as United Solution of Dark Energy & Dark Matter & Susy Mysteries

Authors: Iourii Gribov
Comments: 91 Pages.

The quasi-classical concept of Periodic Waveguided Multiverse (PWM) is proposed. This periodic 4D-hyperstructure has substantial theoretical and observational-cosmological confirmations because it unites and refines the basic physical laws (SR&GR&QM, etc), inseparably emergent in the waveguided dynamics and gives the multiversal explanation of dominating observational DE&DM-mysteries (including predicted and observed two-component DM) – interconnected cosmological evidences for the PWM-existence. The PWM concept can be soon tested in a laboratory: (a) it predicts antigravity in the anti-hydrogen gravity test at CERN; (b) predicts direct-atypical DM&ANTIMATTER annihilation with radiation of one – visible-detectable and one – dark-undetectable gamma quantum - as basis for the proposed selective direct DM-detection. The PWM-foundation is surprisingly compact – it is based on two penetrating Planckian & Einsteinian ideas: I - photon-quanta and II - principle of equality of our 3D-spatial dimensions (x,y,z) with an additional extra-dimension L, realizing so expanded - automatically Euclidean 4D-space (x,y,z,L). We have applied these basic physical insights in frames of classical-Maxwellian-like 3D-waveguides Wn [x,y,z,nL0<L<(n+1)L0], realizing an endless periodic chain of physically identical parallel W2n/W2n+1 Universes/Antiuniverses (n = ±1, ±2, ±3,…, ±¥), filling this global space (x,y,z,L), where Lo=lel.Compton » 1 picometer, determined by the lightest (electron) rest mass particle. This structure discloses the waveguided co-emergence of the (1) pure C4-dynamical quantized-gapped - “elementary” rest mass; (2) the SR & QM & Newtonian-like, periodic matter/antimatter antigravity; (3) the CPTPWM symmetry between particles/antiparticles, with the gravity “charge” symmetry (4) the modified Equivalence Principle EPPWM; (5) singularity-less Diracian-like fermions/antifermions and GR-like black/white holes free of singularity; (6) opens physical possibility of the nongravitating – chargeless, very robust scalar (Cooper-like) composites - electron-positron-cells, hidden in their globally coherent superfluid vacuum condensate at low T – as Diracian-like, equilibrium superfluid sea/anti-sea. Common electron/positron pairs arise as elementary defects – Diracian holes/antiholes in this vacuum, disclosing the composite-SUSY nature and explaining why cosmological constant is zero; (7) the global C3-dynamical pseudo-Euclidean 4D-spacetime concept by Minkowski is rethought and reformulated on the 3D-waveguided, 4D-Euclidean physical basis, where global linear intervals (→→→→→C3tMink.) → (↗↘↗↘↗↘↗↘↗↘C4tPWM) -waveguided-polygonal intervals - C4t-parameterizations of the polygonal rest mass particle dynamics, disclosing the waveguided/wave-optical (Huygens-Fermat’s) sense of the mechanical Lagrangian and Hamilton's principle of the least action.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[110] viXra:1304.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-24 11:00:38

A Complete Guide to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 2 Pages.

According to Dr.Abraham Maslow, all humans have certain needs. He demonstrates this in a pyramid that represents the most needed needs on the bottom and the least needed needs on the top. In my opinion an person would have needs in this same order. However, some people have different needs or different order. For example, if you were to put my needs from least to greatest. My least need would be belonging needs, my next least needs would be Self-actualization, my third least need would be Esteem Needs, and my fourth least needs would be safety needs, then my most needed needs would be physical needs because my body needs to maintain a certain homeostasis in order to survive.
Category: Social Science

[109] viXra:1304.0133 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-02 12:13:40

An Indicator of Inclusion with Applications in Computer Vision

Authors: Ovidiu Ilie Şandru, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we present an algorithmic process of necessary operations for the automatic movement of a predefined object from a video image in the target region of that image, intended to facilitate the implementation of specialized software applications in solving this kind of problems.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[108] viXra:1304.0132 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-19 07:09:41

Retrograde Spin-Orbit Coupling Effects on the Apsidal Motion of Eclipsing Binary Star Systems: the Case of V541cygni

Authors: M.E.Hassani
Comments: 5 Pages; 27 References

It is usually known that the line of apsides of eclipsing binary star systems precesses due to general relativistic effects and classical (Newtonian) tidal and rotational deformations of the stars, whose rotation axes are assumed normal to the orbital plane. For almost all binaries, the expected theoretical and observed apsidal motion rates are in agreement. However, some systems –V541 Cygni, V1143 Cygni, V459 Cassiopeia and AS Camelopardalis – have broken this agreement and resisted explanation for a long time. In this study, we are exclusively dealt with V541 Cygni. We present very tentative theoretical evidence in support of the hypothesis that the retrograde spin-orbit coupling of system causes orbital plane precession in the direction opposite to the relativistic apsidal motion when the spin angular momentum vector is not aligned with the orbital angular momentum vector, thereby reconciling the theoretical and observational result.
Category: Astrophysics

[107] viXra:1304.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-23 23:41:53

Nutritional Balance of Wheat Cravers (Introduction)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 3 pages, Knowledge (ISSN 2324-1624), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of wheat cravers in 2012, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand. Wheat cravers had, on average, a nutritional unbalance of BNI 55.71na, being particularly biased towards excess of sodium. They were also adequate in carbohydrate, sugar and saturated fat, high in fat, and low in protein and fiber.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[106] viXra:1304.0130 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-19 23:42:03

Energy – Momentum Vectors for Matter and Gravitational Field.

Authors: Vyacheslav Telnin
Comments: 2 Pages.

This paper is the simple example of the using the First Noether theorem generalized on asymmetric metric tensors in curved spaces and taking into account the second derivatives. It defines the ordinary energy-momentum vector for matter and the energy-momentum vector for gravitational field.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[105] viXra:1304.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-24 05:59:23

L’augmentation de L’unité Astronomique Est-Elle Causée Par L’effet D’éclipse Allais ?

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 17 pages. « L'augmentation de l’unité astronomique est-elle causée par l’effet d’éclipse Allais ? » is the French version of «Is the Growth of the Astronomical Unit Caused by the Allais Eclipse Effect?» on viXra: 1304.0124.

En plus des anomalies Pioneer et Flyby, d’autres anomalies inexpliquées, telle la croissance de l’unité astronomique, perturbent la dynamique du système solaire. Nous montrons dans cet article que la majeure partie de l’augmentation inattendue de l’échelle de longueur du système solaire est provoquée par l’effet d’éclipse Allais. La Terre et la Lune tournent autour de leur centre commun de gravité et celui-ci orbite autour du Soleil ; la perturbation de l’éclipse atteint simultanément ces deux mouvements képlériens. Ce serait cette brutale perturbation sur le barycentre Terre-Lune, impliquant le Soleil, qu’aurait enregistrée le pendule paraconique sous forme d’un mouvement abrupt. La thèse de la friction des marées soutient que le frottement des marées océaniques transfère le moment cinétique de la Terre à la Lune, ralentit la rotation de la Terre tout en éloignant la Lune. Toutefois, nous pensons qu’il n’y a pas assez de mers peu profondes pour sanctionner cette interprétation. Le système des marées Terre-Lune pourrait être inexact ou peu fiable dans la détermination du taux réel de ralentissement de la rotation de la Terre. Notre hypothèse est que le changement de la rotation terrestre serait provoqué par une interaction gravitationnelle répulsive pendant l’éclipse solaire. La perturbation soumettrait à des variations et à des distorsions non seulement la région du barycentre du système Terre-Lune, mais aussi celle du barycentre Soleil-Terre, avec le double effet séculaire que la Lune spirale vers l’extérieur et que le système Terre-Lune s’éloigne du Soleil.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[104] viXra:1304.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-24 07:18:01

Age of Proto-Human

Authors: Ningombam Bupenda Meitei
Comments: 15 Pages.

The paper intends to find the more probable age of proto-human, which in turn could help in finding the timeline of proto-language. In the hominid line of evolution, the rise of modern humans plays a significant role and its role is also owing to the fact of their uniqueness due to language. Different disciplines are put together to solve the mystery of language of human. In an attempt to understand how old, language could be, the paper makes an attempt to find it by first locating the timeline of the proto-human, using the Minimalist program of Chomsky. The search goes with Cartesian discontinuity notion and uses paleoanthropology and genetics to find the age of proto-human.
Category: Linguistics

[103] viXra:1304.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-23 13:58:58

An Acataleptic Universe

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: 10 Pages. Entry for 5th FQXi essay contest "It From Bit or Bit From It?"

John Wheeler advocated the principle that information is the foundation of physics and asked us to reformulate physics in terms of bits. The goal is to consider what we know already and work out a new mathematical theory in which space, time and matter are secondary. An application of the converse of Noether's second theorem to the holographic principle implies that physics must have an underlying hidden symmetry with degrees of symmetry that match physical degrees of freedom in order to account for the huge redundancy of information in the interior of a black-hole. I have been working on a theory that builds infinite dimensional symmetries using layers of quantisation from information as suggested by Wheeler's contemporary Carl von Weizsäcker. Necklace Lie algebras are the mathematical objects and iterated integration can be used to show how a continuum background can emerge from their structure. The logic suggests the conclusion that wheeler was right when he proclaimed "It from Bit"
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[102] viXra:1304.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-23 08:44:00

The Ratio of Dark Matter to Dark Energy in Our M-Brane Universe

Authors: Michael Muteru
Comments: 1 Page.

In a superbly ordered and symmetrical universe, the fundamentals come into play, the perfection is so deeply embedded in mathematics. The Pythagoreans had the notion in mind that numbers are the purest of ideas.M-theory derives a fractal universe composition with all the matter in the universe accounted for.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[101] viXra:1304.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-23 11:16:15

Investigation of Coulomb-Like Gravitational Interaction

Authors: Kamal Barghout
Comments: 28 Pages.

Gravitational relationship between two types of mass is investigated. It is proposed that the source of a dynamic scalar field that permeates all of space and defines the dynamics of the cosmos is the repelling self-gravitational nature of dark matter (DM) particles and the attractive gravitational nature between DM and baryons respectively. The model defines DM as a new form of matter and attributes self-antigravity to both baryons and DM and defines DM-Baryon gravitational interaction as like particles repel while unlike particles attract; a coulomb interaction. DM particles are proposed to permeate all of space, and arguably define space-time itself when describing Relativity Theory, and interact with baryons only gravitationally. To resolve the controversy of the apparent self-attraction of baryonic matter, metal-like force is proposed to produce Newtonian dynamics within cores of galaxies. In this metal-like attraction, same type mass (baryons) are gravitationally attracted to each other when a sea of other type DM “particles” are attracted to them and glue them together analogous to a metal bond. When baryonic objects defy their own repulsive nature and come close enough to each other, other dominant forces take place such as electromagnetic force. Normal matter is then created and further coalesces to form galactic structures. In light of this attraction-repulsion gravitational force, intergalactic self-repulsive DM particles are proposed to result in accelerating expansion of the universe. The model introduces new physics and explains the large scale structure of the universe. It also explains many cosmological anomalies and mysteries and removes gravitational singularity of black holes. An attempt to explain the model under the umbrella of Relativity Theory is presented.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[100] viXra:1304.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 18:35:43

Is the Growth of the Astronomical Unit Caused by the Allais Eclipse Effect?

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 16 Pages.

In addition to the Pioneer anomaly and the Earth flyby anomaly for spacecraft, other unexplained anomalies disrupt the solar system dynamics, like the astronomical unit. We show in this paper that the Allais eclipse effect causes the major part of the growth of the length scale for the entire solar system. It is the rough disturbance on the barycenter Earth-Moon implying the Sun that was recorded in the movement of the paraconical pendulum. Earth and Moon revolve around their common center of gravity, which in turn orbits the Sun, and the perturbation of the eclipse hits this double, coupled Kepler’s movements. The thesis of the tidal friction supports that oceanic tidal friction transfers the angular momentum of the Earth to the Moon, slows down the rotation of the Earth while taking away the Moon. However, we think that there are not enough shallow seas to sanction this interpretation. The Earth-Moon tidal system might be inaccurate or unreliable in determining the Earth’s actual rotational spin-down rate. Our assertion is that the change in the Earth’s rotation is caused by a repulsive gravitational interaction during solar eclipse. The perturbation would submit to variations and distortions the region of the barycenter of the Earth-Moon system which revolves around the Sun, with the dual secular effects that the Moon spirals outwards and that the Earth-Moon system goes away from the Sun.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[99] viXra:1304.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 22:24:14

Comment on "QSAR Modeling is not 'Push a Button and Find a Correlation': A Case Study of Toxicity of (Benzo-)triazoles on Algae"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 2 Pages.

In their manuscript, Gramatica et al. [Mol. Inf. 2012, 31, 817-835] claim to conduct quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling on a suite of triazoles, benzotriazoles, and additional azo-aromatic compounds. However, a number of the compounds examined by these authors do not appear to be triazoles, benzotriazoles, or other azo-aromatic compounds. In some cases, the authors also appear to publish incorrect molecular structures which may affect the structural descriptors employed for QSAR development.
Category: Chemistry

[98] viXra:1304.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-23 03:06:04

The Spine Model: Introduction and Basic Structure

Authors: Shreyak Chakraborty
Comments: 11 Pages. 1 figure. NAJP Journal ID- SC185

The FaTe Model of Hyperspace [1.] was a fairly successful model of string theory which described the properties of multidimensional spacetime based on concepts of string theory, quantum field theory etc. But the FaTe Model had some serious technical errors and so, it had to be discarded. In this paper, we shall use some of the concepts of the FaTe Model of Hyperspace to build a better model of the 11 dimensional spacetime that will allow us to explain particle interactions and other physical phenomena using a novel approach to multi-dimensional dynamics. The model also predicts a result similar to the unification of the relativity and quantum theories into a single framework using string theoretical backgrounds. This model is still incomplete and under improvement. This paper will be followed by a number of papers on the spine model which will focus on other parts of the model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[97] viXra:1304.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 13:54:27

Mathematics as Reference System of Life: Preliminary Observations

Authors: Dainis Zeps
Comments: 15 Pages.

We forward hypothesis that all what we refer to as mathematics are cognitive aspects of life, moreover, we have right to refer to mathematics as reference system of life (as state of being alive). Mathematics and cognition are not distinguishable between themselves because what we call mathematics refer to the functionality by means of what (or via what) we are created by nature, or by God, be it question of our religious persuasion. Thus, according to this hypothesis, mathematics turns out to be considerably more primary with respect to other sciences than before, when we attributed to mathematics only some role of auxiliary technical tool to help in the description of nature. When we are going to say that mathematics might be considered as reference system of life, we mean that today's mathematics is only some starting state of what might be referred to as mathematics as subject and/or object of reality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[96] viXra:1304.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 05:01:56

Nature's Coordination

Authors: Ioannis Hadjidakis
Comments: 6 Pages.

The logic stretch that Relativity has imposed was caused by the alteration of length perception that Einstein forced to introduce in order to accommodate time in a four dimensional orthogonal manifold. Because no space and time can be both at once “absolute”, Einstein changed the definitions of both in order to keep light’s velocity - that was derived by space and time - invariant. This was a mistake in logic. In this work a different approach is proposed that uses a space-time manifold with three degrees of freedom in a four dimensional manifold. This simple model seems to explain a lot of extremely complex phenomena with an extremely primitive way although it demands an alternative intuitive view of Nature.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[95] viXra:1304.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 07:31:32

Fractal Constitution of Our 11 Dimensional M-Brane Universe

Authors: Michael Muteru
Comments: 1 Page.

Having worked M-Theory on a circle ,a Systems theory approach is taken, looking at phenomena from the universe in the pure Universal mathematical ratio derived when solving for the Dual M-Brane in MTheory. The M-Brane is the fundamental Brane at the heart of the entire universe.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[94] viXra:1304.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 07:36:44

M-Theory and the Eternal Pre-Big Bang Universe Model Produced

Authors: Michael Muteru
Comments: 02 Pages.

M-theory reveals the magnificent physics in the 11 Dimension Hyperspace, that highly inspired the ekpyrotic 3 Dimensional physics, and most possibly all possibilities
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[93] viXra:1304.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 10:15:51

The Twilight of the Scientific Age

Authors: Martin Lopez Corredoira
Comments: 7 Pages.

This brief article presents the introduction and draft of the fundamental ideas developed at length in the book of the same title, which gives a challenging point of view about science and its history/philosophy/sociology. Science is in decline. After centuries of great achievements, the exhaustion of new forms and fatigue have reached our culture in all of its manifestations including the pure sciences. Our society is saturated with knowledge which does not offer people any sense in their lives. There is a loss of ideals in the search for great truths and a shift towards an anodyne specialized industry.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[92] viXra:1304.0108 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-16 05:50:50

Relative Pseudorapidity Density in Inelastic Proton-Proton Collisions

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we calculated the relative pseudorapidity density in inelastic proton-proton collisions. The derived very simple formula is consistent with all experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[91] viXra:1304.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-21 22:22:39

Nutritional Balance of Wheat Cravers (Descriptive Statistics)

Authors: Jose D Perezgonzalez
Comments: 4 pages, Knowledge (ISSN 2324-1624), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of wheat cravers in 2012, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand. The median was located at BNI 55.65 and the middle 68% of products ranged between BNI 45 (P16) and BNI 69 (P84). There was a sensible positive skewness (mean = 58.39, zSkew = 3.68), probably exacerbated by the most extremely unbalanced product within the small sample.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[90] viXra:1304.0106 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-18 22:57:55

The Generalizations of the First Noether Theorem.

Authors: Vyacheslav Telnin
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper deals with the generalizations of the First Noether theorem. It takes into account not only the first derivatives of the fields by the coordinates in Lagrangian, but also the second. And this theorem is generalized on the curved spaces. And also it's generalized on asymmetric metric tensors.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[89] viXra:1304.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 00:56:38

The Jiang Periodic Table of the Elements

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 4 Pages.

using the stable number theory we calculate the best electron configurations of elements and not from experimental data.WE make the Jiang periodic table of the elements.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[88] viXra:1304.0104 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-22 22:15:14

Primes in the Intervals [kn,(k+1)n]

Authors: S. Sambasivarao
Comments: 4 Pages. This paper is communicated to "Notes on Number Theory and Discrete Mathematics"

Abstract. In this paper, we prove: (a) for every integer n > 1 and a fixed integer k less than or equal to n, there exists a prime number p in between kn and (k + 1)n, and (b) conjectures of Legendre, Oppermann, Andrica, Brocard, and Improved version of Legendre conjecture as a particular case of (a).
Category: Number Theory

[87] viXra:1304.0103 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-22 02:59:24

Electron Wave Function 3D Model

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 160 Pages. Much of the content of this paper is source code listing from the models.

All of Electromagnetics can be explained in terms of a field of vectors called the Hertzian vector field. This paper shows the resulting images & source code from my two approaches to modelling an Electron using the equations that can be derived from this Hertzian Vector field. (1) a finite element 3D vector model (2) an analytical model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[86] viXra:1304.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-20 11:05:18

Multicriteria Decision-Making Method Using the Correlation Coefficient Under Single-Valued Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 9 Pages.

The paper presents the correlation and correlation coefficient of single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) based on the extension of the correlation of intuitionistic fuzzy sets and demonstrates that the cosine similarity measure is a special case of the correlation coefficient in SVNS. Then a decision-making method is proposed by the use of the weighted correlation coefficient or the weighted cosine similarity measure of SVNSs, in which the evaluation information for alternatives with respect to criteria is carried out by truth-membership degree, indeterminacy-membership degree, and falsity-membership degree under single-valued neutrosophic environment. We utilize the weighted correlation coefficient or the weighted cosine similarity measure between each alternative and the ideal alternative to rank the alternatives and to determine the best one(s). Finally, an illustrative example demonstrates the application of the proposed decision-making method.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[85] viXra:1304.0099 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-06 06:05:29

Theory of Transitional Universe

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 31 Pages. THIS THEORY SUPERCEDES THE BIG BANG THEORY

This is a theory that makes macroscopic predictions based on the principle of duality as universal constant in space-time continuum, which is finite in its infinity due to integrated horizon and inherent reverse polarity. It implies that there is an absolute frame of reference in our uniform double cone space-time model (as observed in cosmos) which shows that the state of our universe is a deterministic function of its previous state of a primordial universe where the rotating mass of first order extended in our universe to second order in the angular momentum. Locality assumes that the current state of space-time is determined by the states of a fixed number of previous time steps. Discretized difference equations use at least the current and previous time steps if they are second order systems like the wave equation. Physical quantities come in pairs which are called conjugate quantities. According to quantum mechanics, under some conditions, a pair of quantum systems may be described by a single wave function, which encodes the probabilities of the outcomes of experiments that may be performed on the two systems, whether jointly or individually. It means that the actual space-time is not flat per Einstein-Minkowski space-time formed on 2D Lorentzian geometry, and that there couldn’t be a singular event of a Big Bang due to a single, primitive force (“primeval atom”), which allegedly caused a sudden “birth’ of space-time without a preceding event -- past “conception” of our universe in a primordial universe, constituting thereby a double cone universal structure. Accordingly, our 4D time-space model comprises a cross-like structure with an integrated spiral timeframe that enables no analogy spacecrafts to traverse space unimpeded, as described in this article.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[84] viXra:1304.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-20 03:12:31

Detecting Fractal Dimensions Via Primordial Gravitational Wave Astronomy.

Authors: J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A. Podosenov, E.R.Men’kova.
Comments: 74 Pages.

Lower fractal dimensionality of the early Universe at higher energies is an theoretical possibility as recently pointed out in [1].Gravitational-wave experiments with interferometers and with resonant masses can search for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves of cosmological origin.In this paper using cosmological models with fractional action and Calcagni approach to cosmology in fractal spacetime [18], we will examine a number of theoretical aspects of the searches fractal dimensionality from a stochastic fractal background of GWs.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[83] viXra:1304.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-19 04:19:58

3D Universe Theory

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: 29 Pages.

The 3D Universe Theory describes the Universe as a growing sphere of layered information with only three dimensions: two space dimensions and one dimension which is both space and time. The information describing our "present" moment is contained in a 2D layer of that sphere and past/present/future co-exist as concurrent layers. Each layer is scaling up with time. The Universe follows two simple ratios: 8π-1 and Phi (the Golden ratio)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[82] viXra:1304.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-19 09:57:00

Applications of Dynamical Systems in Engineering

Authors: Yousuf Ibrahim Khan
Comments: 32 Pages.

This paper presents the current possible applications of Dynamical Systems in Engineering. The applications of chaos, fractals have proven to be an exciting and fruitful endeavor. These applications are highly diverse ranging over such fields as Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering. Dynamical Systems theory describes general patterns found in the solution of systems of nonlinear equations. The theory focuses upon those equations representing the change of processes in time. This paper offers the issue of applying dynamical systems methods to a wider circle of Engineering problems. There are three components to our approach: ongoing and possible applications of Fractals, Chaos Theory and Dynamical Systems. Some basic and useful computer simulation of Dynamical System related problems have been shown also.
Category: General Mathematics

[81] viXra:1304.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-19 01:58:17

Connections Between the Three Prime Factors of 3-Carmichael Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 5 Pages.

It was always obvious to me that, beside Korselt’s criterion, that gives a relation between any prime factor of a Carmichael number and the number itself, there must be a relation between the prime factors themselves; here I present a conjecture on the Carmichael numbers with three prime factors expressing the larger two prime factors as a function of the smallest one and few particular cases of connections between all three prime factors.
Category: Number Theory

[80] viXra:1304.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-19 06:08:36

Cryptography Using an Image

Authors: Yousuf Ibrahim Khan
Comments: 10 Pages.

An information is a message which is received and understood. Information can be sent one person to another over a long range but the process of sending information must be done in a secure way especially in case of a private message. Mathematicians and Engineers have historically relied on different algorithmic techniques to secure messages and signals. Cryptography, to most people, is concerned with keeping communications private. Indeed, the protection of sensitive communications has been the emphasis of cryptography throughout much of its history. Sometimes it is safer to send a message using an image and thus cryptography can also be done using images during an emergency. The need to extract information from images and interpret their contents has been one of the driving factors in the development of image processing and cryptography during the past decades. In this paper, a simple cryptographic method was used to decode a message which was in an image and it was done using a popular computational software.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[79] viXra:1304.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-18 18:20:37

Some Identities Involving four Squares II

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 1 page

ABSTRACT. We continue to develop some algebraic identities related to the power three as: (a^2 c^2+a^2 d^2+b^2 c^2+b^2 d^2 )^3=[ac(a^2-3b^2 )(c^2-3d^2 )]^2+[ad(a^2-3b^2 )(3c^2-d^2 )]^2+[bc(3a^2-b^2 )(c^2-3d^2 )]^2+[bd(3a^2-b^2 )(3c^2-d^2 )]^2.
Category: Number Theory

[78] viXra:1304.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-18 14:22:34

The Theory of Electrodynamic Space-Time Relativity (Revision 2)

Authors: Yingtao Yang
Comments: 17 Pages.

The theory of electrodynamic space-time relativity (TESTR) is the study of the transformation of time and space between two electrodynamic inertial frames of reference, which have both inertial velocity difference and electric potential difference. It is a fundamental space-time theory of theoretic physics based on the Einstein’s special theory of relativity, the electric potential limit postulate and the high-precision experimental facts of the inversion proportional square law of Coulomb’s force. It founded new physical space-time concepts, for example, the electrodynamic space-time is five-dimensional which is composed of quaternion space, and time. It also proposed some new basic concepts of physics, such as electric potential limit, quaternion electric potential and etc., revealing the inherent relationships between electric potential-velocity and time-space. This paper discusses in detail the process of establishing the theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity and theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity as well as their various conversions and transformations. At the same time, the basic effects of TESTR were discussed, obtaining the equations for superposition of quaternion velocity and potential of TESTR. It predicts some important new space-time change effects, which provides theoretical basis for the experimental validation of TESTR. This is the fundamental theory of the author’s series. Keyword: theory of electrodynamic space-time relativity, theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity, theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity, theory of electric potential relativity, special theory of relativity, electric potential limit, complex speed, complex electric potential, quaternion velocity, quaternion electric potential, quaternion, electrodynamic space-time, five-dimensional space-time, the time expansion effect of electric potential, electrodynamic space-time effects
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[77] viXra:1304.0088 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-19 02:34:24

Oglinzi Paralele şi Perpendiculare

Authors: Octavian Blaga
Comments: 136 Pages.

Volumul de faţă adună o mână de studii, articole şi consemnări din presa românească despre scriitorul şi omul de ştiinţă Florentin Smarandache, mişcarea literar-artistică pe care a iniţiat-o (Paradoxismul) şi una dintre teoriile pe care le-a dezvoltat (Viteza Supraluminală); câteva mesaje adresate acestuia şi o addenda ilustrată vin să contureze peisajul ştiinţific, artistic şi uman în care se mişcă unul dintre cei mai prolifici, mai interesanţi şi mai apreciaţi români ai momentului.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[76] viXra:1304.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-18 07:55:27

Les Courbes de Rotation Des Galaxies Tracees Par la Theorie de la Relation

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 12 pages. « Les courbes de rotation des galaxies tracées par la théorie de la Relation » is the French version of «GALAXY ROTATION CURVES TRACED OUT BY THE THEORY OF RELATION » on viXra: 1304.0079

Les astronomes savent depuis les années 1930 qu’il y a des galaxies qui se déplacent plus rapidement que ce qu’implique la gravité de la matière visible, ce qui indique l’attraction d’une énorme quantité de matière invisible. La théorie de la Relation prétend que la perte d’énergie négative de l’onde électromagnétique d’espace-temps plat de l’expansion se transforme en matière positive et en espace-temps gravifique. L’expansion universelle, contrairement à la pensée unique actuelle, décélère et est contrebalancée par une masse globale continuellement croissante ; une création perpétuelle de matière ordinaire et noire au sein d’un incessant processus de big bang. La décélération globale prend l’allure d’une accélération locale de chaque galaxie vers le centre intérieur. On a remarqué que l’ordre de grandeur des courbes de rotation anormales observées sur les galaxies éloignées était très semblable à celui de la décélération universelle Hc et avait les mêmes variations de gravité anormales mesurées sur la sonde Pioneer.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[75] viXra:1304.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-26 11:07:51

Flux Divergence Method of Solving Einstein Equations

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 7 Pages.

Trying to solve Einstein Equation with new integral of motion (conserved quantity) for system. The integrals of motion are important. Let us say, that discovery of new one means the Nobel Prize. Using them the "unsolvable" problems solve. Several dust collapse solutions satisfy the new formulas. I solved also collapse of perfect liquid ball with unexpected result. After the perfect liquid I have got result(s) for the real liquid. Critically discussed known conserved quantities. Revealed the nature of Dark Energy. Cancelled the cyclic Universe hypothesis (World will never be shrinking).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[74] viXra:1304.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-18 02:30:46

Artificial Neural Network based Short Term Load Forecasting of Power System

Authors: Salman Quaiyum, Yousuf Ibrahim Khan, Saidur Rahman, Parijat Barman
Comments: 7 Pages.

Load forecasting is the prediction of future loads of a power system. It is an important component for power system energy management. Precise load forecasting helps to make unit commitment decisions, reduce spinning reserve capacity and schedule device maintenance plan properly. Besides playing a key role in reducing the generation cost, it is also essential to the reliability of power systems. By forecasting, experts can have an idea of the loads in the future and accordingly can make vital decisions for the system. This work presents a study of short-term hourly load forecasting using different types of Artificial Neural Networks.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[73] viXra:1304.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-18 02:35:31

Application of Computational Intelligence in Motor Modeling

Authors: Yousuf Ibrahim Khan
Comments: 8 Pages.

Modeling is very important in the field of science and engineering. Modeling gives us an abstract and mathematical description of a particular system and describes its behavior. Once we get the model of a system then we can work with that in various applications without using the original system repeatedly. Computational Intelligence method like Artificial Neural Network is very sophisticated tool for modeling and data fitting problems. Modeling of Electrical motors can also be done using ANN. The Neural network that will represent the model of the motor will be a useful tool for future use especially in digital control systems. The parallel structure of a neural network makes it potentially fast for the computation of certain tasks. The same feature makes a neural network well suited for implementation in VLSI technology. Hardware realization of a Neural Network (NN), to a large extent depends on the efficient implementation of a single neuron. In this paper only a motor model is presented along with some neural networks those will mimic the motor behavior acquiring data from the original motor output.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[72] viXra:1304.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-17 12:50:46

Some Algebraic Identities Involving four Square

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 5 pages

ABSTRACT. We have developed some algebraic identities related to power three as: 4〖(a^2 c^2+a^2 d^2+b^2 c^2+b^2 d^2)〗^3=[(a+b)(a^2-4ab+b^2 )(c+d)(c^2-4cd+d^2 )]^2+[(a+b)(a^2-4ab+b^2 )(c-d)(c^2+4cd+d^2 )]^2+[(a-b)(a^2+4ab+b^2 )(c+d)(c^2-4cd+d^2 )]^2+[(a-b)(a^2+4ab+b^2 )(c-d)(c^2+4cd+d^2 )]^2.
Category: Number Theory

[71] viXra:1304.0082 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-26 08:12:52

Undulating Relativity

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Gracia
Comments: 117 Pages. §23 Space and Time Bend

ABSTRACT The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know: -The dilatation of time, and -The contraction of the Lorentz Length. The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement avaliac@sjc.sp.gov.br
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[70] viXra:1304.0081 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-15 12:18:44

Derivation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle and Meaning Simplification of the Dirac Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 9 Pages.

In general, the Pauli Exclusion Principle follows from the spectroscopy whereas its origin is not good understood. To understand fully this principle, most important is the origin of quantization of the azimuthal quantum number i.e. of the angular momentum quantum number. Here, applying the theory of ellipse and starting from very simple physical condition, we quantized the azimuthal quantum number. The presented model leads directly to the eigenvalue of the square of angular momentum and to the additional potential energy that appears in the equation for the modified wave function. We formulated also a very simple semiclassical analog to the Dirac and Sommerfeld theories of the hydrogen atom. The constancy of the base of the natural logarithm for the quantum fields is the reason that the three theories are equivalent.
Category: Quantum Physics

[69] viXra:1304.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-17 16:59:37

Galaxy Rotation Curves Traced Out by the Theory of Relation

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 11 Pages.

Astronomers know since the 1930s that galaxies are moving around faster than the gravity of the visible matter would imply, indicating that a huge amount of invisible matter is pulling on them. The theory of Relation asserts that the loss of negative energy of the expanding electromagnetic wavelength of flat spacetime is transformed into positive matter and gravific spacetime. The universal expansion decelerates, unlike the current single thought, and is counterbalanced by a continual growing global mass; a perpetual creation of ordinary and dark matter within an incessant big bang process. The global deceleration takes the form of a local acceleration of every galaxy towards the internal center. It was noted that the order of magnitude of the abnormal rotation curves observed on the remote galaxies was very similar to that of the universal deceleration Hc and had the same anomalous gravitational variations measured on Pioneer probes.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[68] viXra:1304.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-20 08:41:41

Abstract of Poster Accepted for the Fields Conference on Quantum Information

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: Pages.

This one page note summarizes the role of quantum impedances in the resolution of the black hole information paradox.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[67] viXra:1304.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-17 04:07:41

A Tale of 2 Infinite Universes

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article "Infinite Universe" by Bob Berman (“Astronomy” – Nov. 2012) states, "The evidence keeps flooding in. It now truly appears that the universe is infinite.” And “… any fraction of infinity is essentially zero. All we can ever hope to study (of the universe) is 0 percent." That would be true if defining infinity as "space that never ends" was the only definition of it. It's true that no-one can picture galaxies and stars going on and on without end. However, I believe there is another definition - infinity equals the total elimination of distance. Let me explain – The preceding paragraph is my article’s opening. The ensuing explanation involves many topics, including – the inverse square, gravitation, space-time, binary digits, string theory, unification of forces/laws of nature/parallel universes into one universe, conversion of the universe’s mathematical foundation into energy’s bosons and matter’s fermions, cosmic wormholes, cosmic strings, mass/charge/spin, Big Bang(s), Higgs particle, quantum entanglement of spacecraft/galaxies/past/future, cesium atoms, speed of light, time dilation, mass increase/massless photons, E=mc^2, c=∞, reconciling general relativity and quantum mechanics without renormalization, inverting spacetime to create and access 5th-dimensional hyperspace. If you find insufficient detail in these topics, remember that the purpose here is not to go into minute detail. It is to show how everything fits together to form a logical whole. When you understand the whole, you can be certain that attempts to go deeper into the details (with specialized language and equations) will be fruitful, and will not be a waste of time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[66] viXra:1304.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-17 05:18:49

Ether,dark Matter and Topology of the Universe

Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 17 Pages.

The idea of the existence of ether has been abandoned after the theory of relativity was accepted. It appears that the existence of an ether, compatible with the main points of the classical standard Cosmological model, permits to solve some enigmas of the present Cosmological model that are very important, for instance the enigma connected to dark matter or to fossil radiation. In this article we show how the existence of ether, being compatible with the classical standard Cosmological model, permits to solve those enigmas. In particular we show how it can give the nature of dark matter, the origin of its invisibility, the curve of velocities of stars in galaxies (constant) and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. We will also justify a very simple topological form of the Universe and the position of our galaxy inside this Universe. We will also give the possible nature of the enigmatic dark energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[65] viXra:1304.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-01 17:45:16

Energy Production in Compressed Matter

Authors: John Shim
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper notes that the dispersion relation ∇px∇x ≥ ħ/2, when expressed as an equality, ∇px∇x = ħ/2, defines the relationship between the ground-state mean kinetic energy of a confined quantum, and its dimensions of containment. The containment can occur in two ways: the first by an attractive potential, and the second by a repulsive potential. If the quantum is bound by an attractive potential, the ground-state kinetic energy is balanced by the containing potential in a stable state where the kinetic energy remains within the bound system. In the second type, which is only possible by compression, the quantum is contained by collisions with the bounding potential, which may result in a transfer of kinetic energy to the boundary. If the boundary is sufficiently massive, then the energy transfer will have a negligible effect on the dimensions of containment, and therefore the ground-state kinetic energy of the contained quantum will not significantly change. This energy transfer could be large. An electron contained within the approximate diameter of an iron atom, 250 pm, for example, would have a minimum velocity very great compared to the dimension of containment, so that the number of collisions per second with the boundary would be very high, on the order of 10^15. An exchange of only 10^-6 ev per collision would produce 10^9 ev per second of energy transmitted to the boundary.
Category: Condensed Matter

[64] viXra:1304.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-16 14:19:09

Genetic Phase Angle Distance (GPAD)

Authors: Daniel K. Pratt
Comments: 9 Pages. This is a powerpoint presentation of research/thesis for B.S. Biotechnology. An essay is forthcoming. contact: daniel dot k dot pratt at gmail dot com

It is hypothesized that a mathematical mapping of the biochemical properties of genetic nucleotides into a three dimensional vector space will yield a novel and meaningful evolutionary distance measure. The nucleotides A,T,C,G are mapped into a complex vector space according to three biochemical properties: amino/keto, purine/pyrimidine, weak/strong. This mapping is represented in Mathematica. A weighted linear combination of these base-vector triplets results in a "Tetrahedral Genetic Code" (TGC), where all 64 codons map to 64 unique vector positions in the space. Phase distance θ is measured as the angle between sequentially neighboring codon vectors, and a sequence of codons can be measured as the total path length in radians of the vector as it traverses the TGC. Angular difference Δθ is computed as the absolute value of the difference in phase θ between sequences under investigation, at homologous (aligned) genetic loci. The Genetic Phase Angle Distance (GPAD) is computed as the normalized mean Δθ over the full aligned genetic sequences for any two species. The GPAD distance measure is computed on a sample sequence matrix for 11 different species and compared side by side to the Tamura 3-parameter distance computed on that same species matrix.
Category: Physics of Biology

[63] viXra:1304.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-03 00:48:10

4/3 Problem for the Gravitational Field

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 10 pages. Advances in Physics Theories and Applications, 2013, Vol. 23, P. 19 – 25. / The Eq. 12 is corrected.

The gravitational field potentials outside and inside a uniform massive ball were determined using the superposition principle, the method of retarded potentials and Lorentz transformations. The gravitational field strength, the torsion field, the energy and the momentum of the field, as well as the effective masses associated with the field energy and its momentum were calculated. It was shown that 4/3 problem existed for the gravitational field as well as in the case of the electromagnetic field.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[62] viXra:1304.0071 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-30 11:09:51

Introduction to Real Clifford Algebras: Cl(8) to E8 to Hyperfinite II1

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 16 Pages.

Real Clifford Algebras roughly represent the Geometry of Real Vector Spaces of signature (p,q) with the Euclidean Space (0,q) sometimes just being written (q) so that the Clifford algebra Cl(0,q) = Cl(q). A useful starting place for understanding how they work is to look at the most central example and then extend from it to others. This paper is only a rough introductory description to develop intuition and is NOT detailed or rigorous - for that see the references. Real Clifford Algebras have a tensor product periodicity property whereby Cl(q+8) = Cl(q) x Cl(8) so that if you understand Cl(8) you can understand larger Clifford Algebras such as Cl(16) = Cl(8) x Cl(8) and so on for as large as you want. So Cl(8) is taken to be the central example in this paper which has 4 parts: How Cl(8) works; What smaller Clifford Algebras inside Cl(8) look like; How the larger Clifford Algebra Cl(16) gives E8: How larger Clifford Algebras Cl(16N) = Cl(8(2N)) give in the large N limit a generalized Hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor. V2 adds Creation and Annihilation Operators of AQFT as A7+h_92 Contraction of E8. V3 adds discussion about AQFT Possibility Space.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[61] viXra:1304.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-11 06:56:26

Search for Fermat's Proof

Authors: Ahmed Idrissi Bouyahyaoui
Comments: 3 Pages. French and abstract in Englih

Search for Fermat's proof : (X, Y, Z, n) є N+^4 , X^n + Y^n = Z^n ==> x= X+Y-Z, u, v є N+ , w=u+v, Pn(x)=(x+u)^n+(x+v)^n-(x+w)^n (X, Y, Z) є N+^3 , X^4 + Y^4 ≠ Z^4 ==> (Z-Y)(Z-X) irrational (Z-Y)(Z-X) irrational ==> (X, Y, Z, n) є N+^4 , X^n + Y^n ≠ Z^n
Category: Number Theory

[60] viXra:1304.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-06 05:37:11

A New Look at Relativity

Authors: Mohammad Bahrami, Mahdi Zareie, Davood Hashemian
Comments: 43 Pages. 6 Figures, 3 Tables, submitted to Foundations of Physics

We derived new relativity equations that not only described the related phenomena but also the origin of universe and its general evolution both at the cosmological and quantum scales. We found that there is a new relativity based on angular momentum in addition to special and general relativity. These equations also propose a cosmological model that explains the accelerating expansion of the universe and the nature of the dark energy. In this model, the creation of the universe consists of two stages of contraction and expansion, and the quantum world is present only at the stage of the universe expansion. At the stage of contraction, we encounter a shrinking universe, which ultimately generates a very great black hole. Due to its severe rotational motion, this black hole emits light and quantum black holes. The quantum black holes with the Planck mass immediately create fundamental particles. In contrast, the larger quantum black holes can be stable, acting as seeds for the formation of the galaxies. By the brightening of the universe, the light emitted from the very great black hole can travel longer distances and create the cosmic microwave background radiation. This model also shows that at the stage of the expansion of the universe, the receding velocity of the galaxies was first decelerating from the velocity approximating that of light reaching 0.7c and then increases at an acceleration rate.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[59] viXra:1304.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-16 01:22:36

The First Noether Theorem with Taking Account of Second Derivatives in Lagrangian, Space Curvature and Asymmetric Metric Tensors.

Authors: Vyacheslav Telnin
Comments: 6 Pages.

This Part VII deals with the first Noether theorem. It takes into account not only the first derivatives of the fields by the coordinates in Lagrangian, but also the second (this permits to apply this theorem to gravity, since the second derivatives from the metric tensor enter in the Lagrangian of the gravitational field). Also this theorem is generalized on the curved spaces. And at last it's generalized on asymmetric metric tensors.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[58] viXra:1304.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-16 02:22:12

Does Temperature Quenching in the Early Universe Exist in Part Due to Particle Production? or Quantum Occupation States? and How to Relate This to the Subsequent Deceleration Parameter? as an Open Question?

Authors: A.W. Beckwith
Comments: 10 Pages. possible inclusion as a prespacetime publication

We examine the role of particle nucleation in the initial universe, and argue that there is a small effect due to particle nucleation in terms of lowering initial temperature, in tandem with energy density and scale factor contributiosn. If such scaling exists as a major order effect, then quenching of temperature proportional to a vacuum nucleation at or before the electroweak era is heavily influenced by a number, n, which is either a quantum number (quantum cosmology) or a ‘particle count at/before the electro weak era. We hope that this temperature quenching so mentioned can be tied into the deceleration parameter as given in the appendix. I.e.how could a slow down of expansion, lead to , much later rapid increase in cosmological expansion a billion years ago.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[57] viXra:1304.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-09 15:44:42

Electron's Mass and Electric Charge , Which One Changes with Velocity ?

Authors: Hoa Van Nguyen
Comments: 10 pages , 2 figures

This article presents two opposite opinions in contemporary physics on the variability of the mass of the electron . Mainstream physics considers the mass as varying with its velocity ( section 1) . Meanwhile , other physicists think of it as a constant in all physical situations ( section 2) . In this case , a mathematical equation can be deduced to express the variation of the electric charge with velocity and applying field( section 3 ). A thought experiment is proposed to show the variability of the electric charge of the electron in an external variable magnetic field ( section 4 ).
Category: Classical Physics

[56] viXra:1304.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-14 17:38:14

Understanding Hume’s Skepticism Through Watkins’criticism of it

Authors: Ningombam Bupenda Meitei
Comments: 7 Pages.

The paper intends to discuss the naturalist strategy used by Hume in his skepticism in the first half of the paper, while in the second half of the paper, it comprises of criticisms to Humean skepticism and Watkins’s critical analysis of criticism taken from different philosophers who are critical of Hume’s approach towards skepticism. The paper also in general makes an attempt to bring out the issue of the development of knowledge in the domain of philosophy of science from the notion of philosophical skepticism , which in this paper focuses on Humean skepticism only. In short, the paper will reply to two questions i,e. (a) What is Hume’s naturalist strategy to deal with skepticism? and (b) How does Watkins criticize it?
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[55] viXra:1304.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-14 07:10:21

A Study of Non-Linear Control for Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Chenwen Zheng, Margaret Jenkins
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper presents an overall solution consisting of a wind plant with a Smart Storage Modular System (SSMS). The SSMS consists in a Short Time Storage Module (STSM based on a flywheel with induction motor) and a Medium/Long Time Storage Module (MLTSM based on a Vanadium Redox flow Battery). The aim of this paper is to provide a nonlinear sensorless control solution for the induction motor (IM) within the inertial storage system based on flywheel. To this related one, computer simulations and laboratory tests are accomplished.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[54] viXra:1304.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-18 11:44:32

Bounds Upon Graviton Mass – Using the Difference Between Graviton Propagation Speed and HFGW Transit Speed to Observe Post-Newtonian Corrections to Gravitational Potential Fields: Updated to Take Into Account Early Universe Cosmology

Authors: Andrew Walcott Beckwith
Comments: 12 Pages. re do of appendix C, due to the complaints of a reviewer. Penrose CCC removed due to it being deemed confusing. Valev formulas 12 and 13 removed, to be reincerted in a later document. Much material that was deemed confusing by reviewer removed

The author presents a post-Newtonian approximation based upon an earlier argument in a paper by Clifford Will as to Yukawa revisions of gravitational potentials, in part initiated by gravitons having explicit mass dependence in their Compton wave length. Prior work with Clifford Will’s idea was stymied by the application to binary stars and other such astrophysical objects, with non-useful frequencies topping off near 100 Hertz, thereby rendering Yukawa modifications of Gravity due to gravitons effectively an experimental curiosity which was not testable with any known physics equipment. This work improves on those results. Futhermore we argue in favor of both a non zero initial radius of the universe, using Kenneth Kauthman’s work and also try to make the case for a non zero graviton mass. We use Salvoy’s document of 1983 to argue in favor of both a non zero initial radius of the universe, and non zero graviton mass ( heavy gravitons). We claim that a non-zero initial radius (of the universe) supports the massive graviton hypothesis. Which is the main point of our document. Also Gravitinos in the Electroweak era, all 10^8 10 to 10^ 12 of them have an (almost) invariant energy from the beginning of cosmology. This invariant energy constitutes an initial energy value at the start of the universe which can be used to obtain, at the onset of inflation Kauffman’s lower bound to a non zero initial radius of the universe
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[53] viXra:1304.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-14 04:21:41

Dark Matter: Disproved by Grail

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 2 Pages.

Summary. It is evident that GRAIL satellites did not at all measure the moon's total mass gravity as if all of it's mass were concentrated at it's centre. Disproving the centre referred theory on behalf of the moon, GRAIL also disproved the centre referred Dark Matter Theory on behalf of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[52] viXra:1304.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-13 20:06:44

An Interesting and Unexpected Property of Carmichael Numbers and a Question

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

I was researching a kind of generalized Cunningham chains that generate, instead of primes, Fermat pseudoprimes to some base when purely by chance I noticed a property of absolute Fermat pseudoprimes, equally interesting and unexpected. By a childish simple operation, a new class of numbers is obtained from Carmichael numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[51] viXra:1304.0060 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-18 03:58:34

Goldbach, Legendre, Brocard, Considérations élémentaires Sur Quelques Conjectures.

Authors: Olivier Massot
Comments: 85 Pages.

Symmetry proves to be a useful concept when it comes to studying some conjectures in Number theory. This study (in french) concentrates on three already well-known conjectures and the following one: For any given prime number p, there exists at least one prime number in each and every interval [kp,(k+1)p[, where k is a non-zero integer that is less than or equal to p.
Category: Number Theory

[50] viXra:1304.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-12 18:20:38

Survival of the Scarcer in Space

Authors: Renato Vieira dos Santos, Ronald Dickman
Comments: 15 Pages. Journal reference: Journal of Statistical Mechanics

Recently a model of intra- and interspecific competition between two species was proposed [Phys. Rev. E 87 (2013) 010101], in which the scarcer species (i.e., with smaller stationary population size) can be more resistant to extinction when it holds a competitive advantage. Here we verify this survival of the scarcer in space (SSS) phenomenon in models with spatial structure, both analytically and numerically. We find that the conditions for SSS, as obtained applying renormalization group analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to a discrete-space model, differ significantly from those found in the spatially homogeneous case.
Category: Condensed Matter

[49] viXra:1304.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-18 04:34:26

Le Théorème de Fermat-Wiles et le Critère de Eisenstein

Authors: Ahmed Idrissi Bouyahyaoui
Comments: 4 Pages. Summary is in English and article is in French.

Let P(X) a polynomial associated to the Fermat's equation x^p+y^p-z^p=0 (p is an odd prime number) and R(X) its reduction modulo k (k is a prime number): R(X)= P(X) [k]. R(X) is irreducible (Eisenstein criterion) and, therefore, P(X) is irreducible. P(X) being irreducible, it hasn't integer roots and so the associated equation x^p+y^p-z^p=0 hasn't nonzero integer solutions for all odd prime number p.
Category: Number Theory

[48] viXra:1304.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-11 17:09:55

Discovering Taxon Specific Oligomer Repeats in Microbial Genomes

Authors: Li Xia
Comments: 30 Pages.

Using the computational approach, we studied the oligonucleotides repeats in current available bacterial whole genomes. Though, repeats only count for a small portion in bacterial genomes, they still prevail. Our study shows, some of these oligonucleotides have a large copy number in genomes while maintain its taxon specificity. Generally, a length larger than 12 is enough to make a oligonucleotides repeats genus specific. Longer oligonucleotides will become more specific and be the species or strain marker sequences. We show here some examples in archaea and bacteria with different specific taxon levels. As we have a large volume of computational results, we make it available online by our TSOR server.It deals with user’s query and in this thesis we give examples on how to use this server. Moreover as these TSOR sequences are both specific and highly repeated, they would become possible nice candidate for biased microbial community genomes amplification
Category: Quantitative Biology

[47] viXra:1304.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-11 17:24:10

Efficient Statistical Significance Approximation for Local Association Analysis of High-Throughput Time Series Data

Authors: Li Charlie Xia
Comments: 56 Pages.

Local association analysis, such as local similarity analysis and local shape analysis, of biological time series data helps elucidate the varying dynamics of biological systems. However, their applications to large scale high-throughput data are limited by slow permutation procedures for statistical signicance evaluation. We developed a theoretical approach to approximate the statistical signicance of local similarity and local shape analysis based on the approximate tail distribution of the maximum partial sum of independent identically distributed (i.i.d) and Markovian random variables. Simulations show that the derived formula approximates the tail distribution reasonably well (starting at time points > 10 with no delay and > 20 with delay) and provides p-values comparable to those from permutations. The new approach enables ecient calculation of statistical signicance for pairwise local association analysis, making possible all-to-all association studies otherwise prohibitive. As a demonstration, local association analysis of human microbiome time series shows that core OTUs are highly synergetic and some of the associations are body-site specic across samples. The new approach is implemented in our eLSA package, which now provides pipelines for faster local similarity and shape analysis of time series data. The tool is freely available from eLSA's website: http://meta.usc.edu/softs/lsa.
Category: Statistics

[46] viXra:1304.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-11 17:27:00

Developing Statistical and Algorithmic Methods for Shotgun Metagenomics and Time Series Analysis

Authors: Li Charlie Xia
Comments: 127 Pages.

Recent developments in experimental molecular techniques, such as microarray, next generation sequencing technologies, have led molecular biology into a high-throughput era with emergent omics research areas, including metagenomics and transcriptomics. Massive-size omics datasets generated and being generated from the experimental laboratories put new challenges to computational biologists to develop fast and accurate quantitative analysis tools. We have developed two statistical and algorithmic methods, GRAMMy and eLSA, for metagenomics and microbial community time series analysis. GRAMMy provides a unied probabilistic framework for shotgun metagenomics, in which maximum likelihood method is employed to accurately compute Genome Relative Abundance of microbial communities using the Mixture Model theory (GRAMMy). We extended the Local Similarity Analysis technique (eLSA) to time series data with replicates, capturing statistically signicant local and potentially time-delayed associations. Both methods are validated through simulation studies and their capability to reveal new biology is also demonstrated through applications to real datasets. We implemented GRAMMy and eLSA as C++ extensions to Python, with both superior computational eciency and easy-to-integrate programming interfaces. GRAMMy and eLSA methods will be increasingly useful tools as new omics researches accelerating their pace.http://meta.usc.edu/softs/lsa.
Category: Statistics

[45] viXra:1304.0053 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-03 15:24:28

Charmonium with an Effective Morse Molecular Potential

Authors: Mario Everaldo de Souza
Comments: 4 Pages. Final version to be published in the proceedings of BEACH 2014.

The Morse molecular potential is used for the rst time as an effective potential for the overall interaction in charmonium. This procedure allows the calculation of the rotational contributions of P states, the radii of ve S states, and an absolute threshold for bound states. The calculation of the latter provides important information on the character of the recently found levels X(3915), X(3940), Psi(4040), X(4050), X(4140), Psi(4160), X(4160), X(4250), X(4260), X(4350), Psi(4415), X(4430), and X(4660).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[44] viXra:1304.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-11 03:52:39

Analytical Results on Systems Arising in Enzymatic Reactions with Application to Phosphofructokinase Model

Authors: Jean-Paul MORILLON
Comments: 8 Pages.

A reaction-diffusion system based on some biological systems, arising in enzymatic reactions, has been considered. The iterative method by means of a fixed point theorem has been applied in order to solve this system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The existence, uniqueness and positiveness of the solution to system with Robin-type boundary condition have been obtained. A biochemical system has been extended and solved analytically. Quasi-steady states and linear stability analysis have been proved.
Category: Biochemistry

[43] viXra:1304.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-10 15:49:46

Calculate Universe 2

Authors: Branko Zivlak
Comments: 4 Pages. 1 Table

This article is about relations between fundamental physical constants.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[42] viXra:1304.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-10 05:46:28

Thoughts on Order, Etc. Occasioned by Writings of J. P. Wesley.

Authors: J. Dunning-Davies, D. Sands
Comments: 6 Pages.

Although rarely, if ever, acknowledged, there is real confusion existing over several of the fundamental ideas of classical macroscopic thermodynamics. Many of these surround the concept of entropy and one of the big questions never publicly asked is whether or not the functions called entropy in various branches of mathematics and physics are all the same? Here some thoughts are presented which have been provoked by reading some of the writings of J. P. Wesley in the hope that they, in turn, will provoke further examination of these notions, many of which are so basic to so many areas of physics and are causing so much trouble for students at the present time.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[41] viXra:1304.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-12 06:22:44

On the General Reality of Gravity, as Well as Other Forces in Nature and the Creation of Material Particles and Force Fields in the Universe

Authors: Peter Sujak
Comments: 19 Pages.

This work derives the relation between the Planck constant and Einstein’s gravitational constant. The relation between the Planck constant and Newton’s gravitational constant is deduced. The relation between the Planck constant and the electric force of 1 Coulomb and the magnetic force of 1 Henry is deduced. It establishes that the Planck constant represents the density of momentum of the void space in the Universe. This work proves that gravitational force has its opposite force in the internal momentum of atomic particles of matter. It establishes that two terms mass and electric charge introduced by mankind are not known in nature. It is proven that, in nature, there is only one type of force and that is the force-balance of inertial forces, between the internal momentum of particles and the reversely oriented force of its own force-field in the surroundings of mass particles. This work further maintains that the essence of the composition of the mass of all atomic particles, as well as all force fields in the universe, is the same and is created by the compression of density of the momentum of the void space.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[40] viXra:1304.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-09 17:15:40

On the Representation of Integer Numbers by the Sum of Cube Roots

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 9 pages

We developed some formulas to represent integer numbers as the sum of cube roots.
Category: Number Theory

[39] viXra:1304.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-09 21:19:41

Drude-Schwarzschild Metric and the Electrical Conductivity of Metals

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 09 pages; no figures

Starting from a string with a length equal to the electron mean free path in metals and having a unit cell equal to the Compton length of the electron, we construct a Schwarzschild-like metric. We found that this metric has a surface horizon with radius equal to that of the electron mean free path and its Bekenstein-like entropy is proportional to the number of squared unit cells contained in this spherical surface. The Hawking temperature goes with the inverse of the perimeter of the maximum circle of this sphere. Besides this, interesting analogies are traced out with some features of the particle physics.
Category: Condensed Matter

[38] viXra:1304.0043 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-15 07:14:14

Quantum Physics in the Lacking Part of Ultimate Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we derived the fundamental equation of the Matrix Quantum Mechanics i.e. the commutator. It follows from the phase transitions of the non-gravitating Higgs field (of the inflation field) that are based on the half-integral-spin constancy. The fundamental equation results from the quantum entanglement that leads to the infinitesimal transformations. In reality, the Matrix Quantum Mechanics that describes excited states of fields (i.e. the quantum particles) is timeless and non-local i.e. non-deterministic. But the Matrix Quantum Mechanics leads to the time-dependent, so deterministic, wave functions that are characteristic for the Statistical Quantum Mechanics. It is the reason why the wave functions appear in the equations of motion. The Statistical Quantum Mechanics or the Quantum Theory of Fields, are the semiclassical/semi-quantum theories. The presented here extended Matrix Quantum Mechanics leads to the methods applied in the Quantum Theory of Fields but there appear some limitations. The idea of existence of many separated parallel worlds is incorrect.
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:1304.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-08 14:43:31

Sunspots Magnetic Field

Authors: Kamal L Rajpal
Comments: 3 Pages.

Lower sunspot temperature means lower entropy which implies polarization, and so, sunspots are areas of polarized (circular or elliptical) photons, which explain their magnetic nature.
Category: Astrophysics

[36] viXra:1304.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-08 13:02:24

Correct Interpretation for Harvard Tower Experiment

Authors: Oliver R Jovanovic
Comments: 3 Pages.

Correct interpretation for Harvard Tower Experiment, utilizing law of energy conservation...
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[35] viXra:1304.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-08 14:24:59

Does Nibiru have life?

Authors: Andrew Nassif, Thomas Scott Zolotor
Comments: 1 Page.

A short commentary by Thomas and Andrew on the possibility of Nibiru having life, and maybe the possibility that Nibiru have already been proven existing.
Category: Astrophysics

[34] viXra:1304.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-08 12:05:13

Atom, Avogadro Number and Atomic Cosmology

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana, B.V.S.T. Sai
Comments: 12 Pages.

If light is coming from the atomic matter of the galaxy, then the observed redshift can be interpreted as an index of the galactic atomic matter ‘light emission mechanism’. Clearly speaking redshift may not be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. The proposed basic idea is - during cosmic evolution, as age of the hydrogen atom increases, emitted photon energy increases. If so current cosmological changes may be reflected in any existing atom. At any given cosmic time, Hubble length can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. By highlighting the six major shortcomings of modern cosmology, in this paper an attempt is made to verify the cosmic acceleration in a quantum mechanical approach. The four possible assumptions are : 1) Reduced Planck’s constant increases with cosmic time. 2) Being a primordial evolving black hole and Hubble’s constant being the angular velocity, universe is always rotating with light speed. 3) Atomic gravitational constant is squared Avogadro number times the classical gravitational constant and 4) Atomic gravitational constant or the classical gravitational constant shows discrete behavior. This may be the root cause of discrete nature of revolving electron’s angular momentum. With reference to the present atomic and nuclear physical constants, obtained Hubble’s constant is (67.88 to 71.41) km/sec/Mpc and is very close to the recommended value. This is a remarkable coincidence and seems to play a vital role in future unified physics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[33] viXra:1304.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-08 10:46:05

Economics as a Social Science

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 2 Pages.

Economics is a social science in which you analyze the growing globalization and product marketing that leads to profit in the economy. Economics helps provide insight on things such as profit margins and risk factors when investing in a product.
Category: Social Science

[32] viXra:1304.0037 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-02 10:34:44

On the Invalidity of the Hawking-Penrose Singularity ‘Theorems’ and Acceleration of the Universe with Negative Cosmological Constant

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 13 Pages. Versions 1 and 2 of this paper contain a misalignment of references. This has been corrected in version 3. This paper published June 2013, Global Journal of Science Physics and Space Research.

Hawking and Penrose proposed “A new theorem on spacetime singularities … which largely incorporates and generalizes the previously known results” which they claimed “implies that space-time singularities are to be expected if either the universe is spatially closed or there is an ‘object’ undergoing relativistic gravitational collapse (existence of a trapped surface)” and that their ‘Theorem’ applies if four certain physical conditions are satisfied. Hartle, Hawking and Hertog have proposed a quantum state with wave function for the Universe which they assert “raises the possibility that even fundamental theories with a negative cosmological constant can be consistent with our low-energy observations of a classical, accelerating universe.” They also relate this concept to string cosmology. It is however proven in this paper that the Hawking-Penrose Singularity ‘Theorem’ and accelerated expansion of the Universe with negative Λ are invalid because they are based upon demonstrably false foundations relating to Einstein’s field equations, trapped surfaces, and the cosmological constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31] viXra:1304.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-23 22:56:22

A Possible Resolution of the Black Hole Information Paradox

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: Pages. presented at the 2013 Rochester Conferences on Quantum Optics, Information, and Measurement. https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?URI=QIM-2013-W6.01

Nonlocal reduction of entangled states is clarified by considering the role of background independent scale-invariant quantum impedances in decay/decoherence of unstable elementary particles, providing simple resolution of the black hole information paradox.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30] viXra:1304.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-07 20:50:15

Emission of Light's Path in Physics

Authors: Andrew Nassif, Nasir Germain
Comments: 2 Pages. Extremely short commentary

I Andrew Nassif believe that light travels in curved paths that are straight lines, however the paths are made of particles which still technically goes under Nasir’s theory as well as other scientific theories. If I am correct then this would be a big realization in the world of Physics and science.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29] viXra:1304.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-06 20:06:29

On A Property of Pascal's Triangle II

Authors: Germán Paz
Comments: 4 Pages.

Based on the paper viXra:1303.0163 (vixra.org/abs/1303.0163), we show a few more properties of Pascal's Triangle.
Category: General Mathematics

[28] viXra:1304.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-06 15:09:39

Problems with the "End of Growth" Hypothesis and Its Generalization

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 12 Pages.

The hypothesis that the global economy has entered, or is nearing, the "end of growth" has been proposed in the literature. Overall, we find no significant evidence to support this hypothesis, or that such economic limits are about to be reached in the near-term. Our conclusions in no way diminish concerns over current and proposed rates of non-renewable resource extraction and the negative impacts of continuing human population growth and industrial expansion on the biosphere. However, any natural system limits that have been reached or exceeded (or are about to be) do not appear to be causing sufficiently large negative feedbacks on global economic growth within the scope of the most commonly employed socio-economic indicators in order to warrant claims that future economic growth will halt or regress.
Category: Economics and Finance

[27] viXra:1304.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-06 09:05:38

Twisted Branes and Non-local Stabilisations

Authors: Shreyak Chakraborty
Comments: 8 Pages.

Brane Stabilizations in D>4 are done using specific Capture Mechanisms (H) as shown in previous Fate papers. These yield non-local results on the fiber bundles around the p-branes (or any brane) and local on the brane.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] viXra:1304.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-06 06:51:38

The Probable Evolution of Black Holes, Galactic Cores, & Quasars

Authors: Keith D. Foote
Comments: 7 Pages.

This thesis develops a model of black holes, galactic cores, and quasars evolving over time, rather than simply appearing shortly or immediately after the theoretical Big Bang. It should be noted galactic cores and quasars ‘are’ black holes, given added definition by interaction with their surroundings. This model of evolving black holes does not support the Big Bang Theory, and suggests the concept of quasars popping into existence shortly after the theoretical Big Bang is a forced fit, lacking in any hard supporting evidence.
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1304.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-05 07:25:31

Thymos I

Authors: Stan Bumble
Comments: 36 Pages.

The following is a power point presentation on Systems Biology including aspects of Self-Organization and Emergence.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[24] viXra:1304.0027 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-07 05:21:04

A Simple Spin Experiment

Authors: Jacek Safuta
Comments: 3 Pages. v1 clarification

“Could we not reject the concept of matter and build a pure field physics? We could regard matter as the regions in space where the field is extremely strong. A thrown stone is, from this point of view, a changing field in which the states of the greatest field intensity travel through space with the velocity of the stone.” [1] Albert Einstein We propose a real experiment to falsify the geometrization of matter concept [2],[3]. A source emits a right-handed photon, the photon impinges almost perpendicularly a mirror being reflected to a detector set up to measure the spin of particle. The simplicity of the result of experiment (only two possible outcomes: spin is the opposite or the same ), and the fact that the experiment produces result that is direct evidence of the laws of physics makes it a very attractive and easy task even for students. However the result seems to be so obvious that no one has ever tried to do that!
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] viXra:1304.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-05 08:27:16

Avoiding an Imaginary Connection in the Dirac Equation

Authors: Leonardo Pedro
Comments: 4 Pages.

In a Majorana basis, the Dirac equation for a free spin one-half particle is a 4x4 real matrix differential equation. When including the effects of the electromagnetic interaction, the Dirac equation is a complex equation due to the presence of an imaginary connection in the covariant derivative, related with the phase of the spinor. In this paper we study the solutions of the Dirac equation with the null and Coulomb potentials and notice that there is a real matrix that squares to -1, relating the imaginary and real components of these solutions. We show that these solutions can be obtained from the solutions of two non-linear 4x4 real matrix differential equations with a real matrix as the connection of the covariant derivative.
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1304.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-04 18:31:34

Landauer's Erasure Principle and the Fermi Energy of Metals

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 06 pages, no figure

A minimization of a free energy inspired in the Landauer’s erasure principle combined with alternatives treatments of the Brownian motion of the free electrons, is used as a means to derive the Fermi energy of metals. The obtained result differs from the usual one by a small discrepancy between the coefficients of the two versions of it, when expressed as a function of the density of free electrons, its mass and the Planck’s constant.
Category: Condensed Matter

[21] viXra:1304.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-05 20:50:35

Lorentz Violation and Modified Geodesics

Authors: Wei Lu
Comments: 7 Pages.

We propose a modification of proper time, which is dependent on vierbein and spin connection. It explicitly breaks local Lorentz gauge symmetry, while preserving diffeomorphism invariance. In the non-relativistic limit, the geodesics are consistent with galactic rotation curves without invoking dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20] viXra:1304.0023 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-14 19:27:18

Special Relativity With Apparent Simultaneity

Authors: Michael Devine
Comments: 15 Pages.

We consider a model of special relativity in which standard simultaneity is replaced by an alternative defined per observer by the direct appearance of simultaneity. The postulates of special relativity are interpreted to permit it, using a corresponding measure of distance chosen so that the measurement of light’s speed remains invariant with a value of c. The relativistic Doppler effect and Lorentz transformation of time are derived from direct observations without consideration of a delay of light. Correspondence of the model with SR is further shown by finding a displaced observer whose measure of apparent simultaneity is identical to a given observer’s measure of standard simultaneity. The advantages of apparent simultaneity include unifying apparent delay of light with relative simultaneity, and unifying changes to relative simultaneity with change in observer position. With speculative interpretation the model implies an equivalence of time and distance.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1304.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-04 05:45:26

The Self Organizing Universe in Three Different Nebula Systems.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages. 27

Three different nebula systems are observed by now in the cosmos: they can be classified as: Bipolar (Multi) polar and Non polar The origin of these differences seem to be based on a new electric dark matter black hole behaviour which is already described in Quantum FFF Theory. (Function Follows Form) Quantum FFF Theory,, the FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a result, a NEW paradigm splitting, (with Gamma Ray Bursts) accelerating and pairing Black Hole seems to be able to accelerate itself by a -Zero Point Energy driven-self created plasma tails, to form dumbbell systems, called Herbig Haro systems, as the start of Bok globules and new star formation in between these dual- or multiple black holes, kept apart by Birkeland current related particle jets and interpreted as the start of an open star cluster producing single stars and binaries by centrifugal rotation forces of the growing central star. The central star is supposed to grow fast by the continuous Higgs field electric/gravity concentration into the center of the dual Stellar Anchor Black Holes. (SABHs). However it is also obvious that the mass of the dual SABHs is forming a maximum mass boundary for the mass of the central star. As a result there is continuous plasma production and central concentration in between the dual SABHs forming the growing central star. However the mass of the central star has its own limitation by the same binary SABH black hole influence on the local Higgs field pressure on the central star. As a result, the central star will start to spit out new stars and become the center of a new open star cluster until new black hole systems formed by supernova black holes of the exploding star-children of the central star. This will influence the local Higgs field polarisation pressure on the central star which will form smaller open star cluster as the start of a small galaxy. Several examples of pairing and splitting super nova black holes into HH objects and Bok globules can be recognized inside the Carina and other nebula. These small black holes inside the Carina nebula are supposed to be remnants of Supernovas or even at a smaller scale remnants of comets or former Starspots like our own Black hole based Sunspots. This is also reason to suppose that what we observe here at a small scale should have happened directly after the Big bang and the origin of the so called Fractal shaped Lyman Alpha Forest.. As a consequence, this phenomenon is an extra support for the Quantum FFF theory based Big Bang model as the splitting process of a former Big Crunch black hole into a symmetric raspberry shaped multiverse. The recent observation of bipolar butterfly shaped planetary nebula aligned with the plane of the milky way, should be a direct result of the way Herbig Haro objects are created by pairing and receding dual black hole systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1304.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-04 12:05:34

Set Theoretic Approach to Algebraic Structures in Mathematics

Authors: Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 166 Pages.

This book brings out how sets in algebraic structures can be used to construct the most generalized algebraic structures, like set linear algebra / vector space, set ideals in groups and rings and semigroups, and topological set vector spaces. This sort of study is innovative and will find applications in data handling.
Category: Algebra

[17] viXra:1304.0020 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-25 11:57:11

Talent's Error

Authors: Liu Ran
Comments: 7 Pages.

both experiment and logic analyze have demonstrate Euclid's proof is wrong
Category: Number Theory

[16] viXra:1304.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-07 03:14:05

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation for Black Hole Evaporation: no Information Loss

Authors: Christian Corda
Comments: 18 pages, definitive version accepted for publication in Annals of Physics. Comments are welcome. Dedicated to the memory of the latter IFM Secretary Franco Pettini

In 1976 S. Hawking claimed that “Because part of the information about the state of the system is lost down the hole, the final situation is represented by a density matrix rather than a pure quantum state” (Verbatim from ref. 2). This was the starting point of the popular “black hole (BH) information paradox”. In a series of papers, together with collaborators, we naturally interpreted BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) in terms of quantum levels discussing a model of excited BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical Bohr model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. Here we ex- plicitly write down, for the same model, a time dependent Schrödinger equation for the system composed by Hawking radiation and BH QNMs. The physical state and the correspondent wave function are written in terms of an unitary evolution matrix instead of a density matrix. Thus, the final state results to be a pure quantum state instead of a mixed one. Hence, Hawking’s claim is falsified because BHs result to be well defined quantum mechanical systems, having ordered, discrete quantum spectra, which respect 't Hooft's assumption that Schröedinger equations can be used universally for all dynamics in the universe. As a consequence, information comes out in BH evaporation in terms of pure states in an unitary time dependent evolution. In Section 4 of this paper we show that the present approach permits also to solve the entanglement problem connected with the information paradox.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] viXra:1304.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-04 08:30:26

Four Conjectures Regarding Fermat Pseudoprimes and Few Known Types of Pairs of Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 4 Pages.

There are already known some relations between Fermat pseudoprimes and the pairs of primes [p, 2p – 1]. We will here show few relations between Fermat pseudoprimes and the pairs of primes of the type [p, 2p – 1], [p, 2p + 1], [p, sqrt(2p – 1)], respectivelly [p, k*p – k + 1].
Category: Number Theory

[14] viXra:1304.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-04 04:06:02

Localization Formulas About Two Killing Vector Fields

Authors: Xu Chen
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article, we will discuss the smooth $(X_{M}+\sqrt{-1}Y_{M})$-invariant forms on M and to establish a localization formulas. As an application, we get a localization formulas for characteristic numbers.
Category: Geometry

[13] viXra:1304.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-03 21:56:39

Comment on "Sorption of Organic Chemicals to Soil Organic Matter: Influence of Soil Variability and pH Dependence"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: Pages.

In their article, Bronner and Goss [Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 45, 1307-1312] investigate the pH dependence of organic chemical sorption to soil organic matter. The authors report a log Koc value for benzoyl chloride in aqueous solution, despite this compound having a known hydrolysis half-life of only 16 seconds in water. This timeframe is far too short to allow the measurement of any equilibrium based partitioning coefficients. Consequently, one suspects that the log Koc value reported for benzoyl chloride is likely that of its hydrolysis product: benzoic acid. The authors also may have chosen two experimental conditions (pH 4.5 and 7.2) between which the ionization state of the carboxylic acids in the organic matter may have changed very little, and could instead have remained in effectively the same net ionization state between the two experimental pH endpoints. Thus, there does not appear to be sufficient evidence in this work to support the general claim therein that "protonation/deprotonation of carboxylic groups in humic matter has no significant influence on sorption ... even for polar organic molecules."
Category: Chemistry

[12] viXra:1304.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-03 22:15:51

Comment on "QSPR Study on the Bioconcentration Factors of Nonionic Organic Compounds in Fish by Characteristic Root Index and Semiempirical Molecular Descriptors"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: Pages.

In their article, Sacan et al. [J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 2004, 44, 985-992] construct a quantitative structure-property relationship model to predict the bioconcentration factors of purportedly nonionic organic compounds. A number of the compounds examined by these authors are not nonionic as claimed, but instead have associated pKa values that would render the molecules significantly, and - in some cases - effectively entirely, ionized under conditions relevant for bioconcentration in freshwater and/or marine aquatic systems.
Category: Chemistry

[11] viXra:1304.0013 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-26 05:01:28

Borel Resummation and the Solution of Integral Equations

Authors: Jose Javier garcia Moreta
Comments: 18 Pages.

ABSTRACT: In this paper we study the methods of Borel resummation applied to the solution of integral equation with symmetric Kernels K(xs) and to the study of the Riesz criterion , which is important to the Riemann Hypothesis •Keywords: Integral equation, Borel resummation, divergent series
Category: Mathematical Physics

[10] viXra:1304.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-02 21:49:41

Lie Algebrized Gaussians for Image Representation

Authors: Liyu Gong, Meng Chen, Chunlong Hu
Comments: 8 Pages.

We present an image representation method which is derived from analyzing Gaussian probability density function (\emph{pdf}) space using Lie group theory. In our proposed method, images are modeled by Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) which are adapted from a globally trained GMM called universal background model (UBM). Then we vectorize the GMMs based on two facts: (1) components of image-specific GMMs are closely grouped together around their corresponding component of the UBM due to the characteristic of the UBM adaption procedure; (2) Gaussian \emph{pdf}s form a Lie group, which is a differentiable manifold rather than a vector space. We map each Gaussian component to the tangent vector space (named Lie algebra) of Lie group at the manifold position of UBM. The final feature vector, named Lie algebrized Gaussians (LAG) is then constructed by combining the Lie algebrized Gaussian components with mixture weights. We apply LAG features to scene category recognition problem and observe state-of-the-art performance on 15Scenes benchmark.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[9] viXra:1304.0010 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-28 10:03:00

New Cosmological Hypothesis Matches Observations By New Dark Energy-Time Applied To Dark Matter For The Existence Of A Rotational Double Torus Universe.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Double Torus hypothesis stands for a new architecture for the Universe. Based on practical evidence, another dark energy drives the dynamics making the Big Bang an illusion. There has not been a Big Bang! New dark energy applies two extra time-clocks from below the Planck-time to dark matter. The implication is: The universe exists of a Double Torus of the dark energy-time enclosing and intertwining an inner dark matter torus. This might sound controversial, but a new ‘dark energy-force formula’ and related calculations, described within the Double Torus framework in several ‘papers’, enables a match with real observed phenomena, such as: 1) A smallest Newton-acceleration, a dark matter-acceleration in galaxies, 2) an anomalous deceleration of the Pioneer 1 and 2 satellites, 3) a dark flow of spatial dark matter, 4) a solution eliminating the discrepancy of vacuum-energy-density (between General Relativity and Quantum-Mechanics calculations), 5) an α-dipole that indicates a torus-shape for the universe, 6) four times shifted ‘hot- and cold spots’ in the CMB, 7) an explanation for why 4,9% matter is visible, 26,8% is dark matter and 67,3% is dark energy and 8) at last why for ½ the squared-Planck-length gravity turns into anti-gravity. All the issues for evidence are described in my former ‘papers’ (see references), whereof the last two ones are in concept and will be published soon. However, particularly this paper relates to the combination of Newton quantum-gravity-force and dark matter-force, both implemented in one (new) formula. The dark matter force could be gravitational (+) and (-) , which means an anti-gravitational property of dark matter is highlighted in this paper. In this respect the measured laboratory acceleration-limit for Newton-gravity, 5 x 10^-14 m/s^2, theoretically is set to a lower value of 2.8659 x10^-14 m/s^2. That is remarkable, because no other formula in science is at hand for that. In general the dynamics for the Double Torus hypothesis is developed by DAN Visser, Almere, the Netherlands. He is an independent cosmologist and painting-artist. His conclusion is: The universe did not start with a Big Bang, but is a rotational cyclic-curved Double Torus, which recalculates reality eternally and independent on the scale one imagines the walls of the universe
Category: Mathematical Physics

[8] viXra:1304.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-02 08:06:05

A New Class of Fermat Pseudoprimes and Few Remarks About Cipolla Pseudoprimes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

I wrote an article entitled “A formula for generating primes and a possible infinite series of Poulet numbers”; the sequence I was talking about not only that is, indeed, infinite, but is also already known as the sequence of Cipolla pseudoprimes to base 2. Starting from comparing Cipolla pseudoprimes and some of my notes I discovered a new class of pseudoprimes.
Category: Number Theory

[7] viXra:1304.0008 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-14 09:58:35

Magnetic Moment, Mass, Spin and Strangeness of Hyperons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) is the lacking part of the Theory of Everything. SST describes the succeeding phase transitions of the non-gravitating Higgs field, the atom-like structure of baryons, and many other basic problems. Here, within SST, we calculated the magnetic moments and precise masses of hyperons, their spin and strangeness. Obtained results are consistent or very close to experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[6] viXra:1304.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-01 16:57:34

Comment on "Dependence of Persistence and Long-Range Transport Potential on Gas-Particle Partitioning in Multimedia Models"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In their article, Gotz et al. [Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42, 3690-3696] use three different multimedia contaminant fate models to analyze the impact of implementing a two-particle-size polyparameter linear free energy relationship approach on metrics of persistence and long-range transport, and on calculated concentrations of semivolatile organic chemicals in the Arctic. One of the twelve compounds investigated is 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), which is effectively entirely dissociated in aqueous systems. The authors do not appear to have considered the ionization of 2,4-D during their multimedia modeling exercises, particularly the effects of ionization on octanol-water and air-water partitioning behavior. Consequently, all modeling results presented for 2,4-D appear to be in significant error and should not be employed for risk assessment purposes.
Category: Chemistry

[5] viXra:1304.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-01 17:06:09

A Perdurable Defence to Weyl's Unified Theory

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 8 Pages.

Einstein dealt a lethal blow to Weyl's unified theory by arguing that Weyl's theory was at the very least, it was beautiful and at best, un-physical, because its concept of variation of the length of a vector from one point of space to the other meant that certain absolute quantities, such as the ``fixed" spacing of atomic spectral lines and the Compton wavelength of an Electron for example, would change arbitrarily as they would have to depend on their prehistories. This venomous criticism of Einstein to Weyl's theory remains much alive today as it was on the first day Einstein pronounced it. We demonstrate herein that one can overcome Einstein's criticism by recasting Weyl's theory into a new Weyl-kind of theory were the length of vectors are preserved as is the case in Riemann geometry. In this new Weyl theory, the Weyl gauge transformation of the Riemann metric and the electromagnetic field are preserved
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1304.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-05 07:29:33

Solar Cell Wave Guide

Authors: Keith D. Foote
Comments: 4 Pages.

The solar cell wave guide takes advantage of a recent discovery called extraordinary optical transmission1. The solar cell wave guide is an undeveloped concept needing research and development. It is not (to the best of my knowledge)patented, and this paper makes the concept patent free. The solar cell wave guide focuses on maximizing the absorption of quanta from the infrared spectrum. Three potential uses are: the use of firelight to charge smart phones, powering equipment on a planet like Venus, maximizing the heating of solar water heaters. April 5, 2013
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1304.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-02 01:26:20

Resolving the Decision Version of the Directed Hamiltonian Path (Cycle) Problem Under Two Special Conditions by Method of Matrix Determinant: an Overview

Authors: Okunoye Babatunde O.
Comments: 6 Pages.

In computational complexity, the Decision version of the Directed Hamiltonian Path Problem is known to be NP-complete (Nondeterministic-Polynomial complete). There are no known efficient algorithms for its resolution in Polynomial time. In three papers, the author shows that this problem can be resolved in Polynomial time under two special conditions relating to the determinant of a matrix: the absence of zero rows (columns) and similar rows (columns). In this paper, the author gives a brief overview of the proposed solution and the P vs NP problem.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[2] viXra:1304.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-11 15:24:12

Polynomial Algorithms for Shortest Hamiltonian Path and Circuit

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 14 Pages

The problem of finding shortest Hamiltonian path and shortest Hamiltonian circuit in a weighted complete graph belongs to the class of NP-Complete problems [1]. This well known problem asks for a method or algorithm to locate such path or circuit that passes through every vertex only once in the given weighted complete graph. In this paper we begin with proposing two approximation algorithms for shortest Hamiltonian graphs which essentially consists of applying certain chosen permutations (transpositions or product of transpositions) on the adjacency matrix of given weighted complete graph causing reshuffling of the labels of its vertices. We change the labels of vertices through proper choice of permutations in such a way that in this relabeled graph the Hamiltonian path 123….k(k+1)…p becomes approximation to shortest path in the given weighted complete graph under consideration. We then define so called ordered weighted adjacency list for given weighted complete graph and proceed to the main result of the paper, namely, the exact algorithm based on utilization of ordered weighted adjacency list and the simple properties that any path or circuit must satisfy. This algorithm performs checking of sub-lists, containing (n-1) entries (edge pairs) for paths and n entries (edge pairs) for circuits, chosen from ordered adjacency list in a well defined sequence to determine exactly the shortest Hamiltonian path and shortest Hamiltonian circuit. The procedure has intrinsic advantage of landing on the desired solution in quickest possible time and even in worst case in polynomial time.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[1] viXra:1304.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-01 07:39:56

Primality Criteria for Specific Classes of Proth Numbers

Authors: Predrag Terzic
Comments: 2 Pages.

Polynomial time prime testing algorithms for specific classes of Proth numbers are introduced
Category: Number Theory