[138] **viXra:1308.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-31 15:30:29*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 diagram, 3 references

Since the Big Bang is officially false as no giant explosion of nothing has occurred, we must consider alternatives to understanding how to date stars. Since we only have appearances from vast distances, a simple laymen’s understanding is used to determine the age of a star based on the theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[137] **viXra:1308.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-31 12:46:35*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In their article, Gharagheizi et al. [J. Chem. Eng. Data 2011, 56, 1741-1750] claim to develop a model to predict the molecular diffusivity of "nonelectrolyte organic compounds" in water using an artificial neural network-group contribution method. Many of these compounds have ionizable functionalities with pKa values that result in either substantial or effectively complete ionization in water (making them electrolytes, in contrast to the claims of Gharagheizi et al.). Consequently, the model developed and applied by Gharagheizi et al. does not computationally model the actual speciation(s) of each compound expected to be present under the experimental conditions for which the underlying data has been obtained and erroneously classifies many organic compounds as non-electrolytes.

**Category:** Chemistry

[136] **viXra:1308.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-31 13:00:18*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In their article (Cliff et al., J. Sens. Stud., 2011, 26, 184-196), the authors plot the log mean aroma threshold concentrations for three sulfur aroma compound analytes on the y-axis against the qualitative descriptors of the wine (i.e., "model," "neutral," and "fruity") on the x-axis, and proceed to fit three log-linear regression models through the sets of data. The statistical validity of this exercise seems problematic (particularly with only three datapoints, and four significant figures in the resulting quoted regression constants), and the reason behind this choice of data analysis is unclear. Some type of statistical test (e.g., ANOVA) designed to investigate relative trend differences between categorical variables would perhaps be more appropriate, especially when such nebulous categorical descriptors as "neutral" and "fruity" are being employed along the x-axis and ordered in an arbitrary manner.

**Category:** Chemistry

[135] **viXra:1308.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-10 10:42:30*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Neptune is too far from the Sun to be hot. At thirty times the distance the Earth is from the Sun, it is in the cold reaches of outer space and should just be a big ball of ice. Since it is not a big ball of ice, and is very hot, we must explain why this is so. A simple explanation is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[134] **viXra:1308.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-11 18:19:39*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Journals' responses are added

It is shown that the right use of the standard energy-momentum pseudo-tensor of the gravitational field increases the calculated mass-energy of a closed system of gravitating bodies, i.e. it is shown that, according to the pseudo-tensor, the energy of the gravitational field is positive, whereas the energy of the gravitational field, if it exists, must be negative. This discredits the pseudo-tensor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[133] **viXra:1308.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-30 02:44:05*

**Authors:** Bassera Hamid

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The present paper gives a very simple way how electron-neutrino mass can be calculated using nuclear reaction namely proton-proton one.
It depends only on the measurement precision of the binding energy of deuteron , the result may be m_(ν_e )=0.12 ev

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[132] **viXra:1308.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-29 01:47:24*

**Authors:** Zhicheng Yu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I proposal a new concept the quality-world line, maybe it will become a new development in the philosophy of science.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[131] **viXra:1308.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-28 19:03:35*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), rated at 2.7 degrees Kelvin, is nothing more than the activity of the Substratum of “black hole” invisible matter of Vedic Physics, which begins at the e number or the natural logarithm. The Substratum is one of three types of matter in the universe according to Vedic Physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[130] **viXra:1308.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-07 16:50:27*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Prof. Jonathan Marangos’ decision & my message are presented

It is shown that there are two different types of angular momentum of electromagnetic radiation: 1) Spin; an elliptic polarization causes the spin density in any point (without a moment arm). 2) Moment of linear momentum; it is an orbital angular momentum. A circularly polarized light beam with plane phase front and the radiation from a rotating dipole carry angular momenta of both types, contrary to the standard electrodynamics, and these two types of angular momentum are spatially separated. Thus the angular momentum splits into spin and orbital angular momenta unambiguously.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[129] **viXra:1308.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-28 09:09:56*

**Authors:** Jacky JEROME

**Comments:** 75 Pages.

Since the 1920s, the formulas of mass and gravitation have worked perfectly with high accuracy. However, the basic principle of these two phenomena remains unknown. What is the origin of mass? How can spacetime be curved by mass? What is the mechanism by which spacetime creates gravitation? . . . The solution to these enigmas lies in general relativity. A thorough examination of the Einstein Field Equations highlights some minor inconsistencies concerning the sign and the meaning of tensors. Solving these inconsistencies fully explains the curvature of spacetime, mass, and gravitation, without modifying the mathematics of general relativity. Moreover, this explanation shows that mass and gravitation are two similar phenomena that can be unified in a common 4D Higgs compatible theory. Applications to astrophysics are also very important: black holes, dark matter, dark energy. . .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[128] **viXra:1308.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-17 06:58:22*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The General Grand Unification Model (GGU-model) solves a problem personally presented to this author, in 1979, by John A. Wheeler. It is a cosmogony that yields a "Theory of Everything" for any descriptive cosmology. Relative to modes of human comprehension, it satisfies a logical unification for any collection of physical laws or theories. The original concepts were published in a series of abstracts from 1981 - 1984. Since that time, considerable modification has taken place. This includes the modifications and refinements presented in this article.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[127] **viXra:1308.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-17 18:04:50*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 114 Pages. This book is not yet published. Comments and suggestions are welcome, send your comment to victorchristianto@gmail.com.

This book consists of a number of economics, mathematics, and scientific papers, covering different subjects, from global corporate control to cosmology issues. Hopefully the readers will find some interesting discussions in this collection. The trickle-up effect is defined here as a reverse process from the ‘expected’ trickle-down effect, a well known effect which is supposed to happen during development process. According to an article in the Center of Progressive Economics: “Libertarians contend that the prosperity generated at the top of the economic latter will trickle down to everyone else.” But the problem with pure laissez-faire economics is that the wealth generated at the top does not trickle down to the rest of society to a sufficient extent.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[126] **viXra:1308.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-19 06:35:20*

**Authors:** Dimitar Valev

**Comments:** 10 Pages. A hypothesis has been suggested for superhot superdense primordial Planck state of the matter (PSM) with Planckian density and temperature from where the universe emerged after the Big Bang.

In our first calculations using dimensional analysis, we found the approximate value of a large number (the order of 10^61) connecting mass, age, size, minimal measurable temperature and density of the observable universe with Planck mass, time, length, temperature and density, respectively.
In separate calculations, we have recalculated Planck units with a second definition of Planck mass as a mass whose Compton wavelength and gravitational radius are equals. In result, exact equation of the large number N = 5.73x10^60 has been found, connecting cosmological parameters (mass, age, size, minimal measurable temperature and density of the observable universe) and fundamental microscopic properties of the matter (Planck mass, time, length, temperature and density). Thus, a precise formulation and proof of Dirac Large Numbers Hypothesis (LNH) has been found, connecting the microworld and the macroworld. Besides, it has been found that the Planck mass represents the geometric mean of Hubble mass and mass of the observable universe. Finally, a hypothesis has been suggested for superhot superdense primordial Planck state of the matter (PSM) with Planckian density and temperature from where the universe emerged after the Big Bang.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[125] **viXra:1308.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-27 17:01:12*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

English: (translation) This article provides an alternative way to calculate the vacuum energy spacetime
and matches, for a factor of 3 multiplied by the proton-electron mass ratio, with the classical value. Eliminating
the error of a factor of $10^{120}$ arises with the quantum field theory (QFT).
Spanish: (original) Se ofrece en este artículo una forma alternativa de calcular la presión de vacío
del espacio--tiempo y que coincide, en un factor de 3 por la relación de masas del protón y del electron, con el
valor clásico. Eliminando el error de un factor de $10^{120}$ que surge con la teoría cuántica de campos (QFT).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[124] **viXra:1308.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-28 07:26:09*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Misspellngs corrected, two formulations smoothed.

It is shown a.o. that a gauge invariant scalar (classical and quantum theoretical)
electrodynamical field is a trivial field theory; in fact, it is shown that a non-zero
scalar gauge field will not be charge/mass conservating, unless it is zero.
The classical action of a flux of charged and neutral particles is calculated.
It is shown that this action is a spinor field $\Psi$ which satisfies $\Box \Psi=0$,
i.e.: the action of neutral and charged currents of particles spreads at the speed of
light, a result which was already shown in Part1 of this paper by other means. The fact
that both solutions differ only by a constant factor $\gamma^0$, suggests that
electromagnetic and gravitational field are of the same nature.
Now, why is the gravitational force so much weaker than electromagnetic one?
A hint can perhaps be given with Part2.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[123] **viXra:1308.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-27 07:42:21*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is given definition for object and space so that consistency can be kept in the sciences.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[122] **viXra:1308.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-19 05:54:49*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Using the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the most fundamental laws of physics are formulated. The physical properties of the inflation field lead to conclusion that only not numerous mathematical formulae and equations can be realized by Nature and it concerns all possible cosmoses. Here we calculated the mass, the present-day radius and initial radius of our internal Cosmos and we pointed the phenomena that are responsible for the classical-quantum asymmetry. The all 7 types of interactions appeared due to the succeeding phase transitions of the inflation field (of the non-gravitating superluminal Higgs field) so there is not in existence some unification energy. A simulation of our Cosmos by a quantum computer is impossible. Presented here cosmology is not a speculative. It follows from the coherent SST that leads to the physical and mathematical constants in physics and to a thousand basic theoretical results consistent or very close to experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[121] **viXra:1308.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-27 00:24:23*

**Authors:** Patrick L. Nash

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It is shown that the field equations of Einstein gravity sourced by a
real massless scalar inflaton field $\varphi$,
with inflaton potential identically equal to zero,
cast on an eight-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifold $\mathbb{X}_{4,4}$
(a spacetime of four space dimensions and four time dimensions)
admit a solution that exhibits
temporal exponential
\textbf{deflation of three of the four time dimensions}
and
temporal exponential inflation
of three of the four space dimensions.
[The signature and dimension of $\mathbb{X}_{4,4}$ are chosen because its tangent spaces
satisfy a triality principle \cite{Nash2010}
(Minkowski vectors and spinors are equivalent).]
Comoving coordinates for the two \textbf{unscaled} dimensions are chosen to be
$(x^4 \leftrightarrow \textrm{ time}, x^8 \leftrightarrow \textrm{ space})$.
The $x^4$ coordinate corresponds to our universe's observed physical time dimension.
The $x^8$ coordinate corresponds to a compact spatial dimension with circumference $C_8$.
$C_8$ determines the initial value of the Hubble parameter $H$.
Most importantly, this model describes an initially inflating/deflating
Universe created with inflaton potential identically equal to zero,
which is an initial condition that is exponentially more probable
than an initial condition that assumes an
initial inflaton potential of order of the Planck mass.
This model predicts that
the Hubble parameter $H$ during inflation is
$
H = \frac{\pi}{3 \, C_8}
$.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[120] **viXra:1308.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-13 07:00:00*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. English and russian texts

This paper identifies the substantial nature of microworld wave-corpuscle duality and sets out fundamental differences between the microworld and macroworld wave-corpuscle duality.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[119] **viXra:1308.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-07 00:48:19*

**Authors:** Peisheng Shi, Hai Zhang, Zhiguo Zhu

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this article, we use system dynamical model (base on a set of nonlinear differential equations) and stochastic process model (Master equations of elementary reaction) to simulate the T helper cell differentiation (including Th1-Th2-Th17-Treg), especially the Th1-Th2 differentiations signaling network. We draw a conclusion that the critical trigger factor of naive T helper cells differentiation is the concentration of differentiation induced cytokines. We also compare the result of these two models as well as discussed the advantage and disadvantage of them.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[118] **viXra:1308.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-26 16:54:09*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The present paper utilizes the recently proposed Complete Relativity Theory (CR) for
the prediction of neutrino velocity in a prototypical neutrino velocity experiment. The
derived expression for the relative difference of the neutrino velocity with respect to
the velocity of light is a function of the anticipation time t, the traveled distance D
and the light velocity c, measured on Earth. It is independent neither on the traveling
particle type nor on its energy level. With regard to fast neutrinos it is shown that the
derived equation predicts with precision the results reported by OPERA, MINOS, and
ICARUS. Since CR postulates that all physical entities, including the velocity of light,
are relativistic entities, it follows that even though the results of the aforementioned
experiments fail to support the neutrino superluminality claim, their precise prediction
based on a theory that diametrically opposes SR, provides strong evidence for the inadequacy
of SR in accounting for the dynamics of quasi-luminal particles. The aforementioned
notwithstanding, a direct calculation of SR’s predictions for the above mentioned
studies yields grossly incorrect results.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[117] **viXra:1308.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-26 16:57:23*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Dark energy and dark matter constitute about 95% of the Universe. Nonetheless, not
much is known about them. Existing theories, including General Relativity, fail to provide
plausible definitions of the two entities, or to predict their amounts in the Universe.
The present paper proposes a new special relativity theory, called Complete Relativity
theory (CR) that is anchored in Galileo’s relativity, but without the notion of a preferred
frame. The theory results are consistent with Newtonian and Quantum mechanics. More
importantly, the theory yields natural definitions of dark energy and dark matter and
predicts the content of the Universe with high accuracy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[116] **viXra:1308.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-26 07:44:19*

**Authors:** Liu Chaojian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper ,firstly ,by comparing the propagation of light to the mechanical motion of a body, it is pointed out that the propagation of light is not a mechanical motion, the speed of light is not a velocity of mechanical motion and the Galilean relativity principle of mechanics is extended to optics lacks any evidences of theory and reality; secondly, from optics, there is no irreconcilable conflict between the principle of constancy of light velocity and Galilean coordinate transformation, in the special theory of relativity it is thought that the principle of constancy of light velocity contradicts the Galilean coordinate transformation because the propagation of light is looked upon as a mechanical motion and the speed of light looked upon as a velocity of mechanical motion; thirdly, the scientific theory has a range of validity, the range of validity of mechanics is the mechanical motion of a body, the range of validity of optics is the propagation of light; fourthly, the scientific and rational explanation to the Michelson-Morley experiment is to apply classical optics, it is called the speed of the earth relative to the ether is zero, which is not that classical physics has problems, but it is wrong that some physicists look upon the propagation of light as the propagation of light wave occurred in the ether to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment; fifthly, the real and natural space stays the same with the change of the frame of reference; sixthly, the property of time and space of the special theory of relativity is not consistent with reality; seventhly, the present experiment can not confirm the special theory of relativity sufficiently.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[115] **viXra:1308.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-28 07:43:22*

**Authors:** Lunyong Zhang, Y. B. Chen, Jian Zhou, Shan-Tao Zhang, Zheng-bin Gu, Shu-Hua Yao, Yan-Feng Chen

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 5 figures

Spin orbit coupling plays a non-perturbation effect in many recently developed novel
fields including topological insulators and spin-orbit assistant Mott insulators. In this
paper, strongly temperature-dependent spin orbit coupling, revealed by weak
anti-localization, is observed at low temperature in 5d strongly correlated compound,
SrIrO3. As the temperature rising, increase rate of Rashba coefficient is nearly
30%-45%/K. The increase is nearly 100 times over that observed in semiconductor
heterostructures. Microscopically, the large increase of Rashba coefficient is
attributed to the significant evolution of effective Landé g factor on temperature,
whose mechanism is discussed. Sensitively temperature-dependent spin orbit
coupling in SrIrO3 might be applied in spintronic devices

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[114] **viXra:1308.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-25 17:53:42*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The currently accepted, QM, spdf electron model is a collection of individual orbital sets designed to handle 1, 3, 5 and 7 groupings. For anyone who takes enough chemistry, these mathematically generated images are some of the most memorable – as separate presentations, that is. When combined in 3D space to contain 32 electrons, they are a mess as the sets are not orthogonal to one another; nor are they dynamic. The spdf orbital sets, their shapes, orientations, and spatial overlapping are addressed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[113] **viXra:1308.0129 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-04 05:52:39*

**Authors:** James G. Gilson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A formula, derived from general relativity, is given that can be used to
generate a cosmological mass spectrum. The spectrum values come out as
kilograms and are determine by two input parameters galactic epoch birth
time, t_b, and a scale factor theta_0.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[112] **viXra:1308.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-28 06:45:34*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 formula

Abstract. This is an improved and simplified version of [1]. This version of the formula clearly shows the importance of information in physics, through the logarithm of the base 2.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[111] **viXra:1308.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-04 16:36:29*

**Authors:** Loris Serafino

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This paper will reconsider the logical path of reducing the second law of thermodynamics to mechanics up to the point where it seems to drop the ball. The thesis of an off-centered interpretation of the mechanical reduction is presented in the light of a promising (although unusual and contested) conceptualization
of the second law. This will be accomplished in a conceptual way and strictly between the borders of classical physics.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[110] **viXra:1308.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-26 07:43:14*

**Authors:** O. V. Vijimo

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

This paper provides the proof of invalidity of the most fundamental constant known to mankind. Imagining a circle without "pi" is simply unthinkable but it’s going to be a reality very soon. "pi" is not a true circle constant and the value associated with it is also in error. This paper explores this idea and proposes a new
constant in the process which gives the correct measure of a circle. It is given by "tau". The exact value of "tau" is also determined. As a result, it redefines the area of the circle. The circle area currently accounted is wrong and
therefore needs correction. This has serious implications for science. I have also discovered the fundamental geometrical ratio b/w a circle and a square in which it’s inscribed and have also discovered a new circle formula. This paper makes this strong case with less ambiguity.

**Category:** Geometry

[109] **viXra:1308.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-16 11:11:38*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The methods of nonstandard analysis are applied to general language logic-systems. This allows the operators for the only known mathematical cosmology, the General Grand Unification Model (GGU-model), to more clearly exhibit their hyper-logical properties. All of the GGU-model entities and processes are predicted from certain observable entities, which are physical processes and mental procedures that we use to construct physical objects. It is shown that, for each of the four types of instruction paradigms, there exists an ultra-word-like object such that when an hyper-algorithm is applied to it an ultra-logic-system is *-deduced. Another application of an hyper-algorithm yields a hyperfinite instruction paradigm that is hyper-deduced in the in the required sequential order. It is shown that duplication of these processes yields a set of hyper-instruction paradigms that satisfies the Patten and Wheeler participator universe requirements. In this version, the participator process portion of the GGU-model is significantly altered from the original process presented and a correction is made to an equation and its applications. A specific data-set is generalized and the set of all ultra-propertons is obtained and its properties examined. This set is shown to be sufficient for universe construction. GGU-model schemes are presented in diagram form. A refinement is introduced that leads, when applied, to the individual developmental of each universe-wide frozen-frame. An operator is shown to exist, which, via a substratum medium and processes, changes hyper-instruction information into substratum info-fields. From these info-fields, all physical-systems are produced.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[108] **viXra:1308.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-23 07:46:00*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 3 illustrations, 3 references

It is explained for the wider public and the scientific community how the discovery was made in which the mystery of planet formation was solved. Planet formation is star evolution itself.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[107] **viXra:1308.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 06:34:49*

**Authors:** Elemer Elad Rosinger

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Recently, [3], it was shown that in certain composite quantum systems with time independent potentials, the extent of the entanglement in an initial state is conserved during the time evolution under the Schr\"{o}dinger equation, and thus in the absence of any measurement. Here the {\it extent} of entanglement is meant in the sense of the {\it grading} function introduced and studied in [1,2]. Based on the celebrated Stone theorem on one parameter groups of unitary operators on Hilbert spaces, the question is raised whether the mentioned conservation of the extent entanglement may hold for composite quantum systems with {\it arbitrary} potential.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[106] **viXra:1308.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-28 08:48:38*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Abstract
This article puts forward a new theorem concerns the distribution of prime numbers: Let
integer n≥4, there exist two distinct odd primes p and q such that n﹣p＝q﹣n. Proves the
theorem establish applied the Congruence theory and the Fermat's method of infinite
descent. With the application of the theorem, reaches several results.

**Category:** Number Theory

[105] **viXra:1308.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-29 03:51:40*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A process of teleportation is here studied. It involves holography and reduction of the gravitational mass of the bodies to be transported. We show that if a holographic three-dimensional image of a body is created and sent to another site and the gravitational mass of the body is reduced to a specific range, then the body will disappear and posteriorly will reappear exactly where its holographic three-dimensional image was sent.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[104] **viXra:1308.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-22 07:11:37*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 3 references, 1 diagram

According to Stellar Metamorphosis the Sun is not billions of years old. This is irrational. Stellar metamorphosis states that the Sun is roughly 65 million years old. It is a relatively young star compared to older stars such as Jupiter and Saturn, and billions of years younger than the Earth, Uranus and Neptune.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[103] **viXra:1308.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-02 02:56:27*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This is my reply to the question “On varying speed of flow of time over our life” by Galina Ustinova of the Russian Academy of Sciences, at https://www.researchgate.net/

(This is my reply to the question “On varying speed of flow of time over our life” by G. Ustinova of the Russian Academy of Sciences, at https://www.researchgate.net/post/On_varying_speed_of_flow_of_time_over_our_life?ch=reg&cp=re221_x_p43&pli=1&loginT=N4XcWPfvQsWRojjGYxZQnrHrQhWwYB5vhoxSsdgKaIg,#view=52136dfed3df3e2c2554d8fe)
I first refer to this previous answer to the same question (by Giuseppe Cocco M.D.) before addressing the original question -
After his friend's death A. Einstein wrote to the sister and son: 'Michel has preceded me a little in leaving this strange world. This is not important. For us, who are convinced physicists, the distinction between past, present, and future is only an illusion, however persistent' Einstein-Besso correspondence, Ed. P. Speziali, Paris; Hermann 1972, pp 537-539.
Beginning with a very brief summary of Einstein’s unified field theory and a 50-year-old objection to it, the objection is shown to be invalid (using both Einstein’s words after his friend’s death, as well as taking a 1919 paper by Einstein and building on it). Then the nuclear forces, dark energy and dark matter are woven into a hypothesis of gravity which is dependent on the universe obeying fractal geometry. This geometry places humans in a unified field with space-time’s accelerating expansion, allowing perception of that expansion. Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt, and Adam Riess won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics for confirming that our psychological impressions are not purely subjective.
Then the article moves to “PART 2 – My Reply to G. Ustinova’s Reply” which deals with cognition and the origin of life (in relation to fractal catalysis), atheism and the divine, plus “digital” string theory. And finally, “PART 3 – Subsequent (Short) Replies” which deals with various subjects.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[102] **viXra:1308.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-04 03:34:54*

**Authors:** Malcolm Macleod

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The fundamental physical constants are regarded as immutable and as non-derivable from more fundamental principles. They can be categorized between dimensionless and dimensionful constants, i.e.: those constants that describe a physical quantity but whose numerical value depends on the system of units used. In the “Trialogue on the number of fundamental physical constants” was debated the number, from 0 to 3, of dimensionful units required. Described here is a geometrical model based on a black-hole electron that uses 2 mathematical constants (the fine structure constant alpha and a proposed Omega), 2 variable scalars and 1 dimensionful unit $u$ to derive formulas for the physical constants $G, h, c, e, m_e, k_B$. Solutions are consistent with CODATA 2014. Units for MLTA (mass, length, time, ampere) are proposed as overlapping and canceling in these ratios; $(AL)^3/T = M^9 T^{11}/L^{15}$, units = 1. These ratios are embedded in a dimensionless electron function $f_e$ whereby the electron is seen as periodically oscillating between 2 states; a magnetic-monopole $(AL)^3$ and time T 'electric-state' and a 'mass-state'. The geometries of mass M=1, time T=$2\pi$, velocity V=$2\pi\Omega^2$, length L=$2\pi^2\Omega^2$ suggest angular motion may be the means by which dimensionality is conferred to mathematical forms. The SI units $kg, m, s, A, K$ are defined in terms of $u^n$ suggesting that dimensionful units are mathematical rather than physical constructs, a key condition for a virtual or a mathematical universe hypothesis. The sqrt of Planck momentum is used to link charge constants with mass constants, this then permits us to define and solve the least accurate dimensionful constants $G, h, e, m_e, k_B...$ using the fine structure constant and the 3 most accurate dimensionful constants; $c$, $\mu_0$ (exact values), and the Rydberg constant (12-13 digits precision).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[101] **viXra:1308.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-09 11:02:23*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 15 Pages. minor corrections, format changed

In the sixties Ogievetskiı and Polubarinov proposed the concept of notoph, whose
helicity properties are complementary to those of photon. Later, Kalb and Ramond (and others)
developed this theoretical concept. And, at the present times it is widely accepted. We analyze
the quantum theory of antisymmetric tensor fields with taking into account mass dimensions
of notoph and photon. It appears to be possible the description of both photon and notoph
degrees of freedom on the basis of the modified Bargmann-Wigner formalism for the symmetric
second-rank spinor.
Next, we proceed to derive equations for the symmetric tensor of the second rank on the
basis of the Bargmann-Wigner formalism in a straightforward way. The symmetric multispinor
of the fourth rank is used. It is constructed out of the Dirac 4-spinors. Due to serious problems
with the interpretation of the results obtained on using the standard procedure we generalize it,
and we obtain the spin-2 relativistic equations, which are consistent with the general relativity.
The importance of the 4-vector field (and its gauge part) is pointed out.
Thus, we present the full theory which contains the photon, the notoph (the Kalb-Ramond
field) and the graviton. The relations of this theory with the higher spin theories are established.
In fact, we deduced the gravitational field equations from relativistic quantum mechanics.
The relations of this theory with scalar-tensor theories of gravitation and f(R) are discussed.
We estimate possible interactions, fermion-notoph, graviton-notoph, photon-notoph, and we
conclude that they will be probably seen in experiments in the next few years.
PACS number: 03.65.Pm , 04.50.-h , 11.30.Cp

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[100] **viXra:1308.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-21 18:51:33*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Polytope (3,3,5) plays an extremely crucial role in the transformation of visible matter, as well as in the structure of Time. Polytope (3,3,5) helps to determine whether matter follows the 8 x 8 Satva path or the 9 x 9 Raja path of development. Polytope (3,3,5) on a micro scale determines the development path of matter, while Polytope (3,3,5) on a macro scale determines the geography of Time, given its relationship to Base 60 math and to the icosahedron. Yet the Hopf Fibration is needed to form Poytope (3,3,5). This paper outlines the series of interchanges between root lattices and the three types of Hopf Fibrations in the formation of quasi – crystals.

**Category:** Topology

[99] **viXra:1308.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-21 20:26:52*

**Authors:** Arli Aditya Parikesit

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Proceeding of World-Wide Indonesian Student Association Scientific Writing Olympic. Pp:23-29. (The Ianguage of this manuscript is in Indonesian)

Molecular Biology is an emerging science, which has an active role in
supplementing the field of medicine, agriculture, and environment. The data gathered from
the wet experiment was already submitted to on line database. Bioinformatics is a new
science, based upon the combination between biology and computer science. It has
sucessfully managing those on line database as a source of genome and proteome data. The
available genome and proteome database are GenBank from United States, DDBJ from Japan,
and EBI from European Union. Molecular biology experiment needs biochemical regent, and
they are very expensive. A certain breakthrogh is necessary, to reduce the cost of wet
laboratory experiment. Bioinformatics could help to reduce the cost. The task of
Bioinformatician is to convert those online data, into a useful biomedics information. It has
been applied for drug, vaccine, and PCR primer synthesis. Pharmaceutical industry has
utilized bioinformatics tools extensively. Bioinformatics could help to reduce the wet
experiment cost. However, bioinformatics could not replace wet experiment totally.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[98] **viXra:1308.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-21 20:31:16*

**Authors:** Arli Aditya Parikesit

**Comments:** 9 Pages. 2010. Sigma Journal of Science and Technology Vol: 13. No: 1.p:1-7 . University of Sanata Dharma Press, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (The language of this manuscript is in Indonesian)

Molecular Biology is advancing through the protein-protein interaction studies.
Its wet experiment has generated a massive amount of data. Bioinformatics was set up for converting those data into useful information. Protein-protein interaction wet experiment was a long and expensive labors. Bioinformatics are here to remedy those labors. Online experimentations at protein-protein interaction database are possible.
The available databases are InterPare, ClusPro, and PROTORP. InterPare is an open
and public database server for protein interaction interface information. ClusPro is an
algorithm for filtering docked protein conformations, and rank them. While PROTORP
is a database to calculates a series of physical and chemical parameters of the protein
interaction sites that contribute to the binding energy of the association. The online
databases are useful tools for aiding the wet laboratory protein-protein interaction experiment.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[97] **viXra:1308.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-14 13:37:44*

**Authors:** Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert Mingesz, Zoltan Gingl, Claes G. Granqvist

**Comments:** 9 pages

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth, which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage and current modes for error removal. In this combination method, the error probability is still an exponential function that decays with the duration of the bit exchange period, but it has superior fidelity to the former schemes.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[96] **viXra:1308.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-21 11:46:03*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 3 pages; 1 Figure.

English (traslate): In this article is to explain why the measures provide the result that lack in the universe
around $99\%$ of gravitational energy, contrary to the calculations.
Spanish (original): Se trata en este artículo de explicar el porqué las medidas ofrecen el resultado de que falta
en el Universo alrededor del $99\%$ de energía gravitatoria, en contra de los cálculos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[95] **viXra:1308.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-26 18:04:57*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We test the Electric Charged Swap (ECS) symmetry in the case of quarks. We propose a quark (q)- and an ECS-quark (q῀)-bound state, qq῀. We explain the electric charged charmonium Z+c (3, 9) meson as a charm quark (c)- and charm ECS-quark (c῀)- bound state (cc῀). We predict that J/ψ and π+ mesons are the decay products of a Z+c (3, 9), as it has been recently observed at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BES) III. Furthermore, from the charm ECS-quark (c῀) of mass 2,3GeV we predict two new mesons, an electric charged charmed meson D¯*+(zm) and a neutral charmed meson D*0(zm).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[94] **viXra:1308.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-20 18:26:04*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 20 Pages. ICISE contribution

20 pages outlining the physics for identification of EW generation of GW which could be detected, for massive gravitons. No detection possible for massless gravitons from the EW era.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[93] **viXra:1308.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-20 12:15:04*

**Authors:** Julien Laurendeau

**Comments:** 2 Pages. If you read this paper,pay a particularly strong attention on the end.

I will here state a conjecture of my own that will normally be so hard to prove as the Beal conjecture and Fermat’s last theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[92] **viXra:1308.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-20 05:20:57*

**Authors:** S.A. Podosenov, A.A. Potapov, Jaykov Foukzon, E.R. Men’kova

**Comments:** Pages. IJRAP May 2014, Volume 3, Number 2

From obtained equations of structure (integrability conditions of continuum equations) the elemental noninertial reference frames (NRF) are investigated.
1. Relativistic global uniformly accelerated Born’s hard NRF.
2. Relativistic Born’s rigid uniformly rotating RF free of horizon.
3. Rigid vortex-free spherically symmetrical NRF.
All these systems are not described in Minkowski space. On the basis of the global equivalence principle the well-known Bell’s problem is solved. The reasonable solution of the problem is absent in the special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[91] **viXra:1308.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-05 23:50:12*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Analysis of the foundations of standard trigonometry is proposed. The unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is methodological basis of the analysis. It is shown that the foundations of trigonometry contradict to the principles of system approach and contain formal-logical errors. The principal logical error is that the definitions of trigonometric functions represent quantitative relationships between the different qualities: between qualitative determinacy of angle and qualitative determinacy of rectilinear segments (legs) in rectangular triangle. These relationships do not satisfy the standard definition of mathematical function because there are no mathematical operations that should be carry out on qualitative determinacy of angle to obtain qualitative determinacy of legs. Therefore, the left-hand and right-hand sides of the standard mathematical definitions have no the identical sense. The logical errors determine the essence of trigonometry: standard trigonometry is a false theory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[90] **viXra:1308.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-19 12:19:46*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Some new types of limit theorems for topological group-valued measures are proved in the context of filter convergence for suitable classes of
filters. We investigate some fundamental properties of topological group-valued measures.
We consider also Schur-type theorems,
using the sliding hump technique, and prove some
convergence theorems in the particular case of
positive measures. We deal with
the notion of uniform filter exhaustiveness,
by means of which we prove some theorems
on existence of the limit measure,
some other kinds of limit theorems and their
equivalence, using known results on existence of
countably additive restrictions of strongly
bounded measures.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[89] **viXra:1308.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-19 12:51:52*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both
Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the
known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor
is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a
classical point of view the negative energy is forbidden the
Quantum Field Theory allows the existence of very small amounts of
it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre
himself.The major drawback concerning negative energies for the
warp drive is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain
the warp bubble.In order to perform interstellar space travel to
"nearby" stars at $20$ light-years away with potential habitable
exo-planets(eg:Gliese $581$) at superluminal speeds in a
reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of about
$200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy density
at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor $10^{48}$
which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times bigger in
magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!! Some years ago
Hiscock published a work in which the composed mixed tensor
$\langle {T_\mu}^\nu\rangle$ obtained from the negative energy
density tensor $T_{\mu\nu}$ $\mu=0,\nu=0$ of the two-dimensional
Alcubierre warp drive metric diverges when the velocity of the
ship $vs$ exceeds the speed of light.(see pg $2$ in
\cite{ref4}).We demonstrate in this work that in fact this do not
happens and the Hiscock result must be re-examined.We introduce
here a shape function that defines the Natario warp drive
spacetime as an excellent candidate to low the negative energy
density requirements from $10^{48}$ to affordable levels.We also
discuss Horizons and Doppler Blueshifts that affects the
Alcubierre spacetime but not the Natario counterpart.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[88] **viXra:1308.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-19 13:29:05*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Submitted for publication in August 2013

Recent years have hinted that the concept of fractal spacetime may play a role in both the “would-be” physics beyond the Standard Model and the large-scale structure of the Universe. Here we explore a scenario where classical spacetime equipped with minimal fractality appears to provide a natural solution for two major challenges of relativistic cosmology, the cosmological constant and coincidence problems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[87] **viXra:1308.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-19 13:47:25*

**Authors:** Lyndon Ashmore

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Presented at the NPA conference College Park, MD USA July 2013

The New Tired Light Theory (NTL) is tested by using known data of the distance to the Corona Borealis galaxy cluster (A2065 in particular) and from this predicting the redshift of the galaxy. The predicted value is then compared to the measured value. In NTL, photons of light are continually absorbed and re-emitted by the electrons in the plasma of intergalactic space which recoil both on absorption and re-emission. Energy is transferred from the photon to the recoiling electron and thus the photon energy is reduced, the frequency is reduced and the wavelength is increased. It is redshifted. Using the wavelength of the ‘K line’ of ion-ised calcium, , standard physics and published collision cross-sections, the predicted redshift by NTL is found to be . This compares favourably with the measured redshift value of - they agree to within 6%. In NTL the energy transferred to the recoiling electron is emitted as secondary photons. The predicted wavelength of these secondary pho-tons is calculated and is shown to be in the microwave region of the electro-magnetic spectrum. This again is consistent with the NTL prediction that these secondary photons form the CMB.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[86] **viXra:1308.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-19 09:30:59*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Conference book:http://www.timkamalov.narod.ru/TheorPhys2012.pdf

Modern physics confirms the impossibility of Superluminal Motion through the considerations of Special Relativity. In General Relativity we may apply this constraint rigorously only to the Local Inertial Frames where Einstein’s Field Equations are linear. This article, incidentally seeks to investigate the possibility of Pseudo-Superluminal motion in the non–local context without violating Special Relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[85] **viXra:1308.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-19 09:47:27*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This article contains no mathematics. The non-mathematical reader will find a simple proof herein of the invalidity of black hole theory.

This short article dissects false remarks made by Professor Dr. Werner Frank in his reviews of the books by Alexander Unzicker and Raphael Haumann. The books by Unzicker and Haumann rightly criticise the methods and theories of contemporary physics. Although Frank admits that physics is now in a state of intellectual decrepitude, he nonetheless commits the very same offences that he acknowledges currently pervades physics. Black hole theory is particularly refuted herein, very simply, without any recourse to mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[84] **viXra:1308.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-19 12:04:41*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

Mathematicians and physicists have long wondered why the Octionic Projective Plane (OP2), the Freudenthal – Tits Magic Square, or Magic Triangle and certain functions of the Octonions and Sedenions abruptly end. This paper lays out the various elements included in these conundra, with the assumption that irregularities and undiscovered relationships between these structures account for the anomalies. In addition to the above, this paper investigates the G2 to B3 to D4 to B4 to F4 Magic Triangle, the twisted product of S7 x S7 x G2, which leads to the Sedenions, the exceptional singularities, Kleinian singularities, Coxeter Groups H3 and H4, Polytope (3,3,5) , the 600 – cell and the binary icosahedral group.

**Category:** Topology

[83] **viXra:1308.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-19 06:26:52*

**Authors:** Vesellin Tashev, Angel Manev, Dimitar Valev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The growing number of nuclear power plants confronts scientists with the problem to increase significantly the proportion of the public security. This requirement gradually makes the projects expensive and unacceptable for energy production. This problem motivates the researchers to generate a variety of ideas, some of them rather exotic at first glance. The utilization of thermonuclear synthesis is part of the efforts to obtain cheap, safe and clean energy. Unfortunately, the fundamental projects for building fusion reactors encounter significant difficulties at this stage. A number of scientists attempt to improve the existing know-how. Others try to realize fundamentally new ideas to control the fusion. The goal of such proposal is in the realization of many consecutive micro-thermonuclear explosions, so that the energy to be absorbed in small portions without destroying the power plant.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[82] **viXra:1308.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-19 10:05:56*

**Authors:** Arli Aditya Parikesit

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 'LPM Edukasi' humanistic journal of pedagogic faculty of Wali Songo Islamic State Institute, Semarang, Indonesia

Liberal-arts is very important for giving studium generale towards every students from different background. This paper is elaborating comparison between German and Indonesian teaching on liberal-arts. The essential pillars of German liberal-arts are humanism, ethics, and holocaust commemoration. It should be keep in mind, that nurturing pattern between Germany and Indonesia are very different, because it has a different cultural background. Applying German liberal-arts into our curriculum definitely need a comprehension toward our own culture.

**Category:** Social Science

[81] **viXra:1308.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-19 04:32:59*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We investigate the order of
approximation of a real-valued function
by means of suitable families of sampling type
operators, which include both discrete
and integral ones. We give a unified approach, by
means of which it is possible to consider several
kinds of classical operators, for instance Urysohn
integral operators, in particular Mellin-type
convolution integrals, and generalized sampling
series. We deal with filter convergence, and our results are proper extensions of the classical ones.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[80] **viXra:1308.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-04 04:16:05*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this revised paper solutions to the nature of Matter, Dark matter, Dark energy, Inflation, Matter-Antimatter asymmetry and Higgs Hierarchy problem are proposed. Vector spaces (p,q,ℝ) with p+q complex dimensional scalar fields and an asymmetric metric are considered. The dimension p+q is calculated to be 6. Matter and Dark Matter energy is bounded [7.1e-3/g,1.7e28/h]eV. where g,h are functions of the degeneracy. The Higgs VEV is dependent on the Cosmological constant, using Planck Mission data the Higgs VEV is 246.3GeV. The gauge group SU(2,2) spontaneously breaks to SU(3) or SU(2)xU(1). Its predicted that Matter has 48 degrees of freedom which after symmetry breaking results in the 6 quarks and 6 leptons. The normalisation of a quaternion 2-vector results in a lower bound for r and consequently the Schwarzschild physical singularity is non-existent. Its predicted that Space-Time inflated by 89.2 e-foldings. Cosmological density ratios are predicted (Planck Mission): Dark matter 0.268(0.268), Baryonic 0.05((0.049), and Dark energy 0.682(0.683).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[79] **viXra:1308.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-22 11:50:41*

**Authors:** H. Al-Ghadeer, Abdullah AlShimemeri, H. Al-Jahdali, M. Al-Moamary, Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Bronchodilatation response is often used in theassessment and the diagnosis of bronchial asthma. Many clinics and peripheral hospitals have no facility for spirometry and post bronchodilatation response (PBR) assessment. To test the predictors of PBR in asthmatic patients we retrospectively reviewed 100 cases of asthmatic patients followed by our outpatient department. All patients had pulmonary function tests (PFT) on first presentation, 45% M, 55% F, Mean age SD was 38.518 (range: 9-86 years), 92% of the cases were using medication: 89% inhaled beta agonists, 65% inhaled steroids, 7% Ipratropium, 32% oral theophylline, 4% sodium Cromoglycate, and 8% oral prednisone. 82% had shortness of breath, 62% wheezing, 71% cough, 51% nocturnal symptoms, 22% had associated allergic symptoms, and 33% had positive family history for asthma. 48% of the cases had significant PBR (ATS standards). Analysis of the above variables, revealed that a significant association between the bronchodilatation response and the use of medication (Odd Ratio OR=7.2, p ¡ 0.05), nocturnal symptoms (OR = 8:4, p < 0:001) and family history (OR = 2:9, p < 0:05). Conclusion: in asthmatic patients, current use of medications, presence of nocturnal symptoms, and positive family history of asthma , may predict the possibilities of the presence of a significant response post bronchodilatation.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[78] **viXra:1308.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-18 18:09:11*

**Authors:** Fredrick W. Cotton

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A proposal for cylindrically symmetric laser beams that have a particular type of displacement current known as a null-vector field current.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[77] **viXra:1308.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-18 09:11:23*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 3 references

According to Stellar Metamorphosis Saturn is not a planet but a brown dwarf star in intermediate stages of evolution. A graph is provided of its proper place in the stellar evolutionary cycle, much to the chagrin of the dogma that Saturn is a “planet” that formed from some random spinning disk.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[76] **viXra:1308.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-25 13:07:05*

**Authors:** Peter Waaben

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An infinitesimal approach

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[75] **viXra:1308.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-17 20:46:15*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Selected text from CSF, 17 (5), 811-818, (2003)

We suggest how the fine structure constant may be retrieved from applying fractional calculus to the short-distance regime of quantum electrodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[74] **viXra:1308.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-17 18:11:07*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 6 references

It has been predicted that the centers of galaxies will contain pulsars, which are the hearts of galaxies, by the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. The true center of the Milky Way galaxy is the pulsar J1745-2900, not fictional mathematical nonsense called “black holes” which contain no real physical presence.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[73] **viXra:1308.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-17 09:32:53*

**Authors:** Siddharth Srivastava, Prashant Kumar, Ashu Krishna

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ASCNT 2012, Pg 256-262

The benefits of using open source solutions are now obvious to the industrial applications. The Open Source GIS solutions are gaining popularity within the geo informatics community. Examples of popular FLOSS GIS solutions are GeoServer, MapServer, GRASS GIS, Quantum GIS. These when combined with open source tools such as MoNav, Mapnik etc make a robust mapping solution. This paper illustrates such an Open Source solution to web mapping service, by which the data preprocess and the construction of prototype system both used merely open source GIS software.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[72] **viXra:1308.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-17 09:36:22*

**Authors:** Siddharth Srivastava, Aditya Rastogi, Jasdeep Singh Khurana, Shailly Bhati

**Comments:** Pages.

Matting is the technique of estimating accurate foreground in images and video. Both image and video matting are very important in terms of both commercial and technological advances. Various television advertisements, educational videos etc. these days use matting techniques to minimize the cost of re-recording the videos or re-capturing the snapshots, instead there is a need of efficient matting techniques to perform these tasks swiftly. It also gives power to insert new elements in a scene seamlessly or transport an entity into a different environment in order to create novel visual artifacts.
With the recent advances of digital cameras, using matting techniques to create novel composites or facilitate other editing tasks has gained increasing interests from both professionals as well as consumers. Consequently, various matting techniques and systems have been proposed to try to efficiently extract high quality mattes from both still images and video sequences.
The report consists of various matting techniques that have been proposed till date which have relevance in video matting.
Our Aim is to introduce Video Matting in Real Time Video Conferencing both for desktop computers and mobile devices such as Cell Phones and Tablets.
The common approaches available till date requires manual intervention and are also computationally expensive, hence, for our application, we needed an approach which is not only independent of human intervention but also is computationally effective to handle Real-Time data.
The difficulties and challenges of video matting are first analyzed, and various ways if combine matting algorithms with other video processing techniques for building efficient video matting systems are reviewed.
Key contributions, advantages as well as limitations of important systems are summarized.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[71] **viXra:1308.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-17 07:27:14*

**Authors:** Julien Laurendeau

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I will here conjecture and prove using formulas.

**Category:** Number Theory

[70] **viXra:1308.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-29 15:09:10*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 24

A Supersymmetric Multiverse interpretation of Quantum Mechanics with instant quantum entanglement at universal distances.
This many worlds or Supersymmetric Multiverse interpretation of quantum mechanics is the
idea that NOT all possible alternate histories of the universe NEED to exist IF there is instant mirror symmetrical wavefunction collapse in at least two distant (Charge and Parity) mirror symmetric (anti)-universes. IF this is the case, then we could argue that still all alternate histories exist, but have the same anti-copy result of wavefunction collapse.
Mirror symmetrical Clocks are running over there with left handed rotation, but time is running still forward.
Dual entangled Schrödinger Cats and anti-Cats in both universes, die or live instantly
(superpositioned) without looking at them: they (the nuclear decay trigger) look to each other
by long distant instant entanglement. Schrödinger was not aware of that possibility of course so he described the paradox, which became known as Schrödinger’s cat paradox. However deep down the Planck scale at the Higgs level there seem to be TWO entangled pinball
machines active between dual anti-copy universes.
The oscillating Higgs energy is compared with the pinball springs and the pinballs could be compared with the Fermions and photons

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[69] **viXra:1308.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-17 02:46:18*

**Authors:** Demjanov Victor

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Engl.(8) and Russ.(8)

Rooted in the 1920's years corpuscular-wave duality of quantum theory still there remain irreconcilably-contradictory as to the interpretation "of photon by the particle", how and "micro-particle by the allegedly wave". So, are still convinced that the experimentally observed non-classical Compton effect (reduction in the frequency of elec-tromagnetic waves when nonlinear scattering by particles) has only explanation Born's in terms corpuscular mecha-nism of the "elastic" scattering of the "photons-particles" on the "electrons-particles". Inhesion same by all particles specific waves of matter "(waves de Broglie ), however, undermines of their dotted-corpuscular interpretation. De-scribed here is purely wave mechanism of the Compton effect completes this discord owing to detection of electro-magnetic nature of waves the of Compton and de Broglie, which still hidden from us in the interference caustics of different elasticity near the surface of the microparticles. This explains the true cause "of the wave manifestations" in the behavior of different microparticles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[68] **viXra:1308.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-16 13:36:42*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** Pages.

The theory of relativity compresses the two theories made by Albert Einstein that are known as: General Relativity and Special Relativity. General Relativity talks about relations in the space-time continuum that relate to energy and the relation in which the momentum of matter and radiation that are found present. It also considers the geometry of space, and motion bodies in free fall, as well as the propagation of light. Special Relativity is the mass-energy equivalence formula E=MC^2 where C is the speed of light in a vacuum. Logical Paradoxes is uses of circular logic in order to contradict something, this is one of the most commonly used methods in questioning something in science, especially theories. Today we will look at using it to question relativity itself, and its possibility. We know that light contains matter, but not the same amount of particles in each part of light, so that means it still could travel at different average speeds. Basically light uses the same particles but not the same amount in each part of its beam, that is one of the reason we can't really calculate the average speed of light, logically. We will use this deep method in terms of professionalism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[67] **viXra:1308.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-16 10:27:13*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 3 references

It is expressed in simple laymen’s terms 21st century science. Planetary formation is star evolution.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[66] **viXra:1308.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-15 10:34:17*

**Authors:** Lenient T Tavengwa

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The twin primes conjecture asserts that there are infinitely many primes p such that p + 2 is
also prime. The present paper proves that.

**Category:** Number Theory

[65] **viXra:1308.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-15 05:36:22*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 3 Pages. NA

Matrices and determinants are widely used to solve problems in electronics, statics , robotics , linear programming , optimization , intersections of planes , genetics, physics , cosmology and all other areas of science and engineering. In this work, we attempt to deduce E5 from E1 to E4 by applying determinants.

**Category:** Geometry

[64] **viXra:1308.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-14 13:04:58*

**Authors:** Th. Guyer

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Euklid's Theorem (of the infinite of the PrimeNumbers) is given; where p=prim and the TwinPrime(s) are called PrimeAngels.
So P(rime)=P(rime) / P(rime)=N(o)P(rime); P/=NP is no longer available and the problem was hard for more than 2000 years!

**Category:** Number Theory

[63] **viXra:1308.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-14 10:01:23*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper formed the basis of my invited talk at the XXIXth International Workshop on High Energy Physics, Protvino, Russia, 26-28 June 2013, and was written for publication in its Proceedings. http://indico.cern.ch/event/hepft2013

All alleged black hole models pertain to a universe that is spatially infinite, is eternal, contains only one mass, is not expanding, and is asymptotically flat or asymptotically not flat. But the alleged big bang cosmology pertains to a universe that is spatially finite (one case) or spatially infinite (two different cases), is of finite age, contains radiation and many masses including multiple black holes (some of which are primordial), is expanding, and is not asymptotically anything. Thus the black hole and the big bang contradict one another - they are mutually exclusive. It is surprisingly easy to prove that neither General Relativity nor Newton's theory predicts the black hole. Despite numerous claims for discovery of black holes in their millions, nobody has ever actually found one. It is also not difficult to prove that General Relativity violates the usual conservation of energy and momentum. Fundamentally there are contradictions contained in black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and General Relativity. Numerical methods are therefore to no avail.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[62] **viXra:1308.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-14 12:03:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only@@ the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[61] **viXra:1308.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-14 00:20:19*

**Authors:** Kairbek Kazbekov

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Horizontal and vertical distributions of complex zeros of the Riemann zeta-function in the
critical region are being found in general form in the paper on the basis of standard methods of
function theory of complex variable.

**Category:** Number Theory

[60] **viXra:1308.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-19 13:41:58*

**Authors:** Victor Stepanovitch Mitin

**Comments:** 61 Pages. Russian language.

In this essay in three parts, the most important and substantional issues of the physical science are solved through its maximum possible geometrization. The first part “The structures of proton and gravity” include: 1) the structure of proton and attraction characteristics of its parts with a bonding factor equal to α/2π where α is the constant of the thin structure, as well as an item about the law of conservation of the electric charge in this case; 2) the magnitude of the light speed with an account of the effect of “zeroing” at interferention; 3) the expression for the square root of the Newton’s gravitational constant improving the dimensions of this quantity through other “world constants” such as the electron specific charge, number fragment of light speed ξ, and Avogadro number.
The first part is above all an answer to the question: “Is it possible to split a proton at collisions of particles of very large energies?” The second part gives an answer to the question “From what, in the long run, the matter consists?” as the name itself of the part argues: “Electron, photon, and the Avogadro number”. The third part “The Equation of the first mother, or the Golden Equation (AE)” contains, in particular, answers to the questions: “Why the eternal uneasiness is inherent in matter?” and “What are the neutrino ν_e, neutretto ν_μ, and their antipodes?”

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[59] **viXra:1308.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-19 05:51:03*

**Authors:** Jose Javier Garcia Moreta

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

ABSTRACT: We Study the use of Abel summation applied to the evaluation of infinite
series and infinite (divergent) integrals , we give several examples of how we can
obtain a regularization for the case of divergent sums and integrals.
Keywords: = Abel sum formula,Abel-Plana formula, poles , infinities, renormalization,
regularization, multiple integrals, Casimir effect.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[58] **viXra:1308.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-13 10:43:42*

**Authors:** Richard K. Love, Sean R. Love

**Comments:** 73 Pages. Please look at the predictions before judging the paper.

The redshift observed in astronomical measurements is explained as an observational artifact caused by the perspective of the observer, rather than the effect of physical cosmic expansion. The parsec unit of distance is defined in the observer-centered perspective, which is the generic term for the geocentric perspective. This perspective uses taxicab geometry which causes the Earth observer to perceive a longer wavefront travel distance for the parsec unit without a corresponding increase in wavefront travel time. This combination creates a velocity artifact , which, since it is part of each parsec unit, is cumulative with distance. The velocity artifact manifests to the Earth observer as an apparent redshift which only becomes significant at the megaparsec level. Predicted results are very close to expected values. The predicted Hubble constant value is calculated to be and depending on which formula is used. Each of the three values is within NASA’s limits. The artifact is also shown to generate the sinusoidal FRW wave functions for recession velocity, redshift and the scale factor. The artifact predicts a recession velocity of 1 to equal a redshift of 1.46, which equals the expected redshift value. The artifact is also demonstrated to be responsible for the phenomena commonly known as dark energy by causing objects to appear closer than expected due to shorter redshift-distance.. Riess et al (2004) found the redshift distance to be shorter by 10 to 15%. Correction of the artifact error causes the FRW redshift luminosity distance to increase by 14% which can be seen to closely match the intrinsic luminosity distance of the type 1a supernovae (SNe Ia). . The Pioneer anomaly, which is the unmodeled negative acceleration of two spacecraft launched in 1972, is also shown to be the result of the observer-centered perspective. The calculated negative acceleration of -8.745x10-10km/s/s essentially equals NASA’s value

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:1308.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-12 20:05:17*

**Authors:** Jesus Alberto Cazares Montes

**Comments:** 82 Pages. Thesis in Spanish.

Capıtulo 1. Ecuacion relativista de onda: Historia y el armazon general matematico 1
1.1 Teorıa relativista de una partıcula y
notacion relativista 1
1.2 Grupos de Lorentz y Poincare 5
1.3 Ecuacion de Dirac 11
Capıtulo 2. Ecuacion relativista de onda: Las representaciones del tipo (j, 0) + (0, j) 17
Postulados de Wigner: Una ecuacion de onda para spin j 17
2.2 Spin j = 1/2: Ecuacion de Dirac 20
2.2.1 Soluciones a la ecuacion de Dirac 23
2.2.2 Espinores propios del operador de helicidad 27
2.3 Spin j = 1: Ecuaciones de Maxwell-Weinberg 28
2.3.1 Soluciones a la ecuacion de Maxwell-Weinberg 32
2.3.2 Espinores propios del operador de helicidad 35
2.3.3 Lımite sin masa 36
Capıtulo 3. Generalizaciones y simetrıas 41 Generalizaciones a la relacion de Ryder-Burgard para spin j = 1/2 41
3.2 Generalizaciones de la relacion de Ryder-Burgard para spin j = 1 46
3.3 Bispinores de Majorana 48
3.3.1 Bispinores para spin j = 1/2 48
3.3.2 Bispinores para spin j = 1 52
3.4 Ecuaciones en base de las relaciones entre bispinores de helicidad opuesta 56
3.5 Paridad 62
Apendice. Traduccion al espanol del artıculo ”Teoria simmetrica dell’elettrone
e del positrone”de E. Majorana, Nuovo Cimento 14 (1937) 171-184. 65
• Bibliografıa 80

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[56] **viXra:1308.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-12 09:57:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[55] **viXra:1308.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-12 04:14:31*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 5 Pages. NA

In this work, a proposal for quantum gravity has been introduced

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[54] **viXra:1308.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-11 16:47:11*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

26-dimensional Bosonic String Theory with Strings as Particle World-Lines contains a massless spin two state that can be interpreted (unconventionally) as the carrier of the Bohm Force of the Bohm-Sarfatti Quantum Potential. Quantum Consciousness can be based on Resonant Connections among Quantum State Forms in a Conscious Brain as determined by configurations of subsets of its 10^18 Tubulin Dimers.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[53] **viXra:1308.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-02 18:00:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A basic summary as part of future research I am planning to do on this: The Ives-Stilwell experiment was a test of the contribution of relativistic time dilation in the Doppler Shift of Light. However, he uses relativistic measurements to try to test Einstein’s theory and prediction of the Doppler shift rather than classical measurements (aka pre-relativistic physics measurements) making a theory that seems like correct actually incorrect. Now I must explain my hypothesis in this as well as what the Ives-Stilwell experiment is and how it can be looked at as a contribution in physics if tested correctly but a flaw when it has been tested indirectly in terms of testing, and experimenting with the so called theories in physics today. I will explain to you how this can change the world of physics if my hypothesis was to be correct.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[52] **viXra:1308.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-11 10:33:40*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 82 Pages.

The final element of the Qi Men Dun Jia Model is the Boerdijk-Coxeter Helix, or the Tetrahelix of R. Buckminster Fuller, since this brings matter up to the level of DNA strings or lattices. Composed of Sextonions,Octonions, Twisted Octonions and Sedenions, the author examines the Boerdijk-Coxeter Helix from various perspectives to illustrate how BC – Helices play an important role in the formation of matter. The paper closely examines the eccentricities of the BC – Helix to determine whether these relate to diminished Octionic and Sedenion function, associativity and divisibility.

**Category:** Topology

[51] **viXra:1308.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-11 10:36:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1308.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-12 11:35:08*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We demonstrate how fermion rest masses may be understood on a strictly geometric footing, by showing how the Dirac equation is just a special case of the Einstein equation for gravitation in curved spacetime, in view of Weyl’s theory of gauge (phase) invariance.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[49] **viXra:1308.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-18 20:13:17*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 18 Pages. submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford algebras

An $extended$ Orthogonal-Symplectic Clifford Algebraic formalism is developed which allows the novel construction of a graded Clifford gauge field theory of gravity. It has a direct relationship to higher spin gauge fields, bimetric gravity, antisymmetric metrics and biconnections. In one particular case it allows a plausible mechanism to cancel the cosmological constant contribution to the action. The possibility of embedding these Orthogonal-Symplectic Clifford algebras into an infinite dimensional algebra, coined $Super$-Clifford Algebra is described. Finally, some physical applications of the geometry of $Super$-Clifford spaces to Generalized Supergeometries, Double Field Theories, $ U$-duality, $11D$ supergravity, $M$-theory, and $ E_7, E_8, E_{11}$ algebras are outlined.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[48] **viXra:1308.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-11 08:16:10*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Dirac spinor and its transformation properti
es form an important part in the foundation of
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and of course of pa
rticle physics. The Dirac spinor is neither a
scalar nor a four vector. It has an identity of its own ---- it is a spinor. The article clearly brings out the fact that the spinor components transform individually on the passage from one reference frame to another though the spinor transformation matrix seems to produce the impression that each component in the transformed frame is created by the interaction of the four spinor components in the original frame. Such issues have been handled in this article.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[47] **viXra:1308.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-16 15:20:29*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski, Follansbee Rogers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As it is commonly known, the frequently observed star XO-3b, demonstrates an eccentric, yet to be explained, orbit. The following is an attempt to clarify the possible roots of this phenomenon from an entirely new perspective: Stellar metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[46] **viXra:1308.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-06 02:23:31*

**Authors:** Zhen Liu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Using the method for equation reconstruction of prime sequence, this paper gives the proof that there are infinitely many primes of the form αβn+χ ,αnβ+χ and αβ1nmβ2+χ.

**Category:** Number Theory

[45] **viXra:1308.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-10 18:18:41*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Correlations of temperature fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background are linked to the effective number of neutrino flavors present in the era of recombination (Neff). The Standard Model of particle physics (SM) constrains Neff to be precisely three and all results to-date are indeed compatible with this number. However, current cosmological data consistently hint that Neff is somewhat larger than three. These findings may be the first tentative evidence for exotic matter that contains non-integer number of quanta per state, as first postulated by the author in 2006.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[44] **viXra:1308.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-10 11:28:38*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 3 references

Another assumption needs to be made to save astrophysics from stellar fusion mind virus. It is hypothesized that stars are ball lightning on large scales. Stars are electrical phenomenon that are electromagnetic in nature and do not resemble or represent in any way the wrong mind virus mathematical models of the 18th-20th centuries.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[43] **viXra:1308.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-09 16:23:03*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt, Reza Katebi

**Comments:** 13 pages, 4 figures, accepted in the Hadronic Journal

In this preliminary paper, we apply the Riemannian dual (fractional quantum Hall superfluidic) space-time topology and the six-coloring Gribov vacuum to protium and antiprotium. The results suggest that it may be possible to generalize this framework to all atomic elements. Therefore, this subject warrants further scrutiny, collaboration, refinement, and investigation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[42] **viXra:1308.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-11 17:31:47*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt, Reza Katebi

**Comments:** 34 pages, 7 figures, accepted in the Hadronic Journal

In a preliminary assessment, we begin to apply Santilli's iso-mathematics to triplex numbers, Euclidean triplex space, triplex fractals, and Inopin's 2-sphere holographic ring (HR) topology. In doing so, we successfully identify and define iso-triplex numbers for iso-fractal geometry in a Euclidean iso-triplex space that is iso-metrically equipped with an iso-2-sphere HR topology. As a result, we state a series of lemmas that aim to characterize these emerging iso-mathematical structures. These initial outcomes indicate that it may be feasible to engage this encoding framework to systematically attack a broad range of problems in the disciplines of science and mathematics, but a thorough, rigorous, and collaborative investigation should be in order to challenge, refine, upgrade, and implement these ideas.

**Category:** Topology

[41] **viXra:1308.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-09 16:34:59*

**Authors:** Christian Corda, Seyed H. Hendi, Reza Katebi, Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 12 pages, published in the Journal of High Energy Physics (June 2013)

The non-strictly continuous character of the Hawking radiation spectrum generates a natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and black hole (BH) quasi-normal modes (QNM). In this work, we generalize recent results on this important issue to the framework of Kerr BHs (KBH). We show that for the KBH, QNMs can be naturally interpreted in terms of quantum levels. Thus, the emission or absorption of a particle is in turn interpreted in terms of a transition between two different levels. At the end of the paper, we also generalize some concepts concerning the "effective state" of a KBH.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[40] **viXra:1308.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-10 05:40:21*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article seeks to investigate certain
astonishing issues in relation to General
Relativity
(1)The gravitational effects of electric charges(2)Issue of the OPERA neutrinos in a relativity consistent manner as far as possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1308.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-09 13:55:54*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

This is the second partial draft of a paper under development to further elaborate the author’s thesis presented in several earlier-published papers, that baryons including protons and neutrons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles. This paper fully develops the non-linear aspects of Yang-Mills gauge theory and applies these to the inverses used to populate the Yang-Mills magnetic monopolies with quarks and turn them into baryons and give rise to QCD. We also show how the perturbations in these inverses, which arise from the non-linear theory, are responsible for the short-range of the nuclear interaction, notwithstanding the zero-mass gluon gauge fields. This solves the mass gap problem and demonstrates how strong interactions may have a short range notwithstanding their massless gluon gauge fields. Additionally, sections 7 and 8 develop a classical field equation which fully unifies gauge theory with gravitational theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[38] **viXra:1308.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-09 09:27:44*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 3 references

It has been assumed for some time that Earth was the center of the universe and that its study was completely independent of the stars. This faulty assumption has lead scientists to continually draw up confusing theories of stellar evolution that do not make any sense. As well their definitions are counter to consistency itself, thus are unscientific. We will see that the problems with astrophysics are rooted in language itself.

**Category:** Linguistics

[37] **viXra:1308.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-09 11:18:43*

**Authors:** Stan Bumble

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The paper vixra:1305.0128 is continued to consider a toy model of a neural network. The Ability Potential of this network to reach levels of consciousness is defined and produced for different levels of connectedness and interaction energy of the "neurons". The approach is used to approximate and anticipate some of the results that may occur in the much more complex human connectome project.

**Category:** Mind Science

[36] **viXra:1308.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-08 21:01:21*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We use the contradiction method for prove that the Catalan’s constant is irrational.

**Category:** Number Theory

[35] **viXra:1308.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-07 15:06:10*

**Authors:** Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

More of my hypothesis coming true and predictions. This is a continued paper. More of my hypothesis have been confirmed and proven true. Plz, read the article.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[34] **viXra:1308.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-08 09:28:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[33] **viXra:1308.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-08 08:44:28*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The paper aims at focusing a greater attention on the errors that might arise due to the commonly practiced Euclidean interpretation of Curved Space time. It also brings out the fact that classical black holes may have world lines coming out of them. The expansion of surface area in response to infalling mass indicates towards the potential of a classical black-hole in developing outwardly directed world-lines. They are not serious “graveyards” as traditional belief deems them to be. There is also a mathematical consideration of the issue of transformations between manifolds of distinct nature.This can lead to establishing the covariance of the physical laws wrt distinct manifolds.Some interesting techniques inrelation to solving Partial Differential equations have been indicated at.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1308.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-07 10:51:17*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 pictures, 4 references

It is explained in this paper why the corona of the Sun is hotter than the photosphere. This is known as the corona heating problem and it has been solved for some time, but ignored because the establishment believes the Sun is a fusion reactor. Pictures are provided to expose the reality that the Sun and all young stars are ball lightning regardless of the establishment calling the author a “crank” engaging in “pseudoscience”.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[31] **viXra:1308.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-06 19:55:15*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 73 Pages.

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces
equipped with some different structures, for an integer n≧2.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[30] **viXra:1308.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-07 05:52:32*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is shown that neutral currents map 1-1 to charged currents and that charge conservation implies mass conservation.
This has consequences for quantum theory, quantum field theory, and cosmology, which are explored.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1308.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-06 07:04:55*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 20 Pages. A copy has been send to the Clay Mathematics Institute.

The Double Torus Hypothesis is a newly proposed cosmological model. It reaches further than quantum-dynamics. It are ‘sub-quantum dynamics’ in the Double Torus, which show how new insights lead to the solution of the Riemann hypothesis. The secret is the existence of the continuous recalculation by two additional time-clocks from below the Planck-scale. Several of my papers describe this additional time in a new dark energy-force formula. This formula shows that a quantum-Newton-force and a sub-quantum dark matter-space-force perform extreme small accelerations that function as the exponent of the number ‘e’, where it enables sub-quantum-vacuum to expand or contract. The clue to the solution of the Riemann hypothesis is, that these physics sub-quantum-accelerations connect with ’π’ for surfaces below the elementary quantum-surface. I show how the famous Euler-formula e^iπ +1=0 is related to that process and I also show this Euler-formula can be related to the Riemann hypothesis by expressing the prime-numbers in the inverse Riemann hypothesis. I relate that configuration to the divided structure of an elementary quantum-surface. This leads to a configuration that solves the Riemann hypothesis. So, now is the moment to announce how I did that. I realize this might be experienced as shocking, because I am an outsider: I’m an independent cosmologist. Hopefully my solution awards me with the 1 million USD-price by the Clay Mathematics Institute (this dated pdf-file has been send to the Clay Mathematics Institute).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[28] **viXra:1308.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-06 07:43:21*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both
Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the
known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor
is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a
classical point of view the negative energy is forbidden the
Quantum Field Theory allows the existence of very small amounts of
it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre
himself.The major drawback concerning negative energies for the
warp drive is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain
the warp bubble.Ford and Pfenning computed the amount of negative
energy needed to maintain an Alcubierre warp drive and they
arrived at the result of $10$ times the mass of the entire
Universe for a stable warp drive configuration rendering the warp
drive impossible.We introduce here $3$ new shape functions that
defines the Natario warp drive spacetime and we choose one of
these functions as an excellent candidate to low the negative
energy density requirements to affordable levels.We demonstrate in
this work that both Alcubierre and Natario warp drives have two
warped regions and not only one.One of these warped regions is
associated with geometry and the other is associated with negative
energy requirements.We also discuss Horizons and Doppler
Blueshifts that affects the Alcubierre spacetime but not the
Natario counterpart.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1308.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-05 18:39:33*

**Authors:** Dmitri Abramov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article will define the range in which there is at least one pair of odd primes that when added produce specific even number. It will prove that every even number in that range can be written as a sum of at least one pair of odd primes. Additionally, this paper will prove trivial soft versions of Goldbach's conjecture that follow from the hard version.

**Category:** Number Theory

[26] **viXra:1308.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-05 20:03:33*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The aim of this presentation is to connect Extenicswith new fields of research, i.e. fuzzy logic and neutrosophiclogic.
We show herein:
-How Extenicsis connected to the 3-Valued NeutrosophicLogic;
-How Extenicsis connected to the 4-Valued NeutrosophicLogic;
-How Extenicsis connected to the n-Valued NeutrosophicLogic;
when contradiction occurs.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[25] **viXra:1308.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-05 21:42:13*

**Authors:** Mohammed Kasim, Fumao Zhang, Qiang Wang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Suppose $G$ is a simple graph. The eigenvalues $\delta_1,
\delta_2,\ldots, \delta_n$ of $G$ are the eigenvalues of its
adjacency matrix $A$. The Estrada index of the graph $G$ is defined
as $EE = EE(G) = \Sigma_{i=1}^{n} e^{\delta_i}$. In this paper the
basic properties of $EE$ are investigated. Moreover, some lower and
upper bounds for the Estrada index in terms of the number of
vertices, edges and the Randic index are obtained. In addition, some
relations between $EE$ and graph energy $E(G)$ are presented.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[24] **viXra:1308.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-06 02:24:31*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Being a nonconformist has a good side and a bad side. It's good because it allows your mind to explore ideas that traditional scientists would call crazy (they could learn something – to appreciate craziness - from the great Danish physicist Niels Bohr, who once remarked “Your theory is crazy, but it is not crazy enough to be true"). Nonconformity is bad in the sense that modern science journals never take you seriously and the worldwide science community may never be given a chance to consider or test those crazy ideas. So you end up turning your viXra page into a kind of blog where you can express your ideas (for a limited duration). The latest blog entry is -
Can physics explain why space-time is warped - and can physics and biology be united in a way that explains why DNA is a double helix?
Keywords include – Albert Einstein, high-frequency gravitational waves, particles and their masses and forces, string theory, binary-digit currents, Mobius loops, Klein bottles, Bose-Einstein condensates, big-bang subuniverses in a steady-state universe, DNA’s double helix, light’s deflection and reflection, 1.75 arcseconds has 2 faces, interacting gravitons and photons, cosmic rays and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, space-time’s coherence/stretching paradox, e infinity quantum-entangles them and deletes paradox, embracing the stars and galaxies of then and now and later

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1308.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-06 08:17:21*

**Authors:** Emanuel Gluskin

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This manuscript expresses a concern regarding the impossibility for simple people of reducing the intellectual overstress imposed on them by the modern society.

Objective: To analyze the causes for the "days of violence" in the borders of the hypothesis that the cruelty of masses can appear as necessity in simplification of a complicated psychological situation caused by improper informational feeding. On the biological side, this is a problem of unbalanced asymmetric development of the brain hemispheres, that is, cruelty prevents further development of the right hemisphere responsible for our creativity, while the associated hooligan physical actions develop the left hemisphere responsible for our movements, which together improves the balance. Method: "System" argumentation extending the analysis from a recent conference presentation regarding the role of complexity of our mind, attention to the opinions of ancient philosophers, and careful consideration of the relevant (needed) terminology. Results: The hypothesis put forward explains the "necessity" in violence, and it is found that some biological investigations support a connection between aggressive behavior with asymmetry in the brain activity. It is noted, additionally, that since committing suicide is violence against oneself, the suggested improvement of the delivery of information also can help re this problem. Some recommendation for correct measures are formulated. Conclusions: The means of public information have to choose well and work out the information to be delivered so that simple people will not be hurt or psychologically damaged. The hooliganism of the "days of violence" is distinct from the well-known "soccer/football hooliganism", and the given argument must be considered in courts. Though well-contributing to social welfare, democracy develops a conflict with intellect, because the public means of information (radio, TV, Internet) ignore the psychological problem that the simple people (i.e. those who want to live with a clear mind and be thus respected) have. However paradoxically it is, -- the effective ("powerful") use of democratic freedoms by the means of information, causes intellect to become a kind of dictator, disliked or even hated by many. This can gradually cause a conflict between simple people and intellectuals, at the world scale.

**Category:** Mind Science

[22] **viXra:1308.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-06 06:09:24*

**Authors:** Nikolay Leonov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The quantum interpretation of energy output reactions in a “hydrogen” bomb is wrong. Using tokomaks in
engineering of controlled light nuclear power reactors is unpromising. (Квантовое понимание реакций выделения энергии в «водородной» бомбе ошибочно.
Высокотемпературный разогрев ядерного вещества необходим только для получения взрывного
выделения энергии. Использование токамаков для построения управляемых энергетических реакторов на
легких ядрах бесперспективно.)

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[21] **viXra:1308.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-20 09:07:16*

**Authors:** Alexander Fedorov

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

One of causes why Twin Primes problem was
unsolved over a long period is that
pairs of Twin Primes (PTP) are considered separately
from other pairs of Twin Numbers (PTN).
By purpose of this work is research of connections
between different types of PTN. For realization of this
purpose by author was developed the "Arithmetic of
pairs of Twin Numbers" (APTN).
In APTN are defined three types PTN.
As shown in APTN all types PTN are connected with
each other by relations which represent distribution of
prime and composite positive integers less than n
between them.
On the basis of this relations (axioms APTN) are
deduced formulas for computation of the number of PTN
(NPTN) for each types.
In APTN also is defined and computed Average value
of the number of pairs are formed from odd prime
and composite positive integers $ < n $ . Separately
AVNPP for prime and AVNPC for composite positive integers.
We also deduced formulas for computation of deviation
NPTN from AVNPP and AVNPC.
It was shown that if $n$ go to infinity then NPTN go to AVNPC or AVNPP
respectively that permit to apply formulas for AVNPP and AVNPC
to computation of NPTN.
At the end is produced the proof of the Twin Primes
problem with help of APTN.
It is shown that if n go to infinity then NPTP go to infinity.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20] **viXra:1308.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-05 14:09:23*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 04 pages and 02 figures

We used the micro canonical ensemble in order to evaluate the entropy of a gas of strings confined by its Schwarzschild radius. The results are compared with the entropy of the gravitational field calculated by Rothman and Anninos and with the well-known Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a black hole.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:1308.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-11 14:03:14*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This idea is so revolutionary that it can change the way we view physics forever. Einstein’s theory is based on the idea that space is curved, when it obviously isn’t. Other scientist earlier in history including: Albert A. Michelson, Robert A. Millikan, Louis Essen, Ernest Rutherford, Herbert Ives, Ernst Mach, Nikola Tesla all have said Einstein’s theory is incorrect. For example, in the Ives-Stilwell experiment, Ives used a particle accelerator to test his theory, but with no classical measurements. He used relativistic measurements instead which made an incorrect theory look correct. This idea made by Andrew Nassif will help us understand Theoretical Physics and Quantum Physics more.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1308.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-05 11:52:08*

**Authors:** Panagiotis Papaspirou, Xenophon Moussas

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We investigate the close relationships between the astronomical and scientific work of the famous great astronomer Johannes Kepler and the major scientific in general, and astronomical in particular, achievements that took place within the Hellenistic period and the Alexandrian epoch that followed immediately, that is from the Battle of Actium until the death of the scholar and polymath Hypatia. We propose that the Hellenistic Philosophy and Science, as being developed by Giants of Mind, such as Hipparhus of Rhodes, Archimedes of Syracuse, Aristarchus of Samos, Apollonius of Perga, Menelaus of Alexandria, Euclid of Alexandria, Ptolemy of Alexandria, and by philosophers such as Plotinus and Proclus, as well as all the other Neoplatonic philosophers of this era, instills and permeates Kepler’s philosophical view of Cosmos, and at the same time sets the guidelines and paves the way of his lifelong scientific endeavor upon discovering and determining the true laws of planetary motion within a Heliocentric Universe.
Johannes’ Kepler work is deeply rooted within these epochs, his philosophical views, his religious beliefs, his physical and astronomical insights about the Universe, all of them can be traced already in the Hellenistic and Alexandrian science. Although the time interval between his era and the great achievements of the Hellenistic and Alexandrian scientists, mathematicians and philosophers spans many centuries, measured according to the flow of historical time, in reality the spirit of these eras irrigated continuously all of the great civilizations which inherited the Hellenistic tradition, that is the Byzantine, the Arabic and Islamic, and the European civilization, giving birth to the Renaissance of the 12th century and to the Renaissance of the 14th century. Kepler, by following his own scientific routes of inquiring, has to be confronted with this tradition, either by accepting some parts of it, or by rejecting specific dogmas and conceptions about the nature and the structure of Cosmos entailed in this tradition, in order to proceed to the theoretical astronomic endeavor of a logically comprehensible, and beautifully ordered Universe, which is subject to unifying physical principles of symmetry, harmony, proportion and analogy, as well as physical laws. Kepler makes the decisive step towards the New Physical Philosophy, and towards the Mechanization of the World Picture, while always remaining deeply influenced by the Hellenistic and Alexandrian spirit that continued to be influential up to Kepler’s era.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[17] **viXra:1308.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-09 14:14:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1308.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-05 04:25:21*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Changed to a word document and made far more concise . the other version rambled

Addition of a driving term to a strain equation ( with a first order derivative added for damping) leads to h(particular) ~ 10^ - 25 strain, due to a particular solution to the strain equation, whereas the usual homogeneous solution has h (homogeneous)~ 10 ^ - 36. The particular solution is due to a constant contribution due to the quark gluon plasma , whereas the homogeneous solution is undetectable, and too small. This also allows for heavy gravity formation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1308.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-21 12:43:02*

**Authors:** Abdullah AlShimemeri, Itani M, Alghadeer H, Al-Jahdali H, Al-Moamary M, A. AlDuhaim, A. Mobeireek, Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is known that patients with pulmonary hypertension show an augmented ventilatory response to exercise defined as the slope of minute ventilation over carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2). We suggested that the degree of ventilatory augmentation may be used to differentiate between patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), Eisenmenger (E.) and chronic thromboembolic (CH.TH.EM.) disease.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[14] **viXra:1308.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-04 10:05:46*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

The G2 Root system is the only root system in which the angle of pi / 6
appears between two roots. This is made necessary in nature by the
demand for circular objects which can be divided by six or twelve,
according to Vedic literature concerning the 28 Nakshastra or
astrological houses. In addition, G2 provides the key linkage between
the Sedenions, which curiously contain properties related to the
number 29 and the Octonions. G2 is key to the transformation from
Binary to Trinary,Fano Plane to Tetrahedron and the Sedenions, mixing
the 8 x 8 to 9 x 9 aspects of matter, or the Satwa and Raja aspects.
Finally, from the Sedenions this paper develops toward the Hopf
Fibration and the Boerdijk-Coxeter Helix, which is composed of
Sedenions in the form of tetrahedra. Along the way we travel all the
way back to the Osiris Temple of Abydos, Egypt, where G2 appears.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[13] **viXra:1308.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-03 18:40:35*

**Authors:** Quentin Hampus Dawkings

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We derive a formula for triple integrating trilinear forms.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[12] **viXra:1308.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-03 15:26:54*

**Authors:** F. Smarandache

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Being paradoxist in nature, Florentin’s
Laws are especially deviations, modifications,
generalizations, contra-sayings, parodies, or
mixtures of the previous Murphy-Peter laws.
And also of aphorisms, proverbs, known
citations, clichés, scientific results (from
physics, mathematics, philosophy, ...), etc.
Alternatively, collations of opposite ideas
gathered from folklore, from ads, from
literature, from familiar speech.

**Category:** Linguistics

[11] **viXra:1308.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-03 11:51:04*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

In Vedic Nuclear Physics, the number 28 plays a key role, and this will be discussed in a future paper. The 28 aspects must be extruded or dispersed along structures which contain factors of 12 or 6. The Poincare Dodecahedral Space contains these factors and relates to the 120-element binary icosahedral group, which double covers the simple 60-element icosahedral group. This, in turn, enjoys isometric relationships to the 60 Jia Zi and the 60 Na Yin of Chinese metaphysics, function to add Five Element and temporal qualities to matter as it becomes visible, in the Qi Men Dun Jia Model.

**Category:** Topology

[10] **viXra:1308.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-03 06:23:01*

**Authors:** philip. Maulion

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Submission in English and in French

The light and the matter are: "Both faces of the same reality". So, if dark matter consists of elementary components, the other face of the same reality would be dark radiation with its specifics parameters. In that case, trying to identify dark matter particule(s)with reference to E = mc² is not appropriate.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1308.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-02 21:58:28*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The currently accepted, QM, spdf electron model is a rigidly forced mathematical one. The MCAS model is dynamic and does not require that macro-physics ceases as atomic dimensions are approached. Conceived as a Newtonian model, it can also be considered simply as an orbital model that can be teated with mathematics. This essay provides a side-by-side comparison of these two models of atoms. The orbital image renditions have been generated with 3D software. One should ponder about the logic behind the accepted spdf model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1308.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-03 09:40:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1308.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-09 17:50:24*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Comments appreciated genebarbee@msn.coom

Fusion determines the abundance of elements measured throughout space. It powers the sun and underlies the aging cycle of the stars. The author developed an atomic binding energy model [2] and this paper extends the model to the abundance of the elements. The model is largely independent of measured parameters and based on probabilities.
The early universe consists of plasma until the temperature drops enough to allow electrons to form orbits around protons. Later, acoustic and gravitational forces become dominant and accumulation of mass into clusters, galaxies and clusters begins. The concentration process allows stars to “light up” with fusion when they become dense and hot. This is known in the literature as re-ionization. Early stars burn hydrogen and follow a well-documented aging cycle that depends on the kinetics of progressive fusion reactions. Literature contains the measured abundance of the heavy elements [8][7][11] produced by these reactions.
Review

**Category:** Astrophysics

[6] **viXra:1308.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-02 06:24:16*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 3 references

Since the establishment does not understand that star evolution is planet formation itself, it is required to teach the reader about the intermediate stages and give a list of the objects that are in these stages. Grey dwarf stars are covered here.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[5] **viXra:1308.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-01 17:50:20*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Starting from the observation that the number 13^2 + 81*13 + 3*13*41 is a Poulet number (2821), and the number 41^2 + 81*41 + 3*13*41 is a Poulet number too (6601), and following my interest for the number 30, I found a formula that generates such pairs of Poulet numbers like (2821,6601).

**Category:** Number Theory

[4] **viXra:1308.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-03 10:13:16*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

Carte de aforisme si imagini colore, cu acompaniament musical.

**Category:** Linguistics

[3] **viXra:1308.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-01 10:34:34*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The quark make-up of protons and neutrons is discussed. Neutrons that give protons and electrons must be composed of “Combo Up or Down” quarks. The neutral baryons of stable nuclei do not contain “Combo quarks”. An alpha particle containing a “Combo quark” is not the same as an electron-stripped He-4 atom which contains none. Since the mass of Up and Down quarks constitute less than 1% of the total mass of baryons, the remainder mass of these must be non-particulate mass, herein called “fat”. Dumbbell models of the stable positive and neutral baryons are presented. Using these baryonic dumbbells, the extraordinary ability of the Boron-10 nucleus to capture neutrons is modeled.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[2] **viXra:1308.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-01 10:45:09*

**Authors:** V.A. Etkin

**Comments:** 9 Pages. In Russian

В статье рассматриваются противоречия ряда теорий с экспериментом,обнаружившиеся при их рассмотрении с позиций энергодинамики как
безгипотезной теории процессов переноса и преобразования энергии.Предлагаются пути их устранения.
In article contradictions of some theories with experiment are considered from positions of energodynamics as postulateless theories of energy transfer and transformation processes. Ways of their elimination are offered.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1308.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-20 04:52:22*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There are two supposed equivalent versions of the quantum mechanics: the matrix mechanics and the wave mechanics. We think that only the first is true.

**Category:** Quantum Physics