[321] **viXra:1405.0362 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 08:43:41*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

showing the relationship between Neutrinos and Gamma-ray

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[320] **viXra:1405.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-31 04:45:11*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 24 Pages; 29 Figures; 10Tables

Some cosmological branches of physics have postulated that information can be stored in 5 dimensions. It has also been well established in quantum physics that observations can affect experimental results. There have been several published papers where an inexplicable intuitive, noetic, or dowsing response has been obtained when the mind’s intent is relating to the fifth dimension. To research the possible connection between these 3 concepts, this paper undertakes relevant quantitative scientific experiments in order to interpret this 5-dimensional response which is found in numerous diverse situations such as multi-body interactions, auras, the Kabbalah tree of life, peace grids, psi-lines, spirals in general, and a half sine wave. On analysis of these situations, a 5-dimensional response only seems to occur with two perceived geometries - lines and spirals. This paper explores these situations, and comes to the conclusion that as the mind is detecting universal laws of physics together with universal constants and bifurcations this five-dimensional phenomenon is not just a figment of the imagination but requires further scientific investigation.
Key Words
Mind, noetics, dowsing abstract geometry, 5th dimension, vortices, bifurcations, subtle energies, psi-lines

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[319] **viXra:1405.0360 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-16 10:51:17*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Presentation based on Chapter 2.4 of the book 'A Unified Complexity Theory'. ISBN: 978-1499335859. 274 pages

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[318] **viXra:1405.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-30 14:20:58*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Not only spectral lines in the optical range, even radio signals with significantly lower frequencies are red shifted when they the corona close to the sun. A possible explanation is the energy loss of electromagnetic waves, when the electric component accelerates unbound electrons in the thin plasma surrounding the sun. A reexamination of the radio signals that were recorded, when Pioneer 6 was occulted by the sun, corroborates the predicted redshift of electromagnetic waves. This allows to determine the number of free electrons in the neighborhood of the sun.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[317] **viXra:1405.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-30 11:36:00*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

A parallel construction exists in Vedic Nuclear Physics which appears to be the Exceptional Lie Algebra E8 and the Hopf Fibration. This paper describes the key sphere H7 in Vedic Physics and then attempts to draw isomorphic relationships between the structures. In this way, this paper attempts to explain the relationship between E8 and the Hopf Fibration, which is not well understood generally, in the hope that Vedic Nuclear Physics may provide a heuristic model. Hypothesis about Exceptional Lie Algebras and related Hopf Fibrations, gives numerical values for Exceptional Lie Algebras and spheres.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[316] **viXra:1405.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-29 12:55:30*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 43 Pages. Reviews of Modern Physics Submitted 29May2014

In this article are the 5 tables for calculating the average translational velocities of all milisecond pulsars and others fast spinning bodies and shift the center of gravity due to the rotation. Corrections theory ideal spining circle for real bodies. Extreme values for neutron stars. Summary values for neutron stars. A new perspective on neutronization and nuclear fusion. Consent theory with the real Universe. From well-functioning theory for milisecond pulsars are derived estimates for raelisation new mode of transport on the principle rotation.
Keywords: stars: kinematics, pulsars: general, stellar dynamics, , stars: neutron,
PACS number: 97.60.Gb, 97.60.Jd,

**Category:** Astrophysics

[315] **viXra:1405.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-29 13:41:18*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

I correct hundred years old theory of charge distribution within an electrolytic solution surrounded by charged walls. Existing theory always implies excess amount of counter-ions (having polarity unlike walls) everywhere in the solution domain; so it cannot handle a solution that possesses excess ions of other type (co-ions) or is electrically neutral as a whole. Here, in the corrected distribution, counter-ions dominate near the walls, while the rest of the domain is allowed to be dominated by co-ions; the algebraic sum gives the net charge present, which can be of any sign and magnitude that makes theory quite general. This clarifies and raises many important concepts: a novel concept of `Electric Triple Layer' (ETL) replaces `Electric Double Layer' (EDL) theory; widths of electric layers can be calculated accurately instead of estimating by Debye length scale etc.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[314] **viXra:1405.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-06 08:25:56*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Information hiding is not programming hiding. It is the hiding of changeable information into programming modules.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[313] **viXra:1405.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 18:10:17*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The present paper utilized a Complete Relativity Theory (CR), in which the common assumption of speed of light invariance is relaxed. Under the simplifying assumption of linear motion, I derive a new relativistic expression for Newton's Second Law, according to which the acceleration a produced by a force F is an increasing function of the velocity β, satisfying a(β)≥ aN and a(0)= aN, where aN is the classical Newtonian acceleration. This result may account for the observed increase of acceleration at large distances, without altering Newton's second law, except for the modification implied by relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[312] **viXra:1405.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 14:44:28*

**Authors:** Raffaele Cogoni

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The Sieve of Eratosthenes a simplified method to find the prime numbers, useful for middle school students and supperiori

Abstract
It is a procedure to find the prime numbers, in practice it is a simplification
the sieve of Eratosthenes

**Category:** Number Theory

[311] **viXra:1405.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 10:38:38*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is shown that nucleons in nuclei of elements are linked NOT by nuclear forces, but by the overall flow of electromagnetic energy circulating in the volume of the nucleus. This assumption allows us to explain some properties of the intranuclear interactions and some well-known observations.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[310] **viXra:1405.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 10:57:06*

**Authors:** philip. Maulion

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

David Mermin, sans le dire met en évidence une faille importante chez Einstein à propos du 'maintenant'. Depuis 2006, je propose d'attribuer une essence, une épaisseur au 'maintenant' quantifiable de l'ordre de 10-25s ou moins encore. Pour le reste D. Mermin se trompe avec les QBists...

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[309] **viXra:1405.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 10:58:23*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Skeptics say Faster than light (FTL) space travel is the stuff of Science
Fiction, could take 1,000 years and require a Jupiter size mass-energy source
to operate superluminal warp drive spaceships. The author solves this
problem in a radical new approach called the “Holographic Wormhole Drive”
resulting in the possibility of warpdrive technologies in the near term. The
Alcubierre warp drive metric (considered most advanced ) derived from
Einstein’s General Relativity field equations by Miguel Alcubierre, in 1994
stretches space in a wave. Space ahead of a ship contracts & space behind
expands, inhabitants of the warp-bubble travel along what astrophysicists call
a ‘freefall’ geodesic, not moving locally inside the bubble at FTL velocities.
But this model requires a negative mass-energy the size of Jupiter to operate.
Amoroso uses a new spacetime transformation to cover the domain wall of
the warp bubble with an array of mini-wormholes allowing an incursive
oscillator to manipulate Alcubierre’s alpha and beta functions with minimal
external energy input, i.e. the inherent infinite energy of the spacetime
vacuum is used instead by a method of ‘ballistic’ spacetime programming. In
"The Immanent Implementation of FTL Warp-Drive Technologies", from his
book "Orbiting the Moons of Pluto, Amoroso solves major problems facing
the Alcubierre metric based on principles of Holographic Anthropic
Cosmology from another volume: "The Holographic Anthropic Multiverse".
His solution is a 'Holographic Figure-Ground Effect' where the 'local' free-fall
Warp Bubble separates from the holographic background by covering the
domain wall of the free-fall warp-bubble with a system of mini-wormholes by
'programming mirror symmetry parameters of the spacetime vacuum'.
Manipulating this figure-ground effect becomes the 'Warp speed factor'.
Utilizing a higher dimensional (HD) polarized Vacuum and associated
operationally completed forms of Quantum Field Theory the need for 'infinite
exotic energy' is ameliorated by cyclically 'borrowing' inherent vacuum
energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[308] **viXra:1405.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 07:33:33*

**Authors:** Jerrari Khalid

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

J'ai mené une réflexion qui vise à comprendre l’influence de l’espace sur les lois de la cosmologie. Selon mes travaux, l’espace est une substance qui serait à l’origine de la gravitation universelle, de la « matière noire » et de l’expansion de l’univers.
J’expose dans ce document une théorie qui unifie toutes ces lois à l’aide des propriétés spécifiques de l’espace. Tout d’abord, l’invariance de la vitesse de la lumière me conduit à introduire la notion d’espace propre qui traduit que tout corps matériel forme un couple « masse/volume d’espace ». De plus, selon ma théorie, la présence d’un corps dans l’espace engendre une action de l’espace qui se manifeste sous forme d’une tension spatiale.
Dans cette publication, j’exprime la gravitation universelle, l’expansion de l’univers et « la matière noire » sous forme d’une accélération universelle qui dérive de cette tension.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[307] **viXra:1405.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 08:39:27*

**Authors:** philip. Maulion

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Les QBist proposent de prendre en compte,la subjectivité, la 'présence', du sujet pensant pour expliquer les bizarreries de la mécanique quantique. C'est intéressant parce qu'ils lèvent un tabou. Mais leur hypothèse est superficielle parce qu'il faut prendre en compte la 'Présence' avec un p majuscule.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[306] **viXra:1405.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 08:44:46*

**Authors:** Gunn Quznetsov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I call any subjects, connected with an information the informational objects. It is clear that information received from such informational object can be expressed by a text which is made of sentences. I call a set of sentences expressing information about some informational object recorder of this object.
Some recorders systems form structures similar to clocks.
The following results are obtained from the logical properties of a set of recorders:
First, all such clocks have the same direction, i.e. if an event expressed by sentence A precedes an event expressed by sentence B according to one of such clocks then it is true according to the others.
Secondly, time is irreversible according to these clocks, i.e there's no recorder which can receive information about an event that has happened until this event really happens
Thirdly, a set of recorders is naturally embedded into metrical space.
Fourthly, if this metrical space is Euclidean, then the corresponding "space and time" of recorders obeys to transformations of the complete Poincare group. If this metric space is not Euclidean then suitable non-linear geometry may be built in this space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[305] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-20 12:41:37*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 260 Pages.

The Hilbert Book Model is based on a selected set of first principles and this foundation is extended by using trustworthy mathematical methods. The target of this project is a model that shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality.
With other words the model is completely deduced. In advance the model is not called a model of physics. After a set of extension steps the model reaches some interesting results. At that instance a discussion might be started whether the model can be used as a model of physics. However, it is impossible to prove that this model gives a correct view of physical reality. In fact the models of contemporary physics face the same restriction.
For this reason the project is formatted as a game. The participants of the game start with formulating well selected first principles and extend this foundation with trustworthy methods such that the target model shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality. In this way the Hilbert Book Model is just an instance of this game.
The reader is invited to join the game or investigate and criticize the HBM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[304] **viXra:1405.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 06:59:23*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan, A. T. Jaccaci

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Ours is an electromagnetic universe of free and bound forms of electromagnetic energy (matter and light - as we learn from annihilation reactions), and hence to the "Great Asymmetry" of stand-alone matter we may add the "Great Gauge" of the invariant electromagnetic constant "c", and the "Great Charge" of the invariant electric charge. In this regard, it should be noted that light itself (in the form of virtual photons) is the field vector or force carrier of electric charge. We therefore see light protecting its own symmetric energy state through electric charge and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions - especially including annihilations between virtual particle-antiparticle pairs.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[303] **viXra:1405.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 06:25:51*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP

A Clifford-Gravity based model is exploited to build a generalized action (beyond the current ones used in the literature) and arrive at relevant numerical results which are consistent with the presently-observed de Sitter accelerating expansion of the universe driven by a very small vacuum energy density $ \rho_{obs} \sim 10^{ -120} (M_P)^4 $ ($ M_P $ is the Planck mass) and provide promising dark energy/matter candidates in terms of the $16$ scalars corresponding to the degrees of freedom associated with a $ Cl(3,1)$-algebra valued scalar field $ {\bf \Phi} $ in four dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[302] **viXra:1405.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-23 06:58:00*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** Pages.

"This text is chapter 2.3 of the book 'A unified Theory of Complexity'. It briefly explains the four complexity measures proposed in the theory, and reviews different currently existing Complexity conceptualizations and measures. From the revision, we draw conclusions that support the proposed theory which conceptualizes Complexity from four perspectives: Organization, Emergence, Meaning and Logic. The text does not try to be 'exhaustive' but to concisely explain the reviewed issues, support the proposed perspective and set the basis for the mathematical formulation of Complexity that is developed later in the text [Chapter 3]"

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[301] **viXra:1405.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 05:50:51*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state two conjectures about the sum of a prime and a factorial.

**Category:** Number Theory

[300] **viXra:1405.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 15:31:17*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract.
The mathematical formalism of quantum resonance combined with tensor product decomposability of unitary evolutions is mapped onto a class of NP-complete combinatorial problems. It has been demonstrated that nature has polynomial resources for solving NP-complete problems and that may help to develop a new strategy for artificial intelligence, as well as to re-evaluate the role of natural selection in biological evolution.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[299] **viXra:1405.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 16:07:44*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Status: With editors in Physical Review Letters

Relationship Lorentz derived from the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge. To derive it we do not need Lorentz's transformations equations, that is we do not need SPACE-TIME.
We do not need local time, or covariant equations or physical simultaneity definition or invariant interval. In other words, in physics we do not need Einstein's theory of relativity. From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation, fictional by Maxwell and not to be derived.Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: in direction of motion as own kinetic energy of charge and against direction of motion of charge represents the wave energy, which creates charge in transmision medium.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[298] **viXra:1405.0333 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-28 12:46:23*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this short paper I show that using the famous " mass/energy " equation by Einstein to define " mass " makes it much easier to grasp the general applicability of the " matter density " equation used in the theory to define an " object ".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[297] **viXra:1405.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 18:23:15*

**Authors:** T. Marshall Eubanks

**Comments:** 1 Page. Poster Paper presented at the The Eighth Harvard-Smithsonian Conference on Theoretical Astrophysics

Nuggets of condensed strange quark matter are a viable theory for macroscopic Dark Matter (DM), consistent with astrophysical constraints despite their non-negligible cross sections, due to their very small cross section to mass ratios. This presentation describes the observable consequences of the nugget theory developed by Ariel Zhitnitsky and his collegues, which predicts a stable nugget mass (MQ) in the range 10^5 kg < MQ < 4 × 10^10 kg.
Unlike most experimental DM work, which can only set upper bounds to the DM density, in this case there is positive evidence for condensed Quark matter as the source of DM.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[296] **viXra:1405.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 18:52:58*

**Authors:** Cliff Ellgen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We use the assumptions of knot physics to prove that a collection of interacting neutrinos and antineutrinos maximize their quantum probability when all neutrinos are of the same helicity and all antineutrinos are of the opposite helicity. Knot physics demonstrates that the geometry of gravity spontaneously breaks symmetry. We show here that the geometry of gravity couples the neutrino linear momentum to its quantum phase. Likewise, the quantum phase of an interacting neutrino couples to its spin angular momentum. Therefore, the symmetry breaking of gravity couples the linear momentum of an interacting neutrino to its spin angular momentum, producing consistent helicity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[295] **viXra:1405.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-17 20:20:55*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 15 Pages. International Journal of Advanced Astronomy, 2 (1) (2014) 8-22, doi: 10.14419/ijaa.v2i1.2765

Throughout the cosmic evolution, currently believed cosmic ‘critical density’ can be shown to be a default result of the ‘positively curved’ light speed rotating black hole universe ‘volume density’. As there is no observational or experimental evidence to Friedmann’s second assumption, the density classification scheme of Friedmann cosmology must be reviewed at undamental level and possibly can be relinquished. The observed cosmic redshift can be reinterpreted as an index of ‘cosmological’ thermodynamic light emission mechanism.Clearly speaking during cosmic evolution, at any time in the past, in hydrogen atom- emitted photon energy was always inversely
proportional to the cosmic temperature. Thus past light emitted from older galaxy’s excited hydrogen atom will show redshift with reference
to the current laboratory data. Note that there will be no change in the energy of the emitted photon during its journey from the distant
galaxy to the observer. In no way ‘redshift’ seems to be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. By considering the ‘Stoney mass’ as the initial mass of the baby cosmic black hole, past and current physical and thermal parameters (like angular velocity, growth rate, age,redshift, thermal energy density and matter density) of the cosmic black hole can be understood. For a cosmic temperature of 3000 K,obtained redshift is 1100. From now onwards, CMBR temperature can be called as ‘Comic Black Hole’s Thermal Radiation’ temperature
and can be expressed as ‘CBHTR’ temperature. Current cosmic black hole is growing at a rate of 14.66 km/sec in a decelerating mode. Uncertainty relation and all other microscopic physical constants play a crucial role in understanding the halt of the present cosmic expansion.In view of the confirmed zero rate of change in inverse of the Fine structure ratio (from the ground based laboratory experimental results), zero rate of change in the current CMBR temperature (from satellite data) and zero rate of change in the current Hubble’s constant (from satellite data), it can be suggested that, current cosmic expansion is almost all saturated and at present there is no significant cosmic acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[294] **viXra:1405.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 11:39:17*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 6 color figures

Where physical theory normally seeks to describe an objective natural world, the modified cosmological model (MCM) seeks to describe an observer's interaction with that world. Qualitative similarities between the psychological observer, the MCM, and the Kerr-Newman black hole are presented. We describe some minimal modifications to previously proposed processes in the MCM. Inflation, large-scale CMB fluctuations and the free energy device are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[293] **viXra:1405.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 11:40:03*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 9 Pages. 4 formulas

This article is an attempt to make a philosophical foundation for my viXra articles, through the statements of other viXra authors from the section "History and Philosophy of Physics".

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[292] **viXra:1405.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-01 15:52:10*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Due to the superluminal quantum entanglement, emitted photons are entangled with their source or with a last-interaction object (it can be a detector). The superluminal quantum entanglement fixes the speed of photons ‘c’ in relation to source or a last-interaction object so it is not true that a photon has simultaneously the speed ‘c’ in relation to all frames of reference but it is true that all detectors (they are the last-interaction objects) always measure the speed ‘c’ - such is the correct interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Damping of protuberances of the dark matter and dark energy (so damping of radial speeds of protogalaxies carried by the protuberances as well) and the quantum entanglement cause that we can see galaxies with redshift higher than 1. Due to the protuberances of the dark matter and dark energy, there appeared the untypical radial speeds of groups of galaxies. Due to the dampened protuberances, we cannot define an exact value of the Hubble constant for observed redshift higher than about 0.6 (then, the Special-Relativity redshift is higher than 0.438). The initial period of evolution of galaxies cannot be seen. The quantum entanglement of photons with their sources causes that spatial distances can differ from time distances to galaxies - it is the duality of relativity. The duality of relativity shows that we can say about the observational, spatial and time Hubble constants because their origin is not the same. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that on the assumption that spacetime does not expand (according to SST, spacetime does not expand; there expand the dark matter and dark energy) the observational Hubble constant should be 70.52 whereas the real spatial and time Hubble constants are 45.24.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[291] **viXra:1405.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 03:15:07*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Paper 1 of 2 for conference ‘SPESIF-2009, Huntsville, AL, Von Braun Center, February 24-27, 2009, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum’, but rejected by organising committee for alleged “illegal use of tensors”.

The so-called ‘Schwarzschild solution’ is not Schwarzschild’s solution, but a corruption, due to David Hilbert (December 1916), of the Schwarzschild/Droste solution, wherein m is allegedly the mass of the source of an associated gravitational field and the quantity r is said to be able to go down to zero (although no proof of this claim has ever been advanced), so that there are two alleged ‘singularities’, one at r = 2m and another at r = 0. It is routinely claimed that r = 2m is a ‘coordinate’ or ‘removable’ singularity which denotes the so-called ‘Schwarzschild radius’ (event horizon) and that a ‘physical’ singularity is at r = 0. The quantity r in the so-called ‘Schwarzschild solution’ has never been rightly identified by the physicists, who, although proposing many and varied concepts for what r denotes, effectively treat it as a radial distance from a source of the gravitational field at the origin of coordinates. The consequence of this is that the intrinsic geometry of the metric manifold has been violated. It is easily proven that the said quantity r is in fact the inverse square root of the Gaussian curvature of a spherically symmetric geodesic surface in the spatial section of the ‘Schwarzschild solution’ and so does not in itself define any distance whatsoever in the that manifold. With the correct identification of the associated Gaussian curvature it is also easily proven that there is only one singularity associated with all Schwarzschild metrics, of which there is an infinite number that are equivalent. Thus, the standard removal of the singularity at r = 2m is, in a very real sense, removal of the wrong singularity, very simply demonstrated herein. In addition, the ‘field equations’ Rμν = 0 define a spacetime that contains no matter, and since the ‘Principle of Superposition’ does not apply in General Relativity, it is impossible for Schwarzschild black holes to persist and mutually interact in a mutual spacetime that by construction contains no matter. Consequently, there are no black holes associated with the equations Rμν = 0 and therefore no related gravitational waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[290] **viXra:1405.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 03:16:35*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Paper 2 of 2 for conference ‘SPESIF-2009, Huntsville, AL, Von Braun Center, February 24-27, 2009, Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum’, but rejected by organising committee for alleged “illegal use of tensors”.

According to Einstein his ‘Principle of Equivalence’ and his laws of Special Relativity must manifest in his gravitational field. It is shown herein that Ric = Rμν = 0 violates Einstein’s ‘Principle of Equivalence’. This has major implications for gravitational waves generally because it results in the total energy of Einstein’s gravitational field always being zero so that gravitational energy cannot be localised. Attempts to rectify this problem by means of Einstein’s pseudo-tensor fail because of mathematical non-existence. Linearisation of the field equations also fails because of mathematical non-existence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[289] **viXra:1405.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-26 14:33:21*

**Authors:** Jan Hakenberg

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The formula for the volume enclosed by subdivision surfaces has been identified only recently. We present example meshes with cycles of edges defined as sharp creases, and state the volume enclosed by their limit surface defined by Catmull-Clark, and Loop subdivision. The article can serve as a reference for future implementations of the volume formula.

**Category:** Geometry

[288] **viXra:1405.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-26 09:55:18*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 24 pages, 28 eqs, 15 refs; published Russian translation of arXiv:0706.3219; Journal-ref: Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies 11(4) (2013) 679-700

A major challenge of interdisciplinary description of complex system behaviour is whether real systems of higher complexity levels can be understood with at least the same degree of objective, "scientific" rigour and universality as "simple" systems of classical, Newtonian science paradigm. The problem is reduced to that of arbitrary, many-body interaction (unsolved in standard theory). Here we review its causally complete solution, the ensuing concept of complexity and applications. The discovered key properties of dynamic multivaluedness and entanglement give rise to a qualitatively new kind of mathematical structure providing the exact version of real system behaviour. The extended mathematics of complexity contains the truly universal definition of dynamic complexity, randomness (chaoticity), classification of all possible dynamic regimes, and the unifying principle of any system dynamics and evolution, the universal symmetry of complexity. Every real system has a non-zero (and actually high) value of unreduced dynamic complexity determining, in particular, "mysterious" behaviour of quantum systems and relativistic effects causally explained now as unified manifestations of complex interaction dynamics. The observed differences between various systems are due to different regimes and levels of their unreduced dynamic complexity. We outline applications of universal concept of dynamic complexity emphasizing cases of "truly complex" systems from higher complexity levels (ecological and living systems, brain operation, intelligence and consciousness, autonomic information and communication systems) and show that the urgently needed progress in social and intellectual structure of civilisation inevitably involves qualitative transition to unreduced complexity understanding (we call it "revolution of complexity").

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[287] **viXra:1405.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-26 09:56:23*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We prove an Ascoli-type theorem, giving a necessary and sufficient condition for forward compactness of sets of functions, defined and with values in asymmetric metric spaces.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[286] **viXra:1405.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-26 10:40:27*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

It has been recently demonstrated, [3,11], that according to the principle of release constraints, absence of shear stresses in the Euler equations must be compensated by additional degrees of freedom, and that led to a Reynolds-type enlarged Euler equations (EE equations) with a doublevalued velocity field that do not require any closures. In the first part of the paper, the theory is applied to turbulent mixing and illustrated by propagation of mixing zone triggered by a tangential jump of velocity. A comparison of the proposed solution with the Prandtl’s solution is performed and discussed. In the second part of the paper, a semi-‐viscous version of the Navier-‐Stokes equations is introduced. The model does not require any closures since the number of equations is equal to the number of unknowns. Special attention is paid to transition from laminar to turbulent state. The analytical solution for this transition demonstrates the turbulent mean velocity profile that qualitatively similar to celebrated logarithmic law.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[285] **viXra:1405.0320 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-27 20:54:09*

**Authors:** Stephen Winter

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

3. WHAT IS THE UNIVERSE NOT : The universe is not a bubble . Many-worlds means not 'multiverse' . Wikipedia/Universe is not from this universe? . CMB means not 'Big Bang'

4. WHAT IS WRONG WITH TODAY'S MATHEMATICS : The Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric . Not mathematics but the intention is wrong

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[284] **viXra:1405.0319 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-16 00:28:47*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Determine the mass of a π-Meson and a Neutrino.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[283] **viXra:1405.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-26 05:14:19*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we configured a system with negative input impedance by a pair of Yagi-Uda antennas. The two Yagi antennas were placed face to face feeding by the same source. The input impedance is the sum of self-impedance and mutual impedance. Since Yagi antenna has significantly reduced self-impedance and amplified mutual impedance, it is anticipated that this system present negative input impedance.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[282] **viXra:1405.0316 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-02 17:17:30*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Notation based on four-by-four time and space projection matrices enables solution from scratch of the isotropic static metric-tensor ansatz for the empty-space Einstein equation. This isotropic Schwarzschild solution's version of the Riemann tensor which contracts directly to the Ricci tensor is finite at the horizon despite the divergence there of the contravariant metric tensor and of the affine connection, but raising that tensor's third index produces a horizon-divergent version of the Riemann tensor as well; the horizon-finitude of the first-mentioned version of the Riemann tensor is nothing more than a fortuitous by-product of the Ricci tensor's being zero. Furthermore, certain curvature scalars calculated from the isotropic Schwarzschild solution become ill-defined at the horizon, which is a departure from the "no drama" horizon behavior of those scalars calculated from the "standard" Schwarzschild solution. That departure occurs because the Jacobian of the map of the "standard" Schwarzschild solution into the isotropic solution diverges at the horizon, which invalidates tensor-contraction theorems there. Gravitational horizons in empty-space models in fact merely reflect unphysical overstatement of the effective mass of the gravitational source: the internal gravitation of any extended source which can be inscribed in a sphere reduces the effective mass of that source below the value needed to produce a horizon in the empty space outside the sphere.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[281] **viXra:1405.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-25 17:05:38*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper is an attempt to bridge the chasm between Quantum Physics and Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. Here I re-define what an object is in specific mathematical terms. Using this new definition for an object I find that, (1) It is compatible with the Newtonian definition for an object when dealing with gravitational interaction under specific conditions, (2) It is also not incompatible with the quantum physical definition for an object, (3) The gravitational interaction between bodies is reduced to quantum mechanical interactions at all levels, from the sub-atomic to the cosmic, (4) The theory is reducible to the Newtonian theory for gravitation under specific conditions,(5) The strange concept in General Relativity of matter acting upon empty space (nothingness) and causing it's distortion is eliminated, (6) In rough terms, the famous experiment of the bending of light by gravity which established General Relativity in 1919 can also be explained using quantum interactions, (7) It is very likely that the existence of dark matter is absolutely necessary for the very existence of an object from the sub-atomic to the cosmic, (8) A simple experiment that can be done easily in the laboratory using modern technology can prove/disprove the proposed theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[280] **viXra:1405.0313 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-27 02:34:59*

**Authors:** Wan-chung Hu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Meditation is a common practice in certain religions. Non religion meditation practice is now more and more popular. Meditation can provide a stress relief method via relaxation reaction. It can enhance parasympathetic tone and suppress sympathetic tone. Sympathetic nerve system is a fear-and-fight stress machinery accompanying steroid secretion. Majority of anxiety and depression patients are found hypersecretion of glucocorticoid with enhancing stress response. Meditation can lower cortisol, up-regulate dorpamine/serotonine/oxytocin/endorphin to reduce stress reaction. In addition, parasympathetic system enhances adaptive immunity and suppresses innate immunity; sympathetic system enhances innate immunity and suppresses adaptive immunity. Thus, meditation can help us to booster host adaptive immunity to cope with infections. Thus, mediation can be useful for managing psychiatric disorders as well as enhancing host immunity.

**Category:** Mind Science

[279] **viXra:1405.0312 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-21 05:47:47*

**Authors:** Sergey A. Kamenshchikov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Journal of Chaos, Volume 2014, Article ID 346743. Author: ru.linkedin.com/pub/sergey-kamenshchikov/60/8b1/21a/

The goal of this investigation was to overcome limitations of a persistency analysis, introduced by Benoit Mandelbrot for monofractal Brownian processes: nondifferentiability, Brownian nature of process and a linear memory measure. We have extended a sense of a Hurst factor by consideration of a phase diffusion power law. It was shown that pre-catastrophic stabilization as an indicator of bifurcation leads to a new minimum of momentary phase diffusion, while bifurcation causes an increase of the momentary transport. An efficiency of a diffusive analysis has been experimentally compared to the Reynolds stability model application. An extended Reynolds parameter has been introduces as an indicator of phase transition. A combination of diffusive and Reynolds analysis has been applied for a description of a time series of Dow Jones Industrial weekly prices for a world financial crisis of 2007-2009. Diffusive and Reynolds parameters shown an extreme values in October 2008 when a mortgage crisis was fixed. A combined R/D description allowed distinguishing of market evolution short-memory and long memory shifts. It was stated that a systematic large scale failure of a financial system has begun in October 2008 and started fading in February 2009.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[278] **viXra:1405.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-25 07:42:55*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has been published in Prespacetime Journal, ISSN: 2153-8301 (url: http://www.prespacetime.com) 05/2014; 5(5). Comments are welcome

In this paper, I will review some inadequacies of Schrödinger equation. Then I will discuss George Shpenkov's interpretation of classical wave equation and two other authors' wave equations. According to Shpenkov, the classical wave equation can be used to derive a periodic table of elements -which is close to Mendeleyev's periodic table-, and also other phenomena related to the structure of molecules. It is argued here that one may arrive at new energy methods using this classical wave equation as starting point. It is suggested that Shpenkov's interpretation of classical wave equation can complement Schrödinger equation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[277] **viXra:1405.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-24 19:32:50*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I continue the discussion started in " An addendum to the theory " On the consequences of a probabilistic space-time continuum" paper" by doing a formal derivation of the proportionality that connects the rate of decrease of the probability for attraction with respect to mass and the inverse of the square of the mass of the object when applied to large objects that are well defined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[276] **viXra:1405.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-24 21:38:33*

**Authors:** Manjunath.R

**Comments:** 69 Pages.

The strange stuff unexplained: The scriptural teaching on the origin of the universe is found in fatal bible.
God: The Fatal delusion.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[275] **viXra:1405.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-25 01:51:26*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Status: With editors in Physical Review Letters

Through the work of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Niels Bohr, and many others, current scientific theory holds that all particles also have a wave nature (and vice versa).[1] This phenomenon has been verified not only for elementary particles, but also for compound particles like atoms and even molecules. For macroscopic particles, because of their extremely short wavelengths, wave properties usually cannot be detected.[2] Wave–particle duality is an ongoing conundrum in modern physics. Most physicists accept wave-particle duality as the best explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena; however, it is not without controversy.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[274] **viXra:1405.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-25 01:57:30*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Status: With editors in Physical Review Letters

Two energies, which are measured in opposite directions, and we consider them as quarks are actually two different kinetic energy of a single proton, the first in the direction of its movement, and the second in the opposite direction.
Quarks are actually locked (confinement) in proton, as is clear from the individual tables.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[273] **viXra:1405.0306 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-28 07:52:03*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 11 Pages. I hope for attention in the vixra-blog and science-magazines.

‘Spatial dark matter’ and ‘two refined time-clocks smaller than the Planck-time’ cause a CMB-dipole and concentric circles in the CMB of the universe. This proves a Double Torus Universe. Hence the universe did not start with a Big Bang. These characteristics are derived, analyzed, explained in my articles of the Double Torus Theory (DTT) and proved by current lab-experiments and astronomical observations. Furthermore three levels of accelerations are derived, which prove several dimensional characteristics, such as the accelerated space expansion in Big Bang cosmology is due to rotation of the Double Torus, or such as dimensions that show dark matter is not a mass-particle like a ‘wimp’. However, the heart of the DTT is the use of ‘time smaller than the Planck-time’ (sub-quantum-time). This is the power for events beyond quantum-gravitation, which makes events visible for just 4.45%. The rest seems to remain dark, but eventually involves in the sub-quantum-dynamics of the universe. I also give a related derivation, which uses the ‘Gaussian mathematical expression’ for accelerations related to gravitation in the DTT, instead of using the Gaussian only for CMB-temperature-variations. Thereby I introduced a new ‘duonistic-parameter’ (b=0, b=1, b=2), which describes how entangled ‘duonistic neutrinos’ involve in three levels of acceleration. These ‘duonistic neutrinos’ represent space. The acceleration-levels relate to a Newton-constant (G) for G’ < G or G=0, or G”> G or G=1. The acceleration-levels performed are: An acceleration-level for CMB-dark flow and CMB-concentric circles per (±i±1)G, an acceleration-level for spatial dark flow on mass per ±G and an acceleration-level for the torus-rotation of the universe per ±G^2.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[272] **viXra:1405.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-24 13:13:39*

**Authors:** Dmitriy Skripachov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Grand unification can be considered as a virtual crossword ideas, hypotheses and theories. Compose and solve this crossword, we develop new ideas and hypotheses, which intersect with each other. The idea of space consisting of unit cells allows us to relate gravitation to the ability of unit cells to change volume, and electromagnetism to the ability of unit cells to internal movement. The ability of unit cells to form short-range order suggests that photons, leptons, mesons and baryons have structure of regular and semiregular polyhedra. Applied to dark matter, new model of elementary particles leads to the conclusion that elements of DM are non-relativistic nuclei consisting of neutrinos or antineutrinos. It is alleged that neutrinos are capable to form short-lived Cooper pairs most of which immediately decay appearing oscillation, and other fuse into nuclei of deutrinium, the lightest element of DM.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[271] **viXra:1405.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-24 11:42:53*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In our combinatorial universe, matter grows in a particular way, according to specific steps. The (n + 1) character of this growth lends itself easily to the Clifford Algebra and Clifford Spinor spaces which develop in the fashion of Mount Meru or Pascal’s Triangle. This style of development leads to Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section which implies that these concepts are deeply entwined in the formation of matter. This paper gives a step by step explanation of the process and a lengthy exposition on Clifford Algebras by physicist Frank “Tony” Smith from his monumental website.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[270] **viXra:1405.0303 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-25 15:46:13*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Corrected a few faults, added a diagram, few more words in conclusion.

This paper seeks to investigate the questions of: How does the constancy of the speed of light come about? Why does time dilation and length contraction occur? Are they physical effects with a mechanism? Does mass have a role is in these effects? Is Relativity an emergent phenomenon? The enquiry is along a different tact than the standard Lorentzian invariance canon but in the realm of readily known experimental facts or analogies and theory in the domain of wave propagation and solid state physics. These analogies, to almost prosaic physics, have a small following and are called Ether Theories, which modern physics has implicitly reinstated by General Relativity and Quantum Field Theories. In the category of Ether Theories based on analogies to solid state physics, this presentation is unique in not being Lorentz invariant; it is based on earlier papers by the author enquiring into the speed of coincidence counting of the Bell Inequality and a communication protocol. It is believed that Lorentz invariance emerges from the Ether and all Relativistic Mechanics can be built from the bottom up. The conclusion is that space-time is not really curved but the effects are all ascribable to mass gain.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[269] **viXra:1405.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-24 06:24:37*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 10 pages. English and russian texts

Это исследование предлагает новые, “неземной” объяснение “красного смещения”электромагнитного излучения. Эта статья показывает, что “красное смещение” наблюдаемое излучение может быть признаком расширения нашей Вселенной, хотя это не доказательство же.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[268] **viXra:1405.0301 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-04 07:59:02*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

H. G. Barnett was Professor of Anthropology at Oregon University when he issued Innovation: the Basis of Cultural Change (McGraw-Hill publishers, 1953). We review the book from the perspective of innovation in science. (Revised and expanded version, 4 June 2014.)

**Category:** Social Science

[267] **viXra:1405.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-24 09:08:45*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The generic defining characteristics of all alleged black hole universes contradict the generic defining characteristics of big bang universes. Consequently black hole universes and big bang universes are mutually exclusive - they cannot co-exist. For instance, all alleged black hole universes are eternal whereas all alleged big bang universes are of finite age (~13 billion years); all alleged black hole universes are not expanding whereas all alleged big bang universes are expanding. All black hole universes are independent universes just as all alleged big bang universes are independent universes since each different type of black hole universe pertains to a completely different set of Einstein field equations. Despite their incompatibility cosmologists routinely blend these black hole and big bang universe to produce multiple black holes in some big bang universe, in violation of elementary logic, and augment the inadmissible hybrids with a Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ad arbitrium.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[266] **viXra:1405.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 21:01:07*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I discuss the relationship between the probabilities and mass which was not explored in the original paper. The original paper dealt with the relationship between the probabilities and distance. It is found that the larger the mass of an object the more distant is the point of zero net gravity or to put it in another terms, the rate of decrease of the probability for attraction is slower the larger the mass of the object.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[265] **viXra:1405.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 23:23:45*

**Authors:** Subhajit Ganguly

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Zero postulation and the principles of the Theory of Abstraction are used to study structures of energy inside a black hole, which is incredibly heavy and incredibly small. We chase the questions, how matter (with various structures) is formed from energy and the energy making up matter has to be in what orientation to form the matter that we see. We arrive at the fundamental model and the equations describing the formation of structure in energy.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[264] **viXra:1405.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 12:52:16*

**Authors:** Christian Corda, Seyed Hossein Hendi, Reza Katebi, Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Black hole (BH) quantization may be the key to unlocking a unifying theory of quantum gravity (QG). Surmounting evidence in the field of BH research continues to support a horizon (surface) area with a discrete and uniformly spaced spectrum, but there is still no general agreement on the level spacing. In this specialized and important BH case study, our objective is to report and examine the pertinent groundbreaking work of the strictly thermal and non-strictly thermal spectrum level spacing of the BH horizon area quantization with included entropy calculations, which aims to tackle this gigantic problem. In particular, this work exemplifies a series of imperative corrections that eventually permits a BH's horizon area spectrum to be generalized from strictly thermal to non-strictly thermal with entropy results, thereby capturing multiple preceding developments by launching an effective unification between them. Moreover, the identified results are significant because quasi-normal modes (QNM) and "effective states" characterize the transitions between the established levels of the non-strictly thermal spectrum.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[263] **viXra:1405.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-24 03:51:59*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is shown that the nucleons in nuclei of elements linked NOT nuclear forces, and the overall flow of electromagnetic energy circulating in the volume of the nucleus. This assumption allows us to explain some properties of the intranuclear interactions and some well-known observation. \\ Показывается, что нуклоны в ядрах элементов связаны НЕ ядерными силами, а общим потоком электромагнитной энергии, циркулирующим в объеме ядра. Это предположение позволяет объяснить некоторые свойства внутриядерных взаимодействий и некоторые известные наблюдения.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[262] **viXra:1405.0295 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-17 06:13:06*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Descriptive quantum theory is the intuitive motivation for the mathematical models employed. Due to contrary physical assumptions accepted by different science communities, it is established that descriptions for certain quantum physical entities and descriptions for their behavior have not been universally accepted as factual and can have contradictory features. Being only indirectly verifiable, no such theory can be proved as factual based upon observed predictions. The actual intuitive foundations for the General Grand Unification Model (GGU-model) and their relation to quantum theory and all other physical science theories are revealed. The final major theological GGU-model conclusions are detailed.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[261] **viXra:1405.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 07:15:31*

**Authors:** Torsten Hertig, Jens Philip Höhmann, Ralf Otte

**Comments:** German Version of viXra:1405.0281. 21 pages without titlepage, 14 without titlepage and appendix

Quantum theory (QT) which is one@@ of the basic theories of physics, namely in terms of Schrödinger's 1926 wave functions in general requires the field **C** of the complex numbers to be formulated. However, even the complex-valued description soon turned out to be insufficient. Incorporating Einstein's theory of Special Relativity (Schrödinger, Klein, Gordon, 1926, Dirac 1928) leads to an equation which requires some coefficients which are hypercomplex. Conventionally the Dirac equation is written using pairwise anti-commuting matrices. However, a unitary ring of square matrices *is* an - associative - hypercomplex algebra by definition. However, only the algebraic properties of the elements and their relations to one another are important. We hence replace the matrix formulation by a more symbolic one. In the case of the Dirac equation, these elements are called biquaternions.
As an algebra over **R**, the biquaternions are eight-dimensional; as subalgebras, this algebra contains the division ring **H** of the quaternions at one hand and the algebra **C**⊗**C** of the bicomplex numbers at the other, the latter being commutative. As it will later turn out, **C**⊗**C** contains *pure non-real* subalgebras isomorphic to **C**. Within this paper, we first consider shortly the basics of the non-relativistic and the relativistic quantum theory. Then we introduce general hypercomplex algebras and also show how a relativistic quantum equation like Dirac's one can be formulated using hypercomplex coefficients.
Subsequently, some algebraic preconditions for operations within hypercomplex algebras and their subalgebras will be examined. For our purpose equations akin the Schrödinger's one should be able to be set up and solved. Functions of complementary variables like **x** and **p** should be Fourier transforms of each other. This should hold within a purely non-real subspace which must hence be a subalgebra. Furthermore, it is an ideal denoted by *J*. It must be isomorphic to **C**, hence containing an internal identity element. The bicomplex numbers will turn out to fulfil these preconditions, and therefore, the formalism of QT can be developed within its subalgebras.
We also show that bicomplex numbers encourage the definition of several different kinds of conjugates. One of these treats the elements of *J* precisely as the usual conjugate treats complex numbers. This defines a quantity what we call a modulus which, in contrast to the complex absolute square, remains non-real (but may be called `pseudo-real'). However, we do not conduct an explicit physical interpretation here but we leave this to future examinations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[260] **viXra:1405.0293 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-23 06:54:20*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is common amongst the bigoted elite physicists and mathematicians to dismiss radical writings by a non-famous, non-Nobel Laureate as mere worthless “opinion”, without bothering to waste time reading
it to even bother to find out whether it is based on facts and proof tested by experimental or observational data. Then they close down the discussion and refuse to enter further correspondence. So this paper consists entirely of a short quotation from Murray Gell-Mann’s very poorly organized book The Quark and the Jaguar, published in 1994, disproving popular superstition/fairy tale quantum entanglement hypers and media sponsors.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[259] **viXra:1405.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-22 20:23:31*

**Authors:** Luis Gregorio Navarro Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Morales Rojas, Gabriela Peralta Diaz, Adrian Gonzalez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Spanish language

En la presente práctica se muestra la distribución espacial y de momentos de un haz cuántico, de una fuente BBO (Beta-Borato de Bario) que produce un par de haces mediante conversión paramétrica descendente espontánea a partir de la excitación de un láser de 405 nm. Los haces se definen como cuánticos pues está presente una estadística de detección y coincidencias, que nos permite distinguir fotones individuales.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[258] **viXra:1405.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-22 21:27:19*

**Authors:** Zhipeng Lin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Dynamical conserved topology(DCT) has conserved number of nodes and links’ ends, its nodes can exchange with other nodes, its links’ ends
can transferred from one node to another, and its links can rotate between nodes. Through analyzing their symmetry properties, we can get the detail behavior of DCT, which can be simulated by computer with my program. And by comparing with space with 3 dimensions or 26 dimensions as string theory, we can get its CPT properties, which can be evidence of the theory.

**Category:** Topology

[257] **viXra:1405.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 02:08:21*

**Authors:** Mustafa Salti, Murat Korunur, Irfan Acikgoz

**Comments:** 13 Pages. European Physical Journal Plus 129: 95 (2014) 1-13

We consider the fractal Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with dark fluid. By making
use of this assumption, we discuss two types of dark energy models: Generalized Ricci and generalized
holographic dark energies. We calculate the equation of state parameters, investigate some
special limits of the results and discuss the physical implications via graphs. Also, we reconstruct
the potential and the dynamics of the quintessence and k-essence(kinetic-quintessence) according to
the results obtained for the fractal dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[256] **viXra:1405.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 03:02:04*

**Authors:** Miroslav Sukenik, Jozef Sima

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the paper, a description of the Universe is provided at three different levels. The lowest one represents an elementary description by means of Friedmann equations. A higher level is a quantum mechanical description involving wave equation and the Universe wave function. The highest level is a mathematical description leading to the conclusion that the Universe is infinite both in time and space, it has never been created and never will cease. Based on a causal coupling of the past and future, an independent derivation of the Feigenbaum constant δ is possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[255] **viXra:1405.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-22 12:52:51*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Near the limb of the solar disk, the positions of the Fraunhofer lines are shifted toward the red end of the spectrum, compared with their positions at the center of the disk. A possible explanation for this limb effect is the energy loss of the light, when it accelerates unbound electrons in the chromosphere. An even larger redshift is expected when light travels a longer distance in the chromosphere close to solar limb. This difference should be easily detectable during the next solar eclipse.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[254] **viXra:1405.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-22 09:24:50*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The black hole is allegedly predicted by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. However, by comparison of the Einstein field equations for Schwarzschild spacetime and de Sitter spacetime it is plainly evident that matter is allegedly present and absent by the very same mathematical constraint: Tμν = 0. Since this is impossible, and since de Sitter’s empty universe contains no matter by virtue of Tμν = 0, Schwarzschild spacetime also contains no matter. Consequently, the black hole has no basis in General Relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[253] **viXra:1405.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-21 16:27:08*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

This paper proposes a mathematical formalism for describing the machinery of human mind creativity. Since some functions of mind support discreteness of cognition, but others support its continuity, while time in physics is always continuous, an attempt to overcome the continuous/discrete duality of mind performance is implemented via utilization of special critical points: terminal attractors and repellers that act as autonomous biological clock. In this paper, attention is concentrated upon the discrete mode of the mind activity since the continuous mode was introduced and discussed in details in our previous publications. The fundamental novelty of the model is in its capability to move from disorder to order without external inputs in violation of the second law of thermodynamics; that suggests that this kind of dynamics requires extension of modern physics to include physics of life. Conceptually the discrete model links to its continuous version represented by a hypothetical particle of life that is briefly discussed prior to derivation of the discrete model. However the discrete model should be considered as the next step in study of mind dynamics since it provides a bridge to mathematical origin of self-generated novelties in such brunches as mathematical logic and linguistic, i.e. the highest level activities of human mind.
The proposed model deals with rules of mind activity rather than with its content.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[252] **viXra:1405.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-21 20:06:40*

**Authors:** Sbiis Saibian

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

In 1976 Donald Knuth introduced the world to his so called "Up-arrow notation" for very large positive integers. In this paper I prove a simple theorem which allows one to easily compare expressions involving Up-arrows.

**Category:** Number Theory

[251] **viXra:1405.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-21 20:21:49*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper points out that the negative energy solutions of the Dirac
equation are inconsistent with the observed characteristics of the
positron. It also notes that the Dirac equation is not a quantum
representation of the relativistic expression for the kinetic plus rest
energy of a moving charge.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[250] **viXra:1405.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-04 14:03:37*

**Authors:** Torsten Hertig, Jens Philip Höhmann, Ralf Otte

**Comments:** Contains 7 pages appendix

Quantum theory (QT) which is one of the basic theories of physics, namely in terms of Schrödinger's 1926 wave functions in general requires the field **C** of the complex numbers to be formulated. However, even the complex-valued description soon turned out to be insufficient. Incorporating Einstein's theory of Special Relativity (Schrödinger, Klein, Gordon, 1926, Dirac 1928) leads to an equation which requires some coefficients which are hypercomplex. Conventionally the Dirac equation is written using pairwise anti-commuting matrices. However, a unitary ring of square matrices *is* an - associative - hypercomplex algebra by definition. However, only the algebraic properties of the elements and their relations to one another are important. We hence replace the matrix formulation by a more symbolic one. In the case of the Dirac equation, these elements are called biquaternions.
As an algebra over **R**, the biquaternions are eight-dimensional; as subalgebras, this algebra contains the division ring **H** of the quaternions at one hand and the algebra **C**⊗**C** of the bicomplex numbers at the other, the latter being commutative. As it will later turn out, **C**⊗**C** contains *pure non-real* subalgebras isomorphic to **C**. Within this paper, we first consider briefly the basics of the non-relativistic and the relativistic quantum theory. Then we introduce general hypercomplex algebras and also show how a relativistic quantum equation like Dirac's one can be formulated using hypercomplex coefficients.
Subsequently, some algebraic preconditions for operations within hypercomplex algebras and their subalgebras will be examined. For our purpose equations akin the Schrödinger's one should be able to be set up and solved. Functions of complementary variables like **x** and **p** should be Fourier transforms of each other. This should hold within a purely non-real subspace which must hence be a subalgebra. Furthermore, it is an ideal denoted by *J*. It must be isomorphic to **C**, hence containing an internal identity element. The bicomplex numbers will turn out to fulfil these preconditions, and therefore, the formalism of QT can be developed within its subalgebras.
We also show that bicomplex numbers encourage the definition of several different kinds of conjugates. One of these treats the elements of *J* precisely as the usual conjugate treats complex numbers. This defines a quantity what we call a modulus which, in contrast to the complex absolute square, remains non-real (but may be called `pseudo-real'). However, we do not conduct an explicit physical interpretation here but we leave this to future examinations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[249] **viXra:1405.0280 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-25 13:29:09*

**Authors:** L. Martino, V. Elvira, D. Luengo, J. Corander

**Comments:** IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Volume 63, Issue 16, Pages 4422-4437, 2015

Monte Carlo (MC) methods are well-known computational techniques, widely used in different fields such as signal processing, communications and machine learning. An important class of MC methods is composed of importance sampling (IS) and its adaptive extensions, such as population Monte Carlo (PMC) and adaptive multiple IS (AMIS). In this work, we introduce a novel adaptive and iterated importance sampler using a population of proposal densities. The proposed algorithm, named adaptive population importance sampling (APIS), provides a global estimation of the variables of interest iteratively, making use of all the samples previously generated. APIS combines a sophisticated scheme to build the IS estimators (based on the deterministic mixture approach) with a simple temporal adaptation (based on epochs). In this way, APIS is able to keep all the advantages of both AMIS and PMC, while minimizing their drawbacks. Furthermore, APIS is easily parallelizable. The cloud of proposals is adapted in such a way that local features of the target density can be better taken into account compared to single global adaptation procedures. The result is a fast, simple, robust and high-performance algorithm applicable to a wide range of problems. Numerical results show the advantages of the proposed sampling scheme in four synthetic examples and a localization problem in a wireless sensor network.

**Category:** Statistics

[248] **viXra:1405.0279 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-18 11:35:50*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper points out that the observed relativistic slowing of meson
decay time cannot represent the decay time experienced by the meson
in its own inertial reference frame unless the Galilean time
transformation, τ = t, is used.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[247] **viXra:1405.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-20 16:14:43*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a previous paper I stated a conjecture on primes involving the pairs of sexy primes, which are the two primes that differ from each other by six. In this paper I extend that conjecture on the pairs of primes [p, q], where q is of the form p + p(n)#, where p(n)# is a primorial number, which means the product of first n primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[246] **viXra:1405.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-20 21:59:51*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The paper discusses a possible expansion of modern physics to include physics of Life since all attempts to create livings from non-living matter failed. Prior to the discussion, a life/non-life criterion is proposed: unlike physical systems, Livings can move from disorder to order without an external interference if the model of life concentrates upon the concept of intelligent behavior and does not include such “auxiliary” processes as metabolism and reproduction. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical “particle of life” (L-particle) can be represented by a quantum-classical hybrid in which the force following from the quantum potential is replaced by the information force. Besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, L-particle acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self- supervision, est. that are typical for Livings. However since the L-particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of the information force that represents a bridge between non-living and living matter. It has been suggested that quantum mechanics and mechanics of livings are sub-classes of a broader physical model, and the difference between them is due to different Liouville feedbacks, i.e. in different information forces. At this stage, L-particle is introduced as an abstract mathematical concept that is satisfied only to mathematical rules and assumptions, and its physical representation is still an open problem.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[245] **viXra:1405.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-20 12:49:07*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2014 Competition

Is there a consistent microscopic foundation for both general relativity and quantum mechanics? Both arose early in the 20th century from a background of classical mechanics and special relativity, but they took quite different turns, leading to seemingly incompatible worldviews. A simple picture is presented that may serve as a bridge between the microscopic quantum and macroscopic gravitational worlds. One may regard a relativistic quantum field as a real physical clock, which slows down as it enters a gravitational potential, providing a simple explanation for gravitational time dilation. This picture leads to a semi-classical Hamiltonian, with an orbital trajectory that is examined in the context of the Parameterized Post-Newtonian (PPN) Approximation. Remarkably, this avoids divergences and singularities, including black holes and event horizons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[244] **viXra:1405.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-20 13:00:08*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Submitted for FQXi 2014 Essay Contest on "How Should Humanity Steer the Future?"

Our modern civilization is built on cheap energy from fossil fuels, which produces carbon dioxide, which produces global warming. The only way to avoid catastrophe is to shift away from fossil fuels to solar and nuclear energy, well before all fossil fuel reserves have been burned. But this transition cannot be achieved with a projected global population of 10 billion (10B); we need to return to a level of 100 to 200 years ago, when the population was ~1-2B. A peaceful transition is possible only if humanity collectively takes ownership of the problem.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[243] **viXra:1405.0274 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 07:11:02*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Please see paper (contains technical formulae). This is a revised version which includes a revised, much improved abstract. (The revisions are aimed at increasing clarity and fashionability of the theory towards the point where an edited version would pander sufficiently to popular dogmas and prejudices to be considered publishable.)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[242] **viXra:1405.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-20 06:57:13*

**Authors:** Kamran Derakhshani

**Comments:** 8 pages, 8 figures, 1 table. Journal-ref: The Astrophysical Journal, 783:48, 2014 March 1. Erratum: 785:166, 2014 April 20

In this paper, we investigate the external field effect in the context of the MOdified Newtonian
Dynamics (MOND) on the surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of globular clusters
(GCs). Using N-MODY, which is an N-body simulation code with a MOND potential solver, we show
that the general effect of the external field for diffuse clusters, which obey MOND in most of their
parts, is that it pushes the dynamics towards the Newtonian regime. On the other hand, for more
compact clusters, which are essentially Newtonian in their inner parts, the external field is effective
mainly in the outer parts of compact clusters. As a case study, we then choose the remote Galactic
GC NGC 2419. By varying the cluster mass, half-light radius, and mass-to-light ratio we aim to find
a model that will reproduce the observational data most effectively, using N-MODY. We find that
even if we take the Galactic external field into account, a Newtonian Plummer sphere represents the
observational data better than MOND to an order of magnitude in terms of the total χ2 of surface
brightness and velocity dispersion.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[241] **viXra:1405.0271 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-10 05:10:43*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

This text is chapter 2.1 of the book 'A mathematical Theory of sustainability and Sustainable Development'. It reviews and conceptualizes sustainability/sustainable development from six different theories: Systems Theory, Complexity Theory [as both 'organization' and 'emergence']; Coevolution; Ecology; Chaos Theory and Adaptive Systems Theory

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[240] **viXra:1405.0270 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-28 11:54:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This article introduces a new physical law that I shall call The Scale Law, The Scaling Law,
or The Scale Principle. This law, which is a Model Meta-law, is a model all the laws of
physics must obey. The paper shows that the Scale Law can produce true descriptions of
nature (exact laws) through two examples: (a) the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and (b)
the black hole entropy. Further research I carried out showed that all normal laws of physics are special cases of this formulation. The Scale Law may be used (a) to find exact laws of physics. This is only possible if we know all the necessary information about the
phenomenon we are trying to describe. I have illustrated this point in another paper where I
derived the Lorentz transformations from the Scale Law [18]; and (b) to find numeric laws
of physics. This case applies when we do not know all the information about the phenomenon
we try to describe and therefore we may only find a numeric equation for the phenomenon.
In order to illustrate the Scale Law more thoroughly, I introduced two numeric formulas for the proton radius. The first formula, which is likely to be numeric, suggests that generation 1, which makes up all the normal matter in the universe, exists because of the existence of the other two generations and the structure of the universe at the Planck scale. The second formula, which is likely to be more accurate and perhaps exact, matches the proton radius obtained by Lamb shift measurements in muonic hydrogen. Finally, based on a table of scale factors, the formulation predicts the size of the electron within a small range of possible values. This result is backed up by a separate prediction I made of the size of the electron based on an electron model with an infinite potential well [12]. Thus, the Scale Law opens a new window into the understanding of all levels of Nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[239] **viXra:1405.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-19 09:14:03*

**Authors:** James Dunn

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Copyright 2014 James Dunn

Shown is a physics treatment potentially providing modeling of everything observable in physics as separate but connected systems of emergent space and time; gravity, duality, fringe patterns, energy, power, forces, momentum, quantum entanglement … and every other observable physics relationship. Intended is providing for the reverse engineering of particle physics experimentation into space/time relationships that can potentially be modeled in synchronous state machines on present computer systems (not in real-time). While upon development of a Non-Relativistic Quantum Computer (NQC) the universe can potentially be sampled to capture actual causal relationships and simulate cosmology precisely in real-time. Creating alternate dimensional universes within the NQC and when causally entangling the NQC space with our universe, providing for the warping of space/time relationships and related tools.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[238] **viXra:1405.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-18 13:54:42*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Since Big Bang Cosmology is creationism pseudoscience, the only real alternative to understanding all of existence is the steady state model of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. The author struggled with trying to understand how a perfect cosmological principle could be true, in which the universe looks the same in both space and time in all directions, but has finally made a common sense conclusion that can be shared with the reader.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[237] **viXra:1405.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-18 07:51:18*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we derived the relativistic Quantized force, where the force given as a function of frequency[1]. Where, in this paper we defined the relativistic momentum as a function of frequency equivalent to the energy held by a body, and time, and then the quantized force is given as the first derivative of the momentum with respect to time. Subsequently we introduce in section one Newton's second law as it is relativistic quantized, and in section two we introduce the relativistic quantized inertial force, and then the relativistic quantized gravitational force, and the quantized gravitational time dilation. What is leading to there is no graviton it is photon. This paper is meaningless without modification the SRT in my paper http://dx.doi.org/10.14299/ijser.2014.04.001

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[236] **viXra:1405.0264 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-30 10:52:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

During the inflation, the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field partially transformed into the luminal Einstein spacetime composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs (the Einstein spacetime is the scene for the quantum effects). The quantum effects appeared at the end of the inflation because of the partial collapse of the Einstein spacetime. The succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field and strictly determined radius of the inner Cosmos composed of universes with the same laws of physics and physical constants, lead to the origin of inertia. We showed that the excited states of the Einstein spacetime (the particles, bodies) never can change the properties of the ground state of the Higgs field and, in cosmic scale, cannot change properties of the ground state of the Einstein spacetime (the mean mass density and the mean luminal speed of the components are practically invariant). It causes that classical bodies “slide” without resistance in the two-component spacetime whereas the bare quantum particles disappear in one region of spacetime and appear in another one, and so on (the quantum waves “slide” without resistance as well). Such is the origin of the inertia.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[235] **viXra:1405.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-09 13:23:39*

**Authors:** L. Martino, H. Yang, D. Luengo, J. Kanniainen, J. Corander

**Comments:** Digital Signal Processing, Volume 47, Pages 68-83, 2015.

Bayesian inference often requires efficient numerical approximation algorithms, such as sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The Gibbs sampler is a well-known MCMC technique, widely applied in many signal processing problems. Drawing samples from univariate full-conditional distributions efficiently is essential for the practical application of the Gibbs sampler. In this work, we present a simple, self-tuned and extremely efficient MCMC algorithm which produces virtually independent samples from these univariate target densities. The proposal density used is self-tuned and tailored to the specific target, but it is not adaptive. Instead, the proposal is adjusted during an initial optimization stage, following a simple and extremely effective procedure. Hence, we have named the newly proposed approach as FUSS (Fast Universal Self-tuned Sampler), as it can be used to sample from any bounded univariate distribution and also from any bounded multi-variate distribution, either directly or by embedding it within a Gibbs sampler. Numerical experiments, on several synthetic data sets (including a challenging parameter estimation problem in a chaotic system) and a high-dimensional financial signal processing problem, show its good performance in terms of speed and estimation accuracy.

**Category:** Statistics

[234] **viXra:1405.0262 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-18 06:46:43*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spanish

We obtain the gravitational field equations in the unified field theory of Weyl without imposing any restrictions and find static spherically symmetric solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[233] **viXra:1405.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-18 00:55:31*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. NA

In this work, the author attempts to show that it is not possible to generate or find tachyons

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[232] **viXra:1405.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-18 00:57:53*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 5 Pages. NA

Great circle triangles and its related trigonometry are wider applications in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, engineering fields, space travel, sea voyages, electronics, architecture etc. Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory showed that light is an electromagnetic wave, Dirac’s equation revealed the existence and generation of anti particles and Einstein’s filed equations predicted bending of light rays near a massive body, gravitational time dilation, gravitational waves , gravitational lenses, black holes, dark matter, dark energy and big bang singularity. All these findings have been experimentally established except gravitational waves. In this short work, the author finds a peculiar phenomenon in great circle triangles / Euler triangles

**Category:** Geometry

[231] **viXra:1405.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-18 03:21:34*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Minimum wage policy is usually thought to cause unemployment in classical economics. However, I show here it may also cause employment rate increasing as well as labor wage increasing if the government can catch the real market equilibrium point. Thus, we should have a second thought about the minimum wage policy. It can cause employment as well as unemployment depending on the setting level of minimum wage.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[230] **viXra:1405.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-20 11:41:22*

**Authors:** Manjunath.R

**Comments:** 68 Pages.

Why something? Why not anything? All our life, we have been bugged by the strange questions that face us, and have tried to find answers to them from the day we begin to make sense of what we see. Overall so far disconcert seems to be an instinct on a personal level. The universe is full of strange sounding ideas and unremarkable truths. Mankind’s lust for knowledge never winds up with certainty.
Who created the universe? The scriptural teaching on the origin of the universe is found in fatal bible.
God: The Fatal delusion.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[229] **viXra:1405.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-17 13:57:24*

**Authors:** Ikonomis Ilias

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0

In this paper, we propose several Maxwell’s demon-like machines. Most of them are made from semipermeable membranes, thermal engines, and ideal gases. The presentation of each machine is followed by few thermodynamic calculations and conclusions. Most of solutions are done by means of classical thermodynamics but references to statistical thermodynamics are also done. Our demons are non-sentient, they act by natural processes [2]. Our hypothetical semipermeable membranes do all the work, without the need of external work, information storage or other entropy increasing mechanisms. As Maxwell’s demon thought experiment has been widely used in papers regarding information entropy, computing etc we must clarify that our demons have nothing to do with the above, but only with a “thermodynamic” world.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[228] **viXra:1405.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-17 09:01:29*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

S.M. Phillips has articulated a fairly good model of the E8×E8 heterotic superstring, yet nevertheless has missed a few key aspects. This paper informs his model from the perspective of Vedic Nuclear Physics, as derived from the Rig Veda and two of the Upanishads. In addition, the author hypothesizes an extension of the Exceptional Lie Algebra Series beyond E8 to another 12 places or more, which correspond with a series of 20 Hyper - Circles in Vedic Nuclear Physics, the values for which are given here.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[227] **viXra:1405.0254 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-17 04:46:04*

**Authors:** luis Sancho

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This article introduces in a simplified manner, for non-specialists, a new concept of Mass by extending the Principle of Equivalence of Einstein and the metrics of the 5th dimension, deducing from it, a Unification Equation of Charges and Masses. It considers also some philosophical and existential consequences of those results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[226] **viXra:1405.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-16 08:53:48*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Particles occupy mass levels within three geometric sequences that descend from the Planck Mass. Every third level in each sequence is a superlevel of type 1. Every fifth level in each sequence is a superlevel of type 2. The charged leptons in partnership with pseudoscalar mesons are arranged symmetrically about closely coincident superlevels of type 1. The quarks, in weak isospin doublets, are arranged symmetrically about closely coincident superlevels of type 2. A symmetrical pattern of three-sequence coincident superlevels of type 1 extends over many orders of magnitude. The electron and the up quark both participate in partnerships with pseudoscalar mesons that are arranged symmetrically about the centre of the pattern. The model admits of the partnership of an electron neutrino of mass of 10.9 meV with a scalar of mass ~2x10^7 GeV, and of the partnership of a 15.9 keV fermion, conjectured to be the sterile right-handed electron neutrino, with a scalar of mass ~16 GeV.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[225] **viXra:1405.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-01 00:06:07*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Lorentz transform indicates that the emission and absorption of a photon occur when events separate in real time are synchronous in complex time. Photons only exist as separate entities from the point perspective of real time. Cumulative fields of time dilation act within complex time also. If this is true then electromagnetic fields do not contain any energy. An explanation for inertia as the consequence of electromagnetic force is then in harmony with both relativity and quantum mechanics.
Inertia may be an interaction with matter in the distant universe. Gravity may be a geometric imbalance between electromagnetic attraction and repulsion due to the distribution of charges. The results of recent propulsion experiments can then be explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[224] **viXra:1405.0251 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-18 02:02:49*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 45 Pages. Copyright © A. A. Frempong

Better news. After nearly 150 years of patience, the Navier-Stokes equations in 3-D for
incompressible fluid flow have been analytically solved by two different methods. It is shown that these equations can be solved in 4-dimensions or n-dimensions. The author has proposed
and applied a new law, the law of definite ratio for incompressible fluid flow. This law states
that in incompressible fluid flow, the other terms of the fluid flow equation divide the gravity term in a definite ratio and each term utilizes gravity to function. The sum of the terms of the ratio is always unity. It is shown that without gravity forces on earth, there would be no incompressible fluid flow as is known (see p. 23). By applying the above law, the hitherto unsolved magnetohydrodynamic equations were also routinely solved. In addition to the usual method of solving these equations, the N-S equations have also been solved by a second method in which the three equations are added to produce a single equation which is then integrated.
The solutions by the two methods are identical, except for the constants involved. The Navier-Stokes equation will be linearized, solved, and the solution analyzed. This solution will be followed by the solution of the Euler equation. Following the Euler solution, the Navier-Stokes equation will be solved, essentially by combining the solutions of
the linearized equation and the Euler solution. For the Navier-Stokes equation, the linear part of the relation obtained from the integration of the linear part of the equation satisfied the linear
part of the equation; and the relation from the integration of the non-linear part satisfied the
non-linear part of the equation. The solutions and relations revealed the role of each term of the Navier-Stokes equations in fluid flow. The gravity term is the indispensable term in fluid flow, and it is involved in the parabolic and forward motion. The pressure gradient term is also involved in the parabolic motion. The viscosity terms are involved in parabolic, periodic, and decreasingly exponential motion. The variable acceleration term is also involved in the periodic and decreasingly exponential motion. The convective acceleration terms produce square root function behavior and fractional terms containing square root functions with variables in the denominators and consequent turbulence behavior. For a spin-off, the smooth solutions from above are specialized and extended to satisfy the requirements of the CMI Millennium Prize Problems, and prove the existence of smooth solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[223] **viXra:1405.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 23:18:42*

**Authors:** G. H. Mickey Thompson

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Big bang evidence is overwhelming and most scientists agree our region of space contains matter that began to expand from a small point some 13.8 billion years ago. Yet, the accepted Inflation model has encountered several misfit anomalies and to accommodate them its proponents have had to invent some dubious new physics. It’s becoming increasingly clear, however, even to adherents of that model, that their magical physics can’t predict anything and therefore leaves nothing they can legitimately call a theory. We now have a groundswell of researchers who are openly rebelling, but cannot overcome the ivory tower fortress defended by those vested in the current model.
This paper focuses on anomalies challenging that Standard model. When analyzed as a set, their analysis yields insights for developing a model that more closely matches the data. This alternative model sets aside the unproven physics the current model requires in order to deal with its problems. It’s based on the assertion that dark energy; matter/antimatter disparity; microwave background texture; early genesis of stars and galaxies; and anthropic conditions are a coherent body of evidence that suggests the big bang did not occur in an empty void, but took place in a much older and larger universe.
While some details of this model may not pass muster, its fresh perspectives expose new avenues of exploration and shows how Einstein’s universe—having only three spatial dimensions and one time dimension—can easily accommodate every phenomenon we observe, with no need for supernatural dimensions, warp-speed inflation, or mysterious vacuum energies.
Keywords: Anthropic conditions, antimatter disparity, Big Bash model, dark energy, dark matter, Electric Universe, gravity, magnetohydrodynamics, quantum mechanics, radioactive decay, singularities, Z-Pinch

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[222] **viXra:1405.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-16 02:43:57*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The time dilation predicted by Special Relativity Theory is completely determined by the Lorentz Factor. The Invariance Principle, expressed in γ, puts two categorical constraints on the velocity β: 1. β< 1, and 2. γ(β) = γ(-β). The findings of recent neutrino velocity experiments, which tested the first constraint, reveal that the velocity of neutrinos is not statistically different from the velocity of light. Surprisingly, in all these experiments, the second constraint, γ(β) = γ(-β), which constitutes the essence of the Lorentz Invariance, was not tested. Here I explain why the design of the neutrino velocity experiments qualifies them as "severe" tests of the Lorentz invariance. I further show that Special Relativity fails colossally in predicting all the reported (v-c)/c values. I also show that for all the discussed experiments, abandoning the Lorentz Invariance yields accurate predictions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[221] **viXra:1405.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-16 02:50:17*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is commonly claimed that the Sagnac effect does not contradict Special Relativity, because it is manifest in non-inertial radial motion and should be treated in the framework of General relativity. This claim is adhered to in justifying the implementation of both the Sagnac effect, and the Special Relativity time dilation in the GPS clocks synchronization. The present paper describes a thought experiment, called the absent-minded assistant, which proves that as far as the velocity, kinetic energy, time and distance of travel, are concerned, a uniform radial motion with fixed radios R, and radial velocity ω = v/R,is equivalent to a uniform linear motion with velocity v. With this proven on base of pure logic, the conclusions to be drawn are: (a) that the equivalence between of the linear and the radial Sagnac effects, previously detected experimentally, is also proven theoretically, and (b) That the second axiom of Special Relativity, positing that the speed of light is the same for all uniformly moving frames along a straight path, is incorrect.
I.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[220] **viXra:1405.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-15 06:33:26*

**Authors:** Charles L. Chandler

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The cerebellum is shown to be functioning as a peak limiter, which smooths out spikes in the signals received from the primary motor cortex (and other structures in the brain).

**Category:** Mind Science

[219] **viXra:1405.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-15 04:16:44*

**Authors:** Jan Hakenberg

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Simple meshes such as the cube, tetrahedron, and tripod frequently appear in the literature to illustrate the concept of subdivision. The formula for the volume enclosed by subdivision surfaces has only recently been identified. We specify simple meshes and state the volume enclosed by the corresponding limit surfaces. We consider the subdivision schemes Doo-Sabin, Midedge, Catmull-Clark, and Loop.

**Category:** Geometry

[218] **viXra:1405.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-19 15:02:30*

**Authors:** Robert T Longo

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In this paper, I will discuss the underlying philosophy of physics. A new definition of observer is presented, then the meaning of two words, i.e., existence and reality, will be examined. With the changes made for these three items, a new philosophy emerges that allows an examination of the concepts of cause and effect, time, space, and the role of mathematics in physics. The new philosophy suggests a structure of the universe that indicates both an understanding of the double-slit experiment and a new approach to the quantization and root cause of gravitation.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[217] **viXra:1405.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-15 02:15:31*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper states a conjecture on primes involving two types of pairs of primes: the pairs of sexy primes, which are the two primes that differ from each other by six and the pairs of primes of the form [p, q], where q = p + 6*r, where r is positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[216] **viXra:1405.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 10:37:47*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 90 pages, 64 eqs, 44 refs; published Russian translation of arXiv:physics/0601140; Journal-ref: Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies 11(3) (2013) 437-517

The universal symmetry, or conservation, of complexity underlies any law or principle of system dynamics and describes the unceasing transformation of dynamic information into dynamic entropy as the unique way to conserve their sum, the total dynamic complexity. Here we describe the real world structure emergence and dynamics as manifestation of the universal symmetry of complexity of initially homogeneous interaction between two protofields. It provides the unified complex-dynamic, causally complete origin of physically real, 3D space, time, elementary particles, their properties (mass, charge, spin, etc.), quantum, relativistic, and classical behaviour, as well as fundamental interaction forces, including naturally quantized gravitation. The old and new cosmological problems (including "dark" mass and energy) are basically solved for this explicitly emerging, self-tuning world structure characterised by strictly positive (and large) energy-complexity. A general relation is obtained between the numbers of world dimensions and fundamental forces, excluding plausible existence of hidden dimensions. The unified, causally explained quantum, classical, and relativistic properties (and types of behaviour) are generalised to all higher levels of complex world dynamics. The real world structure, dynamics, and evolution are exactly reproduced by the probabilistic dynamical fractal, which is obtained as the truly complete general solution of a problem and the unique structure of the new mathematics of complexity. We outline particular, problem-solving applications of always exact, but irregularly structured symmetry of unreduced dynamic complexity to microworld dynamics, including particle physics, genuine quantum chaos, real nanobiotechnology, and reliable genomics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[215] **viXra:1405.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-14 09:45:24*

**Authors:** Fursa E.Ja.

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Mass as a characteristic of such qualities of the body as the gravity and inertia
is not an intrinsic property of the body itself. Mass as a physical quantity
determines and serves as measure of such properties as a inertial force (and
gravity), arising in the bodies in response to the acceleration of their movements,
essentially it is a reaction of bogies on the external influence, characterizing the
degree of the physical connectedness of the our World, at different levels of its
organization. Mass is the induced property which arises in response to acceleration
of the body and retained in the body owing to acceleration and is changed with
acceleration. The nature of this phenomenon, i.e. the gravitational and inertial
masses, is one and indivisible is concluded to in the general (universal)
connectedness of our world as a single global process of Creation and the reason is
the acceleration of bodies in a system of bodies associated with the accelerated
motion (divergence) of galaxies.
The whole world has inertia with respect to the motion of time. World time is
absolute inertial frame throughout our universe.
Life and evolution are required to the acceleration in the inertial frame of
reference (IFR) associated with world time. The phenomenon of "life" is a
continuous struggle for time. In order to live, we should uninterruptedly to borrow
time in loan from the Universe. We are changing energy in exchange for a time,
and we are alive until we are spending the energy.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[214] **viXra:1405.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 08:30:17*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In two of my previous papers I treated quadratic polynomials which have the property to produce many primes in a row: in one of them I listed forty-two such polynomials which generate more than twenty-three primes in a row and in another one I listed few generic formulas which may conduct to find such prime-producing quadratic polynomials. In this paper I will present ten such polynomials which I discovered and posted in OEIS, each accompanied by its first fifty terms and some comments about it.

**Category:** Number Theory

[213] **viXra:1405.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 04:02:08*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In one of my previous papers I listed forty-two quadratic polynomials which generate more than twenty-three primes in a row, from which ten were already known from the articles available on Internet and thirty-two were discovered by me. In this paper I list few generic formulas which may conduct to find such prime-producing quadratic polynomials.

**Category:** Number Theory

[212] **viXra:1405.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 05:14:55*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 1 Page. overview of works

L.Vlcek vixra, getcited, book, CD, Conferences 14.5.2014

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[211] **viXra:1405.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 05:56:52*

**Authors:** Eduard N. Klenov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We have delivered the concept of a structural mass unit as a carrier of a special basic structure, different states of which can be compared (juxtaposed) to weakly interacting particles and antiparticles. This structure radically differs from the compound structure of atoms and nuclei as it doesn’t contain the elements its mass is formed of, and its components cannot be interpreted in the concept of “particles” and removed from it. Mutual transformation of weakly interacting point particles is the result of basic structure and it is possible if every particle has an antiparticle. Mass (energy) of states of the basic structure carrier depends on the orientation of the components of this structure. Neutrino and antineutrino appear to be the states of the structural mass unit and therefore they possess mass. Antiparticles and particles are different states of the basic structure carrier, the structure components of which have opposite signs.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[210] **viXra:1405.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-13 15:26:26*

**Authors:** Cliff Ellgen

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Knot physics describes the geometry of particles and fields. From the geometry of an electron we can construct a mathematical model relating its charge to its spin angular momentum. From experimental data, the spin angular momentum is ħ/2. Therefore the mathematical model provides a comparison of electron charge to Planck’s constant, which gives the fine structure constant. We find that using only electromagnetic momentum to derive the fine structure constant predicts a value for the inverse fine structure constant that is about two orders of magnitude too small. However, the equations of knot physics imply that the electromagnetic field cusp must be compensated by a geometric field cusp. The geometric cusp is the source of a geometric field. The geometric field has momentum that is significantly larger than the momentum from the electromagnetic field. The angular momentum of the two fields together predicts a fine structure constant of 1/136.85. Compared to the actual value of 1/137.04, the error is 0.13%. Including the effects of virtual particles may reduce the error further.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[209] **viXra:1405.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-18 21:48:58*

**Authors:** Arindam Sinha

**Comments:** 20 Pages. v1 is Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2014 Awards for Essays on Gravitation. Subsequent versions are more explanatory and contain additional material

A theory of gravity reconciling Mach's Principle and General Relativity (GR) is proposed. At any location, total gravitational potential from the Universe's matter distribution is c^{2}. This Universal background potential constitutes unit rest energy of matter and provides its unit mass, which is the essence behind E=mc^{2}. The background gravity creates a local sidereal inertial frame at every location. A velocity increases gravitational potential through net blue-shift of Universe's background gravity, causing kinematic time dilation, which is a form of gravitational time dilation. Matter and energy follow different rules of motion, and speed of matter may exceed the speed of light. The theory is consistent with existing relativity experiments, and is falsifiable based on experiments whose predictions differ from GR. The theory also explains why all the ICARUS and corrected OPERA experiments still show mean neutrino velocities slightly above speed of light (early arrival of neutrinos by 0.1-6.5ns), even after correcting the issues that had led to the original OPERA experiments to erroneously report faster than light neutrinos (early arrival by ~60ns).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[208] **viXra:1405.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 01:20:55*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Economic problems that plague us seem intractable and seem to require some radical counter-measures. One of the root causes of a recession is that people are not spending sufficiently. To overcome this problem a radical change in our monetary system could be effected. This article is the revised version of an article which had been published in an international journal and is an elaboration of the article ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC POLICIES AND SOLUTIONS published here.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[207] **viXra:1405.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 01:29:30*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article, the author proposes some solutions to our modern seemingly intractable economic problems. Keynesian theories, the bug-bear of modern economics, seem to hold little water nowadays. Modern economies appear to be in need of more radical solutions. This article is the revised version of an article which had been published in an international journal.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[206] **viXra:1405.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 02:52:32*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English and russian texts

We have gained an adequate understanding of fireball structure basically unavailable to the quantum theory.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[205] **viXra:1405.0229 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-14 04:21:00*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Spanish

The theory of gravity as derived from the Weyl tensor admits a static, spherically symmetric solution which differs from the corresponding solution of general relativity, which allows us to find differences between the two theories. We analyze the correction to planetary precession of Einstein obtaining the exact solution. We found the parameters of the static spherically symmetric solution which we associate to the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[204] **viXra:1405.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-14 08:10:46*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward a new combination mechanism of nuclear (hadrons)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[203] **viXra:1405.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 03:52:18*

**Authors:** Leszek W. Guła

**Comments:** 2 Pages. no

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[202] **viXra:1405.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-13 07:06:04*

**Authors:** Jailton C. Ferreira

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A counterexample to Cantor's Diagonal Argument is revisited.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[201] **viXra:1405.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-16 03:38:59*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 31 Pages. 31

According to Quantum FFF Theory, the FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles.
As a result, a NEW paradigm splitting, (with Gamma Ray Bursts) accelerating and pairing Dark Matter Black Hole seems to be able to accelerate itself by a -Zero Point Energy driven-self created plasma tails, to form dumbbell systems, called Herbig Haro (HH) systems, as the start of Bok globules and new star formation in between these dual- or multiple black holes, kept apart by Birkeland current related particle jets.
As a consequence, Herbig Haro systems are supposed to be the origin of Open star cluster, created by the dual production of Baby Stars out of the continuous growing an instable rotating central HH star.
Several examples of such pairing and splitting into HH objects and Bok globules is observed inside the Carina nebula.
These small black holes inside the Carina nebula are supposed to be remnants of Supernovas or even at a smaller scale remnants of comets or former Starspots like our own Black hole based Sunspots.
This is also reason to suppose that what we observe here at a small scale should have happened directly after the Big bang and the origin of the so called Fractal shaped Lyman Alpha Forest..
As a consequence, this phenomenon is an extra support for the Quantum FFF theory based Big Bang model as the splitting process of a former Big Crunch black hole into a symmetric raspberry shaped multiverse.
The recent observation of bipolar butterfly shaped planetary nebula aligned with the plane of the milky way, should be a direct result of the way Herbig Haro objects are created by pairing and receding dual black hole systems.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[200] **viXra:1405.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-12 16:07:05*

**Authors:** Cliff Ellgen

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Spacetime is assumed to be a branched 4-dimensional manifold embedded in a 6-dimensional Minkowski space. The branches allow quantum interference, each individual branch is a history in the sum-over-histories. A n-manifold embedded in a n+2-space can be knotted. The metric on the spacetime manifold is inherited from the Minkowski space and only allows a particular variety of knots. We show how those knots correspond to the observed particles with corresponding properties. We derive a Lagrangian. The Lagrangian combined with the geometry of the manifold produces gravity, electromagnetism, weak force, and strong force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[199] **viXra:1405.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-12 17:28:46*

**Authors:** Alejandro Edera, Federico Schlüter, Facundo Bromberg

**Comments:** 41 Pages. This work is under revision in the IJAIT

This work focuses on learning the structure of Markov networks. Markov networks are parametric models for compactly representing complex probability distributions. These models are composed by: a structure and a set of numerical weights. The structure describes independences that hold in the distribution. Depending on the goal of learning intended by the user, structure learning algorithms can be divided into: density estimation algorithms, focusing on learning structures for answering inference queries; and knowledge discovery algorithms, focusing on learning structures for describing independences qualitatively. The latter algorithms present an important limitation for describing independences as they use a single graph, a coarse grain representation of the structure. However, many practical distributions present a flexible type of independences called context-specific independences, which cannot be described by a single graph. This work presents an approach for overcoming this limitation by proposing an alternative representation of the structure that named canonical model; and a novel knowledge discovery algorithm called CSPC for learning canonical models by using as constraints context-specific independences present in data. On an extensive empirical evaluation, CSPC learns more accurate structures than state-of-the-art density estimation and knowledge discovery algorithms. Moreover, for answering inference queries, our approach obtains competitive results against density estimation algorithms, significantly outperforming knowledge discovery algorithms.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[198] **viXra:1405.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-12 20:02:57*

**Authors:** Marouane Rhafli

**Comments:** 5 Pages. A complementary file to my pdf on http://vixra.org/pdf/1405.0011v1.pdf

In this paper I’ll give another proof to the infinity of twin primes , I’ll prove that Lim Inf (Pn+1 – Pn ) =2

**Category:** Number Theory

[197] **viXra:1405.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-13 02:54:51*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Starting with today’s generation of rocket thrust by means of the energy-mass relation (as in chemical rockets or ion propulsion), this essay proposes thrust generation through the gravity-electromagnetism relationship (modifying string theory to explain G-EM). Then the statement “T Tauri stars don't generate energy through fusion but rather as a result of gravitational collapse" takes us to m=E/c^2, Einstein’s E=mc^2 solved for mass. It also takes us to the concept that mass does not create gravity, but gravity produces mass as well as the other fundamental forces (this section includes Dark Energy and Dark Matter). The essay ends with “The paragraphs above show that the magnetic waves are actually modifications of gravitational waves. When they encounter the iron oxide in the bees, m=E/c^2 describes how the interacting forces/energies produce a tiny amount of what we call mass, causing the iron oxide to swell.“

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[196] **viXra:1405.0218 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-12 10:00:15*

**Authors:** Emanuel Gluskin

**Comments:** 3 Pages. An important challenge that the sociology has to face is pointed out.

It is explained that sociology has to be drastically changed, in order to face the important problem of the growing dictatorship of intellect which will inevitable lead to intense societal stresses. It becomes more and more difficult for simple people, -- i.e. those who have the noble vocation to preserve, just by their simplicity, the healthy nature of the human, -- to live with a clear mind and be thus respected. The concepts of sociological research should be properly extended, becoming more "outdoor" and more "fighting". The sociology as a whole will (should) become a very important field of modern human thought.

**Category:** Mind Science

[195] **viXra:1405.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-11 15:17:45*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The current spdf-QM electron orbital model is a forced one based on the precepts of a spherical starting point that requires that macro-physical laws no longer apply. For atoms to actually bond to one another, atomic orbitals have to be “hybridized”. π-bonds formed by overlapped, unhybridized, p-orbitals may make sense mathematically, assuming spin-reversal electron pairing actually occurs, but the nebulous clouds hardly make sense from a 3D, real world, perspective with mobile, interacting electrons. This paper looks at the sp-QM orbital hybridization from a 3D perspective, carries that hybridization a step further with split p's, and offers an alternative.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[194] **viXra:1405.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-11 19:02:40*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

O geometrie Smarandache este o geometrie în care cel puțin o axiomă este fie validată și invalidată, sau numai invalidată dar în multiple feluri (în cadrul aceluiași spațiu geometric).
Vom construi un model de geometrie Smarandache în care axioma paralelelor este validată pentru unele drepte și puncte, și invalidată pentru alte drepte și puncte.

**Category:** Geometry

[193] **viXra:1405.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-11 19:30:31*

**Authors:** editors Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu

**Comments:** 217 Pages.

The life of human beings is a place of communication. Consequently, any cognitive and cogitative manifestation presents a route of communication.
People consume their lives relating by communicational.
Some communicational relationships are contradictory, others are neutral, since within the manifestations of life there are found conflicts meanings and/or neutral meanings.
Communicational relations always comprise a set of neutral, neutrosophic meanings. Particularly, we talk about scientific sculptural communication, esthetic communication and so on, as specific manifestations of life.
It can be asserted that in any communication there are routes of access and neutrosophic routes.
Any communication is traversed by neutrosophic routes of communication.
[F. Smarandache & S. Vladutescu]
The book has 10 chapters written by the following authors and co-authors: Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu, Ioan Constantin Dima, Mariana Man, Alexandra Iorgulescu, Alina Tenescu, Madalina Strechie, Daniela Gifu, MIhaela Gabriela Paun, Maria Nowicka-Skowron, Sorin Mihai Radu, Janusz Grabara, Ion Cosmescu, and Bianca Teodorescu.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[192] **viXra:1405.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-11 19:55:14*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 11 pages. This is a compilation of results from viXra:1312.0010 and viXra:1305.0024 with minor updates.

We propose a modification of Einstein-Cartan gravity equations. The modified
cosmology departs from the standard model of cosmology for small Hubble parameter.
A characteristic Hubble scale h0, which is intrinsically related to cosmological
constant, marks the boundary between the validity domains of the standard model of
cosmology and modified cosmology. Such a role for h0 is similar to Planck’s constant
in the quantum/classical context, or to the speed of light c in the relativity/classical
context. For large Hubble parameter, the standard model of cosmology is restored.
In the opposite limit of small Hubble parameter, which is the case for present epoch,
Lorentz-violating effects would manifest themselves. One of the implications is that
there may be no need to invoke dark matter to account for cosmological mass discrepancies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[191] **viXra:1405.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-12 01:59:06*

**Authors:** Elliott Prather

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Introduces a concept known as Jialency as a form of Enthalpy. Jialency can be used to better understand thermal energy transfer, radiation, time dilation and the nature of entropy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[190] **viXra:1405.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-12 02:40:33*

**Authors:** Elliott Prather

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is a compilation of three different publications relating to the theory of spatial relativity created to better present the overall concept to the community.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[189] **viXra:1405.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-11 12:53:27*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The theory of the universe following the 8-fold SU(3) symmetry of life (see viXra 1310.0261) requires that before the big bang when the arrow of time was inactive E8 symmetry was an unbroken symmetry and the concept of negative intrinsic (-mc2) energy was viable. The graviton was inactive hence there was no gravity but in its place were three new gauge bosons and associated forces which led to fermibosonic matter entity production and the big bang phenomenon. The big bang was a universe-wide U(1) electromagnetic event which broke the perfect E8 symmetry then existing and caused our universe with its familiar gravity to begin

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[188] **viXra:1405.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-30 14:25:09*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

If electromagnetic radiation is transmitted from A to B, the total received amplitude is calculated from the sum of secondary waves of the Fresnel zones. Whenever the electromagnetic wave packet crosses a thin plasma, the free electrons are accelerated and therefore radiate undirected energy which is taken from the wave packet. In dense plasma, this frequency reduction has already been proven5. The wave packet does not change its direction, but its frequency will be reduced. The Hubble constant is replaced by H0 = c w ne. The correct relationship between distance and redshift is D = z/(w ne). The redshift is no scattering effect and does not depend on ω and λ. The measured values of dispersion measure (radio astronomy) and redshift (optical astronomy) depend on each other: z = w∙DM

**Category:** Astrophysics

[187] **viXra:1405.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-10 13:04:08*

**Authors:** Paris S. Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 36 Pages. This is a very nearly finished draft of my paper ready for publication. References to be added shortly.

The High Temperature Superconductors consist of planes of antiferromagnetic spin texture that when doped create a material capable of phase transitioning into a superconducting state. From this it is reasoned that a spin field must be incorporated into the model. The generation of a spin field, and the interaction of the net momentum with the electromagnetic field are then considered, as well as the implications for a covariant gener- alization of quantum mechanics in the setting of this field of spins, with the question in mind of: "How does the eigenstate condition change in the context of a model which incorporates a field of spin and an electromagnetic interaction?" This is shown via the covariant differential to lead directly to the principle of a reversed potential between particles interior to a superconductor. From this it is argued that an effect of mutual and relative cur- vature arises between charged particles in the spin field by way of the electromagnetic interaction. As a whole this description is predictive of pairing, the diamagnetic effect, the condition of zero magnetic field interior to a superconductor, and the gap. It is established that the states internal to a superconductor are in inertial freefall with respect to the spin field and under the influence of the electromagnetic potential. From this, we must move to a new viewpoint where the variables of spin curvature momentum and orbital momentum are treated in a manner such that they are in a zero-sum relationship. The attractive interaction in superconductivity and gap is motivated by the displacement of and reciprocation of quantum mechanical particle only orbital energy momentum and spin curvature energy momentum under comparison of different accelerative frames with the presence of an electromagnetic potential. The frame difference under acceleration by the electromagnetic field is found to amount to the effect of a lowering and raising operator under the covariant two particle Dirac equation in the presence of a spin field, which explains the appearance of a pairing gap, while the condensation gap is given by the reciprocal process of motion of charge pairs apart. From here the discussion is taken over to that of the Cosmological Constant. For this, there exists a scale in both the description of quantum mechanics and general relativity. For instance there is

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[186] **viXra:1405.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-10 11:29:35*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The position of points in Spaces presupposes Energy [22] → Point , which is nothing and has not any Position may be anywhere in Space , therefore , the Primary point A being nothing also in no Space , is the only Point and nowhere i.e. Primary Point is the only Space and from this all the others which have Position , therefore is the only Space and to exist point A at a second point B somewhere else , point A must move at point B , where then A ≡ B ← Point B is the Primary Anti-Space which Equilibrium point A in [PNS]=[A≡ B] . The position of points in [PNS] creates the infinite dipole and all quantum quantities which acquire the Potential difference and the Intrinsic moment Λ in the three Spatial dimensions (x , y , z) and on the infinite points of the ( i ) Layers at these points , which exist from the other Layers of the Primary Space Anti-Space and Sub-Space , and this because Spaces = monads = quaternion = Wave [24] . Since Primary point A is the only Space , then exists the Principle of Virtual Displacements W = ∫P.ds = 0 or [ds .(PA + P B) = 0] i.e. for any ds > 0 Impulse P = ( PA + P B ) = 0 . All points may exist with P = 0 and also with P ≠ 0 , ( P A + P B = 0 ) in ( PNS) , for all points in Spaces and Anti – Spaces , therefore [PNS] is self created , and because at each point may exist also
P ≠ 0, then [PNS] is a (perfectly elastic) Field with infinite points which have a ± Charge with P = 0 → P = Λ → ∞ . Beyond Planck scale , Energy is dissipated as Temperature in this , Perfect Elastic , Configuration in individual particles with 0 < ds < 10 - 35 m as monads the units AiBi = ds- , which equilibrium by the Primary Anti–Space by an Inner Impulse (P) at edges A,B where P i A + P i B ≠ 0 , and ds = 0 → N → ∞ following the ideal Gas equation [Λ= nRT/V] of Entropy in Thermodynamics (perfectly elastic) . Monad A-B is the ENTITY and [A,B – P –A , P -B ] is the LAW , so Entities are embodied with the Laws and is quaternion A- B , and law |AB| = length of points A , B and imaginary part forces P –A , P –B . Monads = Quantum = ds = AB / ( n= ∞ → 0) = [a ± b.i] = 0 → ∞ create Spaces (S) , Anti-Spaces ( A-S) and Sub-Spaces (S-S) of AB , which Sub-Spaces are Bounded Spaces , Anti-Spaces and Sub Spaces in it and are not purely spatial because are Complex numbers which exist for all Spaces since dsn is Complex number also , in a specific number of independent moles called , Fermions and Bosons , with F = qE+qv- xB = q[ E+v- xB ] the Lorentz force in Electromagnetic crossed fields E ,B.
Dipole A- B = [λ , Λ] in [PNS] are composed of the two elements λ , Λ which are created from points A , B only where Real part |AB| = λ= wavelength (dipoles ) and from the embodied Work the Imaginary part W=∫P.ds = (r.dP) = r–x p- = I.w = [λ.p] = λΛ = k2 , where momentum Λ= p and Forces dP = P –A ,P -B are the stationary sources of the Space Energy field [22-25] . EulerÁs rotation in 3D space is represented by an axis (vector) and an angle of rotation , which is a property of complex numbers and defined as z = [ s ± v-.i ] where s , |v-| are real numbers and i the imaginary part such that i² = -1. Extending imaginary part of dipole to the three dimensions v-1 i , v-2 j , v-3 k → v-.Ñi then becomes quaternion . In [24] monad [ 0,Λ ] = Energy is dissipated on points and on quantized spaces smaller < and > greater to Planck scale . The moving charges is velocity v- created from the rotating Energy momentum vector [Λ = Ω = (λ.P) = ± Spin] which creates on monads the Centrifugal force (Ff) , the equal and opposite to it Centripetal force (Fp) and acceleration ā is mapped [and because of the viscous (semi-elastic) is damped] on the ⊥ to Λ plane as → v- E||dP and v- B ^ dP ← following Kirchhoff 's circuit R ,L,C rules with circuits , the Sub-spaces of the tiny monads .
The kinetic rotated energy in the viscously damped configuration ( as a Lagrange's Ray light viscously damped system ) is dissipated as Electromagnetism and when v-E- = 0 , momentum Λ- = m v- only , is exerting the velocity vector v-B to the dipole vector , λ , and the generalized mass M (the reaction to the change of velocity v-) creating component forces FE||dP -.v- and FB ^ dP – xv- in the non-viscous damped monads ( the solids ) . Energy in a vibrating System is either damped (or dissipated) into Heat which is another type of energy [Energy ,momentum vector Λ.λ is then damped on the perpendicular to Λ plane , as this is a Spring-mass System , with viscous dumping , on co variants Energy E , mass M , velocity v- or radiated away . Spin =Λ= r-.m.u- r is the rotating energy of the oscillatory system . Oscillatory motion is the simplest case of Energy dissipation of Work embodied in dipole . In any vibratory system , Energy k = λΛ is Spin of Dipole λ , and is dissipated in the three quantized Planck Spaces 0 < λ < 10 \34,
(10 \ 34 < λ < 10 34 ) , λ > 10 34 m and damped as the linear momentum vector Λ = M.v̄ in them ,
i.e The only < Space - Energy Configuration > is a constant Sinusoidal Potential System . [28]

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[185] **viXra:1405.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-25 03:47:21*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: this article put forward a model of the neutron based on π-mesons

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[184] **viXra:1405.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-10 00:44:08*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article raises some important points about our number system and mathematics.

**Category:** Number Theory

[183] **viXra:1405.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-13 09:34:09*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article raises some important points about algebra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[182] **viXra:1405.0202 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-13 09:26:34*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article raises some important points about logic, e.g., mathematical logic.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[181] **viXra:1405.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-10 01:13:05*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article raises some important points about the economy and economic policies, and proposes some important solutions.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[180] **viXra:1405.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-09 07:11:53*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Few interesting properties which distinquish twin primes from the general set of primes there are already known. I wrote myself an article regarding an interesting property of a set of (pairs of) twin primes based on the sum of the digits of the lesser (implicitly greater) prime from a pair of twin primes. This paper notes a property regarding twin primes based on their digital root.

**Category:** Number Theory

[179] **viXra:1405.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-12 18:19:18*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 20 pages. 7 figures. All replacements by now are because of new gravity.

Natural structure is unique and galaxies are natural structure. In our previous work, we showed that rational structure is unique. In this paper, the unique two-parameter rational structure is used to model barred galaxies. The model fits to galaxy images satisfactorily and the prediction on galaxy arms is consistent with observation. Today the accepted theory applied to galaxies is Newton's universal gravity which, however, fails to galactic observation generally. Accordingly, dark matter was introduced but has never been observed. A simple glimpse of the images of edge-on spiral galaxies suggests that Newton's concept of action at a distance should be rejected. It is hard to imagine that the stars far away from the galaxy center suffer an instant force from the center. In our previous work we suggested a new universal gravity which generalizes Newton's one and is uniquely determined by rational structure. The new gravity results from local curvature of Darwin surfaces and simply explains the kinematic phenomenon of constant rotation curves. In this paper, a preliminary study on the new gravity with Poisson's equation is presented which verifies the phenomenon.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[178] **viXra:1405.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 18:20:48*

**Authors:** Marouane Rhafli

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This study presents an approval to the Beal’s conjecture, we’ll show that this conjecture is true and give a formula that give the common prime factor, some testing examples will be exposed and the theorem is given at the end.

**Category:** Number Theory

[177] **viXra:1405.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:30:55*

**Authors:** Blanca E. Carvajal-Gámez, Francisco J. Gallegos-Funes, José Luis López-Bonilla, René Cruz-Santiago

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we present a novel method for hidden information in the wavelet domain. The proposed method uses the wavelet domain iterative center weighted median algorithm to estimate the noise areas of an RGB image. We propose to use the noise pixels as places to hidden information to provide good invisibility and fine detail preservation of processed images. The proposed method consistently identifies if the wavelets coefficients of an image contains noise pixels or not, this algorithm works with variances and standard deviations of the same wavelet coefficients of image. The experimental results from a known technique are compared with the proposed method to demonstrate its performance in terms of objective and subjective sense.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[176] **viXra:1405.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:33:52*

**Authors:** Feng Cheng Chang

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

An efficient technique is developed to simplify the computations in the field of vector analysis. The evaluation of vector algebraic and differential operations becomes more simple and straightforward by simply transforming the vector operations into matrix operations. The matrix operations are especially useful when there are mixed coordinate basis involved in the vector operations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[175] **viXra:1405.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:35:43*

**Authors:** J. López-Bonilla, A. Hernández-Galeana, J. Rivera-Rebolledo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is shown explicitly a similarity transformation to diagonalize the rotation matrix.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[174] **viXra:1405.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:36:44*

**Authors:** Guangbin Wang, Fuping Tan, Ting Wang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we discuss the convergence of GAOR method to solve
linear system when the coefficient matrix is a weighted strictly doubly diagonally
dominant matrix. Moreover, we show that our results are better than previous ones
by using two numerical examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[173] **viXra:1405.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:39:42*

**Authors:** B.K. Dutta, L.K. Arora

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we investigate the basic analogue of a new
hypergeometric function, which is a generalization of the basic I-function. In
this regard, the application of Riemann-Liouville and Weyl fractional q-integral
operator with new hypergeometric function has been discussed. Similar result
obtained by other authors follows as special cases of our findings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[172] **viXra:1405.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:40:20*

**Authors:** Baoguang Tian, Chunyun Sheng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is an important problem to study the correlativity of two random variables. The
correlation coefficient can be used to measure the correlativity of two random variables and the
generalized correlation coefficient can be used to measure the correlativity of two random vectors .
In this paper, The property of Moore Penrose generalized inverse has been proved and we make
use of it to mainly discuss the property of generalized correlation coefficient of two random vectors
and obtain some meaningful results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[171] **viXra:1405.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:40:59*

**Authors:** Basheer Mohamad Al-Maqaleh

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Automated discovery of rules is, due to its applicability, one of the most fundamental and important method in Knowledge Discovery in Databases(KDD). It has been an active research area in the recent past. This paper presents a classification algorithm based on Evolutionary Approach(EA) that discovers interesting classification rules in the form If P Then D. A flexible encoding scheme, genetic operators and a suitable fitness function to measure the goodness of rules are proposed for effective evolution of rule sets. The proposed algorithm is validated on several datasets of UCI data set repository and the experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for automated rule mining.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[170] **viXra:1405.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:42:37*

**Authors:** Naji Qatanani, Mai Musmar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This article is concerned with the formulation and analytical solution of equations for modeling a steady two-dimensional MHD flow of an electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid in porous media in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The governing equations, namely, Navier-Stokes equations and the Darcy-Lapwood-Brinkman model are employed for the flow through the porous media. The solutions obtained for the Riabouchinsky-type flows are then classified into different types.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[169] **viXra:1405.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:44:04*

**Authors:** J. C. Prajapati, A. K. Shukla

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The principal aim of the paper is to introduce the
various generalizations of Shukla-Prajapati functions and
polynomials. For these new functions and polynomials their
various properties including usual differentiation and integration,
Integral transforms, Generalised hypergeometric series form,
Mellin – Barnes integral representation, Recurrence relations,
Integral representation, Decomposition, Fractional calculus
operators properties, generating relations, bilateral generating
relation and finite summation formulae of new class of
polynomials also established.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[168] **viXra:1405.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:45:52*

**Authors:** Anirudh Pradhan, Shyam Sundar Kumhar, Padmini Yadav, Kanti Jotania

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A new class of LRS Bianchi type VI0 cosmological models with free gravitational elds and a
variable cosmological term is investigated in presence of perfect
uid as well as bulk viscous
uid. To get
the deterministic solution we have imposed the two dierent conditions over the free gravitational elds.
In rst case we consider the free gravitational eld as magnetic type whereas in second case `gravitational
wrench' of unit `pitch" is supposed to be present in free gravitational eld. The viscosity coecient of bulk
viscous
uid is assumed to be a power function of mass density. The eect of bulk viscous
uid distribution
in the universe is compared with perfect
uid model. The cosmological constant is found to be a positive
decreasing function of time which is corroborated by results from recent observations. The physical and
geometric aspects of the models are discussed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[167] **viXra:1405.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:46:59*

**Authors:** Talat Körpınar, Essin Turhan, J. López-Bonilla

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we study focal curve of biharmonic curves in the SL R 2 . Finally, we find out their explicit parametric equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[166] **viXra:1405.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:47:50*

**Authors:** Luis A. Iturri-Hinojosa, José L López-Bonilla, Daniel Rodríguez-Saldaña

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A design methodology of loaded-line phase shifters based on bulk p-i-n diodes is presented. The design methodology is verified with phase shifters based on Silicon (Si) and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) p-i-n diodes with different geometry. The responses of circuit design of 45° phase shift are analyzed. The circuits designed with bulk p-i-n diodes I-layer thickness of 50 microns reaches a variation of 4.8 degrees in phase shift responses in a bandwidth of 1GHz, at the center frequency of 10GHz. The reflection coefficient responses are less than 0.1 for the forward and reverse biased p-i-n diode.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[165] **viXra:1405.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:48:32*

**Authors:** Victor Manuel Salazar del Moral, Alberto Rafael Portillo Méndez, Javier Herrera Espinosa

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article presents the standard deviation which was calculated from experimental data obtained in laboratory tests for breakdown voltage direct current in both polarities at high altitude above sea level. For the tests rod gap-plane arrangement was used at three different profiles for the rod electrode. The standard deviation is reported in terms of absolute humidity, the profile of the electrode tip used and the electrode gap. The tests were carried out at the Laboratory of High Voltage ESIME Zacatenco Instituto Politecnico Nacional located at an altitude of 2240 meters.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[164] **viXra:1405.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:49:40*

**Authors:** Bhaskar Kalita

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this work a study is presented of the effects of mass transfer on unsteady free
convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past between two heated vertical parallel
plates under uniform transverse magnetic field. An analytical solution for the problem under
consideration has been obtained using the Laplace Transform Method 7. The effects of the
concentration parameter Sc (Schmidt number), the magnetic parameter M, the viscosity-heat
conduction parameter Pr (Prandtl number) together with variation of time, have been
examined on the flow of fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. The analytical results
have shown that the above mentioned effects have to be taken into consideration in the flow
of fluid, heat and mass transfer processes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[163] **viXra:1405.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:50:28*

**Authors:** Ber-Lin Yu, Hong Cheng

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note, the nonlinear matrix polynomial equation X^2 A 2
over complex field C are investigated. All solutions of this matrix polynomial
equation of order 2 are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[162] **viXra:1405.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:51:33*

**Authors:** G.shanmugam, N.rajesh

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we have study the some new properties of sg- closed sets in
topological spaces.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[161] **viXra:1405.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:52:24*

**Authors:** D.V.S.R. Anil Kumar, T.Nageswara Rao, J. Venkateswara Rao

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This manuscript describes that the class of super lattice measurable sets is closed under finite unions, countable unions, and countable intersections. It has been established that the product two lattice σ- algebras defined on a product lattice is lattice measurable and the elementary integration of these lattice measurable sets are equal. Further some characteristics of lattice σ- finite measures were identified.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[160] **viXra:1405.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:53:15*

**Authors:** J. K. Mane, K. P. Ghadle

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Present work deals with analysis maintenance activity single-machine scheduling and due-date assignment simultaneously. The objective is to find the optimal maintenance position as well as the optimal location of the common due-date for minimizing the total of earliness, tardiness and due-date costs. We introduce a polynomial 0 (n4) time solution for the problem. To solve the scheduling problem addressed in this work, we have to determine the job sequence, the common due-date, and the location of a maintenance activity. We also present two special cases of the problem and show that they can be optimally solved by a lower order algorithm.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[159] **viXra:1405.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:55:27*

**Authors:** S. B. Chavhan, V.C. Borkar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the definition of two-dimensional (2-D) generalized canonical cosine-cosine
transform it is extended to the distribution of compact support by using kernel method. We have discussed inversion
theorem for that transform. Lastly we have proved some properties of that transform

**Category:** General Mathematics

[158] **viXra:1405.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:56:21*

**Authors:** Shweta Singh, G. C. Dubey, Rajesh Shrivastava

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we have obtain optimal solution Transportation problem. The work is showed is more close with intial basic feasible solution (IBFS) obtained by vogel’s approximation method (VAM). The comparison of optimal solution has been shown in this paper, by the Modi and Zero Point (z-p) method. The z-p method is applied for finding an optimal solution for T.P. directly. The proposed method is unique it gives always optimal solution without disturbance of degeneracy condition. The z-p method requires least interations to reach optimality condition as compared to the existing Modi Method. The z-p method avoides the degeneracy in the T.P.. The procedure for the solutions is illustrated with an example. Further, comparative study among the new algorithm and the existing algorithm is established by the means of sample.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[157] **viXra:1405.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:58:12*

**Authors:** G.shanmugam, N.rajesh

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to give two new types of irresolute
functions called, completely sg - irresolute functions and weakly sg -
irresolute functions. We obtain theirs characterizations and theirs basic
properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[156] **viXra:1405.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:14:24*

**Authors:** M.trinita Pricilla, I.arockiarani

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The focus of this paper is to formulate the notion of completely gμbirresolute
function which is a stronger form of gμb-irresolute function in supra
topological spaces. Further the class of gμb-closed sets are utilized to define the
applications namely strongly gμb-normal space, strongly gμb-regular space, mildly gμbregular
spaces and some of their characterizations are obtained.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[155] **viXra:1405.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:16:01*

**Authors:** T. Jayakumar, K. Kanagarajan, S. Indrakumar

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper we study a numerical solution for Nth-order fuzzy
differential equations based on Seikkala derivative with initial value problem.
The Runge-Kutta Nystrom method is used for the numerical solution of this
problem and the convergence and stability of the method is proved. By this
method, we can obtain strong fuzzy solution. This method is illustrated by
solving examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[154] **viXra:1405.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:17:34*

**Authors:** Mehsin Jabel Atteya, Dalal Ibraheem Rasen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to use the idea of finding the unlimited integration of the product of powers of the (sinz) and (cosz)-functions, and the product of powers of the (tanz) and (secz)-functions to derive tow trigonometrically identities.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[153] **viXra:1405.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:18:30*

**Authors:** Mehsin Jabel Atteya, Dalal Ibraheem Rasen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study and investigate some results concerning derivation d on semiprime near-ring N , we obtain d is commuting (resp.centralizing on N) on N.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[152] **viXra:1405.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:19:26*

**Authors:** Sümeyye GÜR, Süleyman ŞENYURT

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, firstly we have defined the involute curves of the dual
spacelike curve 1 M
with a dual timelike binormal in dual Lorentzian space
3
1 ID We
have seen that the dual involute curve 2 M must be a dual spacelike curve with a dual
spacelike or timelike binormal vector. Secondly,the relationship between the Frenet
frames of couple the spacelike – spacelike involute – evolute dual curve has been
found and finally some new characterizations related to the couple of the dual curve
has been given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[151] **viXra:1405.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:20:25*

**Authors:** Badrinath E. Ghonge, Kirtiwant P. Ghadle

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The present work deals with transient thermoelastic problem of a semi infinite hollow cylinder to determine the temperature, displacement and thermal stresses with the stated conditions. The transient heat conduction equation with stated conditions is solved by using Marchi-Zgrablich transform and Fourier Sine transform simultaneously and the results for temperature distribution, heat flux distribution, displacement and thermal stress functions are obtained in terms of infinite series of Bessel's function. These results solved for special case by using Math-Cad 2007 software and presented graphically by using Origin software.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[150] **viXra:1405.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:21:28*

**Authors:** S. Balasubramanian, M. Laxmi Sarada

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The object of the present paper is to study the basic properties of Almost contra−gpr−continuous functions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[149] **viXra:1405.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:22:38*

**Authors:** S. Balasubramanian, M. Lakshmi Sarada

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we discuss new type of closed and open mappings called gpr-closed and gpr-open mappings; its properties and interrelation with other such functions are studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[148] **viXra:1405.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:24:18*

**Authors:** D.Sasikala, I.Arockiarani

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of J- locally- closed sets in bigeneralized topologi-cal spaces and study some of their properties. Using these concepts, some of the generalizations of pairwise LC-continuous maps in bigeneralized topological spaces are defined and their characteri-zations are investigated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[147] **viXra:1405.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:25:17*

**Authors:** Weimin Zhang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Using a new transformation, the compacton-like and solitary patterns-like solutions of
the L-DBM equation are obtained

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[146] **viXra:1405.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:26:21*

**Authors:** Yihao Guo, Xiangjuan Yao

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

LetG be an undirected graph, A be an (additive) abelian
group and
* A = A- {0}.A graph G is A -connected if G has an
orientation D(G) such that for every function b :V(G) ® A
satisfyinvÎ V(G),b(v) =0, there is a function
* f : E(G) ® A such
that at each vertex v Î V(G), ( ) ( )
e ED v f e + Î å - ( ) ( )
e ED v f e - Î å =b(v) .
In this study, we proved that if G has an odd cycle C and for every
vertex ( ), ( ) 3 C vÎ V G d v = ,then G has no 3 Z - NZF . Furthermore,
we proposed a few applications of this result.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[145] **viXra:1405.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:27:21*

**Authors:** B. R. Sontakke, A. A. Navalekar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper is concern with direct steady-state thermoelastic problem
to determine the temperature, displacement and stress functions of a thin
annular disc of thickness 2h , occupying the space
D: a r b,h z h with the stated boundary conditions. The finite
Hankel transform techniques have been used.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[144] **viXra:1405.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:31:59*

**Authors:** S. Balasubramanian, C. Sandhya

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper we tried to introduce a new variety of
continuous and open functions called Somewhat almost sg-continuous
functions and Somewhat almost sg-open functions. Its basic properties
are discussed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[143] **viXra:1405.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:39:24*

**Authors:** S. Balasubramanian, P.Aruna Swathi Vyjayanthi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The object of the paper is to study basic properties of Almost v-continuity.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[142] **viXra:1405.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:40:18*

**Authors:** S. Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The object of the paper is to study basic properties of Almost
contra vg-continuous functions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[141] **viXra:1405.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:41:11*

**Authors:** R.B. Sharma, K. Saroja

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The aim of the present paper is to introduce two new subclasses of p-valent
functions with complex order. The coefficient inequalities and Fekete-Szego inequality
for the functions in these classes are also obtained.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[140] **viXra:1405.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:41:53*

**Authors:** Shanliang Zhu

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, The author studies the existence of bounded nonoscillatory solutions of a class of forced higher order nonlinear neutral dynamic
equations on a time scale
T
. By using fixed point theorem and some new
techniques, the author obtains sufficient conditions for the existence of nonoscillatory solutions for general
()
i
pt
,
()
i
fx
and
() qt
which means
that they are allowed oscillate. The results not only generalize and improve the
known results stated for differential and difference equations, but also improve
some of the results for dynamic equations on time scales. An example is
included to illustrate the results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[139] **viXra:1405.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:55:56*

**Authors:** Kirtiwant P. Ghadle, Priyanka B. Gaikwad

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, in hollow cylinders it is to be noticed that all possible prob-
lems on boundary conditions can be solved by particularizing the method
described here. A new finite integral transformation an extension of those
given by Sneddon [11] whose kernel is given by cylindrical functions, is used
to solve the problem of finding the temperature at any point of a hollow cylin-
der of any height, with boundary conditions of radiation type on the outside
and inside surfaces with independent radiation constants.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[138] **viXra:1405.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:56:47*

**Authors:** R.V.N.SrinivasaRao, J.VenkateswaraRao, T.Nageswara Rao

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Total colouring is a combination of vertex and edge colouring. Quasi
total coloring of a graph is an assignment of colours to vertices and edges such that
distinct colours are assigned to adjacent vertices and edges or incident vertices and
edges. This manuscript is going to count the possible number of assignments of
different proper colourings of these quasi total graphs of a (p, q) connected graphs
with p ≤ 3 and 1≤ q ≤ 3with given number of colours using deletion -contraction
algorithm.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[137] **viXra:1405.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:58:24*

**Authors:** D.Sreeja, C.Janaki

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we have introduced new continuous and open functions called somewhat πgb-continuous
and somewhat πgb -open functions by using πgb-open sets . Further somewhat almost πgb-open sets, and
somewhat M- πgb-open functions are also discussed. Its various characterizations and properties are established.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[136] **viXra:1405.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:59:14*

**Authors:** Y.B.Maralabhavi, Shivaprasanna G.S

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The object of present paper is to study the symmetric and skew symmetric
properties of a second order parallel tensor in a generalized Sasakian space-form.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[135] **viXra:1405.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:51:40*

**Authors:** A. Q. Jakhrani, S. R. Samo, Z. A. Siyal, Habibur Rahman Sobuz, Md. Alhaz Uddin, M. J. Ahsan, Noor Md. Sadiqul Hasan

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The steady movement salts swept from the earth’s crust by
multiplicity of sources drained towards sea. Finally the evaporation of seawater
to the atmosphere makes the ocean salty. Gaseous and solid discharges from
volcanic activity, suspended solids run-off, and dissolving of materials from
deposition of sediments on the oceanic floor also contribute the high salt
concentration in the seawater. The quantity of total dissolved salts is reduced as
a result of precipitation, surface water run-off or melting of ice caps over the
sea. This study was conducted to investigate the amount of dissolved salt
present in seawater in the vicinity of Karachi. For this purpose six locations
were selected around the city; such as, Lyari River, Sand Pits, Karachi Port
Trust, Kiyamari, Manhora and PRC Towers. It was found that the amount of
total dissolved salt in seawater was more or less similar at five locations except
one place at the joining point of Lyari River. The chlorides, sodium, sulfates,
potassium, magnesium and conductivity were found 22, 18, 13, 06, 09 and 13
times lower at Lyari among other places. It is concluded that fresh water from
Lyari drain reduced the dissolved salt content near the joining point of fresh
water with seawater.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[134] **viXra:1405.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:52:33*

**Authors:** Rama Mohan Rao, P Ravi Chandra. A

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper steel and palm fibres (natural fibres) was used as hybrid fibre volume fractions with class C fly ash as cement
replacement material has been studied. This study aims the optimization of volume faction of steel and palm fibre content in class C fly
ash concrete. In this study the percentage of total volume fraction of hybrid fibre is limited to 1.0 and the replacement level of class C
fly ash in binder was maintained at 40%. In total five different concrete mixes was used. For each mix standard sizes of cubes,
cylinders and prisms were cast as per Indian standards and tested for the mechanical properties such as compressive strength, split tensile
strength, flexural strength , modulus of elasticity at age of 28 and 90 days. Compare the experimental results of different hybrid volume
fractions of reinforced concrete with 1.0% volume fraction of steel fibre reinforced concrete mix. The test results showed that hybrid
fibres (steel + palm) were most effective in improving the mechanical strength characteristics particularly comparable with concrete
mix without fibres.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[133] **viXra:1405.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:53:51*

**Authors:** Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Geosynthetic fibres are an established family of geomaterials used in
a wide variety of civil engineering applications such as pavement systems. In
pavement design, CBR ratio count as an important parameter. This study aims
to investigate effect of fibre inclusion on CBR ratio. A series of laboratory
investigation were carried out to evaluate effects of reinforcing the sub grade
soil in pavement system with randomly distributed plastic fibres. In this study,
one type of soil (i.e silty sand) and two type of fibre were used. CBR test were
conducted on unreinforced samples as well as reinforced ones at different fibre
contents (i.e. 0.1%, 0.3%) and different fibre length (i.e. 10mm , 20 mm and
40mm).The results of CBR test showed that the CBR ratio for reinforced silty
sand increased even more than two times in some cases as fibre content and
fibre length increased. The results proved that application of short randomly
distributed fibre is a good method to apply in practical projects.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[132] **viXra:1405.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:54:51*

**Authors:** Kushal Ghosh, Partha Ghosh

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The objectives of the present research is to appreciate the effect of
synthesizing parameters on engineering properties of Geopolymer composites
manufactured using locally available low calcium fly ash . Fly ash used are
lignite coal based and falls under class F category. The current research utilizes
low calcium fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant located near Kolkata,
India. The broad areas of present research include: Manufacturing of
Geopolymer and a comprehensive study on the effect of synthesizing
parameters on compressive strength of Geopolymer paste. The effect of
synthesizing parameters such as Alkali content (Na2O/Al2O3), Silica content
(SiO2/Al2O3) and Water to Geopolymer binder ratio have been studied and
arrived at certain level of understanding regarding manufacturing and
compressive strength, which will be useful to the researchers and manufacturers.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[131] **viXra:1405.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:55:58*

**Authors:** S.Kumaravel, S.Thirugnanasambandam

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The production of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) causes pollution to the
environment, due to the emission of CO2. Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is an
alternate material for OPC. Low calcium fly ash, a by-product from the coal
industry is widely available in the world. Silicate and alumina are rich in fly ash
and hence reacts with alkaline solution to produce alumina silicate gel that
binds the aggregate to produce a good concrete. The designed compressive
strength of concrete is 50 N/mm2. A total of four beams is cast over an effective
span of 3000 mm and tested up to failure under static loads. The flexural
behaviour of GPC beams and OPC beams are examined. The load displacement
response of those beams are obtained and compared with the theoretical results.
The deflections at different stages including service load and ultimate load
stage are higher and exhibit increased flexural strength for GPC beams.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[130] **viXra:1405.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:00:21*

**Authors:** S. Imnang

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to study the strong convergence of a hybrid
iterative scheme for finding a common element of the set of a general system of
variational inequalities for α-inverse- strongly monotone mapping and relaxed (c,d)-
cocoercive mapping, the set of solutions of a mixed equilibrium problem and the set
of common fixed points of a finite family of nonexpansive mappings in a real Hilbert
space. Using the demi-closedness principle for nonexpansive mapping, we prove
that the iterative sequence converges strongly to a common element of these three
sets under some control conditions. Our results extend recent results announced by
many others.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[129] **viXra:1405.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:01:40*

**Authors:** Mehmet Bektaş, Mahmut Ergüt, Alper Osman Öğrenmiş

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Special curves and their characterizations are one of the
main area of mathematicians and physicians.
In the present paper we define Mannheim curves for 4-dimensional Galilean
space and investigate some characterization of it.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[128] **viXra:1405.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:02:45*

**Authors:** R.balaji, N.rajesh

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to introduce and characterize a new
class of functions called almost
b I -continuous functions in ideal
topological spaces by using
b I -open sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[127] **viXra:1405.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:03:31*

**Authors:** G.shanmugam, N.rajesh

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of almost sgα-continuity
in topological spaces.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[126] **viXra:1405.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:04:20*

**Authors:** Abhishek Singh, P.K.Banerji

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper investigates the S -transform on the space of tempered
Boehmians. Inversion and properties are also discussed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[125] **viXra:1405.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:05:28*

**Authors:** Min Zhu, Yihao Guo, Fenglei Tian, Lingfei Lu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Let
)
(d
n
(
)
(d
n
) be the set of connected non-bipartite
( unicyclic ) graphs with n vertices and diameter d . In this paper, we first
determine the graph whose least eigenvalue of the signless Laplacian attains the
minimum in
)
(d
n
, then by by the eigenvalue interlacing property, the
problem of determining the minimizing graph in
)
(dn
can be transformed
to that of determining the minimizing graph in
)
(d
n
. Thus we obtain a
lower bound for the least eigenvalue of the signless Laplacian of a non-bipartite
graph in terms of the diameter d .

**Category:** General Mathematics

[124] **viXra:1405.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:06:32*

**Authors:** Esmail Hesameddini, Elham Asadolahifard

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper presents meshfree method for solving systems of linear
Volterra integro-differential equations with initial conditions. This approach is
based on collocation method using Sinc basis functions. It's well-known that the
Sinc approximate solution converges exponentially to the exact solution. Some
numerical results are included to show the validity of this method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[123] **viXra:1405.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:17:10*

**Authors:** A.V.N.Krishna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Here we consider one dimensional heat conduction with thermo physical
properties K, ROW, Cp of a material varying with temperature. The physical problem
is that of a Rocket Nozzle Throat of finite thickness L, whose outer surface is
insulated with a net heat flux at inner radius. The problem is solved by using Inverse
Heat Conduction Technique (IHCP).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[122] **viXra:1405.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:31:23*

**Authors:** Abdelkarim Boua, Abderrahmane Raji

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of
“involution” in 3-prime near-rings, and to prove some theorems
involving this mapping. Moreover, an example is given to illustrate
that the restriction imposed on the hypothesis of theorems were not
superfluous.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[121] **viXra:1405.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:32:26*

**Authors:** M. I. Garc´ıa-Planas, M.M. López-Cabeceira

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this work immersed in the field of control theory on a Given
a singular linear dynamic time invariant represented by Ex+(t) =
Ax(t)Bu(t), y(t) = Cx(t). We want to classify singular systems such
that by means a feedback and an output injection, the transfer ma-
trix of the system is a polynomial, for that we analyze conditions for
obtention of a coprime factorization of transfer matrices of singular lin-
ear systems defined over commutative rings R with element unit. The
problem presented is related to the existence of solutions of a Stein
matritial equation XE − NXA = Z.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[120] **viXra:1405.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:34:22*

**Authors:** Abdelkarim Boua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we correct some results of the article entitled
“Notes on the commutativity of prime near-rings” published in the
journal Miskolc Mathematical Notes, Vol. 12 (2011), no. 2.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[119] **viXra:1405.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:35:57*

**Authors:** K.Kanagarajan, R.Suresh

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, we interpret a fuzzy differential equation by using the
strongly generalized differentiability concept. Utilizing the Generalized
Characterization Theorem, we investigate the problem of finding a nu-
merical approximation of solutions. The Modified Euler approximation
method is implemented and its error analysis, which guarantees point-
wise convergence, is given. The method applicability is illustrated by
solving a linear first-order fuzzy differential equation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[118] **viXra:1405.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:37:13*

**Authors:** Deshna Loonker, P. K. Banerji

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The fractional calculus for the Natural transform is introduced and
some non homogenous fractional ordinary differential equations are solved using
Natural transform.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[117] **viXra:1405.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:38:22*

**Authors:** Kishan Sharma

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, the author defines the Aleph function of two variables, which is a
generalization of the I-function of two variables due to Sharma et al.[9]. In this regard the
integral representation and applications of new function has been discussed. Similar results
obtained by other authors follows as special cases of our findings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[116] **viXra:1405.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:39:15*

**Authors:** Abdelkarim Boua, Lahcen Oukhtite, Abderrahmane Raji, Omar Ait Zemzami

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to indicate the importance of using the
planar near-rings in the construction of the Balanced Incomplete Block Designs
(BIBD) of high efficiency, and how the latter can be used for constructing and
developing error correcting codes. Consequently, an algorithm of a program to
calculate the incidence matrix and the error correcting codes from a planar near-ring
will be drawn.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[115] **viXra:1405.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 02:13:16*

**Authors:** A.Srinivas, S. Venkataiah

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A simple mathematical model for estimating energy transfer in a solar hot water tank
fitted with thermosyphon heat exchanger and operating in a thermosyphon loop is developed.
The model is used for evaluating the effectiveness of the heat exchanger operating under
different mass flow rates. An experimental test facility for the heat exchanger is fabricated in
which an electric geyser is used for hot water supply. Comparison of experimental results with
the theoretical results yielded the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. It is found to vary
between 0.7 to 1.0 for the normal range of flow rates encountered in a thermosphon solar water
heating system.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[114] **viXra:1405.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 02:14:27*

**Authors:** Viktor Tittel, Ľuboš Bernadič

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Slug pulling occurs if a slug is caught to the punch face and
afterward the punch pulls the slug up from the die. Slug pulling is a cause of
problems. The aim is to give an answer which of methods is more effective than
the others. Researched holes were cut by using a press with various cutting
tools. Slug pulling rate was observed by an indirect method of slug pulling rate
measurement. The method is based on observation of indentations on
workpieces caused by pulled slugs. It was found that a slug is most often pulled
by common punch while on the other hand usage of ejector punches and special
dies with grooves is more effective with no pulled slug. A surprise is that
efficiency of the aeration punch has been higher than expectation. The shear
ground punch and the stepped punch are placed in the middle of the chart.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[113] **viXra:1405.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 02:15:58*

**Authors:** Dharmpal Deepak, Ripandeep Singh Sidhu, V.K Gupta

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this study, surface composite based on 5083Al matrix reinforced with nano-sized silicon
carbide particles has been fabricated by Friction stir processing (FSP). Microstructure, hardness and
wear behavior of the surface composite have been investigated and compared with those of 5083Al
alloy. It is observed that the friction stir processed (FSPed) sample possess higher hardness, especially
in the nugget zone, as compared to 5083Al. The tribological studies showed that wear resistance of the
surface composite is observed to be significantly inferior to that observed for 5083Al, as a result of
high coefficient of friction and higher friction force developed during the course of sliding wear. This
leads to detachment of hard SiC particles from the surface of FSPed sample. Microstructural analyses
of worn track and wear debris reveal that the primary wear mode in FSPed is abrasive whereas in
5083Al both abrasive and adhesive wear modes are operative.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[112] **viXra:1405.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:29:10*

**Authors:** Arshad Mehmood, Ahmad Ali Khan, Ayaz Mehmood

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper gives an insight on the suspension dynamics of the two most widely used models for
vehicle dynamics with their complete state space analysis, simulated by using Mat Lab
platform. In this paper we investigate the responses of the quarter car and a half car model as
the vehicle ride performance is generally assessed at the design stage by simulating the vehicle
response to road excitation. This requires the development of a vehicle model to analysis its
responses. The time responses and frequency responses of the sprung and unsprung masses
have been studied. The optimal solution here is the damping, which has been optimized with
the given set of fixed parameters.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[111] **viXra:1405.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:31:19*

**Authors:** Nouby M. Ghazaly, Mostafa M. Makrahy, K. R. Mahmoud, k. A. Abd El-Gwwad, Ali M. Abd-El-Tawwab

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The main objective of the present study is to optimize the
geometric parameters of wedge disc brake for improving brake
performance by applying the Taguchi method with orthogonal array
robust design. The experimental tests using brake dynamometers are
integrated with Taguchi method to find out the significant contributions
of different types of geometric parameters for effective increasing of the
brake performance. From Taguchi method results, the effective
geometric parameters to improve the performance of wedge brake are
obtained. Results of this work show that the most significant geometric
parameters on wedge brake performance can be achieved through
combination of the friction material thickness and friction material
length.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[110] **viXra:1405.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:33:26*

**Authors:** S.S.Jamkar, M.J.Deshmukh, N.A. Vidhate

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Casting is a age old production technique wherein cavities are formed
by a pattern into a porous and refractive material, usually sand, and then liquid metal
is poured into the cavity so that it takes up the shape of the cavity, thus forming the
required metal product. Green sand casting process involves many process parameters
which affect the quality of the casting produced. The objective of this review paper is
to optimize green sand casting process parameter by Design of Experiment method
such as Taguchi method. The Taguchi Method is a powerful problem solving
technique for improving process performance, yield and productivity. Using Taguchi
analysis the effect of various process parameters at different levels on casting quality
can analyze and optimal setting of the various parameters can obtained.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[109] **viXra:1405.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:34:21*

**Authors:** N.A.Dukare, R.M. Metkar, N.A. Vidhate, S.D.Hiwase

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Casting as a manufacturing process to make complex shapes of metal materials in mass
production may experience many different defects such as porosity and incomplete filling.
Gating/riser system design is critical to improving casting quality. The objective of this review
paper is to optimize gating/riser systems based on CAD and simulation technology with the goal
of improving casting quality such as reducing incomplete filling area, decreasing large porosity
and increasing yield. Therefore in this paper, an optimization framework is presented based on
CAD and simulation technology.Prepare a CAD model of part design and after converting to a
casting model, it is the first step to evaluate castability of the casting design. Then the runner and
risers are represented parametrically, and CAD models generated by varying parameters can be
used in the simulation. After analyzing simulation results, the gating/riser system design is
optimized to improve casting quality.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[108] **viXra:1405.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:35:25*

**Authors:** Arshad Mehmood, Ayaz Mehmood

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In hot and humid region, air-conditioning is increasingly used to attain thermal comfort.
Air-conditioning is highly energy intensive and it is desirable to develop alternative low-
energy means to achieve comfort.
A comparison of overall cost reduction in providing thermal comfort in a building by the use
of (i) Wetted roof surface and (ii) Painted roof, against bare roof surface .For this purpose
M.R reading hall of M.A Library A.M.U Aligarh is chosen as the subject building and the
mathematical model available in the literature have been used for prediction of roof outside
surface temperature and consequent heat transmission in the building through the roof.
Calculations were carried out for a typical summer day of May for Aligarh (India).
The difference between the wetted & bare roof and painted & bare roof is compared to
conclude that wetted roof surface cooling technique is much better than the painted roof
surface.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[107] **viXra:1405.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:41:02*

**Authors:** Arivalagan. S

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Results of an investigation conducted to study the flexural strength of steel slag reinforced concrete (SSRC)
containing steel slags of mixed aspect ratio are presented. Approximately ten beam specimens of size 150 mm x 150
mm x 900 mm were tested under four-point static flexural loading in order to obtain the flexural performace lives of
SSRC at different stress levels. The specimens incorporated 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% volume fraction of steel slag fibres.
From the experimental investigation it has been observed that the moment capacity of SSRC beams was higher than
NWC beams. Thus, the SSRC beams showed a ductile failure, giving amble warning before failure happened. SSRC
beams also exhibited a lot of cracking thus the crack width and crack spacing was small. The other advantage for SSRC
beams was deflection. The SSRC beams exhibited higher deflection under constant load until failure, compared to
NWC beams that failed in brittle manner without warning.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[106] **viXra:1405.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:41:45*

**Authors:** Arivalagan. S

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper deals with an experimental study on the properties of concrete containing fly ash .The flexural
behaviour of fly ash concrete beams with and without reinforcement was conducted in this study. The addition of fly
ash content used was 10% and 20% of mass basis. All beams had the same dimensions tested under two point load.
The experiment results showed that addition of fly ash into Portland cement improves the tensile strength and
improves the cracking behaviour in terms of significant increase in first crack load and the formation of large
number of finer cracks. However, only marginal improvement was observed in the case of ultimate load.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[105] **viXra:1405.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:42:30*

**Authors:** Chee-Ming Chan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Oedometer cells are commonly used in geotechnical engineering
laboratory to determine the one-dimensional deformation of soil samples. The
cell is simply a short open-ended cylinder, capped with a pair of porous discs,
for containing the soil. Load is applied on the sample with a lever arm
mechanism, which transfers the load from weights placed on a hanger
suspended away from the oedometer cell. In the laterally-confined test
condition, simultaneous measurement of radial stress of the soil sample under
vertical load is understandably desirable, to obtain a more comprehensive
picture of the soil’s behaviour at-rest. Direct measurement of the soil body is
almost impossible in an oedometer cell, but radial stress can be indirectly
gauged by instrumentation of the cell wall. This paper describes the design and
building of an instrumented floating type oedometer cell, which concurrently
measures vertical deformation as well as radial stress of stabilized soils. Based
on fundamental hoop strain principles, 2 pairs of micro-strain foil gauges,
perpendicularly arranged and affixed on opposite sides of the cell’s outer wall,
were connected in a Wheatstone full-bridge circuit for maximum voltage
output. The design, construction and installation procedure as well as
calibration methods are detailed in this paper to illustrate feasibility of the
instrumentation adopted. The technique can be easily duplicated for similar
rigid type cells and provide an economical means of monitoring hoop strain,
and hence redial stress of soils under loading.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[104] **viXra:1405.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:43:17*

**Authors:** J.S.Sudarsan, Renganathan.K

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The inadequacy of protected water supplies in urban centre is a growing problem. In recent years, as communities resort to buy
water from vendors, bubble top cans and bottled water became major sources of drinking water in the households and at work.
This study is conducted in Chennai city to assess the physiochemical and bacteriological quality of packaged water sold in
several key locations of study area. The three main source of packaged water includes bottled water, sachet and Bubble top cans.
At the time of study 40 key locations were identified in study area. From each location samples were collected from various
vendors and subjected to physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis. World Health Organization (WHO) standards were
adopted for calculation of Water Quality Index (WQI). WQI provides an easy and rapid method of monitoring of water quality.
Water quality indices revealed that drinking water of Bubble top cans and Sachet were found to be contaminated, comparing to
bottled drinking water, so they needs some degree of more treatment before consumption.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[103] **viXra:1405.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:44:15*

**Authors:** Mohammad Nazim Uddin, Md. Munsur Rahman

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Different types bank protection works have been
constructed along the both banks of the braided Jamuna River. Some
of the structures are constructed in the main channel and some of
them are in the secondary channel of the Jamuna River. The
structures constructed either in the main channel or in the secondary
channel are affected by failure problems. Among them two
Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) spurs (Betil and Enayetpur)
constructed in the secondary channel are selected for the present
study. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) is used to measure
the hydraulic data around the Betil and Enayetpur spurs. It is found
from the hydraulic data analysis that the oblique flow, strong parallel
flow and flow circulation normal to the earthen shank and the
belmouth are generated around the spurs. The generated shear
velocity near the earthen shank is five times higher than the critical
shear velocity. Due to above types of flow and higher shear velocity
near the earthen shank and belmouth deep channel is developed
adjacent to the earthen shank. As a result the Betil and Enayetpur
spurs frequently damaged when the flood flow comes.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[102] **viXra:1405.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:44:53*

**Authors:** R. Sathish Kumar

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Jaipur, the symphony in pink, is the land of superlatives, where breathtaking beauty and rich & culture
blend superbly. The present situation of traffic scenario in Jaipur city is quite alarming with lot of congestion, parking
problems, accidents, air and noise pollution etc. The situation is going to be more critical in the coming year and hence
a comprehensive and integrated approach to traffic and transport management is the need of the hour. The accidental
and environmental problem in Jaipur city is primarily due to high growth of personalized vehicle and private owned
public transport vehicles, so in that case metro will be one of the best option of mass transits system which will help in
reducing accidental and environmental problems.. The Socio Economic Impact of Jaipur Metro is very important issue
for people residing along metro corridors. In the present study an attempt is made to study the socio economic impact
of the proposed metro project with respect to transportation issues, business issues, tourism, health and education with
the help of Questionnaires and opinion surveys. Jaipur city represent the cities of developing countries in true sense,
hence the outcome of the present study can very well be implemented in other similar cities of the developing
countries.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[101] **viXra:1405.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:46:06*

**Authors:** Peiman Abbasi, Javad Ahadiyan

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A dense jet stream is used in discharging of wastewater and
concentrated currents into the acceptor water source. Wastewater is discharged
through the medium of the jet causes mixture between the discharged and
receptive fluid to reduce the destructive impact on the environment. Using
neural networks and artificial BP and CP intelligence algorithms, this study
aimed at investigating the influence of a dense jet fluid density which was
extended by means of trajectory curve. In this regard, the hydraulic jet data,
environmental parameters, and geometric parameters which affect submerged
circular jet stream, was collected and introduced to neural network. In that
model, data were gathered from a physical model, various tests on geometry
and different viscous flow. The performed physical tests consisting five
variables in the environmental, geometric, and hydraulic parameters. Also,
presented data to the network, was the coordinates of the (x,y) and was the
curves trajectory. The employed data were obtained from 215 Experiments,
which consisted of 1995 coordinate data for trajectory curve. Network training
data with 60% of them, test with 20% and data validation with 20% of the data
were performed. Artificial neural network algorithms were used from
propagation of error (BPNN) and (CPNN) types with different structures. In
this respect, neural networks in terms of structure and function of the transfer
function test for the up and down trajectory and suitable network is selected,
Generally 4 inputs for the neural network were defined. The interesting results
were one hidden layer with 7 neurons and two layers. The network structure of
the compound (1-7-4) was calculated. The RMSE error for the test network
with 20 % of the data in this case was 0/1425 and R2 was calculated 0/8982.
Simulation results indicated that the network is able to estimate trajectory
submerged jet which is in congruent with physical model results.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[100] **viXra:1405.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:47:00*

**Authors:** Jelena Kiurski, Ljubo Nedović, Savka Adamović, Ivana Oros, Jelena Krstić, Lidija Čomić

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The presence of formaldehyde in indoor air samples has been
detected in five screen printing facilities of Novi Sad, Serbia. Air was sampled
five times during one working week for each screen printing facility. The
sampling was conducted continuously during 4 hours. The concentrations of
formaldehyde were determined by UV-VIS spectrometry at 580 nm. The
average concentrations of formaldehyde were in the range from 0.413 to 0.836
ppm. Comparison of the detected concentration levels with the permissible
exposure limit of 0.75 ppm (the OSHA standard) and 0.016 (the NIOSH
standard) indicated that the average formaldehyde concentration in facility 5
was 1.11 and 52.25 times higher than prescribed values, respectively.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[99] **viXra:1405.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:47:59*

**Authors:** Mohammad Ali Ghorbani, Hossein Jabbari Khamnei, Hakimeh Asadi, Peyman Yousefi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Nowadays, prediction of runoff is very important in water resources
management and their permanent development. Along with scientific advances
in recent years, various intelligent methods and regression and mathematical
methods have been presented to estimate the runoff. In this paper, Two different
methods are used, Chaos analysis and genetic programming. The performances
of models are analyzed and result showed that runoff have had chaotic
behavior. Application of genetic programming models in estimating the runoff
is also studied in this paper. The data that has been used has chaotic behavior
and a mathematical model of genetic programming with rainfall and runoff as
model inputs was result.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[98] **viXra:1405.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:48:57*

**Authors:** Vijay Kumar, Kumar Venkatesh, Yeetendra Kumar

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper, assessment of liquefaction of soils by various
approaches have been reviewed and presented in chronological order. The study
focuses on procedural requirements and assessment for conventional and
computational methods. Simplified method given by Seed, Tokimatsu-Yoshimi
(T-Y) and Idriss & Boulanger methods of liquefaction assessmenthave been
analyzed. Computational methods like artificial neural network (ANN) and
neuro-fuzzy technique (NF) is also discussed as capable in liquefaction
assessment using database either from SPT or CPT results. Feed forward
network with back propagation learningalgorithm for ANN and TSK reliant NF
has been evaluated. Conventional methods with extended application using
concept of correction factors were induced in the analysis. Taking on familiarity
from past literatures all methods were critically reviewed and measures are
established.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[97] **viXra:1405.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 03:50:10*

**Authors:** A. Q. Jakhrani, S. R. Samo, Z. A. Siyal, Habibur Rahman Sobuz, Md. Alhaz Uddin, Noor Md. Sadiqul Hasan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is believed that groundwater is naturally protected from the
pollutants. However, it gets contaminated from percolation of dissolved salts
and heavy metals associated with wastewater from the surface of the earth. The
main purpose of the study was to assess the concentration of dissolved salts and
heavy metals present in the groundwater. The amount of sodium and potassium
was determined by flame photometer. Titration method is applied for the
examination of other dissolved salts. Heavy metals were investigated by
Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometer. It was found from the analyses that the
concentration of chlorides in the groundwater samples was five times higher
than European Union guidelines values. The values of sodium, potassium,
magnesium, calcium and sulfates were 5, 3, 2, 2 and 1 times higher than the
standards respectively. The amount of heavy metals was low except cadmium,
lead and nickel. Their results were 3.5, 2.5, and 1.1 times higher than World
Health Organization Standards respectively. It was concluded that the
groundwater quality was deteriorated by the percolation of dissolved salts and
by two heavy metals namely cadmium and lead.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[96] **viXra:1405.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 10:17:59*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(3), 166-168.

In this work, the claim that optically thick gases can emit as blackbodies is refuted. The belief that such behavior exists results from an improper consideration of heat transfer and reflection. When heat is injected into a gas, the energy is primarily redistributed into translational degrees of freedom and is not used to drive emission. The average kinetic energy of the particles in the system simply increases and the temperature rises. In this respect, it is well-know that the emissivity of a gas can drop with increasing temperature. Once reflection and translation are properly considered, it is simple to understand why gases can never emit as blackbodies.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[95] **viXra:1405.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 03:57:19*

**Authors:** Jagdish Kumar

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article presents a technique using system identification for the determination of transfer functions of a CMLI Static Synchronous Compensator used in power systems for the design of parameters of controllers in order to minimize voltage fluctuations and capacitor voltage balancing. The transfer functions obtained using system identification technique have been used for the determination of controllers’ parameters for load bus voltage and capacitor charge balancing using Ziegler-Nichols technique. Digital simulation on an 11-level CMLI based Static Synchronous Compensator is carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK for different load combinations using PI controllers’ parameters as obtained corresponding to identified model. It is found that simulation results obtained using identified model give good performances.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[94] **viXra:1405.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 03:58:11*

**Authors:** Trilok Kumar Pathak, Prabha Singh, L.P.Purohit

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

ZnO thin films with the thickness of about 15nm on (0001) substrates were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both as grown and then annealed ZnO thin films were oxygen rich. Hydrogen (H2) sensing measurements of the films indicated that the conductivity type of both the unannealed and annealed ZnO films converted from p-type to n-type in process of increasing the operating temperature. However, the two films showed different conversion temperatures. The origin of the p-type conductivity in the unannealed and annealed ZnO films should be attributed to oxygen related defects and Zinc vacancies related defects, respectively. The conversion of the conductivity type was due to the annealing out of the correlated defects. Moreover, p-type ZnO films can work at lower temperature than n-type ZnO films without obvious sensitivity loss.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[93] **viXra:1405.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:02:40*

**Authors:** Kumar Pardeep

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In flow networks, it is assumed that a reliability model representing telecommunications networks is independent of topological information, but depends on traffic path attributes like delay, reliability and capacity etc.. The performance of such networks from quality of service point of view is the measure of its flow capacity which can satisfy the customers demand. To design such flow networks, hierarchical importance indices based approach for reliability redundancy optimization using composite performance measure integrating reliability and capacity has been proposed. The method utilizes cardinality and other hierarchical importance indices based criterion in selecting flow paths and backup paths to optimize them. The algorithm is reasonably efficient due to reduced computation work even for large telecommunication networks.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[92] **viXra:1405.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:05:13*

**Authors:** Saman Bashbaghi, Abdol Hamid Pilevar

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

According to Daily increase of the documents on the internet, automatic language detection is getting more important. In this paper we used language detection system to classify and filtering of the immoral web pages, based on their contents. This system could detect 10 most used languages in the immoral web pages, including FARSI language. As a technique we introduce a new combined method which consists of three parts; URL Processor, page encoding processor, and text processor. In order to generate proper results this system has a voter which combines the results of these three parts. We used the immoral web pages and labeled web pages as an input data set in order to make a linguistic model for each language and system evaluation. Our experiments show 95% success in accuracy of outcome results.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[91] **viXra:1405.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:07:19*

**Authors:** Yung-Chung Chang, Chiun-Ren Su, Jyun-Ting Lu, Ching-Liang Chen, Ching-Wei Chen, Cheng-Wen Lee, Jin-Kuei Lee

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this study, a frequency converter was used to carry out variable frequency control to the compressor with constant frequency of a small 3RT central air-conditioning air-cooled chiller, but the indoor blower and cooled water pump were still kept by constant frequency operation. It is to explore the energy-saving effect of chiller compressor and the cooling fan after being carried out the variable frequency control, on the premise of PMV, the index of thermal comfort, set to 0.5. The experimental results indicated that under constant frequency operation, the average power consumption of compressor was 2.62kW and the average power consumption of cooling fan is 0.33kW; under variable frequency operation, the average power consumption of compressor is 2.38kW and the average power consumption of cooling fan was 0.29kW. After variable frequency control, the compressor could save 9% power consumption, and the cooling fan could save about 14% power consumption, with remarkable energy-saving results.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[90] **viXra:1405.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:31:46*

**Authors:** Yung-Chung Chang, Pin-Cheng Chieng, Jyun-Ting Lu, Tien-Shun Chan, Ching-Liang Chen, Cheng-Wen Lee

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This paper focuses on energy-saving operation and use of the variable primary flow (VPF) of a central air-conditioning system chiller, by means of regression analysis to determine the relationship equation of chiller power consumption and cooled water flow rate, cooled water supply temperature, cooling water return temperature, and partial load, and the relationship equation of the cooled water pump power consumption and the cooled water flow rate. Take the relationship equations as basis to identify the power consumption change curve of loads in different flow rates, and calculate the most energy-saving cooled water flow rate of the chiller and the cooled water pump in various loads.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[89] **viXra:1405.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:53:30*

**Authors:** Yung-Chung Chang, Chung-Liang Chen, Jyun-Ting Lu, Cheng-Wen Lee, Ching-Wei Chen, Jin-Kwei Lee

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The main purpose of this study is to apply regression analysis to build the relationship between flow rate and differential pressure by modeling through experimental data, and specifically use such relationship in interpreting the flow rate of air conditioning water system, in order to establish a lower-cost alternative flow rate interpretation of which the information obtained is more conveniently. For the experimental way, we installed pressure transmitters and paddle wheel flow meters in the condenser side of the chiller, air-handling unit and in the inlet and outlet ends of pump of a small air-conditioning system respectively, and then recorded the values of such device as the pump, the air-handling unit and the condenser under different use conditions as a single pump operation, multi-pumps operation in parallel, and multi-pump operation in variable frequency, to carry out the modeling of relationship between differential pressure and flow rate by actual operation data, and analyze the results. From the experimental results, the modeling equations obtained by the air-handling unit and condenser ends are applicable to a single pump operation, multi-pump operation in parallel and multi-pump operation in variable frequency. The differential pressure obtained to interpret flow rate has a high accuracy and the error value is less than 2%. According to the study results of this experiment, the convenience of flow rate interpretation can be significantly enhanced to facilitate the formulation of air-conditioning energy-saving strategy.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[88] **viXra:1405.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:54:26*

**Authors:** S.C.Swain, Srikanta Mahapatra, Sidhartha Panda

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Power-system stability improvement by a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)-based controller is studied in this paper. Conventionally, the lead-lag structure was used to modulate the injected voltage. But, in this paper, PID controller is also considered. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem and Differential Evolution Algorithm is used to find out the optimal controller parameters. Different disturbances are applied to the single-machine infinite bus system. Only remote signals with required time delays are taken into account in this paper. The simulation results are presented and the two structures are compared under various loading conditions and disturbances to find out the better structure.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[87] **viXra:1405.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:55:29*

**Authors:** S.S.Deswal, Ratna Dahiya, D. K. Jain

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

During the voltage unbalance, the resulting adverse effects on equipments such as induction motors and power electronic converters and drives on ASDs have been described. It has been observed that during unsymmetrical fault, the input rectifier slips into the single phase operation and draw heavy currents which may actuate the overload protection and trip the ASDs. The application of supercapacitors bank with boost converter to inject energy at DC-Link under voltage unbalance condition has been incorporated. The supercapacitor provides ride-through and reduces the current overshooting by injecting energy at DC-Link. Based on the designed topology, simulation model in MATLAB 7.5 (Sim Power Block set) has been developed for voltage unbalance conditions with supercapacitor as an energy storage device. The designed control technique is modeled, simulated and successfully implemented in the laboratory. The extensive simulation results supported by experimental results were provided to validate the proposed system

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[86] **viXra:1405.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:56:33*

**Authors:** Shokoofe Dashtbani, Abdol Hamid Pilevar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

in this article we review a new approach to analysis the Persian texts. This paper is studied the emotional analysis in Persian texts. Methods and features proposed in this article are compared with English methods. Recently, analysis of texts in other languages has been studied particularly in English language and many methods are presented for the rapid analysis of English texts. The method used in this paper is similar to methods used in the English language. This analysis is done by making emotional categories. The method based on emotional categorization of the semantic similarities. For building the emotional categories in Persian, we used semantic similarity and this method has been successful to emotional analyze of the Persian texts about 80 percent of the cases.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[85] **viXra:1405.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:57:34*

**Authors:** Boya Satyanarayana, S. N. Mulgi, P. V. Hunagund

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents design and development of circular microstrip antenna for multiband operation using low cost substrate material realized from conventional circular microstrip antenna. The proposed antenna is a novel geometry consisting crossed slot equal arm length with truncated edges of a circular patch. The antenna uses the feed line same as that of the conventional circular microstrip antenna. The antenna operates in the frequency range of 2.03 to 9.56 GHz and gives a virtual size reduction of 31% with broadside radiation characteristics at each operating band. The experimental and simulated results are in good agreement with each other. This antenna may find applications in WLAN, WiMax and other wireless communication applications.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[84] **viXra:1405.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:58:36*

**Authors:** Disha Khanna, Anuradha Kuckian, Ipsita Mishra, Lochan Jolly

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Simulations of a 4 x 4 optical packet space switch array based on optically amplified suppressed interference switches (OASIS) were carried out. The OptSim simulator was used to model the structure, to assess the behavior and performance of this switch array. Parameters such as Q factor and bit error rate (BER), jitter were calculated. Implications of cascadability of this switch array are investigated which improves the quality and capacity of the existing networks. Transparent space switch array is an enabling technology for implementing OPS.[1] .Switch configuration for both 10Gbps and 40Gbps systems has been proposed.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[83] **viXra:1405.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:59:45*

**Authors:** Farid Karbalaei, Ataollah Abedinzadeh, Mehran Kavyani

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

As stated in literature, when a load is of the constant power type, the voltage stability limit point coincides with the point of maximum power transfer. But when a part of load is voltage dependent, such as polynomial load, the voltage stability limit extends beyond the maximum power point. It means that parts of the lower portion of the bus PV curve are stable. This paper shows that because of the distance between the distribution transformers equipped with LTC mechanisms and the transmission buses, the voltage instability occurs before reaching the maximum power transfer point at the transmission buses. In this condition, the voltage collapse point can't be determined using an aggregate load model seen from a transmission bus, and a detailed model of distribution system is needed.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[82] **viXra:1405.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:00:48*

**Authors:** Umashankar S, Mandar Bhalekar, Surabhi Chandra, Vijayakumar D, Kothari D P

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In most of the drives applications, variable speed concept is achieved by using a back-to-back two level frequency converters. Firstly the open loop system model of ac-dc-ac converter is designed, simulated and realized in SIMULINK. TMS 320F28335 is used for pulse generation by SPWM technique. The problem of controlling the induction motors driven through ac-dc-ac converters is considered. The control objective is restricted to forcing the motor speed to track reference signal and is done with D-Q voltage control technique. The simulation is carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK and results of both simulation and actual model are compared.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[81] **viXra:1405.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:01:32*

**Authors:** Tayebeh Ghanavati Nejad, Ebrahim Farshidi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper proposes two techniques for fractional-N
synthesizers to cancel the quantization noise and spurs. This technique
has advantages over the dynamic element matching (DEM), also for
recovering the input rising edges signals during the reset and improving
the frequency effect, delay elements (Des) is inserted in the input and
feedback signal paths of PFDs. Simulation results, has been performed
to validate the claim.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[80] **viXra:1405.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:02:40*

**Authors:** Rajeev Kumar, Sunil K. Singla, A. Vikram

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is most widely used to control industrial processes. Tuning a PID controller is an important task for obtaining the desired closed loop specifications (rise time, settling time, peak time, overshoot and steady state error). This paper presents different PID tuning formulas for a third order process. They are based on the knowledge of the ultimate gain, ultimate period and minimization of integral squared error (ISE) and integral absolute error (IAE).The performance of various tuning methods has been compared by applying a step input to the given process. Simulation results show that tuning a PID controller with Ziegler Nichols (ZN) tuning method results in less rise time (tr), peak time (tP), and integral squared error (ISE). The Relay Auto tuning method is applicable when less ISE is required while Modulus Optimum (MO) tuning method is applicable when less settling time (tS) and less overshoot is required and Computational Optimization (CO) method is helpful when the desired closed loop specifications are decided by the designer. The robustness factors gain margin (GM), phase margin (PM), gain crossover frequency, phase crossover frequency and stability are considered. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[79] **viXra:1405.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:03:25*

**Authors:** Alexandr Penin

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Projective geometry is used for interpreting of circuit regime changes and mutual influence of loads. The changes of regime parameters are introduced through the cross ratio of four points. The formulas of the recalculation of the currents, which possess the group properties at change of conductivity of the loads, are obtained. The projective coordinates allows receiving the equation of the network in a normalized form as well as to define the scales for the currents and conductivity of the loads. This approach makes it possible to compare the regime of different circuits. The given approach is applicable to the analysis of «flowed » form processes of various physical natures.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[78] **viXra:1405.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:04:20*

**Authors:** Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Fouzia Ferdous, Quazi D M Khosru

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper introduces the effect of magnetic field upon the deflection of the subthreshold drain current of the symmetric pocket implanted n-MOSFET. The symmetric pocket implanted n-MOSFET’s surface potential, threshold voltage, electron mobility and subthreshold drain current models are used to study the effect of magnetic field on the subthreshold drain current deflection in the inversion channel. Magnetic field strength is varied from ±200 mT to ±250 mT. Results verify the theoretical derivations. This model can be used if short channel n-MOSFETs are used to develop the Magnetic FET Sensors (MFS) that have many practical applications.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[77] **viXra:1405.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:05:28*

**Authors:** Nanditha Sundaresan, Harisankar M A, Noby George, TVVS Lakshmi, Umashankar S, Kothari D P

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The pulse sequence required for an NPC Inverter for 3 level and 5 level output is identified and is generated SPWM technique . The same pulses are generated using DSP F28335 kit and validated using a Digital Storage Oscilloscope. This project analyses multicarrier PWM methods for a single phase and three phase three level and five-level Neutral Point Clamped inverters. The advantages of a DSP based SPWM generation over conventional SPWM pulse generation are also studied. Using multilevel inverters, we get an output more sinusoidal, and hence having less harmonic content. But since the number of devices is more, the losses will be more compared to normal inverters, which can be reduced by employing space vector based PWM techniques or sinusoidal PWM based techniques. In this project, a multi-carrier based control technique is developed by the insertion of a zero voltage portion between every two half cycles.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[76] **viXra:1405.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:06:33*

**Authors:** Atiyeh Hashemi, Abdol Hamid Pilevar

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Lung cancer is the most common fatal malignancy in both men and women. Early detection and treatment of lung cancer can drastically improve the survival rate of patients. Therefore, there is a great need for a new technology to diagnose the lung cancer in its early stages. In this area, Computerized tomography (CT) is considered as the best imaging modality for identification of anatomy's defect. There are a lot of medical image processing software tools for research and diagnostic aims, including data gathering in image and algorithms for analysis of the new images and eventually for testing the systems result. To achieve this and to diagnose the area of the cancer mass, two methods are presented in this paper, and the area of abnormality space is calculated. One of the techniques for diagnosing unusual mass is Graph classification method. In this paper, component of images are classified and displayed as a set of points and edges with graph method. In the other method, changes in colors in the surrounding area are examined. In the end, the results of the two techniques are compared and the accuracy of the algorithm is tested. Experiments show that the proposed method has improved significantly in mass detection and the sensitivity of the proposed system is up to 90%, which shows that the proposed method can help the radiologists to increase their diagnostic confidence.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[75] **viXra:1405.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:07:48*

**Authors:** Avadhesh Kumar Maurya, Vishwa Nath Maurya, Diwinder Kaur Arora

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper we have explored an optimization algorithm using Matlab for balancing energy consumption LEACH protocol to prolong the lifetime of network. In wireless sensor network (WSN), each node has limited energy resources and the lifetime of network is one of the most critical issues in WSNS. Because LEACH protocol has some defects including indefinite and unevenly distributed cluster heads. By studying the energy consumption of nodes and cluster heads on data acquisition and transmission, we propose Balancing Energy Consumption LEACH (BEC-LEACH) protocol to prolong the lifetime of the network. The protocol proposed in the present paper aims to study the clustering algorithm and take geographical location and remaining energy of nodes as the leading feature for cluster heads selection. The simulation results explored in this paper show that BEC-LEACH algorithm can more effectively balance the energy consumption of nodes and prolong the lifetime of network compared with LEACH.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[74] **viXra:1405.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:09:02*

**Authors:** Vishwa Nath Maurya, Rajender Kumar Bathla, Avadhesh Kumar Maurya3, Diwinder Kaur Arora

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Present paper deals with problems of software testing. Software can be tested either manually or automatically. The two approaches are complementary: automated testing can perform a huge number of tests in short time or period, whereas manual testing uses the knowledge of the testing engineer to target testing to the parts of the system that are assumed to be more error-prone. Despite of this contemporary, tools for manual and automatic testing are usually different, leading to decreased productivity and reliability of the testing process. Auto test is a testing tool that provides a “best of both worlds” strategy: it integrates developers’ test cases into an automated process of systematic contract-driven testing. This allows it to combine the benefits of both approaches while keeping a simple interface, and to treat the two types of tests in a unified fashion: evaluation of results is the same, coverage measures are added up, and both types of tests can be saved in the same format. In this paper, our objective is to discuss the importance of automation tool; associated to software testing techniques in software engineering. We provide introduction of software testing and describe the case tools along with solution of software testing problem which leads to a new approach of software development known as software testing in the wide field of Information Technology

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[73] **viXra:1405.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:09:50*

**Authors:** Umashankar S, Sujyothi P, Nithya V G, Vijayakumar D, Kothari D P

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper shows an induction generator based wind power generation. This system has the voltage source converter excited induction generator for wind power generation. This is one of the investigations of possible combination of the induction generator for wind power and the power electronics equipments. Induction generator is popularly used for the wind power generation. The disadvantages of it are impossible to generate power at the lower rotor speed than the synchronous speed. To compensate this disadvantage, expensive synchronous generator with the permanent magnets sometimes used. In proposed system, the VSC is used to convert the real power from the induction generator to the intermediate dc power, while the reactive power necessary to excite the induction generator is supplied from grid side through VSC only.
For the proposed system the future work may be extended by using the diode rectifier in parallel with low rated VSC. The diode rectifier converts real power from the induction generator, the reactive power is supplied from grid through the lower rated VSC. Thus the rating of the expensive VSC is minimized and total cost of the wind power generation system is decreased compared to the existing system with induction generator and synchronous generator.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[72] **viXra:1405.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:10:39*

**Authors:** Umashankar S, Ambili Mathew, Kothari D P, Vijayalumar D

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper presents the indirect vector control for induction generator driven by a variable speed wind turbine. In wind power induction generator as the input wind is not constant and is not controllable, the induction generator should be provided with specific control strategies so that the dc link voltage is maintained constant irrespective of the variation in wind speed. In this vector control method, direct axis current component is controlled by controlling flux and quadrature axis current component is controlled by controlling torque. A PI-controller is used to process the error values i.e. the difference between the reference values and the measured values. These direct and quadrature axis components of current are converted to three phase quantities with help of unit vector. This reference three phase currents is given to pwm converter which will produce the pulses. In this way, the dc bus voltage is maintained constant irrespective of variation in the wind speed. The proposed system is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink software.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[71] **viXra:1405.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:11:32*

**Authors:** Umashankar.S, Sreedevi T.S, Vijayakumar D, Kothari D P

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper presents the modified induction generation system for wind power generation. The induction generator is excited by the voltage source converter and the power factor corrected converter (PFC) is useful for the real power transfer. For minimizing the dc/ac side peak currents, the duty factor modulation control algorithm is used. This system is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. By reducing the peak currents, the cost of the voltage source converter can be reduced and total system cost can be minimized.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[70] **viXra:1405.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:12:51*

**Authors:** Yung-Chung Chang, Chun-Lei Tuan, Jyun-Ting Lu, Ching-Wei Chen, Tien- Shun Chan, Cheng-Wen Lee

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper is to study the variable frequency control against the compressor and the cooling fan of an air-cooled chiller, and continues to measure and collect the actual operating data, by use of such data as the chilled water supply/return temperature, chilled water flow rate, power consumption, and ambient wet-bulb temperature to conduct the COP analysis of the air-conditioning system. The experimental results show that proper use of the frequency converter to change the operation frequency of the compressor and of the cooling fan indeed can effectively enhance the COP of the air-cooled chiller operation, and reduce the power consumption of the compressor and the cooling fan of the air-cooled chiller to achieve the energy-saving effect.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[69] **viXra:1405.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:14:15*

**Authors:** Iman Sadeghkhani, Najmeh Sadat Monajemi, Homa Khosravian2, Reyhane Monajemi, Maziar Rezaeirad

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper an intelligent approach is proposed to evaluate switching overvoltages caused by shunt reactor energization by applying analytical rules. In a small power system that appears in an early stage of a black start of a power system, an overvoltage could be caused by core saturation on the energization of a reactor with residual flux. An artificial neural network (ANN) has been used to estimate the overvoltages due to shunt reactor energization. Three learning algorithms, delta-bar-delta (DBD), extended delta-bar-delta (EDBD) and directed random search (DRS), were used to train the ANNs. Equivalent circuit parameters of network have been used as ANN inputs; thus developed ANN is applicable to every studied system. The developed ANN is trained with the worst case of the switching angle and remanent flux, and tested for typical cases. The simulated results for a partial of 39-bus New England test system show that the proposed technique can measure the peak values and duration of switching overvoltages with good accuracy and EDBD algorithm presents best performance.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[68] **viXra:1405.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:15:01*

**Authors:** Vivek Mankotia, Ankush Kansal

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The growing demand of Multimedia based services and growth
of data requirement of wireless application lead to increasing interest
to high speed communication. MIMO (Multiple input and multi output
system) are today considered as one of most important research
area of wireless communication. Because multimedia application
requires higher data rate which can be possible by MIMO (8x8) system.
In this paper the capacity of (8x8) has been measured in the term of
Channel capacity. This paper calculate the channel capacity with CSI or
without CSI at transmitter. Paper calculate the ergodic capacity, outage
capacity and channel capacity in presence of correlation. There is
also work regarding to analysis of BER for (8x8)MIMO system.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[67] **viXra:1405.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:15:38*

**Authors:** Davinder Pal Sharma

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Indoor communications of any digital data, whether it is high-speed signals carrying multiple HDTV programs or low-speed signals used for timing purposes, will be shared over a digital wireless network in the near future. Such indoor and home networking requires high data rates, very low cost and very low power consumption. Ultra Wide-band (UWB) system has enormous bandwidth to provide a promising solution to satisfying these requirements and becomes an attractive candidate for future wireless indoor networks. In such systems, synchronization plays very critical role to ensure correct and reliable system operation. Improper synchronization can introduce timing errors during transmission that can be eliminated using a device called scrambler. Simulation and implementation of data scrambler for UWB communication systems is discussed in the present paper. Model of the scrambler is build using Matlab to perform simulation. For FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based implementation of UWB scrambler, Xilinx’s System Generator for DSP (Digital Signal Processing) tool is used along with Xilinx’s ISE Design Suite. Implementation and simulation results are then compared.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[66] **viXra:1405.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:16:25*

**Authors:** Alexandr Penin

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The problem of normalization of circuit regime parameters, choice of characteristic regimes and scale values is considered. Disadvantages of traditional normalization are shown. The method of projective coordinates reveals the characteristic regimes and proves the normalized expressions. The examples of recalculation of regime parameters are given for comparable circuits. The obtained results allow to carry out the analysis and to compare regimes of similar active two-port networks. The given approach is applicable to “flowed” form processes of different engineering areas.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[65] **viXra:1405.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:38:34*

**Authors:** Amit Biswal, Sai Ram Reddy Bhavanam, Umashankar S

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

VSI fed Induction Motor Drives forms the major part of Heavy Industries wherein the machine tools are supposed to possess varying speed. With increase in the number of machine tools in the industrial workshop, the number of induction motor drives increases. Size and space complexity involved with single huge motor limits its usage in the Industry where expansion in capacity is being planned. This necessitates the use of multi motor drives fed from Voltage Source Inverter connected to a common DC link. In this paper a multi-motor drive system has been simulated and simulation results were analyzed and compared based on the output waveforms of various performance parameters of an Induction Motor drive.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[64] **viXra:1405.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:39:33*

**Authors:** Babaria Pritul, Swaati Sawaikar, Umashankar S

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This project focuses on how to reduce the voltage variations, on a self -excited induction generator, which is caused due to variations in load. A real time model of such a circuit is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink and the changes in voltage for many different resistive loads are recorded. The voltage control is achieved adding series capacitors. This control strategy is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[63] **viXra:1405.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:40:29*

**Authors:** Rahmouna El-Bouslemti, Faouzi Salah-Belkhodja

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents the design and analysis of a new triangular structure of a coplanar circulator using a coplanar topology (CPWG) in the X band frequency. Design and simulation were performed by the ANSOFT HFSS simulator based on the finite element methods. The design is a topology with its planar conductors in the same plane. As a result, a miniature ciculator at 11 GHz with insertion loss of 0.85 dB and isolation of 20.06 dB has been designed.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[62] **viXra:1405.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:41:16*

**Authors:** Fariba Rezazadeh Falah Anari, Saeid Niknafs

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper we have tried to introduce a model for transient stability prediction of a power system with a Static Compensator (STATCOM) to add a contribution to the subject. For this reason we applied so called, Committee Neural Networks (CNNs) methods as tools for Transient Stability Assessment (TSA) of power system. Transient stability of a power system is first determined based on the generator relative rotor angles procured from time domain simulation outputs. Simulations were carried out on the IEEE 9-bus test system with STATCOM considering three phase faults on the system. The data collected from the time domain simulations are then used as inputs to the CNN in which CNN is used as a classifier to determine whether the power system is stable or unstable.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[61] **viXra:1405.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:42:31*

**Authors:** Sarbjeet kaur, V. K. Banga

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper presents a vision based system that provides a feasible solution to Indian Sign Language (ISL) recognition of static gestures of alphabets. It deals with images of bare hands, which allows the user to interact with the system in a natural way. An image is processed and converted to a Eigen vector that will be compared with the Eigen vectors of a training set mean of signs. The most important part of the recognition method is a feature extraction process using Eigen value algorithm in MATLAB coding. An image is processed and converted to a feature vector that will be compared with the feature vectors of a training set mean of signs. The system was implemented and tested using a data set of 650 samples of hand sign images; 25 images for each sign. The system recognizes one handed alphabet signs from Indian sign language (ISL). The proposed system achieved a recognition accuracy of 100 %.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[60] **viXra:1405.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:43:39*

**Authors:** Ebrahim Farshidi, Saeed Manoochehri

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper a new geometric-mean circuit for current-mode square-root domain filters (SRD) is presented. The geometric-mean circuit employs MOSFET transistors that are operating in both strong inverted saturation and triode regions and works in low supply voltage. Simulation results by HSPICE confirm the validity of the proposed design technique.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[59] **viXra:1405.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:44:25*

**Authors:** Amrindra Pal, Nirbhow Jap Singh, Sandeep Sharma

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the recent years, computer vision has emerged as a prospective field, related to the recognition of the object by a computer or machine. In the presented work, the application of computer vision to extract the features of a pea is explored. Feature related to pea are shape, texture, and color. The present work analyzes the object, on the basis of surface areas of the pea, computed from different angle. The quality assigning system based on artificial intelligence is developed. The input to back propagation neural network (BPNN) is range data, consisting of surface areas from different views of object. Surface based analysis technique has advantage that the recognition of object becomes simpler and faster. BPNN uses mean square error as a performance index. The selected network models are simulated with available test data, to evaluate the performance. The result shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach to classify the pea on basis of quality.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[58] **viXra:1405.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:46:38*

**Authors:** Asef Ghabeli Juybari, Mohammad Reza Besmi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The AC loss magnitude is one of the most important parameters for High Temperature Superconductor Transformer (HTS) design, which hysteresis loss forms its significant part. Leakage flux density includes two component: radial and axial, which its radial component plays an important role in hysteresis loss magnitude. In this paper, a shell-type HTS transformer with a very common P-S-P winding arrangement has been analyzed using finite element method. It should be mentioned that finite element analysis has been done using Cedrat Flux Ver 11.1 software. Then, hysteresis loss for this kind of winding arrangement has been calculated by means of simulation results.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[57] **viXra:1405.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 05:47:41*

**Authors:** S. Mohammad Hasheminasab, Mohammad Reza Besmi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

As energy demands around the world increase, the need for renewable energy sources, such as Micro-Grid (MG) that will not harm the environment has been increased. Micro-Grid has been extensively investigated as a promising solution to energy challenges in 21st century. The optimal generation is one of the important functions for the Micro-Grid operation. It should be noted that supplying thermal load with combined heat and power systems is one of the most evident features of the Micro-Grids which increase the efficiency of the system. In this study, the operation of Micro-Grids by considering two kinds of state i.e. isolated and connected is investigated and the results for these different states are compared together. In addition, the effect of CHP systems in a Micro-Grid and the possibility of collaboration of Micro-Grid in power supply marketing is studied. The results indicate that existences of CHP systems leads to reduction of operating cost; consequently, consumers pay less for energy. So this proposed model is used to reduce the total operating costs. The equations of Micro-Grids are solved using the mathematical analysis which is based on the application of Mixed Integer Programming (MIP).

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[56] **viXra:1405.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-06 17:44:48*

**Authors:** J. N. Percival

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Copyright 2014 by J. N. Percival

This paper reviews the 100+ year dispute regarding the philosophical basis and physical
interpretation of Einstein’s special theory of relativity (STR). The Dingle-Popper debate is
analyzed. Dingle asserted that STR could not be “symmetric, physical and consistent”. Popper
gave his rebuttal. More recently, Dotson also contested Dingle’s claim. Taking Dotson’s analysis
to a much deeper level, it’s shown that Dingle (and Einstein) were correct. In addition, careful
analysis shows that one cannot consistently interpret STR’s time dilation as describing actual
proper time accumulation. Further still, STR’s time dilation equation even when interpreted as
describing “just observed” time is not consistent with GPS data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1405.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-06 23:30:29*

**Authors:** Rahul Sinha, A. Sonika

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents the design consideration and simulation of interpolator of OSR 128. The proposed structure uses the half band filers & Comb/Sinc filter. Experimental result shows that proposed interpolator achieves the design specification, and also has good noise rejection capabilities. The interpolator accepts the input at 44.1 kHz for applications like CD & DVD audio. The interpolation filter can be applied to the delta sigma DAC. The related work is done with the MATLAB & XILINX ISE simulators. The maximum operating frequency is achieved as 34.584 MHz.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[54] **viXra:1405.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-06 23:35:59*

**Authors:** Saman Kaedi, Ebrahim Farshidii

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper a discrete time sigma-delta ADC with new assumptions in optimization of noise transfer function (NTF) is presented, that improve SNR and accuracy of ADC. Zeros and poles of sigma-delta’s loop filter is optimized and located by genetic algorithm with assumption loop filter stability and final quantization noise density of modulator will be significantly decrease. Supposition density of quantization noise as default of optimization result without need to additional circuit or filter, the folded noise in pass band due to down sampling, has been minimized so SNR will be more increase. The circuit is designed and implemented using MATLAB. The simulator result of sigma-delta ADC demonstrates this methodology has 7db (equivalent more than 1bit) improvement in SNR.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[53] **viXra:1405.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-06 23:37:04*

**Authors:** Gopalkrishna Joshi, Narasimha H Ayachit, Kamakshi Prasad

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Increasing complexity of the processes and their distributed nature in enterprises is resulting in generation of data that is both huge and complex. And data quality is playing an important role as decision making in enterprises is dependent on the data. This data quality is a multidimensional concept. However, there does not exist a commonly accepted set of the dimensions and analysis of data quality in the literature by the concerned. Further, all the dimensions available in literature may not be of relevance in a particular context of information system and not all of these dimensions may enjoy the same importance in a context. Practitioners in the field choose dimensions of data quality based on intuitive understanding, industrial experience or literature review. There does not exist a rigorously defined mechanism of choosing appropriate dimensions for an information system under consideration in a particular context. In this paper, the authors propose a novel method of choosing appropriate dimensions of data quality for an information system bringing in the perspective of data consumer. This method is based on Analytic Hierarchic Process (AHP) popularly used in multi-criterion decision making and the demonstration of the same is done in the context of distributed information systems

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[52] **viXra:1405.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-06 23:38:30*

**Authors:** Hamid Mohseni Pour, Ebrahim Farshidi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) technique can removes thermal and shaped wideband quantization noise from the output of sigma-delta modulator and improves SNR and SFDR ratios. ANC filter more than desired signal passes harmonics of input signal caused by analog element such as operational amplifier of the integrator without any suppression and this issue causes less increment in SNR and SFDR of analog to digital converter. This paper presents a technique by adding an adaptive harmonic canceller filter in the front of ANC filter addresses this issue and improves considerably performance of the ADC. The simulation results demonstrate effectiveness of this combination technique in first order sigma-delta converter.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[51] **viXra:1405.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 00:12:53*

**Authors:** Seema chaudhary, S.K.Singh2, Nishant Tripathi3

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper presents the efficient modification in the frequency response of CIC compensation filter. The Compensation filter design consist of FIR filter as cascade after CIC filter. . A FIR filter that has a magnitude response inverse of the CIC filter can be applied to achieve frequency response correction . As proposed filter has only three coefficients so less computation is required. The decimation factor of the CIC filter is M . The performance of the compensation filter depends on the value of a which is obtained by minimizing corresponding error function. Filter coefficient can control the desired pass band droop of the overall decimation filter. The resulting structure is multiplier less and exhibits small pass and droop in comparison to CIC filter. The Cascaded integrator comb filters do not require any multiplier circuits and hence are very economical for implementation in hardware and the problems with cascading faced by the accumulate .A functional model of the CIC compensation filter is developed using the MATLAB program. The paper will describe a mode composed of integrator comb pairs, and it is based on a floating point mathematical algorithm. A series of tests are carried out on this model. Final results show that the CIC compensation filter is a low-pass filter, and its frequency response depends on the number of integrator-comb stages N . As N increases , the CIC compensator has greater stop band attenuation but a less flat pass band. Paper will presented that in the A/D devices no. of analog stages can run at Iower power as compared to digital stages, they are normally more costly because of a number of manufacturing problems in such component.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[50] **viXra:1405.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:22:34*

**Authors:** Aloke Kumar Saha, Muhammad F. Mridha, Kamal Kanti Biswas, Jugal Krishna Das

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Universal Networking Language (UNL) is a worldwide generalizes form human interactive in machine independent digital platform for defining, representing, storing and dissipating knowledge or information among people of different nations. The theoretical and practical research associated with these interdisciplinary endeavour facilities in a number of practical applications in most domains of human activities such as creating globalization trends of market or geopolitical independence among nations. In this paper we will discusses the interlingua approach to machine translation. Here Universal Networking Language (UNL) has been used as the intermediate representation. In this thesis work, we have dealt with the language independent deconverter for the Bangla language it takes as input a UNL (Universal Networking language) expression. The system takes a set of UNL expression as input and with the help of language independent algorithm and language dependent data generates corresponding Bangla sentence. The process of deconversion involves syntax planning and morphology phase. The syntax planning phase is aimed at generation of proper sequence of words for the target sentence.

**Category:** Social Science

[49] **viXra:1405.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:24:58*

**Authors:** Pecimuthu Gopalasamy, Zulkefli Mansor

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In many organizations, project management is no longer a separately identified function, but is entrenched in the overall management of the business. The typical project management environment has become a multi - project. Most of the project decisions require consideration of schedule, resource and cost concerns on other project work, necessitating the review and evaluation of multi-project data. Without good project management standard practices the organization very hard to reach their target. The research problem of this study is to assess how project management standard practices in the IT Organizations are using it. The research method employed was to first identify the best practices of project management, by focusing on generally accepted standards and practices are particularly effective in helping an organization achieve its objectives. It also requires the ability to manage projects in today’s complex, fast-changing organizations, its people, processes and operating systems which all work together in a collaborative, integrated fashion.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[48] **viXra:1405.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:31:32*

**Authors:** S.A.Quadri, Othman Sidek

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The decreasing cost of sensors is resulting in an increase in the use of wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring. In most applications, nodes are deployed once and are supposed to operate unattended for a long period of time. Due to the deployment of a large number of sensor nodes, it is not uncommon for sensor nodes to become faulty and unreliable. Faults may arise from hardware or software failure. Software failure causes non-deterministic behavior of the node, thus resulting in the acquisition of inaccurate data. Consequently, there exists a need to modify the system software and correct the faults in a wireless sensor node (WSN) network. Once the nodes are deployed, it is impractical at best to reach each individual node. Moreover, it is highly cumbersome to detach the sensor node and attach data transfer cables for software updates. Over-the-air programming is a fundamental service that serves this purpose. This paper discusses maintenance issues related to software for sensor nodes deployed for monitoring structural health and provides a comparison of various protocols developed for reprogramming.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[47] **viXra:1405.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:32:37*

**Authors:** Mohammed Ali Hussain

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Electronic Commerce (Ecommerce) refers to the buying and selling of goods and services via electronic channels, primarily the Internet. The applications of E- commerce includes online book store, e- banking, online ticket reservation(railway, airway, movie, etc.,), buying and selling goods, online funds transfer and so on. During E commerce transactions, confidential information is stored in databases as well communicated through network channels. So security is the main concern in E commerce. E commerce applications are vulnerable to various security threats. This results in the loss of consumer confidence. So we need security tools to counter such security threats. This paper presents an overview of security threats to E commerce applications and the technologies to counter them.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[46] **viXra:1405.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:34:19*

**Authors:** A.saisudheer, V. Murali Praveen, S.jhansi Lakshmi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, a low-power pulse-triggered flip-flop (FF) designed and a simple two-transistor AND gate
is designed to reduce the circuit complexity. Second, a conditional pulse-enhancement technique is devised to speed
up the discharge along the critical path only when needed. As a result, transistor sizes in delay inverter and pulsegeneration
circuit can be reduced for power saving. Various post layout simulation results based on UMC CMOS
50-nm technology reveal that the proposed design features the best power-delay-product performance in several FF
designs under comparison. Its maximum power saving against rival designs is up to 18.2% and the average leakage
power consumption is also reduced by a factor of 1.52

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[45] **viXra:1405.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:35:18*

**Authors:** V.Sankaraiah, V.Murali Praveen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

As technology scaling drives the no.of processors upward, current on-chip routers consume substantial portions of chip area, performance, cost & power budgets. Recent work proposes to apply well-known routing technique, which eliminate buffers & hence buffers power (static & dynamic) at the cost of some misrouting or deflection called bufferless deflection routing. While bufferless NoC design has shown promising area and power reductions and offers similar performance to conventional buffered for many workloads. Such design provides lower throughput, unnecessary networkhops and wasting power at high network loads.
To address this issue we propose an innovative NoC router design called Single Side Buffered Defection (SSBD)router. Compared to previous bufferless deflection router SSBD contributes (i) a router microarchitecture with a double-width ejection path and enhanced arbitration with in-router prioritization. (ii)small side buffers to hold some traffic that would have otherwise been deflected.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[44] **viXra:1405.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:36:50*

**Authors:** Vinay Kumar, Abhishek Bansal

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Development level of a society is a measure of how efficiently the society is harnessing the benefits of different developmental and welfare programs initiated by the government of the day. Tribal in India have been deprived of opportunities because of many factors. One of the important factor is unavailability of suitable infrastructure for the development plan to reach to them. It is widely acknowledged that Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have potential to play a vital role in social development. Several projects have attempted to adopt these technologies to improve the reach, enhance the coverage base by minimizing the processing costs and reducing the traditional cycles of output deliverables. ICTs can be used to strengthen and develop the information systems of development plans exclusively for tribal and thereby improving effective monitoring of implementation. The paper attempts to highlight the effectiveness of ICT in improving livelihood of tribals in India.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[43] **viXra:1405.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:37:39*

**Authors:** T.Rupalatha, G.Rajesh, K.Nandakumar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Edge detection is one of the basic operation carried out in image processing and object identification .In this paper, we present a distributed Canny edge detection algorithm that results in significantly reduced memory requirements, decreased latency and increased throughput with no loss in edge detection performance as compared to the original Canny algorithm. The new algorithm uses a low-complexity 8-bin non-uniform gradient magnitude histogram to compute block-based hysteresis thresholds that are used by the Canny edge detector. Furthermore, an FPGA-based hardware architecture of our proposed algorithm is presented in this paper and the architecture is synthesized on the Xilinx Spartan-3E FPGA. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed distributed Canny edge detector. The FPGA simulation results show that we can process a 512×512 image in 0.28ms at a clock rate of 100 MHz.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[42] **viXra:1405.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:38:30*

**Authors:** N.Nallammal, V.Radha

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Face recognition is one of the most frequently used biometrics both in commercial and law enforcement applications. The individuality of facial recognition from other biometric techniques is that it can be used for surveillance purposes; as in searching for wanted criminals, suspected terrorists, and missing children. The steps in a face recognition steps are preprocessing (image enhancement), feature extraction and finally recognition. This paper identifies techniques in each step of the recognition process to improve the overall performance of face recognition. The proposed face recognition model combines enhanced 2DPCA algorithm, LDA, ICA with wavelet packets and curvelets and experimental results proves that the combination of these techniques increases the efficiency of the recognition process and improves the existing systems.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[41] **viXra:1405.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:39:33*

**Authors:** Ch. Pallavi, V.swathi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Design of area, high speed and power-efficient data path logic systems forms the largest areas of research in VLSI system design. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to transmit a carry through the adder. Carry Select Adder (CSLA) is one of the fastest adders used in many data-processing processors to perform fast arithmetic functions. From the structure of the CSLA, it is clear that there is scope for reducing the area and delay in the CSLA. This work uses a simple and an efficient gate-level modification (in regular structure) which drastically reduces the area and delay of the CSLA. Based on this modification 8, 16, 32, and 64-bit square-root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA) architectures have been developed and compared with the regular SQRT CSLA architecture. The proposed design has reduced area and delay to a great extent when compared with the regular SQRT CSLA. This work estimates the performance of the proposed designs with the regular designs in terms of delay; area and synthesis are implemented in Xilinx FPGA. The results analysis shows that the proposed SQRT CSLA structure is better than the regular SQRT CSLA.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[40] **viXra:1405.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:40:47*

**Authors:** Megha Sharma, Rashmi Kuamri

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Image compression is the growing research area for the real world applications which is spreading day by day by the explosive growth of image transmission and storage. This paper presents the algorithm for gray scale image compression using self organizing map (SOM) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Self organizing map network is trained with input patterns in the form of vectors which gives code vector (weight matrix) and index values as the output. The discrete wavelet transform is applied on the code vectors and storing only the approximation coefficients (LL) and the index values obtained from the self organizing map. The result obtained shows the better compression ratio as well as better peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) in comparison with the existing techniques.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[39] **viXra:1405.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:42:04*

**Authors:** J. V. Shiral, J. S. Zade, K. R. Bhakare, N. Gandhewar

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A wireless sensor network consists of group of sensors, or nodes, that are linked by a wireless medium to perform distributed sensing tasks. The sensors are assumed to have a fixed communication and a fixed sensing range, which can significantly vary depending on the type of sensing performed. Duty cycle is the ratio of active time i.e the time at which the particular set of nodes are active to the whole scheduling time. With duty cycling, each node alternates between active and sleeping states, leaving its radio powered off most of the time and turning it on only periodically for short periods of time. In this paper, an ADB protocol is used to manage and control duty cycles as well as regulate , monitor on going traffic among the nodes by using adaptive scheduling. Thus congestion, delay can be controlled and efficiency and performance of overall network can be improved.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[38] **viXra:1405.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:43:45*

**Authors:** A. Saisudheer

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter is widely used in signal processing and image processing applications. Distributed arithmetic (DA)-based computation is popular for its potential for efficient memory-based implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filter where the filter outputs are computed as inner-product of input-sample vectors and filter-coefficient vector. In this paper, however ,we show that the look-up-table(LUT)-multiplier-based approach, where the memory elements store all the possible values of products of the filter coefficients could be an area-efficient alternative to DA-based design of FIR filter with the same throughput of implementation.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[37] **viXra:1405.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:44:44*

**Authors:** Lakshmi Pujitha Dachuri

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In many applications retransmissions of lost packets are not permitted .OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation scheme having excellent performance which allows overlapping in frequency domain. With OFDM there is a simple way of dealing with multipath relatively simple DSP algorithms. In this paper, an image frame is compressed using DWT, and the compressed data is arranged in data vectors, each with equal number of coefficients. These vectors are quantized and binary coded to get the bit steams, which are then packetized and intelligently mapped to the OFDM system. Based on one-bit channel state information at the transmitter, the descriptions in order of descending priority are assigned to the currently good channels. such that poorer sub-channels can only affect the lesser important data vectors .we consider only one-bit channel state information available at the transmitter, informing only about the sub-channels to be good or bad. For a good sub-channel, instantaneous received power should be greater than a threshold Pth. Otherwise, the sub-channel is in fading state and considered bad for that batch of coefficients. In order to reduce the system power consumption, the mapped descriptions onto the bad sub channels are dropped at the transmitter The binary channel state information gives an opportunity to map the bit streams intelligently and to save a reasonable amount of power. By using MAT LAB simulation we can analysis the performance of our proposed scheme, in terms of system energy saving without compromising the received quality in terms of peak signal-noise ratio.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[36] **viXra:1405.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:53:06*

**Authors:** A. Saisudheer

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Object tracking is an important task in computer vision applications. One of the crucial challenges is the real time speed requirement. In this paper we implement an object tracking system in reconfigurable hardware using an efficient parallel architecture. In our implementation, we adopt a background subtraction based algorithm. The designed object tracker exploits hardware parallelism to achieve high system speed. We also propose a dual object region search technique to further boost the performance of our system under complex tracking conditions. For our hardware implementation we use the Altera Stratix III EP3SL340H1152C2 FPGA device. We compare the proposed FPGA-based implementation with the software implementation running on a 2.2 GHz processor. The observed speedup can reach more than 100X for complex video inputs.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[35] **viXra:1405.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:55:43*

**Authors:** A. Saisudheer

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Nowadays, Online banking security mechanisms focus on safe authentication mechanisms, but all these mechanisms are rendered useless if we are unable to ensure the integrity of the transactions made. Of late a new threat has emerged known as Man in the Browser attack, it’s capable of modifying a transaction in real time without the user’s notice, after the user has successfully logged in using safe authentication mechanisms. In this paper we analyze the Man in the Browser attack and propose a solution based upon digitally signing a transaction and using the mobile phones as a software token for Digital Signature code generation. Two factor authentication solutions like smartcards, hardware tokens, One Time Password’s or PKI have long been considered sufficient protection against identity theft techniques. However, since the MITB attack piggybacks on authenticated sessions rather than trying to steal or impersonate an identity, most authentication technologies are incapable of preventing its success. In this paper we take a brief look into how the MITB attack takes place how it is capable of modifying an online transaction. We propose a solution based on using mobile phones as software token for Digital signature code generation. Digital signature is known to ensure the authenticity and integrity of a transaction. Mobile phones have become a daily part of our life, thus we can use the mobile phone as software token to generate Digital Signature code.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[34] **viXra:1405.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:56:28*

**Authors:** A. Saisudheer

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Heightened concerns about the treatment of individuals during interviews and interrogations have stimulated efforts to develop "non-intrusive" technologies for rapidly assessing the credibility of statements by individuals in a variety of sensitive environments. Methods or processes that have the potential to precisely focus investigative resources will advance operational excellence and improve investigative capabilities. Facial expressions have the ability to communicate emotion and regulate interpersonal behavior. Over the past 30 years, scientists have developed human-observer based methods that can be used to classify and correlate facial expressions with human emotion. However, these methods have proven to be labor intensive, qualitative, and difficult to standardize. The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) developed by Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Friesen is the most widely used and validated method for measuring and describing facial behaviors. The Automated Facial Expression Recognition System (AFERS) automates the manual practice of FACS, leveraging the research and technology behind the CMU/PITT Automated Facial Image Analysis System (AFA) system developed by Dr. Jeffery Cohn and his colleagues at the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University. This portable, near real-time system will detect the seven universal expressions of emotion providing investigators with indicators of the presence of deception during the interview process. In addition, the system will include features such as full video support, snapshot generation, and case management utilities, enabling users to re-evaluate interviews in detail at a later date.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[33] **viXra:1405.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 01:58:08*

**Authors:** R. Obula Konda Reddy, B. Eswara Reddy, E. Keshava Reddy

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Textures are one of the basic features in visual searching, computational vision and also a general property of any surface having ambiguity. This paper presents a novel texture classification system which has a high tolerance against illumination variation. A Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and binary pattern based automated similarity identification and defect detection model is presented. Different features are calculated from both GLCM and binary patterns (LBP, LLBP, and SLBP). Then a new rotation-invariant, scale invariant steerable decomposition filter is applied to filter the four orientation sub bands of the image. The experimental results are evaluated and a comparative analysis has been performed for the four different feature types. Finally, the texture is classified by different classifiers (PNN, KNN and SVM) and the classification performance of each classifier is compared. The experimental results have shown that the proposed method produces more accuracy and better classification rate over other methods.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[32] **viXra:1405.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 03:34:22*

**Authors:** Rekha Saroha, Nirpender Singh, Rohit Anand

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In acoustic echo cancellation the highly correlated speech input signal and very large impulse response path of echo signal will slow down the convergence rate of adaptive filters if full band adaptive filter is used. To solve these problems sub band adaptive filters are used. Adaptive combination methods provide an interesting way to improve adaptive filter’s performance. Adaptive combination of normalized sub band adaptive filters is used. In our proposed method, adaptive combination of sub band signals before going to the adaptive filters. Experimental results show that the combination method can obtain both fast convergence rate and small steady state MSE by using less number of adaptive filters by adjusting step size parameter and mixing parameter.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[31] **viXra:1405.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 03:36:01*

**Authors:** Sonia Malik, Nripender Singh, Rohit Anand

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Many mobile devices compress images to meet limited bandwidth requirements and adopt Block Discrete Cosine Transform. This produces visually annoying artifacts in these highly compressed images. Most of the artifact reduction techniques blur the details of the images while removing coding artifacts. In this paper, we propose a novel and explicit approach for reducing coding artifacts in an image by using the combination of SAWS equation and Fuzzy Rules. We use FIDRM for the detection of noisy pixel and NAFSM filter for correction. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves excellent visual quality and PSNR as compared to a number of deblocking methods in the literature.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[30] **viXra:1405.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 03:37:37*

**Authors:** Madhusudhan Dangeti, S.N.Singh

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Gate Diffusion Input (GDI) is an advanced technique for low power digital IC design in an embedded system. This technique can be used to reduce power consumption, delay and number of transistors compared to convectional CMOS design. The standard CMOS and several different techniques for circuit design is compared with GDI technique.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[29] **viXra:1405.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 03:38:38*

**Authors:** Trilok Kumar Pathak, Prabha Singh, L.P.Purohit

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this study, Ni doped ZnO (Zn1-xNixO, x= 0.02, 0.04, 0.07) Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) thin films onto Si substrates by spin-coating method from a precursor solution containing zinc acetate dissolved in methanol. After deposition, these films were preheated at 3500C for five minute and then annealed at 5500C for three hour for crystallize. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) image shows the particle size with an average size of 250 nm. The analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified that the impurity phase is observed when the Ni content x reaches 0.07. With the increment of x, wurtzite structures degrade gradually. The magnetic properties are measured using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature; the Zn1-xNixO (x=0.07) thin film shows ferromagnetism. The magnetic moment depends on Ni concentration and increases continuously as Ni concentration increases.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[28] **viXra:1405.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-09 04:21:05*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 210 Pages.

Over the past 30 years or so I have been constructing Physics Models and writing about them as can be seen on my web sites at www.valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/
www.tony5m17h.net/ and on viXra - list at vixra.org/author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr
Due to experimental observations and my learning new techniques over those 30 years my Physics Models have been in a state of evolving flux - for example, 30 years ago their basis was the Lie Algebra Spin(8), then to contain vectors and spinors it was F4, then to contain the geometry of bounded complex domains it was E6, then Real Clifford Algebras were used to describe evolution from a Void Empty Set ø, then Periodicity showed the importance of Cl(8) and tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = Cl(16), then E8 emerged from Cl(16) to give the structure of a realistic local E8 Lagrangian, then completion of the union of all tensor products of Cl(16) local structures produced a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). Since my works over those 30 years have been written from various points of view it is not easy to navigate among them. This paper is being written from a single point of view (that of May 2014) in the hope that it might be easier for readers to navigate. Although the nice math of my Cl(16)-E8 model is necessary, it is not sufficient. The Cl(16)-E8 model must be consistent with experimental observations. As of now, given that most calculations are tree-level, the model is substantially so consistent. An interesting test over the 2015-2016 time frame will be whether or not the LHC sees two additional Higgs mass states with cross section about 20% of that of a full Standard Model Higgs. V2 adds details about Cl(Cl(1,3)) and Cl(16). V3 revises and expands about transition to Quaternion structure at end of inflation.V4 adds details about Quantum Consciousness and E8. V5 adds more about E8 Lagrangian structure. V6 revises Root Vectors for Standard Model and for Gravity-Dark Energy. V7 adds detail and revises Root Vectors for SpaceTime and First-Generation Fermion Particles and AntiParticles. V8 adds more about emergence of AQFT from Completion of Union of Tensor Products of Local Lagrangian Cl(16). V9 adds more about the 3-state Higgs-Tquark System. V10 (vA) adds chapter on 600-cell geometry. V11 (vB) and V12 (vC) revise and expand chapter on 600-cell geometry. V13 (vD) clarifies Planck mass and adds Ghost material. V14 (vE) shows relationship between SU(2) weak force and Chiral projective twistor CP3. V15 (vF) revises some graphics and adds comparison with Garrett Lisi E8 model. V16 (vG) adds about second shell of E8 lattice, Dixon XY product, and Leech lattice, and about Mendel Sachs calculation of muon and Tquark masses.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[27] **viXra:1405.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-05 20:20:11*

**Authors:** Roger Munday

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This paper questions the currently and generally held hypothesis that the species Australopithecus Afarensis was a fully upright hominid over three million years ago.
It considers the importance of the visual field in human co-ordination and locomotion and compares the capabilities of modern homo sapiens with the capabilities generally attributed to A. Afarensis.
It shows that, if A. Afarensis walked, ran and hunted in the manner and the posture suggested its visual field would have been restricted so that it was unsuitable for fully upright movement.
The inference is then drawn that the progression to an upright stance would logically coincide with the observed increase in hominid cranial capacity, the development of tools and other evidence of mental progression.
Thus it is concluded that A.Afarensis was not fully bipedal in the manner of man today and, if it was our ancestor, it was still at the stage of progressing to an upright stance when in motion.

**Category:** Archaeology

[26] **viXra:1405.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-20 01:47:20*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

After having defined the most important physical properties and the three main types of gravitational field and after having examined dynamics of a moving system into a gravitational field, we prove the theoretical cogency of a gravitational perturbation that propagates in the gravitational field and is caused by the free fall of a massive body. This gravitational perturbation is due to the real gravitational field where motion happens and it isn't related to traces of primordial gravitational waves recently detected in the cosmic microwave background radiation in the order of BICEP2 experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1405.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-05 12:37:34*

**Authors:** Yoël Lana-Renault

**Comments:** 77 Pages.

In the current version 2 of this article we incorporate all the modifications that we have introduced in the Aspin Bubbles project[1] and we mechanically build the proton particle and its antiparticle. The proton structure is very simple: two positons in a circular orbit around a negaton. As we will see in the article, we encounter perfect mechanical machines that meet and comply with all our knowledge on proton and antiproton.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[24] **viXra:1405.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-05 12:32:49*

**Authors:** Muneer Jebreel Karama

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The aim of this paper is presenting new arithmetic progressions among squares i.e. more than three squares, moreover to introduce arithmetic progression of higher power.

**Category:** Number Theory

[23] **viXra:1405.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-05 13:12:33*

**Authors:** Al Kelley

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Using the x increasing algorithm to select solutions d of the Pell equation, we generate an infinite sequence of integers that are conjectured to be primes. The sequence A033316 at oeis.org is closely related but not the same. Here is how our sequence of conjectured primes starts: 53, 61, 109, 181, 277, 397, 409, 421, ...

**Category:** Number Theory

[22] **viXra:1405.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-05 13:38:06*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The concept of the effective mass tensor in the General Relativity we discussed in the aspect of the gravitomagnetism. Model predicts the violation in the mass ratio during the planet year, i.e. measured from the periastron to the periastron. For the planet Earth the predicted violation in the mass ratio is of the order 6.6 x 10E-6 during the year, i.e. measured from the perihelion to perihelion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1405.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-08 04:57:05*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Proof must now be complete. Comments Welcome

English mathematics Professor, Sir Andrew John Wiles of the University of Cambridge finally and conclusively proved in 1995 Fermat's Last Theorem} which had for 358 years notoriously resisted all efforts to prove it. Sir Professor Andrew Wiles's proof employs very advanced mathematical tools and methods that were not at all available in the known World during Fermat's days. Given that Fermat claimed to have had the `truly marvellous' proof, this fact that the proof only came after 358 years of repeated failures by many notable mathematicians and that the proof came from mathematical tools and methods which are far ahead of Fermat's time, this has led many to doubt that Fermat actually did possess the `truly marvellous' proof which he claimed to have had. In this short reading, via elementary arithmetic methods which make use of Pythagoras theorem, we demonstrate conclusively that Fermat's Last Theorem actually yields to our efforts to prove it.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20] **viXra:1405.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 01:45:57*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

It is argued that the main reason of crisis in quantum theory is that nature, which is fundamentally discrete, is described by continuous mathematics. Moreover, no ultimate physical theory can be based on continuous mathematics because, as follows from G\"{o}del's incompleteness theorems, any mathematics involving the set of all natural numbers has its own foundational problems which cannot be resolved. In the first part of the paper inconsistencies in standard approach
to quantum theory are discussed and the theory is reformulated such that it can be naturally generalized to a formulation based on
discrete and finite mathematics. Then the cosmological acceleration and gravity can be treated simply as {\it kinematical} manifestations of de Sitter symmetry on quantum level ({\it i.e. for describing those phenomena the notions of dark energy, space-time background and gravitational interaction are not needed}).
In the second part of the paper motivation, ideas and main results of a quantum theory over a Galois field (GFQT) are described. In contrast to
standard quantum theory, GFQT is based on a solid mathematics and therefore can be treated as a candidate for ultimate quantum theory. The presentation is non-technical and should be
understandable by a wide audience of physicists and mathematicians.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:1405.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-04 22:55:30*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

FQXi 2014 asks, ‘How should humanity steer the future?' Recalling false obstacles to medical progress in humanity's recent past — eg, impeding Semmelweis (b.1818), McClintock (1902), Marshall (1951) — we reply, ‘Steer by Logic.' Then — with Logic in view and other scientific disciplines in mind — we amplify our answer via an online coaching-clinic/challenge based on Einstein's work. With the future mostly physical, this physics-based challenge shows how we best steer clear of false obstacles — unnecessary barriers that slow humanity's progress. Hoping to motivate others to participate, here's our position: we locate current peer-reviewed claims of ‘impossible' — like those from days of old — and we challenge them via refutations and experimental verifications. The case-study identifies an academic tradition replete with ‘impossibility-proofs' — with this bonus: many such ‘proofs' are challengeable via undergraduate maths and logic. So — at the core of this clinic/challenge; taking maths to be the best logic — we model each situation in agreed mathematical terms, then refute each obstacle in like terms. Of course, upon finding ‘impossibilities' that are contradicted by experiments, our next stride is easy: at least one step in such analyses must be false. So — applying old-fashioned commonsense; ie, experimentally verifiable Logic — we find that false step and correct it. With reputable experiments agreeing with our corrections, we thus negate the false obstacles. Graduates of the clinic can therefore more confidently engage in steering our common future: secure in the knowledge that old-fashioned commonsense — genuine Logic — steers well.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1405.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-03 14:18:30*

**Authors:** Prygunov A. I.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The noise sources of gravitational wave detectors for ground-based laser interferometers by example of LIGO were analyzed. As shown the low-frequency gravitational waves (GW) cause to changes in the detectors’ dynamic properties, which manifested as the Q-factor’s changes of low-frequency seismic component in a detectors’ integral noise that leads to the possibility of indirect GW’s observation in the frequency range (~ 100 Hz) of a detectors’ extreme sensitivity. The experimental estimation of GW’s properties by results of indirect observation is presented.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17] **viXra:1405.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-03 09:31:11*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Vedic Physics contains a concept about radiation which differs from western physics, primarily in its simplicity. This paper compares the western from Wiki to the Vedic Physics concept.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[16] **viXra:1405.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-03 07:23:00*

**Authors:** A. Bodek, M. E. Christy, B. Coopersmith

**Comments:** Submitted to Eur. Phys. J C. 15 pages, 22 figures

Spectral functions that are used in neutrino event generators (such as GENIE, NEUT, NUANCE, NUWRO, and GiBUU) to model quasielastic(QE) scattering from nuclear targets include Fermi gas, Local Thomas Fermi gas (LTF), Bodek-Ritche Fermi gas with high momentum tail, and the Benhar Fantoni two dimensional spectral function. We find that the predictions of these spectral functions for the d-sigma/d-nu distribution of QE events are in disagreement with the prediction of the psi' superscaling function which is extracted from fits to quasielastic electron scattering data on nuclear targets. It is known that spectral functions do not fully describe quasielastic scattering because they only model the initial state. Final state interactions distort the shape of d-sigma/d-nu, reduce the cross section at the peak and increase the cross section at the tails of the distribution. We show that the kinematic distributions predicted by the psi' superscaling formalism can be well described with a modified effective spectral function (EFS).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[15] **viXra:1405.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-03 07:38:55*

**Authors:** Yakov Gershman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this work describe the experiments, which shows the principal possibility to develop cheap computerized optical separator for determining the sex of one-day chickens. This can help to improve the income of poultry industry.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[14] **viXra:1405.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-03 07:57:28*

**Authors:** John P. Wallace, Michael J. Wallace

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In a study of magnetic losses in iron and steel a relativistic longitudinal spin wave was found. The exceedingly small mass and large scale of the spin wave requires an accurate relativistic description for a boson. Because of these characteristics it forms a state that is decoupled from property variations of the substrate and is only weakly dissipated. In the effort to explain the behavior of this spin wave an elementary quantum representation of a relativistic particle was found to be provided by a differential equation which produces two solutions: one for boson family and one for fermions. This local statistical quantum state equation derived from the massless dispersion relation provides a general mechanism for obtaining a statistical and symmetry description required for the definition of a quantum particle. The analysis allowed confirmation of the mass of the longitudinal spin wave from the original experimental measurements. The analysis required introducing a new frame of reference where the particles properties are generated and this allowed the integration of relativity into the quantum mechanical description as a consequence.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1405.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-02 16:30:38*

**Authors:** Marouane Rhafli

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Goldbach's conjecture is one of the oldest and best-known unsolved problems in number theory and in all
of mathematics.It states:Every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes.In this
study I’ll prove that this conjecture is true.

**Category:** Number Theory

[12] **viXra:1405.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-02 10:29:14*

**Authors:** Marouane Rhafli

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This study presents an improvement to the secant method by reconstruction,in numerical analysis,the secant method is a root finding algorithm that uses a succession of roots of secant lines to better approximate a root of function F.secant method which its convergence is superlinear is used in combination with bissection and inverse quadratic interpolation in Bren't and Zhang' method wich are one of the most powerful root finding algorithms.the new method presented in this study presents so much advantages in root finding algorithms for non-linear equations,compared to the secant method,this new method uses secant lines from 2 circles in each iteration,it the requires only one initial guess and its convergence is quadratic,this new method could replace the secant method in Brent's and Zhang's method to make the algorithm more quick and more efficient,some experimental tests presented in this study compares the performances of this new method to the secant method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11] **viXra:1405.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-02 10:39:37*

**Authors:** Jan Hakenberg, Ulrich Reif, Scott Schaefer, Joe Warren

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We present a framework to derive the coefficients of trilinear forms that compute the exact volume enclosed by subdivision surfaces. The coefficients depend only on the local mesh topology, such as the valence of a vertex, and the subdivision rules. The input to the trilinear form are the initial control points of the mesh.

Our framework allows us to explicitly state volume formulas for surfaces generated by the popular subdivision algorithms Doo-Sabin, Catmull-Clark, and Loop. The trilinear forms grow in complexity as the vertex valence increases. In practice, the explicit formulas are restricted to meshes with a certain maximum valence of a vertex.

The approach extends to higher order momentums such as the center of gravity, and the inertia of the volume enclosed by subdivision surfaces.

**Category:** Geometry

[10] **viXra:1405.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-01 17:50:51*

**Authors:** Marouane Rhafli

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This study presents a new prime number finding algorithm,in this study we will build an algorithm that can find all the consecutive prime numbers in a given interval,we will see testing examples,in the second part of this study we will prove the twin prime numbers conjecture to be true and give an equation that can give percentage of primes in givdn interval

**Category:** Number Theory

[9] **viXra:1405.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-01 19:25:18*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 11; UK English; Freelance scientist.

The strong nuclear force which holds together the quarks in the protons and the neutrons is very different from the residual force that keeps the protons and neutrons bound together in the nucleus of an atom. This postulates that there is also a super-residual force from the the gluon interactions of the strong nuclear force. This super-residual force would, obviously, be extremely weak. The super-residual force equals gravity. Gravity is extremely weak.
A radical, three-part new possibility for gravity.
[1] As electromagnetic radiation is constantly alternating between its electrical and magnetic component, so, the gravity force transmission method could be constantly alternating between its time and space length component.
space length = time * c where c is the velocity of light. [Note: not c squared.]
[2] As electromagnetic radiation is caused by an electron in a high energy state dropping into a lower energy state & emitting the extra energy as electromagnetic radiation, so “gravity radiation” (as space-time distortions) could be caused by a mass in a high energy state dropping into a lower energy state & emitting the extra energy as “gravity radiation” (as space-time distortions).
[3a] The high energy state of a mass could be caused by the expansion of the universe carrying the mass to an expanded “high energy” space level. The mass quickly “drops down” to its lower energy, “local gravity” non-expanded space level. This extra energy is emitted as “gravity radiation” (as space-time distortions). This “shrinkage in mass space” creates mass attraction. In layman’s terms, it could be viewed as the shrinkage causing a local “vacuum” which “tries to suck in the rest of the universe”. This would imply that gravity needs [a] an expanding universe & [b] a difference between “universal gravity / expansion” & “local gravity /expansion”. This would imply that if there was enough matter in the universe to halt expansion of the universe [We are a long way from finding that much matter!] it would also halt gravity! Matter would gradually become unstuck as gravity reduced!
[3b] Because there is a difference between “universal gravity / expansion” & “local gravity /expansion” this would mean a difference in the differences on traveling from the centre of a galaxy, to the outer rim of a galaxy and further out into the inter-galactic regions within a local group of galaxies. Near the centre of a galaxy, a given mass would have a larger hold on nearby masses, appearing to give them more mass / inertia and hence slower velocities. The effect would taper off on moving away from the centre of a galaxy, leading to faster velocities towards the edge of galaxies.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8] **viXra:1405.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-01 19:40:49*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This article has not been submitted yet to any journal. Comments are welcome.

Beside rigorous proofs of Fermat's last theorem, there are relatively simple approaches to arrive at the same conclusion. One of the simple proofs is by Pogorsky, available at http://vixra.org/abs/1209.0099.

**Category:** Number Theory

[7] **viXra:1405.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-01 19:41:48*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This article has not been submitted yet to any journal. Comments are welcome.

According to an experiment led by Stanford neuroscientist, Josef Parvizi, one can see what others think, at least under special conditions. See http://scopeblog.stanford.edu/2013/10/15/mind-reading-in-real-life-study-shows-it-can-be-done-but-theyll-have-to-catch-you-first/
Such a mind reading phenomenon has been debated for a long time, where some people believe in mind reading possibility while others think that it is a fake phenomenon. Some physicists believe that mind reading can be related to biological effect of quantum reality.

**Category:** Mind Science

[6] **viXra:1405.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-14 01:03:06*

**Authors:** Masahito Morimoto

**Comments:** 21 pages. Published by Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 62, page 111-122, 2017. Link: http://www.jpier.org/PIERM/pier.php?paper=17082201

We present a new explanation for a quantum eraser. Mathematical description of the traditional explanation needs quantum-superposition states.
However, the phenomenon can be explained without quantum-superposition states by introducing unobservable potentials which can be identified as an indefinite metric vector. In addition, a delayed choice experiment can also be explained by the interference between the photons and unobservable potentials, which seems like an unreal long-range correlation beyond the causality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1405.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-31 12:03:07*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 6 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(3), 157-162. (revised December 26, 2014 and December 29, 2014)

In this work, the equation which properly governs cavity radiation is addressed once again, while presenting a generalized form. A contrast is made between the approach recently taken (P. M. Robitaille. On the equation which governs cavity radiation. Progr. Phys., 2014, v. 10, no. 2, 126–127) and a course of action adopted earlier by Max Planck. The two approaches give dramatically differing conclusions, highlighting that the derivation of a relationship can have far reaching consequences. In Planck's case, all cavities contain black radiation. In Robitaille's case, only cavities permitted to temporarily fall out of thermal equilibrium, or which have been subjected to the action of a perfect absorber, contain black radiation. Arbitrary cavities do not emit as blackbodies. A proper evaluation of this equation reveals that cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the enclosure and its contents. Recent results demonstrating super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials in the near field and emission enhancements in the far field are briefly examined. Such findings highlight that cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the cavity and its walls. As previously stated, the constants of Planck and Boltzmann can no longer be viewed as universal.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[4] **viXra:1405.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-01 12:52:24*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 16 pages, 3 figures

English(traduction): Here mention that gravity is not a variety of Riemann space is following patterns
Similar to the special theory of relativity as to time warp refers . We show that the Euclidean continuum is a mathematical entelequia, and therefore has a curved surface and a single point of a plane tangent to said surface . The infinitesimal character disappears to make way for spacetime quanta, which depend on the distance to the center of the attractor mass and the magnitude of it.
Regarding the gemini speed. Perceive the distorted astronomical periods. Explaining and severity depends on the set of all
the stars that populate the universe.
It is argued that solar radiation is due to the expansion of the universe, also mentioning the peculiarities the Sun.
It explains that both local gravity, as the trajectory of a photon are few and obey forminvariantes space and time, based on all stars.
It is stated that the time dilation factor in the TRE is a consequence of the sets of star, both with inertia as electric potential.
And finally , the possibility of an even ours but added compound Universe
antimatter. Being the last over time because of the flux density of electric field.
The details of an experiment made ??with a time dilation charged sphere can be found in Appendix C.
Spanish (original): Aquí se hace mención a que la gravedad no es una variedad del espacio de Riemann, siguiendo unos patrones
similares a los de la teoría de la relatividad especial en cuanto a deformación del tiempo se refiere. Se demuestra que el continuo euclidiano es una entelequia matemática, y, por tanto, una superficie curva tiene un y un solo punto de un cierto plano, tangente a dicha superficie. El carácter infinitesimal desaparece para dejar paso a cuantos de espaciotiempo, que dependen de la distancia al centro de la masa atractora y de la magnitud de ésta.
En cuanto a la velocidad géminis. Percibimos los períodos astronómicos distorsionados. Explicando como la gravedad depende del conjunto de todas
las estrellas que pueblan el Universo.
Se argumenta que la radiación solar es debida a la expansión del Universo, mencionando además las peculiaridades del Sol.
Se explica que tanto la gravedad local, como la trayectoria de un fotón son forminvariantes y obedecen a cuantos de espacio y de tiempo, en función de todas las estrellas.
Se expone que el factor de dilatación temporal de la TRE es consecuencia de los conjuntos de estrellas, tanto con inercia como con potencial eléctrico.
Y, por último, se añade la posibilidad de que exista un Universo parejo al nuestro pero compuesto de antimateria. Siendo la causa última del transcurso del tiempo la densidad de flujo de Campo eléctrico.
En el Apéndice C se recogen los detalles de un experimento de dilatación temporal hecho con una esfera cargada.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1405.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-01 15:01:20*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 2 Pages. No rude comments please, I know the paper is short but this is just a graph

Andrew Nassif looks at the problem known as the P vs. NP and provides a conceptual graph of the problems representation through various color patterns and 3 dimensional graphs.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[2] **viXra:1405.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-19 11:51:28*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 23 pages. Jordan Journal of Physics. Vol. 8 (No. 1), pp. 1-16, (2015).

Within the framework of the covariant theory of gravitation (CTG) the energy is calculated for a system with continuously distributed matter, taking into account the contribution of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields and the contribution of the pressure and acceleration fields. The total energy of all the fields is equal to zero, and the system’s energy is formed from the energy of the particles, which are under the influence of these fields. From the expression for the energy the inertial M and gravitational mg masses of the system are found. These masses are compared with mass mb, obtained by integrating the density over the volume, and with the total mass m’ of the body particles scattered to infinity in order to make the energy of macroscopic fundamental fields equal to zero. The ratio for the masses is obtained: m’ = M < mb = mg . From this the possibility of non-radiative ideal spherical collapse follows, when the system’s mass M does not change during the collapse. In addition, the mass of the system is less than the gravitational mass. In contrast, in the general theory of relativity (GTR) the ratio for masses is obtained in a different form: M = mg < mb < m’. In CTG the electromagnetic field energy reduces the gravitational mass and in GTR, on the contrary, increases. In order to verify the obtained results it is suggested to conduct an experiment on measuring the change of the gravitational mass of the body with increasing its electrical charge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1405.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-01 04:23:54*

**Authors:** Jon Grate

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The author attempts to relate the relationship between gravity, magnetic energy, and density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology