[201] **viXra:1407.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-31 11:24:23*

**Authors:** Mark Timothy Sheldrick

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Here a simple power series solution for the path of a photon in a static, stationary spherically symmetric gravitational field in a vacuum (described by the Schwarzschild solution) is derived in the form of a power series of the angular coordinate () of the photon around the axis in spherical coordinates (r,,). Standard results for photon trajectories under the influence of gravity are derived by this method. The series solution simplifies where there is a part of the trajectory with a zero first derivative (tangent) and simplifies in a different way when the trajectory crosses the r=3m radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[200] **viXra:1407.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-31 08:06:16*

**Authors:** Jacopo Durandi

**Comments:** 26 Pages. This is a preliminary version.

In this work the usual formulation of the variational methods of Clas-
sical Mechanics is slightly modified by describing space as an interface implementing
instructions: these instructions, in the form of bit strings, determine the existence and
the dynamics of classical systems and are global – that is, their information content
is present at every point of space. These changes are then carried over to Feynman’s
path integral formulation of non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics by recurring to the
quantum superposition principle. The information content of the instructions is ex-
panded to include spin; it then follows an interpretation within this framework of the
collapse of the wave function in terms of splitting and merging of information and, as
an illustration, of Wheeler’s delayed choice experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[199] **viXra:1407.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-30 20:04:10*

**Authors:** Russell Letkeman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We build a simple recursive model for the prime numbers which at its heart is the prime sieve of Eratosthenes. We also show for prime numbers greater than 3 and their gaps posses a handedness which forbids a large range of possibilities for the choice of intervals in arithmetic progressions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[198] **viXra:1407.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-30 22:02:52*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome.

Godel's incompleteness theorem is normally applied to mathematics. But i just found an article by Michael Goodband who argues that GIT can also be applied to scientific theories, see http://www.mjgoodband.co.uk/papers/Godel-science-theory.pdf.
My own idea can be expressed generally as follows: any theory boils down to an exposition of a statement/proposition. According to GIT, in any theory there is at least one statement which is unprovable, and therefore any theory can be considered as incomplete or has indeterminacy. One implication of this deduction is that any theory should be made falsifiable (Popper), and also perhaps we can use conditional Bayesian probability to describe acceptance of a theory.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[197] **viXra:1407.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-30 22:04:50*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome.

This article summarizes a discussion via researchgate.net. It is known that Lewis Fry Richardson has studied mathematical model for conflict resolution. For instance: http://www.math.purdue.edu/~smw/m303/resources/war.pdf
My question is: Considering prolonged conflicts between Ukraine-Russia and also between Israel-Palestine, then is it possible to apply that Richardson's model to help solving those conflicts? Perhaps that model will be useful for policy makers and peaceful efforts.

**Category:** Social Science

[196] **viXra:1407.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-30 22:08:53*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is a cover for a book that has been published by LAP Publishing, Saarbrucken, Germany (http://www.lap-publishing.com). If you are interested in this book, you can contact me at email: victorchristianto@gmail.com, or skype: vic1043.

The author asks a number of questions, which touch fundamental subjects, and presents his discussions with many researchers mooting separate big problems starting from the behavior of an electron in an atom to a possible acceleration of the universe. For example, in the book it is treated: the fine structure constant and the Shannon entropy; Shpenkov’s interpretation on the classical wave equation leading to a shell-nodal model of atoms and molecules and the periodic table of elements close to the Mendeleyev’s table; 50 questions on the issue of astrophysics, cosmology and gravitational physics (some of them have been surveyed jointly with M. Peck), etc. Besides, the author considers some serious philosophical issues associated with physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[195] **viXra:1407.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-31 03:02:40*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

In this paper shown; on the one hand, as the tensor-scalar polarization modes B ratio, it is derived from the initial properties of the vacuum due to the unification of gravitation and electromagnetism. This ratio suggest that it is 2/Pi ^ 2 (0.20262423673), as an upper bound.
Secondly; demonstrates that it is not necessary to introduce any inflaton scalar field or similar ( ad-hoc fields ); If on the other hand, is the same structure of the vacuum and the quantization of gravity which perfectly explains this initial exponential expansion of the universe. In some respects exponential vacuum emptying has certain similarities with the emission of radiation of a black hole.
This quantization of gravity and its unification with electromagnetic field, shown in previous work; It allows deriving complete accurately the exponential factor of inflation; and therefore calculate accurately the Hubble constant, mass of the universe, matter density, the value of the vacuum energy density, the GUT mass scale ( bosons X,Y ), the gravitino mass and more.
The method of quantize gravity used in this work; It is based on dimensionless constants that must be enforced in accordance with general relativity.
We demonstrate the existence of quantum wormholes as the basic units of space-time energy, as an inseparable system.These quantum wormholes explain the instantaneous speed of propagation of entangled particles. Or what is the same: an infinite speed, with the condition of zero net energy.
Another consequence of the dimensionless quantization of gravity; is the existence of a constant gravitational acceleration that permeates all space. Its nature is quantum mechanical, and inseparable from the Hubble constant. This work is not mere speculation; since applying this vacuum gravitational acceleration; first allows us to explain and accurately calculate the anomaly of the orbital eccentricity of the Moon. This anomaly was detected and accurately measured with the laser ranging experiment. This same constant acceleration in vacuum (in all coordinate of space), which interacts with the masses; explains the almost constant rotation curves of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Therefore there is no dark matter.
Current interpretation of quantum mechanics is completely erroneous. We explain that; as the de Broglie–Bohm theory, also known as the pilot-wave theory; is a much more realistic and correct interpretation of quantum mechanics. The current assumption that there is reality no defined; until the act of observation does not occur; is an aberrant, illogical assertion false and derived from the obsolete current interpretation of quantum mechanics.
The age of the universe derived from the Hubble constant is a wrong estimate; due to absolute ignorance of the true nature of this constant and its physical implications. The universe acquired its current size in the very short period of time, a unit of Planck time.
We understand that this work is dense and completely revolutionary consequences. Experiments reflection of lasers; type of the laser ranging experiment; undoubtedly will confirm one of the main results: the existence of an intrinsic acceleration of vacuum of gravitational quantum mechanical nature, which explains the rotation curves of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; and which thus makes unnecessary the existence of dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[194] **viXra:1407.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-30 07:47:46*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The question and answer about spacecraft flybys (Astronomy magazine’s “AskAstro” section - August 2014) got me thinking about the Pioneer anomaly - a slight slowdown in the predicted positions of the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft noticed when they entered the outer solar system. After their billions of miles of travel, the Pioneer spacecraft are some 3,000 miles short of their predicted locations. If they were now carrying an infinitesimal extra mass due to m=E/c^2, this could account for the shortfall. I propose electromagnetic energy from the RTG (radioisotope thermo-electric generator) powering each craft is insufficient to be relativistically converted into enough mass, and suggest energy in the form of gravitational waves that are diverted towards the Sun's mass would convert into the mass causing the Pioneer anomaly. As the end of this short article states, “Though it’s possible that high-frequency electromagnetic waves like X-rays or gamma rays, as well as the subatomic particles in cosmic rays, might contribute to Pioneer’s extra mass; a gravitational cause is not invalidated since both matter and electromagnetism have their origins in gravitation“ (this is explained).

**Category:** Astrophysics

[193] **viXra:1407.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-05 14:34:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we described the origin of the UV-photon underproduction crisis. The observational facts lead to conclusion that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate for the low-redshift Lyman-alpha forest should be larger than the predicted value. The Scale-Symmetric Theory shows that it is directly associated with the ratio of the present-day radius of the Universe to its initial radius.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[192] **viXra:1407.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-31 22:10:45*

**Authors:** Russell Letkeman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We introduce a fundamental theorem of prime sieving (FTPS) and show how it illuminates structure on numbers co-prime to a random product of unique prime numbers. This theorem operates on the transition between the set of numbers co-prime to any product of unique prime numbers and the new set when another prime number is introduced in the product.

**Category:** Number Theory

[191] **viXra:1407.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-06 06:47:34*

**Authors:** Harry Theunissen

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper is an elegant explanation how Inertia, Matter, the Strong Nuclear Force, the Weak Nuclear Force, Time, Spin, Superposition, Entanglement, Gravity, Dark Matter and Dark Energy all could emerge from Electromagnetic principles.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[190] **viXra:1407.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-03 21:39:48*

**Authors:** Lamont Williams

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

ATLAS and CMS, the two principal laboratories operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, have made great strides in clarifying the properties of the newly discovered Higgs boson. In particular, they have tested how the particle decays to other particles, namely photons, Z bosons, W bosons, tau particles, and bottom quarks. Although the decay rates of these particles have been compatible with those determined through the Standard Model, they have not been an exact match. This report shows how data from ATLAS and CMS may already be solving the puzzle of the incongruent decay rate values, while also revealing a potential, and currently unrecognized, proportional relationship at work in the decay mechanisms of the Higgs particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[189] **viXra:1407.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-29 09:10:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[188] **viXra:1407.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-29 02:38:15*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Author gives an argument for indirect connections between Fermat primes and regular 2^k-sided polygons to make Gauss-Wantzel theorem have general sense in implying connections between Fermat primes and all constructible polygons.

Abstract: Gauss-Wantzel theorem shows that regular n-sided polygons, whose number of sides contains a(distrinct) Fermat prime(s) as odd prime factor(s) of n or number of sides is power of 2, are all constructible with compass and straightedge. But of these caces, the constructibility of all regular 2^k-sided polygons is not related to Fermat primes. We discover the number of so-called root Mersenne primes Mp for p

**Category:** Number Theory

[187] **viXra:1407.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-08 19:01:54*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** Pages.

We propose the normalization of some holographic dark energy (HDE) models. Applying the normalization method, we define a dimensionless ratio f_de, interpret the physical meaning of f_de and its average value by the dimensional analysis, propose an assumption which the HDE average force equates to the negative reduced Planck force or negative Planck force statistically. We obtain the normalizable equations of original HDE model, get the parameter c_(L )= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; derive the general equation of normalization of General HDE (GHDE) model; obtain that the coefficient w_de is inversely proportional to the square of c_L which is variable; get the normalizable equations of GHDE model, obtain c_L (z) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z) = 0.683 which is in good agreement with c; give the normalizable equations of agegraphic dark energy (ADE) model and New HDE (NHDE) model; get the numerical factor n = 2.894 which agrees well with n = 〖2.886〗_(-0.163)^(+0.169) in ADE model and c_L= 3 which is in agreement with 1.41 < c < 3.09 in NHDE model. We suggest that the normalization of some HDE models is interesting and significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[186] **viXra:1407.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-28 14:01:13*

**Authors:** Hoa Van Nguyen

**Comments:** 21 Pages. 21 figures

This article is the recap of the theory of the extended electron which has been published online on website: www.vixra.org/author/hoa_van_nguyen.
The theory presents three novel concepts : the variability of the electric charge and the mechanisms of the processes of spin and radiation of the electron by external fields .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[185] **viXra:1407.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-28 04:51:35*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Comments are Welcome. Paper to be sent to a Peer-Review Journal.

The present reading is part of our on-going attempt at the foremost endeavour of physics since man began to comprehend the heavens and the earth. We present a much more improved unified field theory of all the Forces of Nature i.e. the gravitational, the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong nuclear forces. The proposed theory is a radical improvement of Professor Herman Weyl's supposed failed attempt at a unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. As is the case with Professor Weyl's theory, unit vectors in the resulting/proposed theory vary from one point to the next, albeit, in a manner such that they are compelled to yield tensorial affinities. In a separate reading, the Dirac equation is shown to emerge as part of the description of the these variable unit vectors. The nuclear force fields -- i.e., electromagnetic, weak and the strong -- together with the gravitational force field are seen to be described by a four vector field, which forms part of the body of the variable unit vectors and hence the metric of spacetime. The resulting theory very strongly appears to be a logically consistent and coherent unification of classical and quantum physics and at the same time a grand unity of all the forces of Nature. Unlike most unification theories, the present proposal is unique in that it achieves unification on a four dimensional continuum of spacetime without the need for extra-dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[184] **viXra:1407.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-27 17:21:20*

**Authors:** JinHua Fei

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we assume that weaker Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture, we got a better upper bound of the exceptional real zero for a class of prime number module.

**Category:** Number Theory

[183] **viXra:1407.0204 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 13:01:35*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new tunneling machine is described in this article. It works based on the gravity-control technology, and can reach high velocities through rocky means; possibly few tens of meters per hour, moreover it can move itself in any directions below the ground. This machine can be highly useful for urban tunneling, drainage, exploration, water supply, water diversion and accessing the mines of diamonds, coal, oil, and several others types of minerals existent in the Earth’s crust.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[182] **viXra:1407.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-25 22:30:38*

**Authors:** Réjean Labrie

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This article introduced in July 2014 was intended as a demonstration of the existence of at least one prime number between two consecutive squares. I see now that the lemma is partially wrong, so the demonstration no longer holds.

**Category:** Number Theory

[181] **viXra:1407.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-27 08:45:11*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 642 Pages.

Bancuri, folclor in general, imagini.

**Category:** Linguistics

[180] **viXra:1407.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-18 08:28:01*

**Authors:** T.Nakashima

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This Paper is the result Counting the Prime Numbers by using Mathematica 9.

**Category:** Number Theory

[179] **viXra:1407.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-27 03:35:43*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 12 Pages. slide presentation

This presentation explains in detail that when studying the effects of rotation on the motion of bodies or light, it is necessary to use the metric of a curved spacetime. Furthermore, it is shown that the relativistic addition of velocities in such systems is not valid and that the classical velocity addition must be used instead. It thus becomes clear that most of the Special Relativity Theory effects are nullified in such systems by the centripetal force of rotation and that the Special Relativity is thus strictly valid only in inertial systems. Finally it is confirmed that the inertial mass depends on velocity differently than the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[178] **viXra:1407.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-26 09:46:00*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

In astrophysics an unnecessary concept was invented to try and explain what happens to stars as they evolve. These are known as stellar isochrones. Isochrones are rooted in the false notion that stars do not lose mass as they evolve. A corrective understanding is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[177] **viXra:1407.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-25 22:09:36*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt, Reza Katebi, Christian Corda

**Comments:** 5 pages, 1 figure, accepted in the AIP Conference Proceedings of ICNAAM 2014

In this brief note, we introduce the new, emerging sub-discipline of iso-fractals by highlighting and discussing the preliminary results of recent works. First, we note the abundance of fractal, chaotic, non-linear, and self-similar structures in nature while emphasizing the importance of studying such systems because fractal geometry is the language of chaos. Second, we outline the iso-fractal generalization of the Mandelbrot set to exemplify the newly generated Mandelbrot iso-sets. Third, we present the cutting-edge notion of dynamic iso-spaces and explain how a mathematical space can be iso-topically lifted with iso-unit functions that (continuously or discretely) change; in the discrete case examples, we mention that iteratively generated sequences like Fibonacci's numbers and (the complex moduli of) Mandelbrot's numbers can supply a deterministic chain of iso-units to construct an ordered series of (magnified and/or de-magnified) iso-spaces that are locally iso-morphic. Fourth, we consider the initiation of iso-fractals with Inopin's holographic ring (IHR) topology and fractional statistics for 2D and 3D iso-spaces. In total, the reviewed iso-fractal results are a significant improvement over traditional fractals because the application of Santilli's iso-mathematics arms us an extra degree of freedom for attacking problems in chaos. Finally, we conclude by proposing some questions and ideas for future research work.

**Category:** Geometry

[176] **viXra:1407.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-26 02:24:42*

**Authors:** M. Sharif, M. Zaeem Ul Haq Bhatti

**Comments:** 09 Pages. Can. J. Phys. 90(2012)1233

We consider static cylindrically symmetric charged gravitating
object with perfect fluid and investigate the gravitational binding
energy. It is found that only the localized part of the mass
function provides the gravitational binding energy, whereas the
non-localized part generated by the electric coupling does not
contribute for such energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[175] **viXra:1407.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-26 02:35:06*

**Authors:** M. Sharif, Z. Yousaf

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Astrophys. Space Sci. 351(2014)351.

In this paper, we employ cut and paste scheme to construct
thin-shell wormhole of a charged black string with $f(R)$ terms. We
consider $f(R)$ model as an exotic matter source at
wormhole throat. The stability of the respective solutions are
analyzed under radial perturbations in the context of
$R+{\delta}R^2$ model. It is concluded that both stable as well as
unstable solutions do exist for different values of $\delta$. In the
limit $\delta{\rightarrow}0$, all our results reduce to general
relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[174] **viXra:1407.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-25 12:33:21*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 159 Pages.

Contributors by country:
From Romania: Adrian Botez, G. Calefariu, Ionuţ Caragea, Marius Coman, George Drăghescu, Eugen Evu, Liviu-Florian Jianu, Adrian Lesenciuc, Ioan Marinescu-Puiu, Janet Nică, Nicolae Nicoară-Horia, Gheorghe Niculescu, Mircea Oprea, Andrei Radu, Elena Adriana Răducan, Mircea Eugen Şelariu, Ion Urda;
From India: B. Venkateswara Rao;
From U.S.A.: Florentin Smarandache, Connor Wood;
From Serbia: Ioan Baba.

**Category:** Linguistics

[173] **viXra:1407.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-25 12:49:44*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A. Podosenov

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

Possible solution of the Schrödinger's cat paradox@@ is considered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[172] **viXra:1407.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-29 20:45:10*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Expõe-se uma teoria simples, clássica, a fim de resolver o problema da unificação eletrogravitacional, baseada em se admitir valores distintos para os módulos das cargas do elétron e do próton, dentro da precisão experimental atual. A teoria prediz que a gravidade não pode ser sempre atrativa, e sugere novas interpretações para alguns fenômenos. Sua comprovação necessitará de medidas de G em função do material e tamanho de corpos em interação.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[171] **viXra:1407.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-25 09:00:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[170] **viXra:1407.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-10 05:34:20*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Two ideas gave birth to this paper : The law of the galaxies scattering and the existence of the infinitely large and infinitely small numbers.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[169] **viXra:1407.0189 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 17:35:11*

**Authors:** Ouannas Moussa

**Comments:** 03 Pages.

Basing on my study, "Distribution of primes"viXra:1407.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 I've shown that we can determine the distribution of prime numbers while remaining within the set of natural numbers; However, I present in this paper the numbers which are susceptible to be twins

**Category:** Algebra

[168] **viXra:1407.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-03 11:53:51*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 27 Pages. contact genebarbee@msn.com

The first law of thermodynamics is straightforward. It states that energy can be converted from one form into another but not created or destroyed. The author’s work on the subject indicates that net energy is zero [6][7][13] but separated into two different types of energy that balance one another. The second law is not as straightforward. A quantity called entropy describes the probability of energy states for systems with many particles. The second law states that more probable energy states become filled over time and energy differences that can be used to carry out work become less available. The source of a high original state that can continually “run down” has been difficult to identify.
There is a strange situation in fundamental physics regarding time. Well respected physicists [Julian Barbour for example] point out that all quantum mechanical equations are cyclical with time. Common sense tells us that time advances and tension exists between fundamentals and what we observe. This situation extends to fundamentals of space as well as fundamentals of time. Special relativity and curvature of space time is known to be the source of gravity at the large scale but the author’s approach to quantum gravity is not generally known [7]. Further, the concept that velocity is relative seems to be accepted but velocity is related to kinetic energy that is conserved.
The author uses a cellular model that describes gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic and potential energy at the quantum level [6][7]. Using cosmology as a platform, the present paper explores time and the thermodynamic laws. It concludes that elapsed time enters physics through cosmology. If we believe that the universe expands we must also believe that time advances. Further, the gravitational coupling constant converts quantum behavior to large scale behavior. Although pressure expands the universe, gravitational accumulation begins to dominate locally. The expanded state and the many available thermodynamic states available as particles fall related to gravitational accumulation explain how everything can “run down” as time progresses.
Cellular cosmology allows us to track the behavior of cell kinetic and potential energy as particles fall due to gravitational accumulation. Study of a model galaxy with the same mass and position of the sun allows us to determine where energy resides as it is re-converted to kinetic energy by falling from an expansion determined geodesic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[167] **viXra:1407.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 10:23:58*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

An improved mechanism for understanding the quantum field theory of fundamental particle masses is presented. Yoichiro Nambu, founder of QCD color charge, in 1952 argued in his paper "An Empirical Mass Spectrum of Elementary Particles" (Progress in Theoretical Physics, v7, 1952, pp. 595-6): "It seems to be a general conviction of current physicists that the theory of elementary particles in its ultimate form could or should give the mass spectrum of these particles just in the same way as quantum mechanics has succeeded in accounting for the regularity of atomic spectra. ... it may perhaps be too ambitious and rather unsound to look for an empirical ‘Balmer’s law’. Nevertheless we should like here to present one such attempt because it happens to be extremely simple ..."
Virtual fermions are radially polarized (driven further apart) by the electric field in which they formed. This polarization supplies the virtual fermions energy, at the expense of electric field, which is thus partly “screened.” The energy supplied to virtual fermions by their radial polarization extends their lifetime beyond Heisenberg’s h/E. This supply of extra energy moves “virtual” fermions towards the real mass shell, so they briefly obey Pauli’s principle. The absorbed extra energy increases the virtual fermion pair survival time towards that of onshell particles, so the Pauli exclusion principle begins to apply to those virtual fermions, structuring the vacuum virtual fermions into “shells” by analogy to electron orbits, giving a simple pattern of discrete masses. Different isomers are possible explaining the generations and allowing a variety of weak decay routes, a mechanism for the CKM matrix and neutrino flavor oscillations. Because neutrinos only have weak charges (not electromagnetic charge or color charge), they have weak fields, producing on average little mass due to very occasional pair production, so they weakly interact with gravity (gravity’s charge is mass), thus explaining why neutrinos have so little mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[166] **viXra:1407.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 11:56:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[165] **viXra:1407.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-19 21:53:24*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[164] **viXra:1407.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-26 09:43:28*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** FIVE PAGES

A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measures both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car.
However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[163] **viXra:1407.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 05:23:44*

**Authors:** Salih Saygi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this letter we propose analytical evaluation method for the electron density and the energy density in multi-layered high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The algorithm is used to simulate the variation of the electron density and the energy density against temperature of heterojunction AlGaN/GaN. The proposed procedure guaranties the reliable application of the contribution of multi-layered HEMTs structure. In conclusion, the obtained results are estimated and discussed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[162] **viXra:1407.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-23 16:21:50*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Author offers and develops the theory of a new simple cheap efficient electric (electron) generator. This generator can convert pressure or kinetic energy of any non-conductive flow (gas, liquid) into direct current (DC). The generator can convert the mechanical energy of any engine into high voltage DC. One can covert the wind and water energy into electricity without turbine. One can convert the rest energy of an internal combustion engine or turbojet engine in electricity and increase its efficiency.
-------------------------------------------------
Key words: Jet Electric Generator, Electron generator, AB generator, Wind electric generator, Water electric generator, DC generator, High voltage generator.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[161] **viXra:1407.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-23 19:48:25*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This article has not been published in any journal.

According to a site (see http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/falsifiability), there are many people who reject Popperian falsifiability, such as Paul Feyerabend and Alan Sokal.
There is another two-fold critique on falsificationism by Shockley, see
http://pk.b5z.net/i/u/2167316/i/A_Critique_of_Falsificationism_by_Karl_Popper.pdf

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[160] **viXra:1407.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-23 19:49:45*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This article has not been published in any journal.

As we know, for Popper scientific change can be explained rationally.
For Kuhn, scientific change is caused by psychology of discovery which sometimes it cannot be explained rationally.
For Lakatos, most scientific endeavors nowadays are governed by research programs, which cannot be falsified. See for example: http://www.inf.fu-berlin.de/lehre/pmo/eng/Lakatos-Falsification.pdf
And for Feyerabend, there is no specific method which can be used to explain scientific change. Anything is possible.
They are four leading philosophers who seem to me represent major ideas on modern scientific change. So, who can explain the process of scientific change better among them?

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[159] **viXra:1407.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-23 19:51:05*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This article has not been published in any journal.

Acording to an article, there are some favorite foods that may cause cancer, including but not limited to: burgers, steak, fried chicken, french fries, bacon, canned foods, etc. See for instance: http://www.healthyyounaturally.com/edu/top10foodhazards.htm
Some of these harmful effects come from acrylamide, a substance that is formed during high-temperature processing of foods. According to Mathilda Bongers etc. at PlosOne journal (2012), acrylamide has correlation with cancer.
So do you think, that we should take radical shifts towards avoiding these favorite foods that may cause cancer? And why are they not prohibited from our food list?

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[158] **viXra:1407.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-25 16:14:48*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In May 2014 I published a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle (The Scale Law) where I suggested that all laws of physics obey the Scale Law. This paper provides the derivation of the Lorentz transformations and shows that these transformations obey the Scale Law. The relevance of this paper is that it shows that when all the necessary information about a given phenomenon is known (including assumptions or postulates), the Scale Law can be used to derived the exact law that governs that phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[157] **viXra:1407.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-22 16:24:56*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 368 Pages.

At present, rockets are used for launches and flights into space. They have been intensively developed since World War II when the German engineer F. Von Braun designed the first long distance rocket FAU-2. In the subsequent 60 years liquid and solid rockets reached the peak of their development. Their main shortcomings are (1) very high cost of space launching $20,000 – 50,000/kg; (2) large fuel consumption; (3) fuel storage problems because the oxidizer and fuel (for example; oxygen and hydrogen) require cryogenic temperatures, or they are poisonous substances (for example; nitric acid, N2O3).
In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize space launching and flight. These include the cable accelerator, circle launcher and space keeper, space elevator transport system, space towers, kinetic towers, the gas-tube method, sling rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, tether system, Sun and magnetic sails, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsitor), Earth–Moon or Earth–Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, etc.
There are new ideas in aviation which can be useful for flights in planet atmosphere. Some of these have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of times, other allow the speed and direction of space apparatus to be changed without the spending of fuel.
The author summarizes some revolutionary methods for scientists, engineers, students, and the public. He seeks attention from the public, engineers, inventors, scientists for these innovations and he hopes the media, government and the large aerospace companies will increase research and development activity in these areas.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[156] **viXra:1407.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-22 07:41:31*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 24 Pages. slide presentation

This presentation shows that there cannot be any Gravito-Electro-Magnetic (GEM) field contrary to a popular belief of its existence and contrary to many claims of its existence found in the reputable publications. This is shown using a simple thought experiment of two massive parallel plates that are moving in a direction parallel to the plates’ surfaces and in a direction perpendicular to the plates’ surfaces. It is found that the field energy is not conserved for these two directions if the GEM field existence is postulated as derived from the Einstein’s field equations for the weak gravitational field and as claimed that it has been detected by the Gravity Probe B.
In the second portion of the presentation the Gravity Probe B results are analyzed in a greater detail and it is found that this experiment does not prove the correctness of Einstein General Relativity Theory (GRT) as is enthusiastically claimed. It is clearly shown that an error exists in the GRT geodetic precession formula derivation and that the experiment actually proves the correctness of a different metric rather than the Schwarzschild metric of the celebrated GRT theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[155] **viXra:1407.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-22 09:07:50*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: Flattening of earth’s Polar Regions and bulging of its equatorial region are usually attributed to ‘centrifugal force’ due to earth’s spin motion. ‘Centrifugal force’ is fictitious, yet it is assumed to physically affect earth’s shape. Earth’s spin motion is apparent only with respect to its own north-south central (spin) axis. With respect to absolute space, every point on earth continuously moves in same (mean) direction as the direction of sun’s linear motion, at slightly different linear speeds. Very small centrifugal action (due to differences in linear speeds of its constituent matter-particles) on earth is not sufficient to produce the observed magnitudes of equatorial bulge and flattening of its polar regions. This article intends to describe an alternative mechanism that causes observed physical deformation of earth.

**Category:** Geophysics

[154] **viXra:1407.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 15:55:09*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 7 Pages. in N. E. Mastorakis, P. M. Pardalos, R. P. Agarwal, L. Kocinac (eds.), Adv. in Appl. and Pure Math., Proc. of the 2014 Int. Conf. on Pure Math., Appl. Math., Comp. Methods (PMAMCM 2014), Santorini, Greece, July 2014, Math. & Comp. in Sci. & Eng., Vol. 29.

We show how real and complex Fourier transforms
are extended to W.R. Hamilton's algebra of quaternions and to
W.K. Clifford’s geometric algebras. This was initially motivated by
applications in nuclear magnetic resonance and electric engineering.
Followed by an ever wider range of applications in color image and
signal processing. Clifford's geometric algebras are complete algebras,
algebraically encoding a vector space and all its subspace elements.
Applications include electromagnetism, and the processing of images,
color images, vector field and climate data. Further developments of
Clifford Fourier Transforms include operator exponential representations,
and extensions to wider classes of integral transforms, like
Clifford algebra versions of linear canonical transforms and wavelets.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[153] **viXra:1407.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 15:57:04*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the epoch prior to the big bang E8 was an unbroken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) and both positive and negative intrinsic energy (mc^2) boson particles could be formed and combined with positive intrinsic energy leptons, hadrons and strong force particles to form zero intrinsic energy fermibosonic entities which could carry matter from the previous universe without violating flatness requirements. Two new gauge bosons were needed (along with a third to enable the big bang) and these gauge bosons could produce attractive forces much stronger than the weaker force of our broken symmetry force of gravity. The period of time that the universe had unbroken symmetry could thus be relatively short compared to our epoch of broken E8 symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[152] **viXra:1407.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 16:17:56*

**Authors:** Ouannas Moussa

**Comments:** 08 Pages.

In this paper I present the distribution of prime
numbers which was treated in many
researches by studying the function of Riemann; because it has a remarkable property; its non
trivial zeros are prime numbers; but in this work I will show that we can find the distribution
of prime numbers on remaining in natural numbers only.

**Category:** Algebra

[151] **viXra:1407.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-27 13:08:59*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The critical line lies on a surface. And the critical line inherits the characteristics from this surface. Then, the location of the critical line can be determined.

**Category:** Number Theory

[150] **viXra:1407.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 20:11:29*

**Authors:** DaeHyeon KANG

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper,I introduce the virtual velocity of the particle. It is from the spetial theory of relativity, because of the velocity of the particles or Dirac equation be not able to explaine hydrogen atom phenamina. In the spetial theory of relativity, time dilatation and lenth constraction are related by the equation (1).
I get from the above relation, the vitual velocity of a particle and the virtual speed of a particle can be beyond the speed of light.
I think the virtual velocity and potential have nonlocality in physics, and wave function may exists there before we observe the particle's position. New quantum machanics is similar to Shrodinger equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[149] **viXra:1407.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-22 01:26:41*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I present two possible infinite sequences of primes, having in common the fact that their formulas contain the powers of the number 2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[148] **viXra:1407.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 13:47:46*

**Authors:** Jan Hakenberg, Ulrich Reif, Scott Schaefer, Joe Warren

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

We derive the (d+2)-linear forms that compute the moment of degree d of the area enclosed by a subdivision curve in the plane. We circumvent the need to solve integrals involving the basis function by exploiting a recursive relation and calibration that establishes the coefficients of the form within the nullspace of a matrix.
For demonstration, we apply the technique to the dual three-point scheme, the interpolatory C1 four-point scheme, and the dual C2 four-point scheme.

**Category:** Geometry

[147] **viXra:1407.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 09:47:43*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We discuss a first-order analysis of eye imaging for digital retinal cameras.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[146] **viXra:1407.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-28 06:17:08*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. See also viXra:1410.0133, "The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace", by Valdir M.S. Godoi

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[145] **viXra:1407.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 04:04:27*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that any prime greater than or equal to 5 can be written in a certain way, in other words that any such prime can be expressed using just two other primes and a power of the number 2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[144] **viXra:1407.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 04:47:52*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

These conjectures state that any prime p greater than 60 can be written as a sum of three primes of a certain type from the following four ones: 10k + 1, 10k + 3, 10k + 7 and 10k + 9.

**Category:** Number Theory

[143] **viXra:1407.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 05:43:31*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I present two possible infinite sequences of primes, having in common the fact that their formulas contain the number 360.

**Category:** Number Theory

[142] **viXra:1407.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 18:47:09*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Unruh temperature, entropy and entropic force on the Schwarzschild black hole (S BH) can be modified. The
general modified equipartition law of energy (ELOE) is proposed by unification, the modified Unruh temperature
on event horizon and it quantization are obtained by quantization method. And the modified entropy and entropic
force are derived. These are significant to solve the black hole modified question.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[141] **viXra:1407.0155 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-28 19:37:53*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally-interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also executes a specifically time-cycloidal degenerate gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously disrupted their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent energy density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem. Oppenheimer-Snyder dust of position-independent energy density is furthermore highly unphysical: its infinite dust energy causes the Oppenheimer-Snyder metric to violate the Principle of Equivalence. So for spatially localized dust only numerical computations are inherently credible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[140] **viXra:1407.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-21 12:22:31*

**Authors:** Daniel Cordero Grau

**Comments:** Pages.

In this Article I lay down the Theory of Relativistic Quantum Chemistry which unify Radiation Chemistry of Curie, Quantum Radiation of Planck, Cosmic Background Radiation of Friedmann, Alpha Radiation of Rutherford and Nuclear Radiation of Einstein

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[139] **viXra:1407.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 23:20:01*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Author presents the strong finiteness of double Mersenne primes and the infinity of root Mersenne primes and near-square primes of Mersenne primes by generalizing conjecture about primality of Mersenne number.

Abstract: In this paper we present the strong finiteness of double Mersenne primes to be a subset of Mersenne primes, the infinity of so-called root Mersenne primes to be also a subset of Mersenne primes and the infinity of so-called near-square primes of Mersenne primes by generalizing our previous conjecture about primality of Mersenne number. These results and our previous results about the strong finiteness of Fermat, double Fermat and Catalan-type Fermat primes [1] give an elementary but complete understanding for the infinity or the strong finiteness of some prime number sequences of the form 2^x±1, which all have a corresponding original continuous natural ( prime ) number sequence. It is interesting that the generalization to near-square primes of Mersenne primes Wp=2(Mp)^2-1 has brought us positive result.

**Category:** Number Theory

[138] **viXra:1407.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 02:26:52*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper are stated ten conjectures on primes, more precisely on the infinity of some types of triplets and quadruplets of primes, all of them using the multiples of the number 30 and also all of them met on the study of Carmichael numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[137] **viXra:1407.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 02:50:07*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Prime number sieve using LCM function is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[136] **viXra:1407.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 03:00:29*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper are stated six conjectures on primes, more precisely on the infinity of some types of pairs of primes, all of them met in the study of 3-Carmichael numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[135] **viXra:1407.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 13:26:47*

**Authors:** Adriano Israel Vismara

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Veremos como la situación del mundo, el acontecer de sus pesares, sus mecanismos alienantes, nobles acusaciones y perjurios, nos ha desvirtuado el juicio a tal punto que lo bello es escasamente un producto de mercado, un nombre, una situación pasajera, carente de sustancia. Una síntesis mefistofélica de lo superficial, sin adentrarse en lo profundo del espíritu del hombre, de donde ha emergido para convertirse en las artes y las ciencias que se han desarrollado en los pocos milenios que estamos en la tierra.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[134] **viXra:1407.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-21 08:53:03*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[133] **viXra:1407.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 09:33:23*

**Authors:** Saurav Dwivedi

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Keywords: Pragmatism; Bimodal Logic; Probability.

Some variants of quantum theory theorize dogmatic “unimodal” states-of-being, and are based on hodge-podge classical-quantum language. They are based on *ontic* syntax, but *pragmatic* semantics. This error was termed semantic inconsistency [1]. Measurement seems to be central problem of these theories, and widely discussed in their interpretation. Copenhagen theory deviates from this prescription, which is modeled on experience. A *complete* quantum experiment is “*bimodal*”. An experimenter *creates* the system-under-study in *initial* mode of experiment, and *annihilates* it in the *final*. The experimental *intervention* lies beyond the theory. I theorize most rudimentary bimodal quantum experiments studied by Finkelstein [2], and deduce “bimodal probability density” π = |ψin>⊗<φfin| to represent *complete* quantum experiments. It resembles core insights of the Copenhagen theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[132] **viXra:1407.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-04 14:04:27*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is shown that the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of angular momentum conservation gives an explanation of the action principle of Faraday generator.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[131] **viXra:1407.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-04 14:05:53*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is shown that the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of angular momentum conservation gives an explanation of the action principle of Faraday generator. \\ Показано, что из существования потока электромагнитного импульса и закона сохранения импульса следует объяснение принципа действия генератора Фарадея.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[130] **viXra:1407.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 01:04:15*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six page paper

Einstein’s Relativity-theories predict: length-contraction, time-dilation, transverse-Doppler-shift, gravitational-spectral-shifts, expansion-of-space, time-dilation-of-super-nova-light-curves...etc. This letter attempts to gain some insight into two of them in terms of wave-theory. For example, the observations of time-dilation of ‘super-nova-light-curves’ are currently considered as a confirmative-test of expansion-of-time; whereas it is shown here that the super-nova-light-curve can be viewed as a ‘gate-function’ in the ‘time-domain’; and it can be Fourier-transformed into frequency-domain; and it is this wide band of waves which travels in space and reaches us after millions of years. During its travel, when this wide-band of waves gets red-shifted due to any mechanism, including the tired-light-interpretation of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’, then its band-width shrinks in the frequency-domain; so when it is transformed back into time-domain we find that the duration of the curve has got increased. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves is not an independent observation from the observations of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic length-contraction with speed is also explained in terms of waves, with the help of Fourier-transform.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[129] **viXra:1407.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-19 16:20:26*

**Authors:** Isaac Mor

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Odd Perfect Number = 36k+9
In 1953, Jacques Touchard proved that an odd perfect number must be of the form 12k + 1 or 36k + 9.
(Judy A. Holdener discovered a simpler proof of the theorem of Touchard in 2002)
if I am right then I (isaac mor lol) just showed that an odd perfect number must be of the form 36k+9 (19 july 2014)

**Category:** Number Theory

[128] **viXra:1407.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-19 07:42:43*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** Pages.

Here we prove the validity of the assumptions Huber that Huber force has electrodynamic of nature. \\ Доказывается справедливость предположения Губера о том, что сила Губера имеет электродинамическую природу.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[127] **viXra:1407.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-19 04:53:00*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 7 pages. English and russian texts

The red shift of remote sources radiation spectra may result from increase in ether density in the peripheral part of our Universe caused by the external matter drawn therein.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[126] **viXra:1407.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 16:01:15*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 720 Pages.

Bancuri, folclor in general@@, imagini.

**Category:** Linguistics

[125] **viXra:1407.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-27 02:02:51*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A seven-page paper

Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has some “diameter”, in stead of being a ‘point-particle’ of mathematical zero dimension; and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its “diameter” experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ ∆ω in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c /∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1 and 2. In the ref-2 it was shown that: in fact it is the ‘expansion of spectrum’ in the frequency-domain, which is the physical-cause for the Relativistic length-contraction.] Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in ref. [3], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places. And the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide band of waves will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in the expanded wide band, for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[124] **viXra:1407.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 14:28:21*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Previosly was shown on www.ecodowsing.com in 2005. The company was concerned with studying physical bases of Geo-Pathogenic Zones and designing special instrumentation for that.

The paper shows the spinning electric field as an electromagnetic analog of a mechanical gyroscope.
Like a real mechanical gyroscope, its electromagnetic analog has an angular momentum.But quantitatively faster spinning brings qualitatively new phenomena.
This publication is a copy of that shown on site www.ecodowsing.com in 2005.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[123] **viXra:1407.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 09:54:35*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 41 Pages. slide presentation

The presentation deals with a discovery of errors in the Einstein’s General Relativity Theory (GRT). The presentation starts with the confirmation of the correctness of Special Relativity Theory (SRT), but derives justification for a different dependence of gravitational mass on velocity than the inertial mass dependence on velocity. This leads to finding that photons cannot have a gravitational mass and thus can escape form “Black Holes”. This finding contradicts the popular belief and the popular statements such as: “not even light can escape from Black Holes”. The presentation then introduces a new metric whose validity has been confirmed by the standard GRT tests and applies it to create a new model of the universe, which is not based on the Big Bang assumption. Finally, the new universe model predictions are compared with observations and an excellent agreement is obtained thus confirming the assumptions on which the model is built.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[122] **viXra:1407.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 10:15:08*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 75 Pages.

In this paper is presented a new branch of philosophy, called neutrosphy, which studies
the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different
ideational spectra.
The Fundamental Thesis: Any idea is T% true, I% indeterminate, and F% false,
where T, I, F are standard or non-standard subsets included in -0, 1+ .
The Fundamental Theory: Every idea tends to be neutralized, diminished,
balanced by

**Category:**

[121] **viXra:1407.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-30 09:54:44*

**Authors:** L. Martino, D. Luengo

**Comments:** 23 Pages. (to appear) Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation, 2018.

Multipath fading is one of the most common distortions in wireless communications. The simulation of a fading channel typically requires drawing samples from a Rayleigh, Rice or Nakagami distribution. The Nakagami-m distribution is particularly important due to its good agreement with empirical channel measurements, as well as its ability to generalize the well-known Rayleigh and Rice distributions. In this paper, a simple and extremely efficient rejection sampling (RS) algorithm for generating independent samples from a Nakagami-m distribution is proposed. This RS approach is based on a novel hat function composed of three pieces of well-known densities from which samples can be drawn easily and efficiently. The proposed method is valid for any combination of parameters of the Nakagami distribution, without any restriction in the domain and without requiring any adjustment from the final user. Simulations for several parameter combinations show that the proposed approach attains acceptance rates above 90% in all cases, outperforming all the RS techniques currently available in the literature.

**Category:** Statistics

[120] **viXra:1407.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-18 11:27:33*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Conventionally, the phenomenon of light (stellar) aberration is understood as a phenomenon of source observer relative motion. In this paper, it is proposed that a phenomenon of aberration exists even if the source and the observer are at rest relative to each other, but co-moving absolutely in space. The contradiction between the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Sagnac effect is resolved by this theory and this may lead to understanding of many of the other experiments and observations on the speed of light. It discloses the mystery of inability to detect any dependence of the velocity of light on the velocity of its source. Special Relativity theory is rendered unnecessary. A new interpretation of absolute motion and the non-existence of the ether is proposed. A new kind of Michelson-Morley experiment capable of detecting absolute motion is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[119] **viXra:1407.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-29 08:11:19*

**Authors:** Kevin E Nolan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. v3 adds comments in part 1 addressing misunderstandings encountered. Relation between standard and isotropic form of Schwarzschild metric elaborated in part 3. Other minor edits made throughout.

In GR (general relativity) a static thin solid and uniform spherical matter shell is the source of an external SM (Schwarzschild metric), interior flat MM (Minkowski metric), plus a shell wall metric not of interest here. In part 1 the above is shown to imply an illogical break in dependence on gravitational potential for the radial spatial metric component, exterior vs hollow interior regions, not shared by clocks. In part 2 further anomaly is found. In the gravitationally small regime, any infinitesimal element of shell mass is reasonably treated as an independent point source of SM. To within a tiny fractional error, linearly summing over the shell should but does not yield an interior metric consistent with the usual matching scheme of part 1. Conformally flat exterior metric as necessary cure is discussed in part 3. A tie-in to Mach’s principle is discussed in part 4.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[118] **viXra:1407.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-17 21:54:39*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 9 Pages. In this paper, author presents the strong finiteness of Fermat primes, double Fermat primes and Catalan-type Fermat primes by generalizing previous conjecture about primality of Fermat numbers to double Fermat and Catalan-type Fermat numbers.

Abstract: In this paper we present that so-called double Fermat numbers are an infinite subset of well-known Fermat numbers and so-called Catalan-type Fermat numbers are also an infinite subset of Fermat numbers as well as double Fermat primes and Catalan-type Fermat primes are all strongly finite as Fermat primes do. From it we get the same result that composite Fermat numbers, composite double Fermat numbers and composite Catalan-type Fermat numbers are all infinite.

**Category:** Number Theory

[117] **viXra:1407.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-17 13:03:45*

**Authors:** Yilun Shang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note, we consider some generalizations of the Lucas
sequence, which essentially extend sequences to triangular arrays.
Some new and elegant results are derived.

**Category:** Number Theory

[116] **viXra:1407.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-17 13:04:45*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this short paper I present two experiments that can be easily done to test the validity of theory, "A relativistic theory based on the invariance of Newton's second law for motion and the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[115] **viXra:1407.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-17 07:04:56*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is prepared to demonstrate the violation of rules of mathematics in the algebraic derivation of the equations of motion with constant acceleration in Newtonian mechanics and shows the inconsistency and contradiction within these equations even if we have used the correct calculus derivation and also demonstrates the impact of these contradictions on Newtonian mechanics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[114] **viXra:1407.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-17 07:16:32*

**Authors:** Klaus Lange

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Main text in german.

In consideration of the Higgs-mass 125 – 126,5 GeV/c^2 the estimation in [L] of the STOP-squark will be adjusted to 344 +/- 86 GeV/c^2.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[113] **viXra:1407.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-17 08:13:18*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new way of factorizing the Klein-Gordon equation is proposed, which applies to fields of any type. The spin one-half case leads essentially to the Dirac equation. However, a new interpretation is given, in which the occurrence of anti-particles is a consequence of the two-valuedness of the representations of the Lorentz group in Hilbert space. Boosts have in these representations an anti-unitary component which leads to a change of the norm of wave functions. Under a boost, a state originally at rest develops a positive-frequency component. While the mass of a wave packet is a conserved quantity, its energy transforms according to the law of special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[112] **viXra:1407.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 10:44:34*

**Authors:** Oleg D. Kotchnev

**Comments:** 26 pages, 6 pictures, eng, rus

Descriptions of dreams and the timings of associated REM-sleep stages have been recorded over a long period of time (more than 1 year). Invariance of the probability distribution of awakenings within a certain period of ultradian rhythm over random sample reveals the influence of the rhythm on the timings of the sleep stages.

**Category:** Mind Science

[111] **viXra:1407.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-17 02:33:17*

**Authors:** Alejandro A. Torassa

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper presents a reformulation of classical mechanics which is invariant under transformations between reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame (rotating or non-rotating) (inertial or non-inertial) without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[110] **viXra:1407.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-16 23:42:20*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I present, "The general law of conversion of matter and energy" which supercedes my previous paper on the law of conversion of matter and energy. I draw certain conclusions based upon this law, and one of which is that, the famous mass/energy equation by Einstein, which also describes the conversion of matter and energy, is only a special case of a more general law of conversion of matter and energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[109] **viXra:1407.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-16 19:05:39*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The joint point of the Light Cone is shown as a virtual particle. Basing on Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and Plank’s length and time, its energy, momentum and mass are calculated. The calculation brings to superluminal speed of the quasi-particle, which is interpreted here.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[108] **viXra:1407.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-16 11:46:11*

**Authors:** Khrapko R. I.

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Crows do not pick crow's eyes

An intentional concealment of serious longstanding mistakes of physicists is a crime, because the physicists get pay, grants, etc.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[107] **viXra:1407.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 22:13:12*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Aothor presents a near-sguare number sequence of all Mersenne primes, which seems to be an accptable awy in searching for larger primes by known Mersenne primes themselves than the largest known Mersenne prime M57885161.

Abstract: In this paper we present a conjecture that there is a near-square prime number sequence of Mersenne primes to arise from the near-square number sequence Wp=2(Mp)^2-1 generated from all Mersenne primes Mp, in which every term is larger prime number than corresponding perfect number. The conjecture has been verified for the first few prime terms in the near-square prime number sequence and we may expect appearing of near-square prime numbers of some known Mersenne primes with large p-values will become larger primes to be searched than the largest known Mersenne prime M57885161.

**Category:** Number Theory

[106] **viXra:1407.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-16 03:37:46*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Physics – Uspekhi, 43 1267–1270 (2000) (including V.L. Ginzburg’s note and L.B. Okun’s Reply)

Does the mass of bodies depend on their velocity? Is the mass additive if separate bodies are joined together to form a composite system? Is the mass of an isolated system conserved? Different teachers of physics and specialists give different answers to these questions because there is no general agreement on the definition of mass. We shall show that the notion of the velocity-dependent relativistic mass should be given preference over that of the rest mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[105] **viXra:1407.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 15:28:04*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I give the final and complete formulation of the law that describes the conversion from matter to energy and from energy to matter. It is found that the conversion from energy to matter is not as given by the famous mass/energy equation by Einstein. However, the conversion from matter to energy is in accordance to the matter/energy equation by Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[104] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-12 21:00:53*

**Authors:** Eytan Suchard

**Comments:** 48 Pages. In (B.37) less than 0.005% error from the Fine Structure constant. In (B.18) the Muon/Electron mass ratio predicts electron mass, accurate to 3/10,000,000,000

See copyrights at the original version in IOPScience (open souce): http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/845/1/012019 there are small corrections in (35) and in (B.1),(B.3),(B.7). Addition of Muon/Electron mass ratio in (B.18) – page 35, W bosn to Tau in (B.22),(B.25) page 36, addition of appendix C. (27)-(37) pages 39-41, breakthrough in the Fine Structure Constant
Abstract. In De Sitter / Anti De Sitter space-time and in other geometries, reference sub-manifolds from which proper time is measured along integral curves, are described as events. We introduce here a foliation with the help of a scalar field. The scalar field need not be unique but from the gradient of the scalar field, an intrinsic Reeb vector of the foliations perpendicular to the gradient vector is calculated. The Reeb vector describes the acceleration of a physical particle that moves along the integral curves that are formed by the gradient of the scalar field. The Reeb vector appears as a component of an anti-symmetric matrix which is a part of a rank-2, 2-Form. The 2-form is extended into a non-degenerate 4-form and into rank-4 matrix of a 2-form, which when multiplied by a velocity of a particle, becomes the acceleration of the particle. The matrix has one U(1) degree of freedom and an additional SU(2) degrees of freedom in two vectors that span the plane perpendicular to the gradient of the scalar field and to the Reeb vector. In total, there are U(1) x SU(2) degrees of freedom. SU(3) degrees of freedom arise from three dimensional foliations but require an additional symmetry to exist in order to have a valid covariant meaning. The model aims at Causal Sets, that when not aligned along geodesic curves, force material clocks of different types, not to move geodetically, thus meaning forces and matter. This paper mostly deals with U(1) type clocks but also discusses SU(2) and SU(3) and in a more detailed way in appendix C.
Matter in the Einstein Grossmann equation is replaced by the action of the acceleration field, i.e. by a geometric action which is not anticipated by the metric alone. This idea leads to a new formalism that replaces the conventional stress-energy-momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical physics but will also be discussed for quantized physics based on events instead of particles. The result is that a positive charge manifests small attracting gravity and a stronger but small repelling acceleration field that repels even uncharged particles that have a rest mass. Negative charge manifests a repelling anti-gravity but also a stronger acceleration field that attracts even uncharged particles that have rest mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[103] **viXra:1407.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-15 19:15:27*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) implies that the Lambda-Cold-Dark-Matter (Lambda-CDM) model is significantly wrong. Based upon a speculative, MOND-based theory of quantum gravity, this brief communication describes a Lambda-Virtual-Dark-Matter (Lambda-VDM) model that allows for precise testing of the speculative theory of quantum gravity. There are 2 basic new ideas: Idea 1 is to replace the -1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s field equations by -1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4)) * 10^‐5. Idea 2 is that dark matter has positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass-energy and that the universe converts ordinary matter into dark matter over cosmological time; the % of ordinary matter monotonically decreases over time according to a precise formula; when the % of ordinary matter is sufficiently close to zero the entire universe undergoes an instantaneous quantum collapse. Part of Idea 2 is that dark matter is always virtual mass-energy and can never be directly measured. The Lambda-VDM model might provide a resolution of the Photon Underproduction Crisis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[102] **viXra:1407.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 12:15:10*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Poetry for the Soul is a collection of 4 inspirational poems on the topics of Pain, Life, Marriage, and Love. The poems are emotionally driven and can have a powerful impact on those who read them.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[101] **viXra:1407.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 08:54:57*

**Authors:** Peter B. Wilson

**Comments:** 6 pages; 3 figures; 1 table; references

A physical explanation for dark energy Λ is proposed by revisiting the subject of causality in cosmology, especially with regard to duality. Duality is the observation that local regions are contracting, even as the cosmos is expanding. “Local” means distances less than the center-to-center spacing of galaxy clusters, Ri; “non-local” means distances greater than Ri. It is argued that the Friedmann solution is causally incomplete by two parameters: Ri, denoting “inter-cluster” distance (twice the zero gravity radius RZG); and energy coupling η (0 < η < 1). Both factors--energy coupling and the distance across which it is coupled--are required to describe the duality of a gravitational system. Because Ri and η do not appear in the standard model, it is suggested that Λ may represent them in the relationship Λ = η/Ri^2. This requires η of the order of 0.0001%. It is concluded that modeling the universe gravitationally requires at least four causal parameters, two of which are missing in the Friedmann model. To clarify the situation, a solution is needed to Einstein’s field equations for general relativity that explicitly includes duality, i.e. a solution that includes Ri and η.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[100] **viXra:1407.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 16:11:15*

**Authors:** Charles L. Chandler

**Comments:** 10 Pages. 10 pgs, 20 references, 6 figures

Significant anomalies in the fundamental conception of the driving forces in volcanoes are explored. It is unlikely that felsic magma would have the thermal energy necessary to melt its way through the thickest aspect of the crust above a subduction zone, without an unidentified heat source. And while mafic magma such as at Kīlauea flows through the much thinner oceanic crust, this has been explained as the outflow from a mantle plume, even though the seamount chain began in a subduction zone that is older that the postulated plume, and which is mutually exclusive with it. Hence subduction volcanoes are the primary riddle. A new heat source is considered: resistive heating from telluric currents. The significance is that it might be possible to prevent cataclysmic eruptions, such as at Yellowstone, by shunting the current into a new path, using a conductive borehole some distance away from Yellowstone, which would remove the resistive heating and thereby relax the pressure in the existing chamber.

**Category:** Geophysics

[99] **viXra:1407.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 16:10:58*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 99 Pages.

“Să iau pulsul vieţii. Să intru în vorbă cu omul obişnuit. Să bat trotuarele ori să stau la o terasă privind trecătorii.
Turismul ca un modus vivendi. Ca o adaptare continuă.
Ca o aventură culturală.
- Cum a fost vacanţa? M-a întrebat un prieten.
- Prea scurtă!”
[fragment din jurnal]

**Category:** Linguistics

[98] **viXra:1407.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:04:03*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

English (traslation): Half of the stars in the universe are composed of ordinary matter, half antimatter. Each atomic particle has the same number of gravitons that half of the stars in the Universe. Links of gravitons with stars of one kind or another, determine the gravity and inertia. The blueshift phenomenon is explained and also shows how you can get energy from gravity, based on the above.
Spanish (original): La mitad de las estrellas del Universo están compuestas de materia ordinaria, la otra mitad de antimateria. Cada partícula atómica tiene el mismo número de gravitones que la mitad de las estrellas del Universo. Los enlaces de los gravitones con las estrellas, de uno u otro tipo, determinan la gravedad y la inercia. Se explica el fenómeno del blueshift y se muestra, asimismo, como se puede obtener energía a partir de la gravedad, basándose en lo anterior.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[97] **viXra:1407.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:09:58*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a new law which describes a number of fundamental quantum mechanical laws. This paper shows that the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle obeys this new formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[96] **viXra:1407.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:20:11*

**Authors:** mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I draw more conclusions based on my theory on relativity presented earlier. Here I show, (1) a new expression for the relativistic mass, (2) a new expression for the relativistic kinetic energy of a relativistic mass, (3) the limitation for the equivalence of matter and energy as expressed by Einstein's famous mass/energy equation, (4) formulation of a new law of physics dealing with the conversion of energy into matter and vice versa and lastly, (5) give another example of the breakdown of the thinking based on non-relativistic events when applied to relativistic events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[95] **viXra:1407.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:12:05*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a new Law which describes a number of fundamental quantum mechanical laws. This paper shows that the black hole entropy obeys this new formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[94] **viXra:1407.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-04 16:07:52*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

This paper investigates the origins of the fine-structure constant and the laws of physics. Evidence strongly suggests that there is a common origin behind all of them. The most striking evidence is perhaps the Lorentz transformations which are mentioned here and analysed in a separate paper. The author presents a new perspective about the laws of Nature through a new theory called: the theory of the pre-universe and proposes an answer to the question: where do the laws of physics
come from?

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[93] **viXra:1407.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:14:26*

**Authors:** Branislav Pavlovic

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The following paper consists of two parts. The first one is the translation of the 21st chapter ”The Pioneer anomaly” of my book ” Aether theory with experimental verification”. I chose this particular chapter for the reason that the Pioneer anomaly is a very interesting issue to be discussed. The book is available for reading at viXra. There have been different interpretations of the Pioneer anomaly, but mine is from my aether theory. For the purpose of a more exhaustive explanation of this particular occurrence, the second part of this paper presents some fundamental results of the aether theory, which are closely related to the Doppler effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[92] **viXra:1407.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-22 00:42:31*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

About "Black hole realities" by David J. Eicher (Astronomy magazine - August 2014) -
We just need to look at black holes in an original way to see that the reservations expressed by Astronomy's Editor concerning the "Cosmos" TV series' episode about black holes can be answered in a scientific way. There's no need to refer to science fiction at all - but only to Stephen Hawking, Albert Einstein and quantum mechanics.
Reason for replacement of previous version – to add a subsection proposing 1) that time travel can account for ordinary atomic matter being the basis of ALL dark matter, 2) that the Sun is centuries younger then we think, 3) that the anthropic principle restricts the amount of time travel.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[91] **viXra:1407.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-05 14:30:26*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, the origin and nature of the extreme-energy cosmic rays exceeding the GZK limit have to be explained. It follows from the four-particle symmetry and the phenomena which take place in collapsing to neutron star a big star. There are produced the binary systems of discs composed of the W or Z bosons. They decay to two tagged photons moving in opposite directions. There also are possible the other channels of decay so the decays to two tagged photons are very rare. The discs have strictly determined mass so the photons have strictly determined energy. The obtained results are consistent with the energy of the Oh-My-God particle seen in the detector operated by the University of Utah. The lowest mass/energy of such discs/photons should be detected in CERN. Here as well is explained why the energy distribution of cosmic rays should peak at approximately 0.32 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[90] **viXra:1407.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-28 10:13:39*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Spanish

In the same publication in which Hermann Weyl in 1918 published his unified field theory, Albert Einstein raised sharp criticism to the new theory. He argued that if true would not exist defined spectral lines. Later Wolfgang Pauli developed this review in more detail, which was accepted by other physicists of the time, including to Weyl. The result was that the theory that unified gravitation and electromagnetism born dead. In this research, we analyze in depth the concept of conformal transformation, a concept basic in the theory of Weyl, and we interpret it as a change in the scale of the units, concluding that the physical phenomena are not altered by making a conformal transformation. We interpret the physical meaning of the metric connection and found his correspondence with the electromagnetic field vector and estimate its numerical value. We conclude that the phenomenon predicted by Einstein exists, but is so weak that it is not observable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[89] **viXra:1407.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 05:42:42*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I enunciate five conjectures on primes, based on the study of Fermat pseudoprimes and on the author’s believe in the importance of multiples of 30 in the study of primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[88] **viXra:1407.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-25 06:26:11*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

Abandon the hypothesis that the satellites of the solar system may be responsible for the precession of 43" arc of the perihelion of Mercury. Satellites together contribute, by our estimate, with just over 1" to the value of this precession, the Moon being the most responsible for this deviation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[87] **viXra:1407.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 02:57:45*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I enunciate nine conjectures on primes, all of them on the infinity of certain sequences of primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[86] **viXra:1407.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-13 12:16:35*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture on the squares of primes of the form 6k + 1, conjecture that states that by a certain deconcatenation of those numbers (each one in other two numbers) it will be obtained similar results.

**Category:** Number Theory

[85] **viXra:1407.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-04 18:46:18*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 9 Pages. none

In this article it is shown that the hallmark of the General Relativity Theory (GRT), the calculation of
the light deflection by a gravitating body, is incorrect. The reason is that the derivation does not follow
the well know Fermat principle from optics. Instead an ad hoc principle is used that violates the basic
tenets of relativity in order to force an agreement with observations. The Fermat principle has to be
satisfied because it follows from the wave equation that guides the photon propagation. This is a fatal
problem for the GRT with the root cause traced to the Schwarzschild metric, which does not describe the
reality correctly. When the author's new metric is used the standard Fermat principle can be generalized
and used leading to the results agreeing with observations and experiments quite well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[84] **viXra:1407.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-13 04:24:29*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Author presents a new and equivalent statement of Fermat's little theorem for Fermat numbers by using double Fermat number formula to give a very simple explanation for all composite Fermat numbers to be pseudoprimes.

Abstract: In this paper we present a new and equivalent statement of Fermat's little theorem for Fermat numbers by introducing double Fermat number formula and give a very simple and accptable explanation for all composite Fermat numbers to be pseudoprimes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[83] **viXra:1407.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-15 05:49:15*

**Authors:** Rahul Garg

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

At first the concept of gravitational time dilation may look a bit complicated and it is difficult to figure out the reason. In this paper, I am going to explain gravitational time dilation without the knowledge of any other concept such as the equivalence principle and others. This paper aims to simplify any confusions or doubts that arise regarding gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1407.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-13 03:25:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[81] **viXra:1407.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 13:26:33*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article presents arguments with a view to recognize that space is material and has possibly a fractal dimension in the range of from three to two. It is proposed that along to the unit of substance (atom) some a unit of the field (vortex tubes) should be set. It is shown that the formation of the field structures being a kind “doubles” of atomic ones is possible. The existence of the three-zone electron structure is confirmed. It is indicated that this concept have already resulted in to the successful explanation of phenomena and to finding of their important parameters at different levels of the organization of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[80] **viXra:1407.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 12:08:55*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A recent study entitled “The Photon Underproduction Crisis” claims that there are two surprising possibilities: the first possibility is that galaxies and quasars contribute far more photons than astronomers now believe; the second possibility is that the ΛCDM model of the low-redshift universe is significantly wrong. Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) implies that the ΛCDM model is significantly wrong. This brief communications makes a Photon Underproduction Profile Prediction based upon a speculative MOND-based theory of string theory with the Finite Nature Hypothesis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[79] **viXra:1407.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-05 14:26:36*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, evolution of the Milky Way (and similar massive galaxies) has to be explained descriptively and partially quantitatively. There is described production of the protoarms of the massive spiral galaxies, production of the Fermi Bubbles, and dwarf galaxies. Due to the two succeeding transformations of groups of the binary systems of electron-positron pairs via the electromagnetic-type weak condensates inside the bare electrons, there are emitted the gamma-rays with central values of energy in approximation equal to: 1.3 GeV, 2.6 GeV, 5.3 GeV, 10.6 GeV, 21 GeV, 42 GeV and 85 GeV. For muon-antimuon pair we obtain about 137 GeV, whereas for kaon-antikaon pair is 639 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[78] **viXra:1407.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 08:16:52*

**Authors:** J Salvador Ruiz Fargueta

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Using a simple mathematical tool and a basic properties of quantum vacuum fluctuations discover its hidden structure. The fractal dimension
of the energy of fluctuations is 9, allowing you to occupy a space of nine dimensions:
the three regular 6 more compacted.
This special geometry of ordinary dimensions / compacted determines energy dependence of the inverse distance, allowing vacuous stability and appearance of the quantum vacuum.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[77] **viXra:1407.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 04:53:19*

**Authors:** Mohammad Sharifi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We study the mechanism by which the particle-antiparticle entangled state collapses instantaneously at a distance. By making two key assumptions, we are able to show not only that instantaneous collapse of a wave function at a distance is possible but also that it is an invariant quantity under Lorentz transformation and compatible with relativity. In addition, we will be able to detect in which situation a many-body entangled system exhibits the maximum collapse speed among its entangled particles. Finally we suggest that every force in nature acts via entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[76] **viXra:1407.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-01 23:49:11*

**Authors:** Mohammad Sharifi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We explain herein the fatal error in formulation of strong interaction (quantum
chromodynamics). We postulate that quarks are tachyons and do not obey Yang-Mills
theory. By applying this correction to the dynamics of quarks, we can confine quarks
in hadrons. We seek to show why quarks do not obey the Pauli exclusion principle
and why we cannot observe free quarks. In addition, we obtained the correct sizes of
hadrons and derive appropriate formulations of strong interaction. Instead of several
discrete QCD methods, we derive a united formulation that enables us to solve the
strong interaction for all energy values.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[75] **viXra:1407.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-13 10:45:58*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture on the squares of primes of the form 6k – 1, conjecture that states that by a certain deconcatenation of those numbers (each one in other two numbers) it will be obtained similar results.

**Category:** Number Theory

[74] **viXra:1407.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-11 09:18:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[73] **viXra:1407.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-11 03:55:10*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Author presents two symmetric conjectures related to Mersenne and Fermat primes themselves. It may imply that Mersenne primes are infinite but Fermat primes are finite.

Abstract: From existence of the intersection of the set of Mersenne primes and the set of Fermat primes being a set to contain only one element 3 to be the first Mersenne prime and also the first Fermat prime we fell there are connections between Mersenne and Fermat primes. In this paper, it is presented that two symmetric conjectures related to Mersenne and Fermat primes themselves will lead us to expect Mersenne primes to be infinite but Fermat primes to be finite.

**Category:** Number Theory

[72] **viXra:1407.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-11 05:52:35*

**Authors:** Jinhua Fei

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper use Nevanlinna's Second Main Theorem of the value distribution theory, we got an important conclusion by Riemann hypothesis.Thus, we launch a contradiction.

**Category:** Number Theory

[71] **viXra:1407.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-11 06:50:56*

**Authors:** Stefan G. Freundt

**Comments:** 10 Pages. German

We are surrounded by round objects. Planets, suns, stones, tree trunks and many more objects are round.
Likewise, s-orbitals of electrons in atoms are spherically symmetric and thereby round.
If we ascertain the surface areas, volumes, or circumferences of these objects,
then we inevitably encounter the number pi. Evidently the number pi plays an important
role in our environment. Accordingly, pi is included in the formulae used to describe our world.
For the calculation of pi, there are an abundance of methods that can be used.
In contrast, in this article we are going to pursue the goal of giving objects
the simplest possible properties, and enabling these objects to calculate pi en passant.
We introduce a system of equations, in which objects only interact with each
other through algebraic operations (+-*/ and sqrt) and generate the number pi in a boundary case.
Wir sind von runden Objekten umgeben. Planeten, Sonnen, Steine, Baumstämme
und vieles mehr sind rund. S-Orbitale von Elektronen in Atomen sind ebenfalls
kugelsymmetrisch und damit rund.
Bestimmt man von diesen Objekten Ober
fläche und Volumen oder Umfang und
Flächeninhalt, begegnet man unweigerlich der Zahl pi. Offenbar nimmt die Zahl
pi eine wichtige Rolle in unserer Umgebung ein. In die Formeln zur Beschreibung
unserer Welt wird pi entsprechend hineingesteckt.
Zur Berechnung von pi gibt es eine Menge Verfahren, die alle für einen Menschen
gemacht sind, um pi zu berechnen. Im Gegensatz dazu verfolgen wir in diesem
Artikel das Ziel, Objekte mit möglichst einfachen Eigenschaften auszustatten und
diese Objekte in die Lage zu versetzen pi "en passant" zu berechnen.
Wir stellen ein Gleichungssystem vor, in dem Objekte nur durch algebraische
Operationen (+-*/ und sqrt) mit einander wechselwirken und in einem Grenzfall
die Zahl pi erzeugen.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[70] **viXra:1407.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-11 00:31:03*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A Single-Page Note

For more than twenty years I have been trying to communicate the true nature of 'matter' through the system of 'peer-reviewed-journals', but the prestigious journals are not courageous-enough to publish. So I am expressing my view here to the open-minded readers.
'Matter' is not a 'substance', 'matter' is a 'process' i.e. 'a phenomenon'. 'Matter' is a process of fluctuations arisen in a 'continuum'. The continuum nature of the fundamental-reality allows formations of spherical 'wave-packets' of micro-microscopic-dimensions*. There are: integer (whole number) of such 'wave-packets'. The waves generated by these packets spread in all the directions. An interesting difference between the interference of conventional electromagnetic waves and the waves of 'matter-particles' is: that in the case of electromagnetic waves generated by radio-stations, the waves add constructively or destructively depending upon their relative phase, and the antennas remain firmly fixed; whereas in the case of 'matter-waves' depending upon the constructive or destructive superimposition of the waves, the antennas change their positions! Because the 'particles of matter' are so light-weight, that they change their positions like 'free-floating-antennas. Interference of 'matter-waves' causes the changes in the positions of the 'spherical wave-packets' called 'particles of matter'. We require not just 'strings' or 'loops' but rather three or four-dimensional-continuum to describe the 'particles of matter'. Thus, the particles of 'matter' are 'particles' as far as their micro-microscopic size, and their whole, integer number is concerned; and they are 'waves' as far as their true nature, of 'fluctuations of the most fundamental continuum’, is concerned.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[69] **viXra:1407.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-11 03:03:25*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I will define four sequences of numbers obtained through concatenation, definitions which also use the notion of “sum of the digits of a number”, sequences that have the property to produce many primes, semiprimes and products of very few prime factors.

**Category:** Number Theory

[68] **viXra:1407.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-20 09:50:26*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is shown that from the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of momentum conservation there follows the existence of a previously unknown force. The author suggests to experimenters to verify the generation of Khmelnik force and to supplement its name by their own names.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[67] **viXra:1407.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-20 06:11:19*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is shown that from the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of momentum conservation there follows the existence of a previously unknown force. The author suggests to experimenters to verify the generation of Khmelnik force and to supplement its name by their own names. \\ Показано, что из существования потока электромагнитного импульса и закона сохранения импульса следует существование неизвестной ранее силы. Автор приглашает экспериментаторов проверить появление силы Хмельника и дополнить ее название своим именем.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[66] **viXra:1407.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-10 13:44:08*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author, the ratio ${H(z) / (1+z)}$ should be equal to the Hubble constant. Here, the weighted average value of the Hubble constant has been
found using 29 observed values of the Hubble parameter $H(z)$:
$

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] **viXra:1407.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 15:30:22*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Conventionally, time dilation is defined as the decrease in the rate of flow of time in a frame moving relative to an outside observer. I argue that any process (exemplified by, say, a clock) that moves through space takes longer than that process would take if that process were stationary relative to space. The space that I define in this context is a field (of particles as yet undefined) that I label the temporal-inertial (TI) field. The relation between the TI field and the Higgs field or Higgs fields is undefined in this conjecture. I argue that the TI field constitutes the one and only frame of reference for motion by which time dilation can be reckoned. Furthermore, the velocity of a process relative to the TI field is the one and only cause of time dilation for that process. Accordingly, time dilation is not a decrease in the rate of flow of time in a moving frame, but an increase in the time taken by a process in motion relative to the TI field. If we measure time by the cycle time of a process (e.g. the ticking of a clock) it doesn’t mean that time slows down when the process is in motion, it means that the process takes longer when moving relative to the TI field. The twin paradox is readily resolved by reckoning the motion of the traveling twin relative to the space through which the twin (or clock) moves, not relative to the reference, stationary twin (or clock). The time dilation between two clocks moving in space is shown to be based on each clock’s velocity relative to the TI field, not on the difference of their velocities relative to each other. The TI field is shown to be subject to gravity. Gravitational time dilation of a process (e.g. a clock) is shown to be caused directly by the velocity of the process relative to the TI field, not by the graviton flux at the process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1407.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 19:33:51*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 9 Pages. one graph

In this article it is shown that the General Relativity Theory is an incorrect theory of gravity. It leads to erroneous predictions when it is extrapolated beyond its experimentally verified validity such as the prediction of the existence of Black Holes with their event horizons. The article describes the two fatal problems found in the theory in particular in the Schwarzschild metric, which is the “vacuum” solution of Einstein field equations for a mass point. The problems are the insufficient contravariance and the violation of conservation of angular momentum. The article then derives the correct metric for the centrally gravitating body, which does not have the above mentioned problems, presents the Christoffel coefficients, and derives the Riemann, and the Ricci tensors. From this metric it is also shown that the Einstein’s Weak Equivalence Principle does not correspond to reality and that the inertial mass and the gravitational mass both depend on the gravitational potential as well as on the velocity in such a way that their product remains constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1407.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-22 18:42:53*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Based on the Scale Law this paper explores several cosmological issues such as the age
of the Universe, the Universe mass density, the radius of the present particle horizon and
the Friedmann’s equation. The Scale Law is the first Model Meta law we, humans, have
discovered. The significance of this investigation is the formula for the age of the
Universe. This formula is in excellent agreement with the experimental data from the Planck spacecraft- 2013 and suggests that one of more of the constants it contains is a function of time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[62] **viXra:1407.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 22:41:04*

**Authors:** Abel Cavaşi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract. In this document are first defined the notions of helical impulse and helical force, and after are defined the components of helical force in the form of helical electric, gravitational and magnetic force.
În acest material se definesc întâi noţiunile de impuls elicoidal şi forţă elicoidală, după care se definesc componentele forţei elicoidale sub forma forţei elicoidale electrice, gravitaţionale şi magnetice.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[61] **viXra:1407.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-25 06:59:16*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 104 Pages. Revised version

This book is a systematic exposition of the algebra of sixteen-component space-time values "sedeons" and their applications to describe quantum particles and fields. The book contains the results of our several articles published in the period 2008-2014. It includes a large number of carefully selected reference material relating to the use of different multi-component algebras in physical problems and may be useful as an introduction to the application of hypercomplex numbers in physics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[60] **viXra:1407.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 13:48:20*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. The major drawback concerning
warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain
the warp bubble.In order to perform an interstellar space travel
to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years away in a reasonable amount
of time a ship must attain a speed of about $200$ times faster
than light.However the negative energy density at such a speed is
directly proportional to the factor $10^{48}$ which is
$1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times bigger in magnitude than
the mass of the planet Earth!! Although the energy conditions of
General Relativity forbids the existence of negative energy the
Casimir Effect first predicted by Casimir in $1948$ and verified
experimentally by Lamoreaux in $1997$ allows sub-microscopical
amounts of it.We introduce in this work a shape function that will
low the negative energy density requirements in the Natario warp
drive from $10^{48} \frac{Joules}{Meter^{3}}$ to
$10^{-7} \frac{Joules}{Meter^{3}}$ a low and affordable level.
However reducing the negative energy density requirements of the
warp drive to arbitrary low levels works only for empty bubbles
not for bubbles with real spaceships inside because the positive
mass of the spaceship exerts over the negative mass of the bubble
a gravitational repulsive force and a spaceship with a large
positive mass inside a bubble of small negative mass destroys the
bubble.According to Lobo and Visser we can reduce the negative
energy density of the warp bubble only to the limit when the
negative energy becomes a reasonable fraction of the positive
mass/energy of the spaceship.and no less otherwise the bubble is
destroyed.The analysis of Lobo and Visser must be taken in account
when considering bubbles with real spaceships inside otherwise the
warp drive may not work.We reproduce in this work the analysis of
Lobo and Visser for the Natario and Casimir warp drives.The work
of Lobo and Visser is the third most important work in warp drive
science immediately after the works of Alcubierre and Natario and
the Lobo-Visser paper must also be considered a seminal paper like
the ones of both Alcubierre and Natario.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[59] **viXra:1407.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-17 06:50:12*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is known that Lorentz Force and Ampere force contradicts the Third Newton Law, but it does not contradict the more general Law of Momentum Conservation, as the electromagnetic field has a momentum. From this it follows that the Lorentz and Ampere forces must be balanced by the flow of electromagnetic field momentum. However, as far as the author knows, there is no corresponding quantitative comparison and therefore it is discussed below. In particular, it is shown that some of the corollaries of the Momentum Conservation Law can be found.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[58] **viXra:1407.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-02 03:59:21*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is known that Lorentz Force and Ampere force contradicts the Third Newton Law, but it does not contradict the more general Law of Momentum Conservation, as the electromagnetic field has a momentum. From this it follows that the Lorentz and Ampere forces must be balanced by the flow of momentum of electromagnetic field. However, as far as the author knows, there is no corresponding quantitative comparison and therefore it is discussed below. In particular, it is shown that some of the corollaries of the Momentum Conservation Law can be found. \\ Известно, что силы Лоренца и Ампера противоречат третьему закону Ньютона, но не противоречат более общему закону сохранения импульса, поскольку электромагнитное поле обладает импульсом. Из этого следует, что эти силы должны уравновешиваться потоком импульса электромагнитного поля. Однако, насколько известно автору, нет соответствующего количественного сопоставления и поэтому оно рассматривается ниже. При этом, в частности, показывается, что из закона сохранения импульса можно найти некоторые следствия.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[57] **viXra:1407.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 11:24:32*

**Authors:** Rahul Garg

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Time travel is just a hyped fiction which everyone believes is possible. In this paper, I show how time travel is very different from time dilation and we should not get confused between them. Although time dilation is possible, time travel is an entirely different thing and we misinterpret it.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[56] **viXra:1407.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-08 22:02:18*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization reduced to a convex polynomial-time integer minimization problem

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[55] **viXra:1407.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-09 00:02:23*

**Authors:** John Frederic Sweeney

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Base 60 mathematics offers convenience for life on a spherical globe, yet why has humanity continued to use a time system based on the sexagesmial
system? In our combinatorial universe, Time is controlled by the number 60, which is the reason why the ancients based time – keeping systems on this number. Goodbye, Minkowski Time!

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[54] **viXra:1407.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-08 10:13:26*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We consider a single electron amplitude splitting interference experiment with respect to the possibility of a blueshift in energy/momentum due to the changes in static electric potential.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[53] **viXra:1407.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-08 12:03:20*

**Authors:** Hans Christian Haunschild

**Comments:** 47 Pages. 47

The theory presented here is able to explain all attributes of cuprate-based High-temperature- superconductors in the normal- and in the SC-state as well. More than 300 experimentally measured values will be compared with the predictions of theory. In more than 90% quantitative, otherwise qualitative accordance between experiment and theory appears. For the theoretical calculations parameters gained only by experiments are used.
Reluctance is senseless: This theory will succeed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[52] **viXra:1407.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-14 17:13:14*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It was recently detected an unidentified emission line in the stacked X-ray spectrum of galaxy clusters. Since this line is not catalogued as being the emission of a known chemical element, several hypotheses have been proposed, for example that it is of a known chemical element but with an emissivity of 10 or 20 times the expected theoretical value. Here we show that there is a divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann equation at high energy density conditions. This divergence is related to the correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass, and it can explain the increment in the observed emissivity.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[51] **viXra:1407.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 03:52:29*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 9 pages.

Goldbach conjecture asserts that every even integer greater than 4 is sum of two odd primes. Stated in a letter to Leonard Euler by Christian Goldbach in 1842, this is still an enduring unsolved problem. In this paper we develop a new simple strategy to settle this most easy to state problem which has baffled mathematical community for so long. We show that the existence of two odd primes for every even number greater than 4 to express it as their sum follows from the well known Chinese remainder theorem. We develop a method to actually determine a pair (and subsequently all pairs) of primes for any given even number to express it as their sum. For proof sake we will be using an easy equivalent of Goldbach conjecture. This easy equivalent leads to a congruence system and existence of solution for this congruence system is assured by Chinese remainder theorem. Each such solution actually provides a pair of primes to express given even number as their sum. We also discuss how twin prime conjecture follows from existence of certain x as a solution of certain congruence system.

**Category:** Number Theory

[50] **viXra:1407.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-07 00:42:10*

**Authors:** Taekyoon park, Yeonsoo Kim, Jong Min Lee

**Comments:** 10 Pages. To prove Goldbach's conjecture, we developed our own dynamic model for Goldbach partition. This is the first step of our study.

There have been various approach to prove Goldbach's conjecture using analytical number theory. We go back to the starting point of this famous probelm and are able to show that the number of Goldbach partition is related to that of ordered pairs of non-primes. This proof is based on the world's first dynamic model of primes and can be a key to identify the structure of prime numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[49] **viXra:1407.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-07 18:13:59*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, X. Dimitriou

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Some conditions for semicontinuity of the limit function of a pointwise convergent net of lattice group-valued functions with respect to filter convergence are given. In this framework we consider some kinds of filter exhaustiveness.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[48] **viXra:1407.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-09 09:31:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[47] **viXra:1407.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-30 10:49:32*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Since 1969, the superstructure has been the usual approach to nonstandard analysis. The method used to measure the strength of a Grundlegend-Deductive (GD)-model Divine attribute, which is comparable to a human attribute, is, at least, partially expressible in terms of cardinality. In this paper, it is shown that, for the non-atomic approach to superstructure construction, such cardinalities do not have a set-theory upper bound. A one-step rational extension of class theory does yield the entire collection of these partial measures. However, this is not the introduced notion of the generic infinite, a concept we, most likely, can not technically describe. This result also applies to the higher-intelligence prediction for the General Intelligent Design (GID)-model.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[46] **viXra:1407.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-07 08:25:14*

**Authors:** Hideki Mutoh

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Extension of Maxwell's equations is proposed to realize charge creation and annihilation.
The proposed equations includes Nakanishi-Lautrup (NL) field, which was introduced to construct Lorentz covariant electromagnetic field model for quantum electrodynamics (QED). The necessity of the extension of Maxwell's equations is shown by the comparison of current values given by Maxwell's and the proposed equations in the simple structure consisting of a silicon sphere surrounded by SiO2. Maxwell's equations give unreasonable currents in SiO2, although the proposed equations give reasonable result. The electromagnetic field energy density is increased by existence of NL field.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[45] **viXra:1407.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-07 08:42:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[44] **viXra:1407.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-08 01:58:49*

**Authors:** Wanchung Hu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The host immunological pathways are re-organized to get a clear picture. There are four acute immune responses: TH1/TH2/TH22/THαβ which are corresponding to four chronic immune responses: THfh/TH9/TH17/TH3. Then, the four branches of immune reactions can link to four types of hypersensitivities or allergies. Another inhibitory pathway Treg secreting TGF beta is the key player to shift the above acute immune responses to chronic immune responses for generating milder cytokines and other immune mediators to avoid severe destruction of organ during chronic and large scale of pathogen infection of tissue-organ. This 4x2+1 is the new paradigm of host immunological pathways.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[43] **viXra:1407.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-07 12:42:06*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. Portuguese language.

No satellite was taken into account in calculating the angular displacement of the perihelion of Mercury, even those already known at that time, by Le Varrier.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1407.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-04 11:31:35*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we proved that the unidentified emission line approximately 3.56 keV follows from the weak and electromagnetic interactions in plasma composed of fully ionized atoms of iron (the atomic nuclei of iron) and of free electrons. Temperature of the plasma is adequate for the captures of the free electrons by the ions in their n = 1 state, where n is the principal quantum number. Next, there are the transitions of the emitted X-rays/photons into electromagnetic-type or weak-type weak condensates inside protons. The energy of the weak condensates leaks from protons and again transforms into electromagnetic energy. Such two succeeding transitions via the electromagnetic-type weak condensate decrease the initial energy to 3.5566 keV - it is some analogy to the phenomenon dominating in a LASER, i.e. the wave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. The obtained theoretical result (3.5566 keV) is consistent with the MOS and PN (they are the two different CCD detectors on XMM-Newton) observations. Probability of creation of the weak-type weak condensates is very low - their production decreases the initial energy to 3.5157 keV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[41] **viXra:1407.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-29 15:48:12*

**Authors:** Rami Vitale

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This paper introduces a new approach to relativity; a non-equivalent alternative, explains the same phenomena discussed by Special and General Relativity. This approach is based on the famous mass energy equation as the main postulate as well as the relativity principle and a new theoretical intuitive definition for Kinetic Energy. Then, by using pure mathematical methods, it explains clearly the phenomenon of the fixed speed of light in different inertial frames of reference, as well as those of non-accelerated light when moving toward, or away from a mass, the bending of light near masses and the additional perihelion advance in astronomic objects' orbits. Results do not match perfectly those predicted by General or Special Relativity. However, the known experiments results do not agree with the classical relativity theories more than they do with this study

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1407.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-05 22:49:54*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Author presents a conjecture called the simple Mersenne conjecture, which may imply there are no more double Mersenne primes.

Abstract: In this paper we conjecture that there is no Mersenne number M(p)=2^p-1 to be prime for p=2^k±1,±3 when k>7, where p is positive integer and k is natural number. It is called the simple Mersenne conjecture and holds till p≤30402457 from status of this conjecture. If the conjecture is true then there are no more double Mersenne primes besides known double Mersenne primes MM(2), MM(3), MM(5), MM(7).

**Category:** Number Theory

[39] **viXra:1407.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-05 12:22:07*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We give necessary and sufficient conditions for (strong uniform) continuity of the limit of a pointwise convergent net of cone metric space-valued functions. In this framework we consider several types of convergence in the filter context and some kinds of filter exhaustiveness.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[38] **viXra:1407.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 09:17:58*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Over a period spanning at least the past fifteen years it has been repeatedly pointed out that the singularities and event horizons which arise from the Oppenheimer-Snyder ostensible calculation of the gravitational contraction of a localized sphere of dust are at odds with the Principle of Equivalence: notably the timelike geodesic trajectory which that Principle requires for every dust particle precludes any such dust particle from encountering an infinite redshift. Sweeping abstract arguments on the incompatibility of the Principle of Equivalence with an infinite redshift or other singularities have also been advanced. Scrutiny of the Oppenheimer-Snyder calculation shows that it never deals from scratch with localized dust; its one calculation from scratch is a Friedmann model variant with the archetypal Friedmann uniform dust density that pervades the entirety of space. This very unrealistic model, which inter alia has infinite energy, exhibits singularities and violations of the Principle of Equivalence. Since the Birkhoff theorem doesn't apply to Friedmann models because they have no empty space region, the Oppenheimer-Snyder follow-on instruction to utilize a spliced-on Schwarzschild metric beyond some arbitrarily specified radius contravenes logic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1407.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 17:53:34*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Earlier this year (May) I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a new law which describes a number of fundamental quantum mechanical laws. Since then I found that other quantum mechanical laws including the Bohr postulate and the De Broglie wavelength formula also obey the scale principle. Later I proved that this new law also describes the formula for the Schwarzschild radius, the equation for Einstein’s relativistic energy and Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Now I discovered that the Schrödinger’s equation can also be explained in terms of the present formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[36] **viXra:1407.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-03 14:33:58*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In 1632 Galileo proposed an extremely simple gravity experiment that has yet to be carried out. Its essence is to determine what happens when a test mass is dropped into a hole through the center of a larger source mass. It is a common problem in first year physics courses. Using a modified Cavendish balance or an orbiting satellite, with modern technology the experiment could have been done decades ago. In a seemingly unrelated context, many modern theories in physics have been criticized for their lack of connection with empirical evidence. One of the critics, Jim Baggott, has expounded on the problem in a book and more recently in an article, *The Evidence Crisis*, posted to the weblog, *Scientia Salon*. Einstein’s theory of gravity is widely regarded as being supported by empirical evidence throughout its accessible range, from the scale of millimeters to Astronomical Units. Not commonly realized, however, is that, with regard to gravity-induced motion, the evidence excludes the *central* regions of material bodies over this whole range. Specifically, the gravitational *interior* solution has not been tested. It is thus argued that here too modern physics suffers an evidence crisis. The lack of evidence in this case pertains to what may be called the most ponderous half of the gravitational Universe, inside matter. This large gap in our empirical knowledge of gravity could be easily filled by conducting Galileo’s experiment. As conscientious scientists, it is argued, this is what we ought to do.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1407.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 20:45:48*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Still nowadays is not known: What is the gravity? Which is its speed?.
However, in the world, the great majority of the physicists follow the General Relativity, which explains the gravity like the effect of the curvature of the spacetime in the movement of free fall of the bodies. But, simultaneously they agree that gravity as gravitational waves is a quantum phenomenon, endowed with a transmitting particle, known as real graviton, whose origin is the energy of the oscillation of the spacetime. Thus the gravity appears like geometric and quantum phenomenon, that has not allowed unify General Relativity and Quantum Physics. This is the other great existing physical theory, from which has been derived, the Quantum Gravity theory, whose carrier is the virtual graviton.
This problem has two basic alternatives to solve it. One is the theory of "Everything" that is based on explaining the quantum character of the gravity from strings in spaces of 5 and more dimensions, where the particle is turned pure geometry, but in spite of the great efforts realized, it is not surpassed the low energies. The other alternative is to leave General Relativity in search of the unification of the gravity and other physical phenomenons in a quantum theory, but of material particles. This scenery is again explored, as soon as it was left by the pioneers of the quantum gravity.
The geometric-quantum duality of the gravity, of the General Relativity, also, has darkened so much the concept of speed of the gravity like the development of an suitable technology to measure it, that according to the relativity must be equal to c. This was the goal for the end of 2005, of the Laser Interferometry projects of LIGO, GEO, VIRGO, TAMA, LISA, etc.
In 2002, the ingenious experiment made for to measure the speed of the gravity, by the scientist Sergei Kopeikin is not accepted due to its controversial effectiveness.
In 1998, from Quantum Gravity, from the material particles, in a theoretical experiment, the prestigious scientist Tom Van Flandern calculates the speed of the gravity at least in 2 x 1010 times c, that is consistent with the thesis of the author, formulated within an analogous scenery, in 1969, about the superluminal speed of the gravity.
In this paper the author presents the controversy on the speed of the gravity between General Relativity and the Quantum Theory of the Gravity and exposes the foundations of his thesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1407.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 23:16:51*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

There has been proven that mathematical origins of randomness in quantum and Newtonian physics are coming from the same source that is dynamical instability. However in Newtonian physics this instability is measured by positive finite Liapunov exponents averaged over infinite time period, while in quantum physics the instability is accompanied by a loss of the Lipchitz condition and represented by an infinite divergence of trajectories in a singular point. Although from a mathematical viewpoint such a difference is significant, from physical viewpoint it does not justify division of randomness into “deterministic “(chaos) and “true” (quantum physics). The common origin of randomness in Newtonian and quantum physics presents a support of the correspondence principle that is being searched by quantum chaos theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[33] **viXra:1407.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-05 01:29:06*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The ninth paper based on reality

The mass of neutron is slightly greater than1838 electrons. So it is argued that neutron contains 919 electron-positron pairs and that a positron is slightly heavier than electron. It can be shown that the minimum number of electron-positron pairs required to create a spherical structure with minimum imperfection is 919, thus validating the argument. A similar logic is applied to arrive at the structure of electron/positron. Based on these, it is argued that the natural choice of elementary particles is deterministic, and not random.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[32] **viXra:1407.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 23:57:07*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A six-page letter

This letter attempts to propose explanations for the century-old puzzle which thousands of physicists, including Einstein, Plank, Feynman …have been trying to resolve. A ‘particle’ is first mathematically characterized here as an impulse-function in space; and then Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain; showing that a ‘particle’ contains a ‘set’ of waves, and not just a single frequency. Then a small ‘set’ of waves is taken and its sum is plotted showing that at most of the places the wave-amplitudes mutually nullify each-other and constructively add only at discrete points in space and time; agreeing with our mathematical characterization. Then we show that in the experiments performed so far the red lasers had at least a few thousand Hz wide line-width; means the sources have been producing a wide set of waves, and not just a pure single frequency. Similarly, in the single-particle interference-experiments incandescent filament-lamps were used with green filters inserted to isolate single photons; but it is obvious that at the frequencies of light very narrow-band-filters are not yet technically feasible, so the green filters used allowed significantly wide band of waves. This wide band of waves passed from both the slits, interfered like waves, and whenever and wherever they got coherently added, a ‘particle’ called ‘photon’ got detected.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[31] **viXra:1407.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-04 08:53:06*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Is there a publication offer coming? I am from Physical Review!

Because of found mistakes, which we are lazy to correct, we need to check and recheck the foundations of Physics. As example of mistakes: "all" scientists used solution of dust collapse almost century, but it was wrong [Journal of Cosmology, 6, 1473-84, 2010]. Honest work on the errors, as I understand, has not begun. You postpone everything until the Second Coming? But God speaks: Matthew 25:26.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[30] **viXra:1407.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 06:24:49*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. See also viXra:1410.0133, "The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace", by Valdir M.S. Godoi

Three hypotheses are given to explain the advance of the perihelion of Mercury without the use of general relativity: 1) bodies not included in the classic Le Verrier and Simon Newcomb calculations, like the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn discovered after the nineteenth century; 2) the latitude of astronomical observatories that performed the measurements related to the value of this precession; 3) solar wind.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1407.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 06:53:06*

**Authors:** Subhajit Ganguly

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Our aim is to help build a machine that can reduce the possibility of mishaps in navigation to zero. For that devise a new system of numbers, in which the real numbers are represented on the y-axis and complex numbers on the x-axis. Inside such a system, we incorporate the equivalent Ideal Fuzzy Logic that can be used by the machine to predict and avoid mishaps.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[28] **viXra:1407.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-03 17:06:30*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 5 pages, 3 figures, submitted to AIP Conference Proceedings of ICNAAM 2014

In this short remark, we report on recent hypothetical work that aims to equip Santilli's magnecule model with topological deformation order parameters (OP) of fractional statistics to define a preliminary set of wave-packet wave-functions for the electron toroidal polarizations. The primary objective is to increase the representational precision and predictive accuracy of the magnecule model by exemplifying the fluidic characteristics for direct industrial application. In particular, the OPs are deployed to encode the spontaneous superfluidic gauge symmetry breaking (which may be restored at the iso-topic level) and correlated with Leggett's superfluid B phases to establish a long range constraint for the wave-functions. These new, developing, theoretical results may be significant because the OP configuration arms us with an extra degree of freedom for encoding a magnecule's states and transitions, which may reveal further insight into the underlying physical mechanisms and features associated with these state-of-the-art magnecular bonds.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[27] **viXra:1407.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-03 22:53:13*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I present a very simple formula which conducts often to primes or composites with very few prime factors; for instance, for the first 27 consecutive values introduced as “input” in this formula were obtained 10 primes, 4 squares of primes and 12 semiprimes; just 2 from the numbers obtained have three prime factors; but the most interesting thing is that the composites obtained have a special property that make them form a class of numbers themselves.

**Category:** Number Theory

[26] **viXra:1407.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 03:40:05*

**Authors:** Muneer Jebreel Karama

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Given a sequence of numbers , that is generated by matrix I described an easy way to write down the matrix by computing the next value of this sequence which was located on the next number on the diagonal of the matrix.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[25] **viXra:1407.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-03 11:56:14*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In a previous paper I made a generalization of de Polignac’s conjecture. In this paper I extend that generalization as much as is possible.

**Category:** Number Theory

[24] **viXra:1407.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-23 12:52:51*

**Authors:** Jan Hakenberg

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

We list examples of 2-dimensional domains bounded by subdivision curves together with their exact area, centroid, and inertia. We assume homogeneous mass-distribution within the space bounded by the curve. The subdivision curves that we consider are generated by 1) the low order B-spline schemes, 2) the generalized, interpolatory C^1 four-point scheme, as well as 3) the more recent dual C^2 four-point scheme.
The derivation of the (d + 2)-linear form that computes the area moment of degree p + q = d based on the initial control points for a given subdivision scheme is deferred to a publication in the near future.

**Category:** Geometry

[23] **viXra:1407.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-03 12:54:29*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I show a set of Poulet numbers, each one of them having the same interesting relation between its prime factors, and I make four conjectures, one about the infinity of this set, one about the infinity of a certain type of duplets respectively triplets respectively quadruplets and so on of primes and finally two generalizations, of the twin primes conjecture respectively of de Polignac’s conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22] **viXra:1407.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 15:31:08*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The paper considers physical effects, produced by a spinning electromagnetic field. Unlike a traveling wave, all its energy remains in a localized volume, what relates such the system with a mechanical gyroscope. Like the classical gyroscope, the electromagnetic spinning, manifested as a Field Gyroscope, produces a torque in a case of the non-stationary spinning. However, the electromagnetic base of the spinning brings new features, which the mechanical gyroscope does not have. The phenomena of the Filed Gyroscope allow explanation of dangerous atmospheric processes and anomalies of Geo-Pathogenic Zones as well as the possibility of a new type of the propeller.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[21] **viXra:1407.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 16:01:13*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara, M. Ioannides, M. Mazzi Boém, M. De Baerdemaeker, J. Portugal, E. Perez Babo, J. Santos, G. Ablasser, M. Socratous

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The proponents of this paper are currently the members of the “Consortium for the European Network for Cultural Heritage Tourism”, coordin- ated by X23 Ltd., co-financed by the European Union, DG Industry&Enterprise — 44/G/ENT/PPA/12/6460. Th e initiative is achieving a considerable success, given its particular combination of cultural aspects, development of the principles of European “Unity” and “Identity”, the efficient business modelling, a strong use of local resources and capabilities, the acute “short-clustering” capabilities through areas heretofore un- correlated, the extension of a consistent Network of networks, and the use of disruptive technological innovation. The Steering Committee is com- p!osed of members of ICOMOS (prof. M. Ioannides, membership number CYP 6853).

**Category:** Social Science

[20] **viXra:1407.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 16:01:16*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes a number of fundamental quantum mechanical laws and part of Einstein’s theory of relativity. The purpose of this article is to show that this theory also predicts Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Thus this new formulation can be extended to classical mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:1407.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 16:05:39*

**Authors:** José Portugal, Elisa Perez Babo, Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém, Margaret Colombani, Federica Marano

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Our objective is to create a trans-national tourism route, linking together the different — but also — common features of UNESCO WH sites, enhancing distinctions and commonalities under the paradigm of “the beauty of multiplicity”.
It is in the history and nature of Europe itself to be considered as a melting pot, and therefore a space for dialogue. We are pretty well aware of the resulting catastrophes in Europe, when people wanted to assert and enforce the opposite. European territories are based on shared cultures and common stories, but what it is becoming increasingly valuable to share is the pervasive search for intercultural relations, and to build networks based on affinities of various kinds.
The Intercultural Dialogue is an ongoing challenge for all European citizens, and starts with the recognition that our well-being and wealth come from our willingness to cultural exchanges.

**Category:** Social Science

[18] **viXra:1407.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 16:09:09*

**Authors:** José Portugal, Elisa Perez Babo, Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém, Margaret Colombani, Federica Marano

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An innovative idea, to be plugged in the general framework of the EUheritage Tour cultural route, could be the introduction of mechanisms for self education according to gamification criteria. Each stops along the itinerary could be considered as a mile- stone in an in-progress self-education course, linked to topics such as history, archaeology, heritage management, heritage tourism and providing a set of certification criteria.

**Category:** Social Science

[17] **viXra:1407.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 16:11:18*

**Authors:** Marika Mazzi Boém, Giuseppe Laquidara, Margaret Colombani

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This document represents a first syllabus, to be later on the intrinsic part of the forthcoming transnational strategy. The aim is to analyse each national conditions on cultural heritage and related tourism based on actual national studies, determining a strategic overview as to cover in a single line, executable and efficient, all the diversities of each national situation, including a SWAT analysis.

**Category:** Social Science

[16] **viXra:1407.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 16:14:09*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém, Margaret Colombani, Isabel Lopez Briones, Federica Marano

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The overall objective of this project is to increase the competitiveness of European tourism by creating an innovative transnational tourism product that capitalises the shared value of European UNESCO cultural heritage sites and complements national, regional and local policies.
UNESCO cultural world heritage sites provide an important narrative for historical development in Europe and they can serve as foundations for a contemporary European identity. At the same time domestic and international visits to the sites have grown rapidly over the past years representing both a challenge and opportunity.
Considering that the tourism sector involves both public and private stakeholders, the European Commission’s 2010 Communication on tourism (COM (2010)352 final), its rolling implementation plan and the Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European tourism (COM (2007)621 final) underline that national, regional, local public authorities as well as public and private tourism stakeholders have to be involved in order to create a new successful framework for action. In order to be able to maintain Europe’s leadership in the world tourism, EUheritageTOUR will contribute to developing a new innovative tourism product that can compete in times of the economic crisis.

**Category:** Social Science

[15] **viXra:1407.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 16:16:09*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Keywords. Mathematics, Philosophy, Humanism, Naturalism, Hermeneutics, Quantum Logics, NCLs, Complexity

In this brief argument, I argue that a dilemma about the innateness of Math in Nature, opposite to the hypothesis that Mathematics could be an human invention, is a natural non-sense depending from human innate inclination to logical doubt, due to the effective irrelevance of the Human Mathematical order and its laws within the relation between the Natural Mathematical phenomena and the Nature itself. (Apr 5, 2014)

**Category:** General Mathematics

[14] **viXra:1407.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 20:39:23*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Transmission of high voltage by direct currency (DC) over long distance has big advantages in comparison with the current transmission by alternative current (AC). But about one hundred years ago generating electricity by the magnetic method was easy and development led to a system centered on AC. Now AC is the dominant method. That is only a result of the quirks of electricity’s historical development.
In present time it is possible to research and develop (R&D) high voltage electrostatic generators and inverters of high voltage DC in low voltage DC and in AC and using the old AC lines and devices.
Author offers a cheap high voltage electrostatic generator and transformer of high voltage DC to low voltage DC and DC in AC (any frequency and phases) and back. That may be adopted gradually and it will give significantly savings of electricity and energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13] **viXra:1407.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-03 02:09:31*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

show the basic structure and properties of Hadrons

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12] **viXra:1407.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-03 10:28:48*

**Authors:** Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Roselló

**Comments:** 35 Pages. English version in http://vixra.org/abs/1407.0007

En este artículo se estudian los números primos y compuestos desde el punto de vista de los dos modos de conciencia: 1) la conciencia profunda, intuitiva y sintética; 2) la conciencia superficial, racional y analítica. Esta dualidad universal se manifiesta, respectivamente, en los números primos y compuestos.
Según el principio de causalidad descendente, lo superficial es siempre una manifestación de lo profundo, y es imposible expresar lo profundo desde lo superficial. Por lo tanto, los números compuestos son manifestaciones de los números primos, y los números primos son inexpresables. Esta inexpresabilidad de los primos se manifiesta, se justifica y se fundamenta en la suma y resta de cuadrados, es decir, en las expresiones pitagóricas duales a^2+b^2 y a^2-b^2.
Adicionalmente, este estudio ha conducido al descubrimiento de que existen 7 tipos de números impares desde el punto de vista de las expresiones pitagóricas.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11] **viXra:1407.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-04 03:17:46*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 684 Pages.

Folclor umoristic internetist (Vol. VII).

**Category:** Linguistics

[10] **viXra:1407.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 08:12:28*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Thank you

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s revised gravity field equation (add the cosmological constant), discovers the solution of the cosmological problem. In this time, by the cosmological constant, understand the universe energy density without the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1407.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-01 21:00:47*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Aviation, in general, and aerospace in particular needs new propulsion systems which allow a craft to reach high speeds by cheaper and more efficient methods. Author offers a new high efficiency propulsion system using electrons for acceleration of the craft. As this system does not heat the air, it does not have the heating limitations of conventional air ramjet hypersonic engines. Offered engine can produce a thrust from a zero flight speed up to the desired escape velocity for space launch. It can work in any planet atmosphere (gas, liquid) and at high altitude. The system can use apparatus surface for thrust and braking. For energy the system uses high voltage electricity which is not a problem if you have an appropriate electrostatic generator connected with any suitable engine. The new propulsion system applies to hypersonic long-range aviation, for launch of space craft and as a high efficiency rocket in solar space. This can be actualized using current technology.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8] **viXra:1407.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-04 14:06:07*

**Authors:** Samuel C. Hsieh

**Comments:** 13 Pages. This version corrects a few typing errors found in the previous version.

We establish a lower bound of 2^n conditional jumps for deciding the satisfiability of the conjunction of any two Boolean formulas from a set called a full representation of Boolean functions of n variables - a set containing a Boolean formula to represent each Boolean function of n variables. The contradiction proof first assumes that there exists a RAM program that correctly decides the satisfiability of the conjunction of any two Boolean formulas from such a set by following an execution path that includes fewer than 2^n conditional jumps. By using multiple runs of this program, with one run for each Boolean function of n variables, the proof derives a contradiction by showing that this program is unable to correctly decide the satisfiability of the conjunction of at least one pair of Boolean formulas from a full representation of n-variable Boolean functions if the program executes fewer than 2^n conditional jumps. This lower bound of 2^n conditional jumps holds for any full representation of Boolean functions of n variables, even if a full representation consists solely of minimized Boolean formulas derived by a Boolean minimization method. We discuss why the lower bound fails to hold for satisfiability of certain restricted formulas, such as 2CNF satisfiability, XOR-SAT, and HORN-SAT. We also relate the lower bound to 3CNF satisfiability.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[7] **viXra:1407.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 01:01:52*

**Authors:** Alexander M. Ilyanok

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Suggested herein with is a new model of terrestrial heat sources based on thorough analysis of universally recognized experimental data on the physics of the Earth and its heat balance. In this model the heat generation still is going on in hydrogen Earth’s core (superdense hydrogen radicals). This hypothesis considers the wave processes in the Earth’s core which, due to induction, generated by dynamic gravitational fields, markedly affect the heating of the upper layers of the Earth and, consequently, the climate and local environmental processes. Basing on these new energy sources, the Earth’s heat balance models must be revised, it would allow long-term forecasting of climatic shifts and local environmental disasters.
Moreover, our model shows that small hydrogen diffusion from the Earth’s outer core through the mantle provides an answer as to how the water on our planet was originated. This was confirmed by the recent sensational discovery of a group of American scientists led by Steven D. Jacobsen in their work "Dehydration melting at the top of the lower mantle"
The Earth’s climate is determined, along with the solar light energy, by the wave movement in the Earth’s outer core. Through induction-gravitational interaction, these waves transfer the energy to the mantle, the core, the oceans, and the atmosphere.

**Category:** Climate Research

[6] **viXra:1407.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-21 18:42:11*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Presented APS Baltimore APRil 2015

In previous papers we have discussed the concept of a theory of gravitation with local energy conservation, and the properties of a large neutron star resulting when the energy of gravitation resides locally with the particle mass and not in the gravitational field [1][2][3]. A large neutron star’s surface radius grows closer to the gravitational radius as the mass increases, but is always slightly larger. As the mass increases there is a continuously greater mass defect for incoming particles. Since the localization of energy applies to the photon, a photon does not decrease in energy rising in a gravitational field, and can thus escape. Photon trajectories in a strong gravitational field have some peculiar features that are not immediately obvious, but can be investigated by the use of ray tracing procedures. The most notable is the fact that only a fraction of the blackbody radiation emitted from the surface escapes into space (about 0.00004% for Sag A*). The remainder enters orbit below the maximum photon orbit. Because of the low percent of escaping blackbody radiation, the heavy neutron stars considered in this paper will be referred to as a Neutron Dark Star (NDS). In contrast to the Black Hole (BH) which should be totally dark inside the photon shadow, the NDS will appear as a fuzzy low luminosity ball with a Full Width Half Maximum intensity diameter of about 3.85 Schwarzschild radii inside the shadow. This paper will investigate the difference in the appearance of a Neutron Dark Star and a Black Hole by using ray tracing techniques. The Event Horizon Telescope currently under development should be able to distinguish the difference between the theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1407.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-03 10:32:31*

**Authors:** Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Roselló

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Spanish version in http://vixra.org/abs/1407.0014

In this paper, prime an composite numbers are studied from the point of view of the two modes of consciousness: 1) the deep, intuitive and synthetic consciousness; 2) the superficial, rational and analytical consciousness. This universal duality manifests respectively in prime and composite numbers.
According to the downwarding causation principle, the superficial level is always a manifestation of the deep one, and it is imposible to express the deep level from the superficial one. Therefore, composite numbers are manifestations of prime numbers, and prime numbers are inexpressible. This inexpressibility of the primes is manifested, justified and fundamented in the sum and difference of squares, i.e., in the dual Pythagorean expressions a^2+b^2 and a^2-b^2.
Additionally, this study has led to the discovery of the existence of 7 types of odd numbers from the point of view of the Pythagorean expressions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[4] **viXra:1407.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-03 06:12:05*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Portuguese language.

A second reading of the way it calculates the motion of the perihelion of a planet in General Relativity is taken, coming to the conclusion that General Relativity does not explain this movement of precession.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1407.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-01 09:59:04*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes nature at both quantum and cosmic scales. This article shows that both the Bohr postulate and the De Broglie condition are special cases of the abovementioned formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1407.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-01 04:48:08*

**Authors:** Pavel Kalenda, Eva Kalendova

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We analysed in the paper the possible purpose of the Great Cursus in the Stonehenge area.
We analysed the ephemeride of Sun and Moon and we found that the border lines of Great Cursus could help to determine the mutual position of all of three bodies – Earth, Moon and Sun, which repeats once per saros (app. 18 years). The moonrise in the beginning of saros, when the angle between Moon´s orbit and equator is the lowest, was in the direction of the Great Cursus during the first and last quarter of the Moon. Therefore, the people, who built the Stonehenge, could predict the solar or lunar eclipse 7 or 21 in advance.
The Stonehenge itself, which was built 500 years after Great Cursus, seems to be (from this point of view) only a „calculator“ of saros cycle, heritage place and superstructure of the Great Cursus.

**Category:** Archaeology

[1] **viXra:1407.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 02:57:56*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 15

Recently performed Silicon based Ball Lightning experiments done by two different laboratories have both produced rest products in the form of Silicon globules, both with unusual complex internal and external structures.
These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research.
One of the clear phenomena is, that all globules show internal traces of evaporating tunnelling energy bullets, which according to Quantum FFF theory is supposed to be a first sign of Quantum Knots or Dark Matter particles with the characteristic of small fireballs or Ball Lightning often observed in the natural environment..
According to Quantum FFF Theory, Black holes (micro and macro) are the origin of all universal dark matter phenomena.
As a consequence the tunnelling energy bullets are also a first sign of microscopic Dark Matter in the Lab.

**Category:** Quantum Physics