[182] **viXra:1410.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 19:20:58*

**Authors:** Seyed Mostafa Kia, Hossein Rahmani, Reza Mortezaei, Mohsen Ebrahimi Moghaddam, Amer Namazi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Harmful contents are rising in internet day by day and this motivates the essence of more research in fast and reliable obscene and immoral material filtering. Pornographic image recognition is an important component in each filtering system. In this paper, a new approach for detecting pornographic images is introduced. In this approach, two new features are suggested. These two features in combination with other simple traditional features provide decent difference between porn and non-porn images. In addition, we applied fuzzy integral based information fusion to combine MLP (Multi-Layer Perceptron) and NF (Neuro-Fuzzy) outputs. To test the proposed method, performance of system was evaluated over 18354 download images from internet. The attained precision was 93% in TP and 8% in FP on training dataset, and 87% and 5.5% on test dataset. Achieved results verify the performance of proposed system versus other related works.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[181] **viXra:1410.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 14:47:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[180] **viXra:1410.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 10:48:30*

**Authors:** T Padmanabhan1, R Ramesh, V Pugazhendi, Joseph Makkoli

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The VVER-1000/412 design, a third generation (Gen-III) pressurized water reactor (PWR) at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP), 98 km North-East of Thiruvananthapuram and off Bay of Bengal in Tamil Nadu state of India (8°10′08″N 77°42′45″E) attained criticality on 15 Jul 2013 and was grid connected on 22 Oct 2013. During the year, the reactor ‘tripped’ 14 times and was off the grid for 106 days. Two maintenance shutdowns lasted for 64 days. On 14th May 14, while in start-up mode, a pipe burst accident occurred in the feed-water system. During 4701 hours of operation, it generated 2,825 million units (MU) of electricity, consumed 538 MU for house-load and supplied 2,287 MU to the Southern Grid. The commissioning crew at KKNPP failed in all the seven attempts for clearing the final leg of the commissioning test. The reactor has been under cold-shutdown since 26 September 14 due to problems in its turbine. This study of the health of the reactor, based on daily data of generation and outages of KKNPP for one year since grid connection, shows that the situation is serious enough and warrants an independent safety audit.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[179] **viXra:1410.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 06:51:41*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 8 Pages. original article

We derive by the Schwinger source theory method, the power spectrum
of photons, generated by charged particle moving within 2D sheet, with
index of refraction n. Some graphene-like structures, for instance graphene
with implanted ions, or, also 2D-glasses, are dielectric media, enabling the
experimental realization of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. The relation of
the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation to LED, where the 2D the additional dielectric
sheet is the integral part of LED, is discussed. It is not excluded that LEDs
with the 2D dielectric sheets will be the crucial components of detectors in
experimental particle physics.
1 Introduction

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[178] **viXra:1410.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 03:12:31*

**Authors:** Zhen-Hu Ning

**Comments:** 12 pages

Different from the existing quantum threshold signature schemes, which are mainly based on the classical Shamir’s threshold signature scheme, we construct the map from the multiple binary information to a quantum and support a new threshold signature scheme based on divisible quantum entanglement and p -unitary operator, which are well defined in the paper. Compared with the existing the schemes, the scheme involved fewer quanta. The scheme also meets the requirement of “Threshold Signature”, that is to say, only the number of participants is
not less than the threshold, they can execute the signature or the verification.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[177] **viXra:1410.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 13:17:08*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It is an intuitive but general conviction that black holes (BHs) result in highly excited states representing both the “hydrogen atom” and the “quasi-thermal emission” in quantum gravity. Here we show that such an intuitive picture is more than a picture, discussing a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. Our model has important implications on the BH information puzzle and on the non-strictly random character of Hawking radiation. It is also in perfect agreement with existing results in the literature, starting from the famous result of Bekenstein on the area quantization.
This paper improves, clarifies and finalizes some recent results that, also together with collaborators, we published in various peer reviewed journals.
Preliminary results on the model in this paper have been recently discussed in an Invited Lecture at the 12th International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[176] **viXra:1410.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 08:21:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A leading candidate for room temperature superconductors is the copper compound cuprate, but no one knew how cuprates facilitated superconductivity...until some brave souls looked inside a black hole and broke out the string theory to explain how they work.
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[175] **viXra:1410.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 05:54:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists in the College of Arts and Sciences have made important discoveries regarding Bs meson particles -- something that may explain why the universe contains more matter than antimatter.
Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[174] **viXra:1410.0200 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-06 18:11:24*

**Authors:** Manuel Abarca Hernandez

**Comments:** 34 Pages. English- This is the best version

The idea of the model is quite simple:
The physical vacuum is a quantum system with a minimum energy when it is in his ground state. When the space has a gravitational field the space state increase his energy levels and the mass of the space begin to increase as well. The mass of the space would be the dark matter (D.M.).
Model refers to the same conception about ‘vacuum’ as the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), which consider the space full of virtual electrons and virtual positrons.
Therefore it is easy to think that there are virtual particles which feel the gravitational forces named virtual gravitons. It is logical to think that the gravitational field excites the vacuum states in a way that “the vacuum would be heavier, the more intense gravitational field”. The hypothesis of this DM model is that virtual gravitons are Dark Matter.
The paper is organised in nine parts:
The first one shows graphs about measures of spin speed stars on Andromeda galaxy and Milky Way.
The second one shows a simple mathematical model for flat galactic disks. Also it is got the density formula of total mass.
The third one studies the NFW model (Navarro, Frenk & White. 1996) for Dark Matter in bulge, disk and halo on galaxies.
The fourth one explains the model theoretically in a simple way because in my opinion the ultimate theory of DM will be explain by the Quantum Gravity, which there is not exist yet.
In the fifth one it is proved mathematically there is a function which connects density with gravitational field.
The sixth one explains some consequences of Dark Matter Model on galactic haloes, such as
radius and spherical or elliptical shape.
In the seventh, the Dark Matter model is extended to galactic clusters. Through the model it is justified cluster haloes in a similar way to galactic haloes. Also it is explained the Virial method and gravitational lensing method to measure cluster masses in order to check the model predictions.
In the eighth it is shown that there is coherence between DM model and experimental evidences known about DM in Bullet Cluster and other clusters.
The ninth one proposes five experimental tests to check the model through astronomical measures.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[173] **viXra:1410.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-15 16:55:48*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy, E = mc^2, from the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. Thus, this paper unifies two of the most important laws of physics as provides the proof of the quantum mechanical nature of the above famous formula.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[172] **viXra:1410.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 18:24:25*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is theorized that ancient stars' differentiation (evolution) can be witnessed as basic weather patterns. Weather patterns undergo thermodynamic phase transitions which can be tested in a laboratory environment.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[171] **viXra:1410.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 20:34:48*

**Authors:** Duplavyi Illia

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The objective of this study was to determine the physical parameters involved in detecting and localizing the magnetic field created by superparamagnetic particles localized on the tumor.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[170] **viXra:1410.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-03 03:19:13*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This article now addresses the cosmic microwave background (addressing clumpiness and temperature concerns preventing its dissociation from the big bang). Cosmic inflation is the exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10^−36 seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10^−33 and 10^−32 seconds. Following the inflationary period, the universe continues to expand, but at a less accelerated rate. The inflationary hypothesis was developed in the 1980s by physicists Alan Guth and Andrei Linde. It says that, when viewed at scales of billions of light years, the universe is unified to near-uniform temperature and curvature by the whole cosmos having once been small enough for everything to be in contact, then undergoing extremely rapid expansion from a big bang during a period called inflation. If the Big Bang never happened, would the theory of inflation be needed for any reason? Personally, I don't believe the Big Bang happened – and this is why the world doesn’t need any Big Bang(s) or inflation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[169] **viXra:1410.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-08 18:34:20*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 44 Pages. Dedicated to the centenary of Einstein's General Relativity. vD: Text expanded and references added.

Ensuing from first principles, a new theory of spacetime has been suggested, called 'relative scale spacetime'. It denounces the absolute size of objects at different length scales, thanks to which the phenomena known as quantum state ("just in the middle between possibility and reality", Heisenberg) and Einstein's "total field of as yet unknown structure" are unified as potential reality of quantum-gravitational origin (dubbed causal field), endowed with relative-scale metric. At macroscopic scale, it produces what is known as gravitation, without any dark matter nor dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[168] **viXra:1410.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 16:10:28*

**Authors:** Manar Jammal, Ali Kanso, Abdallah Shami

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Cloud computing is continuously growing as a
business model for hosting information and communication technology
applications. Although on-demand resource consumption
and faster deployment time make this model appealing for
the enterprise, other concerns arise regarding the quality of
service offered by the cloud. One major concern is the high
availability of applications hosted in the cloud. This paper
demonstrates the tremendous effect that the placement strategy
for virtual machines hosting applications has on the high
availability of the services provided by these applications. In
addition, a novel scheduling technique is presented that takes
into consideration the interdependencies between applications
components and other constraints such as communication delay
tolerance and resource utilization. The problem is formulated
as a linear programming multi-constraint optimization model.
The evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed solution
improves the availability of the scheduled components compared
to OpenStack Nova scheduler.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[167] **viXra:1410.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-09 14:16:52*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

In this paper it is shown that the well-publicized claim about the Special Relativity Theory, which states that it is not possible, using only arguments contained within the theory, to detect an absolute motion. This is one of the fundamental conclusions of the theory and it is usually considered in connection with the so called Clock Paradox or the Twins’ Paradox. There have been many papers published on this topic with the various proposed resolutions, however, the controversy related to these paradoxes continues to this day. This paper will clearly show that the resolution of the Clock Paradox is related to the clock synchronization procedure and that by introducing an absolute reference frame the paradox can be simply resolved. In addition it will be shown that it is possible to detect the absolute motion of particular reference frames relative to this absolute reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[166] **viXra:1410.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 07:37:19*

**Authors:** Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias, Kuang Hongyu, Lúcio B. Araújo, Maria Joseane C. Silva, Marisol García-Peña, Mirian F. C. Araújo, Priscila N. Faria, Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Paper in portuguese.

This work is based on the short course “A Metodologia AMMI: Com Aplicacão ao Melhoramento Genético” taught during the 58a RBRAS and 15o SEAGRO held in Campina Grande - PB and aim to introduce the AMMI method for those that have and no have the mathematical training. We do not intend to submit a detailed work, but the intention is to serve as a light for researchers, graduate and postgraduate students. In other words, is a work to stimulate research and the quest for knowledge in an area of statistical methods. For this propose we make a review about the genotype-by-environment interaction, definition of the AMMI models and some selection criteria and biplot graphic. More details about it can be found in the material produced for the short course.

**Category:** Statistics

[165] **viXra:1410.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 08:03:34*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We think that the so-called global warming would affect mainly to the north hemisphere, because in part it would be produced by the human action in that area.

**Category:** Climate Research

[164] **viXra:1410.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 07:18:30*

**Authors:** I. Duplavyi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A proposed model describes magnetic field configuration depending on penetration depth of the drug enclosed in a biocompatible form with ferromagnetic material, and surface shape. The model provides more accurate and reliable delivery of nanocomposite, as well as determination of its location in human body. Determination of spatial distribution of nanocomposite will allow calculating the effective dose of its concentration as close as possible for subsequent administration into the object studied.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[163] **viXra:1410.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 18:07:29*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is theorized that ancient stellar cores are comprised of two main types of minerals. These minerals are abundant in outer space and fall to the Earth on a regular basis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[162] **viXra:1410.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 00:24:19*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Consider the Milgrom Denial Hypothesis: The main problem with string theory is that string theorists fail to realize that Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. Is it possible that Milgrom’s acceleration law is wrong? No, because Milgrom, McGaugh, Kroupa, and Pawlowski have elaborated too much empirical evidence in its favor. There are only 2 possibilities: (1) Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory is 100% correct but appears to be significantly wrong for some unknown reason. (2) Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory really is slightly wrong. Where did Newton go wrong? Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. To every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction: in other words, the actions of two bodies in relation to each other are always equal and directed in contrary parts. Within the universe to every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction. Newton’s Third Law should perhaps be: Within the multiverse to every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction provided that the action and the reaction are both confined to one particular universe. In other words, I suggest that Newton and Einstein made the mistake of assuming that gravitational energy is conserved. Start with Kepler’s laws and follow Newton’s reasoning with the removal of the assumption that gravitational energy is conserved. The result is not F = G * m1 * m2 / r^2 but instead F = ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * G * m1 * m2 / r^2 , where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant = 0 if gravitational energy is conserved, > 0 if gravitational energy is unexpectedly large, and < 0 if gravitational energy in unexpectedly small. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximated sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[161] **viXra:1410.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 10:22:16*

**Authors:** Yang-Ho Choi

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The Sagnac effect could not have been exactly explained with consistency under the theory of special relativity (TSR). The conundrum of TSR has been completely solved fully in the relativistic context. Special relativity is reformulated without the postulates of the relativity principle and the light velocity constancy, employing a complex Euclidean space (CES), which is an extension of Euclidean space from the real number to the complex number. In the reformulation, the relativity in the representation and the light velocity constancy are obtained as properties that isotropic space-time spaces have. The coordinate systems each have perpendicular axes in CES and the relativistic transformation has the form of rotation. These characteristics of the formulation pave the way for the relativistic approach to circular motion. The relativistic transformation from the inertial frame to the circular frame is shown to have the same representation as that from the circular to the inertial, which implies that circular motions can be described relative to linear motions and vice versa. The difference between the arrival times of two light beams in the Sagnac experiment can be exactly found by the circular approach presented, which shows that the non-relativistic and relativistic analysis results are the same within a first order approximation. The circular approach can also be applied to the analysis of the Hafele–Keating (HK) experiment. The analysis of Hafele and Keating appears to exploit the results of this paper, though circular motions were treated as liner motions. The relativistic approach for circular motion, which is formulated without any postulates, can lead to propound understanding of relativity and true space-time spaces. These issues are examined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[160] **viXra:1410.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 08:40:25*

**Authors:** Riad Boudellioua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this letter I present an unprecedented numeric result in fundamental physics which is very easy to verify.It is the elucidation of the mystery of the number resulting from the ratio of the gravitational force to the electrical force between two electrons.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[159] **viXra:1410.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 05:46:57*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages. copyrighted paper

I present objections against the statement of the popular press ``Big Bang was not, and black holes do not exist - proved mathematically''. Sadly, but this was deduced from Houghton paper, which has different value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[158] **viXra:1410.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 06:17:46*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this article, the formal definition for the participator model is given. This solves the participator requirement for the General Grand Unification Problem. This is the participator aspect for the generation of universes via the GGU-model cosmogony schemes. It is shown to be representable as a finite meet semi-lattice with lower unit.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[157] **viXra:1410.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 20:20:46*

**Authors:** Ben Steber

**Comments:** 5 Pages. An early drafr of my Galactic clustering and rotation hypothesis

The geometry of the Einstein-Rosen bridge presents the possibility of entanglement of nonlocal black hole event horizons. The historical difficulty in the nature of these hypersurface bridges has been singularity which was shown to destabilize the spacetime throat, preventing their prolonged existence. Singularity is based upon the Eddington-Finkelstein coordinate system and is exclusively reliant upon such a transformation of the Schwarzschild metric to be viable. Comparisons between specially and generally relativistic event horizons can demonstrate that such a transformation is not necessary to define a gravitationally bound event horizon and that a field free of singularity may yield negatively curved hypersurface geometry unbounded by eminent singularity collapse. The concept of quantum foam when applied to the principle of the Einstein-Rosen bridge may produce multiple hypersurfaces from a single such black hole. This bears the possibility that Poly-Entanglement may occur between clusters of black holes. Such physical behavior, while beyond conventional detection shows potential as an explanation for the galactic clustering and rotation behavior currently thought to be the result of dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[156] **viXra:1410.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 22:01:01*

**Authors:** VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Amaranth grown using the solid waste from a gelatine factory as manure in an experiment conducted by the Kerala Agricultural University had 1085 mg/kg of Pb, 200,000 times the benchmark dose level for developmental neuro-toxicity. The sludge has since been approved and is being marketed as organic manure. This has serious implications for the food safety and public health at a national level.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[155] **viXra:1410.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-30 06:33:14*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about Special Relativity, General Relativity and E=mc^2 confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[154] **viXra:1410.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 04:51:33*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Five-page letter

The observations of: Paal (1992), Perlmutter(1999) and Riess (1998) led to the possibility of accelerated expansion of the universe and the ‘dark energy’, but after fifteen years of search no trace of ‘dark energy’ is observed ; so this is time we start considering alternative possibilities of interpretations of the observations. Some arguments and alternative interpretations considered here include: (i) If the expansion of space can stretch the wavelength of the photon, then its gradual entry from expanding extra-galactic space into the non-expanded space within our milky-way galaxy should shrink the wavelength of the photon back to its original length. (ii) According to Einstein, if photons are point particles then expansion of space should only increase the path-length of photons without reducing their energy. (iii) The ‘cosmic-coincidence’, that the ratio of radius-of-the-universe and classical-radius-of-the-electron, and ratio of ‘total-mass-of-the-universe’ and ‘mass-of-the-proton’, matching strikingly with the ratio of electric-forces and gravitational forces, has happened only in the current epoch, is a very-very improbable coincidence; raising doubt about expansion of the universe (iv) the ratio of: energy lost by the cosmologically red shifted photons and the electrostatic potential energy lost by the electron at that distance is directly proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces. Can the big-bang be so precise? (iv) Cumulative phase alteration of galactic light passing through cosmic microwave background.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[153] **viXra:1410.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 10:58:33*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 10 Pages. eng+rus

in the article, within the Pi-Theory of fundamental physical constants, the theoretical basis and experimental evidence of the author's perspective on the mechanism of the process is exactly the evolution of the Universe, and not the dynamics of the process of changing its parameters. Given the formula for the criterion of the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations earth group that significantly narrow your search protein intelligent life on exoplanets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[152] **viXra:1410.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 11:29:15*

**Authors:** Octavian Cira, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 252 Pages.

In this book a multitude of Diophantine equations and their partial or complete solutions are presented. How should we solve, for example, the equation
η(π(x)) = π(η(x)), where η is the Smarandache function and π is Riemann function
of counting the number of primes up to x, in the set of natural numbers?
If an analytical method is not available, an idea would be to recall the empirical search for solutions. We establish a domain of searching for the solutions and then we check all possible situations, and of course we retain among them only those solutions that verify our equation.
In other words, we say that the equation does not have solutions in the search domain, or the equation has n solutions in this domain. This mode of solving is called partial resolution. Partially solving a Diophantine equation may be a good start for a complete solving of the problem.
The authors have identified 62 Diophantine equations that impose such approach and they partially solved them. For an efficient resolution it was necessarily that they have constructed many useful ”tools” for partially solving the
Diophantine equations into a reasonable time.
The computer programs as tools were written in Mathcad, because this is
a good mathematical software where many mathematical functions are implemented. Transposing the programs into another computer language is facile, and such algorithms can be turned to account on other calculation systems with various processors.

**Category:** Number Theory

[151] **viXra:1410.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 12:00:49*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In Int. Journ. Mod. Phys. D 14, 181 (2005) Khriplovich verbatim claims that “the correspondence principle does not dictate any relation between the asymptotics of quasinormal modes and the spectrum of quantized black holes” and that “this belief is in conflict with simple physical arguments”. In this paper we stress that Khriplovich's criticisms work only for the original proposal by Hod, while they do not work for the improvements suggested by Maggiore and recently finalized by the author and collaborators through a connection between Hawking radiation and black hole (BH) quasi-normal modes (QNMs). Thus, QNMs can be really interpreted as BH quantum levels.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[150] **viXra:1410.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 12:10:27*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 615 Pages.

Bancuri, folclor in general, imagini colorate.

**Category:** Linguistics

[149] **viXra:1410.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 07:28:17*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is proposed that stars are electrochemical in nature, not thermonuclear

**Category:** Astrophysics

[148] **viXra:1410.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-31 01:35:20*

**Authors:** R. V. Klinkerman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In articles of the author [2], [3] the version of organization of life when it to a
great extent is operated and provided from the center of Earth was offered to
consideration. In present article the alternative version when life has no an operating
center and represents network structure is considered. Given article is extension and
expansion of article of the author « Essence of life » [1].
Keywords: information, adaptation, evolution, activity, creation, beginning of
life, centralization, a state, bacteria.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[147] **viXra:1410.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 14:52:01*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 333 Pages.

In this book, we define several new neutrosophic algebraic structures and their related properties. The main focus of this book is to study the important class of neutrosophic rings such as neutrosophic LA-semigroup ring, neutrosophic loop ring, neutrosophic groupoid ring and so on. We also construct their generalization in each case to study these neutrosophic algebraic structures in a broader sense. The indeterminacy element “I“ gives rise to a bigger algebraic structure than the classical algebraic structures. It mainly classifies the algebraic structures in three categories such as: neutrosophic algebraic structures, strong neutrosophic algebraic structures, and classical algebraic structures respectively. This reveals the fact that a classic algebraic structure is a part of the neutrosophic algebraic structures. This opens a new way for the researcher to think in a broader way to visualize these vast neutrosophic algebraic structures.

**Category:** Algebra

[146] **viXra:1410.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 21:35:19*

**Authors:** Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev

**Comments:** 7 Pages. v1 - English; v2 - Bulgarian

According to the BSM- Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG), the energy is indispensable feature of matter, while the matter possesses hierarchical levels of organization. The physical vacuum according to BSM-SG possesses underlying organized structure called a Cosmic Lattice. It contains two types of energies: a Static one, that is enormous but not electromagnetic and a dynamic one - connected to electricity and magnetism. At the upper levels of matter organization is the atomic energy, followed by the chemical energy. The next upper level is the energy of the biomolecules, including the DNA and the proteins. They can store energy as rotating quantum states in rings of atoms. A detailed hypothesis about such a feature was previously published in http://vixra.org/abs/1307.0059. When the stored in such way energy is released it may form rings of entangled photons circulating in a localized space volume. This envisioned upper energy level is able to store information, so it is called an information field. Based on the properties of the photons to preserve their energy, the information field should be stable.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[145] **viXra:1410.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 00:27:10*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This paper has not been submitted yet to any journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome

There are many models of DNA, both the linear ones and the nonlinear ones. One interesting model in this regard is the sine-Gordon model of DNA as proposed by Salerno. It belongs to nonlinear model of DNA which is close to realistic model. Here we discuss a graphical plot of soliton solution of such a sine-Gordon model of DNA.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[144] **viXra:1410.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 12:07:14*

**Authors:** D. Bowen, R. Mulkern

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This is a classically based rotating charge loop model of an electron which explains the electron’s de Broglie base frequency to an accuracy of over 6 decimal places. The model also predicts the magnetic moment of the electron to over 6 decimal places and helps explain the transition from a purely electromagnetic photon to a fermion state of matter. The model also explains how charge and spin are conserved in the transition. Finally, this concept might be extended to explain the Tau and Muon higher energy states of the electron as well.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[143] **viXra:1410.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 12:24:58*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Anomalous heat production has been detected in Ni-H Systems. Several evidences point to the occurrence of nuclear fusion reactions. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is shown here based on the recent discovery that electromagnetic fields of extremely-low frequencies (ELF) can increase the intensities of gravitational forces. Under certain circumstances, the intensities of gravitational forces can even overcome the intensity of the electrostatic repulsion forces, and, in this way, produce nuclear fusion reactions, without need high temperatures for these reactions occur.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[142] **viXra:1410.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 13:19:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe.
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[141] **viXra:1410.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 10:02:30*

**Authors:** Omar A.H. Shabsigh

**Comments:** Number of pages including title page

This article discusses the upper limit imposed on the speed of traveling of any mass as being the speed of light in vacuum. The article shows, based on the results of Special Relativity, that such a limit does not exist. Speeds Beyond Speed of Light (BSOL) are possible. .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[140] **viXra:1410.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-18 05:44:42*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 46 Pages. Spanish

The affine connection is the primary geometric element from which derive all other quantities that characterize a given geometry. In this article the concept of affine connection, its properties and the quantities derived from it are studied, we also present some of the connections that have been used in physical theories. We introduce the metric tensor and we study its relation with the affine connection. This study is intended for application in alternative theories of gravity to the General Theory of Relativity and to the unified field theories.

**Category:** Geometry

[139] **viXra:1410.0159 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 10:17:15*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Added more to the conclusion. Fixed error in title, plus typos and added a formula and additional comments / formula to the conclusion

Basic summary is as follows. Initially we discuss a minimum time length. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step, and then generate DM via axions. Through Ng’s quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving Entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as asking the question of comparing Entropy in Galaxies versus Entropy in the Universe, through a lens of Subotha Mistra’s Quantum theory of the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[138] **viXra:1410.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 04:39:34*

**Authors:** Mark M. Grinshtein

**Comments:** Pages.

The article contains the results of studying homosexuality in terms of informationwave
medicine. The viral-genetic aetiology of this pathological condition has been confirmed.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[137] **viXra:1410.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-25 11:41:47*

**Authors:** Vanderlidson Maciel

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The daily practice proves that the emergence of e-commerce requires precision and the definition of the forms of action. However, the perception of difficulty adds value to the establishment of the expected long-term return. However, we must not forget that the hegemony of the political environment hinders the appreciation of the importance of staff training system that meets the needs. Above all, it is crucial to highlight that consultation with various militant must undergo changes regardless of the procedures normally adopted. Thus, the beginning of the general activity of forming attitudes points to the improvement of the communication process as a whole.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[136] **viXra:1410.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-24 17:59:04*

**Authors:** HS Virk, Baljinder Singh

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Simultaneous radon anomalies recorded in Soil and Groundwater are useful precursors.

Temporal and Spatial variations of Radon are recorded in soil gas and groundwater using two different techniques in Amritsar and Kangra valley.

**Category:** Geophysics

[135] **viXra:1410.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-24 11:45:36*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

What are the tests of string theory? What is Milgromian string theory, and how might Milgromian string theory be tested? If the string theorists are correct about string theory and if Milgrom’s acceleration law is empirically valid when gravitational accelerations are low, then what might be the meaning of “Milgromian string theory”? What might be the physical basis of MOND? Consider 3 ideas: (1) Fernández-Rañada and Tiemblo-Ramos suggested that atomic time might be different from astronomical time. (2) Dark matter has zero inertial mass-energy and positive gravitational mass-energy. (3) Dark energy has zero inertial mass-energy and negative gravitational mass-energy. My guess is that the preceding ideas combined with Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) plausibly imply the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect. Replace the –1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s gravitational field equations by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^-5 . Designate this constant by D-M-C-C. In the “Meaning of Relativity” 5th edition page 87, the formula (101) should have – κ/(2π) replaced by (–κ/(4π)) * (1/2 – D-M-C-C)^-1 on the hypothesis of the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[134] **viXra:1410.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-14 15:20:28*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Misspellings corrected

It will be proven that Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation, when deﬁned on an F-space of distributions, have the same set of solutions, which makes the two equations equivalent on that vector space of distributions. Some consequences of this for quantum ﬁeld theory are shortly
discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[133] **viXra:1410.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-03 20:04:54*

**Authors:** Reginald t Cahill

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Published version

Botermann, {\it et al.} in {\it Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li$^+$ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed},
{\it Physical Review Letters}, 2014, 113, 120405, reported results from an Ives-Stilwell-type time dilation experiment using $Li^+$ ions at speed 0.338c in the ESR storage ring at Darmstadt, and concluded that the data verifies the Special Relativity time dilation effect. However numerous other experiments have shown that it is only neo-Lorentz Relativity that accounts for all data, and all detect a 3-space speed $V\approx 470$km/s essentially from the south. Here we show that the ESR data confirms both Special Relativity and neo-Lorentz Relativity, but that a proposed different re-analysis of the ESR data should enable a test that could distinguish between these two theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[132] **viXra:1410.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 22:12:24*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** Modern Physics Letters A Vol. 30, No. 12 (2015) 1550050 (9 pages) DOI: 10.1142/S0217732315500509

Lack of any baryon number in the Eightfold Way model, and its intrinsic presence in the
SU(3)-flavour model, has been a puzzle since the genesis of these models in 1961-1964.
In this paper we show that this is linked to the way that the adjoint representation is
defined mathematically for a Lie algebra, and how it manifests itself as a physical representation.
This forces us to distinguish between the global and the local charges and between the microscopic
and the macroscopic models. As a bonus, a consistent understanding of the hitherto mysterious medium-strong
interaction is achieved. We also gain a new perspective on how confinement arises in
Quantum Chromodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[131] **viXra:1410.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-24 02:54:53*

**Authors:** VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A Kerala based industry producing food-pharma grade gelatine from animal bones is contaminating its neighbourhood and thousands acres of organic farms in Kerala and Tamil Nadu with its 18,000 tons of solid waste, containing heavy metals like lead and nickel, sold as organic manure. The waste may also contain persistent organic pollutants like dioxin and furan as they are using waste hydrochloric acid from a PVC manufacturing plant. The industry poses an unacceptable food safety risk, which needs to be investigated.

**Category:** Chemistry

[130] **viXra:1410.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 10:56:48*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The prevailing cosmology theory “The Ultimate Free Lunch” satisfies only the third of three laws of physics. The three laws are: Conservation of Energy/Mass, Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Since a new cosmology theory “An Integrated Theory of Everything (TOE)” satisfies all three laws, it should replace “The Ultimate Free Lunch” theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[129] **viXra:1410.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-31 21:06:30*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[128] **viXra:1410.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 07:01:35*

**Authors:** A. V. Mamaev

**Comments:** 10 Pages. ISSN 2311-2158. The Way of Science.2014. No.5 (5).

This article shows that many astronomical phenomena can be explained by existence in nature of quadratic dependence of light speed upon speed of the light source motion. If such a dependence exists in the nature, the following effects can emerge in addition to the known Doppler effect: an effect of spacious grouping or ungrouping
of photons and an effect of spacious deformation (compression or extension) of electromagnetic trains corresponding to photons. Using the effect of spacious grouping or ungrouping of photons it is possible to explain such phenomena as «novae», «supernovae», «hypernovae», pulsars and the object SS 433. Using the effect of spacious deformation (compression or extension) of electromagnetic trains corresponding to photons it is possible to explain such astronomical phenomena as bursts of cosmic X rays and gamma rays, red shift of far star spectrums increasing with growth of distances
to stars, microwave background radiation, Olbers’s paradox.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[127] **viXra:1410.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 07:15:17*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Alina Tenescu

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

When we say lean, we think that is a process centered on preserving value with less work. Lean manufacturing is a management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) and identified as "lean" only in the 1990s (Womack, Jones, Roos, 1990; Holweg, 2007). Lean manufacturing is a concept, developed mostly in automotive plants. It is much more than tools and boards. Comparing building of a racket or plane with automotive industry we are determined to say that is easier for automotive because are much simpler than a racket also the number of component parts is about 5000 for a vehicle comparing to 60000 for a racket. The thinks are quite reverse because a rocket is built, generously, in few months, automotive industry builds from 500 to 1000 units each shift, all of them can be different type. Imagine 10 options with possibility OK and NOK, resulting 2**10 different types. In this situation, it is not easy to build these 1000 cars in 8 hours without a perfect logistic and discipline. Lean manufacturing is a concept that reorganize not only the material flow, technology, the tools and devices, but also the behavior, the thinking, the culture.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[126] **viXra:1410.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-02 00:04:15*

**Authors:** Kimmo Rouvari

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Fix: para-hydrogen -> ortho-hydrogen

Current scientific antimatter knowledge is incomplete. Without full knowledge it's not possible to invent antimatter based applications, including the application handled in this paper, antimatter bomb. Word bomb combined with nuclear phenomena has an enormous stigma, so even talking about the theoretical aspects (scope of this paper) of antimatter bomb sounds horrible, not to mention designing and constructing such a thing. Why would we even need antimatter bomb? Without antimatter based bomb we, as the mankind, are helpless in front of a possible devastating asteroid impact. No other means are capable of generating enough destructive power to wipe out an asteroid. Many dangerous asteroids cruising in space are not known to astronomers today hence no early warnings possibility. Especially in case of these surprising asteroids, antimatter bomb is the only way to prevent imminent disaster. As in case of every technology there is a potential for misusing antimatter bomb. The greatest threat is intentional or accidental large enough annihilation chain reaction which could lead to a total annihilation of our planet. Probability and prevention of such unfortunate event requires additional research.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[125] **viXra:1410.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 07:21:53*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Petre Bosun, Bianca Teodorescu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Global economy of the world is about to exceed the limit of endurance of the Earth, pushing civilization from early phase of the XXI century closer to a possible crash than ever. In our concern for quarterly profit growth from one year to another, we lose sight of the magnitude scale of human activity in relation to the earth's resources. A century ago, the annual growth of the global economy was measured in trillions. As a result, the consuming of renewable resources faster than their regeneration. Forests are shrinking, grasslands are deteriorating, water fall, fishing seats collapse and soils erode. Depletion of oil is at a pace that leaves little time for planning what will be beyond its peak. And "unload" in the atmosphere gases with greenhouse effect faster than nature can absorb them, thus reaching a stage where increasing the soil temperature is significantly higher than it has ever been since the beginning of agriculture in here.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[124] **viXra:1410.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 07:25:21*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Ioan Constantin Dima, Daniela Gifu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The study highlights some communication instances of actual approach of human society evolution in contrast with traditional communication. During the history of communication dates back to prehistory, with significant changes in communication technologies (media and appropriate inscription tools) evolving in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power (Innis, 1951), communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with speech approximately 100,000 years ago, Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago ( Diringer, 1982) and writing about 5000 years ago, with Aristotle defining first some metrics of communication, remarcable philosophers as Kant, Hegel, Witgestein, Haidegger, Gadamer developing basics of communication, then in XXth century, communication being defined as science, involving all sciences, whole world, because in fact “It is impossible not to communicate” (first axiom of communication). This evolution passed from simple messages, speeches, poems, novels to sophisticated discourses, reducing time response, emphasizing part of messaging, enlarging participation, media involving, persuasion techniques, sound and image in message, all of these convey to viral communication.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[123] **viXra:1410.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 05:16:24*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Black holes, thermodynamics and entropy are three topics which both separately and together raise several quite deep and serious questions which need to be addressed. Here an attempt is made to highlight some of these issues and to indicate a possible linkage between the accepted entropy expression for a black hole and the paradox linked to black holes and information loss.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[122] **viXra:1410.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 05:19:00*

**Authors:** Denise Vella-Chemla

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

We propose a modelization of binary Goldbach's decompositions in a 4 letters language that permits to envisage this problem in a new way.

**Category:** Number Theory

[121] **viXra:1410.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 05:48:34*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I will define two interesting classes of odd composites often met (by the author of this paper) in the study of Fermat pseudoprimes, which might also have applications in the study of big semiprimes or in other fields. This two classes of composites n = p(1)*...*p(k), where p(1), ..., p(k) are the prime factors of n are defined in the following way: p(j) – p(i) + 1 is a prime or a power of a prime, respectively p(i) + p(j) – 1 is a prime or a power of prime for any p(i), p(j) prime factors of n such that p(1) ≤ p(i) < p(j) ≤ p(k).

**Category:** Number Theory

[120] **viXra:1410.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 19:49:20*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

As we known, an objective thing not moves
with one's volition, which implies that all contradictions,
particularly, in these semiotic systems for things are artificial.
In classical view, a contradictory system is meaningless, contrast
to that of geometry on figures of things catched by eyes of human
beings. The main objective of sciences is holding the global
behavior of things, which needs one knowing both of compatible and
contradictory systems on things. Usually, a mathematical system
including contradictions is said to be a {\it Smarandache system}.
Beginning from a famous fable, i.e., the $6$ blind men with an
elephant, this report shows the geometry on contradictory systems,
including non-solvable algebraic linear or homogenous equations,
non-solvable ordinary differential equations and non-solvable
partial differential equations, classify such systems and
characterize their global behaviors by combinatorial geometry,
particularly, the global stability of non-solvable differential
equations. Applications of such systems to other sciences, such as
those of gravitational fields, ecologically industrial systems can
be also found in this report. All of these discussions show that a
non-solvable system is nothing else but a system underlying a
topological graph $G\not\simeq K_n$, or $\simeq K_n$ without common
intersection, contrast to those of solvable systems underlying $K_n$
being with common non-empty intersections, where $n$ is the number
of equations in this system. However, if we stand on a geometrical
viewpoint, they are compatible and both of them are meaningful for
human beings.

**Category:** Geometry

[119] **viXra:1410.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 01:11:42*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Newton's inverse square law of gravity is very accurate in predicting the mutual gravitational responses of bodies within galaxies. Its predictions fail however in the outskirts of many galaxies and in cosmological scale analyses of the universe. Dark entities can be hypothesized for maintaining the law intact, yet the possibility that something is faulty not with our qualifications to sense dark constituents of the universe but with the law itself, cannot be ruled out. Through algebraic discussion I show that Newton equations can be interpreted in a new way at least as legitimate as their conventional way of interpretation. According to this new interpretation of Newton equations it comes out that the laws of gravity alter when the ratio between the mass of a gravitational source and the distance from it is smaller from a predetermined value. I indicate that gravitational fields may have a cutoff border at some mass dependent distance, i.e. possibly the influence of gravity is restricted in range and galaxies receding from one another according to Hubble law are gravitationally disconnected. My conclusion is that the common use of GR for cosmological scale analysis of the universe is very speculative and lacks any observational support.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[118] **viXra:1410.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 03:24:03*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is the transcript of an interview [1] in which it is explained that the BICEP2 telescope located at the South Pole did not detect anything other than galactic noise. Despite reports with great fanfare, BICEP2 did not detect the signatures of Einstein gravitational waves or an inflationary epoch in some big bang expanding universe. The reports by the BICEP2 Team that they detected evidence for some big bang cosmology are demonstrably false.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[117] **viXra:1410.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 15:21:34*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Vladimir Modrak, Daniela Gifu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Mental process or cognition process is a term often used for all the acts that people can do with their minds. These acts include perception, introspection, reasoning, creativity, imagination, memory, idea, belief, volition, and emotion. A mental event represents an instance involved in cognitive process. The perceiving of the event is different from each event depending of perceiving capacity of that instance. Along human existence, philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, Kant, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Daniel Dennett and et alli. The structure of the mental process is part of psychology and psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and William James who developed essential theories about the nature of the human mind. In the last decades of the 20th and early 21st centuries the domain of cognitive science emerged and developed many varied approaches related to the description of mind and its related phenomena. The field of artificial intelligence is the possibility of non-human minds also explored, and works closely in relation with cybernetics and information theory to understand the ways in which human mental phenomena can be replicated by non-biological machines. The mental process domain is by far vast, this study is suggesting only to highlight some of aspects, subjects of thought for human being.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[116] **viXra:1410.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 17:29:34*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Abdelfattah, Mohamed Eisa

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. İn this paper we, introduce the distances between neutrosophic sets: the Hamming distance, The normalized Hamming distance, the Euclidean distance an

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. İn this paper we, introduce the distances between neutrosophic sets: the Hamming distance, The normalized Hamming distance, the Euclidean distance and normalized Euclidean distance. We will extend the concepts of distances to the case of neutrosophic hesitancy degree. Added to, this paper suggest how to enrich intuitionistic fuzzy querying by the use of neutrosophic values..

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[115] **viXra:1410.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-29 08:32:36*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Published in Evolving Trends in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, pp. 11-18, Dec. 2014

We calculate in this article an exact theoretical value obtained classically for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, followed by the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: found 5600’’,84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth relative to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[114] **viXra:1410.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 17:33:09*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The focus of this paper is to propose a new
notion of neutrosophic crisp sets via neutrosophic crisp
ideals and to study some basic operations and results in
neutrosophic crisp topological spaces. Also,
neutrosophic crisp L-openness and neutrosophic crisp Lcontinuity
are considered as a generalizations for a crisp
and fuzzy concepts. Relationships between the above
new neutrosophic crisp notions and the other relevant
classes are investigated. Finally, we define and study
two different types of neutrosophic crisp functions.
Index Terms—Neutrosophic Crisp Set; Neutrosophic
Crisp Ideals; Neutrosophic Crisp L-open Sets;
Neutrosophic Crisp L- Continuity; Neutrosophic Sets.
I. INTRODUCTION
The fuzzy set was introduced by Zadeh [20] in 1965,
where each element had a degree of membership. In
1983 the intuitionstic fuzzy set was introduced by K.
Atanassov [1, 2, 3] as a generalization of fuzzy set,
where besides the degree of membership and the degree
of non- membership of each element. Salama et al [11]
defined intuitionistic fuzzy ideal and neutrosophic ideal
for a set and generalized the concept of fuzzy ideal
concepts, first initiated by Sarker [19]. Smarandache [16,
17, 18] defined the notion of neutrosophic sets, which is
a generalization of Zadeh's fuzzy set and Atanassov's
intuitionistic fuzzy set. Neutrosophic sets have been
investigated by Salama et al. [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,
13, 14, 15]. In this paper is to introduce and study some
new neutrosophic crisp notions via neutrosophic crisp
ideals. Also, neutrosophic crisp L-openness and
neutrosophic crisp L- continuity are considered.
Relationships between the above new neutrosophic crisp
notions and the other relevant classes are investigated.
Recently, we define and study two different types of
neutrosophic crisp functions.
The paper unfolds as follows. The next section briefly
introduces some definitions related to neutrosophic set
theory and some terminologies of neutrosophic crisp set
and neutrosophic crisp ideal. Section 3 presents
neutrosophic crisp L- open and neutrosophic crisp Lclosed
sets. Section 4 presents neutrosophic crisp L–
continuous functions. Conclusions appear in the last section.

**Category:** Topology

[113] **viXra:1410.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 17:37:47*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Said Broumi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into
contemporary research. In this paper we define rough neutrosophic sets and study their
properties. Some propositions in this notion are proved. Possible application to computer
sciences is touched upon.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[112] **viXra:1410.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 12:27:38*

**Authors:** M.E. Hassani

**Comments:** 6 Page; 2 Tables; 10 References.

In the present paper, the so-called Einstein’s causality is scrutinized and proven to be an illusion, a sort of mathematical fiction, and the causality as a well-established universal principle would be absolutely valid for
subluminal, luminal and superluminal signals under any natural and/or artificial circumstances. It is also shown that any attempt to apply special relativity theory to superluminality of physical phenomena would be a complete waste of time since this theory has the light speed in vacuum as an upper limiting speed in its proper validity domain of applications.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[111] **viXra:1410.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 15:05:49*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Dan Ionescu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Neutrosophic emergences and incidences in communication and information, published in Germany/Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing in 2013, is a book that constitutes a new trend, a new approach in the science of logic, philosophy, communication theory, information, an approached and exemplification that it was wanted, it was intuited, it was expected but it has no mathematical foundation, that is neutrosophy. It is a book that presents avant-garde information. It is written by two appreciated researchers and inexhaustible perpetual idea machines: professors Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu. First of them is professor of mathematics at University of New Mexico/ USA, the second is professor of communication theory at University of Craiova/ Romania. Both of them have published a lot of books and papers in domain of philosophy, communication, sociology, psychology, mathematics and literature. Logic started in Ancient with Classical Logic of Aristotle, developed and covered by Three Valued Logic of Lukasiewicz, next ring being Fuzzy Logic of Zadech, finally the comprehensive Neutrosophic Logic of Smarandache.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[110] **viXra:1410.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 15:14:18*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Oprea Valentin Busu, Daniela Gifu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This study examines the propaganda from point of view of positive effects in actual social life dominated by democracy. People have to deal with propaganda in ordinary life: it happens through advertising, propaganda occurs in political speeches, in TV shows, even in the news… With the development of means of communication and especially of mass media, propaganda has become inseparable from the contemporary mass culture. Some sociologists state that the tendencies of propagating particular lifestyles and models of behavior have a negative impact on the society; on the other hand, propaganda can be used for positive purposes: for example, for spreading healthy lifestyle, anti-smoking and anti-drugs campaigns, anti-discrimination ideas etc.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[109] **viXra:1410.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 13:00:04*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, we review the derivation of the equation of thrust of Shawyer’s thruster, by obtaining a new expression, which includes the indexes of refraction of the two parallel plates in the tapered waveguide. This new expression shows that, by strongly increasing the index of refraction of the plate with the largest area, the value of the thrust can be strongly increased.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[108] **viXra:1410.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 17:23:53*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we show how polluted smoke can be compacted and transformed into a glass similar to amorphous silica glass, by means of gravitational compression produced in a compression chamber, where gravity is strongly increased by using gravity control technology based on the discovery of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass [1]. Possibly this process can be a way of storing of CO2, a major contributor to global warming.

**Category:** Climate Research

[107] **viXra:1410.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 12:01:43*

**Authors:** Vladimir Komarov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In nuclear physics and elementary particle theory concept of unitary symmetry and the related idea of the hierarchy of interactions play a fundamental role [1, 2]. So the relative smallness of the electromagnetic and weak interactions as compared to the strong interaction of the nucleons in the nucleus can be considered a model of the nucleus in the limit of exact symmetry of the strong interactions. In this model, protons and neutrons are physically indistinguishable states of the nucleon, and the properties of the nucleus are invariant under isotopic transformations.
In the case of molecules, we can also talk about the hierarchy of interactions involved in their formation.
As an example of a "strong" interaction here we can point to energy of chemical bonds, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude more energy non-bonded interactions. Another example - when the energy of valence interactions is much greater than the energy of intermolecular bonds in the condensed medium.
Usually accounting of weak interactions in 'chemistry is performed by introducing a physical model of various perturbations. These perturbations typically are unmeasured parameters that; are essentially the fitting values.
However, in the preferred class of molecules can try to find such values of the parameter in the ratio in which the contributions of the "weak" interactions are compensated or negligible.
Symmetry approach is important in estimation of reliability of experimental data and to predict new values of a parameter.
The same, from the standpoint of finding a unitary symmetry, the approach would be interesting to extend to more complex molecules and molecular systems. Up until genetic.
The application of the previously developed concepts of symmetry to the codon is the purpose of this work.
Keywords: Codons, Combinatory, Homology, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[106] **viXra:1410.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-21 13:34:44*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Work in progress.

According to the seesaw mechanism, neutrino masses arise from the existence of heavy Majorana neutrinos postulated to emerge near the grand unification scale (GUT) of about 10^16 GeV. Despite its theoretical appeal, this scenario involves either physics at inaccessible scales or tuning the Yukawa couplings to un-naturally low values. Our work sidesteps the seesaw mechanism and shows that neutrino masses follow from placing the Standard Model on a spacetime support equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[105] **viXra:1410.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-04 01:53:29*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Accepted for Publication in Fluctuation and Noise Letters (November 3, 2014)

A recent paper by Gunn–Allison–Abbott (GAA) [L.J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA’s arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA’s asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA’s scheme via an elementary current comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[104] **viXra:1410.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-21 11:16:26*

**Authors:** Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias, Marisol García-Peña

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Paper in portuguese with abstract in english.

Abstract – The objective of this work was to propose a new distribution‑free multiple imputation algorithm, through modifications of the simple imputation method recently developed by Yan in order to circumvent the problem of unbalanced experiments. The method uses the singular value decomposition of a matrix and was tested using simulations based on two complete matrices of real data, obtained from eucalyptus and sugarcane trials, with values deleted randomly at different percentages. The quality of the imputations was evaluated by a measure of overall accuracy that combines the variance between imputations and their mean square deviations in relation to the deleted values. The best alternative for multiple imputation is a multiplicative model that includes weights near to 1 for the eigenvalues calculated with the decomposition. The proposed methodology does not depend on distributional or structural assumptions and does not have any restriction regarding the pattern or the mechanism of the missing data.

**Category:** Statistics

[103] **viXra:1410.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-20 09:24:53*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez, Ibanees - Fernandes Valenitin Arnaledovich

**Comments:** 11page

We present the interpretation of the effect of G. Sagnac and provides a historical overview of the development of treatments of this experiment wich affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity and other areas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[102] **viXra:1410.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-20 09:30:44*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez, Ibanees - Fernandes Valenitin Arnaledovich

**Comments:** 9 page

In this paper, we propose a new theory of special relativity and its fundamental principles such as the principle of covariance and symmetry and transformation systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[101] **viXra:1410.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-20 09:37:06*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez, Ibanees - Fernandes Valenitin Arnaledovich

**Comments:** 8 page

The manuscript presents a new ELECTRODYNAMICS of special theory of relativity. In the present paper we find the physical principles of moving systems. This theory shows that the physical quantity τ does not exist in moving system. The time of the system don’t depend of the speed of the system. The process of propagation of the electromagnetic field in a vacuum, we describe how the classical electromagnetic process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[100] **viXra:1410.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-20 07:29:16*

**Authors:** Piyush Mohan Singhal

**Comments:** 13 Pages. A peer review is requested.

The formation of a trefoil knot in a measurement space with entropy is described. It is shown that for a given prime knot, invariants with the characteristics of Laurent polynomials can be developed in 2+1 dimensional measurement space. These polynomials distinguish chiral property and uniquely address charge, parity and time symmetries.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[99] **viXra:1410.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-08 14:19:18*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Added some ore explanatory text

Entanglement studies dwell on multi-particle systems by definition – one particle, via a global symmetry/conservation law is correlated to another. It has often been wondered via EPR/Bell/Aspect/Dopfer-Zeilinger/Zbinden whether: first, a communication scheme is possible by entangled quantum state collapse and secondly, whether such a scheme would work over spacelike separations. This study follows on from the author’s earlier scheme of sending classical data over a Bell Channel, to now, using an unentangled source. The rationale for this is that single particles are entangled with the vacuum state in path entanglement by the principle of conservation of probability: measurement of a photon in one path causes a collapse of the wavefunction in all the others. The new communication scheme represents an improvement over using expensive and complicated entangled sources of poor purity, for common-or-garden coherent sources.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[98] **viXra:1410.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 23:08:56*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Twin prime conjecture states that there are infinite number of twin primes of the form p and p+2. Remarkable progress has recently been achieved by Y. Zhang to show that infinite primes that differ by large gap (~ 70 million) exist and this gap has been further narrowed to ~600 by others. We use an elementary approach to explore any obvious constraint that could limit the infinite nature of twin primes. Using Fermat’s little theorem as a surrogate for primality we derive an equation that suggests but not prove that twin primes can be infinite.

**Category:** Number Theory

[97] **viXra:1410.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 14:09:04*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to a corresponding system of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. Such a non-Newtonian representation allows one to reduce foundations of statistics to better established foundations of ODE. In addition to that, evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying dynamics supports a “violent reputation” of the power-law statistics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[96] **viXra:1410.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 10:34:29*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 35 Pages. develops the Puthoff analysis published in the Journal of British Interplanetary Society.Vol.63.pgs 82-89.2010,arXiv:1204.2184 for the Natario warp drive arXiv gr-qc/0110086

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory.
\newline
Some years ago the American physicist Harold Puthoff published a
very interesting work in the Journal of the British Interplanetary
Society.He theorized about the possibility of the modification of
the spacetime geometry by arbitrary advanced civilizations able to
generate the so-called metric engineering and such a modification
would be supposed to "allow" the propulsion of spaceships at
superluminal velocities.However Puthoff used only diagonalized
metrics for his analysis and he even quotes the Schwarzschild
metric.In this work we reproduce the Puthoff analysis for the
Natario warp drive spacetime and due to the fact that the Natario
warp drive is a non-diagonalized metric due to the presence of
both the shift and Natario vectors our results are different than
the ones obtained by Puthoff.However his idea of a spacetime
metric engineering able to distort the spacetime geometry
"allowing" superluminal interstellar spaceflight is perfectly
possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[95] **viXra:1410.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 11:39:09*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We investigate some properties of
lattice group-valued positive k-subadditive set functions, and in particular we give some
comparisons between regularity and continuity from above. Moreover we prove different kinds of limit theorems in the non-additive case with respect to filter convergence, in which it is supposed that the involved filter is diagonal.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[94] **viXra:1410.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 06:16:32*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We first get rid of three kinds from A+B=C according to their respective odevity and gcf (A, B, C) =1. Next expound relations between C and paf (ABC) by the symmetric law of odd numbers. Finally we have proven C ≤ Cε [paf (ABC)] 1+ ε such being the case A+B=C, and gcf (A, B, C) =1.

**Category:** Number Theory

[93] **viXra:1410.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 21:44:39*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Physicists have long suggested that the four observed fundamental forces of nature are separate manifestations of what was once a single force at times close to the Big Bang. If so, magnitude of the unified force can be assumed to be equal to . Strength of any interaction can be defined as the ratio of the operating force magnitude and the magnitude of . Let the gravitational interaction at black holes be called as ‘Schwarzschild interaction’. If strength of Schwarzschild interaction is unity, then weak interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction and strong interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction. Based on these concepts and considering the Avogadro number as an absolute and discrete number, basics of final unification can be understood.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[92] **viXra:1410.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 15:32:30*

**Authors:** Alexander Kritov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

There are few mathematical expressions for calculation proton to electron mass ratio presented. Some of them are new and some are not. They have been analyzed in terms of their simplicity, numerical significance and precision. Expressions are listed in the structured manner with comments. The close attention should be paid to a comparison of the formula similarity via their precision. A brief review of the different attempts in similar search is given.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[91] **viXra:1410.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 15:42:36*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people.
Isaac Newton
In mathematical world, the bridge from matter to intelligence requires extension and modification of quantum physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[90] **viXra:1410.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-25 13:11:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[89] **viXra:1410.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 20:45:18*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The true age of the Earth has remained a centuries old controversy contrasted between modern scientific empirical methods and interpretation of ancient theological scripture. Fundamentalist Christians prefer to take Old Testament passages that the Earth’s age since creation is 7,000 years literally. This so-called ‘Young Earthers’ point of view remains difficult for educated or scientifically minded individuals (even those of faith) to unquestioningly accept. In this short article we attempt to shed significant light on this controversy.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[88] **viXra:1410.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 02:47:28*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez

**Comments:** 29 Pages. 29P.

The abstract
The new special theory of relativity is given in work. It gives the new ideas of the processes occurring in systems of movement . In it is developed the new universal transformation for classical mechanics and electrodynamics. All experimental practice of the wide range of moving systems shows the integrity of the findings in this work.
The postulate which the potential energy of the moving system depends on its velocity with the conservation law of energy of the moving system are sufficient enough to achieve a consistent theory of special relativity with only absolute time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[87] **viXra:1410.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 19:49:13*

**Authors:** Jaidev B. Parmar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

CPT theorem is reinterpreted in the context of commonly observed phenomenon of free neutron
beta decay and extrapolated to explain the Baryogenesis in the early Universe that has led to
the observed Baryon Asymmetry in the present Universe. Anti-neutron and Protonium are
proposed as a suitable Dark Matter WIMP candidates. Anti-neutrons are proposed as the basic
components from which Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) at the Galactic centers are formed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[86] **viXra:1410.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:18:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[85] **viXra:1410.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:20:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[84] **viXra:1410.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:23:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[83] **viXra:1410.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-20 07:02:29*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We present in this first part of the article a summary of the theories of Le Verrier, Stockwell and Laplace on the secular precession of the perihelion of the planets, especially Mercury, leaving part 2 a review of the theory of Mercury from Le Verrier, comments Newcomb on anomalies of Mercury and a description of how the observed values were obtained by Clemence, important reference cited by Weinberg. Also shown is one more hypothesis for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, a decrease in the mass of the Sun, rather than an increase in the mass of the planets, similar to what has been done with the assumption of the solar wind. This new assumption, however, appears to be unnecessary before most important fact here presented. An exact theoretical value was classically obtained following the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: we find 5600'',84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth relative to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1410.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-07 12:54:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[81] **viXra:1410.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:13:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The finding that electrons and muons aren’t produced equally in certain particle decays may hint at a crack in the standard model.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[80] **viXra:1410.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:16:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Princeton University scientists have observed an exotic particle that behaves simultaneously like matter and antimatter, a feat of math and engineering that could yield powerful computers based on quantum mechanics.
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[79] **viXra:1410.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-25 07:38:44*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The curvature of the space is the Gravitational Constant G.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[78] **viXra:1410.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 10:21:37*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper describes how experimentally detected Majorana-particles fit a new cosmological theory. This theory is called the rotating Double Torus Theory (DTT). It is extensively described by a cascade of articles, which are published in the vixra-archive by the author. However, although Majorana-particles will contribute very likely to the development of stable quantum-computers in the near future, they also can be implemented in this new cosmological theory. This introduces a completely new aspect of cosmology, and despite how hard it is to get acknowledgement for the DTT, it also might contribute to the understanding of evidence that is already available for the rotation of the new universe. This paper also explains why the match of the Majorana matter-force and the DTT, leads to a principle of an anti-gravitational machine based on the control of the combination Majorana-DTT-dynamics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[77] **viXra:1410.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 11:34:12*

**Authors:** Alexander N. Balatsky

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The radius of a void particle is proposed as a basic invariant scale of the universe; analytically defined, this invariant allows us to reveal: (i) an analytical relation describing the interaction of fundamental forces of nature on both quantum and cosmological scales; (ii) the analytical form and cosmological meaning of the fine structure constant; (iii) the origin of time, and the role of gravity as regards entropy dissipation. On the basis of the latter claim, it is argued that inevitable entropy growth does not necessarily result in ultimate chaos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[76] **viXra:1410.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 11:56:40*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 9 Formulas, 1 Table

I have calculated a relation significant for planets from a logical starting point that a whole and its parts are immanently depandant on each other.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[75] **viXra:1410.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 12:17:13*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 1 Page. do review; I am author in Physical Review

Perhaps is found mistake in most reputable journal (after the "Nature"), therefore the Doomsday can be more far away. Objection "there is Dark Matter, so General Relativity is wrong" is rejected in "Dmitri Martila, "Simplest Explanation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy", LAP LAMBERT, 2013.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[74] **viXra:1410.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 08:45:54*

**Authors:** Vladimir Komarov

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Periodic system of elements in the form in which it exists today is just a convenient form of presentation of the late XIX early XX centuries. It does not fit into the Unified System of combinatorial evolution, adaptation and selection. It is in no way affiliated with the fundamental concept of nature - symmetry. It does not allow clear and easy to determine the accuracy of the experimental data for the nuclei of atoms and ions and their electron shells in general. In this work, an attempt was made to consider a set of atomic nuclei as a combination of a proton and a neutron with repetitions. Constructed a new form of chemical elements. On the example of the first twenty elements analyzed ionization energy of atoms. On the basis of previously made representations on unitary symmetry derived equation - conservation laws. It is shown that a significant number of data for the ionization energies of atoms were measured not accurately enough.
Keywords: Periodic table, Combinatorics, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry, Ionization energy of the atoms.

**Category:** Chemistry

[73] **viXra:1410.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-18 17:53:29*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Previous theoretical and empirical studies of the effects of religion on adherent prosociality have focused, almost entirely, on the intragroup and intergroup aspects of religion, as facilitators of prosocial attitudes and behavior. The moral values preached by various religions were treated inseparably from other religious practices, which contribute to the evolution of cohesive, more adapted and larger groups. The present research takes another direction by addressing the question of the intrinsic effects of religious moral principles on the economic behavior of its adherents.
For this purpose I consider simple symmetric and asymmetric economic interactions between two rational individuals who nonetheless obey the moral maxim “treat others as you treat yourself,” considered to be of highest importance by most religions. I solve for the divisions of a shared resource that guarantee equal levels of satisfaction by the interacting parties. As expected, for the symmetric case, adherence to the aforementioned maxim prescribes an equal division of the resource. Strikingly, for the asymmetric case, the prescribed division is one in which the decision maker keeps Φ (and transfers to the recipient 1- Φ), where Φ is the famous golden ratio (≈ 0.618), known for its unique aesthetic properties. I further show that the same solution could be obtained if we replace the above maxim’s constraint with an efficient sanctioning mechanism.
I conclude by discussing the numerical identity between the derived fair division and the aesthetically pleasing perceptions of humans. I suggest an experimental test for the hypothesis: fair (just) = fair (beautiful). I then consider the possibility of an evolutionary link between our sense of fairness and our aesthetic tastes, and between the two and the animate and inanimate world in which we live.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[72] **viXra:1410.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-15 04:59:52*

**Authors:** Mark M. Grinshtein

**Comments:** Pages. in Russian

The present article reviews modern hypotheses for cancer cells division and provides author’s empirical data on cancer etiology detection and the mechanism of cancer cells division from the viewpoint of the information-wave medicine. \\ В статье рассмотрены современные гипотезы по механизму деления раковых клеток и приведены результаты исследований автора по выявлению этиологии рака, а так же по механизму деления раковых клеток с позиции информационно-волновой медицины.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[71] **viXra:1410.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 15:51:34*

**Authors:** Oliver R Jovanovic

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Proton rest mass near massive neutron star is identical to electrons rest mass at the Earth surface.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[70] **viXra:1410.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 16:22:37*

**Authors:** Paris S. Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Rough finalized draft of paper.

There exist scales in the descriptions of both quantum mechanics and general relativity. For instance there is the quantity hbar in quantum mechanics and the quantity c in special and general relativity. The general invariance of these quantities is important to the given theories, as it sets a scale for physics.
It is hypothesized that general relativity and quantum mechanics possess mutually independent, covariant representations with these quantities setting scales of evolution. In spaces of constant curvature, particles in inertial freefall either separate or come together as an aspect of these scales and the given energy momentum in quantum mechanics and general relativity. This topic is discussed in the context
of inertial eigenstates for a system with a background spin field. This results in a generally covariant like behavior of the electromagnetic interaction, which has properties analogous to a gravitational system. The implication of this is the appearance of a gap to excitations and other features strongly related to
superconductivity, as well as features appropriate to the treatment of separation of two hydrogen atoms in space and time. It is shown that a flat apparently expanding space is a consequence of these contributions, and that an energy momentum gap is predicted from this theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[69] **viXra:1410.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 21:51:40*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The paper extends the mathematical formalism of quantum physics to include economics. The novelty of the approach is based upon a human-factor-based behavioral model of an intelligent agent. The model is quantum inspired: it is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the gradient of quantum potential is replaced by a specially chosen information force. It consists of motor dynamics simulating actual behavior of the agent, and mental dynamics representing evolution of the corresponding knowledge base and incorporating this knowledge in the form of information flows into the motor dynamics. Due to feedback from mental dynamics, the motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: its trajectory splits into a family of different trajectories, and each of those trajectories can be chosen with the probability prescribed by the mental dynamics. All of these departures actually extend and complement the classical methods making them especially successful in analysis of communications of agents represented by new mathematical formalism.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[68] **viXra:1410.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 13:14:47*

**Authors:** T. Prabhakar Reddy, S. Sambasiva Rao, P. Ramu

**Comments:** 13 Pages. This paper has been published in Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science, pp.226-234,Vol 2, 2014. ISSN 2229-7049.

Unpredictable game of the limited-over cricket brings with it excitement for the audience, expecting mayhem on the field. The huge expectation of audience to watch a good match may be ruined with an interruption due to bad weather or circumstances. Therefore, it is very much necessary to adjust the target score at the time of resumption of an interrupted match in a reasonable manner. Several mathematical models for resetting the target in interrupted one-day international (ODI) cricket matches are available in the literature; none of them is optimal for Twenty20 (T20) format to apply. The purpose of this note is to review the existing Rain Rules to reset the targets in an interrupted ODI cricket matches and to propose a method for resetting the targets in an interrupted T20 cricket match with suitable illustrative examples.

**Category:** Statistics

[67] **viXra:1410.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 14:32:23*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress

The experimental discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has effectively disqualified all Higgs-less models developed prior to July 2012. Today, despite its conclusive validation, the Higgs sector of the Standard Model (SM) remains a largely uncharted territory. This raises the following question: Are there any hidden insights brought up by Higgs-less models that can still be beneficial for the on-going research in particle physics? Pursuing this thought, we re-examine here Moffat’s scenario based on a finite electroweak Lagrangian built outside the Higgs paradigm. Unlike the original proposal, we place the model on a spacetime support equipped with minimal fractality. In doing so, we find that the theory is perturbatively well-behaved at large scattering cross-sections and that it gracefully connects with the conventional formulation of the SM in the limit of vanishing fractality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[66] **viXra:1410.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-08 13:54:38*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) leads to the atom-like structure of baryons containing the core (it is composed of entangled or/and confined Einstein-spacetime components) that is the modified black hole in respect of the nuclear strong interactions. The structure of the core leads to conclusion that at high energy proton-proton collisions we should detect 25% more electrons than muons. On the other hand, at the LHC Physics conference in New York City (June 2014), the LHCb collaboration announced that probably there appear 25% more electrons than muons. In the Standard Model the electrons and muons (in the SST as well) are the particles of the same type so number of electrons and muons should be the same. The 25 percent excess of electrons follows from the internal structure of the core of baryons described within SST whereas within the Standard Model such excess is incomprehensible i.e. suggests existence of new physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] **viXra:1410.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 23:20:45*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article is the transcript of the audio-visual presentation titled ‘Wormholes: Science Fiction or Pure Fantasy?’ [7] prior to Hollywood’s release of the movie ‘Interstellar’, the plot of which involves astronauts travelling through a wormhole to save the Human Race. It is explained in simply terms why the wormhole has no relation to reality, just as the black hole has no relation to reality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1410.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-22 00:00:01*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the
universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about E=mc^2, Special Relativity and General Relativity confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding the Unified Field, speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[63] **viXra:1410.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 10:09:31*

**Authors:** Huang Jianwen, Yang Hongyan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Let
$\{X_n,~n\geq1\}$ be independent and identically distributed random
variables with each $X_n$ following skew normal distribution. Let
$M_n=\max\{X_k,~1\leq k\leq n\}$ denote the partial maximum of
$\{X_n,~n\geq1\}$. Liao et al. (2014) considered the convergence
rate of the distribution of the maxima for random variables obeying
the skew normal distribution under linear normalization. In this
paper, we
obtain the asymptotic distribution of the maximum under power
normalization and normalizing constants as well as the associated pointwise convergence rate under power
normalization.

**Category:** Statistics

[62] **viXra:1410.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-13 09:11:31*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The task to be carried out should be clear from the title. One motivation for this endeavour is coming from the fact that the usual version of quantum field theory is not acceptable. In the paper, above all, three intentions are pursued (a) an adequate consideration of the interaction (b) a proof that the means of classical field theory are sufficient (c) a new attempt to describe particles by stable wave packets.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[61] **viXra:1410.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 07:58:09*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Every Integer stands in the center of two Integer-Primes

**Category:** Number Theory

[60] **viXra:1410.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 08:51:55*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Successful repeats of Roger Shawyer’s emdrive experiment, originally conducted at SPR Ltd. in the UK, present General Relativity with a paradox of action without equal and opposite reaction. The results from this experiment will find their simplest explanation in Mach’s Principal if we can resolve the interaction between electrical conduction in its reflectors and acceleration of remote charges. Special Relativity establishes that the emission and absorption of a photon occurs when those events are synchronous in complex time. Photons exist as independent entities from a point perspective in real time but from the covariant perspective they are not separate from the matter emitting and absorbing their energy. This allows the possibility that Shawyer’s emdrive may be gaining traction from the remote universe by induction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[59] **viXra:1410.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-18 07:04:05*

**Authors:** S. Roy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper a slightly stronger version of the Second Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture, namely that inequality $\pi(x)+\pi(y) > \pi (x+y)$ s examined, where $\pi(x)$ denotes the number of
primes not exceeding $x$. It is shown that the inequality holds for all sufficiently large x and y. It has also been shown that for a given value of $y \geq 55$ the inequality $\pi(x)+\pi(y) > \pi (x+y)$ holds for all sufficiently large $x$. Finally, in the concluding section an argument has been given to completely settle the conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[58] **viXra:1410.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 19:41:45*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Reference: http://www.sifferkoll.se/sifferkoll/wpcontent/uploads/2014/10/LuganoReportSubmit.pdf (Oct 2014) http://www.e-catworld.com/2014/10/08/e-cat-report-released/ 8th October 2014

During E-CAT test run some hidden and unknown energy is being coming out in the form of heat energy in large quantity. Based on the principle of conservation of energy and from the well known nuclear fusion and fission reactions it is possible to guess that, the E-CAT hidden energy may be in the form of binding of protons and neutrons of the Nickel and Lithium atomic nuclei. By considering the nuclear binding energies of , and an attempt is made to understand the energy liberation mechanism in E-CAT. With reference to the net energy production of (5825 ± 10%) Mega Joules liberated from one gram Ni of the E-CAT’s 32 days third party test run, it can be suggested that, for every transformation of 28Ni56 to 28Ni62 via 3Li7, liberated heat energy is 3.64 MeV and for one gram of liberated energy is 5984 Mega Joules. For each transformation of 28Ni56 to 28Ni62 via 3Li7 , 3 hydrogen atoms can be expected to be emitted. Note that, energy liberated for one gram of Nickel 58 in cold fusion is 1.66 MWh and energy liberated for one gram of uranium 235 in nuclear fission is 22.6 MWh. Clearly speaking, energy released in E-CAT is just 13.6 times less than the energy released in Uranium 235 fission.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[57] **viXra:1410.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 20:37:52*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that the assumption that the rate at which our clocks are running is decreasing with the cosmological time in a universe with steady expansion rate is preferable to the assumption of the accelerating expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:1410.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-22 01:14:09*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A historical experiment by Kündig on the transverse Doppler shift in a rotating system measured with the Mössbauer effect (Mössbauer rotor experiment) has been recently first re-analyzed and then replied by an experimental research group. The results of re-analyzing the experiment have shown that a correct re-processing of Kündig's experimental data gives an interesting deviation of a relative redshift between emission and absorption resonant lines from the standard prediction based on the relativistic dilatation of time. That prediction gives a redshift \frac{\nabla E}{E}\simeq-\frac{1}{2}\frac{v^{2}}{c^{2}}
where v
is the tangential velocity of the absorber of resonant radiation, c
is the velocity of light in vacuum and the result is given to the accuracy of first-order in \frac{v^{2}}{c^{2}}
. Data re-processing gave \frac{\nabla E}{E}\simeq-k\frac{v^{2}}{c^{2}}
with k=0.596\pm0.006
. Subsequent new experimental results by the reply of Kündig experiment have shown a redshift with k=0.68\pm0.03
instead.
Abstract By using Einstein Equivalence Principle, which states the equivalence between the gravitational "force" and the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial frame of reference (included a rotating frame of reference) here we re-analyze the theoretical framework of Mössbauer rotor experiments directly in the rotating frame of reference by using a general relativistic treatment. It will be shown that previous analyses missed an important effect of clock synchronization and that the correct general relativistic prevision in the rotating frame gives k\simeq\frac{2}{3}
in perfect agreement with the new experimental results. Such an effect of clock synchronization has been missed in various papers in the literature with some subsequent claim of invalidity of relativity theory and/or some attempts to explain the experimental results through “exotic” effects. Our general relativistic interpretation shows, instead, that the new experimental results of the Mössbauer rotor experiment are a new, strong and independent, proof of Einstein general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1410.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-22 16:05:56*

**Authors:** Denise Vella-Chemla

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

On propose une modélisation des décompositions binaires de Goldbach dans un langage à 4 lettres qui permettent de découvrir des relations invariantes entre nombres de décompositions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[54] **viXra:1410.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-25 15:25:27*

**Authors:** James Russel

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We derive the minimum strength score require for a character to throw an object off the Earth in the d20 roleplaying system. By examining a "worst case" scenario involving air resistance, we show that the presence of the atmosphere induces a negligible correction to the minimum strength score, which is 114 for a Medium creature throwing another Medium creature off the Earth.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[53] **viXra:1410.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 09:18:30*

**Authors:** Chenglian LIU, Jian YE

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The Goldbach's conjecture has plagued mathematicians for over two hundred and seventy years. Whether a professional or an amateur enthusiast, all
have been fascinated by this question. Why do mathematicians have no way to solve this problem? Up until now, Chen has been recognized for the most concise
proof his “1 + 2” theorem in 1973. In this article, the author will use elementary concepts to describe and indirectly prove the Goldbach conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[52] **viXra:1410.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 10:19:18*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is shown that in a quantum theory over a Galois field, the famous Dirac's result about antiparticles is generalized such that a particle and its antiparticle are already combined at the level of irreducible representations of the symmetry algebra without assuming the existence of a local covariant
equation. We argue that the very existence of antiparticles is a strong indication that nature is described by a finite field rather than by complex numbers.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[51] **viXra:1410.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 11:37:20*

**Authors:** Ray Fleming

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The common statement of the principle of conservation of energy fails to take into account the energy of the vacuum, the zero-point energy. What happens for example when a body of matter displaces the local vacuum and reduces the local zero-point energy? In a prior paper the author determined that the mass-energy of electron and proton is equivalent to the zero-point energy they displace.1 This opens up the intriguing possibility that the principle of conservation of energy should be restated, the total amount of energy including zero-point energy is constant. This paper will include investigations of how different forms of energy can be seen as a displacement of zero-point energy thus confirming the modified principle of conservation of energy. This principle of conservation of energy can also be stated as; the net energy of space is always zero after the baseline zero-point energy is subtracted. In terms of classical forms of energy, there is no net energy in the universe. That leads to the interesting observation that there is no energy beyond the ever-present zero-point energy and thus no problem with regard to the origin of energy.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[50] **viXra:1410.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 06:30:38*

**Authors:** J. Foukzon, S.A. Podosenov, A.A. Potapov, E. Men’kova

**Comments:** 83 Pages. ISBN 978-5-9710-2456-9

Quantum cosmology in space-time with a negative fractal dimension and quantum-perturbative model of Einstein-Gliner-Zel'dovich vacuum and Sakharov induced gravity in a Riemannian space-time with a negative fractal dimension developed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[49] **viXra:1410.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-06 21:46:52*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 6 Pages. replacement caused by a mismatch in versions

A presentation of various formulas is given. Many of these findings have no explanation
whatsoever. One is related to the mass ratio of the neutron and proton: 1.00137841917. Other
expression are given to the mass ratio of the neutron and the electron. They were found using a
variety of methods using either a HP‐15C calculator in 1988 to the current database of constants
of the author which consist of 13.155 billion entries.

**Category:** Number Theory

[48] **viXra:1410.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-01 10:21:33*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, A. A. Potapov, S. A.Podosenov

**Comments:** 22 Pages. International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.3, No.4, November 2014

Exact quasi-classical asymptotic beyond WKB-Theory and beyond Maslov canonical operator to the Colombeau solutions of the n-dimensional Schrodinger equation is presented. Quantum jumps nature is considered successfully. We pointed out that an explanation of quantum jumps can be found to result from Colombeau solutions of the Schrödinger equation alone without additional postulates.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[47] **viXra:1410.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-14 08:56:01*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Fortunately I found the classical proof of the unexplained precession of the perihelion of Mercury.
It is completely given by the Laplace theory, the same used by Stockwell, but with current values of the planetary masses, added to the satellites, and a calculation in longer series, done by computer. That is, recalculated the coefficients (0, k) e [0, k] and used the coefficients of adjustments mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1410.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-11 10:44:25*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 6 Pages. HISTORY OF SUBMITTING is presented

It is shown that spin of a light wave is absorbed by all surface of an absorbing plate, while the edge of the plate absorbs orbital angular momentum. Absorption of electrodynamics spin cannot be expressed in terms of the energy-momentum tensor. Spin tensor is needed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[45] **viXra:1410.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 17:20:16*

**Authors:** Tian Hao

**Comments:** Pages. Published at: RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 48133-48146

New conduction equations are derived on the basis of Eyring’s rate process theory and free volume
concept. The basic assumptions are that electrons traveling from one equilibrium position to the
other may obey Eyring’s rate process theory; the traveling distance is governed by the free volume
available to each electron by assuming that electrons may have a spherical physical shape with an
imaginative eﬀective radius. The obtained equations predict that the superconductivity happens
only when electrons form certain structures of a relative small coordinate number like Cooper pair at
low temperatures; If each electron has a large coordinate number such as 8 when electrons form the
body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice structure like Wigner crystal, the predicted conductivity decreases
instead increases when temperatures approach to zero. The electron condensation structures have
a big impact on the conductivity. A sharp conductivity decrease at low temperatures, probably
due to an Anderson transition, is predicted even when the Cooper pair is formed and the electrons
can only travel short distances; While the Mott transition appears when crystalline structures like
Wigner crystal form. On the other hand, the electron pairing or called the strong spin-spin coupling
is predicted to induce Kondo eﬀect when electrons are assumed to travel a very short distance. The
Anderson localization seems to have a lot of similarities as Kondo eﬀect such as electron pairing
and low traveling distances of electrons at low temperatures. The Cooper pair that is the essence
of BCS theory for superconductivity and the spin-spin coupling that is the cause for Kondo eﬀect
seem to contradict each other, but are seamlessly united in our current conductivity equations. The
topological insulators become the natural occurrences of our equations, as both Kondo insulator
and superconductivity share a same physical origin–the electron pairs, but the electrons just travel
diﬀerent distances at these two cases. A material containing an element of a high electro-negativity
(or high ionization energy) and an element of a low electro-negativity(or low ionization energy) may
form a good topological insulator and superconductor. Any magnetic element, like Iron, Nickel, and
Cobalt, that has unpaired electrons and can induce Kondo eﬀect as a dopant, could be a very good
superconductor candidate once it is synthesized together with other proper elements of low electro-
negativity (for example forming pnictide superconductors). The numbers of both conduction and
valence electrons and the volume of a material under investigation have positive impacts on the
conductivity. Any method that may increase the numbers of both conduction and valence electrons
may move the superconductivity transition temperatures to higher regions. Any method that may
reduce the volume of the material like external pressure seems to lower transition temperatures,
unless that the applied pressure is so high that the electron density between the chemical bonds
increases. The derived equations are in good agreement with the currently observed experimental
phenomena. The current work may shed light on the mechanisms of superconductivity, presenting
clues on how to move the superconductivity transition temperatures to higher regions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[44] **viXra:1410.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 22:19:00*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This short note posits the indisputable physical law prescribing that distance = velocity x time, and shows that this proposition contradicts Special Relativity, such that the above proposition is correct and Special Relativity is incorrect, or vice versa.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1410.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-11 19:50:05*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 1 Page. Occupy America, updated draft

Occupy America

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[42] **viXra:1410.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 13:09:51*

**Authors:** Thomas Colignatus

**Comments:** Contains a quote of a page of Alders (1965) "Algebra III"

The sky is a tentative suggestion for extension group theory, that has supervariables with flexible domains, that would allow the formulation of dynamic rational functions, such that division by zero is prevented by manipulation of the domain. This would allow an algebraic approach to the derivative. Meadows are no alternative to such an approach. The world needs Academic Schools in which teaching is merged with empirical research on didactics. NB. The paper has been written from didactics and reaches out to research mathematics, but if classified may still be best understood from didactics.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[41] **viXra:1410.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-08 13:21:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, the resonant substructure of strange B meson is studied. The study is based on the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) i.e. the lacking part of Theory of Everything. The Kasner solutions to the vacuum Einstein equations via the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field lead to the structure of the core of baryons and next to the atom-like structure of baryons. Here, within the phenomena characteristic for the core of baryons, we calculated the masses of the spin-1 and spin-3 charmed, strange D resonances with a mass of 2860 MeV. The calculated masses are respectively 2858.5 MeV and 2860.8 MeV (they are very close to the experimental central values) whereas to obtain the exact spins equal to 1 and 3 we need a broadening of masses respectively about +- 5.3 MeV and +- 0.9 MeV and it is as well consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[40] **viXra:1410.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 10:37:51*

**Authors:** Joseph I. Thomas

**Comments:** 7 Pages. To soon appear in a Nigerian Christian Conference Proceedings

As the title suggests, this essay compiles some of the characteristic qualities of a scientist par excellence.
It is based on the author's study of the lives and personalities of some truly brilliant men who made their mark in science and in the process transformed this world for the better.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[39] **viXra:1410.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 10:42:47*

**Authors:** Joseph I. Thomas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is a spectacular thing to observe that only a few of the Great Religions of the World have a philosophical basis that is grounded in raw logical thinking. Hinduism in its most Ancient theological form belongs to this special class, where all ponderings on the human condition are akin to a mathematician musing on the properties of numbers or a physicist churning meaning out of symbols and equations.
This essay attempts to demonstrate how, much of what is considered the profoundest of Ancient Hindu doctrines can be tamed to fit into a systematic axiomatic framework, by means of which higher truths can be arrived at. Beginning with an elucidation of basic doctrines and statements of symbolic axioms, theorems are then formulated.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[38] **viXra:1410.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 02:03:45*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that any Mersenne number (number of the form 2^n – 1, where n is natural) with odd exponent n, where n is greater than or equal to 3, also n is not a power of 3, is either prime either divisible by a 2-Poulet number. I also generalize this conjecture stating that any number of the form P = ((2^m)^n – 1)/3^k, where m is non-null positive integer, n is odd, greater than or equal to 5, also n is not a power of 3, and k is equal to 0 or is equal to the greatest positive integer such that P is integer, is either a prime either divisible by at least a 2-Poulet number (I will name this latter numbers Mersenne-Coman numbers) and I finally enunciate yet another related conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[37] **viXra:1410.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 02:04:05*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that any Fermat number (number of the form 2^(2^n) + 1, where n is natural) is either prime either divisible by a 2-Poulet number. I also generalize this conjecture stating that any number of the form N = ((2^m)^p + 1)/3^k, where m is non-null positive integer, p is prime, greater than or equal to 7, and k is equal to 0 or is equal to the greatest positive integer such that N is integer, is either a prime either divisible by at least a 2-Poulet number (I will name this latter numbers Fermat-Coman numbers) and I finally enunciate yet another related conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[36] **viXra:1410.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-22 14:13:44*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space refers first to the structure of the isotropic space, based on the electrical and dynamic antithesis (opposition) of positive and negative elementary units. This antithesis emerges as the unique principle of the Cosmos structure, which is the «union of opposites» of Heraclitus that we observe in all natural phenomena as pairs of opposites.
If the isotropic space were infinite, then the attractive and repulsive forces of space elementary units would be at balance, in the form of a cubic grid of infinite dimensions as a sole existence.
The physical space (the Universe), though, is not infinite. It has been created by the spherical deformity of the isotropic space, as its first deformation. At space limits, the vacuum (non units-non space) attracts the space-existence, because of the antithesis (opposition) principle between existence and nonexistence.
Τhe above first space deformation creates the cohesive forces, which cause the chaotic (huge) cohesive pressure (see chapter B, paragraph 2). In this vast storehouse of energy (see chapter A, paragraph 4), the unique unseen force is the electric one between positive and negative elementary units. The two evident Nature forces (antigravity, gravity) are supplemented by the three evident Nature forces, namely by the cortex forces (see http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097), the nuclear and the electric forces (see http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0210). These five evident Nature forces derive from the above unique electric force.
The first grand Cosmic event is the Genesis of matter, with the creation of the primordial neutron in the Universe center, as a second (local) space deformation (hole-bubble of empty space).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[35] **viXra:1410.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-29 10:40:10*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Recent turmoil around the foundation of Black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about black holes and adjacent subjects.
As a consequence, it seems a good moment to come up with a Black Hole alternative already prepacked in my Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form)
Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped Preons, responsible for pair production. Two Preons are able to change form into two entangled Fermion propeller strings by an overflow of energetic opposite collision. This energy overflow is supposed to be present at the black hole event horizon.
Thus the FORM of all particles is based on real joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons, however all particles are instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way.
That dual oscillating Higgs particles are the same as Preons and are responsible for the Casimir Dark Energy of 126 GeV recently observed in the LHC at CERN.
That the oscillating Higgs vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon information and Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Higgs particles, compressed by the oscillating Higgs vacuum and acting as dark matter point sources called “Dark Matter Black Holes”( DMBHs).
The vacuum energy flow around such a Black hole indicates that different sized globular horizons are needed, an event or Photon horizon and two Fermion repulsion horizons.
Such horizons are supposed to include even pair production (e-and e+) and compound quarks out of the Higgs vacuum.
Pair production as a base for quarks and as such H2 and O and more complex atoms.
Comet 67P CG, (Churyumov-Gerasimenko) seems to be a unique test bed for this theory.
In the near future we will probably become aware of these phenomena by the 67P measurements of the Rosetta lander mission. Recent measurements and photos are already suggesting that a large variety of atoms are ejected by the Comet and surface changes seem to be the origin of local crack shaped colour changes. The magnetic field of the comet seems to ring or sing 3 times every minute by the internal tectonic shocks. The dusty jets observed from the so called “Neck” of the comet seem to be a sign for a central Birkeland Alfven current circuit effect on dust acceleration and violating the solar heat erosion theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[34] **viXra:1410.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-11 10:08:27*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of numbers of the form k2^n-1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[33] **viXra:1410.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-08 16:42:20*

**Authors:** Benet Casablancas

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Páginas 26 y 27 de la partitura de Benet Casablancas "The Dark Backward of Time".

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[32] **viXra:1410.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-08 16:44:34*

**Authors:** Benet Casablancas

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Páginas 30 y 31 de la partitura de Benet Casablancas "The Dark Backward of Time".

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[31] **viXra:1410.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-07 07:53:25*

**Authors:** David Luengo, Luca Martino, Victor Elvira, Monica Bugallo

**Comments:** 57 Pages. Extended version of D. Luengo, L. Martino, V. Elvira, M. Bugallo, "Efficient linear combination of partial Monte Carlo estimators", ICASSP 2015. Submitted to Digital Signal Processing.

Many signal processing applications require performing statistical inference on large datasets, where computational and/or memory restrictions become an issue. In this big data setting, computing an exact global centralized estimator is often either unfeasible or impractical. Hence, several authors have considered distributed inference approaches, where the data are divided among multiple workers (cores, machines or a combination of both). The computations are then performed in parallel and the resulting partial estimators are finally combined to approximate the intractable global estimator. In this paper, we focus on the scenario where no communication exists among the workers, deriving efficient linear fusion rules for the combination of the distributed estimators. Both a constrained optimization perspective and a Bayesian approach (based on the Bernstein-von Mises theorem and the asymptotic normality of the estimators) are provided for the derivation of the proposed linear fusion rules. We concentrate on finding the minimum mean squared error (MMSE) global estimator, but the developed framework is very general and can be used to combine any type of unbiased partial estimators (not necessarily MMSE partial estimators). Numerical results show the good performance of the algorithms developed, both in problems where analytical expressions can be obtained for the partial estimators, and in a wireless sensor network localization problem where Monte Carlo methods are used to approximate the partial estimators.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[30] **viXra:1410.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-07 17:39:11*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The method of physical analogy is used to generate general explanations to the structure of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1410.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-16 13:02:42*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this paper I shall develop the simplest relativistic model of the hydrogen atom. On one hand, this model is incomplete since it neglects the spin of the electron. On the other hand, it incorporates relativistic effects which are not taken into account by the atomic models of Bohr and Schrodinger. In the light of this simple theory it would seem that the Rydberg constant, as far as the spectral lines is concerned, is just the result of the non-relativistic approach used by Bohr and not a true indication of the dependence of the spectral lines on this constant. This formulation emphasizes the significance of the fine-structure constant in the atomic structure of hydrogen and reveals two new
meanings of this constant and its connection with life. Additionally this investigation introduces
three new constants of Nature a) the minimum speed of light for the existence of hydrogen, cH , b)
the energy-distance constant, ud , and c) the quantum energy-distance constant, uq .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[28] **viXra:1410.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 17:27:27*

**Authors:** D. G. Taylor

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

This is a table confirming the equations in "The Relativistic Space-Time Perspective" at |http://vixra.org/abs/1306.0104|
The table examines 39 velocity values, ranging from |1.000~000E-500| m/s to
c-|1.000~000E-500| m/s, all calculated to 2000 decimal places .
velocitySRPD = velocitynoSRPD/(1- velocitynoSRPD^2/ c^2)^½
velocitynoSRPD = velocitySRPD/(1+ velocitySRPD^2/ c^2)^½
This table is for Relativistic Velocity values only, but they are completely applicable for the Relativistic Length, Time, and Mass equations as well. Tables on those equations are available on request. The occasional tiny difference between the VelocitynoSRPD (the velocity with no Relativistic Distortion) and the VelocitynoSRPDBack (the “Real||noSRPD” velocity calculated from the distorted VelocitySRPD) is simply due to irrational numbers (like square roots). You can never determine a value like 2½ exactly because it is irrational - the answer always has an infinite number of decimal places in random digits. The maximum error for calculations done to 2000 decimal places was found to be 1.0E-1992. But the maximum error for calculations done to 1000 decimal places was 1.0E-992; the maximum for calculations done to 100 decimal places was 1.0E-92.
The software used was Advanced Smart Math Calculator, a product available from the Software firm RUNITER COMPANY, and their site at http://calculator.runiter.com/math-calculator/. The owner, Saeid Nourian [president@runiter.com], has seen both the tables and an earlier text of the theory, so can confirm the numeric validity of the tables.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1410.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-18 10:58:50*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the dark-matter mechanism which leads to the equality of orbital speeds of stars outside the central stellar bulge of spiral galaxy. The obtained results are consistent with the observational facts for the Milky Way, Andromeda Galaxy, Triangular Galaxy and SBO-a NGC 4984. The equality of orbital speeds of stars for defined spiral galaxy follows from the weak interactions, via leptons, of the baryonic matter with the virtual dark-matter loops in the Einstein spacetime - the loops mimic the motions in fermions. The ordered motions of matter along the jets of quasars produce flows in the Einstein spacetime. Such motions decrease local dynamic pressure in the spacetime i.e. there are produced pressure holes. To increase the lowered dynamic pressure, there are inflows of additional Einstein-spacetime components into the pressure holes but mass density is still to low to produce real particles. Such regions with higher local mass density of the Einstein spacetime mimic gravitational attraction so there appears the gravitational lensing. During the initial period of evolution of quasars, the iron-plus-nickel lumps from the explosions of the Population III supernovae (the first-generation big stars) mainly collected in the regions with higher local mass density of the Einstein spacetime so there appeared the ferromagnetic filaments between the quasars. We do not need some exotic matter to explain the origin of dark matter and dark energy - they both are the additional entangled or free neutrino-antineutrino pairs (the free pairs interact gravitationally only). We calculated as well the “mass ratio” of the dark matter and visible matter for galaxies, dwarf-galaxies and ultra-faint galaxies (dSphs). For the dwarf galaxies with active dark-matter mechanism, the ratio is up to 1000 and more.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] **viXra:1410.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-07 05:45:04*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

It has for long been been overlooked that, quite easily, infinitely many {\it ultrapower} field extensions $\mathbb{F}_{\cal U}$ can be constructed for the usual field $\mathbb{R}$ of real numbers, by using only elementary algebra. This allows a simple and direct access to the benefit of both infinitely small and infinitely large scalars, {\it without} the considerable usual technical difficulties involved in setting up and then using the Transfer Principle in Nonstandard Analysis. A natural Differential and Integral Calculus - which extends the usual one on the field $\mathbb{R}$ - is set up in these fields $\mathbb{F}_{\cal U}$ without any use of the Transfer Principle in Nonstandard Analysis, or of any topological type structure. Instead, in the case of the Riemann type integrals introduced, three simple and natural axioms in Set Theory are assumed. The case when these three axioms may be inconsistent with the Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory is discussed in section 5.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[25] **viXra:1410.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-03 11:49:29*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 127 Pages. contact genebarbee@msn.com

Scientists are actively engaged in understanding new observations regarding our universe. There is agreement that achieving a new level of understanding may require an extension to what is currently known about fundamental interactions, matter and energy. This book is a summary of work by the author building on the best measurements made by physicists, astronomers and cosmologists. Historically, a culture’s cosmology was an explanation of the origin and a justification for its most significant beliefs. Understanding nature’s language goes further. With it, we can read the book of nature and participate in the unfolding of nature’s potential. A no-nonsense engineering approach is used that simplifies nature to a few simple relationships. Of specific interest are the topics of force unification, gravitational theory and the definition of space and time. It also addresses several topics at the forefront of current research like dark energy and cold dark matter. Of course these are physical matters but the author addresses what this means to life and what it is reasonable to believe regarding philosophy’s “enduring questions”.
Man invented language, developed an alphabet and then used the alphabet in creative ways to communicate. As a child we learn a language. It is an extremely useful tool but we didn’t invent the language. Physics is the same way. It has a language and an alphabet that it shapes into words and a significant story. One difference, however, is that we are one of the things it shapes and if we want to understand ourselves and the things around us we must learn the language. Nature starts with the whole, separates it into parts and then fits the parts together in different ways to make the universe we observe. This is a little like a picture puzzle. The picture is cut into pieces and then re-assembled. In the process, it becomes clear that the pieces are meant to fit together and the proof is simply that the picture is once again whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1410.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-06 03:07:16*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that energodynamic approach to the study of the ether, not leaning on modelling representations and based on the experimentally confirmed equations of its state and movement, allows to establish power nature its interaction with substance and a number of its other properties, without resorting to hypotheses

**Category:** Classical Physics

[23] **viXra:1410.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-05 16:25:44*

**Authors:** Md Zahid

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

2^e is rational or irrational number is not known. It is unsolved and open problem in analysis [1] .In this paper we proved that 2^e as irrational number. We attack the proof by method of contradiction. We assume that 2^e be rational number. Then we use some logarithms properties and simplification to get a relation between ‘e’ and assumed rational number, since we known that ‘e’ is irrational number, we use some further simplification and method to prove that 2^e is irrational number .

**Category:** Number Theory

[22] **viXra:1410.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-11 07:04:04*

**Authors:** Koji KOBAYASHI

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper divide some complexity class by using fixpoint and fixpointless area of Decidable Universal Turing Machine (UTM). Decidable Deterministic Turing Machine (DTM) have fixpointless combinator that add no extra resources (like Negation), but UTM makes some fixpoint in the combinator. This means that we can jump out of the fixpointless combinator system by making more complex problem from diagonalisation argument of UTM.
As a concrete example, we proof L is not P . We can make Polynomial time UTM that emulate all Logarithm space DTM (LDTM). LDTM set close under Negation, therefore UTM does not close under LDTM set. (We can proof this theorem like halting problem and time/space hierarchy theorem, and also we can extend this proof to divide time/space limited DTM set.) In the same way, we proof P is not NP. These are new hierarchy that use UTM and Negation.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[21] **viXra:1410.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-04 20:57:05*

**Authors:** Yilun Shang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Let $U^{(n)}$ denote the maximal length arithmetic
progression in a non-uniform random subset of $\{0,1\}^n$, where $1$
appears with probability $p_n$. By using dependency graph and
Stein-Chen method, we show that $U^{(n)}-c_n\ln n$ converges in law
to an extreme type distribution with $\ln p_n=-2/c_n$. Similar
result holds for $W^{(n)}$, the maximal length aperiodic arithmetic
progression (mod $n$).

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[20] **viXra:1410.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-06 11:37:02*

**Authors:** editors Stefan Vladutescu, Florentin Smarandache, Daniela Gifu, Alina Tenescu

**Comments:** 300 Pages.

Communication is the main way of defusing uncertainties. Unfortunately, communication discipline itself is mined by uncertainties. We can talk about onto-epistemological uncertainties and pragmatic uncertainties of communication, about theoretical and practical uncertainties, and about primary and secondary uncertainties of communication. Uncertainties regarding the object of communication as autonomous discipline, the research methods of communication, the sources, paradigms and models of communication represent theoretical, onto-epistemological uncertainties. Pragmatic uncertainties include uncertainties in communication processes; they have a practical character. Pragmatic uncertainties are those that lead to communication failure and they consist in minor obstacles or insurmountable barriers in concrete communication. (Florentin Smarandache & Stefan Vladutescu)
***
The book has 16 chapters written by the following authors and co-authors from USA, England, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania: Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu, Mirela Teodorescu, Dan S. Stoica, Daniela Gifu, Calin Andrei, Ioan Constantin Dima, Mariana Man, Janusz Grabara, Paula Bajdor, Jim O'Brien, Andrzej Rabsztyn, Anabella-Maria Tarnovan, Adrian Nicolescu, Alina Tenescu, Nicusor Minculete, Vladimir Modrak, Sorin Mihai Radu, Alice Ionescu, Anca Diana Bibiri, Lucian Sacalean, Mircea Munteanu, Roxana Criu, Bogdan Constantin Neculau, Marin Dramnescu, MihaelaGabriela Paun, and Loredana Speriatu.

**Category:** Linguistics

[19] **viXra:1410.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-04 16:14:57*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 646 Pages.

Bancuri, folclor, imagini.

**Category:** Linguistics

[18] **viXra:1410.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-04 14:52:44*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

This conjecture supports the notion of a temporal-inertial (TI) field, a field that is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. The relation between the Higgs field or the Higgs mechanism and what I designate as the TI field is undefined. I may attribute properties to the TI field (such as the particles of the field being subject to gravity) that do not obtain for the Higgs field. The flux model posits that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of the gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. Equations defining the acceleration and velocity profiles about a gravitational body are developed for the flux model. The flux model describes a system in which particles of the TI field fall radially toward the central gravitational mass. The flux model may offer an explanation for the unexpected changes in velocity seen by the so-called flyby spacecraft in their gravity assist maneuvers past Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1410.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-04 10:53:00*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

De huidige natuurkunde staat op een tweesprong. Dit verhaal duidt aan waarom dit zo is. Ook wordt een alternatief model besproken. Dat model is volledig bedacht en is om die reden gebaseerd op een reeks betrouwbare grondbeginselen die vervolgens met wiskundige methoden uitgebreid worden. Uiteindelijk ontstaat een model dat in veel opzichten lijkt op wat we door het waarnemen van de realiteit denken te kennen.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1410.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-04 07:44:59*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

First we classify A, B and C according to their respective odevity, and ret rid of two kinds from AX+BY=CZ. Then affirm AX+BY=CZ such being the case A, B and C have a common prime factor by examples. After that, prove AX+BY≠CZ under these circumstances that A, B and C have not any common prime factor by mathematical analyses with the aid of the symmetric law of odd numbers. Finally we have proven that the Beal’s conjecture holds water after the comparison between AX+BY=CZ and AX+BY≠CZ under the given requirements.

**Category:** Number Theory

[15] **viXra:1410.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-04 09:15:50*

**Authors:** editors Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu, Alina Tenescu

**Comments:** 300 Pages.

Our thesis is that communication has several sources. Some may be considered as main sources or constitutive sources from which communication springs, and others may be considered as secondary or complementary sources of communication. We can thus acknowledge eight main sources of communication: rhetoric, persuasion, psychology, sociology, anthropology, semiotics, linguistics and political science.
Rhetoric is the first and oldest discipline which studied certain communication phenomena; rhetoric has outlined a proto-object of communication. Sociology is the most powerful source of
communication methodology: sociology has supplied most of the theories and methods that have led to the discipline of communication growing autonomously. We assert that secondary sources of communication are: philosophy, ethics, pragmatics, mathematics, cybernetics and ecology.
[Florentin Smarandache & Ştefan Vlăduţescu]
***
The book has 15 chapters written by the following authors and co-authors from USA, England, China, Poland, Serbia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, and Romania: Florentin Smarandache, Ştefan Vlăduţescu, Jim O’Brien, Svetislav Paunovic, Mariana Man, Zhaoxun Song, Dandan Shan, Maria Nowicka-Skowron, Sorin Mihai Radu, Janusz Grabara, Ioan Cosmescu, Adrian Nicolescu, Krasimira Dimitrova, Alina Țenescu, Sebastian Kot, Beata Ślusarczyk, Maria Măcriș, Iwona Grabara, Piotr Pachura, Mircea Bunaciu, Jozef Novak-Marcincin, Mircea Duică, Odette Arhip, Vlad Roșca, and Vladimir-Aurelian Enăchescu.

**Category:** Linguistics

[14] **viXra:1410.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-03 19:46:32*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The natural occurrences of wildfires damage nature areas, produce the hundreds of millions of dollars in losses, and considerable pollution of environment. The author suggests a very efficient method of suppression of a forest fire without water. He offers a system of simple light plates or anchor suspended from any helicopter which directs the helicopter propeller airflow against the direction of a wildfire. After some minutes the natural fuel burns away in the front of fire and the fire cannot advance.
The author developed theory and methods computations and suggests some designs of the devices for so changing the helicopter airflow direction.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13] **viXra:1410.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-04 02:07:31*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Progress in Physics 10, 236-242, 2014

Space speed fluctuations, which have a 1/f spectrum, are shown to be the cause of solar flares. The direction and magnitude of the space flow has been detected from numerous different experimental techniques, and is close to the normal to the plane of the ecliptic. Zener diode data shows that the fluctuations in the space speed closely match the Sun Solar Cycle 23 flare count, and reveal that major solar flares follow major space speed fluctuations by some 6 days. This implies that a warning period of some 5 days in predicting major solar flares is possible using such detectors. This has significant consequences in being able to protect various spacecraft and Earth located electrical systems from the subsequent arrival of ejected plasma from a solar flare. These space speed fluctuations are the actual gravitational waves, and have a significant magnitude. This discovery is a significant application of the dynamical space phenomenon and theory. We also show that space flow turbulence impacts on the Earth's climate, as such turbulence can input energy into systems, which is the basis of the Zener Diode Quantum Detector. Large scale space fluctuations impact on both the sun and the Earth, and as well explain temperature correlations with solar activity, but that the Earth temperatures are not caused by such solar activity. This implies that the Earth climate debate has been missing a key physical process. Observed diminishing gravitational waves imply a cooling epoch for the Earth for the next 30 years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1410.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-03 16:22:12*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman, Efrat Aharonov-Majar, Pini Luzon

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The "social insurance" hypothesis posits that individuals join cooperative groups and share resources in order to reduce environmental risk. Despite its significance for explaining cooperative groups’ formation, in small-scale and in developing societies, the hypothesis has been subjected to little experimental testing. The present research is designed to examine the relative weight of the motivation for social insurance compared to other psychological motivations for sharing risk. We conducted two studies to test the tendency to share risk under different risk conditions and for groups of different sizes. A third experiment extends the risk sharing research to situations involving losses instead of gains. The findings of the first two studies lend strong support to the risk-sharing hypothesis in the gain domain. For the loss domain, the results of the third experiment demonstrate an intriguing shift from strong reluctance to join groups under lower risk, to ubiquitous readiness to join groups under higher risk. We discuss these results in light of prospect theory and decisions from experience.

**Category:** Social Science

[11] **viXra:1410.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-03 16:53:32*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The difference between two consecutive prime Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes is defined as the distance between the primes KK modes. We study the statistical properties of the distances and their
increments (the difference between two consecutive distances) for a sequence comprising the first 10^7 prime KK modes. The information entropy production for prime KK modes may open a window for extra dimensions ruled out by experiments.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1410.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-03 02:39:32*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

For every odd prime number exist a sum (x+y) so that (x-y) is also a prime number.
Every odd number is the difference of two square numbers
Every 4n number is the difference of two square numbers

**Category:** Number Theory

[9] **viXra:1410.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-02 15:45:02*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A 7.1 keV dark matter fermion in partnership with a 35 GeV scalar WIMP would join the electron, the up quark and their previously hypothesised supersymmetric partners in a spectacular arrangement on the mass levels of the Supersymmetric Planck Model. All three partnerships are arranged symmetrically about the precise centre, at the scale of 16 MeV, of a symmetrical pattern of coincident mass levels that extends over 35 orders of magnitude. The implied dynamical supersymmetry-breaking scale lambda coincides with coincident mass levels at the centre of another symmetrical pattern. The investigation has revealed new evidence of quark-lepton symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1410.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-02 12:43:23*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that total energy of any system is the sum of the partial energies of all its degrees of freedom, each of which is expressed by the product of intensive and extensive state parameter. The expediency of introduction of this concept is proved and not trivial of its consequences are discussed

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7] **viXra:1410.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-04 07:22:53*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is shown that , an easy answer to the flatness problem is given if we abandon an unjustified assumption used usually in application of Einstein's Field Equation in the large scale universe .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1410.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-08 21:21:00*

**Authors:** Valery Zhukov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. removed metric

Gravitational waves cause the curvature of space. The curvatures of space lead to the conclusion that the nature of cosmological redshift and time dilation, is the same effect as the gravitational redshift and time dilation in a gravitational field. This is confirmed by the fact that the ratio between redshift and time dilation is the same for both gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1410.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-02 04:51:52*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Infinitely many {\it ultrapower} field extensions $\mathbb{F}_{\cal U}$ are constructed for the usual field $\mathbb{R}$ of real numbers by using only elementary algebra, thus allowing for the benefit of both infinitely small and infinitely large scalars, and doing so {\it without} the considerable usual technical difficulties involved in setting up the Transfer Principle in Nonstandard Analysis. A natural Integral Calculus - which extends the usual one on the field $\mathbb{R}$ - is set up in these fields $\mathbb{F}_{\cal U}$. A separate paper presents the same for the Differential Calculus.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4] **viXra:1410.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-05 03:30:27*

**Authors:** Richard Gauthier

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Comments welcome

A charged photon and its light-speed helical trajectory form a surprising new solution to the relativistic electron's energy-momentum equation E^2 = p^2 c^2 + m^2 c^4. This charged photon is a new model for the electron, and quantitatively resembles the light-speed electron described by Dirac. His relativistic quantum mechanical equation for the electron was derived from the above energy-momentum equation. While the electron's energy is E = gamma mc^2, the charged photon's energy is E = gamma mc^2=hf . The electron's relativistic momentum p = gamma mv is the longitudinal component of the charged photon's helically circulating momentum p total = gamma mc . At any electron speed, the charged photon has an internally circulating transverse momentum p trans = mc , which at the helical radius Ro = L Compton/4pi =1.93 x 10^-13 m for a resting electron produces the z -component hbar/2 of the electron's spin. The right and left turning directions of the charged photon's helical trajectory correspond to a spin up (sz = +hbar/2) and spin down (sz = -hbar/2) electron. The negative and positive possible charges of the charged photon correspond to the electron and the positron. The circulating charged photon at the helical radius Ro produces one-half of the electron's pre-QED magnetic moment µ = µ Bohr predicted by the Dirac equation. There is a relativistic variation with the electron's speed v of the charged photon's helical radius R = Ro / (gamma)^2 and its helical pitch P = (2pi v/gamma c) Ro . The pitch has a maximum value P max = pi Ro when the electron's speed is v = c/sqrt(2) . The decreasing charged photon's helical radius R = Ro/gamma^2 with the electron's increasing speed v quantitatively explains why the electron appears so small (<10^-18 m) in high-energy electron scattering experiments, even though the characteristic radius of the circulating charged photon for a resting electron is Ro .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1410.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-01 20:12:07*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Despite uncountable claims to the contrary, Special Relativity (SR) is an unbroken theory of Nature. All attempts to refute its basis or predictions have failed and will continue to fall short as time goes by. The latest SR confirmation in Darmstadt was carried out with an unprecedented level of experimental accuracy. It ought to give serious pause for reflection to all those rejecting SR and the Poincaré symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1410.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-01 08:13:45*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Our universe’s eight permanent matter particles are the: up quark, down quark, electron, electron-neutrino, muon-neutrino, tau-neutrino, zino, and photino. The zino and photino are dark matter particles. Each of these eight permanent matter particles has an associated supersymmetric Higgs force. The sum of the eight Higgs force energies of these eight permanent matter particles is dark energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1410.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-01 08:54:24*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Comments Welcome.

In an earlier reading, we argued from a physical and number theoretic standpoint that an upper bound speed limit such as the speed of light implies the existence of a lower limit to the duration of events in the Universe. Consequently, this leads to a minimum characteristic length separation for events in the Universe. Herein, we argue that matter and energy that is in compliance with and in observance of the upper bound light speed limit is governed by the lower limiting uncertainty principle of Professor Werner Heisenberg. If there is a lower limiting uncertainty principle, we ask the natural and logical question 'What would an upper bound uncertainty principle mean?' We come to the interesting conclusion that an upper bound uncertainty principle must apply to particles that travel at speeds, equal to, or greater than the speed of light. Further, we argue that consequently, a tachyon must exist in a permanent state of confinement and must be intrinsically and inherently unstable in which event it oscillates between different states. These two requirements place quarks in a position to be good candidates for tachyons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics