[463] **viXra:1411.0599 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-30 14:23:39*

**Authors:** Horatio Sanchez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we prove that math is a democracy.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[462] **viXra:1411.0598 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-30 11:27:31*

**Authors:** Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modern detectors intended to detect gravitational waves are in function from 2002. Their figure of merith has reached h = 10‒21 from 2007 approaching current values h = 10‒23. Given the number of existing detectors, several hundreds of events involving gravitational waves should be registered to the present day. In reality, there is no one such an event, in spite of the fact that the existence of gravitationa waves has been evidenced indirectly through the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16.
One of the modes of explanation the given state lies in a presumption that due to a non-stationary gravitational field, gravitational radiation is formed creating a barrier for gravitational waves detection. Based on our Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model we declare that only extremely strong sources exceeding the limiting value h = 10‒16 may be detected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[461] **viXra:1411.0597 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-10 01:03:12*

**Authors:** Piero BENAZZO

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Big Bang paradigm observed universe is hypothesised as virtual lens effect. The observer's flat light cone used to observe the sky would generate this by intersecting an actual curved, static and spatially closed cosmos. Its curved space-time would have tilting time axis and be fractal in time. The Hubble length is the only empirical data input needed in the topology, tangent to the curved frame at 60 degrees time axis tilting from the observer, for reciprocal transferability between curved space-time and lens effect. This specifies a 30 degrees angle between the space axis and the speed of light c vector, and a 60 degrees angle between the time axis and the speed of light c vector. These allow measuring the curved frame. Here, brightness would discount fractality remaining unaffected, while redshift would be affected. Their relative differences are transferred from the static curved frame to the observed universe frame. Here, they represent the curvature of the Hubble diagram for the Type Ia Supernovae and Gamma-ray bursts empirical data. This provides empirical evidence of a lens effect and a curved, static and spatially closed cosmos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[460] **viXra:1411.0596 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 16:20:16*

**Authors:** Yevgen Vasylenko

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Carriage of liquid cargo is essential to national economy and hence the annual volumes of liquid cargo are fairly large. In many cases this involves carrying toxic and fire-hazardous substances. Spillage thereof in case of emergency may cause environmental damage and even human losses. So when carrying such substances the main stress is on safety.
The paper dwells on defining sloshing frequency for a liquid in tanks of different shapes similar to transport tanks. Such sloshing causes extra dynamic loads on vehicles. A method for calculation of sloshing will help to determine conditions, under which sloshing starts, and hence to take respective measures for elimination thereof.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[459] **viXra:1411.0595 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 14:57:17*

**Authors:** Andrew Wutke

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Draft paper for review.

This paper presents an attempt to define temporal coincidence starting from the first principles. The temporal coincidence defined here differs from Einstein’s simultaneity for it is invariant across inertial frames - not relative. The meaning and significance of temporal coincidence is derived from axioms of existence and it somehow relates to Kant’s notion of simultaneity. Consistently applied to the Special Theory of Relativity framework, temporal coincidence does not in any way create mathematical contradictions; however it allows looking at some common relativity claims with a dose of scepticism. Time, as derived from Lorentz transformations, appears to be conventional in order to match the postulate of constancy of the speed of light. The relative simultaneity is only apparent due to that convention. There are insufficient grounds to claim that inertial systems moving relatively to each other have their own different temporal realities. Overall, the innate temporal logic we have is not erroneous and does not need to be replaced contrary to the claims of some relativity educators.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[458] **viXra:1411.0594 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 09:19:59*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Published in Prespacetime Journal, 4(6): pp. 661-680 (July 2013)

Some applications of Prespacetime Model II are stated. The applications relate to presenting and modeling energy-momentum-mass relationship, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles through self-referential hierarchical spin in prespacetime. In particular, method and model for generating energy-momentum-mass relationship, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles are stated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[457] **viXra:1411.0593 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 11:03:05*

**Authors:** Peter Waaben

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Cantor’s descriptive construction of the real continuum,proceeds by imposing a suitable equivalence relation on Cauchy sequences of Rationals. Can a Cantor relation instead among (Cauchy sequences of Reals)be used to re-produce both a Cauchy complete but infinitesimally-enriched continuum?
present such a possibility: by utilizing ‘a radix-fraction-system over finite sets’ as a label space to produce,then as it turns out,also a constructive joining of
(standard and non-standard analysis).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[456] **viXra:1411.0592 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-29 07:41:07*

**Authors:** Sanjeev Saxena

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Corrected Arithmetic Errors. A full/more complete version of this is viXra:1510.0473

Linear Programming is now included in Algorithm undergraduate and
postgraduate courses for Computer Science majors. It is possible to teach
interior-point methods directly with just minimal knowledge of Algebra
and Matrices.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[455] **viXra:1411.0591 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 09:07:13*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that black body radiation of stars is a result of the rate of plasma recombination.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[454] **viXra:1411.0590 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 09:13:14*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Published in Prespacetime Journal, 4(6): pp. 641-660 (July 2013)

Some applications of Prespacetime Model I are stated. The applications relate to presenting and modeling generation, sustenance and evolution of elementary particles through self-referential hierarchical spin structures of prespacetime. In particular, method and model for generating, sustaining and causing evolution of fermions, bosons and spinless particles are stated. Further, method and model for weak interaction, strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, quantum entanglement and brain function are also stated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[453] **viXra:1411.0589 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 04:30:52*

**Authors:** Essam E Maroun

**Comments:** 10 Pages. email: emaroun85@hotmail.com

The conditions of the early universe are not known with any measure of certainty — they are only theories. Therefore, using the assumption that the estimated total energy of the observable universe is conserved, we propose a different lower limit for the gravitational energy; we attempt to unify the subatomic and the large scale universe into one coherent whole; thus, showing that the cosmos behaves like a quantum object. It uses a form of Bohr’s quantization to strengthen the unification of quantum gravity. Our model is simple, yet comprehensive.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[452] **viXra:1411.0588 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-28 20:37:39*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Published in Prespacetime Journal, 4(11): pp. 1003-1026

The natures of quantum gravity and graviton are reviewed and explored from the non-mainstream perspectives. It turns out that quantum gravity is likely manifestation of quantum entanglement and mediated by wave-functions of elementary particles as nonlocal objects. Thus, each elementary particle has its corresponding gravitons comprised of its external and internal wave-functions as nonlocal objects. This new understanding allows one to reconcile quantum mechanics with general relativity and explain dark matter and dark energy as nonlocal effects on the cosmic scales. To make the transition from quantum gravity to general relativity, it is theorized that: (1) Ricci scalar R and metric tensor guv are originated from and determined by the collective internal and external wave functions of the matter present; (2) in the absence of nonlocal effect of remote matter through quantum entanglement, R and guv are only correlated to momentum-energy tensor of the local matter; (3) in the presence of nonlocal effect of remote matter through quantum entanglement, R and guv are also influenced by the nonlocal effect of the remote matter currently interpreted (or seen) as dark matter and/or dark energy. Some of the important consequences of this theory are the following: (1) gravitational fields (gravitons as nonlocal objects comprised of internal and external wave functions) may not carry localized or directly detectable momentum and energy; and (2) there may be no gravitational wave since gravity is nonlocal and instantaneous.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[451] **viXra:1411.0587 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-28 17:17:03*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This is a concise summary of the concept of mutually unbiased bases, including the concrete examples up to d=6.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[450] **viXra:1411.0586 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-28 15:09:23*

**Authors:** Liraz Margalit, Ramzi Suleiman, Yuval Samid

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The frustration effect refers to situations in which, despite an individual’s option to express an opinion, the decision maker does not take that opinion into consideration. Theories of justice predict that, compared with having no voice, an unanswered voice will result in more frustration, dissatisfaction, and negative evaluations of outcome and procedural fairness. We tested these predictions experimentally, using an ultimatum and dictator games in which all participants played the role of recipients, while the allocators were fictitious players, who ostensibly offered them low shares. We found strong support to the frustration-effect hypothesis. Relative to recipients in the no-voice condition, in the unanswered-voice condition recipients in the two games perceived the situation as less fair and expressed more frustration and dissatisfaction from their low outcomes. Moreover, compared with the dictator condition, in the ultimatum game a significantly higher percentage of the recipients rejected the low offers under the unanswered-voice condition than under the no-voice condition. The results also revealed an interesting gender difference in the participants' responses to unanswered voice. Compared to women, men reported higher frustration levels, and rejected low offers with a significantly higher rate when their voice was ignored.

**Category:** Social Science

[449] **viXra:1411.0585 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-22 02:52:11*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 41 Pages. being considered by Chief Editor of "Foundations of Physics", Nobel Physics Prize winner Gerardus (Gerard) 't Hooft

Most of human history has been played out in three dimensions (up-down, front-back and side-side). A little over 100 years ago, the fourth dimension of time was officially added when space was unified with time in the concept of space-time developed by Russo-German mathematician Hermann Minkowski (one of Albert Einstein's university teachers). In 1919, "(Theodor) Kaluza wrote to Einstein, proposing that Einstein's dream of finding a unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism might be realized if he worked his equations in five-dimensional space-time." "A few years after that, the Swedish physicist Oskar Klein published a quantum version of Kaluza's work." ("Coming of Age in the Milky Way" by Timothy Ferris - The Bodley Head, 1988, p.332) Nowadays, CERN's particle-collider and scientists all over the world are eagerly searching for this 5th dimension which can be called hyperspace. Here's a brief outline of that extra dimension and how it could fulfil the possibilities proposed in the article "Three Totally Mind-bending Implications of a Multidimensional Universe"
By David Warmflash - December 4, 2014 (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/crux/2014/12/04/multidimensional-universe/#.VIKUYmeSzEB).
I feel like a kid with a new toy at the moment! At the end of this article is the basis for what future technology might develop into, and simply call, a time machine (it's intended to go into the past as well as the future).
This manuscript does seem to have been partly published before because, during its development, I've sometimes reused sentences and paragraphs from previous articles I've written and posted on http://vixra.org/author/rodney_bartlett. This version was submitted, under the title “Gravity, Extra Dimensions, Intergalactic and Time Travel”, to the journal “Foundations of Physics” at the start of the month and is still being considered by its chief editor, Nobel Physics Prize winner Gerardus (Gerard) 't Hooft.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[448] **viXra:1411.0584 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-28 06:56:33*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Our universe’s composition was established by 100 s after the big bang and remained constant for the next 13.8 billion years. Atomic/subatomic matter constituted 4.9%, dark matter 27%, and dark energy 68% of our university’s total energy/mass. Since the cosmological constant was proportional to dark energy density, as our universe expanded both dark energy density and the cosmological constant decreased with time. The cosmological constant problem existed because the Super Universe’s volume was E120 larger than our universe. Proof of the Super Universe’s parallel universes was via two advanced optical and gravitational observatory techniques.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[447] **viXra:1411.0582 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-10 01:40:34*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is shown how misleading is the Einstein propagating photon, which prevented the discovery of the matter-antimatter vibration. The gravitation - electricity symmetry is patent in the holographic two-step interaction scheme, illustrating Cosmical Immergence. This leads to a logical interpretation of the incredible non-Doppler oscillations, observed by Kotov in several quasars, which confirms Coherent Holographic Cosmology. The correct prediction of Eddington's Large Number for the number of atoms in the observable Universe (136 × 2^256) leads to a simple natural interpretation for dark matter : matter in quadrature oscillation. The Gabor holographic condition leads to the gravitational speed 2.46 × 1036 c and a graviton mass 3.69 × 10-67 kg.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[446] **viXra:1411.0581 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-12 14:33:37*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the gravitational constant depends on properties of the two-component spacetime i.e. on properties of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field and the luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime. More precisely, the gravitational constant depends on internal structure of neutrinos, inertial-mass density of the Higgs field and on dynamic viscosity and the infinitesimal spin of the tachyons the Higgs field consists of. According to SST, gravitational masses produce gradients in the Higgs field so value of inertial-mass density of the Higgs field inside the neutrino-antineutrino pairs the Einstein spacetime consists of, depends on steepness of gravitational gradients. It leads to conclusion that in experiments with steeper gravitational gradients, the gravitational constant should be lower. But such changes in gravitational constant are too low to be measured. SST shows that in expanding spacetime, value of the gravitational constant must decrease. The invariance of gravitational constant suggests that our Cosmos has boundary nontransparent for the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field - it is consistent with SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[445] **viXra:1411.0580 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-27 13:43:04*

**Authors:** Alejandro A. Torassa

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper presents an alternative classical mechanics which establishes the existence of a new universal force of interaction (called kinetic force) and which can be applied in any reference frame without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[444] **viXra:1411.0579 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-27 09:52:30*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In a previous paper we derived that if p, p+2 are twin-primes then
2^{p-2} is of the form (pz+y) where z, y must have unique solutions. We extend this result to derive a single criterion that we believe is novel that may be useful to screen for candidate twin primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[443] **viXra:1411.0578 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-27 07:38:16*

**Authors:** Madhur Mangalam, Nisarg Desai, Mew Singh

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A practical approach to understanding lateral asymmetries in body, brain, and cognition would be to examine the performance advantages/disadvantages associated with the corresponding functions and behavior. In the present study, we examined whether the division of labor in hand usage, marked by the preferential usage of the two hands across manual operations requiring maneuvering in three-dimensional space (e.g., reaching for food, grooming, and hitting an opponent) and those requiring physical strength (e.g., climbing), as described by Mangalam et al. [1], is associated with higher hand performance in free-ranging bonnet macaques, *Macaca radiata*. We determined the extent to which (a) the macaques exhibit laterality in hand usage in an experimental unimanual and a bimanual food-reaching task, and (b) manual laterality is associated with hand performance in an experimental hand-performance-differentiation task. We found strong negative relationships between (a) the performance of the preferred hand in the hand-performance-differentiation task (measured as the latency in food extraction; lower latency = higher performance), the preferred hand determined using the bimanual food-reaching task, and the normalized difference in the performance between the two hands (measured as the difference in the latency in food extraction between them normalized by the latency in food extraction using the preferred hand), and (b) the normalized difference in the performance between the two hands and the manual specialization (measured as the absolute difference in the laterality in hand usage between the unimanual and the bimanual food-reaching tasks; lesser difference = higher manual specialization). These observations demonstrate that the division of labor between the two hands is associated with higher hand performance.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[442] **viXra:1411.0577 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-27 07:41:38*

**Authors:** Madhur Mangalam, Nisarg Desai, Mewa Singh

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

A consequence of the ‘gold rush’ like hunch for human-like handedness in non-human primates has been that researchers have been continually analyzing observations at the level of the population, ignoring the analysis at the level of an individual and, consequently, have potentially missed revelations on the forms and functions of manual asymmetries. Recently, consecutive studies on manual asymmetries in bonnet macaques, *Macaca radiata* [Mangalam et al., 2014a; Mangalam et al., 2014b] revealed both the functional and the adaptive significance of manual asymmetries respectively, and pointed towards the division of labor as being the general principle underlying the observed hand-usage patterns. We review the studies on manual asymmetries in capuchin monkeys, *Cebus* spp. and argue that the observed hand-usage patterns might reflect specialization of the two hands for accomplishing tasks that require different dexterity types (i.e., maneuvering in three dimensional space or physical strength). To this end, we do a step-by-step analysis of the various tasks used in the studies on manual asymmetries in capuchin monkeys, wherein we: (a) analyze the different manual tasks that have been used to study manual asymmetries in non-human primates on the basis of the attributes such as the number of hands required to solve a given task (i.e., unimanual, pseudo unimanual, or bimanual) and the spatiotemporal progression of manual actions (i.e., sequential or concurrent). (b) Determine the forms and functions of manual asymmetries that these tasks can potentially elicit within the broader scope of the behavioral repertoire of an individual, a population, or a species. (c) Qualify the scope of the inter-individual, -population, or -species comparisons. We then describe the division of labor as a general principle underlying manual asymmetries in non-human primates, and propose experimental designs that would elaborate the forms and functions of manual asymmetries in non-human primates, and the associated adaptive value.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[441] **viXra:1411.0576 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-28 05:22:47*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 53 pages - A simplified physical approach using basic concepts leading to the exposure of the Special Relativity misconceptions. [v2] added paragraph under LT section.

Applying basic classical physics concepts of time and space, while considering event information is ultimately communicated through light—or electromagnetic—signals, it was shown that proper time interval measured in an inertial reference frame (labeled as traveling “object frame”) between two co-local events occurring at the frame origin undergoes apparent alteration and perceived as a “time image” in another inertial frame (labeled as stationary “image frame”), when the two frames are in relative motion. The same “time image” was perceived by either frame due to the change of the light speed relative to the reference frames. Under certain conditions of events spatial coordinates, it was shown through obtained modified Galilean transformations that “apparent” length contraction and expansion were associated with “apparent” time dilation and contraction, respectively. In the case the Emission Theory of light was considered, symmetry in regard to the time and space alteration factors between the frames was shown (i.e., time and space in the traveling “object frame” were perceived in the stationary “image frame” altered by the same factors as for the case when the frame “labels” were swapped). The known classical Doppler Effect was readily derived from the established alteration factors. For all classical approaches, and in the case of light, the wave length was invariant.
In the case the Special Relativity approach was considered, i.e. when the speed of light was assumed constant with respect to all inertial reference frames, inconsistent time “images” were perceived, so an ad hoc assumption was required, imposing an artificial transformation distorting the Emission Theory “time image” dimension by the inverse of the relativistic factor "gamma" leading to the Lorentz transformation, applicable under special conditions of the space coordinates in the direction of motion. Misconceptions in the Special Relativity interpretation of the Lorentz transformation were systematically revealed.
Time alteration was perceived as a dilated “image” for receding frames, and contracted for approaching ones. Self-contradiction in the Lorentz transformation was revealed in connection with the time contraction for approaching frames.
When the frames receded and then approached during equal proper time intervals, the net time interval was perceived as an “image” dilated by "gamma" for the Special Relativity approach, as opposed to "gamma^2" for the Light Emission theory. For the Ether Theory assumption, either time dilation or time invariance was obtained depending on whether the traveling “object frame” was taken to be the ether frame.
The “inverse” transformation was shown to be different from the “opposite” transformation in the way that the former had “image” arguments—returning “object” entities—whereas the latter had “object” arguments in the swapped frame “labels” scenario. Furthermore, they have opposite coordinate domains in the motion direction, although they exhibited the same form; “symmetry” misconceptions were revealed.
The known relativistic Doppler Effect was readily derived. For the case of light, the perceived frequency exhibiting a blue shift (frequency increase) in the case of approaching frames, was in line with the established time contraction in this study, contradicting the Special Relativity prediction of time dilation irrespective of whether the frames were receding or approaching. In addition, the wavelength exhibited an increase in the case of receding frames, whereas it decreased when the source was approaching.
Available experimental data related to [apparent] time dilations, Doppler Effect, and non-existence of preferred reference frame for light propagation (Michelson-Morley experiment) could then be analyzed vis-à-vis the classical theories in terms of apparent time and space transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[440] **viXra:1411.0574 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 16:13:06*

**Authors:** Karl Birjukov

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In removing the flaws inherent in the local equivalence principle, and subsequently re-forming it, it is inevitable that how the macrocosm is viewed is changed completely, to the extent that the boundaries of science itself become suspect as they produce reifications in its ultimate forms that most probably have no real existence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[439] **viXra:1411.0573 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-05 18:06:45*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A numeric formula for the masses of composite particles made of three quarks (baryons) is
presented. The relationship, which uses “allowed” quantum numbers, predicts the masses of 16 baryons (including 2 baryon resonances) and one lepton: the tau particle, with an accuracy of, at least, 3 decimal places. The maximum accuracy of the formula is 7 decimal places and corresponds to the two new Ξb- baryon resonances recorded by the LHCb experiment at CERN. The relationship presented in this paper suggests the existence of a general formula for the mass of all known particles, which is yet, to be discovered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[438] **viXra:1411.0572 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-19 05:52:55*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put the new mechanism and a new method of spent fuel reprocessing

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[437] **viXra:1411.0571 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-27 03:35:47*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I define few formulas which conduct from any odd prime respectively from any pair of distinct odd primes to an infinity of probably infinite sequences of primes, also to such sequences of a certain kind of semiprimes, and I also make a generalization of a Cunningham chain of primes of the first kind, respectively of the second kind.

**Category:** Number Theory

[436] **viXra:1411.0570 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 12:42:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Researchers have studied electron-positron (e+e-) collisions for interactions that produce a normal photon γ and a dark photon A′ that interacts with ordinary matter particles. The dark photon can potentially decay into an e+e- pair (shown here) or a μ+μ- pair (not shown). However, the latest results from the BaBar collaboration offer no sign of dark photons, thus placing new limits on these types of models. [13]
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[435] **viXra:1411.0569 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 09:36:47*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that there exist an infinity of primes of the form N/3^m, where m is positive integer and N is the number formed concatenating to the left a Carmichael number with the number 584. Such primes are 649081 = 5841729/3^2, 1947607 = 5842821/3, 1948867 = 5846601/3 etc. I also make few comments about a certain kind of semiprimes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[434] **viXra:1411.0568 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 10:27:34*

**Authors:** R. Wayte.

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A process is described for producing regular nuclear fusion at room temperature by compressing a deuteride mixed with catalytic material. The reaction is explosive beyond any possible chemical reaction for these materials. An attempt at explaining the nuclear processes in terms of soft X-ray emission has been made by deriving models of a deuteron and alpha-particle. Future development for commercial energy production is discussed.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[433] **viXra:1411.0567 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-08 17:10:17*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 27 pages, Français & English, web site: http://phrenocarpe.org/cgi-bin/zhp/fra/0_0_couverture.pl,

Nous posons l’hypothèse fondamentale que toute radiation électromagnétique se transforme progressivement, évoluant vers et atteignant après une distance appropriée la valeur de la radiation cosmique résiduelle soit une longueur d’onde de 1,873 mm. Ainsi nous expliquons le décalage vers le rouge Z de la radiation provenant des galaxies éloignées moyennant les équations classiques de Maxwell et le principe quantique de l’énergie des photons. La loi de Hubble émerge tout naturellement comme conséquence de cette transformation. Suivant cette hypothèse, nous évaluons la constante Ho (84,3 Km/s/Mpc ) en utilisant les données fournies par le satellite Pioneer tout en expliquant l’anomalie de comportement attribuée à ce satellite. Cette hypothèse se confirme de même par la résolution de quelques situations inexpliquées par la cosmologie actuelle. Nous poursuivons en présentant l’expression modifiée du module de distance et discutons de la distance limite d’observation des phénomènes cosmologiques.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[432] **viXra:1411.0566 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-27 21:14:29*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages. First draft.

This informal report surveys several lesser-known limitations of Wilson’s Renormalization Group program. The account is not intended to be either rigorous or complete as our sole purpose is to stimulate further discussions and research.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[431] **viXra:1411.0565 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-28 15:45:49*

**Authors:** Manuel Abarca Hernandez

**Comments:** 43 Pages. The fourth version - It is the best.

The idea of the model is quite simple:
The physical vacuum is a quantum system with a minimum energy when it is in his ground state. When the space has a gravitational field the space state increase his energy levels and the mass of the space begin to increase as well. The mass of the space would be the dark matter (D.M.).
Model refers to the same conception about ‘vacuum’ as the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), which consider the space full of virtual electrons and virtual positrons.
Therefore it is easy to think that there are virtual particles which feel the gravitational forces named virtual gravitons. It is logical to think that the gravitational field excites the vacuum states in a way that “the vacuum would be heavier, the more intense gravitational field”. The hypothesis of this DM model is that virtual gravitons are Dark Matter.
The paper is organised in nine parts:
The first one shows graphs about measures of spin speed stars on Andromeda galaxy and Milky Way.
The second one shows a simple mathematical model for flat galactic disks. Also it is got the density formula
The third one studies the NFW model (Navarro, Frenk & White. 1996) for Dark Matter in bulge, disk and halo on galaxies.
The fourth one explains the model theoretically in a simple way because in my opinion the ultimate theory of DM will be explain by the Quantum Gravity, which there is not exist yet.
In the fifth one it is proved mathematically there is a function which connects density with gravitational field.
The sixth one explains some consequences of Dark Matter Model on galactic haloes, such as
radius and spherical or elliptical shape.
In the seventh, the Dark Matter model is extended to galactic clusters. Through the model it is justified cluster haloes in a similar way to galactic haloes. Also it is explained the Virial method and gravitational lensing method to measure cluster masses in order to check the model predictions.
In the eighth it is shows that there is coherence between DM model and experimental evidences known about DM in Bullet Cluster and other clusters.
The ninth one proposes seven experimental tests to check the model through astronomical measures.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[430] **viXra:1411.0564 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 08:21:09*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 117 Pages. §23 Curvatura do Espaço e Tempo

Resumo
A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[429] **viXra:1411.0562 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 05:08:12*

**Authors:** Paul August Winter, Carol Lynne Jessop, Costas Zachariades

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Much research has involved the consideration of graphs which have sub-graphs of a particular kind, such as cliques. Known classes of graphs which are eigen-bi-balanced, i.e. they have a pair a,b of non-zero distinct eigenvalues, whose sum and product are integral, have been investigated. In this paper we will define ta new class of graphs, called q-cliqued graphs, on vertices, which contain q cliques each of order q connected to a central vertex, and then prove that these q-cliqued graphs are eigen-bi-balanced with respect to a conjugate pair whose sum is -1 and product 1-q. These graphs can be regarded as design graphs, and we use a specific example in an entomological experiment.
AMS Classification: 05C50
Key words: cliques, eigen-bi-balanced graphs, conjugate pair, designs.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[428] **viXra:1411.0561 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-25 12:26:52*

**Authors:** Allen Graycek

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: Results of research so far indicate that convection currents likely do not play a major role in continental drift. [1] However, it is known that moon and sun tidal forces are sufficient to distort the shape of the planet and likely is the energy source for continental drift in the form of tidal forces. This concept outlines those tidal forces at work on the ocean’s ridges, such as the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Magma entering fissures plus flexure at the ocean’s ridges mechanically generates sufficient movement to force the crust plates away from the ridges.

**Category:** Geophysics

[427] **viXra:1411.0560 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-25 09:47:20*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We consider (strong uniform) continuity of the
limit of a pointwise convergent net of lattice
group-valued functions, (strong weak)
exhaustiveness and (strong)
alpha-convergence with respect to a pair
of filters, which in the setting of nets are
more natural than the corresponding notions
formulated with respect to a single filter. Some
comparison results are given between such concepts, in connection with suitable properties of filters. Moreover, some modes of filter
(strong uniform) continuity for lattice
group-valued functions are investigated, giving
some characterization. As an application, we get
some Ascoli-type theorem in an abstract setting,
extending earlier results to the context of filter
alpha-convergence.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[426] **viXra:1411.0559 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-24 13:36:22*

**Authors:** Mark R. Brenneman

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Txn1 is a pleiotropic cellular causative gene factor which has numerous functions. Here the following reaction is the possible mechanisms of the thioredoxin-catalyzed reduction and re-oxidation of its characteristic cystine residues.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[425] **viXra:1411.0558 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-24 14:08:40*

**Authors:** Mark R. Brenneman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Catalase protects the cell from oxidative damage by the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation systems, those peroxisomal enzymes that breaks down hydrogen peroxide after H(2)O(2) exposure, and thereby mitigates* (some contradictory* results) the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[424] **viXra:1411.0557 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-24 09:25:14*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

This publication is a presentation, made by the author at CityTech College of New York in October 2014.
The Presentation reveals some specific features of the Field Gyroscope (FG) -the phenomenon of a localized spinning electromagnetic field. As any spinning object, this field produces another profound phenomenon of Physics- Torsion Fields.
The Presentation considers analytic relations between parameters of FG. In particular, it shows origination a torque of FG. FG phenomenon can be both dangerous and useful for the Mankind, depending on its manifestations. In particular, it can negatively affect blood vessels and manifests itself in Geo-Pathogenic zones and, on the other hand, can be used for a new type of telecommunication.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[423] **viXra:1411.0556 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-08 07:29:04*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The formidable problem with double-slit experiments is: if electrons and photons exhibit wave properties (seen as interference patterns), then what is waving? What is the medium for transmission of ‘electron waves’? Such a medium has been disproved experimentally, in the case of the photon, and not even conceivable for the electron. Erwin Schrodinger was on the right track with his view of the electron as a ‘smeared’ object, rather than as a point particle. Then how is a wave possible without a medium? How can a wave property and a particle property co-exist in a single physical entity (wave- particle duality)? Nature uses a simple and subtle trick : the average electron mass density at a given region of space is directly proportional to the root mean square (RMS) intensity of oscillation (velocity) of the electron (the electron wave) in that region. The instantaneous mass density of the electron at a given point is directly proportional to the instantaneous magnitude of vibrational velocity of the electron at that point. The average photon energy density in a given region of space is directly proportional to the root mean square of rate of change of the electric and magnetic fields in that region. The instantaneous energy density of the photon at a given point of space and time is directly proportional to the magnitude of rate of change of the electric and magnetic fields at that point. The rate of change of electric and magnetic fields in turn depends on the frequency, amplitude and phase of the wave. The electron mass and photon energy will always be concentrated at regions of high wave amplitude. This means that the electron and the photon are dragged by their respective waves. The new theory provides a hint on the mystery behind Planck’s relation: E=h.f. Higher frequency photons have higher energy than lower frequency photons just because higher frequency photons also have higher amplitudes of electric and magnetic field oscillations. If we assume that ordinary waves also have the same fundamental properties as electron waves, then we may be able to explain the lack of backward propagation in Huygens’ principle. We may be able to explain why the bouncing oil droplet in the Couder-Fort oil bath experiment starts to go in the direction of the wave propagation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[422] **viXra:1411.0554 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-24 12:11:31*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. none

In many publications and web forum discussions the claims are constantly being made that in order for the orbits of planets around the Sun to be stable the gravity must propagate at much higher speeds than the speed of light c. In this paper it is shown on a simple and extreme example of two stars orbiting around each other in a circular orbit that this is not the case and that the assumption about the necessity for the large speed of gravity is unfounded. The explanation is based on the recognition that the Newton gravitational force has two components that are not necessarily collinear. This new fundamental finding is supported by modeling the field by gravitons that mediate the force of the field. This model finally leads to the generalization of Newton gravitational law that correctly accounts for the finite speed of gravity. From this result it is also found that the gravitational aberration angle is identical with the aberration angle of light, but is aiming in the opposite direction, lagging behind the source of the gravitational attraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[421] **viXra:1411.0553 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-24 07:39:42*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a recent paper, it is asserted that the wave equation for the light in the vacuum cannot be used in the special relativity. However, it might be refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[420] **viXra:1411.0552 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-23 17:34:38*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[419] **viXra:1411.0551 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-11 14:31:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The gauge invariance of equations follows from constancy of charges. There appear arbitrary functions so to obtain quantized values we must apply approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The second messy mathematical method applied in physics follows from the wrong assumption that the bare particles are sizeless and that there are in existence interactions with infinite range (it follows from the massless carriers of interactions). In such method, to obtain theoretical results consistent with experimental data, there must appear the mathematical indeterminate forms so they are incoherent as well. Such messy method cannot be eliminated via vibrating flexible strings, as it is in the M/string theory, because such assumption cannot lead to constancy of physical constants. What we should do to eliminate the arbitrary functions, sizeless bare particles, infinite ranges of forces and flexible strings? What is the difference between microscopic and macroscopic times? We show that some extension to the General Relativity is the answer to these questions. The quantum entanglement and locally broken symmetries cause that Nature on higher and higher levels becomes more and more complex.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[418] **viXra:1411.0549 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-05 02:30:28*

**Authors:** Algirdas Antano Maknickas

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Still now there are no theoretical background for explanation of physical phenomena of `spooky action at a distance' as a quantum superposition of quantum particles. Several experiments shows that speed of this phenomena is at least four orders of magnitude of light speed in vacuum. The classical electromagnetic field theory is based on similarity to the classic dynamic of solid continuum media. The today's experimental data of spin of photon is not reflected reasonable manner in Maxwell's equations of EM. So, new proposed micropolar extensions of electromagnetic field equations cloud explain observed rotational speed of electromagnetic field, which experimentally exceed speed of light at least in four order of magnitude.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[417] **viXra:1411.0548 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-23 10:10:13*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 9 pages.

I proved some infinity series power and integral representations for error function
and relations for special functions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[416] **viXra:1411.0547 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-23 08:12:20*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 23 Pages, 38 Figures, 16 Tables

Usually earth energies diverge or associated subtle energy lines meander over the Earth’s surface. This paper explores the structure of those mind detected subtle energies that have a cylindrical envelope and possess special properties that keep their 3-dimensional field boundaries parallel and prevent them from diverging. The findings include a complex structure of fractal geometry involving different subtle energy types, together with a newly discovered subtle energy that forms a web pattern providing the “cross bracing” that keeps columnar vortices parallel and stable over long distances and time. Another surprising finding is that the structure of columnar vortices, emanating from sun spots, is identical to the structure of mind created Psi-lines. A conclusion is that the mind is detecting universal laws of physics together with universal constants and ratios. This phenomenon is not just a figment of the imagination, but requires further scientific investigation.
Key Words
Mind, noetics, dowsing, vortices, subtle energies, psi-lines, fractal geometry, structure

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[415] **viXra:1411.0545 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-22 21:46:43*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that from any two odd primes p1 and p2 can be obtained, through an iterative and very simple operation, a prime p3 larger than p1 and also larger than p2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[414] **viXra:1411.0544 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-23 02:35:37*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The evidence from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN announced 4 July 2012; suggest, at the very least, some interesting equations, standard model architecture, and a possible "heavier charged Higgs-like".

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[413] **viXra:1411.0542 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-22 13:23:00*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Westenberger

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Two foreign civilisations ask for help on behalf of astrophysical problems. The most urgent problem is called “the missing mass problem“. We should be able to help them.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[412] **viXra:1411.0541 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-22 13:30:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter’s deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron’s army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[411] **viXra:1411.0540 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-22 12:05:36*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A formula for the mass of the electron is obtained postulating that the ratio between the mass of the electron to the mass of the muon equals the ratio between the mass of the down quark to the mass of the charm quark. The values of the quark masses used in this formula fall into the experimental limits published by reference [1].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[410] **viXra:1411.0539 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-22 08:38:35*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Formula to generate all Pythagorean Triple

**Category:** Number Theory

[409] **viXra:1411.0537 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-22 04:45:28*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Pythagorean Triple Formulas

**Category:** Number Theory

[408] **viXra:1411.0536 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-22 05:58:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The universe was born in the Big Bang some 13.8 billion years ago. In its earliest epochs, it was filled with a hot 'soup' of charged protons and electrons. As the newborn universe expanded, its temperature decreased uniformly. When the universe was 400,000 years old, conditions were cool enough to allow the protons and electrons to bond and form neutral hydrogen atoms. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[407] **viXra:1411.0535 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 10:34:49*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English and russian texts

It has been found that magnetic field around a current conductor is induced by the motion of electrical charge carriers own magnetic fields rather than by the motion of electrical charges itself. There has been the generation mechanism of Lorentz forces applied to electrons moving across the external magnetic field lines identified. It has been found that electrons and neutrons have tornadic ethereal structures which stability is due to magnetic interactions.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[406] **viXra:1411.0534 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-11 14:27:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Some extension of the General Relativity leads to the superluminal nontransparent infinitesimal pieces of space (plenums/tachyons). Due to their dynamic viscosity, in the infinite cosmos can appear big pieces of space composed of smaller ones. Due to collisions of very big pieces of space, there can appear cosmoses with stable boundary. Inside some of them can appear universes. Here, we discuss the possibility that in our Cosmos, our Universe is the one and only. Knowing the radius of the boundary, we can calculate the period of the oscillations of our Universe. We show also that the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our Universe follows from the transitions of the electron-positron pairs into the electron-proton pairs in a vortex with left-handed internal helicity produced in the Einstein spacetime.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[405] **viXra:1411.0533 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 11:33:37*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 15 Pages. From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation,

Relationship Lorentz derived from the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge. To derive it we do not need Lorentz's transformations equations, that is we do not need SPACE-TIME.
We do not need local time, or covariant equations or physical simultaneity definition or invariant interval From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation, fictional by Maxwell and not to be derived.Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: in direction of motion as own kinetic energy of charge and against direction of motion of charge represents the wave energy, which creates charge in transmision medium.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[404] **viXra:1411.0532 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 11:25:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Sometimes, you can picture something so vividly in your head that it feels as though you’re actually looking at what you’re imagining. But no matter how good your imagination is, information will flow through your brain in the opposite direction compared to when you actually perceive something. That’s the conclusion of a new study, published in NeuroImage, which looked at brain activity in participants when they were either watching clips or recalling them in their heads. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[403] **viXra:1411.0531 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 11:46:11*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values.

The main differences between incompetent Einstein's theory[1] and the latest knowledge[2]are:
1.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is asymmetrical,
2. Form of the interference field is non-linear,
3. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values:
Kinetic energy of electron , (proton)
Tkin id =mc2 [ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c) / (1-v/c) ] in direction of motion of electron, (proton)
where v is velocity of electron, (proton).
Kinetic energy of electron , (proton)
Tkin ad = mc2 [ln |1+v/c|- (v/c) / (1+v/c) ] against direction of motion of electron, (proton)
where v is velocity of electron, (proton).
These are the main differences between incompetent Einstein's theory and the latest knowledge.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[402] **viXra:1411.0530 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 12:08:28*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values

Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values:
Kinetic energy of electron , (proton)
Tkin id =mc2 [ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c) / (1-v/c) ] in direction of motion of electron, (proton) as particle,
where v is velocity of electron, (proton).
Kinetic energy of electron , (proton)
Tkin ad = mc2 [ln |1+v/c|- (v/c) / (1+v/c) ] against direction of motion of electron, (proton) as wave,
where v is velocity of electron, (proton).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[401] **viXra:1411.0529 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 07:00:54*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, Ilanthenral K.

**Comments:** 242 Pages.

In this book the authors for the first time have ventured to study, analyse and investigate fuzzy and neutrosophic models and the experts opinion. To make such a study, innovative techniques and defined and developed. Several important conclusions about these models are derived using these new techniques. Open problems are suggested in this book.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[400] **viXra:1411.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 07:02:15*

**Authors:** Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, Ilanthenral K.

**Comments:** 275 Pages.

In this book the authors for the first time have merged vertices and edges of lattices to get a new structure which may or may not be a lattice but is always a graph. This merging is done for graph too which will be used in the merging of fuzzy models. Further merging of graphs leads to the merging of matrices; both these concepts play a vital role in merging the fuzzy and neutrosophic models.
Several open conjectures are suggested.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[399] **viXra:1411.0527 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:48:23*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Clustering plays an important role in data mining, pattern recognition, and machine learning.
Then, single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) are a useful means to describe and handle indeterminate and inconsistent information, which fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets cannot describe and deal with. To cluster the data represented by single-value neutrosophic information, the article proposes a
single-valued neutrosophic minimum spanning tree (SVNMST) clustering algorithm. Firstly, we defined
a generalized distance measure between SVNSs. Then, we present an SVNMST clustering algorithm for clustering single-value neutrosophic data based on the generalized distance measure of SVNSs. Finally,two illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed approach.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[398] **viXra:1411.0526 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:54:48*

**Authors:** Michal Kolcun, Sebastian Kot, Iwona Grabara

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Tourism marketing has developed a semiotic tourism language to promote and introduce touristic destinations, a language that is sometimes even called touristic language, and which uses signs and images to define destinations or describe the expectations that we may have in various touristic locations. The correct use of the signs and the markers by the tourism industry may represent the difference between a dreamlike holiday and a touristic nightmare, when there’s no account of regional characteristics, social or cultural, of the chosen target segment.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[397] **viXra:1411.0523 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-26 08:21:00*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The very unusual symbolic aspects of Nonstandard Analysis are discussed. Most formal constructions are not presented. The definitions, interrelations and symbolic manipulations of six distinct NSA symbolic languages are presented. Examples are given for these interrelations and symbolic manipulations. These symbolic forms are interpreted theologically relative to the characterizing of Divine attributes and relative to the intelligent design of a General Grand Unification Model produced physical universe. The predicted theological conclusions are summarized by the numbered statements in Sections 5 and 6 of this article. This article is intended to present the necessary material that should make these statements fully comprehensible.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[396] **viXra:1411.0522 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:58:18*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

STRACT
Currently, the image of a company, its corporate identity and culture have become of fundamental importance. Involvement in the community is necessary for a company that wants to ensure not only commercial success but also the respect in which society operates. Donations, sponsorship and corporate social responsibility are forms that companies can interact with the community in which it operates. The difference between a company's social responsibility and philanthropy is that the former involves the development of a strategy for community involvement and partnerships in which the company has in turn gain, while in the case of philanthropy, NGO strategy is oriented towards solving the problems of beneficiaries. Corporate Social Responsibility is a concept increasingly more present in Romanian business society.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[395] **viXra:1411.0521 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:59:40*

**Authors:** Yun Ye

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a powerful general formal
framework, which generalizes the concept of the classic set, fuzzy set, interval valued fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set, and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set from philosophical point of view. However, it will
be difficult to apply in real science and engineering areas, while a simplified neutrosophic set (SNS) is a subclass of a neutrosophic set and includes the concepts
of a single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS) and
an interval neutrosophic set (INS), which can be used in real science and engineering applications with the incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information which exists commonly in real situations.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[394] **viXra:1411.0520 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 04:04:35*

**Authors:** Cerasela Vintilescu

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The study examines the touristic potential of South-West Oltenia region. It proves that on territorial profile, the South-West Oltenia region might substitute for the problems of development of the National economy, through a good touristic capitalization. Natural touristic resources, being inexhaustible and uniformly distributed in the territory, become the defining elements of the analyzed geographical space. Their role can be maintained in superior parameters, having a polarizing effect of the territorial organization phase.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[393] **viXra:1411.0519 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 04:05:40*

**Authors:** T. Bharathi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we analyzed the impact of Right to Information Act among public people using
Neutrosophic Cognitive Map (NCM) which is the generalization of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs).
This paper has five sections. First section gives the information about the development of FCM and
NCM. Second section gives the preliminaries of FCM’s, NCM’s and methods of determining the
hidden pattern of NCM’s. In section three, we give the description of the social issues regarding the non-awareness and impact of RTI. Section four gives adaption of NCM’s to the problem and the final section gives the conclusion based on our study.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[392] **viXra:1411.0518 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 04:06:52*

**Authors:** A.Rajkuma, A.Victor Devadoss

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Our main objective of this paper is to the studying at length the various reasons for miracles with incidents from the Holy Bible adopting the new fuzzy tool called Triangular Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps to analyze the social problem. Usually in NCM we analyze the measure not only the existence of causal relation between concepts or the absence of causal relations between two concepts but also gives representation to the indeterminacy of relations between any two concepts.. But this new model gives ranking for the causes and indeterminacy of relations between any two concepts of the problem. The presence study deals studying at length the various reasons for miracles with incidents from the Holy Bible using Triangular Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (TrNCMs). This paper consist five sections. In first section, we give the brief introduction to Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps, Section two gives the basic definitions of TrNCM. In Section three, we presented hidden pattern of the Triangular Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (TrNCMs) dynamical system. In Fourth section we analyzed the concept of the problem using Triangular Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (TrNCMs). In Final section we give the conclusion based on our study.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[391] **viXra:1411.0517 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 04:13:41*

**Authors:** L. Arockiarani, I.R. Sumathi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The paper proposes the notion of interval valued neutrosophis soft sets and some of its operation are defined.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[390] **viXra:1411.0516 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 04:15:03*

**Authors:** Paula Bajdor, Iwona Grabara

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Being aware of the role that an information system in the company plays and its impact on individual processes, this article presents an information system used in the selected company. The first part discusses the essence of an information system, while in the second part of the article all the processes occurring in the studied company have been described, together with the information accompanying them.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[389] **viXra:1411.0515 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 04:16:17*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Yanchang Chu, Yanwei Li, Yubao Chen

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The neutrosophic set (NS) can be better to express
the incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information,and Hamacher aggregation operators extended the Algebraic and Einstein aggregation operators and the generalized aggregation operators
can generalize the arithmetic, geometric, and quadratic aggregation operators.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[388] **viXra:1411.0514 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-22 11:50:48*

**Authors:** Piero BENAZZO

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published in Tidningen Kulturen on 25 March 2013

In 1943 in Bengal, inequality together with the inelasticity of supply led to an increase of entitlements for some citizens that generated inflation in the subsistence sector and decreased entitlements for others. These latter experienced tragic famine. This shows that distribution matters. A subdivision of the economy between subsistence sector and wealth sector brings such arguments in the whole economy. The analysis specifies aggregates of variables and conditions whereby these dynamics currently remain hidden behind aggregation. For example, a decoupling between demand side, which originates locally, and supply side, which may be delocalised, shuffles rankings hiding dynamics. Increase in inequality would generate an inequality trap inflating the subsistence sector in relation to the wealth sector, generating recession in this latter. This would eventually overtake increasing efficiency. Some policy options are discussed.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[387] **viXra:1411.0513 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 01:45:59*

**Authors:** Xin-de Li, Jin-dong Pan, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new method for solving
the Automatic Aircraft Recognition (AAR) problem from a sequence of images of an unknown observed aircraft. Our method exploits the knowledge extracted from a training image data set
(a set of binary images of different aircrafts observed under three different poses) with the fusion of information of multiple features
drawn from the image sequence using Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) coupled with Hidden Markov Models (HMM).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[386] **viXra:1411.0512 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 01:47:42*

**Authors:** Luige Vladareanu, Alexandru Gal, Hongnian Yu, Mincong Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper presents an innovative algorithm for improvement of the walking robot dynamic stability, using the Desert Smarandache Theory (DSmT) and the neutrosophic logic set. Starting from the hybrid force-position control, by applying the Robot Neutrosophic Control (RNC) method we extend the fuzzy control for walking robot stability motion on uneven terrain and in unstructured environments. Results analysis through virtual experimentation for motion control of a mobile walking robot proves that the neutrosophic logic leads to performance improvement of real time control through robustness, adaptation to robot's environment, efficient control and fast and clear identification of robot states.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[385] **viXra:1411.0511 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 01:49:12*

**Authors:** Shobha Jose

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Feature extraction is an important part in Content-based image retrieval (CBIR).It is an active research area over the past
few decades. In this paper texture feature extraction of mammogram images are done. Biorthogonal wavelet filter via lifting scheme is
used for the extraction of texture features. Maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) is used for texture feature estimation. Here Digital
Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) is used as the database. Here biorthogonal wavelets are used in the lifting scheme to get texture feature vectors of mammogram images. By using lifting scheme in all biorthogonal wavelets, predict and update filter coefficients are also got. These coefficients will be adapted later and thus we can find the optimal wavelet filter bank for increasing the retrieval performance of the retrieval system. By using lifting scheme methodology decomposition of images are done and thus got approximation and detail coefficients of image.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[384] **viXra:1411.0510 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 01:51:51*

**Authors:** Erik Blasch, Audun Jøsang, Jean Dezert, Paulo C. G. Costa, Anne-Laure Jousselme

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Uncertainty Representation and Reasoning
Evaluation Framework (URREF) includes an ontology that represents concepts and criteria needed to evaluate the uncertainty management aspects of a fusion system. The URREF ontology defines
self-confidence as a measure of the information credibility as evaluated by the sensor itself. The concept of confidence, which is not
explicitly defined in the ontology at URREF, has been extensively explored in the literature about evaluation in information fusion systems (IFS). In this paper, we provide a discussion on confidence as it relates to the evaluation of IFS, and compare it with the existing concepts in the URREF ontology.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[383] **viXra:1411.0509 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 01:54:47*

**Authors:** Ulrich E. Bruchholz

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Numerical simulations of elementary gravitation and electromagnetic elds are done with an amazingly simple algorithm. But this algorithm renders nature correctly. As well, the material world is revealed to be completely Riemannian-geometrical without exception. Mathematics is based on the Geometric theorie of elds, which refers to Einstein and Rainich. The correctness of the theory is manifested in it that known particles appear as discrete solutions of geometric eld equations. The results involve new understanding of mathematical principles.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[382] **viXra:1411.0508 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 01:56:22*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Clustering plays an important role in data mining, pattern recognition, and machine learning. Singlevalued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) are useful means to describe and handle indeterminate and inconsistent information that fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets cannot describe and deal with. To cluster the data represented by single-valued neutrosophic information, this article proposes single-valued neutrosophic clustering methods based on similarity measures between SVNSs. First, we define a generalized distance measure between
SVNSs and propose two distance-based similarity measures of SVNSs. Then, we present a clustering algorithm based on the similarity measures of SVNSs to cluster single-valued neutrosophic data. Finally, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed clustering methods.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[381] **viXra:1411.0507 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 01:58:19*

**Authors:** Shuo-Tsung Chen, Tzung-Dau Wang, Wen-Jeng Lee, Tsai-Wei Huang, Pei-Kai Hung, Cheng-Yu Wei, Chung-Ming Chen, Woon-Man Kung

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries using computed tomography angiography (CTA) data sets to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[380] **viXra:1411.0506 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 02:01:13*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Abdelfattah, H. A. El-Ghareeb, A. M. Manie

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

It is of great interest to develop a framework containing a library of the main building blocks of common use to neutrosophic data. This framework would save much of the routine work that is needed to build most types of neutrosophic data. In this paper, we would like to introduce model neutrosophic data sets. The use of object oriented programming techniques and concepts as they may apply to the design and development a new framework to implement neutrosophic data operations.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[379] **viXra:1411.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 02:03:22*

**Authors:** Jozef Novak-Marcincin, Daniela Gîfu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache is known as scientist and writer. He writes in three languages: Romanian, French, and English. He graduated the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at the University of Craiova in 1979 first of his class, earned a Ph. D. in Mathematics from the State University Moldova at Kishinev in 1997, and continued postdoctoral studies at various American Universities such as University of Texas at Austin, University of Phoenix, etc. after emigration.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[378] **viXra:1411.0503 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 02:06:13*

**Authors:** I.m. Hanafy, A. A. Salama, O. M. Khaled, K. M. Mahfouz

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concepts of correlation and correlation coefficient of neutrosophic data in probability spaces. In the case of finite spaces, these results give the results due to Salama et al. [16, 17, 18] and study some of their properties.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[377] **viXra:1411.0502 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 02:23:43*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Dan Ionescu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Neutrosophic emergences and incidences in communication and information, published in Germany/Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing in 2013, is a book that constitutes a new trend, a new approach in the science of logic, philosophy, communication theory, information, an approached and exemplification that it was wanted, it was intuited, it was expected but it has no mathematical foundation, that is neutrosophy. It is a book that presents avant-garde information. It is written by two appreciated researchers and inexhaustible perpetual idea machines: Professors Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu. First of them is professor of mathematics at University of New Mexico/ USA, the second is professor of communication theory at University of Craiova/ Romania. Both of them have published a lot of books and papers in domain of philosophy, communication, sociology, psychology, mathematics and literature. Logic started in Ancient with Classical Logic of Aristotle, developed and covered by Three Valued Logic of Lukasiewicz, next ring being Fuzzy Logic of Zadech, finally the comprehensive Neutrosophic Logic of Smarandache.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[376] **viXra:1411.0501 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-16 08:36:14*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

put the causes and mechanism for unstable atomic nucleus has radioactivity

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[375] **viXra:1411.0500 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:01:09*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Considering corresponding credibility on every evaluation value of interval neutrosophic
numbers (INNs) in interval neutrosophic decision making, we put forward two interval neutrosophic
weighted aggregation operators considering credibility, including a credibility-induced interval neutrosophic weighted arithmetic averaging (CIINWAA) operator and a credibility-induced interval neutrosophic weighted geometric averaging (CIINWGA) operator, and investigate their properties. Based on the Dice similarity measure, we introduce a ranking method for INNs, and then establish a decision-making method based on the CIINWAA and CIINWGA operators and the ranking method to handle multiple attribute decision-making problems with interval neutrosophic information and credibility information. Finally, an illustrative example of investment alternatives and the comparative analysis are provided to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed
approach.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[374] **viXra:1411.0499 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:02:37*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Naim Cagman

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this paper, the notion of the interval valued neutrosophic soft sets (ivn−soft sets) is defined which is a combination of an interval valued
neutrosophic sets [36] and a soft sets [30]. Our ivn−soft sets generalizes the concept of the soft set, fuzzy soft set, interval valued fuzzy soft set, intuitionistic fuzzy soft set, interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set and
neutrosophic soft set. Then, we introduce some definitions and operations on ivn−soft sets sets. Some properties of ivn−soft sets which are con-
nected to operations have been established. Also, the aim of this paper is to investigate the decision making based on ivn−soft sets by level soft sets. Therefore, we develop a decision making methods and then give a example to illustrate the developed approach.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[373] **viXra:1411.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:04:09*

**Authors:** Kalyan MONDAL, Surapati PRAMANIK

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper presents quality Clay-Brick selection process based on intuitionistic fuzzy
multi criteria group decision making through grey relational analysis. Brick plays an important
role in construction field. Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging operator is used to aggregate
individual opinions of decision makers into a group opinion. Six criteria are considered for
selection process and the criteria are obtained from expert opinions. The criteria are namely
solidity, color, size and shape, strength of Brick, cost of Bricks and carrying cost. Weights of the criteria are obtained from domain experts by using a questionnaire. The rating of an
alternative with respect to certain criterion offered by decision maker is represented by
linguistic variable that can be expressed by intuitionistic fuzzy sets. An intuitionistic fuzzy set, which is characterized by membership function (degree of acceptance), non-membership
function (degree of rejection) and the degree of indeterminacy or the degree of hesitancy, is a
more general and suitable way to deal with imprecise information. Grey relational analysis is
used for ranking and selection of alternatives. An illustrative numerical example for quality
Brick selection is solved to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[372] **viXra:1411.0497 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:08:13*

**Authors:** Monoranjan Bhowmik, Madhumangal Pal

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, we define intuitionistic neutrosophic set (INSs) and truth-value based INSs. In fact, all INSs are neutrosophic set but all neutrosophic sets are not INSs. We define some new operations on INSs with examples for the implementation of the operations in real life problems. Also, we studied some properties of INSs.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[371] **viXra:1411.0496 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:09:28*

**Authors:** Monoranjan Bhowmik, Madhumangal Pal

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we define intuitionistic neutrosophic set (INSs). In fact, all INSs are neutrosophic set but all neutrosophic sets are not INSs. We have shown by means of example that the definition for neutrosophic sets the complement and union are not true for INSs also give new definition of complement, union and intersection of INSs. We define the relation of INSs and four special type of INSs relations. Finally
we have studied some properties of INSs relations.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[370] **viXra:1411.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:11:09*

**Authors:** Alina Ţenescu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, we will analyze the concept of lean manufacturing, starting from the example illustrated by TPS (Toyota Production System) which is renowned for its focus on the reduction of the original Toyota seven waists in order to improve overall customer value, in spite of the existence of varying perspectives on how this is best achieved. The steady growth of Toyota, from a small company to the world’s largest automaker (Bailey, 2008) has focused its attention on how it has achieved this success. It is a starting template that was also developed by other automotive makers, and not only. We will also identify the main elements of lean philosophy and propose a typology of the fundamental concepts of lean, using data analysis from research findings across studies on lean manufacturing and lean production published in the past two decades.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[369] **viXra:1411.0492 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:29:45*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

On the basis of the combination of single-valued neutrosophic sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, this
article proposes a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set (SVNHFS) as a further generalization of the concepts of fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set, single-valued neutrosophic set, hesitant fuzzy set, and dual hesitant fuzzy set. Then, we introduce the basic operational relations and cosine measure function of SVNHFSs.
Also, we develop a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy weighted averaging (SVNHFWA) operator and a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy weighted geometric (SVNHFWG) operator and investigate their properties. Furthermore, a multiple-attribute decision-making method is established on the basis of the SVNHFWA and SVNHFWG operators and the cosine measure under a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant
fuzzy environment. Finally, an illustrative example of investment alternatives is given to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed approach.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[368] **viXra:1411.0491 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:30:47*

**Authors:** Debabrata Mandal

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Neutrosophic ideals of a ¡-semiring are introduced
and studied in the sense of Smarandache[14], along with some operations such as intersection, composition, cartesian product etc. on them. Among the other results/characterizations, it is
shown that all the operations are structure preserving.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[367] **viXra:1411.0490 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:32:29*

**Authors:** J. Nescolarde-Selva, J.L. Usó-Doménech

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Semiotic components in the relations of complex systems depend on the Subject. There are two main semiotic components: Neutrosophic and Modal. Modal components are alethical and deontical. In this paper the authors applied the theory of Neutrosophy and Modal Logic to Deontical Impure Systems.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[366] **viXra:1411.0488 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:36:24*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Said Broumi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this work, we rst dene a relation on neutrosophic soft sets which allows to compose two neutrosophic soft sets. It is devised to derive useful information through the composition of two neutrosophic soft sets. Then, we examine symmetric, transitive and reexive neutrosophic soft relations and many related concepts such as equivalent neutrosophic soft set relation,
partition of neutrosophic soft sets, equivalence classes, quotient neutrosophic soft sets, neutrosophic soft composition are given and their propositions are discussed. Finally a decision making method on neutrosophic soft sets is presented.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[365] **viXra:1411.0485 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 03:42:47*

**Authors:** Faruk Karaaslan

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this paper, concept of possibility neutrosophic soft set and its operations are defined, and their properties are studied. An application of this theory in decision making is investigated. Also a similarity measure of two possibility
neutrosophic soft sets is introduced and discussed. Finally an application of this similarity measure in personal selection for a firm.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[364] **viXra:1411.0484 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 16:16:12*

**Authors:** Alexander M. Chepick

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This article was sent to j. "Spacetime & Substance" №3(13)-2002, but was not published.

Explanations of dependence on distance are given both for the w-factor of a light curve of an absolute magnitude Type Ia Supernovae and for s-factor by assuming a value intergalactic optical density for visible frequencies of light about 1.00000000003 and by normal distribution of light speed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[363] **viXra:1411.0483 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 17:06:38*

**Authors:** Antonio Iovane

**Comments:** 9 pages. Published in "The Galileo of Palomar", Apeiron, Montreal, Apr 18 2017, pp 197-206

Recently I have found a very strong correlation between unsolicited motions of a special torsion balance and instabilities of the geomagnetic field. I argue that these geomagnetic variations, if steep enough, might induce eddy currents into the metallic mass of the balance. Such currents would in turn generate magnetic fields which could urge the balance to rotate. Geomagnetic instabilities arise when the solar wind is unstable as an effect of solar activity. I have noticed that such instabilities occur, for an observer at Earth, even when the sun is calm and the solar wind is stable, but the observing point is swept by the effects of the "lunar wake", i.e. the vacuum of solar wind which extends from the moon in the anti-sunward direction. This happens around solar eclipses. I think that the lunar wake could be accounted for the so called "Allais Effect" (abnormal behavior of Foucault pendulums and other devices around solar eclipses) by the above mentioned mechanism. Actually I have found the magnetic signature of the lunar wake in geosynchronous satellite data around the occurrence of solar eclipses during which it was claimed a detection of the Allais Effect. In this article I present both satellite and test devices data for some eclipses. I think that the elusive and somewhat mysterious Allais effect falls into the realm of commonly accepted physics. The geomagnetic activity depends on the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. The effects of the lunar wake in the near-Earth environment has not been well studied yet, and I suggest that the “all American” August 2017 solar eclipse would be a good opportunity for further investigation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[362] **viXra:1411.0482 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 13:00:20*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper is concerned with a formula for the mass of the neutron. This formula is based on
the mass of the proton and the masses of the three heavier leptons: the electron (generation 1), the muon (generation 2) and the tau particle (generation 3). The formula is, at least, accurate to 4 decimal places. Because the mass of the tau particle is poorly known, it is unknown whether this formula is physically correct or it is simply a numeric coincidence. Finally, the formula suggests a deep mass relationship between quarks and leptons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[361] **viXra:1411.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 14:02:24*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make few observations on a class of Smarandache generalized Fermat numbers, which are the numbers of the form F(k) = a^(b^k) + c, where a, b are integers greater than or equal to 2 and c is integer such that (a, c) = 1. The class that is observed in this paper includes the numbers of the form F(k) = m^(n^k) + n, where k is positive integer and m and n are coprime positive integers, not both of them odd or both of them even.

**Category:** Number Theory

[360] **viXra:1411.0479 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:59:03*

**Authors:** Muhammad Zulfiqar

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The theory of fuzzy sets, which was initiated by Zadeh in his seminal paper [33] in 1965, was applied to generalize some of the basic concepts of
algebra. The fuzzy algebraic structures play a vital role in mathematics with wide applications in many other branches such as theoretical physics, computer sciences, control engineering, information sciences, coding theory, logic, set theory, real analysis, measure theory etc.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[359] **viXra:1411.0478 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:00:16*

**Authors:** Gülnur Şaffak Atalay, Emin Kasap

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, we analyzed the problem of consructing a family of surfaces from a given some special Smarandache curves in Euclidean 3-space. Using the Frenet frame of the curve in Euclidean 3-space, we express the family of surfaces as a linear combination of the components of this frame, and derive the necessary
and sufficient conditions for coefficents to satisfy both the asymptotic and isoparametric
requirements. Finally, examples are given to show the family of surfaces with common Smarandache curve.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[358] **viXra:1411.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:03:34*

**Authors:** I. Arockiarani, I. R. Sumathi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Many theories have been developed for uncertainties, including the theory of probability, theory of fuzzy sets, theory of intuitionistic fuzzy sets and theory of rough sets and so on. Although many new techniques have been developed as a result of these theories, yet difficulties are still there. The major difficulties arise due to inadequacy of parameters.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[357] **viXra:1411.0474 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:06:45*

**Authors:** Pingping Chi, Peide Liu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The interval neutrosophic set (INS) can be easier
to express the incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information, and TOPSIS is one of the most commonly used and effective method for multiple attribute decision making, however, in general, it can only process the attribute values with crisp numbers.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[356] **viXra:1411.0473 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:07:46*

**Authors:** I. Arockiarani, I. R. Sumathi, J. Martina Jency

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The focus of this paper is to propose a new notion of Fuzzy Neutrosophic soft set and to study some basic operations and results in Fuzzy Neutrosophic soft spaces. Further we develop a systematic study on Fuzzy Neutrosophic soft set and obtain various properties induced by them. Some equivalent characterization and inter-relations among them are discussed with counter example.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[355] **viXra:1411.0469 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:13:48*

**Authors:** Adesina Abdul Akeem Agboola, Bijan Davvaz

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of neutrosophic hypergroup and present some of its elementary properties.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[354] **viXra:1411.0467 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:19:09*

**Authors:** I.m. Hanafy, A.a. Salama, K.m. Mahfouz

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a new type of classical set called the neutrosophic classical set. After given the fundamental definitions of neutrosophic classical set operations, we obtain several properties, and discussed the relationship
between neutrosophic classical sets and others. Finally, we generalize the classical probability to the notion of neutrosophic probability. This kind of probability is necessary because it provides a better representation than classical probability to uncertain events. Possible applications to computer sciences are touched upon.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[353] **viXra:1411.0465 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:23:04*

**Authors:** A.A.Salama

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Mathematics and Computer Science Department of the Faculty of Science, University of Port Said, Egypt.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[352] **viXra:1411.0464 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:24:11*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, M. M. Abdelmoghny

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper we introduce and study new types of neutrosophic concepts " cut levels , normal
neutrosophic set, convex neutrosophic set". Added to we investigate a neutrosophic relations,
and neutrosophic database (NDB). Finaly we study some neutrosophic queries on a neutrosophic
database.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[351] **viXra:1411.0462 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:27:21*

**Authors:** Debabrata Mandal

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to study semirings and its ideals by neutrosophic soft sets. After noting some preliminary ideas for subsequent
use in Section 1 and 2, I have introduced and studied neutrosophic soft semiring, neutrosophic soft ideals, idealistic neutrosophic soft semiring, regular (intra-regular) neutrosophic soft semiring along with some of their characterizations in Section 3 and 4. In Section 5, I have illustrated all the necessary definitions and results by examples.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[350] **viXra:1411.0461 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:28:35*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Said Broumi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Maji[32], firstly proposed neutrosophic soft sets can handle the indeterminate information and inconsistent information which exists commonly in
belief systems. In this paper, we have firstly redefined complement, union and compared our definitions of neutrosophic soft with the definitions given by Maji. Then, we have introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft matrix
and their operators which are more functional to make theoretical studies in the neutrosophic soft set theory.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[349] **viXra:1411.0460 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:29:58*

**Authors:** Faruk Karaaslan

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

We firstly present definitions and properties in study of Maji [11] on neutrosophic soft sets. We then give a few notes on his study.
Next, based on C¸ agman [4], we redefine the notion of neutrosophic soft set and neutrosophic soft set operations to make more functional. By using these new definitions we construct a decision making method and a group decision making method which selects a set of optimum
elements from the alternatives. We finally present examples which shows that the methods can be successfully applied to many problems
that contain uncertainties.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[348] **viXra:1411.0459 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:31:20*

**Authors:** Zhiming Zhang, Chong Wu

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

A single-valued neutrosophic set (SVNS) and an interval neutrosophic set (INS) are two
instances of a neutrosophic set, which can efficiently deal with uncertain, imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information. In this paper, we develop a novel method for solving single-valued neutrosophic multi-criteria decision making with incomplete weight information, in which the criterion values are given in the form of single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs), and the information about
criterion weights is incompletely known or completely unknown. The developed method consists of two stages.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[347] **viXra:1411.0457 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:33:45*

**Authors:** Sachin Lakra, T. V. Prasad, G. Ramakrishna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

semantic net can be used to represent a sentence. A sentence in a language contains semantics which are polar in nature, that is, semantics which are positive, neutral and negative. Neutrosophy is a relatively new field of science which can be used to mathematically represent triads of concepts. These triads include truth, indeterminacy and falsehood, and so also positivity, neutrality and negativity. Thus a conventional semantic net has been extended in this paper using neutrosophy into a Polar Fuzzy Neutrosophic Semantic Net. A Polar Fuzzy Neutrosophic Semantic Net has been implemented in MATLAB and has been used to illustrate a polar sentence in English language.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[346] **viXra:1411.0455 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:36:48*

**Authors:** Anjan Mukherjee, Sadhan Sarkar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Main objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of similarity measures
between two neutrosophic soft sets based on set theoretic approach and based on distance
between two neutrosophic soft sets and to study some basic properties. A decision making method is established based on similarity measure between two neutrosophic sets. A decision making method is developed based on similarity measure between two neutrosophic soft sets and lastly an example is given to illustrate the proposed decision making method in a medical diagnosis problem.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[345] **viXra:1411.0454 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:38:21*

**Authors:** Faruk Karaaslan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, a similarity measure between possibility neutrosophic soft sets (PNS-set) is dened, and its properties are studied. A
decision making method is established based on proposed similarity measure. Finally, an application of this similarity measure involving the real life problem is given.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[344] **viXra:1411.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:44:09*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, H. A. El-Ghareeb, Mohamed Esia, M. Lotfy

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Conducting effective eLearning in the age of Social Networks is a big challenge. Education is currently conducted in highly controlled way. E-learning has emerged as an answer to provide freedom for learners in the way that face-to-face learning cannot deliver. Despite many advantages of e-learning, it does not provide the best learning experience due to many shortages, limitations, and challenges. The best learning experience might be available by combining in-class and online learning. One more feature that e-learning lacks is peers interaction. Peers interaction has been facilitated through social networks. Utilizing social networks in e-Learning has changed the way students percieves learning. Neutrosophy has been introduced by Smarandache as a new branch of philosophy. The purpose of this paper is to present a proposed Social Learning Management System that integrates social activites in e-Learning, and utilize a new set theory called the neutrosophic set to analyze social networks data conducted through learning activities.Results shows that recommendations can be enhanced through utilizing proposed system.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[343] **viXra:1411.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:45:33*

**Authors:** Angelo de Oliveira

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents some very basics aspects of neutrosophic logic, in particular, exhibits the connectives of negation, conjunction and disjunction as found in [1], and checks some few properties and relationship between them. Also, discusses other forms of negation and how under some aspects one careful choose may be necessary to ensure consistency. Moreover, touch on (briefly) modal operators.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[342] **viXra:1411.0450 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:47:41*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Sourendranath Chackrabarti

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we studied the problems faced by construction workers in West Bengal in order to find its solutions using neutrosophic cognitive maps, which is the generalization of fuzzy cognitive maps. Florentin Smarandache and Vasantha Kandasamy studied neutrosophic cognitive map which is an extension of fuzzy cognitive
map by incorporating indeterminacy.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[341] **viXra:1411.0449 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:49:01*

**Authors:** Ridvan Sahin, Ahmet Kucuk

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The main aim of this paper is to introduce a neurosophic subsethood measure for
single valued neutrosophic sets. For this purpose, we rst introduce a system of axioms for
subsethood measure of single valued neutrosophic sets. Then we give a simple subsethood mea-
sure based to distance measure. Finally, to show eectiveness of intended subsethood measure,
an application is presented in multicriteria decision making problem and results obtained are
discussed. Though having a simple measure for calculation, the subsethood measure presents a
new approach to deal with neutrosophic information.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[340] **viXra:1411.0448 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:50:25*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Haitham A. El-Gharee, Ayman M. Manie, M. M. Lotfy

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Conducting effective eLearning in the age of Social Networks is a big challenge. Education is
currently conducted in highly controlled way. E-learning has emerged as an answer to provide
freedom for learners in the way that face-to-face learning cannot deliver. Despite many
advantages of e-learning, it does not provide the best learning experience due to many shortages,
limitations, and challenges.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[339] **viXra:1411.0447 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:51:34*

**Authors:** Olowolaju Philip Segun

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The paper assessed the investment in technology in cocoa processing industry in Nigeria The study was carried out in six cocoa processing organizations. Questionnaire technique supplemented with oral interview of officials
of cocoa processing organisations were used for the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed that despite the substantial investment in technology by cocoa processing companies, there were low capacity utilizations in the industry due to lack of adequate working
capital to stock pile cocoa beans.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[338] **viXra:1411.0446 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:52:50*

**Authors:** Oliver Kullmann, Xishun Zhao

**Comments:** 89 Pages.

We investigate connections between SAT (the propositional satisfiability problem) and combinatorics, around the minimum degree of variables in various forms of redundancy-free boolean conjunctive normal forms (clause-sets).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[337] **viXra:1411.0444 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:56:00*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We celebrate Prof. Florentin Smarandache, the Associate Editor and co-founder of Progress in Physics who is a prominent mathematician of the 20th/21th centuries. Prof. Smarandache is most known as the founder of neutrosophic logic, which is a modern extension of fuzzy logics by introducing the neutralities and denials (such as “neutral A” and “non-A” between “A” and “anti-A”). He is also known due to his many discoveries in the filed of pure mathematics such as number theory, set theory, functions, etc.
(see many items connected with his name in CRC Encyclopedia of Mathematics). As a multi-talented person, Prof. Smarandache is also known due to his achievements in the other fields of science, and also as a poet and writer. He still work in science, and continues his creative research activity.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[336] **viXra:1411.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:57:19*

**Authors:** Amber Asghar, Aamir Sanaullah, Muhammad Hanif

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, generalized exponential-type estimator has been proposed for estimating the population variance using mean auxiliary variable in singlephase sampling. Some special cases of the proposed generalized estimator have also been discussed.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[335] **viXra:1411.0442 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:59:23*

**Authors:** Tolga Zaman, Vedat Saglam, Murat Sagir, Erdinc Yucesoy, Mujgan Zobu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this study, the use of taylor series method in the calculation of some means with single auxiliary variable developed in a simple random sampling and mean square error unit ratio estimators having certain properties was
investigated. An application was performed in respect thereof. The study population (mass) included 111 secondary schools from 18 districts of Trabzon province. Auxiliary variable (x) was taken as the number of students whereas the main variable (y) was taken as the number of teachers. Sample size was calculated as 45 for unit ratio that has certain features. Afterwards,
theoretically proposed mean and units ratio estimators having certain properties were compared numerically. Random sampling was performed using the SPSS 20 program thus giving an equal chance to the units sampled and variability in the population was protected.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[334] **viXra:1411.0441 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 05:00:53*

**Authors:** Dan ionescu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The study finds that, for Romania, the period 1920-1939 is one without major contradictions. In “neutrosophy” of renowed American professor F. Smarandache’s terms, the interwar period was, in Romania, a “neutral” period. As mediating operators, professional journals reflected the atmosphere of relative tranquility and social peace. From the qualitative analysis of their media discourse, we can see three elements that: (1) the professional journals of Oltenia, as media tools for teachers, priests and folklore (folklorist), or music enthusiasts (music lovers), were loyal to their financial supporters; (2) although they served oblique and opposition interests, the communication professional operators have generally not emphasized, perpetuated or generated conflicts, disputes and misunderstandings; and (3) social attitudes promoted by professional magazines in Oltenia was a beneficial, objective one of better understanding and neutrality. The conclusion is that, despite the axiom that progress is generated by contradiction, it shows that professional journals in Oltenia, during 1920-1939, even in the absence of contradictions, namely under neutrality, there have been major advances.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[333] **viXra:1411.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 05:02:18*

**Authors:** Khang Siang Tan, Wei Hong Lim, Nor Ashidi Mat Isa

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

This paper presents a novel initialization scheme to determine the cluster number and obtain the initial cluster centers for Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm to segment any kind of color images, captured using different consumer electronic products or machine vision systems. The proposed initialization scheme, called Hierarchical Approach (HA), integrates the splitting and merging techniques to obtain the initialization
condition for FCM algorithm. Initially, the splitting technique is applied to split the color image into multiple homogeneous regions. Then, the merging technique is employed to obtain the reasonable cluster number for any kind of input images. In addition, the initial cluster centers for FCM algorithm are also obtained. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed HA initialization scheme substantially
outperforms other state-of-the-art initialization schemes by obtaining better initialization condition for FCM algorithm.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[332] **viXra:1411.0439 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 05:03:26*

**Authors:** M.R. Banaei, A. Fazel Bakhshayesh

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Multilevel inverters are suggested to obtain high quality output voltage. In this paper, a
new hybrid configuration is proposed, obtained by cascading one four switches H-bridge cell with a
family of multilevel inverters. In addition, by the use of specific sequence for value of DC sources named Fibonacci series, asymmetrical topology of proposed inverter is introduced. Main advantages are that proposed inverter has least Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) than other conventional multilevel converters in both symmetric and asymmetric modes. Also, this topology doubles the number of output levels using only one cascaded four switches H-bridge cell. The PCI-1716 DAQ using PC has been used to generate switching pulses in experimental results. For presenting valid performance
of proposed configuration, simulation results carried out by MATLAB/SIMULINK software
and the validity of the proposed multilevel inverter is verified by experimental results.
ª 2014 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[331] **viXra:1411.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 05:04:37*

**Authors:** Indranu Suhendro

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Dedicated to the vastly profound intellection,
memory, and solitude of A. L. Zelmanov (1913–
1987), fountainhead of the celebrated Zelmanov
Cosmological School; and to the closely following
centennial anniversary of Einstein’s General
Theory of Relativity (1915–2015).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[330] **viXra:1411.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 05:05:55*

**Authors:** Leo G. Sapogin, V. A. Dzhanibekov, Yu. A. Ryabov

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The present article discuses the problems of
new Unitary Quantum Theory in its applications to
the different aspects of the reality. There are
spectacular examples of such applications.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[329] **viXra:1411.0436 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-20 13:26:16*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make few conjectures on few classes of generalized Fermat numbers, i.e. the numbers of the form F(k) = 2^(2^k) + n, where k is positive integer and n is an odd number, the numbers of the form F(k) = 4^(4^k) + 3 and the numbers of the form F(k) = m^(m^k) + n, where m + n = p, where p is prime, all subclasses of Smarandache generalized Fermat numbers, i.e. the numbers of the form F(k) = a^(b^k) + c, where a, b are integers greater than or equal to 2 and c is integer such that (a, c) = 1.

**Category:** Number Theory

[328] **viXra:1411.0435 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 19:32:02*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The paper considers studying influence of a human-oriented info-imprinting on a work function of carriers of the imprinted information – metallic matrixes. The matrix-imprinted information proved its efficiency in a reduction of a thermal impact of a radiation of mobile phones, to which the matrixes were attached.
Seebeck effect and Kelvin Probe installations were used and modified for the research.
The study revealed a prevailing (but not the total) increase of the work function after info-imprinting. This is attributed to an ordering action of the information. Basing on the development of the experimental means, new info-thermo detectors are proposed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[327] **viXra:1411.0434 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-07 00:08:15*

**Authors:** R.V. Klinkerman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In articles of the author [2], [3] the version of the organization of a life
when it in the big degree is operated and provided from the center of the Earth was
offered to consideration. But a problem question is physical communication of
organisms with the Center. In [3] the version of communication through complex
photons is considered; however the given version remains problem and requires
the additional argument. Therefore in present article the role of zero fluctuations
of a field of complex photons is considered in the organization of communication.
Keywords: complex photons, a field, zero fluctuations, secondary
quantization, neutrino, the center of the Earth, the god, religious concepts,
philosophy, after death, Mars.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[326] **viXra:1411.0433 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 00:44:23*

**Authors:** Xingsen Li, Haolan Zhang, Wei Deng

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Clustering has been applied in many field of
management for better decision making with a lot of algorithms such as K-means. Based on Extenics, we found that most of algorithms calculate the similarity of elements in a certain set by distance to each other; they focus on the position
of each element and neglect their criteria. However, in the real world, there are usually exist criteria to score the elements.
Therefore, we present a new clustering method. In our method,we use distance in Extenics for similarity calculating based on criteria, and compared a simple case with traditional K-means
algorithm. The results show that our method is more practical and has much potential value for data mining and knowledge management.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[325] **viXra:1411.0432 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 00:46:00*

**Authors:** HAN De-qiang, YANG Yi, HAN Chong-zhao

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Based on the review of the development and recent advances in model, reasoning, decision and evaluation in evidence theory, some analyses and discussions on some problems, confusions and misunderstandings in evidence theory are provided together with some related numerical examples in this paper. The relations between evidence theory and probability theory, the evidence conflict and related counter-intuitive results, some definitions on distance of evidence and the evaluation criteria in evidence theory are covered in this paper. The future developing trends of evidence theory are also analyzed. This
paper aims to provide reference for the correctly understanding and using of evidence theory.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[324] **viXra:1411.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 00:47:23*

**Authors:** LI Xin-De, YANG Wei-Dong, DEZERT Jean

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper proposes an image target0s multi-feature fusion recognition method based on probabilistic neural networks (PNN) and Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT). To aim at multiple features extracted from an image, the information from them is fused. Firstly, the image is preprocessed with binarization and then multiple features are extracted, such as Hu moments, normalized moment of inertia, a±ne invariant moments, discrete outline parameters and singular values.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[323] **viXra:1411.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 01:16:21*

**Authors:** Lianmeng Jiao, Quan Pan, Yan Liang, Xiaoxue Feng, Feng Yang

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The combination of sources of evidence with reliability has been widely studied within the framework of Dempster-Shafer theory (DST), which has been employed as a major method for integrating multiple sources of evidence with uncertainty.By the fact that sources of evidence may also be different in importance, for
example inmulti-attribute decision making (MADM), we propose the importance discounting
and combination method within the framework of DST to combine sources of evidence with importance, which is composed of an importance discounting operation and an extended Dempster’s rule of combination.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[322] **viXra:1411.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 01:17:43*

**Authors:** G. Golino, A. Graziano, A. Farina, W. Mellano, F. Ciaramaglia

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Scope of this paper is to investigate the
performances of different identity declaration fusion algorithms in terms of probability of correct classification, supposing that the
information for combination of the inferences from the different classifier is affected by measurement errors. In particular, these
information have been assumed to be provided in the form of confusion matrices. Six identity fusion algorithms from literature with different complexity have been included in the comparison:
heuristic methods such as voting and Borda Count, Bayes’ and Dempster-Shafer’s methods and the Proportional Redistribution Rule n° 1 in the Dempster-Shafer’s framework.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[321] **viXra:1411.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 01:44:10*

**Authors:** Jingsong YANG, Xun CHEN

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Life detection based on a single type of information sources detection technology cannot completely meet the needs of the earthquake relief. First, we analyze the present situation of typical life detection technology, then the advantages of multi-sensor synergy detection technique are given. Second, we explained
the platform structure and information fusion model. Finally, the fusion rule based on Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) is used to achieve the decision level fusion. We present the results reached by the fusion with the conjunctive rule, the Dempster, the Yager and the DSmT. The experiments show that DSmT can get more
comprehensive and more accurate information about the scene of rescue and survivors.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[320] **viXra:1411.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 01:45:47*

**Authors:** Xinyang Denga, Yong Deng

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Dempster-Shafer theory is widely applied to uncertainty modelling and knowledge
reasoning due to its ability of expressing uncertain information. However, some conditions, such as exclusiveness hypothesis and completeness
constraint, limit its development and application to a large extend. To overcome these shortcomings in Dempster-Shafer theory and enhance its capability of representing uncertain information, a novel theory called D numbers theory is systematically proposed in this paper.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[319] **viXra:1411.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 01:47:09*

**Authors:** Hyun Lee

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 8

In smart environments, a multi-robot system is difficult to achieve a high confidence level of
information for reliable decision making. The pieces of sensed information obtained from a multi-robot system have different degrees of uncertainty. Generated contexts about the situation of the environment can be conflicting even if they are acquired by simultaneous operations. In particular, unpredictable
temporal changes in sensory information reduce the confidence level of information then lead to wrong decision making.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[318] **viXra:1411.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 01:48:34*

**Authors:** XU Xiaobin, LIU Ping, SUN Yanbo, WEN Chenglin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents the dynamic method
for fault diagnosis based on the updating of Interval-valued belief structures (IBSs). The classical Jeffrey’s updating rule and the linear updating rule are extended to the framework of IBSs.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[317] **viXra:1411.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 01:49:52*

**Authors:** Yong Deng

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Conflict management is still an open issue in the application of Dempster Shafer evidence theory. A lot of works have been presented to address this
issue. In this paper, a new theory, called as generalized evidence theory (GET), is proposed. Compared with existing methods, GET assumes that
the general situation is in open world due to the uncertainty and incomplete knowledge.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[316] **viXra:1411.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 01:51:24*

**Authors:** QIN Dong-sheng, MIAO Zhuang, WANG Yong

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Dezert-Smaradache thoery (DSmT) can well deal with the fusion of conflicting information, but the number of focal elements will greatly increase with the increment of the number of elements in frame of discernment, which causes the big computation burden. An improved method based on DSmT is proposed in this paper. In engineering applications, the conflicting focal elements are not very useful in the decision-making. Thus, we just calculate the basic belief assignment (bba) of the focal elements included in the frame of discernment, and the bba of conflicting focal elements is ignored.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[315] **viXra:1411.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 01:53:32*

**Authors:** Bilal Hadjadji, Youcef Chibani, Yasmine Guerbai

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The One-Class Classifier (OCC) has been widely
used for solving the one-class and multi-class classification problems. Its main advantage for multi-class is offering an open system and therefore allows easily extending new classes without retraining OCCs. However, extending the OCC to the multi-class classification achieves less accuracy comparatively to other multiclass
classifiers. Hence, in order to improve the accuracy and keep the offered advantage we propose in this paper a Multiple Classifier System (MCS), which is composed of different types of OCC. Usually, the combination is performed using fixed or trained rules. Generally, the static weighted average is considered as straightforward combination rule. In this paper we propose a dynamic weighted average rule that calculates the appropriate
weights for each test sample. Experimental results conducted on several real-world datasets proves the effective use of the proposed multiple classifier system where the dynamic weighted
average rule achieves the best results for most datasets versus the mean, max, product and the static weighted average rules.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[314] **viXra:1411.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 01:55:05*

**Authors:** Huang Jie, Wang Wanqing, Zhao Yonjun

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The D-S evidence theory is an important information fusion method at the decision level. A novel evidence combination method is proposed to solve the counterintuitive problem of the Dempster rule. It firstly classifies the
evidences according to decision making; then, constructs evidence importance degree and evidence reliability models as the discounting factors for evidences with different conflict degrees within the same class or between
classes; finally, combines the evidences by the Dempster’s rule. The experimental analysis shows that the method is reasonable.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[313] **viXra:1411.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 01:59:20*

**Authors:** Ji Wen Tan, Hong Zhan, Yan Wen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

DST involves some counter-intuitive behaviors with multiple evidences conflict highly.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[312] **viXra:1411.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 02:01:02*

**Authors:** Xiao-Hong YU, Qing-Jun ZHOU, Yan-Li LI, Jin AN, Zhi-Cheng LIU

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new self-adaptive fusion algorithm based on DST
and DSmT is proposed. In the new algorithm, part of the conflicting information is normalized according to DST, while the other part is processed by DSmT. A controlling factor is used to
control the quantity of information dealt by the two different methods adaptively, which is a new method avoiding setting for the threshold of conflict. The simulation results indicate that the
new self-adaptive fusion algorithm based on DST and DSmT can deal with any conflicting situation with a good performance of convergence.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[311] **viXra:1411.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 02:03:05*

**Authors:** Zhun-ga Liu, Quan Pana, Gregoire Mercier, Jean Dezertc

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The missing data in incomplete pattern can have
different estimations, and the classification result of pattern with different estimations may be quite distinct. Such uncertainty (ambiguity) of classification is mainly caused by the loss of
information in missing data. A new rototype-based credal classification (PCC) method is proposed to classify incomplete patterns using belief functions. The class prototypes obtained by
the training data are respectively used to estimate the missing values.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[310] **viXra:1411.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 02:04:25*

**Authors:** Donald J. Bucci, Sayandeep Acharya, Moshe Kam

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A major hurdle in the development of soft and
hard/soft data fusion systems is the inability to determine the practical performance gains between fusion operators without the burdens associated with human testing. Drift diffusion models
of human responses (i.e., decision, confidence assessments, and response times) from cognitive psychology can be used to gain a sense of the performance of a fusion system during the design
phase without the need for human testing.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[309] **viXra:1411.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 02:05:48*

**Authors:** Donald J. Bucci, Sayandeep Acharya, Timothy J. Pleskacy, Moshe Kam

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Probability transformations provide a method of
relating Dempster-Shafer sources of evidence to subjective probability assignments. These transforms are constructed to facilitate
decision making over a set of mutually exclusive hypotheses.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[308] **viXra:1411.0413 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-03 11:50:03*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 18 Pages. The second version replaces the first for an error of sign in the equation (38)

In this paper we consider a few important questions concerning the microuniverse of elementary physical systems. We know leptonic matter is characterized by negative electric charge and leptonic antimatter by positive electric charge. Conversely baryonic matter is characterized by positive electric charge and baryonic antimatter by negative electric charge. In the Non-Standard Model both, matter and antimatter, can have negative values of mass (antimass) for greater speeds than the critical speed. We will demonstrate, always in the order of the Non-Standard Model, there is a full symmetry for elementary particles in regard to the behavior of matter, antimatter and antimass whether when they are in the leptonic state or in the baryonic state.
The physical reality of nature shows neverheless in the Elementary Universe a Principle
of Asymmetry is in force. In fact if this Principle doesn't exist then in the Universe and in Nature we would have to observe a comparable quantity of matter and antimatter. It is known instead that the practically exclusive presence of matter, above all at low energy, is proved. Our object now is to discover that principle of Asymmetry, that in our physico-mathematical model represents a surmounting of the concept of spontaneous breaking
of the symmetry, that is assumed in the Standard Model. We will demonstrate the Principle of Asymmetry is based upon a criterion of stability that identifies the actual asymmetry of the Elementary Universe with the instability state of some microphysical structures.
This paper represents the second essay of the "Trilogy on the knowable Universe".

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[307] **viXra:1411.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 02:46:17*

**Authors:** R. Jagathishwaran, K.S. Ravichandran, Premaladha Jayaraman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Face detection and Tracking are important research areas in the field of computer vision and image processing. Face detection is a computer technology that helps to determine the locations and size of the human faces. Face detection techniques are used in cameras for auto focus. Face detection and tracking are the
two processes done by using various approaches. It is applied mainly in surveillance. The main purpose of these processes are detect and track the face even in poor viewing conditions in surveillance application. In this paper various techniques used for people detection and tracking like adaptive color based particle filter,
fuzzy based particle filter algorithm and so on are discussed. Comparisons between the various approaches are illustrated, Performance measures in terms of number of particles used, root mean square error values etc have been reported. Drawbacks for the techniques like tracker facing the problems while detection and tracking
has been explained. Reasons why fuzzy based particle filter is best among all the approaches have been produced.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[306] **viXra:1411.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 02:56:00*

**Authors:** Octavian Cira

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In acest articol demonstram ca daca conjectura Legendre este adevarata si se verifica ipoteza lui Riemann atunci si conjectura lui Smarandache este adevarata.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[305] **viXra:1411.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 02:57:52*

**Authors:** Octavian Cira

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Functia care asociaza fiecarui numar natural n pe cel mai mic numar natural m care are proprietatea ca m! este multiplu lui n a fostconsiderata de prima data de Lucas in anul 1883.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[304] **viXra:1411.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 02:59:12*

**Authors:** Tanju KAHRAMAN, Mehmet ÖNDER, H. Hüseyin UGURLU

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual
Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[303] **viXra:1411.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:02:53*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

As we known, an objective thing not moves with one’s volition, which implies that all contradictions, particularly, in these semiotic systems for things are artificial. In classical view, a contradictory system is meaningless, contrast to that of geometry on figures of things catched by eyes of human beings. The main objective of sciences is holding the global behav-
ior of things, which needs one knowing both of compatible and contradictory systems on things. Usually, a mathematical system included contradictions is said to be a Smarandache system.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[302] **viXra:1411.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:06:20*

**Authors:** Kostaq Hila, Bijan Davvaz

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n dierent spaces equipped with some dierent structures for an integer n 2 which can be used both for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. In this paper, applying the Smarandaches notion and combining this with hyperrings in hyperring theory, we introduce the notion of multi-hyperring space and initiate a study of
multi-hyperring theory. Some characterizations and properties of multi-hyperring spaces are investigated and obtained. Some open problems
are suggested for further study and investigation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[301] **viXra:1411.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:08:05*

**Authors:** Mircea Eugen Selariu

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Exis tă ! Există şi între parabolele centrice şi parabolele excentrice sau excentricele parabolice !

**Category:** General Mathematics

[300] **viXra:1411.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:16:54*

**Authors:** A. Borumand Saeid, A. Namdar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We introduce the notion of Smarandache BCH-algebra and Smarandache (fresh, clean and fantastic) ideals, some example are given and related properties are investigated. Relationship between
Q-Smarandache (fresh, clean and fantastic) ideals and other types of ideals are given. Extension properties for Q-Smarandache (fresh, clean and fantastic) ideals are established.

**Category:** Statistics

[299] **viXra:1411.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:21:00*

**Authors:** Kareem Abass Layith AL-Ghurabi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In 1905, L.E. Drckson began the study of a near ring and later in 1930; Wieland has investigated it [1]. In 1977, G.Pilz, introduced the notion of a prime ideal of near ring [1]. In 1988, N.G. Groenewald introduced of a completely prime ideal of a near ring [5]. In 2002, W.B. Vasanth Kandasamy study samaradache near ring, (samaradache ideal, of a near ring [7]. In 2012 H.H. Abbass and M.A.Mohommed introduced the notion of a completely prime ideal with respect to an element of a near ring [3].
In this work, we introduce a Samaradache completely prime ideal with respect to an element related to a near field of near ring as we mentioned in the abstract.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[298] **viXra:1411.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:26:10*

**Authors:** Ufuk Ozturk, Esra Betul Koc Ozturk

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce Smarandache curves according to the Lorentzian Darboux frame of a curve on spacelike surface in Minkowski 3-space R
3 1. Also, we obtain the Sabban frame and the geodesic curvature of the Smarandache curves
and give some characterizations on the curves when the curve is an asymptotic curve or a principal curve. And, we give an example to illustrate these curves.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[297] **viXra:1411.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:27:39*

**Authors:** Muhammed Cetin, Yilmaz Tuncer, Murat Kemal Karacan

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper, we investigate special Smarandache curves according to Bishop frame in Euclidean 3-space and we give some differential geometric
properties of Smarandache curves. Also we find the centers of the osculating spheres and curvature spheres of Smarandache curves.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[296] **viXra:1411.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:28:48*

**Authors:** Kemal Taskopru, Murat Tosun

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce special Smarandache curves according to Sabban frame on S2 and we give some characterization of Smarandache curves.
Besides, we illustrate examples of our results

**Category:** General Mathematics

[295] **viXra:1411.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:31:40*

**Authors:** A. Ahadpanaha, A. Borumand Saeid

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we define the Smarandache hyper BCC-algebra, and Smarandache hyper
BCC-ideals of type 1, 2, 3 and 4. We state and prove some theorems in Smarandache hyper
BCC-algebras, and then we determine the relationships between these hyper ideals.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[294] **viXra:1411.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:34:49*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, K. Suresh

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we have introduced smarandache - 2 - Algebraic structure of lattice namely smarandache lattice. A smarandache 2- algebraic structure on a set N means a weak algebraic structure Ao on N such that there exists a proper
subset M of N which is embedded with a stronger algebraic structure A1. Stronger algebraic structure means a structure which satises more axioms, by proper subset one can understand a subset dierent from the empty set, by the unit element if any, and from the whole set. We have dened smarandache lattice and obtained some of its characterization through Pseudo complemented .For the basic concept, we referred the PadilaRaul [4].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[293] **viXra:1411.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:36:14*

**Authors:** Arsham Borumand Saeid, Akbar Rezaei

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Smarandache algebraic structures theory was introduced in 1998 by Padilla [11]. In [6], Kandasamy studied of Smarandache groupoids, sub-groupoids, ideal of groupoids, seminormal sub groupoids, Smarandache Bol groupoids,
and strong Bol groupoids and obtained many interesting results about them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[292] **viXra:1411.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:38:06*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, P. Hirudayaraj

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduced Smarandache - 2 - algebraic structure of R-Module namely Smarandache - R - Module. A Smarandache - 2 - algebraic structure on a set N means a weak algebraic structure A0 on N such that there exist a proper subset M of N, which is embedded with a stronger algebraic structure A1, stronger
algebraic structure means satisfying more axioms, by proper subset one understands a subset from the empty set, from the unit element if any , from the whole set. We dene Smarandache - R - Module and obtain some of its characterization through S - algebra and Morita context. For basic concept we refer to Raul Padilla.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[291] **viXra:1411.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:40:39*

**Authors:** Qianli Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Smarandache function S(n) is dened as the minimal positive integer m suchthat njm!.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[290] **viXra:1411.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:42:10*

**Authors:** Dr.N.Kannappa, Mrs.P.Tamilvani

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we introduced Samarandache-2-algebraic structure of Boolean-near-
ring namely Smarandache-Boolean-near-ring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[289] **viXra:1411.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:44:14*

**Authors:** E. Ilojide, T. G. Jaiyeola

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this work, two normal congruences are built on two quasigroups with underlining set Z2
n relative to the linear-bivariate polynomial P(x; y) = a + bx + cy that generates a quasigroup over the ring Zn. Four quasigroups are built using the normal congruences and these are shown to be homomorphic to the quasigroups with underlining set Z2 n. Some subquasigroups of the quasigroups with underlining set Z2 n are also found.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[288] **viXra:1411.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:45:45*

**Authors:** Julius Fergy T. Rabago

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Murthy introduced the concept of the Smarandache Cyclic Determinant Natural Sequence, the Smarandache Cyclic Arithmetic Determinant Sequence, the Smarandache Bisymmetric Determinant Natural Sequence, and the Smarandache Bisymmetric Arithmetic Determinant Sequence and in [2], Majumdar derived the n-th terms of these four sequences. In this paper, we present some of the results found by Majumdar in [2] but of different approach..

**Category:** General Mathematics

[287] **viXra:1411.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:47:03*

**Authors:** Mahdieh Abbaslo, Arsham Borumand Saeid

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A Smarandache structure on a set A means a weak structureW on A such that there exists
a proper subset B of A which is embedded with a strong structure S.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[286] **viXra:1411.0374 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-10 11:36:07*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, the origin of the two new baryon resonances with a mass of 5935 and 5955 MeV observed in LHCb experiment is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[285] **viXra:1411.0373 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-20 22:25:43*

**Authors:** VT Padmanabhan, R Ramesh, V Pugazhendi, Joseph Makkolil

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Paper has been modified. V in the first author's second name was missing in the earlier submission.

The first VVER-1000 reactor at the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project in India under commissioning tests has been lying idle since 26 September 2014 due to problems of turbo-generator. Two years before its grid connection, the Russian-made turbine erected in 2008, was overhauled by a private contractor and this fact was kept as a guarded secret. In spite of the overhaul, KKNPP turbine failed within hours of grid connection and was responsible for five trips, which kept the reactor off-grid for 59 days. It could not be revived even after a two-month long maintenance during August- September 2014. Usually the first overhaul of a new turbine is done after completion of 5 to 10 years of work. The extreme damage of the turbine could have been due to the mal-functioning of vibration monitoring instrument made by a Russian company charged for selling counterfeit parts. Failure of instrumentation in other systems have the potential for catastrophic accidents. The Government of India has so far refused to investigate the charges of corruption and failure of the quality assurance system at KKNPP which have implictions for the safety of the reactor. Or is it that there no government at all in our country?

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[284] **viXra:1411.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 10:39:55*

**Authors:** VT Padmanabhan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It has been known since 1998 that the processing of titanium via chloride route generates persistent organic pollutants like dioxin, furan, poly chlorinated biphenyls etc. The inventory of toixins also includes heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, most of which are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Costly remedial measures have been implemented by the industry in Europe, North America and Japan during the last decade. Prices of titanium products more than doubled due to this. However, it has been business as usual in the Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd, a public sector undertaking and the only producer of titanium dioxide pigment via chloride routein India. With about half a million tons of solid waste containing highly hazardous substances, which will stay in the eco-system, the biosphere and the breast milk for hundreds of years into the future, the industry is neck deep in crisis.

**Category:** Social Science

[283] **viXra:1411.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 10:55:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A new proposal for an experiment that could test the presence of a fifth force with unprecedented precision. [9]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[282] **viXra:1411.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 03:41:29*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abstract—Since the development of belief function theory introduced by Shafer in seventies, many combination rules have been proposed in the literature to combine belief functions
specially (but not only) in high conflicting situations because the emblematic Dempster’s rule generates counter-intuitive and unacceptable results in practical applications. Many attempts
have been done during last thirty years to propose better rules of combination based on different frameworks and justifications.
Recently in the DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache Theory) framework,two interesting and sophisticate rules (PCR5 and PCR6 rules) have been proposed based on the Proportional Conflict Redistribution (PCR) principle. These two rules coincide for the
combination of two basic belief assignments, but they differ in general as soon as three or more sources have to be combined altogether because the PCR used in PCR5 and in PCR6 are
different. In this paper we show why PCR6 is better than PCR5 to combine three or more sources of evidence and we provethe coherence of PCR6 with the simple Averaging Rule used
classically to estimate the probability based on the frequentist interpretation of the probability measure. We show that such probability estimate cannot be obtained using Dempster-Shafer
(DS) rule, nor PCR5 rule.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[281] **viXra:1411.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 03:43:02*

**Authors:** Nassim Abbas, Youcef Chibani, Arnaud Martin, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The extension of the Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) for the multi-class framework has a feasible computational complexity for various applications when the number of classes is limited or reduced typically two classes. In contrast, when the number of classes is large, the DSmT generates a high computational complexity.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[280] **viXra:1411.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 03:44:57*

**Authors:** Xinde Li, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Xinhan Huang

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This paper presents a newmethod for reducing the number of sources of evidence to combine
in order to reduce the complexity of the fusion processing. Such a complexity reduction is
often required in many applications where the real-time constraint and limited computing
resources are of prime importance. The basic idea consists in selecting, among all sources
available, only a subset of sources of evidence to combine. The selection is based on an evidence
supporting measure of similarity (ESMS) criterion which is an efficient generic tool
for outlier sources identification and rejection. The ESMS between two sources of evidence
can be defined using several measures of distance following different lattice structures. In
this paper, we propose such four measures of distance for ESMS and we present in details
the principle of Generalized Fusion Machine (GFM). Then we apply it experimentally to
the real-time perception of the environment with a mobile robot using sonar sensors. A comparative
analysis of results is done and presented in the last part of this paper.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[279] **viXra:1411.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 08:27:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

New observations with ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6]
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[278] **viXra:1411.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 03:52:18*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert, J.-M. Tacnet

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents a new approach for
combining sources of evidences with different importances and reliabilities. Usually, the combination of sources of evidences with different reliabilities is done by
the classical Shafer’s discounting approach. Therefore, to consider unequal importances of sources, if any, a similar reliability discounting process is generally used,
making no difference between the notion of importance and reliability. In fact, in multicriteria decision context, these notions should be clearly distinguished. This
paper shows how this can be done and we provide simple examples to show the differences between both solutions for managing importances and reliabilities of sources. We also discuss the possibility for mixing them in a global fusion process.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[277] **viXra:1411.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 03:58:28*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Submitted to Proceedings of the 30th International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (troup30), 14-18 July 2014, Ghent, Belgium, to be published by IOP in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), 2014.

Recently the general orthogonal planes split with respect to any two pure unit quaternions $f,g \in \mathbb{H}$, $f^2=g^2=-1$, including the case $f=g$, has proved extremely useful for the construction and geometric interpretation of general classes of double-kernel quaternion Fourier transformations (QFT) [E.Hitzer, S.J. Sangwine, The orthogonal 2D planes split of quaternions and steerable quaternion Fourier Transforms, in E. Hitzer, S.J. Sangwine (eds.), "Quaternion and Clifford Fourier Transforms and Wavelets", TIM \textbf{27}, Birkhauser, Basel, 2013, 15--39.].
Applications include color image processing, where the orthogonal planes split with $f=g=$ the grayline, naturally splits a pure quaternionic three-dimensional color signal into luminance and chrominance components. Yet it is found independently in the quaternion geometry of rotations [L. Meister, H. Schaeben, A concise quaternon geometry of rotations, MMAS 2005; \textbf{28}: 101--126],
that the pure quaternion units $f,g$ and the analysis planes, which they define, play a key role in the spherical geometry of rotations, and the geometrical interpretation of integrals related to the spherical Radon transform of probability density functions of unit quaternions, as relevant for texture analysis in crystallography. In our contribution we further investigate these connections.

**Category:** Geometry

[276] **viXra:1411.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 03:59:01*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Abstract—In this paper we introduce the indeterminate models in information fusion, which are due either to the existence of some
indeterminate elements in the fusion space or to some indeterminate masses. The best approach for dealing with such models is the neutrosophic logic.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[275] **viXra:1411.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:00:37*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Arnaud Martin, Christophe Osswald

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the degree of specificity of a mass, which is the distance between a mass and its most specific associated mass, and we measure the specificity of a fusion rule. Also,we determine the Bayesianity of a mass. We propose certain new distances between masses as
well.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[274] **viXra:1411.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:04:43*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This short note shows on a very simple example the consistency of free DSm model encountered in Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) [2] with a refined model for computing lower and upper probability bounds from basic belief assignments (bba). The belief functions have been introduced in 1976 by Shafer in Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST), see [1] and [2] for
definitions and examples.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[273] **viXra:1411.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:19:15*

**Authors:** Maikel Leyva-Vazquez, Karina Perez-Teruel, F.Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Martí, el más universal de los cubanos, fue un autor preocupado y con fe en la utilidad de la virtud. En este aspecto merece especial atención su artículo Maestros Ambulantes publicado en Nueva York, mayo de 1884 [1]. En el presente trabajo se presenta una propuesta para facilitar el análisis de su obra haciendo uso de los mapas cognitivos neutrosóficos (MCN) [2].

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[272] **viXra:1411.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:20:22*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Luige Vladareanu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we present the N-norms/Nconorms
in neutrosophic logic and set as extensions of Tnorms/T-conorms in fuzzy logic and set.
Then we show some applications of the neutrosophic logic to robotics.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[271] **viXra:1411.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:21:34*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The aim of this presentation is to connect Extension Logic with new fields of research, i.e. fuzzy logic and neutrosophic logic.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[270] **viXra:1411.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:24:37*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, we define a new cosine similarity
between two interval valued neutrosophic sets based on Bhattacharya’s distance [19]. The notions of interval valued neutrosophic sets (IVNS, for short) will be used as vector representations in 3D-vector space. Based on the comparative analysis of the existing similarity measures for IVNS, we find that our proposed similarity measure is better and more robust. An
illustrative example of the pattern recognition shows that the proposed method is simple and effective.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[269] **viXra:1411.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:26:04*

**Authors:** Feng Liu, F.Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper introduces readers to a new approach to dialectical logic: neutrosophy. Specifically it
proposes a multi-valued logic in which the statement “both A and Non-A,” historically rejected as logically incoherent, is treated as meaningful. This unity of opposites constitutes both the objective world and the subjective world –a view with deep roots in Buddhism and Daoism, including the I-Ching. This leads in
turn to the presentation of a framework for the development of a contradiction oriented learning
philosophy inspired by the Later Trigrams of King Wen in the I-Ching. We show that although A and Non-A are logically inconsistent, they can be understood to be philosophically consistent. Indeed, recognition of their consistency is the basis for freeing ourselves from the mental confusion which results from taking as real what are in fact just mental impressions.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[268] **viXra:1411.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:26:11*

**Authors:** R. Bujack, I. Hotz, G. Scheuermann, E. Hitzer

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Accepted by IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 2014. 21 Figures, 2 algorithms.

The analysis of 2D flow data is often guided by the search for characteristic structures with semantic meaning. One way
to approach this question is to identify structures of interest by a human observer, with the goal of finding similar structures in the
same or other datasets. The major challenges related to this task are to specify the notion of similarity and define respective pattern
descriptors. While the descriptors should be invariant to certain transformations, such as rotation and scaling, they should provide a
similarity measure with respect to other transformations, such as deformations. In this paper, we propose to use moment invariants as
pattern descriptors for flow fields. Moment invariants are one of the most popular techniques for the description of objects in the field of
image recognition. They have recently also been applied to identify 2D vector patterns limited to the directional properties of flow fields.
Moreover, we discuss which transformations should be considered for the application to flow analysis. In contrast to previous work,
we follow the intuitive approach of moment normalization, which results in a complete and independent set of translation, rotation, and
scaling invariant flow field descriptors. They also allow to distinguish flow features with different velocity profiles. We apply the moment
invariants in a pattern recognition algorithm to a real world dataset and show that the theoretical results can be extended to discrete
functions in a robust way.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[267] **viXra:1411.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:27:16*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper several distance and similarity measures of interval neutrosophic soft sets are introduced. The measures are examined based on the geometric model, the set theoretic approach and the matching function.Finally,we have successfully shown an application of this similarity measure of interval neutrosophic soft sets.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[266] **viXra:1411.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:28:43*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Rıdvan Sahin, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this work, we introduce the concept of generalized interval neutrosophic soft set and study their operations. Finally, we present an application of generalized interval neutrosophic soft set in decision making problem.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[265] **viXra:1411.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:31:54*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Munazza Naz, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this article we give an extension of group action theory to neutrosophic theory and
develop G-neutrosophic spaces by certain valuable techniques. Every G-neutrosophic space
always contains a G-space. A G-neutrosophic space has neutrosophic orbits as well as strong
neutrosophic orbits. Then we give an important theorem for orbits which tells us that how many
orbits of a G-neutrosophic space. We also introduce new notions called pseudo neutrosophic
space and ideal space and then give the important result that the transitive property implies to
ideal property.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[264] **viXra:1411.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:32:52*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

–This paper combines interval-valued neutrosophic sets and rough sets. It studies rougheness in interval-valued neutrosophic sets and some of its properties. Finally we propose a Hamming distance between lower an upper approximations of interval neutrosophic sets.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[263] **viXra:1411.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:33:54*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this work, we present definition of interval valued neutrosophic parameterized (IVNP-)soft set and its operations. Then we define parameter reduction method for IVNP-soft set.We also give an example which shows that they can be successfully applied to problem that contains indeterminacy.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[262] **viXra:1411.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:36:35*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache, Pabitra Kumar Maji

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

S.Broumi and F.Smarandache introduced the concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft set as an extension of the soft set theory. In this paper we have applied the concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft set to rings theory .The notion of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft set over ring (INSSOR for short ) is introduced and their basic properties have been investigated.The definitions of intersection, union, AND, and OR operations over ring (INSSOR) have also been defined. Finally, we have defined the product of two intuitionistic neutrosophic soft set over ring.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[261] **viXra:1411.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:37:43*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we extend the lower and upper soft interval valued intuitionstic fuzzy rough approximations of IVIFS –relations proposed by Anjan et al. to the case of interval valued neutrosophic soft set relation(IVNSS-relation for short)

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[260] **viXra:1411.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:43:18*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache, Valeri Kroumov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we generalize the crisp topological space to the notion of neutrosophic
crisp topological space, and we construct the basic concepts of the neutrosophic crisp topology. In addition to these, we introduce the denitions of neutrosophic crisp continuous function and neutrosophic crisp compact spaces. Finally, some characterizations concerning neutrosophic crisp compact spaces are presented and one obtains several properties. Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched
upon.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[259] **viXra:1411.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:44:58*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the notion of ideals on neutrosophic set which is considered as a
generalization of fuzzy and fuzzy intuitionistic ideals studies in [9,11] , the important neutrosophicideals has been given in [4]. The concept of neutrosophic local function is also introduced for a neutrosophic topological space. These concepts are discussed with a view to find new nutrosophic topology from the original one in [8]. The basic structure, especially a basis for such generated neutrosophic topologies and several relations between different neutrosophic ideals and neutrosophic topologies are also studied here. Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched upon.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[258] **viXra:1411.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:49:05*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper, the neutrrosophic multi relation (NMR) defined on the neutrosophic multisets [18] is introduced. Various properties like re°exiv-
ity,symmetry and transitivity are studied.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[257] **viXra:1411.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:50:10*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this work, we present definition of neutrosophic parameterized (NP) soft set and its operations. Then we define NP-aggregation operator to form NP-soft decision making method which allows constructing more efficient decision processes. We also dive an example which shows that they can be successfully applied to problem that contain indeterminacy.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[256] **viXra:1411.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:51:47*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The research aims to reveal and prove the thesis of the neutral and convertibility relationship between constituent constructive elements of the universe: matter, energy and information. The approach perspective is a computationally-communicativeneutrosophic one. We configure a coherent and cohesive ideation line. Matter, energy and information are fundamental elements of
the world. Among them, there is an inextricable multiple, elastic and evolutionary connection. The elements are defined by the connections between them. Our hypothesis is that the relationship between matter, energy and information is a neutral one. This
relationship is not required by the evidence. At this level, it does not give up in front of the evidence intelligibility. Neutral
relationship is revealed as a law connection. First, the premise that matter, energy and information never come into contradiction is
taken as strong evidence. Their law-like-reciprocal obligations are non contradictory. Being beyond the contrary, matter, energy
and information maintain a neutral relationship. Therefore, on the basis of the establishment and functioning of the universe or
multi-verse, there is neutrality. Matter, energy and information are primary-founder neutralities. Matter, energy and information are
neutral because they are related to inexorable legitimate. They are neutral because they are perfectly bound to one another.
Regularity is the primary form of neutrality. The study further radiographies the relational connections, and it highlights and renders
visible the attributes and characteristics of the elements (attributes are essential features of elements and characteristics are their
specific features). It explains the bilateral relationships matter-energy, information-matter and energy-information. It finally results
that reality is an ongoing and complex process of bilateral and multi-lateral convertibility.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[255] **viXra:1411.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:53:13*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this paper, the neutrosophic rened relation (NRR) dened on the neutrosophic rened sets( multisets) [13] is introduced. Various properties
like refexivity, symmetry and transitivity are studied.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[254] **viXra:1411.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:56:52*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we proposed a new distance and several similarity measures between interval neutrosophic sets.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[253] **viXra:1411.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 04:58:22*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An interval neutrosophic set is an instance of a neutrosophic set, which can be used in real scientific and engineering applications. In this paper, three new operations based on the arithmetic mean, geometrical mean, and respectively harmonic mean are defined on interval neutrosophic sets.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[252] **viXra:1411.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:00:48*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Anjan Mukherjee [43 ] ntroduced the concept of interval valued intuitionstic fuzzy
soft relation. In this paper we will extend this concept to the case of interval valued
neutrosophic soft relation( IVNSS relation for short) which can be discussed as a
generalization of soft relations, fuzzy soft relation, intuitionstic fuzzy soft relation, interval valued intuitionstic fuzzy soft relations and neutrosphic soft relations [44]. Basic operations are presented and the various properties like reflexivity, symmetry ,transitivity of IVNSS relations are also studied.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[251] **viXra:1411.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:02:23*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce for the first time the discounting of a neutrosophic mass in terms of reliability and respectively the importance of the source.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[250] **viXra:1411.0321 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-10 11:29:22*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We know that within the Standard Model (SM) we still (since 1964) cannot calculate exact masses and spin of proton and neutron from initial conditions, whereas the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM) that involves the General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum Physics (QP) does not lead to origin of the dark matter and dark energy. Moreover, within the leading mainstream theories we cannot derive physical constants and mathematical constants applied in physics from initial conditions the GR and QP start from. There as well are tens of unsolved basic problems, for example, what mechanism causes that neutrinos acquire their masses or why the energy distance/gap between the Planck scale and the electric-charges scale is tremendous. It suggests that the leading mainstream theories are incomplete. Just there must be in existence some lacking part of the Theory of Everything (ToE) more fundamental than GR and QP. We suggest that the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) is the lacking part of ToE. What is the SST? The GR leads to the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field composed of tachyons. On the other hand, the SST shows that the succeeding phase transitions of such Higgs field lead to the theories of different scales of sizes/energies that solve all unsolved basic problems in particle physics and cosmology. Here is a very short recapitulation concerning the basic problems solved within SST that are not solved or are described incorrectly within the mainstream theories: The equivalence of pure energy and gravitational mass; Wrong interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment that follows from the quantum entanglement; The illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe; Non-existence of luminal gravitational waves; Why the Cosmos did not collapse at the beginning of the big bang?; Where is the antimatter ?; Why the Universe is flat ?; The hierarchy problem; The origin of dark matter; The many-worlds interpretation within QP; The 3-valence-quarks model of baryons; Why QED gives good results in spite of neglecting the weak interactions of electrons ?; Can the flexible closed strings applied in the M/string theory lead to invariance of gravitational constant ?; What is the origin of DNA?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[249] **viXra:1411.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:03:44*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Min rule can be interpreted as an optimistic lower bound for combination of bba and the
below Max rule as a prudent/pessimistic upper bound. (Jean Dezert)

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[248] **viXra:1411.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:05:33*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache, Mamoni Dhar

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Both neutrosophic sets theory and rough sets theory are emerging as powerful tool for managing uncertainty, indeterminate, incomplete and imprecise information.In this paper we develop an hybrid structure called rough neutrosophic sets and studied their properties.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[247] **viXra:1411.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:08:44*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali, Munazza Naz, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper we have extended neutrosophic LA-semigroup, neutrosophic sub LA-semigroup, neutrosophic ideals, neutosophic prime ideals, neutrosophic semiprime ideals, neutrosophic strong irreducible ideals to soft neutrosophic LA-semigroup,soft neutosophic sub A-semigroup,soft neutrosophic ideals,soft neutrosophic prime ideals,soft neutrosophic semiprime ideals and soft strong irreducible neutrosophic ideals respectively. We have found some new notions related to the strong or pure part of neutrosophy and we give explaination with necessary illustrative examples. We have also given rigorious theorems and propositions. The notion of soft neutrosophic homomorphism is presented at the end

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[246] **viXra:1411.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:10:38*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly de…ned objects. In this paper we introduced soft
neutrosophic loop,soft neutosophic biloop, soft neutrosophic N-loop with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic loop, the so called soft strong neutrosophic loop which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also foound in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic
theory.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[245] **viXra:1411.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:12:27*

**Authors:** Paul August Winter, Carol Lynne Jessop, Fadekemi Janet Adewusi

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The complete graph is often used to verify certain graph theoretical definitions and applications. Regarding the adjacency matrix, associated with the complete graph, as a circulant matrix, we find its eigenvalues, and use this result to generate a trigonometrical unit-equations involving the sum of terms of the form , where a is odd. This gives rise to t-complete-eigen sequences and diagrams, similar to the famous Farey sequence and diagram. We show that the ratio, involving sum of the terms of the t-complete eigen sequence, converges to ½ , and use this ratio to find the t-complete eigen area. To find the eigenvalues, associated with the characteristic polynomial of complete graph, using induction, we create a general determinant equation involving the minor of the matrix associated with this characteristic polynomial.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[244] **viXra:1411.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:12:33*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Aliy, Muhammad Shabiry, Munazza Nazz, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy,
not clearly dened objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic semigroup,soft
neutosophic bisemigroup, soft neutrosophic N-semigroup with the discuissionf of some of their
characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic semigroup, the so called
soft strong neutrosophic semigoup which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also
foound in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some
of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[243] **viXra:1411.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:14:31*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a
new types of crisp sets are called the neutrosophic crisp set with three types 1, 2, 3. After given the fundamental definitions and operations, we obtain several properties, and discussed the relationship between neutrosophic crisp sets and others. Finally, we introduce and study the notion of neutrosophic crisp relations.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[242] **viXra:1411.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:31:24*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A simple, direct, fast point of view regarding my perception of Administration Philosophy,
Teaching Philosophy, Research Philosophy (including My Own Research), and What I Can
Bring to This Institution.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[241] **viXra:1411.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:32:34*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The enhancement of current globalisation represents the fundamental feature of world economy at the beginning of the 21st century and is characterised by emphasising the trend to reduce and remove the barriers between the national economies and enhancing the connections between these economies. The globalisation we face nowadays derives from the fact that, by starting from the technological and economical development, a significant number of human activities is situated on such a large scale and
scope that they exceeded the national borders within the limits of which the sovereign states exercise their right to govern.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[240] **viXra:1411.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:37:44*

**Authors:** V.V. Singh, Alka Mittal, Neetish Sharma, F. Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Rajasthan is the biggest State of India and is currently in the second phase of demographic
transition and is moving towards the third phase of demographic transition with very slow
pace. However, state’s population will continue to grow for a time period. Rajasthan’s
performance in the social and economic sector has been poor in past. The poor performance
is the outcome of poverty, illiteracy and poor development, which co-exist and reinforce each
other. There are many demographic and socio-economic factors responsible for population
growth. This paper attempts to identify the demographic and socio-economic variables, which
are responsible for population growth in Rajasthan with the help of multivariate analysis.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[239] **viXra:1411.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:42:26*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the present paper we have discussed concerning Gödel’s incompleteness theorem(s) and
plausible implications to artificial intelligence/life and human mind. Perhaps we should
agree with Sullins III, that the value of this finding is not to discourage certain types of
research in AL, but rather to help move us in a direction where we can more clearly define
the results of that research. Gödel’s incompleteness theorems have their own limitations,
but so do Artificial Life (AL)/AI systems. Based on our experiences so far, human mind has
incredible abilities to interact with other part of human body including heart, which makes
it so difficult to simulate in AI/AL. However, it remains an open question to predict
whether the future of AI including robotics science can bring this gap closer or not. In this
regard, fuzzy logic and its generalization –neutrosophic logic- offer a way to improve
significantly AI/AL research.[15]

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[238] **viXra:1411.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:47:58*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

It is known that Barut's equation could predict lepton and hadron mass with remarkable precision. Recently some authors have extended this equation, resulting in Barut-Dirac equation. In the present article we argue that it is possible to derive a new wave equation as alternative to Barut-Dirac's equation from the known exact
correspondence (isomorphism) between Dirac equation and Maxwell electromagnetic equations
via biquaternionic representation. Furthermore, in the present note we submit the viewpoint
that it would be more conceivable if we interpret the vierbein of this equation in terms of
super°uid velocity, which in turn brings us to the notion of topological electronic liquid. Some
implications of this proposition include quantization of celestial systems. We also argue that it is possible to find some signatures of Bose-Einstein cosmology, which thus far is not explored su±ciently in the literature. Further experimental observation to verify or refute this proposition is recommended.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[237] **viXra:1411.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:48:49*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the present article we argue that it is possible to find numerical solution with computer
algebra package of coupled magnetic resonance equation for describing wireless energy
transmission, as discussed recently by Karalis (2006) and Kurs et al. (2007). The proposed
approach may be found useful in order to understand the phenomena related to magnetic
resonance. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this
proposition.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[236] **viXra:1411.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:53:24*

**Authors:** Mukhesh Kumar, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we have suggested family of estimators for a population when study variable itself is a qualitative in nature.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[235] **viXra:1411.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:57:40*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In a similar way as passing from Euclidean Geometry to Non-Euclidean Geometry, we
can pass from Subluminal Physics to Superluminal Physics, and further to Instantaneous Physics.
In the lights of two consecutive successful CERN experiments with superluminal particles in the
Fall of 2011, we believe that these two new fields of research should begin developing.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[234] **viXra:1411.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 06:19:35*

**Authors:** Edmundas Jauniškis

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Identification of the energy as the centerpiece of mechanics relatively easily revealed the meaning of inertia.
Dr. A. Akimov (А. Акимов) wrote in his article [1]: “Physics in its orthodox interpretation is not only
unable to explain what inertia is, but is also unable to explain the origin of inertia forces, internal or external,
in relation to moving bodies”. Dr. G. Shipov (Г. Шипов) has a similar opinion [2]. He writes: “The oldest
mechanics mystery is inertia PROBLEM”. Since I. Newton times there is no unambiguous understanding of
these simple things:
What is the source of inertia?
Are these forces real?
Can these forces in relation to an isolated system be divided into internal and external?
Are these forces obedient to the I. Newton laws of mechanics (e. g. action and reaction law)?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[233] **viXra:1411.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-18 19:20:01*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It will be explained that Hubble's Law contradicts the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis in reference to determination of quasar distance.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[232] **viXra:1411.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:07:16*

**Authors:** Girish.V.R., P.Usha

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A dominating set of a graph n(G), is a total lict dominating set if the dominating set does not contain any isolates. The total lict dominating number t(n(G)) of G is a minimum cardinality of total lict dominating set of G. The current paper studies total lict domination in graph from an algorithmic point of view. In particular we had obtained the algorithm for a total lict domination number of any graph. Also we had obtained the time complexity of a proposed algorithm. Further we discuss the NP-Completeness of a total lict domination number of the split graph, bipartite graph and chordal graph.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[231] **viXra:1411.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:08:56*

**Authors:** M.Kamal Kumar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Representation of a set of vertices in a graph by means of a matrix was introduced by Sampath Kumar.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[230] **viXra:1411.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:11:11*

**Authors:** Nagesh.H.M, R.Chandrasekha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the concept of pathos adjacency blict graph PBn(T)of a tree T and present the characterization of graphs whose pathos adjacency blict graphs are planar, outerplanar, minimally non-outerplanar and Eulerian.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[229] **viXra:1411.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:12:58*

**Authors:** Rodrigo De Castro, Jose L. Ramırez

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce a new family of generalized colored Motzkin paths,where horizontal steps are colored by means of Fk,l colors, where Fk,l is the l-th k-Fibonacci number. We study the enumeration of this family according to the length. For this, we use infinite weighted automata.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[228] **viXra:1411.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:14:47*

**Authors:** Pradeep G.Bhat, Devadas Nayak C

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We begin with simple, finite, connected and undirected graph G = (V,E). Here elements of set
V and E are known as vertices and edges respectively. For all other terminologies and notations we follow Harary.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[227] **viXra:1411.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:20:03*

**Authors:** Rong-Xia Hao, Wenmao Cairen, Haoyang Liu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The folded hypercube FQn is a variance of the hypercube network and is superior to Qn in some properties[IEEE Trans.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[226] **viXra:1411.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:22:11*

**Authors:** S.Suganthi, V.Swaminathan, A.P.Pushpalatha, G.Jothilakshmi

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In the case of finite dimensional vector spaces, every ordered basis induces a scalar coding of the
vectors where the scalars are from the base field. While finite dimensional vector spaces have
rich structures, graphs have only one structure namely adjacency. If a graph is connected, the
adjacency gives rise to a metric. This metric can be used to define a code for the vertices.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[225] **viXra:1411.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:23:30*

**Authors:** M.Murugan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we consider special class of trees called uniform k-distant trees,which have many interesting properties. We show that they have an edge-magic total labeling, a super edge-magic total labeling, a (a, d)-edge-antimagic vertex labeling, an (a, d)-edge-antimagic total labeling, a super (a, d)- edge-antimagic total labeling. Also we introduce anew labeling called edge bi-magic vertex labeling and prove that every uniform k-distant
tree has edge bi-magic vertex labeling.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[224] **viXra:1411.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:24:30*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

A classical system of mathematics is homogenous without contradictions. But it is a little ambiguous for modern mathematics, for instance, the Smarandache geometry.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[223] **viXra:1411.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:26:34*

**Authors:** Teena Liza John, Mathew Varkey T.K

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A graph that admits a Smarandachely near mean m-labeling is called Smarandachely near m-mean graph.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[222] **viXra:1411.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:27:51*

**Authors:** Lekha Bijukumar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we initiate a study on some new families of odd sequential graphs generated by some graph operations on some standard graphs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[221] **viXra:1411.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:29:30*

**Authors:** V.Ramachandran, C C.Sekar

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper we prove that the arbitrary supersubdivisions of paths, disconnected paths, cycles and stars are one modulo N graceful for all positive integers N.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[220] **viXra:1411.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:30:53*

**Authors:** Nagesh.H.M, R.Chandrasekhar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper the concept of pathos adjacency cut vertex jump graph PJC(T) of a tree T is introduced. We also present a characterization of graphs whose pathos adjacency cut vertex jump graphs are planar, outerplanar, minimally non-outerplanar, Eulerian and
Hamiltonian.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[219] **viXra:1411.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:32:47*

**Authors:** R.Ponraj, S.Sathish Narayanan, R.Kala

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we find the radio mean number of some graphs which are related to complete bipartite graph and cycles.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[218] **viXra:1411.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:34:31*

**Authors:** B.O.Onasanya, S.A.Ilori

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is to further investigate some properties of an anti fuzzy subgroup of a group in relation to pseudo coset.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[217] **viXra:1411.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:36:43*

**Authors:** D.A.Mojdeh, H.Abdollahzadeh Ahangar, F.Choopani, F.Zeinali

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Let u and v be adjacent vertices in G. If we assign colors to N[v] and N[u] such that the assignment colors to N[v] are different with the assignment colors to N[u], then this colorings is said to be vertex star colorings. In this paper we initiate the study of the star chromatic number and star defining number.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[216] **viXra:1411.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:37:55*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

An ecologically industrial system is such an industrial system in harmony with its environment, especially the natural environment. The main purpose of this paper is to show how to establish a mathematical model for such systems by combinatorics, and find its topological characteristics, which are useful in industrial ecology and the environment protection.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[215] **viXra:1411.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:39:12*

**Authors:** Girish.V.R., P.Usha

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper many bounds on t(n(G)) are obtained and its exact values for some standard graphs are
found in terms of parameters of G. Also its relationship with other domination parameters
is investigated

**Category:** General Mathematics

[214] **viXra:1411.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:43:49*

**Authors:** A.Vijayalekshmi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Let G be a graph without isolated vertices. A total dominator coloring of a graph G is a proper coloring of G with the extra property that every vertex in G properly dominates a color class.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[213] **viXra:1411.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:45:21*

**Authors:** Ali Mohammed Sahal, Veena Mathad

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

By a graph G = (V,E) we mean a finite, undirected graph with neither loops nor multiple edges. The order and size of G are denoted by n and m, respectively. For graph theoretic terminology we refer to Chartrand and Lesnaik.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[212] **viXra:1411.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:04:21*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note the author presents a new proof for the theorem of I. Patrascu.

**Category:** Statistics

[211] **viXra:1411.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:13:28*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Bu makalede, Saaty’nin Analitik Hiyerarşi Sürecine (AHP) alternatif olan ve onu genişleten Çok Kriterli Karar Verme için Alfa İndirgeme Yöntemi (α-İ ÇKKV) olarak adlandırdığımız yeni bir yaklaşımı sunmaktayız. Yöntem, homojen lineer eşitlikler sistemine dönüştürülebilen herhangi bir tercihler kümesi için işe yarar. Karar verme probleminin tutarlılık derecesi (ve dolaylı olarak da tutarsızlık derecesi) tanımlanmaktadır. α-İ ÇKKV, lineer ve/veya lineer olmayan homojen ve/veya homojen olmayan eşitlikler ve/veya eşitsizlikler sistemine dönüştürülebilen bir tercihler kümesine genelleştirilmiştir. Makalede birçok tutarlı, zayıf tutarsız ve güçlü tutarsız örnekler verilmektedir.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[210] **viXra:1411.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:14:33*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is possible to cover all (positive) integers with n geometrical progressions of integers?
Find a necessary and sufficient condition for a general class of positive integer sequences
such that, for a fixed n , there are n (distinct) sequences of this class which cover all integers.

**Category:** Statistics

[209] **viXra:1411.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:15:53*

**Authors:** Marian Nitu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The main goal of this paper is to present new transformations, previously non-existent in traditional mathematics, that we call centric mathematics (CM) but that became possible due to the new born eccentric mathematics, and, implicitly, to the supermathematics (SM).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[208] **viXra:1411.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:17:32*

**Authors:** Marian Niţu, Florentin Smarandache, Mircea Eugen Şelariu

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Ideea centrală a lucrarii este prezentarea unor transformări noi, anterior inexistente în Matematica ordinară, denumită centrică (MC), dar, care au devenit posibile graţie apariţiei matematicii excentrice şi, implicit, a supermatematicii.

**Category:** Statistics

[207] **viXra:1411.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:18:41*

**Authors:** Mircea E.selariu, Florentin Smarandache, Marian Nitu

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Lucrarea prezintă corespondentele din matematica excentrică ale funcţiilor cardinale şi integrale din matematica centrică, sau matematica ordinară, funcţii centrice prezentate şi în introducerea lucrării, deoarece sunt prea puţin cunoscute, deşi sunt utilizate pe larg în fizica ondulatorie

**Category:** Statistics

[206] **viXra:1411.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:37:09*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper is an extension of our previous work on α-Discounting Method for MCDM ([1], [2], [3]) from crisp numbers to intervals.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[205] **viXra:1411.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:38:40*

**Authors:** Octavian Cira, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The first prime number with the special property that its addition with its reversal gives as result a prime number too is 299. The prime numbers with this property will be called Luhn prime numbers. In this article we intend to present a performing
algorithm for determining the Luhn prime numbers.

**Category:** Statistics

[204] **viXra:1411.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:40:47*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Pinaki Majumdar, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper , we have defined First Zadeh’s implication , First Zadeh’s intuitionistic fuzzy conjunction and intuitionistic fuzzy disjunction of two intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets and some their basic properties are studied with proofs and examples.

**Category:** Statistics

[203] **viXra:1411.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:42:31*

**Authors:** Catalin Barbu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Hyperbolic geometry appeared in the …rst half of the 19th century as an attempt to understand Euclids axiomatic basis of geometry. It is also known as a type of non-euclidean geometry, being in many respects similar to euclidean geometry. Hyperbolic geometry includes similar concepts as distance and angle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[202] **viXra:1411.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 02:04:12*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Open problem
Construct, using a ruler and a compass, two non-congruent triangles, which have equal
perimeters and arias.
In preparation for the proof of this problem we recall several notions and we prove a
Lemma.

**Category:** Statistics

[201] **viXra:1411.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 02:07:41*

**Authors:** C.Dumitrescu, N.Varlan, St Zanfir, N.Radescu, F.Smarandache

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this paper we extend the Smarandache function.

**Category:** Statistics

[200] **viXra:1411.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 02:09:03*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this article, we review some properties of the harmonic quadrilateral related to triangle simedians and to Apollonius circles.

**Category:** Statistics

[199] **viXra:1411.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 02:13:34*

**Authors:** Mukhesh Kumar, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper addresses the problem of estimating population mean using auxiliaary information in the presence of measurement errors.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[198] **viXra:1411.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 02:20:46*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Tudor Păroiu

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Extenica nu este altceva decît mult discutata interdisciplinaritate aplicată în practică care în realitate este studiu al simultaneităţii entităţilor/univers. Ea nu analizează doar două sau mai multe contrarii sau “rezolvarea problemelor

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[197] **viXra:1411.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 02:47:54*

**Authors:** Ovidiu Ilie Şandru, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

În aceasta lucrare vom prezenta un procedeu de algoritmizare a operatiilor necesare deplasarii automate a unui obiect predefinit dintr-o imagine video data intr-o regiune tinta a acelei imagini, menit a facilita realizarea de aplicatii software specializate in rezolvarea acestui gen de probleme.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[196] **viXra:1411.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 02:49:20*

**Authors:** Ovidiu Ilie Şandru, Florentin Smarandache, Alexandra Sandru

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The indicators used so far within the Theory of Extension, see papers [1], [2]and [4], can be synthetically expressed by the notion of “position indicators”. More exactly, these indicators can be grouped in two main sub-categories: point-set position indicators and point-two sets position indicators. The secondary goal of this paper is to define these classifications, while the primary goal is that to extend the two notions to the most general notion of set-set position indicator.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[195] **viXra:1411.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 02:50:48*

**Authors:** Ksawery Krenc, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper presents new absolute and relative conditioning rules as possible solution of multi-level conditioning in threat assessment problem. An example of application of these rules with respect to target observation threat model has been provided. The paper also presents useful directions in order to manage the implemented multiple rules of conditioning in the real system.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[194] **viXra:1411.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 03:16:58*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert, Arnaud Martin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we want to show that the PCR6 fusion rule works and redistributes the conflicting mass properly, contrarily to the authors’ assertion
that “the focal element {v3} absorbs almost all of the conflicting mass (the majority).” We also question the validity of the new CREC rule of
combination presented by the authors.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[193] **viXra:1411.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 03:18:24*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This study is circumscribed to the Information Science. The zetetic aim of research is double:
a) to dene the concept of action of informational processing and b) to design a taxonomy of actions of informational processing.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[192] **viXra:1411.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-18 16:54:07*

**Authors:** Alejandro A. Torassa

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper presents an alternative classical mechanics which is invariant under transformations between reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[191] **viXra:1411.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-18 18:01:58*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

New equations for the motion of bodies are derived. The previsions of the theory are: a) if the galaxy is a spiral, the plane galaxy is moving in direction of the CMB, like our Milk Way galaxy. b) dark matter calculated from rotation curves in spiral galaxies is less than the actual theory and can be zero. This theory use some equations of Special relativity and the concept of non-instantaneous force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[190] **viXra:1411.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-18 12:10:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[189] **viXra:1411.0229 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-15 07:22:19*

**Authors:** Pantelis M. Pechlivanides

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

The relativistic problem of the rotating disc or rotating frame is studied. The solution given implies the contraction of the radius and the change of the value of π depending on the type of observer. Two forms of rotation are considered. One is with constant angular velocity, independent of the radius, implying a horizon, the other is with exponentially decreasing angular velocity with respect to the radius and does not imply a horizon. In all cases the paths of signals emanating from the origin of the rotating frame advance helically in the positive and negative z direction, where they are concentrated, due to the contraction of the radius, and in some cases appear as jets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[188] **viXra:1411.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-23 09:56:15*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 7 pages

I prove one expansion of infinite serie and some integral representations for Bessel function of the first kind.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[187] **viXra:1411.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-23 23:44:15*

**Authors:** Yu.A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 14 Pages. In Russian

The work is devoted to the development of the classical theory of electromagnetic fields (EMF). By way of deduction, built tensors EMF and received the complete system of equations EMF describing its rotation and deformation in pseudo-Euclidean Minkowski space. In addition to the well-known Maxwell's equations, the system contains four new equations EMF. Shows the physical essence of the calibration Lorentz. Received new wave equation EMF. The equation for the new components of the intensities of the symmetric part of the EMF. Get a new Lagrangian EMF. Expressions are obtained for the new electromagnetic forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[186] **viXra:1411.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-18 02:36:35*

**Authors:** Colin Bruce Jack

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A focusing eye acts as a high-performance retroreflector, potentially appearing millions of times brighter when illuminated from a distance than would a matte white surface of the same area. In particular an eye which either has a reflective tapetum near its focal plane, or is operating at f-number less than unity, returns around half of the light entering its pupil in a direction parallel to that in which it arrived.

To detect other animals by eyeshine in this way, however, the detector requires a light source, potentially giving its own position away. The ideal method is therefore to use a form of light which the other animal cannot see, or cannot discriminate from other light. Alternatively, emitting brief flashes of light whose duration is shorter than the time required for the other animal’s pupil to contract, or its eyelid to operate, optimises detection while giving minimal useful information about the detector’s position. Modulation of the source by the detecting animal will cause retroreflected light to vary in sync, potentially allowing the detector to distinguish retroreflected light from background illumination even when the latter is stronger.

In 2009 I pointed out[1] that fluorescent rings around the eye of the triplefin blenny discovered by Michiels et al[2] could allow it to detect other animals, such as potential prey or predators, in this way. The blenny’s rings fluoresce red when illuminated with blue light: only blue light normally penetrates to the depth where it lives. Use of red thus maximizes sensitivity, and red may be invisible to other animals living at depth which have not evolved to see this colour.
Michiels et al continue to accumulate evidence supporting the theory[3]. It had previously been suggested that fish living at great depth might emit light for similar reasons[4]. However, little attention appears to have been paid to potential use of the mechanism by animals other than fish. In this paper I introduce circumstantial evidence that many other types of animal likely use it.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[185] **viXra:1411.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-17 13:08:23*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 13 Pages. none

In this article the resolution of the famous Ehrenfest paradox [1] is presented. The paradox relates to a spinning disk and the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) applied to it. The paradox resolution is based on the proposition that the paradox results from an incorrect application of SRT to a system that is not in an inertial motion. The centrifugal and centripetal forces resulting from the rotation are always present and need to be accounted for. Using the author's previously derived metric for the axially symmetric space-time the effect of centrifugal and centripetal forces can be correctly included. When this is done no paradox is obtained and it is shown that the spinning disk appears to have flat space-time geometry. This finding also provides the correct interpretation of the null result of Michelson-Morley experiment, the correct explanation of the Fizeau experiments, and a simple and consistent explanation of the Sagnac effect. The theoretical descriptions of all these experiments should, therefore, always include the effect of the centrifugal force of Earth's rotation. The measured data from other experiments conducted on rotating systems are explained by the inertial mass increase as correctly described by SRT.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[184] **viXra:1411.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-19 20:33:56*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The “naturalness” problem stands out as one of the deepest mysteries of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and cosmology. A vast array of proposals on how to tackle this challenge has been advanced over the years with no compelling experimental evidence and no major breakthrough. In this brief report we re-emphasize that the onset of the minimal fractal manifold near or above the electroweak scale provides a straightforward resolution of this problem.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[183] **viXra:1411.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-17 11:17:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the “brightest beacons” in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar’s center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[182] **viXra:1411.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-17 06:32:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The recently discovered Higgs boson is best known for its important role in explaining particle mass. But now some physicists are wondering if the Higgs could have played an equally significant role in generating dark matter and baryonic matter in the early Universe, as well as causing the hypothetical dark matter asymmetry and the observed baryon asymmetry between matter and antimatter particles. [9]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[181] **viXra:1411.0221 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-02 08:21:26*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We outline the three main models of the gravitation of Newton, Fatio-Le Sage and Einstein. All of them explain, more or less, the force of the gravity, but the last one gives at once the geometry of the space. The Fatio-Le Sage model might be a possible solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[180] **viXra:1411.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-17 08:33:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discovered elusive Higgs boson, first predicted theoretically, turns out to may have been a different particle after all. A team of international researchers have claimed that it could be an even more mysterious techni-higgs. [3]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[179] **viXra:1411.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-09 10:41:57*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In the limit we obtain grainy mathematical spacetime with grains composed of infinite sets of finite velocities of sizeless points placed in nothingness. On the other hand, we do not lose information about inertial-only mass if in nothingness are moving the physical plenums i.e. some grains as well. It causes that mathematical and physical descriptions are compatible. There are not in existence real numbers composed of infinite number of digits (there are gaps between the centres of the tangent mathematical grains or physical plenums). It leads to the calculus of finite differences. Similarity in behaviour of grains and plenums (the kinematics of fluids) causes that Platonism is partially correct. Such initial conditions lead sometimes to life and mind.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[178] **viXra:1411.0218 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-23 10:34:38*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 11 Pages. I am looking for interested Editor, can You offer publication?

Speaking of Truth, till 2014 the paradoxes of Physics are not solved without the God's Grace. One must return to Holy Trinity. The development of physics was guided by the strange idea, that God is absent. Namely, He gave the laws, gave the matter and left for rest, for vacation till the Judgement Day. That is wrong, because Jesus Christ is the God, Who made miracles among us (see the Bible).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[177] **viXra:1411.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-16 09:15:03*

**Authors:** Jack B. Wenger

**Comments:** 128 Pages. Availible as html at www. quasiuniverse.com

Preface or abstract
Quasi universe changes very little. It is simply another perspective on the standard model and provides substance to field theory. The mathematics involved should be the similar, although this perspective may
provide some shortcuts and may even eliminate the need for “normalization”, perhaps not. I think that it makes many of the observed characteristics of cosmology, quantum mechanics and particle physics more intuitive. As far as I can tell it, agrees with observations as reported in the popular press and the texts that I have read. Others may find major flaws in its presentation. If that is the case, I am happy. At least they have read it.
The diagram, on the title page represents a cross section of the layers within a 5space hyper sphere. All spacial systems are treated as interfaces. Lines represent 4spaces, the areas between lines represent 5spaces and the point where the lines meet represents a 3space or volume.
The convention used within this document is that a 5space hyper sphere has a curved 4space (4
dimensional) surface that encloses a 5space hyper (5 dimensional) volume just as a 3space sphere has a 2space (2 dimensional) or planar surface that encloses a 3space (3 dimensional) volume.
The layers within the 5space sphere also have curved 4space surfaces or interfaces.
The yellow layer is a 5space fluid that is intruding between two others. The region at which the intruder separates the other two and where all layers meet is a volume or 3space.
The intruder rubs against the other two layers and creates shear which is expressed as an extremely fine texture of vortices. This is the primary field, an ocean of energy similar to the Higgs field in our universe.
These vortices create and follow wakes of distortion or torque at the interfaces between the intruder and the other two layers.
The shear vortices and their wakes are the ingredients that make up vastly larger objects and fields much in the way that grains of sand and cement make up the foundations of a building.
These large objects and fields mimic the particles and fields in our universe
The paradigm suggests some solutions to apparent problems of today’s physical theories.
It suggests a variable rate of expansion of the quasi universe and provides a source for its dark energy. It goes further in that it links dark energy, gravitation and universal expansion together.
It provides a structure for a three or four quark system that does not need fractional charge. Debris from collisions would imply the three 5D partitions created by the intrusion of Daleth and should be similar to the debris that implies the three quark model in our universe. Quasi universe allows the Daleth partition to have zero charge because it may contain two matter swarms of opposing charges and intrinsic spin.
These extra swarms may behave like our “sea quarks”.
The properties of photonic and matter swarms allow us to easily visualize these objects as “particle waves”.
There are no conflicts here. And it is easy to visualize shear vortices as the currency for the
conversion of matter to energy and vice versa. Their fluidity as swarms requires that their interactions to be described in terms of probabilities, complex interference and quasi quantum states
What follows below is rational for this scenario.
I am not under the illusion that I have everything right. These are simply suggestion as to how one might approach the paradigm.
The paper will be updated as I reevaluate some of the concepts

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[176] **viXra:1411.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-16 06:13:09*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we provide another angle to analyze the reasons why Alzheimer Disease exists. We analyze the dynamic mechanism of Alzheimer Disease based on the cognitive model that established from artificial neural network. We can provide some theoretic explanations to Alzheimer Disease through the analyzing of this model.

**Category:** Mind Science

[175] **viXra:1411.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 13:17:15*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 picture

It will be explained that Jeans Mass or Jeans Instability is pseudoscience, and the rules for initial star formation are severely outdated.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[174] **viXra:1411.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 13:49:04*

**Authors:** Florentin SMARANDACHE, Eugen EVU

**Comments:** 134 Pages. Romanian language

Meridian româno-român peste ocean(nu se recomanda minorilor si pudicilor).

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[173] **viXra:1411.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 13:53:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 52 Pages. Romanian language

Poeme ilustrate@@ într-un rând.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[172] **viXra:1411.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 13:55:20*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 438 Pages.

This book is devoted to an emerging branch of Information Fusion based on new approach for modelling the fusion problematic when the information provided by the sources is both uncertain and (highly) conflicting. This approach, known in literature as DSmT (standing for Dezert-Smarandache Theory), proposes new useful rules of combinations.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[171] **viXra:1411.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:01:19*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 64 Pages. Romanian language

Flor este bărbatul la maturitate, înflorind prin dragoste. Erato este muza poeziei şi erosului, împrumutându-şi numele din mitologie, dar evadând din aceasta pentru a deveni femeia senzuală care se înfloreşte pe sine şi înfloreşte bărbatul căruia i se dăruie.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[170] **viXra:1411.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:02:29*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

Aceste “poezii cu dedicaţie precisă” sunt versuri ocazionale dedicate şi adresate lui Florentin Smarandache, sub formă de felicitări (“floricitări”) cu ocazia sărbătorilor de Florii (“Florinalii”), colectate din arhiva scriitorului de Amalia Mia Pop şi ilustrate cu fotografii din arhiva AdSumus sau din Internet.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[169] **viXra:1411.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:03:44*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 52 Pages. Romanian language

Poeme ilustrate într-un rând.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[168] **viXra:1411.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:05:46*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 713 Pages. Romanian language

FOLCLOR UMORISTIC INTERNETIST, volumul I, cules, selectat, prelucrat şi ilustrat.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[167] **viXra:1411.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:07:46*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 704 Pages. Romanian language

FOLCLOR UMORISTIC INTERNETIST, volumul al II-lea, cules, selectat, prelucrat şi ilustrat.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[166] **viXra:1411.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:10:40*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 696 Pages. Romanian language

FOLCLOR UMORISTIC INTERNETIST, volumul al III-lea, cules, selectat, prelucrat şi ilustrat.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[165] **viXra:1411.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:12:18*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 612 Pages. Romanian language

FOLCLOR UMORISTIC INTERNETIST, volumul al IV-lea, cules, selectat, prelucrat şi ilustrat.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[164] **viXra:1411.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:17:14*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 686 Pages. Romanian language

FOLCLOR UMORISTIC INTERNETIST, volumul al VII-lea, cules, selectat, prelucrat şi ilustrat.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[163] **viXra:1411.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:19:07*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 722 Pages. Romanian language

FOLCLOR UMORISTIC INTERNETIST, volumul al VIII-lea, cules, selectat, prelucrat şi ilustrat.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[162] **viXra:1411.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:20:33*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 644 Pages. Romanian language

FOLCLOR UMORISTIC INTERNETIST, volumul al IX-lea, cules, selectat, prelucrat şi ilustrat.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[161] **viXra:1411.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:21:59*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 648 Pages. Romanian language

FOLCLOR UMORISTIC INTERNETIST, volumul al X-lea, cules, selectat, prelucrat şi ilustrat.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[160] **viXra:1411.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:23:33*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 617 Pages. Romanian language

FOLCLOR UMORISTIC INTERNETIST, volumul al XI-lea, cules, selectat, prelucrat şi ilustrat.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[159] **viXra:1411.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-25 06:36:01*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 110 Pages.

Plecat de pe plaiurile Bălceştiului de Olteţ, profesorul şi scriitorul Florentin Smarandache, actualmente profesor universitar în Statele Unite, face parte din acea categorie a personalităţilor complexe, neliniştite, însetate de cunoaştere şi de adevăr, aflat tot timpul pe un drum care nu se va termina niciodată, al căutării absolutului şi al căutării de sine, al creaţiei şi descoperirii.
(ŞTEFAN DUMITRESCU)

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[158] **viXra:1411.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:38:12*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 125 Pages. Edited By The Madis of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture.

The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed@@ international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published in USA quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which
publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandachemulti-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[157] **viXra:1411.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:40:18*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 129 Pages. Edited By The Madis of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture.

The International J.Mathematical@@ Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published in USA quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandachemulti-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[156] **viXra:1411.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:41:29*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 111 Pages. Edited By The Madis of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture.

The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published in USA quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandachemulti-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[155] **viXra:1411.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:48:04*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 56 Pages. French language

Aphorisme de vie.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[154] **viXra:1411.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 16:05:34*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 70 Pages. University of New Mexico, USA.

Papers on neutrosophic measure, neutrosophic integral, correlation@@ coefficient between single valued neutrosophic@@ sets, soft neutrosophic group, neutrosophic filters, image segmentation algorithm, neutrosophic crisp points, neutrosophic crisp ideals, neutrosophic communication, and multiple attribute decision making.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[153] **viXra:1411.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 16:07:15*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 112 Pages. University of New Mexico, USA.

Papers on neutrosophic measure, neutrosophic integral, correlation@@ coefficient between single valued neutrosophic sets, soft neutrosophic group, neutrosophic filters, image segmentation algorithm, neutrosophic crisp points, neutrosophic crisp ideals, neutrosophic communication, and multiple attribute decision making.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[152] **viXra:1411.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 16:08:14*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 76 Pages. University of New Mexico, USA.

Papers@@ on neutrosophic measure, neutrosophic integral, correlation coefficient between single valued neutrosophic sets, soft neutrosophic group, neutrosophic filters, image segmentation algorithm, neutrosophic crisp points, neutrosophic crisp ideals, neutrosophic communication, and multiple attribute decision making.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[151] **viXra:1411.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 16:09:09*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 76 Pages. University of New Mexico, USA.

Papers on neutrosophic measure, neutrosophic integral, correlation coefficient between single valued neutrosophic sets, soft neutrosophic group, neutrosophic@@ filters, image segmentation algorithm, neutrosophic crisp points, neutrosophic crisp ideals, neutrosophic communication, and multiple attribute decision making.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[150] **viXra:1411.0178 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-31 15:26:43*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

This is a compilation of quaternionic number systems, quaternionic function theory, quaternionic Hilbert spaces and Gelfand triples.
The difference between quaternionic differential calculus and Maxwell based differential calculus is explained.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[149] **viXra:1411.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 16:10:00*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 78 Pages. University of New Mexico, USA.

Papers on neutrosophic measure, neutrosophic integral, correlation coefficient between single valued neutrosophic sets, soft neutrosophic group, neutrosophic filters, image segmentation algorithm, neutrosophic crisp points, neutrosophic crisp ideals, neutrosophic communication, and multiple attribute decision making.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[148] **viXra:1411.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 16:11:30*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 85 Pages. University of New Mexico, USA.

Papers on neutrosophic measure, neutrosophic integral, correlation coefficient@@ between single valued neutrosophic sets, soft neutrosophic group, neutrosophic filters, image segmentation algorithm, neutrosophic crisp points, neutrosophic crisp ideals, neutrosophic communication, and multiple attribute decision making.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[147] **viXra:1411.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 16:14:30*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory of skeleton relational structures is very useful in the investigation of the isomorphism between structures in which relations play an important role. It is an important tool for model designers. This theory is also known as lattice theory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[146] **viXra:1411.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 16:19:24*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 139 Pages. Romanian language

Polemici privind paradoxismul ȋn eseuri și diverse interviuri sunt prezentate ȋn prima parte a acestei cărți.
Ȋn cea de-a doua parte, veți constata actualitatea paradoxismului ȋn societatea contemporană, prin expresii și mai ales imagini cotidiene preluate din folclorul Internetului, cu parabole și ironii politice, cu această modernizare… primitivă a țării!
Iată cȃt de prezent este paradoxismul ȋn această perioadă de tranziție, care nu se mai termină…

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[145] **viXra:1411.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 16:23:26*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 300 Pages.

•This photo-album includes about 280 folklore color images gathered from Internet or received by e-mail.
•The images are contradictory in a lower percent (soft paradoxism), or in a higher percent (hard paradoxism).

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[144] **viXra:1411.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 16:25:58*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 155 Pages. Romanian language

Prof. univ. dr. Florentin Smarandache, de la Universitatea New Mexico din Statele Unite, descrie în această carte studiile şi cercetările sale ştiinţifice postdoctorale în matematică, precum şi seminariile şi conferinţa internaţională la care a participat în perioada 2012-2014, în Japonia.
La Conferinţa Internaţională de Mecatronică, organizată de Universitatea de Agricultură şi Tehnologie din Tokyo în septembrie 2012, precum şi la seminariile susţinute la Universitatea de Ştiinţe din Okayama şi respectiv la Universitatea din Osaka (2013-2014), autorul a prezentat articole privind Logica neutrosofică şi mulţimea neutrosofică, Teoria Dezert-Smarandache, şi Metoda reducerii –α în luarea de decizii bazate pe multicriterii, împreună cu aplicarea acestora la roboţii mobili.
Pe lângă activitatea sa ştiinţifică, autorul a vizitat şi muzee, temple, castele medievale şi grădini nipone în mai multe oraşe (Tokyo, Okayama, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, Kurashiki, Osaka şi Kyoto), şi a colaborat cu profesori, cercetători şi studenţi japonezi de la aceste trei universităţi în scrierea de articole şi cărţi ştiinţifice.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[143] **viXra:1411.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 14:53:04*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Ştefan Vlăduţescu

**Comments:** 247 Pages.

This book represents the buoy that marks the transition of neutrosophy from the emergence phase to the incidence phase. Like any entity, ideas are born and acquire emergence. Some ideas impose and pass to the stage of incidence. Other ideas fade away. For some ideational configurations, the emergence matures into incidence, for others the emergence gets into implosion. In other words, some emergences are validated and accredited, and others get into the implosion. Any emergence is a promise. When they keep their promises, they are felt as strong ideas, as influential ideas and, thus, they have an impact in different areas of the universe of knowledge. Emergence is a tectonic development. Incidence is the emergence applicability and its certification.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[142] **viXra:1411.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 15:25:47*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 56 Pages. French language

Art album accompanied by aphorisms inspired from folklore, various readings, or original.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[141] **viXra:1411.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 15:29:54*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 138 Pages. Romanian language

Libertatea de a gândi altfel ne crează probleme – cu toată demagogia actuală despre democraţie şi libertate a presei politice sau ştiinţifice. Cine iese din gloată şi nu urmează orbeşte ceea ce declară mai marii (totuşi efemeri!) ai zilei, este pus la zidul infamiei.
Deseori cei de la putere într-un domeniu au prezentat şi răspândit pseudo-gnoseologia lor ca... gnoseologie generală.
Ontologia, după cum a fost văzută de cei de sus, a fost suprapusă/impusă celor de rând.
Noi pledăm pentru un proces cogniscibil care să nu aibă îngrădiri de nici o formă. Din această cauză, hermeneutica se presupune a fi cât mai diversificată.
Interviurile următoare împletesc cultura, ştiinţa, tehnica şi viaţa într-un multi-eu. De aceea volumul se numeşte multirelavititate: adică idei şi metodologii privite din unghiuri cât
mai diferite de propaganda oficială.
Gasiti in acest volum interviuri ale autorului cu: Valeria Tănase, Puşa Roth, Eugen Evu, Liliana Hinoveanu, Mihaela Năftănăilă, Puiu Popescu, Corina Negrea, Ion Jianu, Anca Lăpuşneanu, şi Marinela Preoteasa.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[140] **viXra:1411.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 15:31:03*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 122 Pages.

Since childhood I got accustomed to study with a pen in my hand.
I extracted theorems and formulas, together with the definitions, from my textbooks.
It was easier, later, for me, to prepare for the tests, especially for the final exams at the end of each semester.
I kept (and still do today) small notebooks where I collected not only mathematical but any idea I read from various domains.
These two volumes reflect my 1973-1974 high school studies in mathematics at the Pedagogical High School of Rm. Vâlcea, Romania.
Besides the textbooks I added information I collected from various mathematical books of solved problems I was studying at that time.
The first volume contains: Arithmetic, Plane Geometry, and Space Geometry.
(The Author)

**Category:** General Mathematics

[139] **viXra:1411.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 15:32:07*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

Since childhood I got accustomed to study with a pen in my hand.
I extracted theorems and formulas, together with the definitions, from my textbooks.
It was easier, later, for me, to prepare for the tests, especially for the final exams at the end of each semester.
I kept (and still do today) small notebooks where I collected not only mathematical but any idea I read from various domains.
These two volumes reflect my 1973-1974 high school studies in mathematics at the Pedagogical High School of Rm. Vâlcea, Romania.
Besides the textbooks I added information I collected from various mathematical books of solved problems I was studying at that time.
The second volume contains: Algebra (9th to 12th grades), and Trigonometry.
(The Author)

**Category:** General Mathematics

[138] **viXra:1411.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-09 10:38:55*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Mathematical states of the infinite cosmos should be preferred as the initial conditions. Creation of physical world is impossible without two different ground states. In the limit we obtain grainy mathematical spacetime with grains composed of infinite sets of finite velocities of sizeless points placed in (true) nothingness. Such model is coherent for nontransparent grains. Can the mathematical grains be nontransparent? Probability that we cannot formulate coherent mathematical theory of Nature without plenums moving in nothingness is very high. Existence of the plenums causes that in the limit we do not lose information about inertial mass. Next, due to the inertial mass directly proportional to volume of the grains of velocities, we can replace densities by dimensionless numbers i.e. there is possible the transition from the dynamical quantities to kinematical ones. Can be the infinite physical cosmos built from mathematical objects only? What is the transition from math to physics? What are the moving pieces of space? What is the origin of their inertia? What is the origin of the critical/Planck values? Is there a lower limit for the General Relativity and Quantum Physics? Do we need new physics?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[137] **viXra:1411.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 09:45:29*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 252 Pages.

In this book we introduce several algebraic structures on the special fuzzy interval [0, 1). This study is different from that of the algebraic structures using the interval [0, n) n ≠ 1, as these structures on [0, 1) has no idempotents or zero divisors under ×. Further [0, 1) under product × is only a semigroup. However by defining min(or max) operation in [0, 1); [0, 1) is made into a semigroup.

**Category:** Algebra

[136] **viXra:1411.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 09:47:23*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 218 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time introduce a new method of building algebraic structures on the interval [0, n). This study is interesting and innovative. However, [0, n) is a semigroup under product, × modulo n and a semigroup under min or max operation. Further [0, n) is a group under addition modulo n.

**Category:** Algebra

[135] **viXra:1411.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 09:57:35*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 170 Pages. Romanian language

Cum „microbul Călătoriei” s-a întâlnit în fluxul sanguin al olteano-americanului (îi spun astfel, deoarece are acum dublă cetăţenie, română şi americană – un motiv pentru alte călătorii
periodice peste Ocean) cu „microbul Literaturii”, din această „sinergie microbiană” a luat naştere, în mod firesc, un jurnal de călătorie – un jurnal-fluviu, autorul având ambiţia de a scrie cel mai lung jurnal de acest gen din literatura română.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[134] **viXra:1411.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 10:03:06*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 132 Pages.

Prime numbers have always fascinated mankind. For mathematicians, they are a kind of “black sheep” of the family of integers by their constant refusal to let themselves to be disciplined, ordered and understood. However, we have at hand a powerful tool, insufficiently investigated yet, which can help us in understanding them: Fermat pseudoprimes. It was a night of Easter, many years ago, when I rediscovered Fermat’s "little" theorem. Excited, I found the first few Fermat absolute pseudoprimes (561, 1105, 1729, 2465, 2821, 6601, 8911…) before I found out that these numbers are already known. Since then, the passion for study these numbers constantly accompanied me.

**Category:** Algebra

[133] **viXra:1411.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 10:04:38*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 84 Pages.

The present collected papers aims to show new applications of Smarandache function in the study of some well known classes of numbers, like prime numbers, Poulet numbers, Carmichael numbers, Sophie Germain primes etc.

**Category:** Algebra

[132] **viXra:1411.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 10:11:33*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It is always difficult to talk about arithmetic, because those who do not know what is about, nor do they understand in few sentences, no matter how inspired these might be, and those who know what is about, do no need to be told what is about.

**Category:** Algebra

[131] **viXra:1411.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 10:12:32*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

This collection of papers brings together several articles regarding primes, submitted by the author to the preprint scientific database Vixra.

**Category:** Algebra

[130] **viXra:1411.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 10:13:43*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 81 Pages.

This collection of articles seeks to expand the knowledge on some well known classes of primes, like for instance Sophie Germain primes, but also to define new classes of primes, like for instance “ACPOW chains of primes”, or classes of integers directly related to primes, like for instance “chameleonic numbers”.

**Category:** Algebra

[129] **viXra:1411.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 18:41:53*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It will be explained that nuclear fusion happens as a galaxy is born.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[128] **viXra:1411.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 16:29:05*

**Authors:** Joseph Catania

**Comments:** 2 Pages. (c) 2014

Although the discovery of the Cosmological Redshift Field (CRF) is the singular most crucial recent development in cosmology, due to lack of observational evidence the cause of the CRF remains a mystery. For instance it would be folly to ascribe the cause to physical expansion of the distribution of matter in space for several reasons. Firstly, in LeMaitre's theory the cause is ascribed to recessional velocity and thus the redshift is assumed to be a Doppler shift. But this is entirely dogmatic as LeMaitre had not observed any emitters having recessional velocity. Physical theory must be based on observations not on ad hoc assumptions. Thus it turns out, secondly, that spatio-temporal mechanics cannot support a universal expansion without nullifying confirmed theory and even canon. For example, a CRF which is linear with distance (z=k.r, where z is redshift) and whose field is central about the destination or receiver would seem to require a force field which is constant with radius and directed outward from the receiver. This would cause the necessary LeMaitrian expansion but no such field has ever been detected and hypothetical construction would seem to be anomalous in physics. The conclusion should be that since spatio-temporal mechanics is reasonably well understood that the cause does not reside in space-time and that a theory to deal with this wholly unexpected space-time field should reside outside of space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[127] **viXra:1411.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 16:46:08*

**Authors:** Casper Spanggaard

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

A definition of G is derived using the product of two Planck point masses and a definition of hbar based on the speed of light in vacuum and geometry. The theoretical value of G is found to be 6.74981057667161 x 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2 yielding a relative accuracy error of the CODATA 2010 G-value of -1.1255%. One experiment resulted in a value with a smaller relative accuracy error than the CODATA 2010 G-value of -0.5098%. Both rest and relativistic mass product equations are derived. These equations relate the relative spacetime spin frequency w_s, the relative orbital frequency w_o and (relativistic equation only) the Lorentz factor y describing relative linear speed of two bodies to the mass product. The Planck mass is a special case mass with w_sw_o = w_planck^2 = 1 s^-2. The theoretical value of the Planck mass was found to be 2.16039211144077 x 10^-8 kg. The relative accuracy error of the CODATA 2010 Planck mass value is 0.7461%. This error is attributed to use of the different definition of hbar. When derived from both hbar and G constants as well as the rest mass product equation, three kilogram unit definition candidates are all inconsistent. The candidate derived from the rest mass product equation is the only candidate that has equal second and meter exponents suggesting a kind of symmetry. This definition is considered the nominal kilogram unit definition. The other two candidates are considered to be artifacts of the hbar and G constants.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[126] **viXra:1411.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 17:04:01*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper will present various techniques for visualizing a split real even $E_8$ representation in 2 and 3 dimensions using an $E_8$ to $H_4$ folding matrix. This matrix is shown to be useful in providing direct relationships between $E_8$ and the lower dimensional Dynkin and Coxeter-Dynkin geometries contained within it, geometries that are visualized in the form of real and virtual 3 dimensional objects.

**Category:** Geometry

[125] **viXra:1411.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 17:52:38*

**Authors:** Ion Jianu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Cartea de matematică „Algebraic Structures Using Super Interval Matrices“ (traducerea în română „Structuri algebrice folosind supermatrici de intervale“), scrisă de W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy (cercetător din India) și Florentin Smarandache (originar din Bălceşti, judeţul Vâlcea), în prezent profesor la Universitatea din New Mexico (SUA), a fost distinsă cu o mențiune onorabilă la festivalul cărții de la Londra, la categoria Non-Fiction.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[124] **viXra:1411.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 17:53:58*

**Authors:** Daniel Lăcătuş

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Apreciat cercetător științific, doctor în matematică, scriitor, profesor universitar, cu o activitate intensă, tocmai pentru care în anul 2009 a primit premiul Traian Vuia din partea Academiei Române, în domeniul Științelor tehnice, una dintre multiplele distincții primite de-a lungul anilor, Florentin Smarandache are și o legătură față de orașul Călan, legătură de care puțin știu.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[123] **viXra:1411.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 17:55:41*

**Authors:** Mircea Monu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Prof. univ. dr. Florentin Smarandache (născut în Bălceşti, Vâlcea, având cetăţenie dublă, româno americană) de la Facultatea de Matematică şi Ştiinţe a Universităţii „New Mexico” din oraşul Gallup, statul federal New Mexico, SUA, a fost primul străin care a beneficiat, în perioada 18 mai - 14 august 2012, de o bursă de studii la Institutul de Cercetări în Extensiologie şi Metode Inovatoare din cadrul UniversităţiiTehnologice „Guangdong” din oraşul Guangzhou, China, într-o ştiinţă nouă, creată de către chinezi, numită „Extensiologia” (în engleză, „Extenics”), aflată la confluenţa dintre matematică, inginerie şi filozofie.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[122] **viXra:1411.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 17:56:57*

**Authors:** Mircea Monu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Vâlceanul Florentin Smarandache, profesor universitar doctor la Facultatea de Matematică şi Ştiinţe a Univesităţii „New Mexico” din Gallup, statul federal New Mexico, SUA, având dublă cetăţenie, română şi americană, a servit ca o punte de legătură între savanţii americani şi cei chinezi în domeniul extensiologiei.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[121] **viXra:1411.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 17:58:14*

**Authors:** Mircea Monu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

La prestigioasa editură americană „Educational Publisher Inc.” din oraşul Columbus, capitala statului federal Ohio, a apărut o enciclopedie dedicată unor „noţiuni de tip Smarandache” din matematică – cele din Teoria Numerelor.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[120] **viXra:1411.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 17:59:34*

**Authors:** Mircea Monu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Ultima realizare editorială din domeniul ştiinţei a savantului vâlceanoamerican Florentin Smarandache, profesor universitar doctor la Facultatea de Matematică şi Ştiinţe a Universităţii „New Mexico” din oraşul Gallup,
statul federal New Mexico, situat în sud-vestul SUA, este apariţia primului număr al revistei (în limba engleză) „Neutrosofic Sets and Systems” (Mulţimi şi sisteme neutrosofice), o revistă internaţională de Ştiinţa Informaţiei şi de Inginerie.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[119] **viXra:1411.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 18:01:00*

**Authors:** Mircea Monu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Vacanţa de iarnă începe la 15 decembrie în universităţile americane, aşa că vâlceano-americanul Florentin Smarandache, profesor la Facultatea de Matematică şi Ştiinţe a Universităţii „New Mexico” din oraşul Gallup, statul federal New Mexico, situat în sud-vestul SUA, se află deja în Japonia, pentru perioada 12 decembrie 2013 – 12 ianuarie 2014, în baza unui contract de cercetare semnat cu Universitatea de Ştiinţe din oraşul Okayama (este o universitate privată).

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[118] **viXra:1411.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 18:03:03*

**Authors:** Minh Perez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

O serie de proprietăţi ale funcţiei Smarandache şi unele generalizări ale ei.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[117] **viXra:1411.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 18:04:49*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabunski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Despre Florentin Smarandache, prolific autor, coautor, editor, si co-editor a 180 de carti publicate de circa patruzeci de edituri.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[116] **viXra:1411.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 18:06:08*

**Authors:** Magdalena Vlădilă

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache, actualmente profesor la Universitatea New Mexico, a absolvit Facultatea de Matematică a Universităţii din Craiova. Este cunoscut în lumea ştiinţifică internaţională pentru contribuţiile originale în domeniul matematicilor moderne.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[115] **viXra:1411.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 18:07:57*

**Authors:** Magdalena Vlădilă

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Romanian

Personalitate neobişnuit de creativă, Florin Smarandache s-a distins deopotrivă în domeniul matematicii, poeziei, filosofiei.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[114] **viXra:1411.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-25 12:25:20*

**Authors:** T. Marshall Eubanks

**Comments:** 62 Pages. Submitted to Planetary and Space Sciences

Gravitational microlensing has revealed an extensive population of “nomadic” planets not orbiting any star, with Jupiter-mass nomads being more populous than main sequence stars. Except for distant objects discovered through mi- crolensing, and hot, young nomads found near star formation regions, to date only a small number of nomad candidates have been discovered. Here I show that there should be significant numbers of mature nomadic exoplanets close enough to be discovered with existing or planned astronomical resources, includ- ing dozens to hundreds of planets closer than the nearest star. Observational data are used to derive models relating mass, radius, heat flux and magnetic dipole moment; these are used together with population density models to show the observability of nomads in the IR, due to thermal emissions, and at radio frequencies, due to cyclotron maser instabilities. These neighboring nomadic planets will provide a new exoplanet population for astronomical research and, eventually, direct exploration by spacecraft.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[113] **viXra:1411.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 10:09:33*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** Appendix split off with 22 pages that includes E8 root list, Hasse diagram and a complete particle list.

This paper will present various techniques for visualizing a split real even E8 representation
in 2 and 3 dimensions using an E8 to H4 folding matrix. This matrix is shown to be useful in
providing direct relationships between E8 and the lower dimensional Dynkin and Coxeter-Dynkin
geometries contained within it, geometries that are visualized in the form of real and virtual 3
dimensional objects. A direct linkage between E8, the folding matrix, fundamental physics particles
in an extended Standard model, quaternions, and octonions is introduced, and its importance is
investigated and described.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[112] **viXra:1411.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 10:51:57*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is reasoned that we can determine the ages of stellar cores by simply measuring their diameter.

**Category:** Geophysics

[111] **viXra:1411.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 11:50:03*

**Authors:** Ştefan Dumitrescu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache a cunoscut exilul, în toată amăreala lui, şi poate că acest fapt este unul dintre argumentele care l-au făcut să-i adune la un
loc pe scriitorii lăsaţi acasă.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[110] **viXra:1411.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 11:51:37*

**Authors:** Eugen Evu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Celebrul nostru compatriot rezident în New Mexico, USA, prof. univ. la Gallup Institute, a fost nominalizat pentru Premiul Nobel pentru Literatură pe anul 2011.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[109] **viXra:1411.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 11:54:45*

**Authors:** Eugen Evu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Viaţa lui Florentin Smarandache, atât de specială, intuitivă şi răzbătătoare, este un itinerar iniţiatic din care ai ce învăţa, o enciclopedie vie.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[108] **viXra:1411.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 11:56:08*

**Authors:** Eugen Evu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

"Neutrosofia" este o generalizare a „dialecticii” din filozofie, realizată de vâlceanul stabilit în State, la New Mexico, Florentin Smarandache, prin introducerea categoriei de „neutru”, alături de categoria de „contrarii”.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[107] **viXra:1411.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 11:58:01*

**Authors:** Al. Florin Ţene

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Aşteptam cu nerăbdare volumul de suflet, ce se intitulează “Popasuri scriitoriceşti pe Olt şi Olteţ“, apărută la Editura Sitech & Education Publisher, 2013, în condiţii grafice deosebite.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[106] **viXra:1411.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 11:59:18*

**Authors:** Teodor Popa

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Traducerile celor două cărţi de aforisme „Viaţa la plus infinit” şi „Să poţi zâmbi atunci când suferi” ale scriitorului Florentin Smarandache, editate la „Sitech” şi „Publischer”, în 2013, Craiova şi America, ridică diverse praguri de dificultate, multe dintre ele aproape că nu pot fi traduse ca atare.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[105] **viXra:1411.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 12:00:29*

**Authors:** Elena Adriana Răducan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Am răsfoit pe îndelete FORMULE PENTRU SPIRIT, un volum de versuri al poetului FLORENTIN SMARANDACHE. Viaţa de fiecare zi, prinsă într-o altă dimensiune, îmi apare ca o existenţă filosofică, filtrată prin fugara privire a celui care trăieşte cu patetism fiecare clipă.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[104] **viXra:1411.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 12:02:13*

**Authors:** Marcela Ilinca

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Reflecţiile, gândirea aforistică înseamnă ceva dificil de tradus.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[103] **viXra:1411.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 12:09:25*

**Authors:** Ion Jianu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Prolificul scriitor oltean Florentin Smarandache, stabilit în SUA de dinainte de 1990, a publicat un volum antologic cuprinzând câteva portrete ale unor scriitori și publiciști olteni din Dolj și Vâlcea.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[102] **viXra:1411.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 08:33:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Dark matter may not be made of tiny particles as most scientists believe, but instead may consist of large chunks of strange matter anywhere from the size of an apple to an asteroid, researchers said. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[101] **viXra:1411.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 04:18:00*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A simple formula from the 3D Universe Theory giving the value of the Dark Energy Density.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[100] **viXra:1411.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-24 17:29:27*

**Authors:** Eszter A. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Andras Der, Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages. submitted for pubication

Even a single neuron may be able to produce significant lognormal features in its firing statistics due to noise in the charging ion current. A mathematical scheme introduced in advanced nanotechnology is relevant for the analysis of this mechanism in the simplest case, the integrate-and-fire model with white noise in the charging ion current.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[99] **viXra:1411.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-17 00:40:31*

**Authors:** G. H. Mickey Thompson

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Big bang theory encounters much contrary evidence that doesn’t conform to its assumptions and researchers would like to see a model that makes more sense. This paper posits that most of the problems with the Lambda Cold Dark Matter/Inflationary model stem from its arbitrary assumption that the big bang created the universe. Negating that assumption and superimposing the big bang on an older and grander universe transforms the seemingly anomalous evidence into a stunningly cohesive picture. It portrays a more natural universe whose observable machinery is constantly producing big bangs and all the other behaviors we see. This model is one of a simple and logical 3D universe that can be explained with no need for dubious physics or supernatural dimensions. It appears that big bangs are simply the way the universe recycles its home-grown singularities.
Keywords: Anthropic conditions, antimatter disparity, Big Bash model, cosmological principle, creation model, dark energy, Inflation model, quasars, singularities

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[98] **viXra:1411.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 03:40:42*

**Authors:** Shreyak Chakraborty, Salil Batabyal

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

In this project, we extend the work already done in [1.] to include a
generalised mathematical framework for studying and explaining the
dynamics and behavior of crowds of humans. The method is both
analytical and numerical. The numerical methods are used to solve
the differential equations of crowds that are derived analytically. The
analytical and numerical solutions are compared and their relevance
is shown. In this project, we study mainly two types of responses of
a crowd: Position Response and Density Response. The latter is
formulated using stressors using an approach similar to [2.] which
also enables us to derive the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Model in a very generalised form. Finally, we extend stressors to
define inter-crowd and intra-crowd interactions using a
parameterisation linking it directly to a generalisation of the stressdensity
equation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[97] **viXra:1411.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-13 14:34:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The evidence for this came from three NASA satellites that observe in X-ray light: the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Swift gamma-ray mission, and the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[96] **viXra:1411.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-14 07:38:24*

**Authors:** A. Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Corrected a mistake that does not affect at all the proof

In this study we propose a demonstration of the impossibility of odd perfect numbers.This proof uses a congruence, which is implicit in the condition, mandatory, demonstrated by Euler. More precisely, a congruence that must be fulfilled in the equation that equals the number 2N, with Euler condition, and the formula for the sum of the divisors of the odd number N. Following a rigorous and meticulous way, this mandatory congruence; a final equation is obtained after one polynomial simplification on both sides of the original equation that equals the number 2N with the sum of the divisors of the number N. With this final equation, the impossibility of the existence of odd perfect numbers is demonstrated by applying several lemmas.These lemmas are demonstrations already established by W. Ljunggren, Maohua Le, Nagell, among others. With a lemma that establishes mandatory requirements, and two other lemmas for the absence of solutions on certain specific Diophantine equations ( (x^n - 1)/(x-1) = y^2 ; (x^n + 1)/(x+1) = y^2 ; n = 2z + 1); ultimately lead to the demonstration of the nonexistence of odd perfect numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[95] **viXra:1411.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-13 10:31:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The mysterious dark matter that makes up most of the matter in the universe may behave more like wavy fluids than solid particles, helping to explain the shapes of galaxies, a new study suggests. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[94] **viXra:1411.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-13 09:01:22*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is explained that the process of mass loss via heterolytic fissioning accelerates during stellar evolution because of lowered escape velocity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[93] **viXra:1411.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-13 09:10:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[92] **viXra:1411.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-13 06:04:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Preliminary evidence of solar axions in XMM-Newton observations has quite recently been published by Fraser et al. These authors also estimate the axion mass to be m = 2.3 * 10-6 eV. Since an axion with this mass behaves as a cold dark matter particle, the considered preliminary detection directly concerns cold dark matter as well. So, it would be a revolutionary discovery if confirmed. Unfortunately, we have identified three distinct flaws in the analysis by Fraser et al. which ultimately make it totally irrelevant both for axions and for cold dark matter. [15]
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[91] **viXra:1411.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-13 06:12:33*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. English and russian texts

This paper identifies the substantial nature@@ of microworld wave-corpuscle duality and sets out fundamental differences between the microworld and macroworld wave-corpuscle duality.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[90] **viXra:1411.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-12 20:39:23*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The BICEP2 dust controversy prompted an examination of the issues.

Cosmic dust is pervasive within our galaxy and it is reasonable to suspect it is dispersed in various ways throughout the universe. Cosmic dust has emissivity when exposed to electromagnetic energy sources. The emissivity of cosmic dust contributes to cosmic radio noise and concentrations of it alters electromagnetic waves by refraction. Cosmic dust is concentrated in our Sun’s heliosphere and the resultant emissivity products in the microwave and infrared should be detectable by land based and satellite radio telescope instruments. It is possible that many of the claimed microwave and infrared measurements of the universe have in part or their entirety mapped the energy patterns of the cosmic dust in the heliosphere rather than energy patterns beyond it.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[89] **viXra:1411.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-12 17:00:17*

**Authors:** Marvin E. Kirsh

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The World Wide Web is a source of social encounter occurring over undefined distances. If physical parameters of social encounter are considered uncontrollable for studies in a natural setting, the internet world, when dissected philosophically with respect to physical witnessibility of engaged identities, provides a model in which distance is absent. Upon comparison of meaning in science method and theory as it is necessarily rooted to common perceptional experience, it is proposed that established criteria of virtual, real, and actual employed for description in internet communication studies not only constitute 'world', but 'universe' in which the gap between the actual and virtual has a physical meaning. Philosophical analogy is made from a proposed universal model to theory proposed by Albert Einstein, Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn and applied in an attempt to bridge conceptually the social and natural sciences . A release of identity-funding inhibition to the extension of the range of witness beyond the immediate environment, associated with cognitive generalization of phenomenon involving a null hypothesis, seen universally to singularly account for cognitive and behavioral trends towards modern times, is proposed to be the consequence of physical factors that are external to cultures. Discussion relating ‘paradox’ as ‘paradox of the injuring concept’ is rendered in terms of a physical divide between the virtual and the actual.

**Category:** Social Science

[88] **viXra:1411.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-12 09:36:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[87] **viXra:1411.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-13 14:26:42*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A simple analysis based on mathematical arguments shows that adding another well-defined term to the cosmological constant can solve more problems of our cosmological models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[86] **viXra:1411.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-11 21:19:09*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This paper is the Chinese.

The dynamics experiment@@ indicated, the Newton third law is wrong. So where is it been mistakes? The demand deepest analysis in action and reaction, it of meaning and it of principle. The result is to make person feelings shock, it is really wrong that Newton third law!

**Category:** Classical Physics

[85] **viXra:1411.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-02 21:17:02*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Added on aspects of the content of the angular momentum, has nearly doubled in length.

Textual point of view, generate in a series of rotational dynamics experiment. Initial research, is wish find a method overcome the momentum conservation. But further study, again detected inside the classical mechanics, the error of the principle of force moment. Then a series of, momentous the error of inside classical theory, all discover come out. The momentum conservation law is wrong; the newton third law is wrong; the energy conservation law is also can surpass. After redress these error, the new theory namely perforce bring. This will involve the classical physics and mechanics the foundation fraction, textbooks of physics foundation part should proceed the grand modification.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[84] **viXra:1411.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-03 21:53:29*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 23 Pages. This paper is the Chinese. Added on aspects of the content of the angular momentum, has nearly doubled in length.

Textual point of view, generate in a series of rotational dynamics experiment. Initial research, is wish find a method overcome the momentum conservation. But further study, again detected inside the classical mechanics, the error of the principle of force moment. Then a series of, momentous the error of inside classical theory, all discover come out. The momentum conservation law is wrong; the newton third law is wrong; the energy conservation law is also can surpass. After redress these error, the new theory namely perforce bring. This will involve the classical physics and mechanics the foundation fraction, textbooks of physics foundation part should proceed the grand modification.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[83] **viXra:1411.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-11 23:08:51*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In "Quantum Spin and Local Reality" (QSLR) I show that Bell suppressed key physical phenomena to arrive at his inequality. As a result Bell's conclusions are incorrect — his model fails to match reality. Bell's defense is based on quantum mechanical eigenvalue equations with reference to Dirac. I briefly review some issues in the history of spin, and analyze the non-relativistic Stern-Gerlach eigenvalue equation and the relativistic Dirac equation, and show their relevance to Bell.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[82] **viXra:1411.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-11 17:10:02*

**Authors:** Marvin E. Kirsh

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

It is modernly debated whether application of the free will has potential to cause harm to nature. Power possessed to the discourse, sensory/perceptual, physical influences on life experience by the slow moving machinery of change is a viral element in the problems of civilization; failed resolution of historical paradox involving mind and matter is a recurring source of problems. Reference is taken from the writing of Euclid in which a oneness of nature as an indivisible point of thought is made prerequisite in criteria of interpretation to demonstrate that contemporary scientific methodologies alternately ensue from the point of empirically centered induction. A qualification for conceptualizations is proposed that involves a physically describable form bound to energy in addition to contemporary notions of energy bound to form and a visually based mathematical-physical form is elaborated and discussed with respect to biological and natural processes.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[81] **viXra:1411.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-11 17:14:39*

**Authors:** Marvin E. Kirsh

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A philosophical exploration is presented that considers entities such as atoms, electrons, protons, reasoned (in existing physics theories) by induction, to be other than universal building blocks, but artifacts of a sociological struggle that in elemental description is identical with that of all processes of matter and energy. In a universal context both men and materials, when stressed, struggle to accomplish/maintain the free state. The space occupied by cognition, inferred to be the result of the inequality of spaces, is an integral component of both processes and process interpretation; arbitration space, ubiquitous throughout nature, occurred to a vast number of vastnesses, a manifestation of the existence of time dependent mass/number/amount, is argued to be located to the same judging criteria with which principles are determined for sociological purposes: the processes of mind are determined (excuse the pun) to occur as a free state that is reflectively equal to what is construed by the intellect as universe. Scientifically determined states are not free states.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[80] **viXra:1411.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-11 17:29:42*

**Authors:** Marvin E. Kirsh

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is difficult to define perspective within sets that are self belonging. For example in the study of mankind, anthropology, both men and their studies fall into the same category that contains the topic outline. This situation entails a universal quality of uniqueness, an instance of it, to the topic of anthropology that may be viewed in parallel with the topic of nature as the set of unique particulars. Yet one might assent to the notion in the inclusive study of man, anthropology, that nothing in its’ content should conceivably be construed to exceed it, though in approaches to the topic, reference to the topic of nature, unavoided, refer to the scientific topic of nature in which contemporary notions, when contrasted, exceed the perceptual experience of nature. In this presentation problems in approaches and in the application of available tools for analysis to the study of man will be discussed. Framed with respect to a concept of parallelism, notions and stimuli are introduced to augment and reorient towards a more creative perspective with respect to the organization of first perspective considerations in studies. The theories of relativity, the idea of mathematical relations for simultaneous events, the presence of artifactual paradoxes as they are reflected in thinking and the scientific tools applied towards investigations are discussed and hopefully highlighted so that they may hopefully be perceived distinctly form realities involved in the pursuit of studies.

**Category:** Social Science

[79] **viXra:1411.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-11 10:33:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[78] **viXra:1411.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-11 12:03:13*

**Authors:** Muhammad Ilyas

**Comments:** 98 Pages.

This review aims to show the Light cone gauge quantization of strings. It is divided up into three parts. The first consists of an introduction to bosonic and superstring theories and a brief discussion of Type II superstring theories. The second part deals with different configurations of D-branes, their charges and tachyon condensation. The third part contains the compactification of an extra dimension, the dual picture of D-branes having electric as well as magnetic field and the different dualities in string theories. In ten dimensions, there exist five consistent string theories and in eleven dimensions there is a unique M-Theory under these dualities, the different superstring theories are the same underlying M-Theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[77] **viXra:1411.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-10 23:29:15*

**Authors:** S. Saka, M.V. Munusamy, M. Shibata, Y. Tono, H. Miyafuji

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Seminar Proceedings - Natural Resources & Energy Environment JSPS-VCC Program on Environmental Science, Engineering and Ethics (Group IX), 24-25 November 2008, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 19-34

As the worldwide production of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) is increasing, concomitant wastes of unutilized parts of the oil palm are also increasing. Thus, effective utilization of these wastes is expected. In this paper, therefore, the chemical composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and other minor cell wall components was studied for six different
anatomical parts of the oil palm such as trunk, frond, mesocarp, endocarp (shell), kernel cake and empty fruit bunch (EFB). As a result, it was shown that cellulose is in a range
between 20-40wt% with hemicellulose being 10-35wt%, whereas lignin in a range between 23-52wt%. More in detail, the shell contained the highest lignin about 52wt% but the kernel cake no lignin, while the rest in a range between 23-35wt%, being composed of guaiacyl and syringyl moieties without p-hydroxyphenyl propane residue. This is very similar to the hardwood-type lignin, rather than softwood-type lignin. On hemicellulose, mannan was rich in kernel cake, while glucuronoxylan rich in the other parts, with 1.8-8.5
xyloses per one uronic acid. Consequently, oil palm is not a good material for ethanol fermentation by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) because of high pentosan and low hexosan contents.
As a minor component, inorganic constituents were also studied from the ash by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA). As a result, K, Si, Na, Ca, S, P and Mg were found as elements in all parts of the oil palm studied. Particularly, Si and K were abundant in the trunk, shell, mesocarp and kernel cake, while the frond and kernel cake contained, respectively, K, Ca and P in a large quantity. The elements of Cl, Fe and Al were, however, detected only in some parts. These elements found are important and prerequisite for the healthy growth of the oil palm. Therefore, it may be concluded that, upon the whole utilization of the oil palm, inorganic constituents found in this study must be returned to the plantation site. These lines of information are useful for the efficient utilization of the whole parts of the oil palm which is necessary for the sustainable development of the biomass resources.
Keywords: Oil palm, chemical composition, trunk, mesocarp, EFB, kernel cake, Uronic acid, neutral sugar, lignin

**Category:** Chemistry

[76] **viXra:1411.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-10 10:20:42*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A solar coronal mass ejection (CME) is a massive ejection of plasma from the Sun to the space. In this article it is shown how a strong solar coronal mass ejection can eject dust from the Moon’s Surface to the space. If this ejection occurs when the Moon is in specific regions of its trajectory around the Earth, then this lunar dust can be gravitationally attracted to the Earth, forming a dust shell at the Earth’s atmosphere, which can block the sunlight for some days.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[75] **viXra:1411.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-10 11:16:11*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, study the replacement of the metric tensor in the Einstein gravity field equation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[74] **viXra:1411.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-10 11:32:55*

**Authors:** Th.G.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Why the ABC-Conjecture never holds
by
tom.gu8@gmail.com

**Category:** Number Theory

[73] **viXra:1411.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-17 04:08:18*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Values of light deflection by the Sun and comments.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[72] **viXra:1411.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-10 04:37:27*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

G *((Planck mass) / (Planck length)^2) / (1.2 * 10 ^-10 meter/second^2) = 4.634 * 10^61 where Milgrom’s acceleration constant is approximately 1.2 * 10^-10 m/s^2. What (if anything) is the meaning of such a large number? What is Milgromian string theory? The answer might (or might not) be Wolframian string theory. Wolfram’s mobile automaton allegedly builds each Planck time interval through a huge number of updates by the updating parameter. Energy, spacetime, and string theory are supposedly approximations generated from a network of nonmeasurable Fredkin time, Fredkin distance, and Fredkin digit transition. Wolframian string theory might replace supersymmetry by Wolframian quasi-supersymmetry, which unifies bosons and fermions within Wolfram’s mobile automaton. The point is that Wolframian string theory is testable. According to “The Meaning of Relativity”, 5th edition, page 91, a unit measuring rod undergoes a gravitational contraction given by (1 – (κ/(8π)) * (∫ (σ/r) dV)), where κ is Einstein’s gravitational constant. The Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect implies that the gravitational contraction is (1 – ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * (κ/(8π)) * (∫ (σ/r) dV)), where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant (D-M-C-C) to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[71] **viXra:1411.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-10 06:07:56*

**Authors:** Peter A Jackson, John S Minkowski.

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

'Quantum state reduction' (QSR) has no classical logic, and the Einstein-Podolski-Rosen (EPR) paradox remains unresolved. Many assume no classical explanation is possible. John Bell disagreed despite his 'theorem' and 'inequalities' (J Bell. 1987).i We identify an ontological construction and describe a classical mechanism (CM) predicting experimental data as Bell anticipated by employing different assumptions and a physical analogy of 'superposed' states. Electron spin-flip (reversing polarity and/or spin state) is found to reverse the local, not the distant, detector finding, suggesting that an assumption employed in 'weak measurement' analysis is false. Quantum spin is modelled as the small scale ('hyperfine') angular momentum of orbiting charges, each also rotating. The classical mechanism produces a violation of the Bell inequality from a cosine intermediate angular surface velocity distribution at each recursive scale of orbital angular momentum (OAM) diameter. The 'probability' of triggering one or the other detector emerges from the angular momentum exchanged on ('measurement') interaction. Standard quantum electro-dynamic (QED) provisions for field phase distribution square the amplitude to give Malus's Law and reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics (QM). Uncertainty reduces to higher orders. Modified 'quasi-classical' definitions are offered for familiar QM concepts and terms.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[70] **viXra:1411.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-10 02:32:47*

**Authors:** Omer Zvi Dickstein

**Comments:** 1 Page. Correction to paper 11411.0078v1

Correction to paper 11411.0078v1
The quantum eraser section in that paper is wrong and must be disreguarded.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[69] **viXra:1411.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-27 12:22:55*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 13 pages, 20 references

World – Universe Model is based on three primary assumptions:
1) The World is finite and is expanding inside the Universe with speed equal to the gravitoelectrodynamic constant c. The Universe serves as an unlimited source of matter that continuously enters into the World from the Front (the moving World – Universe boundary).
2) Medium of the World, consisting of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles, is an active agent in all physical phenomena in the World.
3) Two fundamental parameters in various rational exponents define all macro and micro features of the World: Fine-Structure Constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World. Dimensionless quantity Q- squared is a measure of the World’s matter content.
The World – Universe Model provides a mathematical framework that is based on the preceding assumptions and allows calculating the primary parameters of the World that are in good agreement with the most recent measurements and observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[68] **viXra:1411.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-09 11:32:07*

**Authors:** Omer Zvi Dickstein

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Superluminal communication is considered impossible by most physicists. However this statement must be examined over and over. This paper offers an experiment that attempts to examine this statement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[67] **viXra:1411.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-09 07:48:14*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this article, we propose that a substance, called ether-substance, fills and constitutes all what is called “vacuum” in the Universe. We assume that it has a mass and consequently it could be the nature of dark matter. Modelling it as an ideal gas, we obtain the flat rotation curve of spiral galaxies. Using a very simple model of thermal transfer between baryonic particles and ether-substance, we obtain the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law.
So we introduce a new concept of ether, different from the pre-relativistic concept of ether, and we called “Cosmology based on ether” (CBE) Cosmology based on this new concept. In this CBE, topology of the Universe is much simpler and more attractive than topologies proposed by the Standard Cosmological model (SCM) (whose some fundamental aspects are kept in CBE). We propose 2 models in CBE. The first one does not need dark energy nor cosmological constant, and does not need the complex mathematics of General Relativity, contrary to SCM (and to the 2nd model of CBE). Nonetheless, we obtain in the 1st model of CBE a very simple Hubble’s constant, in 1/t, t age of the Universe, and many cosmological observations that were previously explained only by the SCM. Moreover we interpret in both models of CBE the Referential in which fossil radiation is isotropic. CBE is, as SCM, compatible with Special and General Relativity, despite that it is based on a new concept of ether

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[66] **viXra:1411.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-08 23:05:43*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Copyright © A. A. Frempong

Assuming the sum of the original Riemann series is L, a ratio method was used to split-up the series equation into sub-equations and each sub-equation was solved in terms of L, and ratio terms. It is to be noted that unquestionably, each term of the series equation contributes to the sum, L, of the series. There are infinitely many sub-equations and solutions corresponding to the infinitely many terms of the series equation. After the sum, L, and the ratio terms have been determined and substituted in the corresponding equations, the Riemann hypothesis would surely be either proved or disproved, since the original equation is being solved. Using the original series equation eliminates possible hidden flaws in derived equations and consequent solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[65] **viXra:1411.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-09 01:18:30*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Based on a plenary talk at the 10-th International Clifford Algebra Conference in Tartu, Estonia, August 2014

Some of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) are presented. In particular, generalized photon dispersion relations
which allow for energy-dependent speeds of propagation while still $retaining$ the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, while breaking the $extended$ Lorentz symmetry in $C$-spaces. We analyze in further detail the extended Lorentz transformations in Clifford Space and their physical implications. Based on the notion of ``extended events" one finds a very different physical explanation of the phenomenon of ``relativity of locality" than the one described by the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. We finalize with a discussion of
the modified dispersion relations, rainbow metrics and generalized uncertainty relations in $C$-spaces which are extensions of the stringy uncertainty relations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[64] **viXra:1411.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-08 15:25:10*

**Authors:** Suhoparov Stanislav Yurievich

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Derivation of the recurrence relation for orthogonal polynomials and usage.
Вывод рекуррентного соотношения ортогональных многочленов из процесса ортогонализации Грама-Шмидта, а также схема применения полученного рекуррентного соотношения

**Category:** Statistics

[63] **viXra:1411.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-08 14:46:15*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I present a formula, based on the numbers 7 and 186, that, using primes as input values, often leads, as output values, to larger primes, also to squares of primes and semiprimes. I found this formula by chance, playing with two of my favourite numbers, 13 and 31, and observing that 7*13^2 + 6*31 = 37^2 (to be noted, without necessarily connection with this paper, that the difference between the two known Wieferich primes, 1093 and 3511, is equal to 6*13*31).

**Category:** Number Theory

[62] **viXra:1411.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-08 09:38:35*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is noted that the main difference between Alexander Oparin's structure of the Sun and Jeffrey Wolynski's.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[61] **viXra:1411.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-08 11:54:38*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In one of my previous papers, “A possible infinite subset of Poulet numbers generated by a formula based on Wieferich primes” I pointed an interesting relation between Poulet numbers and the two known Wieferich primes (not the known fact that the squares of these two primes are Poulet numbers themselves but a way to relate an entire set of Poulet numbers by a Wieferich prime). Exploring further that formula I found a way to generate primes, respectively semiprimes of the form q1*q2, where q2 – q1 is equal to a multiple of 30.

**Category:** Number Theory

[60] **viXra:1411.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-08 08:09:16*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is expressed in simple terms the locations in which life arises.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[59] **viXra:1411.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-08 02:15:32*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article applies the work of Hawking and Bekenstein to get the core provisions of the entanglement entropy of the gravitational field and is an entirely new interpretation of gravity through quantum entanglement between matter and space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[58] **viXra:1411.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 15:50:14*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman, Reem Yahya, Jean Decety, Simone Shamay-Tsoory

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Despite the automaticity of empathy for pain of others, recent research highlights the important role of top-down components and of social categorization factors in determining peoples’ empathy to pain. An important question, largely ignored in previous research, concerns empathy to ingroup and outgroup members’ pain in the contexts of ongoing intergroup conflict. In the present study we examined how implicit and explicit ethnic social categorization of others affects empathy in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. To meet this aim, we assessed perceived pain when Jewish and Arab participants viewed a series of visual stimuli, depicting painful and non-painful familiar situations. The stimuli were associated with explicitly or subliminally implicitly primed typical names depicting ingroup, neutral outgroup, and adversary outgroup members. Results demonstrate that when the targets’ categories are primed implicitly, Jews and Palestinian-Arabs showed no ingroup or ougroup bias. In contrast, pain ratings in the explicit priming provide support for the ingroup empathy hypothesis, positing that empathy to pain is higher for ingroup, than for outgroup members.

**Category:** Social Science

[57] **viXra:1411.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 17:04:01*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I combine my interest for Carmichael numbers with my interest for finding formulas that generate large primes or products of very few primes showing few easy ways for obtaining such numbers and at the same time an interesting relation between absolute Fermat pseudoprimes and the number 375.

**Category:** Number Theory

[56] **viXra:1411.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 17:22:14*

**Authors:** Jean Claude Dutailly

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to present a general method to estimate the probability of transitions of a system between phases. The system must be represented in a quantitative model, with vectorial variables depending on time, satisfying general conditions which are usually met. The method can be implemented in Physics, Economics or Finances.

**Category:** Statistics

[55] **viXra:1411.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 12:26:07*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This article applies a simplified calculation of effect Unruh based on the nature of the quantum oscillation of the vacuum. To obtain the formula for the temperature Unruh used the concept of energy level transitions of the quantum oscillator under the influence of inertial and gravitational fields

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[54] **viXra:1411.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 11:47:06*

**Authors:** Zareh Topalian, Shu-Yi Li, Gunnar Niklasson, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 21 Pages. submitted for publication

Thermochromic VO2 films were prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering onto heated sapphire substrates and were used to make 100-nm-thick samples that were 10 μm wide and 100 micron long. The resistance of these samples changed by a factor of about 2000 in the 50 < Ts < 70 C range of temperature Ts around the "critical" temperature Tc between a low-temperature semiconducting phase and a high-temperature metallic-like phase of VO2. Power density spectra S(f) were extracted for resistance noise around Tc and demonstrated unambiguous 1/f behavior. Data on S(10Hz)/Rs^2 scaled as Rs^x, where Rs is sample resistance; the noise exponent x was -2.6 for Ts < Tc and +2.6 for Ts > Tc. These exponents can be reconciled with the Pennetta-Trefán-Reggiani theory [C. Pennetta, G. Trefán, and L. Reggiani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5238 (2000)] for lattice percolation with switching disorder ensuing from random defect generation and healing in steady state. Our work hence highlights the dynamic features of the percolating semiconducting and metallic-like regions around Tc in thermochromic VO2 films.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[53] **viXra:1411.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 11:44:18*

**Authors:** Javier BOOTELLO

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Comments are welcome

This article checks a perturbing gravitational potential, with orbit dynamics parameters of hyperbolic flyby trajectories. This potential is consistent with the collected data of flybys after 2005, however with a wide error range. Results are consistent with the post-Newtonian gravitoelectric accelerations, however starting from a different method approach. The dynamic effects of this quantum gravitational perturbing potential, could be modeled as an orbit precession, similar gravitoelectric effect as in close elliptic orbits

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[52] **viXra:1411.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 07:22:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[51] **viXra:1411.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 08:19:04*

**Authors:** Jacob Biemond

**Comments:** 10 Pages, including 3 figures and 2 tables

In 1980 Woodward reported generation of induced electric charges Q in falling cylinders of copper, steel and aluminium. In 1982 he also reported induced electric charges in rotating cylinders of different metals. In order to explain these observations, Woodward used a generalization of Maxwell’s equations, proposed by Luchak. These equations contain the gravitational field, but their predictions appeared to be not quite satisfactory. Since that time, no attempts have been made to explain the observed charges. Previously, related experiments on rotating metal cylinders were carried out by Surdin in 1977 and 1980. He reported reversing magnetic induction fields near rotating cylinders of bronze and tungsten.
In this work a renewed analysis of the observations above is given, applying a special interpretation of the gravitomagnetic equations, deduced from general relativity. In this approach it is assumed that the gravitomagnetic field is equivalent to the magnetic induction field from electromagnetic origin. Formulas for the generated gravitomagnetic field, the induced voltage and induced charge Q in Woodward’s falling cylinders have been deduced. The predicted charges are proportional to the impact velocity, but are an order of magnitude smaller than the observed charges. The magnetic induction fields observed by Surdin are in agreement with the predictions from the proposed theory, but no explanation for the reversal of these fields has been given.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1411.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 08:21:05*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

There were three charge, parity, and time (CPT) violation arguments which supported each other and this article’s conclusions. First, the CPT theorem was invalid at the Planck scale. Second, highly curved space-times violated CPT because of apparent violations of unitarity caused by incoming matter information disappearance. Third, a quantum mechanics axiom stated the transformation from one state to another respected unitarity and entropy preservation. If quantum mechanics was invalid, both unitarity and entropy preservation were not respected.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[49] **viXra:1411.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 08:52:14*

**Authors:** DING Jian, HU Xiuqin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

According to the definition of force in Newton's second law, through the force analysis on a high speed particle, we have proved that the existence of the ether-medium is absolutely essential, and the speed of light in vacuum is the limiting value of the moving object in that. And put forward that as the cosmic background, the ether-medium is composed of the electro-ultimate particles which are moving at the highest speed close to the speed of light in vacuum. In addition, the average force suffered on static mass per unit of the electro-ultimate particle is a constant which implication is the upper limit on photons radiated. For any photon of known wavelength, the moving speed can be directly calculated through this constant. After that, the average force suffered and the static mass, when the photon moving along the wavelength direction, can be calculated. On the basis above, it also reveals that the mechanism behind the spectral redshift, the dynamic mass (or called relativistic mass) of ponderable bodies and the law of universal gravitation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[48] **viXra:1411.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 05:22:13*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English and russian texts

The article describes possible fusion reactions of instantly self-disintegrating nuclei of 5Li and 8Ве. There has been a preliminary estimate of the efficiency of such reactions for building controllable light nuclei power reactors considered.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[47] **viXra:1411.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 05:18:31*

**Authors:** Ghooran Mahto

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Jamuaaririver is an old route of Budhi Gandak of samastipur,It made oldtributary at Indravara(named after Indradyumn Paal) where Ganga,Jamuaari, Balan(Kamla),Baya(with Noon),Bagmati were meeting eachtogether.Now day it is a big reservoir known as Gang Moh

Main objective of this research is to observe and discuss the change carried out by both speedy eutrophication and pesticidal phosphate on a part of JAMUAARI river bio system.This is an important aquatic biota which has great environmental and historical value .It is tributary where Bagmati,Kamla,Balan,Baya,Noon along with JAMUAARI river put water into Ganga. It is known as GANG MOHAN GHAT of INDRAWARA. The word INDRAWARA derived from INDRAPAAL a great king of Bengal in 11th century .This tributary makes a wide lea where so many kinds of birds are migrated from China,Nepal and Tibet during winter season

**Category:** Biochemistry

[46] **viXra:1411.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 05:52:40*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Includes analysis of correlations/deviations between revised aggregation formulas, for several hierarchy types.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[45] **viXra:1411.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 05:57:21*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It reviewes the difference between cocnepts involving Certainty/Uncertainty.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[44] **viXra:1411.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-31 03:30:25*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we propose an idea of TSP-algorithm for any graph.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[43] **viXra:1411.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-06 19:03:25*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. Elementary Astrophysics

It is shown that Sun spots resemble battery cells.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[42] **viXra:1411.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-02 07:05:26*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 10 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2014. STAND: 120. PUBLISHED BY: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 4 (2016) 686-696. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.44079

The principle of causality occupies an important place in the history of the philosophical interpretation of quantum mechanics from the beginning. In last consequence, today’s Copenhagen dominated acausal interpretation of quantum mechanics casts doubt upon traditional views in the philosophy of nature and demands the revision of the principle of causality at a fundamental level of theoretical description in physics. Testing the mathematical and logical consistency of the quantum mechanical description of nature i. e. especially such as non-locality has become a subject of an ongoing dispute and research.
Today, quantum-mechanical concepts i. e. such as non-locality refer to some mathematical foundations, especially to Bell's inequality and the CHSH inequality. Experimental data, analyzed by the help of Bell’s inequality or the CHSH inequality favor a quantum mechanical description of nature, over local hidden variable theories (often referred to as local realism). In general, the use of mathematically inconsistent methods can imply a waste of money, time and effort on this account. Under some certain conditions (the assumption of independence) Bell's theorem and the CHSH inequality are already refuted. The purpose of this publication is explore the terra incognita, the interior logic that may lie beyond Bell's original theorem and the CHSH-inequality and to refute both, Bell's original theorem and the CHSH-inequality under any circumstances by the proof that we can derive a logical contradiction out of Bell's inequalities. Thus far, accept Bell's theorem or the CHSH-inequality as correct, then you must accept too that +0 = +1, which is a logical contradiction. Bell's theorem and the CHSH-inequality are refuted in general. In this insight, it appears to be necessary to revisit the very foundations of quantum theory and of physics as such.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[41] **viXra:1411.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-06 11:28:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In research published Dec. 19 in Science Express, the team reported the most precise measurement to date of the electron's shape, improving it by a factor of more than 10 and showing the particle to be rounder than predicted by some extensions of the Standard Model, including some versions of Supersymmetry. This theory posits new types of particles that help account, for example, for dark matter, a mysterious substance estimated to make up most of the universe. [5]
Electrons are elementary particles — indivisible, unbreakable. But new research suggests the electron's quantum state — the electron wave function — can be separated into many parts. That has some strange implications for the theory of quantum mechanics.
Experiments led by Humphrey Maris, professor of physics at Brown, suggest that the quantum state of an electron — the electron’s wave function — can be shattered into pieces and those pieces can be trapped in tiny bubbles of liquid helium. To be clear, the researchers are not saying that the electron can be broken apart. Electrons are elementary particles, indivisible and unbreakable. But what the researchers are saying is in some ways more bizarre. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[40] **viXra:1411.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-05 17:44:56*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. Star chemistry

It is explained that the process of chemical heterolysis is present in the Sun and all young stars.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[39] **viXra:1411.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-05 18:07:19*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is shown that the ratio of two c-free formulas for the Hubble radius exhibits overwhelming mathematical properties implying an holographic formula between the muon and tau masses, induced by an Eddington's symmetry argument.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[38] **viXra:1411.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-15 16:38:13*

**Authors:** Dz-Hung Gwo

**Comments:** 27 Pages. [v2] adds Fig. 4 for the relativistic uncertainty principle. [v5] derives the commutator between proper-time and rest-mass. [v6] shows why illusory “acceleration of cosmic acceleration.”

Mainstream cosmology proclaims the cosmic expansion is in acceleration by “dark energy.” *Free* of parameter fitting, this paper nullifies the acceleration by reinterpreting supernovae observations via a hidden relativistic law. Per the law, the fundamental particle’s blue- or redshift diminishes the particle’s observation *quantum efficiency* or observation probability, namely, the observability of the event that emitted the particle. The event’s observability roots in the observable ‘event-intensity,’ i.e., the multiplicative product (measured in *h-bar*) of conjugate uncertainties, as the (nonrelativistic) Heisenberg uncertainty principle implies. The observability reflects a) *relativistic event-intensity reduction* and, equivalently, b) degree of *resonance in observed length scale*, between the event and the observer. Though each varying with relativity, redshift and observability covary into the law, per the principle of relativity—and per the *relativistic* uncertainty principle and *‘proper’* uncertainty principle, both herein derived. The law holds in particle-antiparticle annihilations and pair-productions, evaporates (effects of) “dark energy,” and dissolves or addresses other enigmas as follows: a’) asymmetric radial observabilities of relativistic gas ejection from any high-redshift quasar, b’) “photon underproduction crisis” in cosmological observations, and c’) “cosmological constant problem” (i.e., the infamous “vacuum energy problem”) in particle physics—all without numerical tweak. Rejecting the law could lead to illusory “acceleration of cosmic acceleration.” The law welcomes further lab-testing.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1411.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-05 08:49:00*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome.

In the present paper we argue that it is possible to find an exact solution of coupled magnetic resonance equation for describing wireless energy transmission, as discussed by Karalis (2006) and Kurs et al. (2007). We also make an analogy between the graphical plots of this problem with the spiral galaxies. This paper is a follow up paper of our 2008 paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[36] **viXra:1411.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-05 06:16:37*

**Authors:** M Hernando-Guevara

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Using as null hypothesis the existence of classical Luminous Ether as preferred reference frame and considering all its consequences within a wave analysis in an absolute time framework, it is theoretically proved that a two way interference experiment do not demonstrate the inexistence of an eventual absolute space, as it is considered until now. In this sense Michelson-Morley experiment, and others of the same nature, may all of them be inconclusive.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[35] **viXra:1411.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-05 07:52:42*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 29 Pages. 29

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY.
The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS Dark Matter Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning.
Recently, lots of new cosmological information inspired me to react by the production of poster images added with explanatory texts. The result of the latest three months is gathered in this issue.
Most posters added with the digital texts are also presented at my Flickr page: https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/?details=1

**Category:** Astrophysics

[34] **viXra:1411.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-13 02:07:02*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

There is a class of geometric problem that seeks to find the shape of largest area that can pass down a corridor of given form or turn round inside a given shape. A popular example is the moving sofa problem for a shape that can be moved round an L-shaped corner in a corridor of width one. This problem has a conjectured solution proposed by Gerver in 1992. We investigate some of these problems numerically giving strong empirical evidence that Gerver was right and that a similar solution can be constructed for the related Conway car problem.

**Category:** Geometry

[33] **viXra:1411.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-05 04:06:34*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We recently improved the famous result of Parikh and Wilczek, who found a probability of emission of Hawking radiation which is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum, showing that such a probability of emission is really associated to two non-strictly thermal distributions for
boson and fermions. Here we finalize the model by finding the correct value of the pre-factor of the Parikh and Wilczek probability of emission.
In fact, that expression has the ∼ sign instead of the equality. In general, in this kind of leading order tunnelling calculations, the exponent arises indeed from the classical action and the pre-factor is an order Planck constant correction. But in the case of emissions of Hawking quanta, the variation of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is order 1 for an emitted particle
having energy of order the Hawking temperature. As a consequence, the exponent in the Parikh and Wilczek probability of emission is order unity
and one asks what is the real significance of that scaling if the pre-factor is unknown. Here we solve the problem assuming the unitarity of the black hole (BH) quantum evaporation and considering the natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and quasi-normal modes (QNMs) of
excited BHs , in a “Bohr-like model” that we recently discussed in a series of papers. In that papers, QNMs are interpreted as natural BH quantum
levels (the “electron states” in the “Bohr-like model”). Here we find the intriguing result that, although in general it is well approximated by 1,
the pre-factor of the Parikh and Wilczek probability of emission depends on the BH quantum level n. We also write down an elegant expression of the probability of emission in terms of the BH quantum levels.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32] **viXra:1411.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-16 03:49:17*

**Authors:** Miloje M. Rakocevic

**Comments:** 96 Pages. This is a pre-print form for a booklet with the same title; the suggestions are welcome! As new, in relation to V3, here are Appendices H & K, and Remark 4.2.

According to my best knowledge, for the first time here is presented a hypothesis, that the one and only accompanying diagram in Darwin famous book On the Origin of Species contains, may be, a hidden code. Direct inspection reveals that the Diagram, viewed as built of four parts [(two upper and two lower / two left and two right); (two with more and two with less branches / two with multiple and two with single branches)], corresponds to the logical square of the genetic code. When, however, viewed as built of two parts (upper and lower), then it corresponds with Shcherbak diagram (Shcherbak, 1993, 1994) of four-codon and non-four-codon amino acids; not only by the form but also by the number of elementary quantities. The number of nucleons in the upper part of Shcherbak diagram (four-codon amino acids) is determined by the Pythagorean law, meaning that the total number of nucleons makes the product of the number 25 and Prime quantum 037 (925); and the number of branches in the lower part of Darwin diagram is determined by the law of Plato, meaning that the total number of branches makes the product of the number 216 and First quantum 01 (216). On the other hand, in the lower part of the Shcherbak diagram there are 60 of Prime quantum 037 (2220), while in the upper part of the Darwin diagram there are 60 of First quantum 01 (60). There are 216 + 60 = 276 branches (in total), and this number is also the number taken from a specific and unique arithmetical system. Furthermore, it is shown that Darwin, starting from the basic structure of the Diagram, formed a sophisticated structure which strictly corresponds to the arithmetical and /or algebraic structures that also appear to be the key determinants of the genetic code.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[31] **viXra:1411.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-05 00:29:53*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Adrian Nicolescu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Paradoxism is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive use of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, odds, paradoxes in creations. It was set up and led by the writer Florentin Smarandache since 1980's, who said: "The goal is to enlargement of the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements. But especially the counter-time, counter-sense creation. Also, to experiment." Paradoxism = paradox + ism, means the theory and school of using paradoxes in literary, artistic, philosophical, scientific creations. "Paradoxism started as an anti-totalitarian protest against a closed society, Romania of 1980's, where the whole culture was manipulated by a small group. Only their ideas and their publications counted. We couldn't publish almost anything. Later, I based it on contradictions. Why? Because we lived in that society a double life: an official one - propagated by the political system, and another one real. In mass-media it was promulgated that 'our life is wonderful', but in reality 'our life was miserable'. The paradox flourishing!” (Florentin Smarandache). The new theory generalizes the fuzzy logic and introduces also two new concepts: “neutrosophy”, the study of neutralities as an extension of dialectics and its derivative “neutrosophic”, such as “neutrosophic logic”, neutrosophic set”, “neutrosophic probability”, and “neutrosophic statistics” opening in this manner ways of research in four fields: philosophy, logics, set theory and probability/statistics. According to this new theory is also available Albers Einstein‟s statement: “Not everything that can be controled counts and not everything that counts can be counted “.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[30] **viXra:1411.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-05 03:55:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Electrons are elementary particles — indivisible, unbreakable. But new research suggests the electron's quantum state — the electron wave function — can be separated into many parts. That has some strange implications for the theory of quantum mechanics. Experiments led by Humphrey Maris, professor of physics at Brown, suggest that the quantum state of an electron — the electron’s wave function — can be shattered into pieces and those pieces can be trapped in tiny bubbles of liquid helium. To be clear, the researchers are not saying that the electron can be broken apart. Electrons are elementary particles, indivisible and unbreakable. But what the researchers are saying is in some ways more bizarre. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[29] **viXra:1411.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-04 10:01:31*

**Authors:** Prygunov A. I.

**Comments:** 14 Pages. The file contains supplementary information

The noise sources of gravitational wave detectors for ground-based laser interferometers by example of LIGO were analyzed. As shown the low-frequency gravitational waves (GW) cause to changes in the detectors’ dynamic properties, which manifested as the Q-factor’s changes of low-frequency seismic component in a detectors’ integral noise that leads to the possibility of indirect GW’s observation in the frequency range (~ 100 Hz) of a detectors’ extreme sensitivity. The results of public LIGO data associated with gamma-ray burst GRB 051103 and the experimental estimation of GW’s properties by results of indirect observation are presented.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[28] **viXra:1411.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-09 08:41:56*

**Authors:** Jan Kyziol

**Comments:** 10 pages

We study dynamics of two coupled periodically driven oscillators in general case. Periodic steady-state solutions of the system of two equations are determined within the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky approach. The orresponding amplitude profiles, A(omega), B(omega), which are given by two implicit equations, F(A,B,omega)=0, G(A,B,omega)=0, where omega is frequency of the driving force, are computed. These two equations, each describing a surface, define a 3D curve - intersection of these surfaces. In the present paper we carry out preliminary investigation of metamorphoses of this curve, induced by changes of control parameters. The corresponding changes of dynamics near singular points of the curve are studied.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[27] **viXra:1411.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-04 08:32:08*

**Authors:** Vladimir Komarov

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The scheme of construction of modern databases ideologically no different from specialized directories of the last century. The main drawback of such repositories is the accumulation of all the measured values of a particular atom or molecule with a subjective assessment by a distinguished group of authors reliability of the obtained values. Nevertheless, there are various methods of comparative analysis allows using those or other approximations to evaluate the compliance of measured value data of other authors. Much more advanced ways to approach the evaluation of data is based on the notions of unitary symmetry, developed in several papers. The presentation of such an approach present article is devoted.
Keywords: Periodic table, Combinatorics, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry, Ionization energy of the atoms, Databases for molecules.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[26] **viXra:1411.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-04 04:06:45*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. In Russian

It is shown that the generator Rossi is one of the devices, actual energy source in which is the ether, but not cold fusion and not transmutation of chemical elements

**Category:** Classical Physics

[25] **viXra:1411.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-04 05:38:53*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is obtained a relation between the radiated energy density and the absolute temperature.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[24] **viXra:1411.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-04 06:09:12*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I conjecture that string theorists are guaranteed to fail unless they recognize the importance of the work of Milgrom, McGaugh, Kroupa, and Pawlowski. Milgrom’s acceleration law is true or appears to be true for some unknown reason. What does Milgrom’s acceleration law have to do with the 3 generations of fermions? I speculate that Milgrom’s acceleration law implies that the law of conservation of gravitational energy is false and that the infinite nature hypothesis is false. Assume that nature is finite and digital. Conjecture (1). The 26-dimensional model of bosonic string theory, together with Lestone’s heuristic string theory, implies that supersymmetry is an approximate symmetry within Wolfram’s automaton. Conjecture (2). There are 3 generations of fermions because Wolfram’s automaton provides a way for 3 copies of 26-dimensional bosonic string theory to map into 64 dimensions of fundamental particles, 2 dimensions of quantum spin, 3 dimensions of linear momentum, 3 dimensions of angular momentum, and 6 dimensions of quantum uncertainty. Wolfram’s automaton provides approximations to quantum field theory and general relativity theory by means of ‘t Hooft’s superdeterminism. Are conjectures (1) and (2) false? Perhaps, but the conjectures are testable. The main predictions are the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, the Space Roar Profile Prediction, and the hypothesis that gravitons, inflatons, and axions are the only fundamental particles that remain to be discovered. According to the “Meaning of Relativity”, 5th edition, page 93, a ray of light passing near a large mass M is deflected by an amount α = (κ/(2π)) * (M/Δ), where Δ is the ray’s minimal (hypothetically undeflected in the flat coordinates) distance from the center of mass M, and κ is Einstein’s gravitational constant. The Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect implies that ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * (κ/(2π)) * (M/Δ), where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant (D-M-C-C) to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] **viXra:1411.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 15:23:57*

**Authors:** Casper Spanggaard

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

A deeper understanding of why the reduced Planck constant and Planck constant ("Planck constants") have the values they have as determined by experiments is developed. New definitions of the Planck constants are arrived at using the speed of light in vacuum and geometric considerations. The kilogram SI base unit is found to be derived from the SI base units second and meter. The values of the Planck constants determined by experiments and published by CODATA (2010) are found to both have a relative accuracy error of 0.3552%. A new kilogram definition is proposed and it is argued that since the kilogram will then be a derived SI unit, the kilogram should not be considered an SI base unit anymore.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1411.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 16:31:25*

**Authors:** Ejolim Civecokar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The paper shows that the structure of the Homer Iliad and Odyssey, and Dante Divine Comedy, as well as Njegosh Mountain Wreath are built on the same principles, on which is built the structure of the genetic code.

**Category:** Linguistics

[21] **viXra:1411.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-09 21:50:46*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 71 Pages. Version 2 contains miscellaneous minor editorial revisions

In several previous publications the author has presented the theory that protons and neutrons and other baryons are the chromo-magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory and used that to deduce the up and down current quark masses with commensurately high precision from the tightly-known Q=0 empirical electron mass and the neutron minus proton mass difference. This is then used as a springboard to closely fit a wide range of empirical nuclear binding and fusion energy data and to obtain the proton and neutron masses themselves within all experimental errors. This paper systematically pulls all of this together and a) establishes that this way of defining current quark masses constitutes a valid measurement scheme, b) lays out the empirical support for this theory via observed nuclear binding and fusion energies as well as the proton and neutron masses themselves, c) solidifies the interface used to connect the theory to these empirical results and uncovers a mixing between the up and down current quark masses, and d) presents clearly how and why the underlying theory is very conservative, being no more and no less than a deductive mathematical synthesis of Maxwell's classical theory with both the electric and magnetic field equations merged into one, Yang-Mills gauge theory, Dirac fermion theory, the Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion Principle, and to get from classical chromodynamics to QCD, Feynman path integration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[20] **viXra:1411.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 19:04:42*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. A generalization of basic star science.

The enthalpy of stars rises and falls on the whole depending on whether it is being born or undergoing metamorphosis. These differences can be generalized via basic thermodynamic phase transitions.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[19] **viXra:1411.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 19:10:21*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A simple question needed to be asked in the star sciences, does the Sun release or gain heat? The answer and its consequences will surprise any interested natural philosopher.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[18] **viXra:1411.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-07 15:24:10*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In one of my previous papers, namely “A conjecture about a large subset of Carmichael numbers related to concatenation”, I obtained interesting results combining the method of deconcatenation with the method of congruence modulo. Applying the same methods to the prime factors of the Fibonacci numbers I found also notable patterns.

**Category:** Number Theory

[17] **viXra:1411.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 13:23:27*

**Authors:** Adrian Botez

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Avem în faţă o nouă carte a lui FLORENTIN SMARANDACHE(nu ştim a câta – după câte ne amintim, trebuie să tot fi scris, până acum, în jur de 80 de cărţi de literatură, în limbile: română, franceză şi engleză; unele dintre ele au fost traduse în chineză, rusă, arabă, spaniolă, portugheză,sârbocroată etc.): PreSimţiri şi PostSimţiri – alte poeme cu poeme (cu ilustraţii fotografice diverse), Societatea Cultural Ştiinţifică AdSumus, Editura Duranʹs, 2013.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[16] **viXra:1411.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-09 10:34:22*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays as a function of energy and we described positron flux. Obtained results are consistent with the data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station (ISS). These data lead to the internal structure of the core of baryons and to phenomena characteristic for regions in the Universe filled with baryonic plasma described within SST. Here as well we described new cosmological problems which lead to new cosmology. They are as follows. There are not in existence the B-modes associated with gravitational waves - it leads to conclusion that there was a separation in time of the inflation (the big bang) and the expansion of the Universe (the “soft” big bang) or/and that gravitational waves do not exist (SST shows that both conclusions are correct). In the Universe there is too small number of dwarf galaxies - there should be about 10 times more dwarf galaxies than we observe. In the very distant Universe there are numerous massive elliptical galaxies which do not significantly evolve so a time for their formation was too short. In the very distant Universe there are too many barred galaxies - it is inconsistent with simulations grounded on the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM). There is a substantial asymmetry in the CMB signal observed in the two opposite hemispheres of the sky. These new problems suggest that CSM starts from wrong initial conditions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1411.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 11:19:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time.
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1411.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 07:05:31*

**Authors:** Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón, Marisol García-Peña, Wojtek Krzanowski, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Missing values for some genotype-environment combinations are commonly encountered in multienvironment trials. The recommended methodology for analyzing such unbalanced data combines the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm with the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. Recently, however, four imputation algorithms based on the Singular Value Decomposition of a matrix (SVD) have been reported in the literature (Biplot imputation, EM+SVD, GabrielEigen imputation, and distribution free multiple imputation - DFMI). These algorithms all fill in the missing values, thereby removing the lack of balance in the original data and permitting simpler standard analyses to be performed. The aim of this paper is to compare these four algorithms with the gold standard EM-AMMI. To do this, we report the results of a simulation study based on three complete sets of real data (eucalyptus, sugar cane and beans) for various imputation percentages. The methodologies were compared using the normalised root mean squared error, the Procrustes similarity statistic and the Spearman correlation coefficient. The conclusion is that imputation using the EM algorithm plus SVD provides competitive results to those obtained with the gold standard. It is also an excellent alternative to imputation with an additive model, which in practice ignores the genotype-by-environment interaction and therefore may not be appropriate in some cases.

**Category:** Statistics

[13] **viXra:1411.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-10 05:51:44*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 360 Pages.

Here we shall formulate and prove the variational optimum principle for electromechanical systems of arbitrary configuration, in which electromagnetic, mechanical, thermal, hydraulic or other processes are going on. The principle is generalized for systems described by partial differential equations, including also Maxwell equations. The presented principle permits to expand the Lagrange formalism and extend the new formalism on dissipative systems. It is shown that for such systems there exists a pair of functionals with a global saddle point. A high-speed universal algorithm for such systems calculation with any perturbations is described. This algorithm realizes a simultaneous global saddle point search on two functionals. The algorithms for solving specific mathematical and technical problems are cited. The book contains numerous examples, including those presented as M-functions of the MATLAB system and as functions of the DERIVE system. The programs in systems MATLAB and DERIVE are published as a separate annex in the form of an electronic book. Programs are not required to understand the theory. \\ Формулируется и доказывается вариационный принцип оптимума для электромеханических систем произвольной конфигурации, в которых протекают электромагнитные, механические, тепловые, гидравлические и др. процессы. Принцип обобщается на системы, описываемые уравнениями в частных производных и, в т.ч., уравнениями Максвелла. Предложенный принцип позволяет расширить лагранжев формализм и распространить новый формализм на диссипативные системы.
Показывается, что для таких систем существует пара функционалов с глобальной седловой точкой. Описывается быстродействующий универсальный алгоритм расчета таких систем при любых возмущающих воздействиях. В этом алгоритме реализуется метод поиска глобальной седловой точки одновременно на двух функционалах.
Приводятся алгоритмы решения конкретных математических и технических задач. Книга содержит многочисленные примеры, в т.ч. в виде М-функций системы MATLAB и в виде функций системы DERIVE. Программы в системах MATLAB и DERIVE изданы как отдельное приложение в виде электронной книги. Программы не являются обязательными для понимания теории.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[12] **viXra:1411.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 09:11:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[11] **viXra:1411.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-02 12:23:52*

**Authors:** Colin Bruce Jack

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

This is the first fusion method provably viable at utility scale. Energy input is by charged pellets fired at ultraspeed from modified particle accelerators, a technique routinely used to test spacecraft meteor shields, and first proposed as a fusion driver 50 years ago. A key enabling technology, now available, is the ability to track and steer individual pellets in flight, permitting very precise delivery independent of distance from accelerator to target. A train of pellets fired at successively increasing speed catch up together over a long flightpath to arrive as a unit: an accelerator of modest power can deliver an intense input.

For an efficient fast ignition strategy, medium-speed pellets impact and heat a hohlraum, causing 3-D compression of a hemispherical fuel capsule within. Smaller faster pellets fired from a parallel accelerator converge into a dense bullet, which strikes the compressed fuel to ignite it.

Technical risk is negligible because:

- Fuel compression required is less than already achieved in NIF.

- Subsequent ignition is so rapid that there is no chance for instabilities to disrupt it by fuel redistribution or mixing.

- All materials and components required have been successfully manufactured.

The system can burn deuterium-tritium fuel closely and completely surrounded by lithium, for a closed fuel cycle with no radioactivity issues. Capital cost will be modest: it may even be possible to modify existing coal-fired plant for fusion.

Key features are claimed in patents currently in the national phase worldwide.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10] **viXra:1411.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-07 01:30:46*

**Authors:** T.Nakashima

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A doubt of the classialy well known proof.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9] **viXra:1411.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-02 03:43:31*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The article reviews how the four principles of Classical Logic have been modified along the 20th century by the proposals of non-classical logics, as well as how they relate the entry of uncertainty.
But it also pose some interesting ideas on how uncertainty must be added up, by relating it to Entropy, truth values approach thermodynamical states.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8] **viXra:1411.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-01 23:51:59*

**Authors:** Karan Doshi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Well-ordering of the Reals@@ presents a major challenge in Set theory. Under the standard Zermelo Fraenkel Set theory (ZF) with the Axiom of Choice (ZFC), a well-ordering of the Reals is indeed possible. However the Axiom of Choice (AC) had to be introduced to the original ZF theory which is then shown equivalent to the well-ordering theorem. Despite the result however, no way has still been found of actually constructing a well-ordered Set of Reals. In this paper the author attempts to generate a well ordered Set of Reals without using the AC i.e. under ZF theory itself using the Axiom of the Power Set as the guiding principle.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[7] **viXra:1411.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-01 11:14:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[6] **viXra:1411.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-01 11:38:00*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** Pages. new text: prl39nov2014pdf

II agree with Bartlett (see viXra 1419.0196) that the world doesn't need any initial inflationary period. That is because the universe was never a singularity- it always had a finite minimum size that did not need inflation to grow larger. What has been taken as hyperinflation was really an episode of E8 symmetry-breaking by electromagnetism,U(1) of an existing unbroken E8 symmetry universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1411.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-01 11:28:17*

**Authors:** Pabitra Kumar Maji

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The paramount importance of decision making problem in an imprecise environment is becoming very much significant in recent years. In this paper we have studied weighted neutrosophic soft sets which is a hybridization of neutrosophic sets with soft sets corresponding to weighted parameters. We have considered here a multicriteria decision making problem as an application of weighted neutrosophic soft sets.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[4] **viXra:1411.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-01 07:21:54*

**Authors:** Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Physico-mathematical parallels between the Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model and black holes justify us to be convicted that each universe can be considered as a black hole. This is why there must exist a fractal arrangement of the Multiuniverse that is boundless both in time and space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1411.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-02 11:02:33*

**Authors:** Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Talk presented at the OMICS Group’s 3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, 2-4 Dec 2013, Las Vegas

Nanostructures exhibit physical properties not predictable by Quantum mechanics, which deals explicitly with energy levels. Trying to work with physical dimensions is a problem not solved from the time of adoption of the Rutherford-Bohr model of hydrogen. Quantum mechanics also does not predict the chemical bond direction, it cannot provide a classical explanation of the spin of leptons and hadrons, why some isotopes are stable and others not, why the neutron has a magnetic moment and the electron has anomalous one, what is the size of the Rydberg state of atoms and so on. Quantum mechanics is also incapable to explain the nuclear transmutations at low temperature or so called LENR processes. These and other problems lead to the conclusion that the Quantum mechanics is not a real physical but a mathematical model only. The reexamination of the scattering experiments also leads to this conclusion, since the spherical shape of the nucleus has been a priory used in the data interpretation. The physical models derived in the Basic Structure of Matter Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG) provide classical explanations of all these problems. The BSM-SG atomic models provided in the Atlas of Atomic Nuclear Structures are suitable for 3D graphical modeling and analysis of molecules and nanostructures at sub-nanometric scale. A clickable Periodic table of BSM-SG models is available on-line: www.helical-structures.org/Heliconstruct/table.html

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[2] **viXra:1411.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-01 06:11:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1411.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-17 01:42:43*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This article started with what you might call boredom. I find E=mc^2 absolutely fascinating. But we’ve all seen it in that form plenty of times. We’ve even seen it plenty of times as m=E/c^2 (in the form where the equation is solved for mass). So I thought I’d play around with c^2=E/m (obtained by dividing both sides of E=mc^2 by m) and other forms, and see if they were related to the ideas I’ve been having in the last few years. For example, dividing both sides of m=E/c^2 by E means c^2=m/E, so E/m=m/E and mass-energy equivalence emerges (and I plan to explore a few other partial forms of the equation). My keyboard was soon producing sentences about the speed of light, division by zero, “digital” string theory, repelling gravity and its apparent attraction, dark energy, a higher dimension, computer simulation, the universe and subuniverses (with the demise of both the Big Bang and inflationary cosmology), the Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy, imaginary numbers, hidden variables, quantum fluctuation, mass and masslessness, time dilation, unification of the fundamental forces, cosmic microwave background (addressing clumpiness and temperature concerns preventing its dissociation from the big bang), intergalactic and time travel, retrocausality and quantum/macroscopic entanglement. I don’t know how all this appears to anyone else – but for myself, E=mc^2 gives me confidence that my extremely unusual ideas aren’t fantasy but belong to the real world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology