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1501 Submissions

[224] viXra:1501.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-31 21:32:13

On the MC Function, the Squares of Primes and the Pairs of Twin Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In few of my previous papers I defined the MC function. In this paper I make two conjectures, involving this function, the squares of primes and the pairs of twin primes.
Category: Number Theory

[223] viXra:1501.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-31 13:07:08

The Hubble Constant, Length and Surface.

Authors: Pierre Réal Gosselin
Comments: English, 7 pages, also in French, Web site: http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/index.html .

We review Hubble’s law formulation, we reduce Ho to a combination of three fundamental constants and define the Hubble surface σH.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[222] viXra:1501.0254 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-12 21:09:51

Linear, Angular & Radial Momentum

Authors: Antonio A. Blatter
Comments: 5 Pages. Spanish

This paper presents the linear momentum, the angular momentum and the radial momentum of a system of N particles, which give rise to the conservation laws of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy.
Category: Classical Physics

[221] viXra:1501.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-31 15:05:19

On the Completeness of Genetic Code: Part V

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 9 Pages. This is fifth part of the work

In this fifth part of the work on the completeness of the genetic code, we present further connections and relations between nucleotide doublets and triplets within Genetic Code Table; in all cases through balances of atom number, nucleon number and isotope number.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[220] viXra:1501.0252 [pdf] replaced on 2015-08-16 20:35:09

Proof of the Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Michael Pogorsky
Comments: 9 Pages.

This is one of the versions of proof of the Theorem developed by means of general algebra and based on polynomials a=uwv+v^n; b=uwv+w^n; c=uwv+v^n+w^n and their modifications. The polynomials are deduced as required for a, b, c to satisfy equation a^n+b^n=c^n. The equation also requires existence of positive integers u_p and c_p such that a+b is divisible by (u_p)^n and c is divisible by (c_p)(u_p). Based on these conclusions the contradiction in polynomial equation F(u)=0 is revealed. It proves the Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[219] viXra:1501.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-30 11:22:56

Sedenion Dark Matter Energy in Vedic Particle Physics

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 26 Pages. Some charts and illustrations

Vedic Particle Physics posits 56 types of spaces in the atomic nucleus, 28 positive and 28 negative in terms of energy loss or gain. Energy is derived from functioning Dark Matter via structures which probably are isomorphic to Spinor Fields, called Sakti and Asakti in Sanskrit, and which relate directly to the Octonions and Sedenions. This paper describes this process and establishes isomorphic relations between concepts in Vedic Particle Physics and contemporary western mathematical physics, with some quantification given for both, especially S7.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[218] viXra:1501.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-30 01:30:44

Parts of the Bhagavad Gita Compressed Into a Few Thousand Words Familiar to 21ST Century Scientists

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 11 Pages.

This is an essay I entered in a competition about the Bhagavad Gita. Probably written about 2,000 years ago; this writing is perhaps the greatest philosophical expression of Hinduism. I was attracted to the contest because the website included a very favourable comment about the Bhagavad Gita by Albert Einstein (see below). For a while, I actually considered it possible that I’d win the contest. But that time has passed. The winner has been announced and I can now see my entry for what it is – a naïve attempt to preach science to the religionists, as well as a naïve attempt to preach religion to the scientists. There’s a statement in the essay which I’m wondering about. I said, “However, the concept of possessing a soul is not automatically supported. The idea of having a reincarnating soul would be an easy way of explaining immortality thousands of years ago when people were completely unfamiliar with the scientific facts of an eternal universe, Einstein’s Unified Field, and fractal geometry.” I still think this might be correct. But “might” is the word. I’m wondering about something I later wrote – could the ghostly immaterial body described below be what we call the soul? If such a body is developed in the future to overcome present limitations, could it be referred to as a soul if it travels into the past and is absorbed into a physical body? (It might be what the Bhagavad Gita refers to as the Supersoul, and might be quantum entangled with all space and all time. And if the physical brain is receptive to this so-called entangled soul’s knowledge of everything in space and time, the presently accepted limits to acquiring knowledge would, to use the below quote of Einstein’s, be “superfluous”). From “Physics and Philosophy Beyond the Standard Model” (http://vixra.org/abs/1411.0585) – “In 1925, the Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli discovered the exclusion principle. This says two similar particles cannot have both the same position and velocity. If two electrons could have identical positions and velocities, they could all collapse into a roughly uniform, dense “soup”. Protons and neutrons would do the same, and there would be no well-defined atoms. So we need the exclusion principle. Force-carrying particles like photons and gravitons do not obey the exclusion principle so we might assume the immaterial body wouldn’t be well-defined and would collapse into a ghostly soup. But perhaps a well-defined structure can be built if the photons are first stopped. The potential for photons to possess mass by having their digital sequence altered and being converted to other particles – or the potential for programming the photons - may make this definition possible. A chrononaut whose body is defined by mass would still have a gravitational effect, and be dark matter. But if she or he would rather not be a lump of dark matter, her or his body might be defined by programming photons and gravitons; creating a body of “light matter”. The beginnings of this technology may be in [43] which speaks of one photon being “stuck” to another.”
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[217] viXra:1501.0249 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-31 06:56:00

Mastering Fiat

Authors: Andro Antonopoulis
Comments: 22 Pages. Thank you

A coin users guide to navigating legacy financial systems.
Category: Economics and Finance

[216] viXra:1501.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-29 10:06:49

Nuclear Power and the Structure of a Nucleus According to J.Wheeler’s Geometrodynamic Concept

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 16 Pages. 16 p., 3 fig.

In this paper on a unified basis in terms of mechanistic interpretation of J.Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept the attempt to explain the nature of nuclear forces as the result of the complex nucleons structure and to submit the model of the structure of atomic nuclei is done. It is shown that the assumption of the existence of closed contours, including electron and proton quarks leads to a conclusion about the existence of W, Z-bosons and also the Higgs boson whose mass is calculated. Values of the coupling constants in the strong and weak interactions are calculated, and it is shown that they do not indicate the strength of the interaction, but indicate only the strength of bonds between the elements of nucleon structure. The binding energy of the deuteron, triton and alpha particles are defined. Dependence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction of the distance is explained. The structural scheme of nuclei is proposed, the inevitability of presence of envelopes in nuclei is proved, the expressions allowing to estimate the features of nuclear structure, as well as correctly to assess the binding energy of nuclei and their mass numbers are obtained. The results of calculations at the level of the model suggest the possibility to use this model for the construction of an appropriate theory.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[215] viXra:1501.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-29 06:32:12

Pi-Theory of the Fundamental Physical Constants: the Purpose of Creation and the Source Principle

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: Pages.

the article presents the purpose of creation and the original principle of PI-Theory of fundamental physical constants.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[214] viXra:1501.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-28 14:49:07

On the Non-Singularity of the Thermal Conductivity Tensor and Its Consequences

Authors: Ali R. Hadjesfandiari
Comments: 12 Pages. 1 figure, 5 references

In this paper, the symmetric character of the thermal conductivity tensor for linear anisotropic material is established as the result of arguments from tensor analysis for Duhamel’s generalization of Fourier’s heat conduction. The non-singular nature of the conductivity tensor plays the fundamental role in establishing this symmetry, as well as its positive (or negative) definiteness. Significantly, the second law of thermodynamics does not contribute here in establishing these characteristics, but does ultimately decide that the conductivity tensor is indeed positive definite.
Category: Condensed Matter

[213] viXra:1501.0245 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-06 05:10:38

Note on the Variability of the Speed of Light

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages.

We emphasize the need for more experiments to measure the variation of the speed of light in a gravitational field. Indicate an experimental procedure on the surface of the Earth that can provide a reasonable estimate of the true value of the speed of light in the absence of gravitational field. The speed of light in the absence of gravitational field is greater than we now know, and in the presence of gravitational field can vary throughout the day, for example in the Earth's surface, this according to General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[212] viXra:1501.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-28 07:48:47

Entangled Quantum Particles Heavier?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Entanglement Makes Quantum Particles Measurably Heavier, Says Quantum Theorist. The discovery is a long sought-after link between the theories of quantum mechanics and general relativity. [8] Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[211] viXra:1501.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-28 08:18:26

Spiral Galaxies : the Spiral Track of Gravitational Points

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 2 Pages.

SUMMARY. Recent observations show that merging galaxies usually result in a disc structure. The reason for that is explained by the Merging Theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[210] viXra:1501.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-28 05:05:22

Unified Field Theory

Authors: Nikolaj Roerich
Comments: 1 Page.

The paper briefly shows how all paradoxes of modern Science including Physics are solved leading to Unified Field Theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[209] viXra:1501.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-27 20:54:40

Distance in Matrices and Their Applications to Fuzzy Models and Neutrosophic Models

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, Ilanthenral K.
Comments: 169 Pages.

The distance between row matrices was defined by Hamming. However the distance between column matrices or for that matter and any two matrices of same order are not defined systematically. Here in this book this concept is defined and it can help in the analysis of storage of data, deviation in eigen values and in difference in opinions of experts using some fuzzy models. Some open problems are suggested.
Category: Algebra

[208] viXra:1501.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-27 13:34:34

The Origin of the Most Part of Water on the Earth, and the Reason why there is More Water on the Earth than on the other Terrestrial Planets

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

The origin of water on the Earth, and the reason why there is more liquid water on the Earth than on the other terrestrial planets of the Solar System is not completely understood. Here we show that these facts are related to a water vapor cloud formed by the vaporization of part of an ice belt that was formed in the beginning of the Solar System.
Category: Astrophysics

[207] viXra:1501.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-27 09:51:22

Da Liu Ren Basis in Vedic Nuclear Physics

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 20 Pages. Some illustrations

The structure of the Da Liu Ren Cosmic Board mirrors the atomic nuclear structure in the paradigm of Vedic Particle Physics. Da Liu Ren is the most advanced form of divination known to Chinese culture. This mirrored structure implies that Da Liu Ren originated in Vedic culture, and was borrowed millenia ago by the Chinese. This paper discusses the structures common to Da Liu Ren and Vedic Particle Physics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[206] viXra:1501.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-27 12:24:18

A Note on the Definitions of Discrete Symmetries Operators

Authors: Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov
Comments: 11 Pages. Talk at the X Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics, Playa del Carmen, Mexico, December 1-5, 2014. To be published in Proceedings.

On the basis of the Silagadze research[1], we investigate the question of the definitions of the discrete symmetry operators both on the classical level, and in the secondary-quantization scheme [2,3]. We studied the physical content within several bases: light-front form formulation [4], helicity basis, angular momentum basis, and so on, on several practical examples. The conclusion is that we have ambiguities in the definitions of the corresponding operators P, C; T, which lead to different physical consequences [5,6].
Category: Mathematical Physics

[205] viXra:1501.0234 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-19 11:27:53

TSC Jitterbug Fusion of D in Pd NanoClusters

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 52 Pages.

Graphic Cover summarizes TSC Fusion of D in 147-atom Palladium Clusters; Jitterbug Icosa - Cubocta - Icosa Transformation reloading D into Pd Clusters; and Zeolite Steam Engine utilizing Fusion Energy. The body of the paper gives details of the Pd - D TSC Jitterbug Fusion Process: Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral: 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation; 2 - Pd clusters with absorbed Deuterium have two states: Icosahedral ground state Cuboctahedral metastable state; 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in Icosahedral Pd-D produces Fusion; 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra; 5 - Cuboctahedra reload TSC sites and Jitterbug back to Icosahedra; 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 (v2) updates some material and adds recipe for Zeolite Pd-D fusion experiment. Version 3 (v3) adds XRD and SEM data for Sandia Pd clusters on SBA-15 substrate. Version 4 (v4) adds TEM data for Sandia Pd Clusters on SBA-15 substrate. Version 5 (v5) reorganizes the material with some revisions, and adds Palladium electron shell structure considerations and comparison with Carbon electron shell structure and graphene. Version 6 (v6) corrects references to those getting positive experimental results. Version 7 (v7) revises discussion of Zeolite Y crystal structure and corrects author name. Version 8 (v8) adds details about Pd cluster structure and relation to Zeolite Y cavity geometry.
Category: Condensed Matter

[204] viXra:1501.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-02 18:09:07

Space-Time and the Schwarzschild Metric

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 13 Pages.

Informally we explain the concept of space-time, we calculate the changes in space and time in a static gravitational field and with spherical symmetry (Schwarzschild solution) and, the most importantly, we obtained the corresponding variability of the speed of light in this field. Can be great the loss of speed of light in a gravitational field, which may explain the dark matter (and perhaps also complement the theory of sunspots). More experiences with the speed of light must be made.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[203] viXra:1501.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-26 17:28:17

Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture and Exceptional real Zero

Authors: JinHua Fei
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we assume that Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture, we got a better upper bound of the exceptional real zero for a class of module.
Category: Number Theory

[202] viXra:1501.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-26 15:06:09

A Nopreprint on the Pragmatic Logic of Fractions

Authors: Jan A Bergstra
Comments: 17 Pages.

A survey of issues concerning the pragmatic logic of fractions is presented, including a seemingly paradoxical calculation. The presence of nested ambiguity in the language of fractions is documented. Careful design of fraction related datatypes and of logics appropriate for such datatypes is proposed as a path towards novel resolution of these complications. The abstract datatype of splitting fractions is informally described. A rationale of its design is provided. A multi-threaded research plan on fractions is outlined.
Category: Education and Didactics

[201] viXra:1501.0230 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-27 15:12:12

On the Completeness of Genetic Code: Part IV

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 4 Pages. In relation to V1, three Surveys and Table 3 are added

In this fourth part of the work about the completeness of the genetic code, we present further connections and relations between nucleotide doublets and triplets within Genetic Code Table.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[200] viXra:1501.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-25 14:47:30

овые методы оптимизации и их применение (New Methods of Optimization and Their Applcatons)

Authors: Bolonkin A.A.
Comments: 111 Pages.

Это краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1967-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана. Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п. This is a brief summary of lectures for the course "Theory of optimal systems", read by the author for senior students, graduate students, engineers and lecturers in 1967-1969 at the Moscow Aviation Institute of Technology and in 1969-1971 at MVTU. named Bauman. The author presents the fundamentally new optimization techniques, search for the global minimum and applies them to the technical problems of automation, flight dynamics, aviation, aerospace, combinatorics, game theory, problems with resistance, etc.
Category: General Mathematics

[199] viXra:1501.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-25 12:08:37

Новые методы оптимизации и их применение (New Methods of Optimzation and Their Applications)

Authors: Bolonkin A.A.
Comments: 111 Pages.

Это краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1967-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана. Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
Category: General Mathematics

[198] viXra:1501.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-25 04:34:01

Dependence of Acceleration on Speed in the General Relativistic Galileo Experiment

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 3 Pages. Submitted to EJP

The dependence of free fall acceleration on speed in the Schwarzschild space-time is obtained. It is confirmed that gravitation mass coincides with inertial mass
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[197] viXra:1501.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-24 23:57:21

Falsification of Einstein Theory of Relativity

Authors: Lutz Kayser
Comments: 29 Pages.

The Einstein Postulates of Special Relativity (SR), namely the invariance of the speed of light c relative to the observer, the symmetry of relative velocities, and the Galilean Principle independent of velocity and gravitational potential are falsified. The replacement is Law 1: There exists an absolute universal velocity reference (Cosmic Velocity Reference, CVR) and Law 2: The speed of light c is invariant and isotropic only relative to absolute universal space CVR. Experimental evidence like Smoot’s anisotropy of the cosmic microwave radiation background CMB and the one-way measurements of the speed of light are given. From the new Laws it follows (in vector notation) c_rel = c - v_CVR This results in the elimination from physics the Minkovski four-vector spacetime symmetry, time dilation, length contraction, velocity and acceleration symmetrical Lorentz transformation, Einstein vector addition, covariance, invisible and unphysical net of monolithic worldlines, and other weird mathematical constructs without physical meaning resulting from Special Relativity SR and General Relativity GR. The mass increase of particles with speed by the so-called Lorentz Factor 〖ϒ=(1-v^2 /c^2 )〗^(-1/2) is so often cited by Relativists as empirical proof of SR. ϒ was fraudulently smuggled into SR without mathematical proof applying it to relative velocities which gives wrong results. We show that the Lorentz Factor is a simple part of the system of classical dynamic equations. But it is only valid with absolute cosmic velocity v_CVR . The increases of mass, momentum, and energy with an object’s velocity are correct but not part of or caused by SR. This is true also for the change of clock rate as a function of velocity and Newtonian gravity potential.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[196] viXra:1501.0225 [pdf] replaced on 2015-08-02 07:11:09

Discrete Time Locations (DTL)

Authors: Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe
Comments: 3 Pages.

A solution to the mechanism of forces and space-time that is too simple to be true, yet too elegant to be ignored.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[195] viXra:1501.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-28 15:14:16

A Simple Rotational Classical Mechanics

Authors: Antonio A. Blatter
Comments: 5 Pages. This paper is written in Spanish.

In classical mechanics, this paper presents a simple rotational classical mechanics which can be applied in any reference frame inertial or non-inertial.
Category: Classical Physics

[194] viXra:1501.0223 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-27 09:02:02

Finite and Infinite Basis in P and NP

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article provide new approach to solve P vs NP problem by using cardinality of bases function. About NP-Complete problems, we can divide to infinite disjunction of P-Complete problems. These P-Complete problems are independent of each other in disjunction. That is, NP-Complete problem is in infinite dimension function space that bases are P-Complete. The other hand, any P-Complete problem have at most a finite number of P-Complete basis. The reason is that each P problems have at most finite number of Least fixed point operator. Therefore, we cannot describe NP-Complete problems in P. We can also prove this result from incompleteness of P.
Category: General Mathematics

[193] viXra:1501.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-24 11:07:52

Nature of Time

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 6 Pages. Originally published in FQXi Forum

Time is a functional entity, derived from fundamental property of basic 3D matter-particles (photons) to move at a constant linear seed with respect to surrounding universal medium. 3D matter has no ability to act or move. It is the surrounding (all-encompassing) universal medium, which moves basic 3D matter-particles at the highest possible linear speed. Unit of time is related to interval required by a photon to traverse definite extent of universal medium in space. Relating various activities about 3D matter-bodies to time helps us to rationalise in terms of cause and effect relations. Due to its lack of physical form, time can neither expand nor contract nor flow in any direction.
Category: Classical Physics

[192] viXra:1501.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-24 11:19:26

Blue Clearing DE Mars et Effet Allais

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 9 pages. This paper is the French version of «MARS BLUE CLEARING AND ALLAIS EFFECT» on viXra.org/abs/1501.0219.

Une flambée de luminosité et des tempêtes se produisent sur Mars lorsque la Terre se trouve entre le Soleil et Mars. L’atmosphère et les nuages peuvent alors être vus et photographiés à la lumière bleue par des télescopes sur Terre équipés d’un filtre Wratten 47. Il arrive que l’écran bleu du filtre se mette soudain à disparaître et que la surface martienne devienne visible. Nous estimons que l’« effet Allais de syzygie » peut expliquer ce phénomène appelé « blue clearing ». L’opposition causerait une « tension gravito-électromagnétique ». Ce qui provoquerait des fluctuations dans le potentiel gravitationnel de Mars. En supposant que la gravité martienne diminue un tant soit peu, une diffusion Raman Stokes se manifesterait au niveau intramoléculaire de l’atmosphère martienne. Dès lors, ce sont surtout les ondes qui correspondent aux régions spectrales jaune, orange ou rouge qui sont diffusées, ce qui écarte les ondes courtes. On déduit que les dimensions des inhomogénéités résultant de l’animation thermique s’avèrent supérieures à la longueur des ondes lumineuses des régions violette ou bleue du spectre.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[191] viXra:1501.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-24 12:17:28

The Economics of American Independence

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 9 Pages. Liberty; ethics; revolution; economics;The Bible

The economics of American Independence is analyzed; a deep explanation of historical events is given,from the viewpoint of political Hebraism and economic thought.
Category: Social Science

[190] viXra:1501.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-23 16:21:09

Mars Blue Clearing and Allais Effect

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 8 Pages.

An outbreak of brightness and storms occur on Mars when the Earth is between the Sun and Mars. The atmosphere and clouds can then be seen and photographed at short wavelengths by Earth-based telescopes equipped with a Wratten 47 filter. It happens that the blue screen of the filter suddenly begins to disappear and that the Martian surface becomes visible. We believe that the "Allais syzygy effect" may explain this phenomenon known as "blue clearing". The opposition would generate a "gravito-electromagnetic tension", which would spawn fluctuations in the gravitational potential of Mars. Assuming that the Martian gravity decreased slightly, a Stokes Raman scattering would manifest at intramolecular level of the Martian. Therefore, it is mainly the waves corresponding to the spectral regions yellow, orange or red that are diffused, what eliminates short wavelengths. We deduce that the size of the inhomogeneities resulting from thermal excitation turns out to be greater than the length of the light waves of blue or purple regions of the spectrum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[189] viXra:1501.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-23 17:01:32

Energy-Momentum Tensor in Electromagnetic Theory and Gravitation from Relativistic Quantum Equations

Authors: Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov
Comments: 9 Pages. To be published in the "Proceedings of Science", http://pos.sissa.it/

Recently, several discussions on the possible observability of 4-vector fields have been published in literature. Furthermore, several authors recently claimed existence of the helicity=0 fundamental field. We re-examine the theory of antisymmetric tensor fields and 4-vector potentials. We study the massless limits. In fact, theoretical motivation for this venture is the old papers of Ogievetskiı and Polubarinov, Hayashi, and Kalb and Ramond. They proposed the concept of the notoph, whose helicity properties are complementary to those of the photon. We analyze the quantum field theory with taking into account mass dimensions of the notoph and the photon. We also proceed to derive equations for the symmetric tensor of the second rank on the basis of the Bargmann-Wigner formalism. They are consistent with the general relativity. Particular attention has been paid to the correct definitions of the energy-momentum tensor and other Nöther currents. We estimate possible interactions, fermion-notoph, graviton-notoph, photon-notoph. PACS number: 03.65.Pm , 04.50.-h , 11.30.Cp
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[188] viXra:1501.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-23 18:35:49

Electromagnetism & Solar System

Authors: Florentino Muñiz Ania
Comments: 4 Pages.

English (traslation): It is described here as the electric charge is not invariable, but depends on the solar orbit. It also equates with what could be considered as gravitational charge, both by the diamond related parameters. Is also shown, as to vary the frequencies at different orbits, one can conclude the actual temperature of Sol. It is stated that the brightness per unit area is constant. And he concludes that both sunspots and magnetic reversals are caused by the permutation of links between gravitons and sets of stars of matter and antimatter. Spanish (original): Se describe aquí como la carga eléctrica no es invariable, sino que depende de la órbita solar. Se equipara, además, con lo que se podría considerar como carga gravitatoria, relacionadas ambas mediante los parámetros diamante. Se muestra también, como al variar las frecuencias en las distintas órbitas, se puede concluir la temperatura real del Sol. Se expone que la luminosidad por unidad de superficie es constante. Y se concluye afirmando que tanto las manchas solares como las inversiones magnéticas están causadas por la permutación de enlaces entre los gravitones y los conjuntos de estrellas de materia y antimateria.
Category: Astrophysics

[187] viXra:1501.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-23 20:15:34

Manifestation of the Conservation of Angular Momentum in Different Aspects of Human Life

Authors: Mark Krinker
Comments: 11 Pages.

The paper unites different phenomena of Physics and human life, having nothing common from a first look, on a base of the angular momentum and its conservation in various manifestations like the Nipher effect, aerodynamic circulation, mind-matter events and others. All the dissimilar objects, including even social ones, can be physically represented with the Field Gyroscope, which is a quantum object having measurable parameters like a power, angular momentum and others. The instruments for that have been developed by the author. This approach enables analysis of relations between wide classes of phenomena in terms of their interconnectedness.
Category: Classical Physics

[186] viXra:1501.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-23 21:01:10

The Entropy of the Quantum Entanglement of the Gravitational Field

Authors: Kyukov Vitaly
Comments: 9 Pages.

This article applies the work of Hawking and Bekenstein to get basic provisions on the conclusion of the entanglement entropy of the gravitational field and is given a completely different interpretation of the curvature geometry through quantum entanglement between matter and space-time. The entanglement entropy of the gravitational field as a parameter occurs in geometric flows Ricci .
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[185] viXra:1501.0213 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-17 07:55:23

The Tower of the Chandrasekhar Limits and Spin Periods of Pulsars

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is assumed in the mainstream cosmology that at the Chandrasekhar limit the white dwarfs explode due to the conditions in a Fermi gas. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that there appears the tower of the Chandrasekhar limits and that the stars/white-dwarfs with the threshold masses explode via a neutron-star state. Neutron stars behave as liquid crystal. There are the needed flat structures and the elongated rectangular prisms. There appears the upper limit for mass of neutron star, i.e. of the neutron black hole, equal to 24.81 solar masses. But due to perfect energy flow from core of a star toward its surface there as well appear at least three Chandrasekhar limits i.e. masses of stars which explode as Type Ia supernovae via sudden collapse of whole star to the neutron-star state which leads to violent full volumetric explosion so there is not created a neutron-star remnant – the threshold masses are 1.395, 11.20 and 0.891 solar masses. The first mass is the very well known Chandrasekhar limit whereas the second was the mass of, for example, the SN 1987A supernova. Energy is carried by the condensates of the Einstein-spacetime components that are the black holes in respect of the weak interactions or is carried by energetic neutrinos. The condensates with a mass of 52.828 MeV are produced in centres of muons, with a mass of 424.124 MeV are produced in centres of baryons, whereas the characteristic energy of neutrinos is the one fourth of the mass of neutral pion (33.743 MeV). Their number densities increase rapidly for the threshold masses of stars. Here, as well, are calculated the lower (0.000768 s) and upper (4,228 s) limits for spin periods of pulsars i.e. for stars with neutron core and iron crust. Presented here model is very simple and leads to observational facts.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[184] viXra:1501.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-23 10:14:50

Quantum Mechanical Biology

Authors: Yuri I. Ozhigov
Comments: 18 Pages.

This article focuses on the approach to biology in terms of quantum mechanics. Quantum biology is a hypothesis that allows experimental verification, and pretends to be a further refinement of the known gene-centric model. The state of the species is represented as the state vector in the Hilbert space, so that the evolution of this vector is described by means of quantum mechanics. Experimental verification of this hypothesis is based on the accuracy of quantum theory and the ability to quickly gather statistics when working with populations of bacteria. The positive result of such experiment would allow to apply to the living computational methods of quantum theory, which has not yet go beyond the particular ''quantum effects''.
Category: Physics of Biology

[183] viXra:1501.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-23 11:27:17

Black Hole is a Time Machine?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Yes in a way a black hole can act as a time machine. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the “brightest beacons” in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar’s center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[182] viXra:1501.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-22 17:20:04

Rotating Space of the Universe, as a Source of Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Authors: Timkov V. F., Timkov S.V.
Comments: 6 Pages.

Sources and physical nature of dark energy and dark matter can be explained, to find and to determine if it is assumed that after the Big Bang expanding spherical space of the Universe revolves around one of their central axes. Under this condition, loses its meaning and the concept of dark energy, and the imaginary phenomenon of divergence of the objects of the Universe, which is registered as a red shift based on the Doppler effect due to the increase of the linear velocity of these objects with increasing distances from the observer in a rotating spherical space of the Universe. The kinetic energy of the rotating Universe may be the source of dark matter. The energy of the accelerated expansion of the Universe by the pressure of the vacuum does not depend on the absolute value of the vacuum pressure, but it depends on the relative value. Relative value vacuum pressure is equal to the difference between the values of vacuum pressure at the boundary of the Universe to expand and beyond. Since this difference is equal to zero, then does not exist of dark energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[181] viXra:1501.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-22 23:18:34

Cititorind. Hic et Nunc α-Lecturi Instante

Authors: editor Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 79 Pages.

Acesta este un jurnal de lecturi încropit de matematicianul şi scriitorul Florentin Smarandache. Mai precis, un jurnal de α-lecturi, cum ni se precizează în subtitlu, cu adăugirea: instante. Această instaneitate a devenit deja un stil al autorului, de sesizat mai ales în fotojurnalele instantanee (http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/). Nişte lecturi dorit expeditive, diagonalizând textul în căutarea esenţialului, spărgând carcasa pentru a extrage miezul. Editorul vine, deci, cu o nouă propunere: reducerea lecturii la o stare de cvasi-absenţă a eului, o stare alfa. [Octavian Blaga]
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[180] viXra:1501.0208 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-09 10:28:00

The First Zeptoseconds: A Template for the Big Bang

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Classical or quantum impedances, geometric or topological, scale invariant or scale dependent, fermionic or bosonic, mechanical or electromagnetic or gravitational - impedance matching governs the flow of energy. This is a universal principle. As such, it is not surprising to find that quantized impedances provide an interesting sensibility when taken as a template for the Big Bang, presenting a detailed perspective on the first few zeptoseconds
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[179] viXra:1501.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-22 06:27:08

Dynamic Scalar Potential and the Electrokinetic Electric Field

Authors: F. F. Mende
Comments: 12 Pages.

In the article is described the new physical of phenomenon, which indicates that in the superconductors the stationary electric field can exist. This field exists in the surface layer of superconductor and it is directed normal to its surface. Since the field indicated is the consequence of the kinetic motion of charges in the superconductor, it can be named electrokinetic electric field. The value of this field is small, but it are new, previously unknown, property of the superconductive state.
Category: Classical Physics

[178] viXra:1501.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-22 03:58:51

Graviton is Fantasy or Reality?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[177] viXra:1501.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-22 05:39:13

Observation on the Paper: Logical Independence and Quantum Randomness

Authors: Steve Faulkner
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract I comment on the background meaning, beneath Boolean encodings, used in the paper by Tomasz Paterek et al. Keywords foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, measured state, unitary, orthogonal, scalar product, mathematical logic, logical independence, mathematical undecidability. DOI: 10.13140/2.1.4703.4883
Category: Quantum Physics

[176] viXra:1501.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-21 23:02:21

True Cause of the Tides Required Galileo, Newton and Kepler

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to “Galileo's Big Mistake” By Peter Tyson - Posted 10.29.02 (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/earth/galileo-big-mistake.html) - "It was in 1595 when Galileo, just shy of his 30th birthday, first came up with his explanation for the tides. The idea occurred to him while traveling on a barge that was ferrying freshwater to Venice. (Galileo lived in nearby Padua and often visited Venice.) He noticed that whenever the barge's speed or direction altered, the freshwater inside sloshed around accordingly. If the vessel suddenly ground to a halt on a sandbar, for instance, the water pushed up towards the bow then bounced back toward the stern, doing this several times with ever decreasing agitation until it returned to a level state. Galileo realized that the Earth's dual motion—its daily one around its axis and its annual one around the sun—might have the same effect on oceans and other great bodies of water as the barge had on its freshwater cargo. The key, as Galileo saw it, was that even though we don't sense it, different parts of our planet move at different speeds depending on the time of day. It's as if the Earth were a barge, which sped up, slowed down, and periodically changed direction.The chief objection to Galileo's argument was that his model should have called for only one high tide a day, whereas there are roughly two. Galileo explained this away by stating that many other factors play a role in creating a specific tidal situation. These include the length of a basin, its orientation, its depth, the shape of its coasts, the effect of winds, and so forth." I believe an idea of partly revised gravity requires the idea of Newton and Kepler that the moon causes the tides, to be joined with Galileo’s partly correct idea that the Earth’s movements slosh its water.
Category: Geophysics

[175] viXra:1501.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-21 18:32:38

A Nopreprint on Algebraic Algorithmics: Paraconsistency as an Afterthought

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 23 Pages.

Algebraic Algorithmics, a phase taken from G.E. Tseitlin, is given a specific interpretation for the line of work in the tradition of the program algebra and thread algebra. An application to algebraic algorithmics of preservationist paraconsistent reasoning in the style of chunk and permeate is suggested and discussed. In the first appendix nopreprint is coined as a tag for new a publication category, and a rationale for its use is given. In a second appendix some rationale is provided for the affiliation from which the paper is written and posted.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[174] viXra:1501.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-29 19:49:36

High Degree Diophantine Equation by Classical Number Theory

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 5 Pages.

The main idea of this article is simply calculating integer functions in module. The algebraic in the integer modules is studied in completely new style. By analysis in module and a careful constructing, a condition of non-solution of Diophantine Equation $a^p+b^p=c^q$ is proved that: $(a,b)=(b,c)=1,a,b>0,p,q>12$, $p$ is prime. The proof of this result is mainly in the last two sections.
Category: Number Theory

[173] viXra:1501.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-21 12:00:06

About the Numerical Value of the Fine Structure Constant

Authors: V.B. Smolenskii
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the article, within the PI-Theory of fundamental physical constants (PI-Theory), presents the original formula to determine the values of the fine structure constant and the numerical results exact analytical calculations. Based on the analysis of the results concluded that the numerical value of the specified constant it is only because the number of dimensions is equal to three and the number PI is a numerical value. Also, based on the analysis results, it is assumed that there is an unknown physical community a new fundamental constant of nature - a constant deviation of the fine structure and this hypothetical constant can, in turn, be the option of living matter. The above numerical results exact analytical calculation of the constant deviation of the fine structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[172] viXra:1501.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-21 04:39:51

Corrected Newton´s Laws of Motion

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the present paper I correct two Newton´s laws of motion First law and Third law. Keywords: inertia, generalized law of inertia, action, reaction, transmission medium, waves, particles, PACS number: 01.55.+b
Category: Classical Physics

[171] viXra:1501.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-21 04:47:40

Principles for the Theory and Its Agreement with Experiment

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 38 Pages. Physics in the past formulated at least part of the truth about the physical phenomena. Some ideas, even if they were doubtful and rejectable, are still valid today

All is building on experiments. The theory is valid if and only if it can explain everything earlier known experiments and can predict something new in physics, which will be confirmed in the future. Metrology must be paramount. All equations must be dimensionally correctly, that is, to use the correct units for each physical quantity. Correct nomenclature and correct terminology. Form of the interference field must be non-linear. Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field must be asymmetrical. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)] Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle Tkin id = mc2[ln|1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)] Wave - particle duality as kinetic energy against and In direction of motion. Physicist must to have a healthy arrogance, do not be afraid criticize of the great physicists, if he is adamantly confident on the basis of experiments metrological and mathematically about their truth. Not afraid to speak out about errors in the theory and about their consequences. Physicist must have a flight and constantly looking partners, who can discuss with him, who can jointly develop and explore.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[170] viXra:1501.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-21 04:58:33

Wave - Particle Duality as Kinetic Energy Against and In Direction of Motion.

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 36 Pages. Physics in the past formulated at least part of the truth about the physical phenomena. Some ideas, even if they were doubtful and rejectable, are still valid today

In the article we prove that: 1.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is asymmetrical, 2. Form of the interference field is non-linear, 3. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)] Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle Tkin id = mc2[ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)] An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα. Accurate electron speeds are given in the table in this article. Confirmation of Doppler´s principle in hydrogen for Balmer line Hα. Accompanying activity of reaction on movement of stable particles in the transmission medium are waves. Stable electrons moving with speeds (0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z (= β electrons). Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons (μ−, τ−) = ( particles = electrons different speeds), neutrinos νe, νμ, ντ (= waves) , bosons W +, W-, Z (= particles = β electrons moving at nearly the speed of light ) and gamma rays (=waves of extremely high frequency >1019 Hz ). Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons. The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons.
Category: Classical Physics

[169] viXra:1501.0195 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-04 18:51:52

Space and Time in the Fundamentals of General Relativity

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 11 Pages.

We examined the variations of space and time that occur under the influence of a gravitational field produced by a mass M, following the Foundations of General Relativity, by Einstein (1916). We conclude that when we use the conventional units for the speed of light resulting values are very different from those obtained by adopting the speed of light equal to 1, and that certainly could not be in agreement with the experimental values. The shortening of the rulers (scales) and slowness of the clocks would be much higher, because would no longer divided by the square of the speed of light.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[168] viXra:1501.0194 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-31 15:51:14

A Periodic Table of the Four Forces and the Unified Field Theory

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 9 Pages. Weak Force IVBs are "wormholes" to early cosmos

One can think of the IVBs as "wormholes" to a younger, hotter universe, connecting our ground-state cold electromagnetic universe with the universe as it existed a few micro-seconds after the "Big Bang". What comes through the "IVB wormhole" is a single elementary particle, newly minted in the original forge and mold of the electroweak era from long ago, and hence identical to every elementary particle (of its type) ever created, or that ever will be created. The "wormhole" connection effectively circumvents the enervating entropy of eons of cosmic expansion that would otherwise make the exact replication of single elementary particles impossible. After a little reflection it becomes obvious that this is the only method which can possibly work reliably. It is this "wormhole" connection between our ground state electromagnetic and the primordial electroweak universe that frees the alternative charge carriers (leptons and mesons), held in the electroweak symmetric energy state, to do (in our ground-state universe) their necessary work of transformation, creation, and destruction of single quarks and leptons that allows atomic matter to exist, the Sun to shine, and the information-rich Periodic Table of the Elements to be built. The universe remains a single connected unit - not only in space, but in time and historic spacetime - a connectivity that is essential to its proper functioning and conservation.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[167] viXra:1501.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-21 05:33:04

Some Criteria for Short-listing The Cosmological Red-Shift's Explanations

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Ten page paper

Louis Marmet, in a paper titled: “On the Interpretation of Red-Shifts: A quantitative comparison of red-shift mechanisms-II” Dated 4th December 2014, [1] has briefly compiled around 59 candidate mechanisms, including the standard Big Bang Cosmology, attempting to explain the observation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’. This paper proposes some criteria for short-listing the most likely explanations; and adds some more explanations to the list. The need for considering alternative mechanisms arises because the Big Bang cosmology is based on the assumption of homogeneity and isotropy of space at 100 M pc scale, for the explanation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, whereas linear Hubble law is observed even at 1 M pc distances, where distribution of matter and energy is clearly not homogeneous. And Big Bang Cosmology demands 95 % ‘dark-energy’ which is not yet found. Alternative explanations for ‘cosmological red-shift’ are rejected under a pre-text that they are not compatible with the observation of ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’; but a paper by Tank, titled “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic Length-contraction and Time-dilation of Super novae Light-curves” [2] has shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’, so every possible mechanism needs to be considered without any bias. The criteria for short-listing proposed here is: that the loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon is proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces ( G me mp / e^2), which suggests that the energy of inter-galactic photon seems to get branched-out into gravitational and electrostatic potential-energy parts, and gravitational potential-energy-part is getting subtracted from the energy of the photons.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[166] viXra:1501.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-20 04:15:40

The Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Nicolae Bratu
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article generalizes and makes some additions to the method used in this demonstration theorem for exponents 3 and 5. In this regard, this paper presents a complete algebraic demonstration of Fermat’s Last Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[165] viXra:1501.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-19 22:01:50

About a Supernova Forming Dust

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 4 Pages.

This was inspired by a Letter to the journal Nature. The letter’s “Rapid formation of large dust grains in the luminous supernova 2010jl” by Christa Gall, Jens Hjorth, Darach Watson, Eli Dwek, Justyn R. Maund, Ori Fox, Giorgos Leloudas, Daniele Malesani & Avril C. Day-Jones. It was published online on July 9, 2014 (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13558.html) My slightly alternative view about dust produced by a supernova includes topics such as E=mc^2, black holes, dark energy, and deletion of the big bang/inflation.
Category: Astrophysics

[164] viXra:1501.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-20 02:52:14

Social Sciences and Education Research Review 1/2014

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu, Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu, Xenia Negrea
Comments: 78 Pages.

Social Sciences and Education Research Review (SSERR) – Print ISSN: 2392-9863, ISSN-L: 2392-9863, Online ISSN 2393-1264, ISSN-L 2392-9863 – is an academic international, bi-annual, press and online journal published by members of the Department of Communication, Journalism and Education Sciences of the Faculty of Letters from the University of Craiova, Romania. The printed edition is published by Sitech Publishing House – Craiova, a prestigious publishing house acknowledged by the Ministry of National Education of Romania.
Category: Social Science

[163] viXra:1501.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-20 02:54:28

Social Sciences and Education Research Review 2/2014

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu, Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu, Xenia Negrea
Comments: 79 Pages.

Social Sciences and Education Research Review (SSERR) – Print ISSN: 2392-9863, ISSN-L: 2392-9863, Online ISSN 2393-1264, ISSN-L 2392-9863 – is an academic international, bi-annual, press and online journal published by members of the Department of Communication, Journalism and Education Sciences of the Faculty of Letters from the University of Craiova, Romania. The printed edition is published by Sitech Publishing House – Craiova, a prestigious publishing house acknowledged by the Ministry of National Education of Romania.
Category: Social Science

[162] viXra:1501.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-20 08:36:06

Special Relativity Refutation Through the Relativistic Doppler Effect Formula

Authors: Radwan M. Kassir
Comments: 5 pages. [v2] added further contradictions emerging from the speed of light principle.

The relativistic Doppler shift formula is shown to be based on a contradictory equation, revealing the unviability of the Special Relativity. In addition, the light speed postulate is shown to result in contradictions with the Special Relativity equations, when expressed in terms of the light wave characteristics, with the relativistic Doppler shift formula being applied in the resulting expression. An absurd relation between the wave frequency and wave period would emerge to satisfy the Special Relativity time dilation. An actual time dilation factor emerging from the speed of light principle is revealed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[161] viXra:1501.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-09 15:39:21

New Dark Energy-Force Solves The Discrepancy Of The Proton-Radius.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 8 Pages.

It is well known among physicists that two different kinds of experiments give an anomaly in the proton-radius. The anomaly is: When a muon orbits the proton the proton-radius is 4% smaller than when an electron orbits the proton. This anomaly is a puzzle in standard physics. This puzzle is solved in a new cosmological theory with a new dark energy-force. This article describes the solution. The solution is put in perspective of new physics by a combination of quantum-gravity and sub-quantum dark matter-force in one formula, within the new cosmological theory, called the Double Torus Theory for the universe. Additionally the principle for an anti-gravitational machine is shown based on the use of a dark matter force.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[160] viXra:1501.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-14 08:09:24

An Alternative Kaluza Theory Identifying 5D Momentum and Charge

Authors: Robert Watson
Comments: 19 Pages.

Kaluza's 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fifth wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts to develop new physical theories. Here an alternative approach is presented that more fully unifies gravity and electromagnetism. Emphasis is placed on admitting important electromagnetic fields not present in Kaluza's original theory without constraints, and on deriving a Lorentz force law. This is done by identifying 5D momentum with a kinetic charge. By doing so the usual assumption of Ricci flatness corresponding to sourceless electromagnetic fields is replaced by the weaker constraint of vanishing 5D momentum outside of charge models. A weak field limit is also used. An electromagnetic limit is imposed by assuming a constant scalar field. A further extended postulate set involving a super-energy divergence law and a conformal factor is also suggested that allows for a varying scalar field, within what then becomes a type of geometrical conformal gauge theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[159] viXra:1501.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-18 22:32:11

A Review of Cancer Electromagnetic Frequency Therapy: Towards Physics of Cancer

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 4 Pages. This article has been submitted to IFSL journal. Your comments are welcome.

It is known that conventional chemotherapy has average success rate of less than 25%, which seems to suggest that we need a better therapy for cancer. Chemotherapy and radiation employ non-specific toxic effects to inhibit the proliferation of both normal and tumor cells. In this regard, specific low frequency EMT has been reported to restore the homeostatic function of genes involved with controlling cell growth. Here I discuss possibility of a novel approach of cancer treatment using various applications of electromagnetic frequency.
Category: Physics of Biology

[158] viXra:1501.0181 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-11 14:11:05

Predicting a Student’s College Class Rank

Authors: Robert M. Hartranft
Comments: 2 Pages.

This paper describes a quantitative, verifiable method for predicting the college freshman year class rank at any American college of a student at any American secondary school. Using only existing data pools, the basic method also provides useful graphical summaries for individual secondary students and for entire secondary schools. If further given actual freshman rank data from simple student surveys and/or from visiting college representatives, the method appropriately refines and validates the predictions and the summaries. Given summary data from another school or group of schools, the method allows immediate and meaningful comparisons to the other school or group.
Category: Education and Didactics

[157] viXra:1501.0179 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-16 13:36:55

The New Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning evolution of our Cosmos and we point the pivotal differences between the new cosmology and the mainstream cosmology. We start from the superluminal non-gravitating inflation field (the Higgs field) and via the succeeding phase transitions of such field, we described evolution of the cosmic-object/Protoworld that appeared after the inflation/big-bang but before the expansion/”soft”-big-bang of the Universe. Evolution of the Protoworld leads to the origin of dark energy and dark matter. They both are associated with flows in the grainy luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime. The matter-antimatter asymmetry results from internal helicity of the vortex/Protoworld which, due to a fluctuation, appeared in the Einstein spacetime. The asymmetry has nothing with an asymmetry in behaviour of matter and antimatter. Due to the duality of relativity, the Universe is about 21.6 Gyr old (Ludwig et al. (2009) derived solar ages up to 22.3 Gyr) but we cannot see the initial period about 7.75 Gyr of evolution of the quasars. It is not true that the neutrons in neutron stars behave as a Fermi gas. There are at least three Chandrasekhar limits which leads to supernova explosions without neutron-star remnant. We described also evolution of quasars.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[156] viXra:1501.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-17 09:32:29

Managing Some Uncertainties of Communication as Academic Discipline in the Spanish and Italian Virtual Environment

Authors: Alina Țenescu, Nicușor Minculete
Comments: 25 Pages.

The premise from which we begin our study is that nowadays we are faced with several uncertainties of communication as academic discipline, amongst which the most evident are: the uncertainty related to the denomination or title of the discipline, the uncertainty concerning its status as theory of communication or as science of communication and the uncertainty regarding the inclusion of communication within one or other of the following domains: social sciences, natural sciences or humanities. Applying the comparative citation analysis on a corpus of study constituted by thirty-two titles of publications representative for the domain of science of information and communication (published in the last twenty years) in two different cultural and scientific areas (Italian and Spanish), we will examine the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citation of these publications in six electronic bookshops. We will also carry out a comparative statistical analysis of the categories and scientific domains these publications are included and comprised in on the virtual platforms so as to reveal the above mentioned uncertainties and to find a solution by proposing a model for the standardization of domain categories and tags of the same title on several bookshop sites.
Category: Social Science

[155] viXra:1501.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-17 11:23:46

Negative Mass-Energy is Real Only with Unbroken E8 Symmetry: Briggs's Answer to the Hartranft's

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

I agree with the Hartranft's (see viXra 1501.0163) that a cosmological model based on + and - mass symmetry is entirely possible but only under unbroken E8 symmetry conditions. Unfortunately in the present epoch E8 symmetry is now broken by U(1) with the result that negative mass-energy can no longer be produced. Nevertheless its real effects in our epoch including the effects of dark energy and dark matter are observable.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[154] viXra:1501.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-16 17:24:18

Goodbye, the Pseudotensor!

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 4 Pages. History of submitting is presented

It is shown that the Einstein-Eddington-Tolman's concept of gravitation energy is wrong as a whole because their pseudotensor contributes a POSITIVE term to the total energy of an isolated system, and therefore this standard pseudotensor breaks the conservation law. The original result is the proving of the positiveness, which buries the Einstein-Eddington-Tolman's pseudotensor. So, no works using the pseudotensor can provide a well-defined notion of the gravitational energy no matter what conditions are considered. The Tolman's formulas are demonstrated in the paper as formulas containing arithmetic mistakes.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[153] viXra:1501.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-16 19:05:41

U Trio (Usl-5ue-Urf Trio) as a Socio-Economic-Environmental Karma System (Draft1)

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper is for overcoming the TOP 5 most critical global crises or challenges of our time for 5 Es (in Education, Economy, Energy, Environment, and Equality), all simultaneously within next 20-25 years or so with the back up plans lining up one after another with the USL 2, 3, 4, 5+ (depending on the monitored progress of the nations around the world). We first briefly describe what USL, 5UEs, and URF Trio are and then give the brief summary of the solutions in terms of the total costs and the time frames to complete the resolutions.
Category: Economics and Finance

[152] viXra:1501.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-16 21:51:14

Building Pyramids Using Very Long Ropes

Authors: Robert M. Hartranft, John W. Hartranft
Comments: 3 Pages.

The pyramids could have been easily built using very long ropes: up one side of the pyramid, across the top, down the other side, and out to the pulling team. Many ropes could be used in parallel.
Category: Archaeology

[151] viXra:1501.0170 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-11 17:04:52

Phase Velocity And Group Velocity For Beginners

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 13 Pages.

In the first section of this paper I derive the formulas for the phase velocity and group velocity as a function of the total relativistic energy and the momentum of a particle. In the second section I derive similar formulas as a function of the de Broglie and the Compton wavelengths of the particle. In the third section, I derive similar formulas as a function of the angular frequency and the wave number. Finally, two additional meanings of the Compton wavelength are derived. The first one is derived from the equation of the group velocity in terms of the de Broglie and the Compton wavelengths and the second one from the range of the weak nuclear force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[150] viXra:1501.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-16 07:32:35

Ether,dark Matter and Topology of the Universe(version 3)

Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 23 Pages.

The article is divided in 2 parts. In the 1st part (PART I), we emit the hypothesis that a substance, called ether-substance, fills and constitutes all what is called “vacuum” in the Universe. We assume that it has a mass and consequently it could be the nature of dark matter. Modeling it as an ideal gas, we obtain the flat rotation curve of spiral galaxies. Using a very simple model of thermal transfer between baryonic particles and ether-substance, we obtain the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. Then we emit the hypothesis of the existence at every point of the Universe, of a particular Referential called “local Ether”. We will see that both previous concepts of ether can be detected experimentally. So we will call “Cosmology based on ether” (CBE) Cosmology based on the previous concepts of ether. In this CBE, topology of the Universe is much simpler than topologies obtained by the Standard Cosmological model (SCM), in particular in the 1st model. Indeed, contrary to MSC, the 1st model of CBE does not need dark energy nor Cosmological constant, nor complicated mathematics based on General Relativity. Nonetheless, it permits to obtain a very simple Hubble’s constant, in 1/t, t age of the Universe, and to predict the different cosmological distances in agreement with observation. CBE permits also to interpret, contrary to MSC, the Referential in which fossil radiation is isotropic. Nonetheless, CBE remains compatible with Special and General Relativity. In the 2nd part (PART II) we will study some problems raised by PART I (motion of galaxies inside the intergalactic ether-substance, concentration of ether-substance around stars..)
Category: Astrophysics

[149] viXra:1501.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-16 07:42:07

On Some Significant Questions of Physics

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 3 Pages.

I give my opinion on the relativity, cosmological redshift, Big Bang, gravity, quantum mechanics and field theory.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[148] viXra:1501.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-16 08:43:46

Solving the Contradiction of the Michelson – Morley Experiment by the New Special Relativity

Authors: Valentin Ibañez Fernandez
Comments: 14 Pages. 14

Abstract In this paper, it is proposed the phenomenon of contradiction of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Lorentz Transformations .This contradiction is resolved by new special theory of relativity viXra: 1501.0037. A new interpretation of experiment proposed. The paper gives a historical overview of the development of interpretation of this experiment. The contradiction is resolved by this new theory and this may lead to understanding clear its postulates.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[147] viXra:1501.0165 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-16 13:32:11

The Origin of Masses of Old Globular Clusters

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the Chandrasekhar limits indeed concern the neutron stars but they are not a Fermi gas that obeys Fermi-Dirac statistics - they are a crystal that behaves as a ferromagnetic. Due to the atom-like structure of baryons, the binding energy for all neutrons has the same value so the factors which appear in the Chandrasekhar limit are incorrect. There are at least two Chandrasekhar limits i.e. about 11.2 solar masses and 1.394 solar masses which is the mass of the Type Ia supernovae. The clouds, that later transform into the globular clusters, are produced on Schwarzschild surface of the quasars and are carried by the relativistic jets. Calculated here the upper limit for the initial mass of the old globular clusters in the halo of the Milky-Way Galaxy is 155,200 solar masses. Quasars with greater mass produce more massive globular clusters. The obtained theoretical upper limit for the mass is consistent with observational facts.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[146] viXra:1501.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-15 14:38:02

Usl-5ues-Ugnse 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 for the Policy Makers & Shapers

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this short paper, we explain the fundamental premises of USL and 5 UEs, how it operates, and its socio-economic and environmental implications over the next half a century and their initial funding strategies as the original USL is broken into USL 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 sequentially each of which is designed to boost the regional or national average math skills by ½ year, 1 year, or 2 years respectively, which in turn will trigger the massive surplus economic growths. Using these massive growths, USL1 is trying to resolve the top 5 world global crises within a few decades. The various levels of collaborations, investments and donations are suggested at the end.
Category: Economics and Finance

[145] viXra:1501.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-15 15:06:05

A Cosmology Model Based on ±Mass Symmetry

Authors: Robert M. Hartranft, Scott W. Hartranft
Comments: 2 Pages.

Just as the universe contains balanced positive and negative electric charges and balanced north and south magnetic poles, so it also has balanced amounts of positive and negative mass-energy. Understanding this allows consistent and natural explanations for the birth, early behavior, growth, present appearance, and future of the universe. Cosmic inflation and dark energy, while intellectually clever, are unnecessary and non-existent in the real universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[144] viXra:1501.0162 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-27 10:15:06

Genesis Equation

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 1 Page. replacement, errors corrected

Since the “Drake equation” is a meaningless useless collection of guessing which serve no useful purpose, I have re-written the equation taking into account the new understandings provided by the discovery of the Stellar Metamorphosis theory, also known as the Wolynski hypothesis. This theory, allows us to pin down a Genesis constant and Genesis stage which allows for the intention of the “Drake equation” to be solved for mathematically
Category: Astrophysics

[143] viXra:1501.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-14 20:14:55

Why Should Governments Fund and Run the Usl Pilot Studies This Spring (Draft1)

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 5 Pages.

The USL pilot study series were created to dispel the doubts of its too-good-to-be-true claims. The previous off-line USL pilot study results imply that it is possible to boost the math skill average of a region (city, state, or even a country) by 1 year within a few weeks. If done simultaneously online, this can happen within a few days, which most people have been in total disbelief in spite of all the evidences and video testimonials and support videos of over 700 students, teachers and principals. This paper is to propose to various city, state, or national governments to participate in a series of scaled-down version of the previous USL pilot studies. We propose the USL 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 each of which corresponds to quickly boost the regional math – proportionally speaking as the sample sizes will be limited - by 2 years (for the national governments only), 1 year (for the national or state governments) or ½ year (for the state or city governments) respectively. At the end, we propose to create Boards of Social Enterprises together where the USL team and the participating governments share the growths of the future Social Enterprises if the governments choose to do so as the implications out of even USL 0.25 (boosting the average math skill levels by half a year) or USL 0.5 (boosting the average math skill levels by half a year) are profound because it takes usually a few decades to improve the average math skill levels of a nation by 1/2 year in the history of OECD countries and rarely they boosted 1 year of math skills.
Category: Education and Didactics

[142] viXra:1501.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-14 17:11:17

On the Completeness of Genetic Code: Part III

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 2 Pages. Part III of the work; Part II in viXra:1501.0117

In this third part of the work about the completeness of the genetic code, we present new examples that show that the codon splitting after pyrimidine and purine nucleotides distinctions are followed by specific arithmetical balances of the number of atoms in the amino acid molecules side chains.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[141] viXra:1501.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-01 10:57:52

Question of Scaling of Gravitational Quanta in Gravitational Wave Detection Experiments

Authors: Joseph F. Messina
Comments: 4 Pages.

The limits of applicability of Planck's constant are brought into question in the context of the framework of quantum mechanics. The possibility is raised that gravitational quanta may be scaled by a more diminutive "action" whose detection requires sensitivities beyond the standard quantum limit. An experiment that could unequivocally test this possibility is suggested.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[140] viXra:1501.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2015-08-12 01:47:48

Violation of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 3 Pages. Open Access Library Journal, Volume 2, e1797.

Recently, violation of Heisenberg's uncertainty relation in spin measurements is discussed {[J. Erhart {\it et al.}, Nature Physics {\bf 8}, 185 (2012)]} and {[G. Sulyok {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. A {\bf 88}, 022110 (2013)]}. We derive the optimal limitation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in a specific two-level system (e.g., electron spin, photon polarizations, and so on). Some physical situation is that we would measure $\sigma_x$ and $\sigma_y$, simultaneously. The optimality is certified by the Bloch sphere. We show that a violation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle means a violation of the Bloch sphere in the specific case. Thus, the above experiments show a violation of the Bloch sphere when we use $\pm 1$ as measurement outcome. This conclusion agrees with recent researches {[K. Nagata, Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 48}, 3532 (2009)]} and {[K. Nagata {\it et al.}, Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 49}, 162 (2010)]}.
Category: Quantum Physics

[139] viXra:1501.0156 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-26 09:59:18

The Lorentz Transformation Cannot be Physical

Authors: Rasjid Chan Kah Chew
Comments: 4 Pages. A replacement; derivation of time dilation added.

The Lorentz transformation will always remain only as an abstract mathematical transformation that cannot be successfully incorporated into any theory of physics. The reason being there is no natural principle that ensures real physical space positions and time be also mapped onto real positions and time. Under the projection, space would be contracted and time would be dilated; so the space and time co-ordinates cannot be associated with real physical quantities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[138] viXra:1501.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-14 11:40:56

Polar Coordinates Satisfy Wave Equation

Authors: Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir
Comments: 2 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that the polar coordinates satisfaction to wave equation.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[137] viXra:1501.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-14 06:34:12

Cantor's Fallacy and the Leibnizean Cosmology

Authors: Adriaan van der Walt
Comments: 33 Pages. This monograph is of a fundamental nature and its ideas should be accessible to any reader with a post graduate background in Mathematics and/or Physics (hence no references are given).

The Leibnizean cosmology, where both space and discrete objects (including particles) are assumed to be formed from continuous entities called infinitesimals, replaces the Euclidean Cosmology, where continuous space is assumed to be formed from discrete entities called points. Infinitesimals as well as infinitesimal numbers are defined in this monograph and an Arithmetic for non-standard analysis is developed by generalising the concept of real number to a wider class of numbers, called here the Cauchy numbers, and by rearranging Number Theory somewhat. This is motivated in part one by showing that Cantor’s famous diagonal proof, which is an algebraic formulation of Euclidean Cosmology, rests on the fallacy that an infinite decimal fraction can be identified by specifying its finite digits. The argument of this part includes a proof that the set of equivalence classes of Cauchy sequences is countable. In part two the Leibnizean model for the infinite divisibility of space is developed by introducing the concepts of infinitesimal and infinitesimal number from the context of Calculus. An Arithmetic for Cauchy numbers is developed, including an interpretation of L’Hospital’s rules and a description of the Real Continuum. The concept of cascades of infinitesimals as directed sets is introduced and the Fundamental Theorem of the Calculus is studied as a Net defined on such a cascade. In part three the Leibnizean Cosmology is argued to be in line with the ideas of Parmenides and that space, in this cosmology, is ‘fuzzy’ - thus clarifying the paradox of the arrow. It is also pointed out that, with particles suitably defined as infinitesimals, Parmenides’ ideas are vindicated because everything is one, and motion is only an illusion because nothing comes into being where it did not exist before. Furthermore, some intractable problems of Physics, like the particle/wave duality and action at a distance, are pointed out to be direct consequences of the Euclidean Cosmology and that they all but disappear in the Leibnizean Cosmology. In part four it is pointed out that when the role of points as building blocks of space is discarded, points can be used comfortably in the Leibnizean model as indicators of locations in space. Thus Mathematics can once more become a canonical model, but without the parts that depend on the Euclidean properties of points; e.g. open and closed sets on the real line.
Category: General Mathematics

[136] viXra:1501.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-14 04:24:42

Safe Tunnelling in a Water Rich Shear Zone in the Western Ghats Threat to the Kerala-Tamil Nadu Water Bodies from the India-Based Neutrino Observatory

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 14 Pages.

How will the Indian Department of Atomic Energy construct the biggest underground science laboratory in the world in a sheer zone in the Western Ghats, without repeating the hydro-geological disasters encountered in Gran Sasso in Italy, Rohtang in the Himalayas and Velligonda in the Deccan Plateau? This question regarding the negative impact of tunnelling of the India-based Neutrino Observatory on the nearby aquifers and surface water bodies in Idukki-Theni districts of Tamil Nadu, raised through peer-reviewed science, web and print media has been in the air since September, 2012. The State Governments of Kerala and Tamil Nadu ignored the issue and the Central cabinet has cleared the project. The first mega science project in India could have been launched after a detailed assessment of the short term and the long term impacts on the ecosystem. All reports should have been in the public domain, the pros and cons of the project should have been debated. This should have been followed by stakeholder consultancy at all levels. Without any of these, the Department of Atomic Energy and the Department of Science and Technology have decided to bull doze the Western Ghats with a million kg of gelatine.
Category: Geophysics

[135] viXra:1501.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-14 04:27:02

The Secret Move to Set up Radioactive Waste Repository Under the Western Ghats in Kerala-Tamil Nadu Border

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Union cabinet has given the final clearance for setting up the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) under the mountains in Idukki-Theni districts of the Western Ghats. This is one of the ten mega science project managed by the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). With a finished volume of 235,000 cubic meters, INO will be the biggest underground laboratory in the world. The proposed site (77°17′5.32′′E, 9°56′46.20′′N) is in the highly degraded portion of the Suruli Shear Zone and is surrounded by the catchment area of three perennial river systems (Periyar, Vaigai and Vaippar) and 12 dams within a radius of 50 km. DAE has refused to discuss the impact of blasting out 800,000 tons of rock using 1000 tons of gelatine on the aquifers and reservoirs in the area.i
Category: Geophysics

[134] viXra:1501.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 17:48:08

On the Sum of Three Consecutive Values of the MC Function

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In a previous paper I defined the MC(x) function in the following way: Let MC(x) be the function defined on the set of odd positive integers with values in the set of primes such that: MC(x) = 1 for x = 1; MC(x) = x, for x prime; for x composite, MC(x) has the value of the prime which results from the following iterative operation: let x = p(1)*p(2)*...*p(n), where p(1),..., p(n) are its prime factors; let y = p(1) + p(2) +...+ p(n) – (n – 1); if y is a prime, then MC(x) = y; if not, then y = q(1)*q(2)*...*q(m), where q(1),..., q(m) are its prime factors; let z = q(1) + q(2) +...+ q(m) – (m – 1); if z is a prime, then MC(x) = z; if not, it is iterated the operation until a prime is obtained and this is the value of MC(x). In this paper I present a property of this function.
Category: Number Theory

[133] viXra:1501.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 19:53:33

Octonion Song

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 54 Pages. Some characters in Sanskrit

The Octonions and their multiplication table, the Fano Plane, bear an isomorphic relationship to the Pythagorean music system, which this paper shows is not a coincidence. In fact, the Octonions vibrate at one stage during the formation of new particles, in what might be termed the Octonion Song. This explains why Octonion structure matches musical structure. This paper explains how this happens and how information about this lies encoded in Sanskrit in the Rig Veda, the oldest book known to humanity, and the first commitment to writing of the oral - based Ifa algebra of Africa.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[132] viXra:1501.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-14 01:42:15

The MC Function and Three Smarandache Type Sequences, Diophantine Analysis

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In two of my previous papers, namely “An interesting property of the primes congruent to 1 mod 45 and an ideea for a function” respectively “On the sum of three consecutive values of the MC function”, I defined the MC function. In this paper I present new interesting properties of three Smarandache type sequences analyzed through the MC function.
Category: Number Theory

[131] viXra:1501.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 13:46:40

Top Pitch Points of Usl1 for the Social Causes

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 4 Pages.

USL1 is the first version of USL (Unified Super Learning) to revolutionize the world using its colossal potential to boost the human capital in unprecedented scale to the economic growth not at the expense of the energy, environmental, social causes, but to sustainably balance them all by creating an international treaty based one 5UEs (Unified 5Es: Education  Economy  Energy  Environment  Empowerment/Equality) in the chronological order and thus positioned to resolve the top 5 global challenges or crises (Education crisis, Sovereign Debt crisis, Depleting Energy & Resource crisis, Environmental and Ecosystem destructions, including the climate change, and the Post-2015 issues especially the global poverty).
Category: Economics and Finance

[130] viXra:1501.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 12:00:35

Usl Proposals to the Governments of the South Asian and Sub-Saharan African Countries, and the African Union (Draft 1)

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 10 Pages.

USL1 proposals to the governments of the South Asian and African countries, and the African Union as a part of larger program called 5UE for 5 regions or continents proposal (to governments & the UN) will operate under the principle of 5UEs. The key idea of us is to trigger peaceful global revolution using the established human capital boost factors of USL (which literally will trigger the educational revolution in very short time). As the sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia overall are the least economically developed regions in the world, the economic boosts on these regions based on USL1 will be much larger than the rest of the world. Over the next 60-80 years of time frame, USL1 can literally boost the economy 100 times of the current GDPs of these regions. Using that potential, we are trying to establish an UN-led international treaty and create URF (Unified Redistribution Fund), which is designed to boost the globally sustainable prosperity in the following sequence: Unified 5 Es (Education –> Economy –> Energy –> Environment –> Empowerment). As of now, we are planning to use a simple version of USL1 called UBN1 (Universal Basic Numeracy) the projections of the economic growths, narrowing economic gaps are included at the end.
Category: Social Science

[129] viXra:1501.0143 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-13 12:33:54

The Theory Purely Affine of the Gravity and Electromagnetism of Schrödinger (Ii)

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 9 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article we analyze the second of the purely affine theories Schrödinger (Schrödinger-II), where he used a semi-symmetric connection and therefore with torsion, capable of accommodating the unification of the three fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[128] viXra:1501.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 08:12:40

Creativity, Imaginary, Language

Authors: Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu, Xenia Negrea, Alina Țenescu
Comments: 284 Pages.

Volumul cuprinde lucrările prezentate în cadrul CIL 2014: The International Conference of Humanities and Social Sciences - Creativity, Imaginary, Language, Craiova, 16-17 May 2014 (www.cilconference.ro)
Category: Social Science

[127] viXra:1501.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 05:05:44

An Interesting Property of the Primes Congruent to 1 Mod 45 and an Ideea for a Function

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I show a certain property of the primes congruent to 1 mod 45 related to concatenation, namely the following one: concatenating two or three or more of these primes are often obtaied a certain kind of composites, id est composites of the form m*n, where m and n are not necessarily primes, having the property that m + n - 1 is a prime number. Plus, I present an ideea for a function which be interesting to study.
Category: Number Theory

[126] viXra:1501.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:07:01

Os Riscos e a SUBPOLÍTICA da Coleta Seletiva no Rio DE Janeiro

Authors: Ms. Vinícius Ferreira
Comments: 23 Pages.

This work addresses generally the problem of municipal solid waste and selective collection in Viçosa-MG in a context of the National Policy on Solid Waste. The main goal is to analyze the spatial distribution of VDPs (Voluntary Delivery Points), also known as Ecopoints. Are places where the population moves to allocate those recyclables. For it was used Geoprocessing tools and field observations. The results show that where social mobilization was performed regarding the selective collection, showed better indices of usability of VDPs. Also showed that the spatial analysis are critical in urban planning, especially in solid waste management.
Category: Social Science

[125] viXra:1501.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:08:25

Gerenciamento DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS Urbanos: Uma Análise da Distribuição Espacial Dos Pontos de Entrega Voluntária de Material Reciclável em Viçosa/MG

Authors: Ms. Júlio Campos
Comments: 23 Pages.

This work addresses generally the problem of municipal solid waste and selective collection in Viçosa-MG in a context of the National Policy on Solid Waste. The main goal is to analyze the spatial distribution of VDPs (Voluntary Delivery Points), also known as Ecopoints. Are places where the population moves to allocate those recyclables. For it was used Geoprocessing tools and field observations. The results show that where social mobilization was performed regarding the selective collection, showed better indices of usability of VDPs. Also showed that the spatial analysis are critical in urban planning, especially in solid waste management.
Category: Social Science

[124] viXra:1501.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:11:21

Programa Minha Casa, Minha Vida: a Percepção Dos Beneficiários Como Instrumento Para Avaliação

Authors: inicius de Souza Moreira, Suely de Fátima Ramos Silveira, Francimar Natália Silva Cruz Reis
Comments: 22 Pages.

The "Minha Casa, Minha Vida" (MCMV), launched in 2009, is now the main program of the Federal Government to tackle the country's housing deficit. To pay attention to the figure of the beneficiaries, it is noted that the target audience of the programs rarely participate in the evaluation process. In this sense, the study aimed to evaluate the perception of families benefited from the program, in a new development located in Viçosa (MG), in three areas: Housing Unit, Enterprise and Surrounding Areas. Data were analyzed from the Descriptive Statistics, Cronbach's Alpha, the KolmogorovSmirnov (KS) and the Student t test. Thus, the results showed that the evaluation of the perception of the beneficiaries is figured as an important performance measure of MCMV, since in considering the opinion of those who really enjoy the products delivered by the intervention is possible to incorporate citizen participation and be closer to the reality lived in the projects.
Category: Social Science

[123] viXra:1501.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:13:10

OLÍTICA Habitacional e Pequenos MUNICÍPIOS no PARÁ: Reflexões Sobre Capacidade Administrativa e Implementação do Programa Minha Casa Minha Vida Oferta Pública

Authors: Anna Carolina Gomes Holanda, Joana Valente Santana
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper discusses the recent housing policy in Brazil. It examines the Program “My House My Life”, a government program providing funds to small municipalities and specifically how this has been applied in the state of Pará in the Brazilian Amazon. Based on research of books and documents, the issue of housing and urban struggles are considered. The results of this research show that these small municipalities have a limited administrative capacity for the implementation of this program.
Category: Social Science

[122] viXra:1501.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:14:53

O Conflito Entre Movimento Dos Pobladores e Estado no Chile: Quem Gere, Planeja e Controla O Território?

Authors: Mestranda Nathalie Drumond
Comments: 23 Pages.

This study discusses the formation of territoriality of social movements, from the concrete experience in Chile of the pobladores’s movement. Until the establishment of the military regime in this country, the pobladores developed a model of self-government in their districts. From the 1973 coup, state and housing market began to regulate these territories. With the analysis of this historical example, it was sought to extend the concept of territory for geography including social movement as subject of production of space. At the same time, it was avoided to make an analysis that separates the movements of their context, not taking into account the limits that the processes at larger scales impose on the struggle of social movements. To build this theoretical review of the territory‟s concept, was analyzed the territorial characteristics of two steps of the pobladores’s movement, the embryonic experience of self-government (1967-73) and its decline from the success of the neoliberal project in Chile. It was found that the social movement can be the "architect" of your own neighborhood, so it is necessary to rethink the concept of territory, considering the social movement as an active subject of its construction.
Category: Social Science

[121] viXra:1501.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:16:41

Plano Rio Sem MISÉRIA: Reflexões Sobre a Estratégia Para a Redução da Pobreza e da Desigualdade no Estado do RJ

Authors: Mestranda Angélica Cristina Nagel Hullen, Márcio Eduardo Brotto
Comments: 20 Pages.

This paper is a partial product based on the research on the Rio Plan without Poverty - PRSM, a strategy aimed at overcoming poverty in the state of Rio de Janeiro. It aims to perform a systematic description of PRSM, analyzing it in the light of social welfare policy, and to present initial outcomes of the state strategy. Studies like these are of importance as they discuss the role of social assistance in solving human needs. Not all the specific needs for overcoming poverty are included in the social welfare policy. They are integrated in several policies and must be understood through different perspectives in order to enhance the impacts of such strategy plans.
Category: Social Science

[120] viXra:1501.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:17:57

O SERVIÇO Social na MEDIAÇÃO DE Conflitos: a Atuação do Assistente Social Nos Casos de Conflitos Familiares Mediados na Seccional Urbana do Bairro da Sacramenta em Belém–PA

Authors: Nathalia Kamila Nunes Aquino, Rosália do Socorro da Silva Corrêa
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper presents the practice of Social Work in mediating family disputes, the major causes of this conflicts, from the cases treated in a Civil Police unit (Sectional neighborhood of Sacramenta) in Belém, PA. Governed by the Policy for Public Safety of the State, the social worker acts in a preventive manner, avoiding that conflict situations reach the world of crime. The study was conducted through the following techniques: approach, observation, semi structured interviews, and documentary research that contributed with significant data for the study. The research showed that the social worker’s service of conflict mediation in that Sectional is promoting conflict resolution that could evolve into criminal practices, if there was not this type of intervention; in addition to promoting social harmony and harmonious balance between the parties, preventing violence and crime
Category: Social Science

[119] viXra:1501.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:19:41

Políticas Públicas de Atendimento a Mulheres Vítimas de Violência: a Lei Maria da Penha e Sua APLICAÇÃO no Contexto da PRÁTICA

Authors: Aline Nandi, Rosane Maria Kaspary, Raquel Caetano, Dorneles Sita Fagundes
Comments: 27 Pages.

The analysis of the Public Policy for coping with women victims of violence and the applicability of Law 1,340/2006 "Maria da Penha" whose objective of this study, seeks to identify and understand the elaboration of this Public Policy, the demands of action and other public policies from the consolidation of the Maria da Penha Law and its impact on municipalities of Taquara and Rolante/RS. For a more critical approach and with a specific focus on the theme, it was identified and mapped the applicability ways of the Maria da Penha Law in the municipalities selected for this research, its application by the bodies responsible for the assistance to the women in violence situation. For this, we raised the number of domestic violence against women recorded at the civil police station in the two towns, since the elaboration of Maria da Pena Law until the first semester of 2014. It confirmed the importance of this study as the ground for future researches which, focusing different areas of knowledge may deepen the thematic addressed here.
Category: Social Science

[118] viXra:1501.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:21:11

Planejamento e Mercados: O Caso da Suinocultura Catarinense Frente à Crise Russo-Ucraniana

Authors: Dra. Glaucia Padrão e Ms. Reney Dorow
Comments: 17 Pages.

The insert of the production chain of pork from Santa Catarina in the international market makes it potentially vulnerable to the instability in major markets in the world, being able to influence the planning of production in the State. The latest refers to the Russian-Ukrainian crisis, which began in November 2013, with local reflexes in the pork chain. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the scale of the crisis in the pork sector of Santa Catarina, as well as its consequences on the corn market, since corn is the main raw material in the production of pigs. To assess this situation, we used the market reference and cooperation within the BRICS. The results show that, due to the cancellation of Ukrainian imports of pig meat originating in Santa Catarina, there was an increase in exports to the BRICs, mainly to Russia, which prevented the occurrence of more harmful effects on local production planning. This demonstrated the strength of Brazil's foreign policy alignment within the framework of cooperation with the BRICs in the definition and realignment of markets.
Category: Social Science

[117] viXra:1501.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:22:24

POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS: Interpretações Com O Foco no Capital Social

Authors: Mestranda Valéria Fontoura Nunes, Jovino Pizzi
Comments: 20 Pages.

The public policies are topics to be discussed in several meetings, seminars, academic work and on daily-basis debates. Its multidisciplinary nature highlights the multiple point of view, as well as interpretation. The controversies are not limited to the analysis itself, but also on the consequences and reflections derived from public policies. For that reason, the contributions coming from sociology, economy and philosophy, among other areas, so that plausible justifications might be taken for their validity and problem identification as well as habits connected to it. Besides public policies cycles and its dynamical process, they take part in the agenda definition, alternative identification, evaluation and options taken, implementation and evaluation etc. It is certain that such matters are guided by a variety of interests. As a result, the goal of this paper is talk about public policies taking into account the social capital category analytic potential in Putnam. It is not merely discussing Putnam’s theoretical aspects, but mainly exposes the initiatives developed in the Latin America and in Brazil. In fact, it is aimed at highlighting that the social capital category might be an index of human coexistence. In this sense, the synergy among states, demographic institutions and community are interested in the community welfare. For that reason, the establishment of indexes such as commitment, cooperation, engagement and social participation are essential to constitute public policies committed to the distributive rules.
Category: Social Science

[116] viXra:1501.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 02:23:58

A Aplicação da Política Nacional de Educação Ambiental na Modalidade de Educação de Jovens e Adultos do Ifba

Authors: Ms. Bruno Britto de Miranda
Comments: 27 Pages.

Environmental education in the school context aims to open spaces for the construction of knowledge and the articulation of knowledge, enabling the formation of individuals who are participants in building a sustainable, socially just and ecologically balanced. In this sense, educate environmentally subjects requires the involvement of a range of social actors and organizational forms that include alternative actions to the hegemonic model of development, with an emphasis on environmental sustainability. In this context we decided to investigate the course of Informatics of PROEJA of Victoria Campus da Conquista - BA and analyze whether it is meeting plausibly the PNEA. Characterized as a descriptive qualitative approach, waiting to see how the result as the PNEA and PROEJA are in line and how everyday attitudes of teachers can accomplish this peculiar public which is the type of youth and adult education.
Category: Social Science

[115] viXra:1501.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-12 15:53:42

The Prime Number Formulas

Authors: Ke Xiao
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract There are many proposed partial prime number formulas, however, no formula can generate all prime numbers. Here we show three formulas which can obtain the entire prime numbers set from the positive integers, based on the Möbius function plus the “omega” function, or the Omega function, or the divisor function.
Category: Number Theory

[114] viXra:1501.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-12 18:33:00

The Large Number Correlations and Musical Scales

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is shown that the Large Number Correlations are dramatically tied to the main musical scales of Jeans classification, which implies that the physical parameters are calculation bases in a Computing Arithmetical Cosmos.
Category: Astrophysics

[113] viXra:1501.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-12 19:42:52

Q&A to the State or National Governments (Of the Oecd, Eu, or G20 Countries) that Are Interested in Running the Usl1 or Usl0.x Pilot Studies

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 9 Pages.

Q&A to the state or national governments (of the OECD, EU, or G20 countries) that are interested in running the USL1 or USL0.x pilot studies When Where Who Preferences Requirements Budget Publicity How Why
Category: Education and Didactics

[112] viXra:1501.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-12 23:08:30

PARTICIPAÇÃO, INFORMAÇÃO e COMUNICAÇÃO: Lições do Planejamento Comunicativo a Partir da Experiência de Florianópolis/SC

Authors: Ms.Tibelle Cristina e Renato Saboya
Comments: 23 Pages.

The enactment of the Statute of the City changed the way municipal master plans are developed, with the inclusion of the population in all its stages and rendering these processes much more complex. This research analyzes the process of participatory planning in Florianópolis, based on the theoretical framework of the communicative planning. The analysis encompasses the period from August 2006, its official starting point, until March 2010, when the population prevented the executive branch to present its proposal in a public hearing. In order to understand the process and the problems that led to this partial outcome, we collected the views of members of the Municipal Advisory Committee and the assigned planners through semi-structured interviews. The content analysis adopted a categorization based on eight conditions for communicative rationality as put forth by the literature and indicated that the aspects that most strongly influenced the results were the barriers to full participation at the stages of technical analysis and in the drafting of the proposal; lack of transparency, comprehensiveness and discussion on relevant information; and the dissolution of trust between actors.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[111] viXra:1501.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-12 10:18:33

A Proof of the Abc Conjecture (After Second Modification)

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 13 Pages.

We first get rid of three kinds from A+B=C according to their respective odevity and gcf (A, B, C) =1. After that, expound relations between C and raf (ABC) by the symmetric law of odd numbers. Finally we have proven C≤Cε [raf (ABC)] 1+ ε in which case A+B=C, where gcf (A, B, C) =1.
Category: Number Theory

[110] viXra:1501.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-20 03:15:53

An Approximation to the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron

Authors: Harry A. Watson
Comments: 5 Pages.

An Approximation to the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron. The mass ratio of the proton to the electron is a dimensionless physical constant. The following expression provides a good estimate. (4π)(4π−1/π)(4π−2/π)= 1836.15 (1) The above expression is also the greatest lower bound (GLB) for a more general expression. A geometric persuasion is given and the more general expression is determined via the inversion of the spheres.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[109] viXra:1501.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-12 08:20:10

Witten, Milgrom, Brown, and Kroupa on Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND)

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 5 Pages.

Based upon an essay (by Brown) in the Spring, 2015 FQXi contest, quoted comments from Witten are presented followed by quoted comments from Milgrom in response to Witten’s comments. Brown’s viewpoint is then given, followed by quoted statements made by Kroupa in 2011.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[108] viXra:1501.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-12 00:36:10

From Quantum Entanglement To Quantum Biology To Quantum Universe

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 6 Pages.

Yes, can I take your order, Ma'am? The reality? Wow, that's a big order - but I'll put it in the smallest package I can. Do you want fries with that - or would you prefer a doughnut? (a moment passes while Penny, the waitress, goes to the kitchen and returns) Here's your reality - and your doughnut. Enjoy your meal! This article was posted on the FQXi Community’s “Ultimate Reality” page - http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1928 - which says, “If you have an unconventional, alternative model of reality, then this is the place to discuss it. (This is for contributors who have preliminary ideas and would like feedback, but do not have an academic paper or arXiv preprint and have not given a conference talk based on their ideas.)” My article refers to the article "Quantum Life" by Zeeya Merali - Discover Magazine, December 2014. Zeeya’s article about quantum biology fascinated me! Then it got me thinking of sentences I’d written on subjects like quantum entanglement, artificial intelligence, and macro-entanglement of matter on larger-than-subatomic (even cosmic) scales. I started writing just to see where my ideas went. In next to no time, paragraphs about cosmic things and topics like time travel were filling up the computer screen. My article almost got deleted then because I thought I couldn’t stop straying from the topic at hand. At the last moment, the idea that everything was being unified occurred to me. And I decided to go ahead and explore the connections “From Quantum Entanglement To Quantum Biology To Quantum Universe”.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[107] viXra:1501.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-11 16:01:11

Three Functions Based on the Digital Sum of a Number and Ten Conjectures

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I present three functions based on the digital sum of a number which might be interesting to study and ten conjectures. These functions are: (I) F(x) defined as the digital sum of the number 2^x – x^2; (II) G(x) equal to F(x) – x and (III) H(x) defined as the digital sum of the number 2^x + x^2.
Category: Number Theory

[106] viXra:1501.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-11 13:37:45

Memories Might be Passed Down Through Generations in Our DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

New research from Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. During the tests they learned that that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. [9] A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time. Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[105] viXra:1501.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-15 13:43:25

Theory of the Nuclear Binding Energy

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 12 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present the mathematically very simple theory of nuclear binding energy. We start from the Newtonian dynamics. It leads to binding energy proportional to coupling constant (or running coupling) of interaction and inversely proportional to distance between interacting objects. Applying the new formula, as some examples, we calculated binding energy of electron in ground state in hydrogen atom (13.6 eV), mean binding energy per nucleon in the alpha particle (7.07 MeV), mean binding energy per nucleon in the nucleus of iron atom (8.79 MeV), in nucleus of nobelium atom (7.21 MeV), for nucleus of oxygen atom (7.91 MeV) and for nuclei containing more than 56 nucleons. We present also the theory of deuteron. Obtained results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[104] viXra:1501.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-11 06:25:48

Philosophical Foundations of Mathematical Universe Hypothesis Using Immanuel Kant

Authors: Darius Malys
Comments: 9 Pages.

Kant's transcendental philosophy is used to answer the questions about the nature of mathematics, how mathematics relates to the physical world, why we are self-aware and perceive ourselves in the world described by mathematics. Kant's architectonic system of reason is used to derive the invariant framework of the mind within which our thoughts originate - the original synthetic unity of apperception. It is the logical framework underlying all our possible knowledge - the framework of the cognitive faculty of understanding. This framework lies at the foundation of our thinking, logic, mathematics, natural language and organization of sense-data (experience). Phenomenal world in space and time is an output of this framework after the synthesis of the productive imagination. The nature of mathematics is discussed as based on this framework from intuitionist and logicist perspectives. Logic defines the structure of space and time.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[103] viXra:1501.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-11 08:10:31

On the Completeness of Genetic Code: Part II

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 4 Pages. This is Part II of the work; Part I in viXra:1412.0274

As in first part of this work, in this second part we present the chemically meaningful splitting of codons after pyrimidine and purine distinctions; the splitting which is also in relation to Rumer nucleotide doublet Table.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[102] viXra:1501.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-11 06:21:47

Phenomenal World as an Output of Cognitive Quantum Grid: Theory of Everything using Leibniz, Kant and German Idealism

Authors: Darius Malys
Comments: 73 Pages.

In order to understand the Universe completely and achieve Theory of Everything we must understand how our consciousness experiences and understands all objects in the Universe in general. The aim of the project is to synthesize philosophy, mathematics, physics, information theory, language and cognitive science into a single architectonic framework or system of our reason itself and to model the original synthetic unity of apperception – the framework within which all our thoughts, knowledge and experience is produced.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[101] viXra:1501.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-10 14:39:36

Gravitational Wave of Strange Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 7 Pages.

Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star' - unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[100] viXra:1501.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-10 11:04:11

A Metaphorical Chart of Our Mathematical Ontology

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: 10 Pages. FQXi essay contest entry 2015

This is my vision of the relationship between mathematics and physics based on my observations on the nature of physical laws and mathematical structures. I use mainstream ideas from quantum gravity such as string theory, holography, the landscape and loop quantum gravity as a base for my reasoning. In addition I bring together more speculative ideas such as the Mathematical Universe Hypothesis, multiple quantisation, universality, iterated integration maps and complete symmetry. In my view these clues come together into a consistent whole where a structure from higher category theory is the central piece from which all else stems. The future of fundamental physics is going to be much more challenging than the past on both the experimental and theoretical sides and these meta-physical structures need to be understood to guide us towards the more specific physical laws which rule our universe. On a more philosophical level they can provide an explanation for why we exist and why the laws of physics are so steeped in mathematical abstraction.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[99] viXra:1501.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-09 14:39:51

Usl Paper Series 1: Back of the Envelope Calculations to Estimate the Usl1 Contributions to Resolve Four of the Most Critical Global Crises from the Economic or Budgetary Points of Views of Governments and the un

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 11 Pages.

We demonstrate here, with a bit of over-generalization to point the most critical issues for both the governments worldwide and the UN, that the USL1 (which is the version 1 of USL to boost the worldwide or national average math skills for students by quickly advancing 2 years) alone will have the immense economic growth impacts around the world after the short math education reform times in the participating nations. As the world average GDP growths may rise very fast with 3-5-10-15 times within first a few decades, the 4 of the most grave global crises that can be helped by budgeting or financing to resolve them can be solved. These 4 global crises treated here are 1) the transition to the quasi-complete renewable energy 2) sovereign debts 3) climate change damage costs 4) the post-2015 costs. The surplus gains of the national or world GDPs due to USL1 alone seem to be able to resolve all of them at the same time and for the post-2015 multiple times more. Finally, we provide the USL-5UE-URF Trio schemes to the governments, NGOs, and the UN.
Category: Economics and Finance

[98] viXra:1501.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-09 09:29:52

Rig Veda Magic Squares

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 34 Pages.

Einstein's flawed understanding of gravity has misled modern physics down the wrong path, while his contemporaries held the correct understanding. This paper reviews the concept of gravity in light of Vedic Nuclear Physics, and the understanding of gravity pro- posed by H. A. Wilson, Harold Puthoff, Alcubierre, Davis, Robert Dicke, Hoyle-Narlikar the- ory and others. Finally, this paper explains the “worm hole” or Substratum tunnelling effect which may make interstellar and intergalactic space travel possible. In short, this paper provides the concepts necessary for interstellar travel in the near future.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[97] viXra:1501.0111 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-30 02:49:22

Particulate Antigravity Force Black Holes and Higgs Boson

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 5 Pages.

On link http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 (see chapter A, paragraph 7) it is described the Universal antigravity force as the first Nature force. Additionally, there are the particulate antigravity force and the nuclear antigravity force. The particulate antigravity force will be developed below, while the nuclear one, important for the nuclei structure, it is developed on link http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0210. On link http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 (see chapter B, paragraphs 1 and 3) the Genesis of the space hole (bubble of empty space) in the area close to the Universe center creates the gravity pressure, as a new form of pressure in the region of the particle gravitational field. This pressure causes condensation of the electrically opposite elementary units (in short: units) of space and reduction of the space cohesive pressure. Therefore, the gravity pressure replaces part of the space cohesive pressure. It converts the cohesive forces of space to gravitational ones, due to the presence of the space hole (local deformation). This change of the cohesive pressure in the region of the particle creates particulate antigravity pressure gradient and therefore repulsive antigravity force opposite to the gravity attraction between two particles. The fact that the rate of the particulate antigravity force declines rapidly with the distance from the particle attributes to this phenomenon a theoretical significance concerning the structure of black holes. The reason is that only at the small scale of the particle core vacuum the particulate antigravity pressure gradient has a calculable rate. It is noted that Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space describes the black holes as a form of grid space matter, consisting of polyhedral cells, like bubbles in a foamed liquid.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[96] viXra:1501.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-09 05:33:04

Quantum Spiral Theory

Authors: Suraj Kumar
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we have tried to describe a gauge group for gravitational potential associated with the elementary particle as described by their spiral structure in accordance with the standard model. It relates to the framework of quantum field theory considering the Dark Potential Waves which constitutes the Universe to be destructively interfering through Symmetry which breaks spontaneously through autocatalysis to initiate the Higgs Mechanism which consecutively defines the gravitational potential resulting in various spiral forms of particles. It also redefines the formation of Spiral Structure of Elementary Particles in context to formation of Sea Shells.
Category: Quantum Physics

[95] viXra:1501.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-08 15:44:02

A New Cosmology

Authors: Pier Paolo Lisi
Comments: 8 Pages.

the simplest model of universe, comprehending electromagnetic and gravity forces, entropy, space dimensions, blak/white holes (bidirectional between two timelines), singularities (monodirectional, faced to no spacetime: big bang/big crunch, 'external' holes); infinity and contraddiction remain out of the system, they are possible only in no spacetime
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[94] viXra:1501.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-09 01:34:53

Lorentz Transformations Implicit Assumption and Its Consequences

Authors: Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir
Comments: 19 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that the spacetime has wave properties and wave equation while Lorentz transformations represent the Doppler effect for that wave, and also shows the derivation of the correct relativistic factor and shows its consequences. It also shows the refutation of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction and the refutation of the relativistic mass and how the relativistic factor becomes equal to the principle quantum number
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[93] viXra:1501.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-09 03:49:37

The Brotherhood

Authors: Shrikrishna Jayraj Kalgaonkar
Comments: 33 Pages.

Almost everywhere “brotherhood relation” as non-reflexive, non-symmetric but transitive. I couldn’t agree with this. The reasons for this disagreement are explained in the article. Brotherhood concept is discussed as a binary relation, types of binary relations, equivalence relations and its effect. Finally suggesting that the brotherhood relation should be considered as a equivalence relation.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[92] viXra:1501.0106 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-09 08:39:50

Exact Solution of the Problem of Random Walks on 2 and 3-Dimensional Simple Cubic Grids in the Form of Combinatorial Expressions. (En)

Authors: A. Antipin
Comments: 4 Pages. This article in English. Версия на РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ: http://vixra.org/abs/1412.0181

The obtained combinatorial formulas describing random walks on a simple cubic grid. For the case of 2 dimensions - accurate and simple. For the case of 3 dimensions - accurate, but, unfortunately, not compact.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[91] viXra:1501.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-09 16:38:15

On Some Analytical Results for 3-Cycles of the Logistic Map

Authors: Andrzej Okninski
Comments: 4 Pages. A comment has been added (end of Section2).

In the present work new analytical results for the 3-cycles of the logistic map are obtained.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[90] viXra:1501.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-08 06:48:51

A Critical Note on the Relativistic Doppler Shift

Authors: Radwan M. Kassir
Comments: 3 pages

Analysis of the Einstein’s general formula for the relativistic Doppler shift, derived in his 1905 paper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, revealed for the case of relative circular motions a critical contradiction with the relativistic time dilation prediction obtained in the same paper for reference frames in a relative rectilinear, uniform motion (i.e., relatively moving inertial frames). The time dilation under consideration was obtained for the traveling frame motion over an extremely small fraction (to the order of one light wavelength) of the circular path, so as the respective relative motion could be approximated with a rectilinear one.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[89] viXra:1501.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-08 07:30:26

Experiment for the proof of Newton’s Third Law Violation in Unipolar Motor

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 4 Pages.

The author proposes to perform an experiment proving that in unipolar motor the Newton’s third law is being violated.
Category: Classical Physics

[88] viXra:1501.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-08 09:26:08

Explanation of Quantum Phenomena with a New Model of Photon and Electron Emission, Propagation and Absorption

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 21 Pages.

The puzzles of quantum mechanics are: 1. what is the medium for the photon and for the electron wave? i.e. what is waving? 2. particle interference pattern 3. observer effect. 4. entanglement. In Quantum Erasure and Double-Slit experiments, how does the emitter know to direct the photon two both slits or only to one slit? And how does the detector know where to detect the photons to form an interference pattern and not a bell-shaped (Gaussian) pattern or vice versa? This paper proposes a few, closely related, simple and subtle laws of nature governing quantum phenomena. Some of the findings in this paper are: 1. A photon is emitted in two steps: the creation of photon path and the emission of the photon 2. Although (almost) all of the energy of the photon is localized in space, the photon extends to infinity. An extremely small energy of the photon, which we call the 'precursor wave' in this paper, extends to infinity. The instant the photon is emitted, its precursor wave creates a path to infinity; it appears instantaneously in all its path to infinity, with infinitely small energy density. The precursor wave serves as the 'highway' for the propagation of the main energy packet. However, to conserve the principle of causality, we assume that the tip of the photon propagates at a speed billions times the speed of light. Thus, there are two speeds associated with the photon: the speed we know as c and the speed at which the photon length increases. 2. A photon will be emitted only towards an absorber. A photon is emitted by the interaction of the emitter and a detector. It is obvious that a photon will not be emitted if there is no emitter. Nor will a photon be emitted if there is no detector . Once a photon is emitted, however, it exists objectively, autonomously. The photon is emitted only after its path is determined by the interaction of the emitter and the absorber, at the instant of emission. 3. The photon energy will be concentrated where there is higher wave amplitude, i.e higher intensity of oscillation of electric and magnetic fields. This results in 'dragging' of the electromagnetic energy by the wave, hence eliminating the need for any medium. It is also proposed that single photon interference is a quantum phenomenon whereas two photon interference is a classical phenomenon. Similar laws hold for the electron. The 'medium' for the electron wave is the electron (the electron mass density field) itself. Where there is higher intensity of electron wave/oscillation, there will be higher electron mass density. This means that the electron wave 'drags' the electron with itself. Therefore, no exotic 'medium' is required for the photon and for the electron wave.
Category: Quantum Physics

[87] viXra:1501.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-08 09:36:29

Speed of Light is Constant Relative to the Apparent Source a Fusion Between Ether Theory and Emission Theory !

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 4 Pages.

Most of the experiments and phenomena on the speed of light can be explained either by the ether theory or the emission theory. The emission theory can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment. The ether theory can explain the Sagnac and Michelson-Gale experiments, moving source experiments, the Silvertooth experiment and Bradely Stellar Aberration. Therefore, it is highly likely that a single theory can be formulated which is a fusion of the emission theory and the ether theory. Neither does the ether exist, nor is the ballistic theory correct. The emission theory and the ether theory are not wrong but incomplete separately. This paper proposes a theory which seamlessly fuses the two into one. The speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. A consequence of this is that it is impossible to detect absolute motion by phase comparison using a single light source. The fallacy with the Michelson Morley experiment was that a single light source was used. Modern Michelson Morley experiments use two light sources but then compare frequencies (not phases) which will not change for co-moving source and observer[3]. All of the known light speed experiments agree with this theory. We call the new theory the Apparent Source Theory. A direct evidence of the two-source claim made above is Ronald de Witte’s experimental detection of absolute motion by comparing the phases of two independent Cesium clock stabilized signal sources.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[86] viXra:1501.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-08 10:10:35

Gravity for Warp Speed

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 34 Pages. Equations

Einstein's flawed understanding of gravity has misled modern physics down the wrong path, while his contemporaries held the correct understanding. This paper reviews the concept of gravity in light of Vedic Nuclear Physics, and the understanding of gravity pro- posed by H. A. Wilson, Harold Puthoff, Alcubierre, Davis, Robert Dicke, Hoyle-Narlikar the- ory and others. Finally, this paper explains the “worm hole” or Substratum tunnelling effect which may make interstellar and intergalactic space travel possible. In short, this paper provides the concepts necessary for interstellar travel in the near future.
Category: Astrophysics

[85] viXra:1501.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-08 12:49:26

Higgs Physics Against the University?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

Modeling of conditions soon after the Big Bang suggests the universe should have collapsed just microseconds after its explosive birth, the new study suggests. "During the early universe, we expected cosmic inflation — this is a rapid expansion of the universe right after the Big Bang," said study co-author Robert Hogan, a doctoral candidate in physics at King's College in London. "This expansion causes lots of stuff to shake around, and if we shake it too much, we could go into this new energy space, which could cause the universe to collapse." [3] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[84] viXra:1501.0096 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-14 15:00:26

The Constructive Criticism of the Renormalization

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Many great physicists criticized the renormalization as an incoherent method of neglecting infinities in an arbitrary way. Dirac said that renormalization “is just not sensible mathematics”. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we proved that the mainstream QED is incomplete and is based on a few wrong assumptions. QED leads to experimental data only due to the free parameters. It is not true that there is not upper limit (cutoff) for energy of virtual pairs and it is not true that bare particles are sizeless. The elimination of these two wrong assumptions causes that the modified QED (MQED) is very simple and free from infinities so from renormalization as well. In reality, an electron-positron pair at first appears as a binary system of loops with condensates in their centres both composed of entangled Einstein-spacetime components. Next, due to the superluminal quantum entanglement of the luminal Einstein-spacetime components, the binary system immediately transforms into binary system of tori/electric-charges. With each torus/electric-charge is associated loop, condensate responsible for weak interactions and only one virtual electron-positron pair. Due to the superluminal quantum entanglement, electron disappears in one place and appears in another one, and so on - it is the quantum behaviour of electron. Most important is the fact that both descriptions of magnetic moment and spin of an electron, i.e. via the initial loop plus condensate and via the torus/electric-charge plus loop plus condensate plus virtual pair, are equivalent. Both descriptions lead to the same ratio of magnetic moment of electron to Bohr magneton: 1.0011596521735. This result is very close to experimental data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[83] viXra:1501.0095 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-02 09:05:50

Towards A Quaternionic Spacetime Tensor Calculus

Authors: Carsten S.P. Spanheimer
Comments: 38 Pages.

Introducing a special quaternionic vector calculus on the tangent bundle of a 4-dimensional space, and by forcing a condition of holomorphism, a Minkowski-type spacetime emerges, from which special relativity, gravitation and also the whole Maxwell theory of electromagnetic fields arises.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[82] viXra:1501.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-08 01:28:37

Quantized Capacitance and Energy of the Atom and Photon

Authors: Lane M Davis
Comments: 8 Pages.

By modeling both the atom and the photon as capacitors, the correct energy levels are easily produced via extrapolation from Maxwell's, Gauss', Coulomb's and Ohm's laws — without the need to inject Planck's constant into the equation ad-hoc. In the case of the photon, Einstein's photoelectric equation is formulated as a result, with Planck's constant consequently occurring as an aggregate of fundamental constants. Analysis of these equations lends credence to Planck's fervent and controversial personal dogma that the constant which he himself had discovered is nothing but “a mathematical trick”. Further analysis shows that this model reconciles the wave-particle duality; wherein the wave properties of light and matter produce the particle-like aspects as a result of the laws of electrical engineering in conjunction with the uncertainty principle and Schrödinger's wave equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[81] viXra:1501.0093 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-11 07:21:25

The Simpler System for a New Cosmology

Authors: Pier Paolo Lisi
Comments: 8 Pages.

a simple solution of relationships between gravity and electromagnetism
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[80] viXra:1501.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-07 21:03:50

Experiments with the Spinning Electric Vector Analyzer SEVA-Integral-M1. Angular Momentum of Objects and Events, Manifested in the Field Gyroscope.

Authors: Mark Krinker
Comments: 18 Pages.

The paper considers a conception of universality of the angular momentum in a wide class of phenomena, even if they look not related to Physics and have no immediate classical interpretation. The Field Gyroscope, FG, is an example of a manifestation of the wide class of events in its real measurable properties. Origination of FG in Nature was considered by the author before. The experiments were carried out with a latest model of the FG meters family- SEVA-Integral-M1. The developed approach allows measuring the events in units of a power per unit of a volume, as well as represents them in a quantum form with the Plank constant. One of the novelties of the latest model is a separated measuring quasi-stationary (q-stationary) and non-stationary spinning, which opens new horizons in a research. The experiments revealed qualitatively identical action of influence of a real spinning gyroscope and images of drawn spirals - they increase FG magnitude. Beside that, a new phenomenon of origination of oscillations of non-stationary spinning FG after image-exposure was revealed. Influence of artificial and natural illumination, the human phantom, thoughts and verbal emotions as well as other phenomena on FG was measured. The experiments confirm a conception of unity of a wide class of phenomena on a base of the angular momentum, in particular- in its quantum form as the Plank constant.
Category: Classical Physics

[79] viXra:1501.0091 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-10 17:36:35

An Alternate Explanation for the Hubble Constant Through Interference by Space Gases

Authors: D. G. Taylor
Comments: 30 Pages. Copyright#: 1-1190626511

Presently, the decreasing frequency of Electromagnetic radiation from Galactic/Cluster objects as their distance from the Milky Way [MW] increases is taken as an absolute declaration of their motion away from the Solar system. An alternate explanation would be that the frequency reduction of the signal could be due to interfering effect of inter-Galactic gases. It makes mathematic and logic arguments against the invalid reasoning of the proposed hyper-Relativistic velocity of Universe expansion demanded by the current Big Bang theory. It offers a mathematical Relativity argument for how matter could come to be from nothing but free Boson energy. The formation of the “Big Bang” remains completely unexplained, and is simply regarded as an unchallengeable theory because that is the only possible explanation for the reality we know. That is an invalid scientific postulation, and current observed phenomenon could be argued to be part of the process of Boson transformation into matter. EM frequency shifts downward are evidence of Dark Matter throughout the Universe. A simple parallel to the reddening of solar radiation as it travels through a greater thickness of the atmosphere during both Sunrise and sunset. Support for this alternate supposition is that in current Hubble Theory, the M31 Galaxy and the NGC 300 Galaxy are at distances inconsistent with their recession velocity.  
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[78] viXra:1501.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-07 13:15:34

Neutrinos May Breaking the Standard Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Some physicists are surprised that two relatively recent discoveries in their field have captured so much widespread attention: cosmic inflation, the ballooning expansion of the baby universe, and the Higgs boson, which endows other particles with mass. These are heady and interesting concepts, but, in one sense, what's new about them is downright boring. These discoveries suggest that so far, our prevailing theories governing large and small—the Big Bang and the Standard Model of subatomic particles and forces—are accurate, good to go. But both cosmic inflation and the Higgs boson fall short of unifying these phenomena and explaining the deepest cosmic questions. “The Standard Model, as it stands, has no good explanation for why the Universe has anything in it at all,” says Mark Messier, physics professor at Indiana University and spokesman for an under-construction particle detector. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[77] viXra:1501.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-07 13:25:41

A New Warp Drive Equation Based on a Parallel $3+1$ Adm Formalism Applied to the Natario Spacetime Geometry

Authors: Fernando Loup
Comments: 39 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor $10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in theory. Some years ago starting from $2012$ to $2014$ a set of works appeared in the current scientific literature covering the Natario warp drive with an equation intended to be the original Natario equation however this equation do not obeys the original $3+1$ Arnowitt-Dresner-Misner($ADM$) formalism and hence this equation cannot be regarded as the original Natario warp drive equation.However this new equation satisfies the Natario criteria for a warp drive spacetime and as a matter of fact this equation must be analyzed under a new and parallel $3+1$ $ADM$ formalism. We compare both original and parallel $3+1$ $ADM$ formalisms using the approach of Misner-Thorne-Wheeler($MTW$) and Alcubierre and while in the $3+1$ spacetime the parallel equation differs radically from the original one when we reduce both equations to a $1+1$ spacetime both equations becomes equivalent.We discuss the possibilities in General Relativity for this new equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[76] viXra:1501.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-07 14:29:19

Decision Taking Avoiding Agency

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 42 Pages.

In the setting of outcome oriented decision taking (OODT), decisions are scarce events occurring in between of many other events which are not decisions. Activities of and agency by an agent may occur without any decisions being taken by that agent, with choice and action determination as the only mechanisms for actively resolving uncertainty about future behavior. Such behaviour will be referred to as decision taking avoiding agency. A model, or rather a preliminary qualitative description, of decision taking avoiding agency is provided for systems consisting of or controlled by a solitary natural or artificial agent, as well as for a group of agents.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[75] viXra:1501.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-08 07:33:02

Some Limitations of the Big Bang Cosmology: and It’s Possible Alternative

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Eight page paper

This letter begins with some questions which do not seem to have satisfactory explanations in the current Big-Bang Cosmology. Then it points out a paper [1] which shows that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves, so any alternative explanation of the cosmological red-shift’ is not incompatible with the observations of super-novae light-curves. Rather, non-observation of time-dilation in the case of some super-novae needs further works. Then, based on the coincidences noticed by Nobel laureate physicists, and authentic text-books, a derivation is presented showing that every piece of matter and energy is expected to feel the ‘cosmic gravitational force’. This derivation leads to a prediction that not only photons, but all other bodies are expected to feel this ‘cosmic gravitational force’ causing deceleration of their inertial-motion. It is shown that the so called ‘Pioneer-anomaly’ is very much expected based on this derivation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[74] viXra:1501.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-07 11:38:13

Symmetric Mass Hierarchies of the Standard Model

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 8 pages, 8 figures

The fundamental particles of the Standard Model are arranged in symmetric mass hierarchy within a geometric framework that is connected to Planck scale. Atomic scales are incorporated within the scheme.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[73] viXra:1501.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-07 07:39:38

Tests for the Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Martin Lopez-Corredoira
Comments: 6 Pages. Accepted to be published in Proceedings of Science (SISSA), talk in the conference "Frontiers of Fundamental Physics 14", 15-18 July 2014, Marseille (France)

Almost all cosmologists accept nowadays that the redshift of the galaxies is due to the expansion of the Universe (cosmological redshift), plus some Doppler effect of peculiar motions, but can we be sure of this fact by means of some other independent cosmological test? Here I will review some recent tests: CMBR temperature versus redshift, time dilation, the Hubble diagram, the Tolman or surface brightness test, the angular size test, the UV surface brightness limit and the Alcock–Paczýnski test. Some tests favour expansion and others favour a static Universe. Almost all the cosmological tests are susceptible to the evolution of galaxies and/or other effects. Tolman or angular size tests need to assume very strong evolution of galaxy sizes to fit the data with the standard cosmology, whereas the Alcock–Paczynski test, an evaluation of the ratio of observed angular size to radial/redshift size, is independent of it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[72] viXra:1501.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-07 08:10:37

Introduction to the Effective Mass Tensor in GR

Authors: Mirosław J. Kubiak
Comments: 1 Page.

There have been many proposals to use alternative theories of gravity in lieu of the general theory of relativity (GR). In this paper [1], we propose something different: a new interpretation of the GR. We propose here to use the concept of the effective mass tensor to describe gravitational phenomena instead of usual metric tensor. This paper discusses the implications arising from the use of this concept.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[71] viXra:1501.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-06 15:44:33

Transdisciplinarity and Communicative Action. a Postmodern Perspective (Editorial)

Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 7 Pages.

Transdisciplinarity and communicative action are the current fluid and irradiative concepts; are the concepts which support the moving of postmodernity toward transmodernity. The first concept is consecrated by Basarab Nicolescu and the second one is imposed by Jurgen Habermas. We emphasize that in the contemporary change of paradigm appear new forms of communicative action that complement the old ones, and that through transdisciplinarity and new communicative actions more and more the postmodernism becomes transmodernism.
Category: Social Science

[70] viXra:1501.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-06 16:19:34

Newton's Aether

Authors: Gary D. Simpson
Comments: 7 Pages.

This text demonstrates that how we think about Gravity can be influenced by the mathematical tools that are available to us. The author attempts to predict what Newton might have thought if he had known of the works of Euler and Hamilton and been familiar with Linear Algebra. A definition is presented for the natural logarithm of a vector. The author determines that Newton would have inferred that the force of gravity and the resulting acceleration are not collinear.
Category: Classical Physics

[69] viXra:1501.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-06 21:58:21

A Refutation of the Eddington-Finkelstein Coordinates

Authors: Ben Steber
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Eddington-Finkelstein as a pair of coordinates have selectively allowed for solutions to the Schwarzschild metric which include singularity as well as a permeable event horizon. The author will demonstrate that the coordinates reduce to identities which remove tortoise coordinates from the field. Special Relativistic and General Relativistic principles will demonstrate the inaccessibility of the Event Horizon by massive particles, resulting in the removal of singularity. The Einstein-Rosen solution will establish a field free of singularities resulting in a drastically new model for the structure of black holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[68] viXra:1501.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-07 00:51:42

Is Axial Anomaly Really an Anomaly?

Authors: Murod Abdukhakimov
Comments: 36 Pages.

The concept of axial anomaly is fully accepted by modern physics, but nearly all physicists find it weird. Once we know from experiment that axial current is not conserved, why do we start with equation that preserves axial symmetry? Do we intentionally "make even number of mistakes" to obtain the correct result? Is there a field equation allowing to directly derive the correct expression for the divergence of the axial current? In this paper we will find such equation and describe some amazing consequences emerging from it.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[67] viXra:1501.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-29 08:25:50

Standard Model and Gravity from Tetrahedra

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 41 Pages.

E8 Physics (viXra 1405.0030) at high energies has Octonionic 8-dim Spacetime that is fundamentally a superposition of E8 Lattices each of which has vertices surrounded by the 240-vertex E8 Root Vector Polytope. At lower energies Octonionic symmetry is broken to Quaternionic symmetry in accord with E8 = H4 + H4 so that the 240-vertex E8 Polytope is decomposed into two copies of the Quaternionic 4-dim 120-vertex 600-cell whose relative size is the Golden Ratio. If you give one copy a rational number size, then the size of the other will be in a Golden Ratio Algebraic Extension space. Let the Rational Number 600-cell be the Vertex Polytope for 4-dim M4 Physical Spacetime of M4 x CP2 Kaluza-Klein and the Algebraic Extension 600-cell be the Vertex Polytope for 4-dim CP2 Internal Symmetry Space of M4 x CP2 Kaluza-Klein. Look at the 4-dim Physical Spacetime 600-cell. It has 120 vertices and 600 tetrahedra. 20 x 24 = 480 of the 600 tetrahedra are in 24 icosahedra within the 600-cell. 5 x 24 = 120 of the 600 tetrahedra are, 5 in each, connected to each of the 24 icosahedra to form 24 octahedra. The 24 octahedra form a 4-dim 24-cell, the Vertex Polytope of the 4-dim Feynman Checkerboard. 24 of the 120 vertices correspond to vertices of the 24-cell and 96 of the 120 vertices correspond to Golden Ratio points, arranged in one of the two possible consistent ways, on the 96 edges of the 24-cell dual to the original 24-cell. Even though 3-dim simplex tetrahedra cannot tile flat 3-dim space, they can combine to form curved 3-dim subspaces in 4-dim space, so that 3-dim simplex tetrahedra can be used as building blocks to construct E8 Physics by taking 1200 of them to make two 600-cells, each in its own 4-dim space, and then combining the two 600-cells and their two 4-dim spaces to make 8-dim E8 Root Vector Polytopes, and then to make E8 Lattices whose E8 Lie Algebra lives in Cl(16) Clifford Algebras whose completion of union of all tensor products form a generalized hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor AQFT (Algebraic Quantum Field Theory) based on the realistic E8 Physics Lagrangian and corresponding to a realistic 4-dim Feynman Checkerboard.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[66] viXra:1501.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-15 12:25:51

The Deflection of Light by the Sun. The Asymptotic Solution

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 9 Pages.

We calculate the angle of the deflection suffered by the light passing near a large mass M, the Sun, using the asymptotic behavior of exact solution of the equation for the light movement according to the General Relativity (Schwarzschild space-time). The resulting angle is practically constant of about 65°.4, minus the deflection obtained with Newtonian mechanics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[65] viXra:1501.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-05 18:38:20

Review of Concise Encyclopedia of Pragmatics 2nd ed (2009)

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 17 Pages.

Clearly neither I nor anyone will ever read any substantial part of this massive tome so I will discuss the one article that interests me most and which I think provides the framework necessary for the understanding of all the rest. I refer to the one on Ludwig Wittgenstein (W). Even were I to try to discuss others, we would not get past the first page as all the issues here arise immediately in any discussion of behavior. The differentiation of pragmatics and semantics is largely meaningless. It is defensible that one might subtitle this work ‘Developments of Wittgenstein’s Contextualism’, but of course this term has inevitably been corrupted by philosophers. One might then say that pragmatics and semantics are parts of or coextensive with epistemology and ontology and the descriptive psychology of higher order thought (Searle’s Logical Structure of Rationality) or that they describe how we use noises in specific contexts to give them meaning --i.e., a true or false (propositional) use which Searle calls their Conditions of Satisfaction. Adding the Wittgenstein/Searle work to modern research on thinking provides a framework for pragmatics, semantics and all other human behavior.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[64] viXra:1501.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-05 19:59:45

Two Answers to a Common Question on Diagonalization

Authors: Samuel C. Hsieh
Comments: 6 Pages.

A common question from students on the usual diagonalization proof for the uncountability of the set of real numbers is: when a representation of real numbers, such as the decimal expansions of real numbers, allows us to use the diagonalization argument to prove that the set of real numbers is uncountable, why can't we similarly apply the diagonalization argument to rational numbers in the same representation? why doesn't the argument similarly prove that the set of rational numbers is uncountable too? We consider two answers to this question. We first discuss an answer that is based on the familiar decimal expansions. We then present an unconventional answer that is based on continued fractions.
Category: General Mathematics

[63] viXra:1501.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-05 20:18:43

Critical Review on Cosmologically Strengthening Hydrogen Atom

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana
Comments: 6 Pages. Reference: On the Evolving Black Holes and Black Hole Cosmology- Scale Independent Quantum Gravity Approach. Frontiers of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology, vol. 1, no. 1 (2014): 1-15.

By considering the Stoney scale and current cosmic back ground temperatures the authors proposed a unified model mechanism for understanding the cosmological light emission mechanism in cosmologically ‘strengthening hydrogen atom’. In this proposed model ‘gravitational potential energy of proton’ and ‘ (2n^2) states of electron’ both seem to play a major role. Throughout the cosmic evolution, Planck’s constant seems to be a constant whereas the currently believed ‘reduced Planck’s constant’ seems to be a cosmological decreasing variable. With this new proposal - Hubble’s redshift interpretation, Super novae dimming and currently believed cosmic acceleration can be reviewed at fundamental level and a correct model of cosmology can be developed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[62] viXra:1501.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-05 21:48:02

Conjecture of Negative Matter and Negative Internal Energy

Authors: Yuan Li, Xuhong Zou
Comments: 7 Pages.

We try to use the word“balance” to explain the energy in this universe. In chemistry, we know if a matter wants to be stable[1], the energy must be lower and lower. So we have reason to believe that if our universe is stable, then the total energy equal to zero, the perfect balance. We use coordinates to prove negative matter and negative internal energy exists and builds molds to explain the relation ship between negative matter and normal matter in our universe.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[61] viXra:1501.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-05 23:16:42

A Relativistic Mechanism for the Formation of Matter From Pure Energy

Authors: D.G. Taylor
Comments: 15 Pages. Copyright #1-2035274031

The current favorite in Cosmology for the formation of this Universe from a single “Big Bang” purports the idea that there was an object of Planck dimensions that exploded at a hyper-Relativistic velocity. It proposes that single body (call it the “Cosmic Egg”) was initially pure energy. Later in its expansion the energy of that Big Bang became disperse enough to form matter. Though the degree of that dispersion necessary for that formation is largely undefined. Even the proposals that offers/purports some definitions do not meet in logic. This paper reasons from the Classic Relativity equations a mechanism for that formation and offers a source of the energy needed for that formation. While it makes a very specific presumption that our Space-Time reality is infinite, that is surely more reasonable than assigning it the limits modern science does. Assigning limits to our Universe – in Space and Time – have been proven incorrect for the entire history of Science. It is unreasonable to presume the limits of our observations now are the same limits we will have for the rest of eternity. We must always remember that the data we obtain is from whatever Local area can be observed with the current technology – it is never infinite.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[60] viXra:1501.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-08 13:09:52

Classical Thermodynamics Entropy Laws as a Consequence of Spacetime Geometry

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 14 Pages.

Just as Maxwell’s magnetic equations emerge entirely from applying dd = 0 of exterior calculus to a gauge potential A, so too does the second law of thermodynamics emerge from applying dd=0 to a scalar potential s. If we represent this as dds = dU = 0, then when the Gauss / Stokes theorem is used to obtain the integral formulation of this equation, and after breaking a time loop that appears in the integral equation, we find that U behaves precisely like the internal energy state variable, and that the second law of thermodynamics for the entropy of irreversible processes naturally emerges.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[59] viXra:1501.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-05 14:19:26

The Mandelbrot Set and the Fractal Nature of Light, the Universe and Everything

Authors: Lori Gardi
Comments: 17 Pages. Presented at SPIE, The Nature Of Light: What are Photons? San Diego, 2013

“There is always another way to say the same thing that doesn’t look at all like the way it was said before.” Richard Feynman. In this essay, a novel approach to cosmology is presented that mathematically models the Universe as an iterated function system (IFS) analogous to the famous Mandelbrot Set IFS (M): z=z2+c, where z and c are complex numbers. In theoretical physics, wavefunctions are functions of a complex space that are commonly used to model the dynamics of particles and waves. In the IFS framework presented herein, complex dynamical systems are generated via the iteration process, where the act of iteration corresponds to 1) a change in the state of the system and 2) a change to the wavefunction itself. In this manner, M can be considered a wavefunction generator. In this framework, all observables, including gravity and time, are thought to be generated by the iteration process. Feynman understood that there are many ways of looking at the Universe that are equivalent in nature but different psychologically. Understanding cosmology in terms of fractals and iterated function systems requires a paradigm shift in the way we approach cosmology. This is an evidence based dissertation and does not contradict the standard model; rather, it attempts to reconstruct it using the principles of the fractal paradigm as outlined in this essay. It is the contention of the author that in order to understand the true nature of light, the universe and everything, we must first understand the important role that fractal cosmology plays in the study of our complex dynamical universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[58] viXra:1501.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-05 06:44:12

A Proof of the Abc Conjecture (After First Modification)

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 12 Pages.

We first get rid of three kinds from A+B=C according to their respective odevity and gcf (A, B, C) =1. After that, expound relations between C and raf (ABC) by the symmetric law of odd numbers. Finally we have proven C≤Cε [raf (ABC)] 1+ ε in which case A+B=C, where gcf (A, B, C) =1.
Category: Number Theory

[57] viXra:1501.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-05 07:14:57

A Proof of the Beal’s Conjecture (After fifth Modification)

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 23 Pages.

First we classify A, B and C according to their respective odevity, and ret rid of two kinds from AX+BY=CZ. Then affirm AX+BY=CZ in which case A, B and C have a common prime factor by concrete examples. After that, prove AX+BY≠CZ in which case A, B and C have not any common prime factor by the mathematical induction with the aid of the symmetric law of odd numbers after the decomposition of the inequality. Finally, we have proven that the Beal’s conjecture holds water after the comparison between AX+BY=CZ and AX+BY≠CZ under the given requirements.
Category: Number Theory

[56] viXra:1501.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-19 05:54:38

Electrization of the Superconductive Windings and Tori and the New Type of Contact Potential Difference

Authors: F. F. Mende
Comments: 19 Pages.

In the article is examined new physical phenomenon the electrocurent contact potential difference, whose value depends on the current, which flows along the conductor. Unfortunately, the computed values of electrocurent contact a potential difference proved to be considerably lower than the potentials, observed in the experiment. The carried out experiments and calculations showed that the discovered electrization of the superconductive windings and tori finds its explanation in the concept of scalar-vector potential, developed by the author. This concept assumes the dependence of the scalar potential of charge on its relative speed.
Category: Classical Physics

[55] viXra:1501.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-05 04:26:47

Tensor Networks and Quantum Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

Vectors are great for describing the motion of a particle. But now suppose you need to analyze something more complicated, where multiple magnitudes and directions are involved. Perhaps you’re an engineer calculating stresses and strains in an elastic material. Or a neuroscientist tracing the changing forces on water flow near nerve cells. Or a physicist attempting to describe gravity in the cosmos. For all that, you need tensors. And they might even help you unify gravitational theory with quantum physics. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[54] viXra:1501.0064 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-05 06:41:40

The Theory Purely Affine of the Gravity and Electromagnetism of Schrödinger (I)

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 23 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. His investigation is based on the purely affine theory, which considers the affine connection as the main geometric element and the metric tensor as a derived quantity. In this paper we analyze the first Schrödinger theory. This is the first of a series of articles that expose the entire research Schrödinger in unitary field theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[53] viXra:1501.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-04 23:49:08

Neutrosophy, Paradoxism and Communication

Authors: Stefan Vladutescu, Dan Valeriu Voinea, Elena Rodica Opran
Comments: 200 Pages.

This book is homage to Professor Florentin Smarandache, at the 60 years of age.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[52] viXra:1501.0062 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-14 11:41:14

Algebraic Partial Equation

Authors: Arm Boris Nima
Comments: 15 Pages.

We generalized the concept of hyperbolic\\ and trigonometric functions to the\\ third and the fourth case which \\ gives rise to the parametrization \\ of the orbifold defined by\\ $x^3+y^3+z^3-3xyz=1$\\ in the third case.
Category: General Mathematics

[51] viXra:1501.0061 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-08 07:40:26

Experiment for the Proof of Newton’s Third Law Violation in Unipolar Motor \\ Эксперимент для доказательства нарушения третьего закона Ньютона в униполярном двигателе

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 4 Pages.

The author proposes to perform an experiment proving that in unipolar motor the Newton’s third law is being violated. \\ Автор предлагает выполнить эксперимент, доказывающий, что в униполярном двигателе нарушается третий закон Ньютона.
Category: Classical Physics

[50] viXra:1501.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-04 11:24:27

Resolution of the Half Twin Paradox

Authors: Andrew Wutke
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper discusses the most notorious paradox of Special Relativity. The reciprocity of Lorentz transformation applied to a one way scenario is demonstrated on the first leg of the journey, however the only reason of reciprocity is that two systems use two different sets of events resulting naturally from relative simultaneity caused by Lorentz transformation. The actual problem which twin ages less cannot be resolved within the Special Relativity. The relative simultaneity seems to be only an artificial effect of clock synchronisation convention. If it was for real, it would cause violation of causality in some cases, which is demonstrated. There seems to be a possibility that the absolute simultaneity and preferred inertial reference frame are valid concepts, but the Special Relativity still has predictive power without the need of finding them if at all possible.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[49] viXra:1501.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-04 12:23:52

Holography, Higgs Field and Quantum Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

The gravity of a black hole swallows the matter around it. The link between tensor networks and quantum entanglement may prove useful in studying the physics of black holes, some physicists propose. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[48] viXra:1501.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-04 08:01:42

Geography of Time in Qi Men Dun Jia

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 55 Pages. Some charts

One cause for the failure of western science is the assumption that Time is constant, or the reliance on such concepts as “Space – Time.” In contrast, the ancient divination method known as Qi Men Dun Jia views time as a physical entity. The QMDJ model, based on actual real physical processes, thus uses this temporal model to make accurate predictions in the real world. This paper explains the temporal mechanism, based on Hurwitz Quaternions, by which this is done. Thus Hurwitz Lattices and the 24 – Cell may describe the Geography of Time.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[47] viXra:1501.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-12 11:09:25

Gravitation is a Gradient in the Velocity of Light

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments: 17 Pages.

It has long been known that a photon entering a gravitational potential follows a path identical to that of a photon in a variable speed of light defined by the Shapiro velocity for Minkowski flat space [1]. A spatially variable speed of light is implicitly present in General Relativity, and in fact has a long history starting in the pre GR efforts of Einstein and others. The difference in the approach presented in this paper is not that gravitation changes the speed of light, but that gravitation is a change in the speed of light. There are lots of implications in this including whether or not gravitons and gravitational waves exist. It will be demonstrated that a pair of opposite going photons or massless bosoms, instantaneously located at a point have the mass and inertial properties of a massive particle, and transform under a change in the velocity of light exactly as a massive particle responds to a gravitational field. The mechanism for holding massless bosons together as a particle will not be addressed in this paper, but it is not necessary to illustrate confinement to demonstrate the transformation properties on photon momentum in a variable speed of light. At least some massive particles are in reality a confinement of massless bosons, and if it can be shown that the collective momentum is accelerated by a gradient in c, then the premise vindicated. It is shown here that the center of mass of a particle defined as a pair of opposite going null vector photons, in a gradient light speed, is accelerated exactly as a massive particle is accelerated in a gravitational potential. It is thus asserted that gravitation can be defined as a gradient in c produced by the presence of mass, and thus, Newton’s apple falls not because of an increase in energy, but because the speed of light at the branch is higher than the speed of light at the ground.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[46] viXra:1501.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-13 06:34:08

A Unified Description of Particles, Strings and Branes in Clifford Spaces and P-Brane/polyparticle Duality

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 12 Pages. Submitted to Physics Letters B

It is proposed how the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) allows a unified formulation of point particles, strings, membranes and $p$-branes, moving in ordinary target spacetime backgrounds, within the description of a single $polyparticle$ moving in $C$-spaces. The degrees of freedom of the latter are provided by Clifford polyvector-valued coordinates (antisymmetric tensorial coordinates). A correspondence between the $p$-brane ($p$-loop) wave functional ``Schroedinger-like" equations of Ansoldi-Aurilia-Spallucci and the polyparticle wave equation in $C$-spaces is found via the polyparticle/$p$-brane duality/correspondence. The crux of exploiting this correspondence is that it might provide another unexplored avenue to quantize $p$-branes (a notoriously difficult and unsolved problem) from the more straightforward quantization of the polyparticle in $C$-spaces, even in the presence of external interactions. We conclude with some comments about the $compositeness$ nature of the polyvector-valued coordinate operators in terms of ordinary $p$-brane coordinates via the evaluation of $n$-ary commutators.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[45] viXra:1501.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-04 03:48:24

Odd Number Sum Theorem

Authors: Maik Becker-Sievert
Comments: 1 Page.

Every odd number y is the sum of n following numbers while n is a divisor of y.
Category: Number Theory

[44] viXra:1501.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:19:04

Communicative Universal Convertibility Matter Energy Information

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Ștefan Vlăduţescu
Comments: 19 Pages.

The research aims to reveal and prove the thesis of the neutral and convertibility relationship between constituent constructive elements of the universe: matter, energy and information. The approach perspective is a computationally-communicative-neutrosop hic one. We configure a coherent and cohesive ideation line. Matter, energy and information are fundamental elements of the world. Among them, there is an inextricable multiple, elastic and evolutionary connection. The elements are defined by the connections between them. Our hypothesis is that the relationship between matter, energy and information is a neutral one. This relationship is not required by the evidence. At this level, it does not give up in front of the evidence intelligibility. Neutral relationship is revealed as a law connection. First, the premise that matter, energy and information never come into contradiction is taken as strong evidence. Theirlaw-like- reciprocal obligations are non contradictory. Being beyond the contrary,matter, energy and information maintain a neutral relationship. Therefore, on the basis of the establishment and functioning of the universe or multi-verse, there is neutrality. Matter, energy and information are primary-founder neutralities. Matter, energy and informat ion are neutral because they are related to inexorable legitimate. They are neutral because they are perfectly bound to one another. Regularity and uniformity are the primary forms of neutrality. The study further radiographies the relational connections, and it highlights and renders visible the attributes and characteristics of the elements (attributes are essential features of elements and characteristics are their specific features). It explains the bilateral relationships matter-energy, information-matter and energy-information. Florentin Smarandache,Ștefan Vlăduțescu Communicative universal convertibility Matter -Energy-Information 45 Extension method of Cai Wen (1999) is utilized to clarify relationships between Matter, Energy and Information. It finally results that reality is an ongoing and complex process of bilateral and multi- lateral convertibility. Thus, it is formulated the neutrosophic principle of Interconvertibility Matter-Energy-Information (NPI_MEI)
Category: Social Science

[43] viXra:1501.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:22:10

A Demographic Portrait of Romanian Immigrants in California

Authors: Dan Valeriu Voinea
Comments: 8 Pages.

The most numerous Romanian community in the United States of America is in the “Golden State”, California – a state that is a traditional immigration state since the beginning of the gold rush. Officially, there are currently over 60.000 people of Romanian origin established in California, although that number might be much higher because of two factors: undocumented migration and the loss of gradual loss of identity through each generation. Starting from as little as 15 - 16 famili es back in 1912 (Alecse, n.d.), Romanians established in California make up 14.5% of the 449,928 immigrants of Romanian origin living in the the United States of America (Voinea, 2014, 62). The aim of this paper is to analyze the current demographic portra it of Romanian immigrants in California, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey.
Category: Social Science

[42] viXra:1501.0047 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-04 11:32:46

Book Review. Sandu Frunză :Comunicare Simbolică și Seducție (2014)

Authors: Elena Rodica Opran
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to the book "Comunicare simbolică și seducție", published at Tritonic Publishing House by Professor Sandu Frunz ă,the life of an individual living in the postmodern society is based on communication, and symbolic communication plays a major role in his life. We reckon that the author seeks to demonstrate the way in which communication and mass media build reality in a postmodern context.
Category: Social Science

[41] viXra:1501.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:30:48

Book Review: Rolf Arnold - Assisted Learning: A Workbook, Landau: Bildungstransfer Verlag (2010)

Authors: Alexandru Constantin Strungă
Comments: 2 Pages.

The current review aims to make a short overview of Professor Rolf Arnold’s book on assisted learning highlighting the notions that are at the core of author’s enabling didactics: self- determination and self-control in learning, educational leadership and emotional co mpetences, in the context of postmodern pedagogy.
Category: Social Science

[40] viXra:1501.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:35:11

Teacher’s Asserting Premises and Possibilities of Efficient Managerial Styles

Authors: Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu
Comments: 8 Pages.

The issue of teacher’s managerial styles is unitary approached along with educational styles issue and institutional management styles issue, and is part of the class’ managerial dimension. Comparative, educational and managerial styles (of the school mana ger) have a theoretical history and benefit from validated techniques and tools, whereas teacher’s managerial styles issue are about to gain consistency as part of the pedagogical literature, and present researches emphasize their roles in efficientizing d idactic activity. The article Teacher’s asserting premises and possibilities of efficient managerial styles is based on multiple specific sub-themes: a) analysis of the key- concepts outlining theme’s theoretical framework; b) teacher’s managerial styles ty pology; c) conditions and modalities in order to efficientize managerial styles. Premises of the topic speech consist in: situationally approach the educational process, the relation between teacher’s educational and managerial styles, references to a pers onal research regarding the outline of the constructive teacher’s managerial styles. Based on these key-concepts and in accordance with the multidimensional approach (conditions, factors, modalities in order to outline and assert styles), possibilities and modalities are being analyzed in order to efficientize teacher’s managerial styles.
Category: Social Science

[39] viXra:1501.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-06 13:40:35

Assessment of Logistic Outlays in Industrial Solid Waste Management

Authors: Janusz Grabara, Mariana Man
Comments: 11 Pages.

Out of concern for environmental protection is an increasingly common practice. Companies thus have an additional task which is the correct organization of the industrial waste management. This is achieved through the use of logistics processes in industrial waste management, mainly such as warehousing, transport, storage and recovery. These processes involve the formation of logistics costs resulting from waste management. The paper presents a mathematical model for cost of logistics management of industrial waste resulting from the above-mentioned processes. It also shows the interpretation of these costs and the relations between them. The model can increase costefficiency in companies managing industrial waste, while increasing attention to the environment.
Category: Social Science

[38] viXra:1501.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:42:01

Osgood’s Semantic Differential: a Review of the Romanian Social Sciences Literature

Authors: Alexandru Constantin Strungă
Comments: 7 Pages.

Starting from 1957, with the seminal book of Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum ’s ‘Measurement of Meaning’, the semantic differential rapidly developed as a complex and subtle research instrument used for measuring social sentiments and attitudes with profound consequences for the social sciences research methodology. The aim of this paper is to analyze how the semantic differential was defined and presented in the Romanian social sciences literature and how it was progressively adopted by the Romanian methodologists from a variety of fields: psychology, sociology and education sciences.
Category: Social Science

[37] viXra:1501.0042 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-04 11:51:31

Five Computational Actions in Information Processing

Authors: Stefan Vladutescu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 16 Pages.

This study is circumscribed to the Information Science. The zetetic aim of research is double: a)to define the concept of action of information computational processing and b)to design a taxonomy of actions of information computational processing. Our thesis is that any information processing is a computational processing. First, the investigation trays to demonstrate that the computational actions of information processing or the informational actions are computational - investigative configurations for structuring information: clusters of highly - aggregated operations which are carried out in a unitary manner operate convergent and behave like a unique computational device. From a methodological point of view, they are comprised within the category of analytical instruments for the informational processing of raw material, of data, of vague, confused, unstructured informational elements. As internal articulation, the actions are patterns for the integrated carrying out of operations of informational in vestigation. Secondly, we propose an inventory and a description of five basic informational computational actions: exploring, grouping, anticipation, schematization, inferential structuring. R. S. Wyer and T. K. Srull (2014) speak about “four information processing”. We would like to continue with further and future investigation of the relationship between operations, actions, strategies and mechanisms of informational processing.
Category: Social Science

[36] viXra:1501.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:50:27

Credibility - an Honest Claim in the Current Romanian Press

Authors: Xenia Negrea
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this article we analysed a series of discursive processes used by some Romanian journalists to give credibility to their texts. As a case study we chose the most visited news portal in Romania since the parliamentary elections in 2012. We analysed the few hundred materials written on this temp and managed to establish a writing grid so as to raise the level of reliability of the data.
Category: Social Science

[35] viXra:1501.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-06 10:57:47

Hermeneutics Can Make Beauty and Ugly as Neutral (As Neutrosophic)

Authors: Mihaela-Gabriela Păun, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 10 Pages.

The study aims to be an application of the neutral-neutrosophic theory of Florentin Smarandache on the fundamental nucleus of Aesthetics: Beauty-Ugly. If a history of Beauty may resort to a long series of theoretical proofs (of which one can deduce the taste of a certain age), a history of Ugliness can at most to look its documents through visual or verbal representations of certain things or beings perceived somehow as "ugly". But if from a point of view one is Beauty and subsequently in time and space this is Ugly, then we can say that we are in a neutrosophical situation. In all ages, “philosophers and artists have proposed definitions of Beauty; thanks to their testimonies can thus reconstruct a history of aesthetic ideas over the time. But other things were with the idea of Ugly. Most often, Ugly was defined in opposition to the Beauty, but almost never have been dedicated ample studies, but some hints in parenthesis or some marginal notes” as U. Eco asserts (Eco, 2005).
Category: Social Science

[34] viXra:1501.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 16:00:45

The Organicist Animist Metaphor in Italian Wine Media Discourse

Authors: Alina Țenescu
Comments: 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper 1 is to analyze the main aspects of the organicist - animist metaphor in Italian wine tasting discourse and to identify its main characteristics in the specialized media discourse. Commencing from an approach whose overall view is guided by conceptual metapho r theory, we will analyze and classify the main elements of the metaphorical schema associated with the organicist - animist metaphor related to wine and wine tasting. We will illustrate this category by examples taken from a corpus of excerpts of Italian me dia discourse. Tackling the issue of perception and description of wine in Italian media discourse allows us an orientation of the research by multiple approaches of the semantics of winespeak: the recognition of essential aspects of wine imaginary, with a focus on the organicist- animist metaphor in our research corpus; the analysis of sensory impressions and representations in winespeak. Our main aim is to organize conceptualizations of wine tasting notes into a main category– the organicist-animist metaphor–, following the model inspired by the research of Lakoff and Johnson ( Metaphors we live by, 1980) .
Category: Social Science

[33] viXra:1501.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 16:08:52

Book Review. Antonio Sandu: Elemente de Sociologie (2014)

Authors: Stefan Vladutescu
Comments: 3 Pages.

Appreciated specialist in the social sciences domain and of the socio-human sciences, Professor Antonio Sandu posted at Tritonic Publishing a remarkable book, "Elements of sociology" (Bucharest, Tritonic Publishing, 2014) (Antonio Sandu (2014). Elemente de sociologie. București: Editura Tritonic). Thisrepresents an introduction to the theory of social phe nomena. What performs first of all the value and originality of the research in question is shown to be: a) the comprehension and interpretation of the social, i.e. socialhermeneutics, and b) the novelty of the postmodern and transmodern perspective of methodological, transdisciplinary and constructivist approach.
Category: Social Science

[32] viXra:1501.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 17:13:17

The New Special Relativity and the Michelson Experiment

Authors: Valentin Ibañez Fernandez
Comments: 16 Pages.

The paper present the essence of the Michelson Experiment and give a historical overview of the development of treatments of this experiment wich affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31] viXra:1501.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 14:55:14

Early Education Strategic Field of the Educational Reform

Authors: Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu
Comments: 9 Pages.

Nowadays, early education represents the educational area that benefits from a multitude of researches and theoretical and practical contributions, pursuant to acknowledging the necessity in order to holistically approach pre - scool pupil’s development and to report to education’s European dimension. The managerial approach of the early education implies strategic decisions regarding the: a) plan, organization and implementation of the school curriculum, by referring to legi slative documents and in the spirit of focusing activities on pre - school pupil’s global development ; b) institutional development of pre - school educational units, regarding all functional fields and managerial activity’s efficiency, for reasons related to optimal organization of the pre - school pupils’ learning and development conditions. The article approaches early education issues from multiple perspectives : a) theoretical, legislative and conceptual premises ; b) strategic orientations and finalities of t he curriculum for early education; c) educational management as part of the early education area . The above mentioned premises, strategies and directions represent elements that supply new reflections and points of view as part of future studies and backgrounds of some empiric researches we foresee as part of early education field.
Category: Social Science

[30] viXra:1501.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 14:58:25

Semantic Equivalences in Romanian Medical Terminology

Authors: Corina Lungu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The present paper aims to underline some aspects concerning the presence of synonymy semantic relationship in specialized medical terminology, having as object of study Romanian medical terms. For this study we use a descriptive, conceptual and lexical semantic research method to provide the understanding of different couples, groups or synonymic series where medical terms have several variations: specialized/common terms, syntagms and patronyms of French or different origin. We propose a classification scheme of synonyms of medical lexicon, terms or synonymic syntagms, total and partial, in order to meet the acces sibility needs in scientific communication.
Category: Social Science

[29] viXra:1501.0032 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-06 13:45:56

Logistic Paradigm for Industrial Solid Waste Treatment Processes

Authors: Janusz Grabara, Ioan Constantin Dima
Comments: 11 Pages.

Due to the fact that industrial waste are a growing problem, both economic and environmental as their number is increasing every year, it is important to take measures to correctly dealing with industrial waste. This article presents the descriptive model of logistics processes concerning the management of industrial waste. In this model the flow of waste begins in the place of production and ends at their disposal. The article presents the concept of logistics model in graphical form together with an analysis of individual processes and their linkages, and opportunities to improve flow of industrial waste streams. Furthermore, the model allows for justification of the relevance of use logistics and its processes for waste management.
Category: Social Science

[28] viXra:1501.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-07 15:49:11

Objectivity Between Illusions and Professional Standards in Today’s Journalism

Authors: Xenia Negrea
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we approached the problem of objectivity in Romanian press. We presented the newest and also the most pertinent definitions of the subject and we have found that the researchers` opinions are divergent. As a case study we chose a newspaper known in the Romanian media market as having a very high level of subjectivity and partisanship. We analyzed this publication during the parliamentary election in 2012 and we identified the manners in which the journalists express their subjectivity.
Category: Social Science

[27] viXra:1501.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 15:11:21

Football and Spanish Cultural Life; Some Contemporary Perspectives and Observations

Authors: Jim O’Brien
Comments: 8 Pages.

How can the cultural life and identity of a nation state be articul ated and expressed when the existence of that nation state is contested and challenged? If history has any capacity to repeat itself, current cultural and political issues in Spanish society provide much evidence for the continued presence of the struggles between centre and region, unity and division which have permeated constructions and representations of Spain since medieval times.
Category: Social Science

[26] viXra:1501.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 11:04:23

Maximum Entropy Production and Resistance to Heat Transfer in the Earth-Atmosphere System

Authors: Hui-Hai Liu
Comments: 6 Pages.

To seek the thermodynamic basis for the well-known Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle has recently received considerable attention in the scientific community. However, a little success has been achieved in the reconciliation between the MEP and the currently existing physical laws. In fact, the MEP is not a fundamental physical principle, because it is not consistent with the minimization of energy expenditure rate (MEE) principle that has been supported by observations for water flow on the ground surface. A fundamental physical principle should be able to explain observations from different areas. To resolve the inconsistence, Liu (2014), based on observations from different geological systems, proposed a new thermodynamic hypothesis that states that a nonlinear natural system that is not isolated and involves positive feedbacks tends to minimize its resistance to the flow process through it that is imposed by its environment. He also shows that the MEP is actually a by-product of the minimization of heat transfer resistance in the Earth-atmosphere system under a relatively restrictive condition. This communication further derives that previous result in the more general case for the Earth-atmosphere system. The consistence between the thermodynamic hypothesis of Liu (2014) and Darwin’s evolution theory is also briefly touched on. All these support the validity of the hypothesis of Liu (2014).
Category: Geophysics

[25] viXra:1501.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-02 18:27:40

Helical Model of the Nucleon

Authors: Oliver Consa
Comments: 4 Pages.

This work is an extension of the Helical Electron Model (proposed by the same author), applied to protons and neutrons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[24] viXra:1501.0027 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-03 09:42:01

On the Connection Between the Minimal Fractal Manifold and Quantum Spin

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 7 Pages. Work in progress.

As natural outcome of the Renormalization Group program, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes a space-time continuum having arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions. Recent studies point out that MFM offers unexplored solutions to the challenges raised by the Standard Model for particle physics. Here we show that the inner connection between MFM and local conformal field theory (CFT) makes quantum spin a topological property of the MFM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[23] viXra:1501.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-02 10:11:15

From Software Crisis to Informational Money

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 5 Pages.

Some comments are made on the societal impact of software engineering, with a focus on the impact of software engineering concepts on the development of informational money as well as on the concept of money at large.
Category: Economics and Finance

[22] viXra:1501.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-02 18:06:45

About Stability-Behavior of Linear Structures in Space-Time Transitions

Authors: Udo E. Steinemann
Comments: 16 Pages.

Many outhors told that various solutions of nonlinear dynamical systems can change their stability-behavior as soon as certain system-parameters are modified appropriately. Caused by these so called bifurcations very often the topology of the original solution-structures will change significantly. Similar effects in connection with linear structures could not be observed so far. But for specific space-time transformations similar phenomena will become existent too.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21] viXra:1501.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-02 05:12:10

The Classical Maxwell Electrodynamics and the Electron Inertia Problem Within the Feynman Proper Time Paradigm

Authors: Anatolij K. Prykarpatski
Comments: 15 Pages. a fresh look at old problem

The Maxwell electromagnetic and the Lorentz type force equations are derived in the framework of the R. Feynman proper time paradigm and the related vacuum field theory approach. The electron inertia problem is analyzed within the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms and the related pressure-energy compensation principle. The modified Abraham- Lorentz damping radiation force is derived, the electromagnetic elctron mass origin is argued.
Category: Classical Physics

[20] viXra:1501.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-02 05:15:50

On the Completely Integrable Calogero Type Discretizations of Nonlinear Lax Integrable Dynamical Systems and the Related Markov Type co-Adjoint Orbits

Authors: Anatolij K. Prykarpatski
Comments: 7 Pages. a new approach to constructing a priori integrable discretizations of nonlinear Lax type integrable dynamical systems

The Calogero type matrix discretization scheme is applied to constructing the Lax type integrable discretizations of one wide enough class of nonlinear integrable dynamical systems on functional manifolds. Their Lie-algebraic structure and complete integrability related with co-adjoint orbits on the Markov co-algebras is discussed. It is shown that a set of conservation laws and the associated Poisson structure ensue as a byproduct of the approach devised. Based on the Lie algebras quasi-representation property the limiting procedure of finding the nonlinear dynamical systems on the corresponding functional spaces is demonstrated.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[19] viXra:1501.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 16:50:38

Bitcoin and Islamic Finance

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 19 Pages.

It is argued that a Bitcoin-style money-like informational commodity may constitute an effective instrument for the further development of Islamic Finance. The argument involves the following elements: (i) an application of circulation theory to Bitcoin with the objective to establish the implausibility of interest payment in connection with Bitcoin, (ii) viewing a Bitcoin-like system as a money-like exclusively informational commodity with the implication that such a system need not support debt, (iii) the idea that Islamic Finance imposes different requirements compared to conventional financial policies on a money concerning its use as a tool for achieving social and economic objectives, and (iv) identification of two aspects of mining, gambling and lack of trust, that may both be considered problematic from the perspective of compliance with the rules of Islamic Finance and a corresponding proposal to modify the architecture of mining in order to improve compliance with these rules.
Category: Economics and Finance

[18] viXra:1501.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 18:49:14

Review of 'On Certainty' by Ludwig Wittgenstein

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 17 Pages.

A review of Wittgenstein's 'On Certainty' which he wrote in 1950-51 and was first published in 1969. Most of the review is spent presenting a modern framework for philosophy (the descriptive psychology of higher order thought) and positioning the work of Wittgenstein and John Searle in this framework and relative to the work of others. It is suggested that this book can be regarded as the foundation stone of psychology and philosophy as it was the first to describe the two systems of thought and shows how our unshakable grasp of the world derives from our innate axiomatic System 1 and how this interacts with System 2.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[17] viXra:1501.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 21:28:55

More Precise View about Remote Replication

Authors: M. Pitkänen
Comments: 7 Pages.

The works of Luc Montagnier and Peter Gariaev suggests remote replication of DNA is possible. The developments in the model of dark DNA allow to imagine a detailed mechanism for how water can represent DNA and how DNA could be transcribed to dark DNA - essentially the analog of DNA-RNA transcription would be in question. The transcription/association represents a rule and rules are represented in terms of negentropic entanglement in TGD framework with pairs of states in superposition representing the instances of the rule. Transition energy serves as a characterizer of a molecule - say DNA codon - and the entangled state is a superposition of pairs in which either molecule is excited or dark DNA codon is excited to higher cyclotron state with same energy: this requires tuning of the magnetic field and sufficiently large value of heff at the flux tube. Negentropic entanglement would due to the exchange of dark photons: this corresponds to wave DNA aspect. Dark cyclotron photons also generate negatively charged exclusion zones (EZs) discovered by Pollack and in this process transform part of protons to dark ones residing at the magnetic flux tubes associated with EZs and forming dark proton sequences. This allows to identify a mechanism of remote replication.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16] viXra:1501.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 21:31:33

Induced Second Quantization

Authors: M. Pitkänen
Comments: 6 Pages.

The notion of induced second quantization is introduced as an unavoidable aspect of the induction procedure for metric and spinor connection, which is the key element of TGD. Induced second quantisation provides insights about the QFT limit, about generalizes Feynman diagrammatics, and about TGD counterpart of second quantization of strings which appear in TGD as emergent objects. Zero energy ontology (ZEO) naturally restricts the anti-commutation relations inside causal diamonds defining quantum coherence regions so that the counterintuitive implication that all identical particles of the Universe are in totally symmetric/antisymmetric state is avoided. The relation of statistics to negentropic entanglement and the new view about position measurement provided by ZEO are discussed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] viXra:1501.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 21:34:58

Psychedelic Induced Experiences as Key to the Understanding of the Connection Between Magnetic Body and Information Molecules?

Authors: M. Pitkänen
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is a book about psychedelics titled as "Inner paths to outer space: Journies to Alien Worlds through Psychedelics and Other Spiritual Technics" written by Rick Strassman, Slawek Wojtowicz, Luis Eduardo Luna and Ede Frecska. The basic message of the book is that psychedelics might make possible instantaneous remote communications with distant parts of the Universe. The basic objection is that light velocity sets stringent limits on classical communications. In TGD framework this argument does not apply. In the article a model for remote mental interactions is constructed using basic notions of TGD inspired quantum biology such as magnetic body, dark photons, and Zero Energy Ontology.
Category: Mind Science

[14] viXra:1501.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 21:42:55

Geometric Theory of Harmony

Authors: M. Pitkänen
Comments: 36 Pages.

In the earlier article I introduced the notion of Hamiltonian cycle as a mathematical model for musical harmony and also proposed a connection with biology: motivations came from two observations. The number of icosahedral vertices is 12 and corresponds to the number of notes in 12-note system and the number of triangular faces of icosahedron is 20, the number of aminoacids. This led to a group theoretical model of genetic code and replacement of icosahedron with tetraicosahedron to explain also the 21st and 22nd amino-acid and solve the problem of simplest model due to the fact that the required Hamilton's cycle does not exist. This led also to the notion of bioharmony. This article was meant to be a continuation to the mentioned article providing a proposal for a theory of harmony and detailed calculations. It however turned out that the proposed notion of bioharmony was too restricted: all icosahedral Hamilton cycles with symmetries turned out to be possible rather than only the 3 cycles forced by the assumption that the polarity characteristics of the amino-acids correlate with the properties of the Hamiltonian cycle. In particular, it turned out that the symmetries of the Hamiltonian cycles are the icosahedral symmetries needed to predict the basic numbers of the genetic code and its extension to include also 21st and 22nd aminoacids. One also ends up with a proposal for what harmony is leading to non-trivial predictions both at DNA and amino-acid level.
Category: Mind Science

[13] viXra:1501.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 21:44:51

How Are Visual Percepts Constructed

Authors: M. Pitkänen
Comments: 5 Pages.

How does visual system analyze the incoming visual information and reconstruct from it a (highly artistic) picture of the external world? I encountered this problem for the first time for about 35 years ago while listening some lecture about what happens in retina. Although I have written also about visual qualia and visual perception, I have not considered this particular problem. In this framework a rather simple model suggesting why and how visual perception first build a simple sketch analogous to cartoon about the visual field with saccadic motion playing a key role in the process.
Category: Mind Science

[12] viXra:1501.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 21:47:46

Criticality and Dark Matter

Authors: M. Pitkänen
Comments: 22 Pages.

Quantum criticality is one of the corner stone assumptions of TGD. The value of Kähler coupling strength fixes quantum TGD and is analogous to critical temperature. TGD Universe would be quantum critical. What does this mean is however far from obvious and I have pondered the notion repeatedly both from the point of view of mathematical description and phenomenology. Superfluids exhibit rather mysterious looking effects such as fountain effect and what looks like quantum coherence of superfluid containers which should be classically isolated. These findings serve as a motivation for the proposal that genuine superfluid portion of superfluid corresponds to a large heff phase near criticality at least and that also in other phase transition like phenomena a phase transition to dark phase occurs near the vicinity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1501.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 21:50:28

TGD Inspired Model for the Formation of Exclusion Zones from Coherence Regions

Authors: M. Pitkänen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Emilio del Giudice et al have proposed that so collar coherent regions (CDs) of size about 1 micrometer in water are crucial for living systems and there is empirical evidence for them. Gerald Pollack and collaborators have discovered what they call exclusion zones with size up to about 200 micrometers. In the sequel a model for the formation of EZs assuming that CDs are their predecessors is proposed. The model involves also hydrogen bonds in an essential manner. The basic prediction is that the formation of CDs requires UV irradiation at energy around 12.06 eV. Solar radiation at this energy cannot propagate through atmosphere as ordinary photons but could arrive along magnetic flux tubes as dark protons.
Category: Physics of Biology

[10] viXra:1501.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 21:52:38

Pioneer and Flyby Anomalies for Almost Decade Later

Authors: M. Pitkänen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Pioneer and Flyby anomalies are astrophysical anomalies in our solar system. Standard physics explanations for Pioneer anomaly have been proposed but certainly fail for Flyby anomalies. In this article I update almost decade old TGD inspired model for these anomalies as direct demonstration about existence of spherical dark matter shells associated with planets and with radii of planetary orbits. The dark matter density would be universal as also the accleration anomaly equal to Hubble acceleration. A possible test for the model is provided by Earth-Moon system.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1501.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 22:29:19

The Classical Part of the Twistor Story

Authors: M. Pitkänen
Comments: 13 Pages.

Twistors Grassmannian formalism has made a breakthrough in N=4 supersymmetric gauge theories and the Yangian symmetry suggests that much more than mere technical breakthrough is in question. Twistors seem to be tailor made for TGD but it seems that the generalisation of twistor structure to that for 8-D imbedding space H=M4× CP2 is necessary. M4 (and S4 as its Euclidian counterpart) and CP2 are indeed unique in the sense that they are the only 4-D spaces allowing twistor space with Kähler structure. The Cartesian product of twistor spaces P3=SU(2,2)/SU(2,1)× U(1) and F3 defines twistor space for the imbedding space H and one can ask whether this generalized twistor structure could allow to understand both quantum TGD and classical TGD defined by the extremals of Kähler action. In the following I summarize the background and develop a proposal for how to construct extremals of Kähler action in terms of the generalized twistor structure. One ends up with a scenario in which space-time surfaces are lifted to twistor spaces by adding CP1 fiber so that the twistor spaces give an alternative representation for generalized Feynman diagrams. There is also a very closely analogy with superstring models. Twistor spaces replace Calabi-Yau manifolds and the modification recipe for Calabi-Yau manifolds by removal of singularities can be applied to remove self-intersections of twistor spaces and mirror symmetry emerges naturally. The overall important implication is that the methods of algebraic geometry used in super-string theories should apply in TGD framework. The physical interpretation is totally different in TGD. The landscape is replaced with twistor spaces of space-time surfaces having interpretation as generalized Feynman diagrams and twistor spaces as sub-manifolds of P3× F3replace Witten's twistor strings.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1501.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-14 14:55:37

Masses of the Upsilon Mesons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described composition and calculated masses of the Upsilon mesons. This follows from the atom-like structure of baryons. Applying the modified quantum chromodynamics, within the SST, we can calculate the masses of quarks. This leads to conclusion that SST is the superior theory to the Standard Model in initial conditions. Calculated mass of b quark is 4190 MeV. Here, we showed that the Type 1S Upsilon meson is both a structure containing b-b(anti) quark pair (theoretical mass of such structure is 9460.1 MeV), or mesonic nucleus (theoretical mass of such nucleus is 9465.1 MeV). Due to the oscillations between these two different structures having practically the same mass and spin and parity, the full width of the Type 1S Upsilon meson is very small. Calculated masses of Types 1S, 2S, 3S, 4S, 10860 and 11020 Upsilon mesons are very close to experimental data. They all have unitary spin and negative parity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1501.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 12:48:22

Dark Matter-Induced Collapse of Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can’t even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today’s paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1501.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 14:54:32

The Explanation of the Gravitational Constant

Authors: Tobias Richter
Comments: 3 Pages.

it is the explanation of the gravitational constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1501.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 07:05:10

Bitcoin: not a Currency-Like Informational Commodity

Authors: Jan Aldert Bergstra
Comments: 14 Pages.

Six assertions concerning the status of Bitcoin are formulated and defended: (i) Bit- coin is not and will not become a currency-like informational commodity, (ii) currency- like informational commodities that aren’t currencies must be frauds, (ii) specific BTC amounts may become monetized and thus may be turned into financial assets, (iii) currently no BTC amounts are monetized in any currency area and therefore none are financial assets, (iv) by means of burocratic steps only some BTC volumes can be turned in to an informational currency within a given currency area, modified client software is not required for that step, (v) if a specific amount of BTC qualifies as currency, it also qualifies as money, (vi) moneyness of Bitcoin, or rather of a specific occurrence of an amount of BTC, should be questioned only after one has agreed positively on its status as a financial asset, and negatively on its status as an amount of currency. Factions in the Bitcoin promoting movement are viewed from a perspective of organizational multi-threading. Different factions of the Bitcoin movement may wish to see status issues about Bitcoin settled in different ways. Overall consistency in these matters should not be expected from the union of factions in the Bitcoin movement.
Category: Economics and Finance

[4] viXra:1501.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-05 15:51:41

Open Letter on Hilbert's Fifth Problem

Authors: Elemer E Rosinger
Comments: 7 Pages.

Hilbert's Fifth Problem, in English translation, [1], is as follows : ``How far Lie's concept of continuous groups of transformations is approachable in our investigations without the assumption of the differentiability of the functions ?" followed by : ``In how far are the assertions which we can make in the case of differentiable functions true under proper modifications without this assumptions ?" Lately, in the American mathematical literature, due to unclear reasons, it has often been distorted and truncated as follows, [3] : ``Hilbert's fifth problem, like many of Hilbert's problems, does not have a unique interpretation, but one of the most commonly accepted accepted interpretations ..." A recent letter in this regard, sent to Terence Tao, and the editors of [3], Dan Abramovich, Daniel S Freed, Rafe Mazzeo and Gigliola Staffilani can be found below.
Category: General Mathematics

[3] viXra:1501.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 00:19:09

Explaining The Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics By Reconciling the Unified Field and Anthropic Principle

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 19 Pages.

This is a copy of my entry in the latest essay contest conducted by the Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi). That contest restricts me to 25,000 characters, so I’ve added Notes to the end of the essay (FQXi allows the addition of notes but limits their length to much less than what I want to say). Other excellent essays in FQXi’s current contest will inform readers about the role of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio in nature, as well as referring to the book “Our Mathematical Universe” by Max Tegmark and the use of pi in a science-fiction book by astronomer Carl Sagan to show that “the universe was made on purpose”. Rather than merely repeat the other essays’ wisdom, I’ll take a different approach. I hope my approach will be novel and original, but only time will reveal where it may lead. I want to show that you can combine the topology (rubber-sheet geometry), binary digits and E=mc^2 of maths with the matter, energy and forces of physics to 1) explain dark energy and dark matter, 2) open up the whole universe and all time to human exploration and creation, 3) show that there’s an infinite, eternal cosmos (not a multiverse) beyond our observable universe, 4) unify gravitation with electromagnetism, the other fundamental forces, and the physical universe; and 5) reconcile the anthropic principle with the unified theories of physics (via a strong version of that principle - that a direct link exists between human existence and the actual form of the laws of nature). Is this an incredibly ambitious challenge for one person? Yes, and maybe you think an essay competition is not the right place for this. You might be right - but I feel ready to take on the challenge. And people tell me there’s no time like the present. An important weapon in my arsenal is R136a1 - R136a1 is a monstrous-sized star 165,000 light years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud, one of our Milky Way’s satellite galaxies. It currently has 265 times the mass of the Sun and may have been 320 solar masses when it first formed. It’s the most massive and most luminous star ever found, being 10 million times brighter than the Sun. "Owing to the rarity of these monsters, I think it is unlikely that this new record will be broken any time soon," said (English astrophysicist Paul) Crowther. It’s important to my essay because adopting a view in which everything in all space and all time (such as gravitation, electromagnetism and matter) is part of a unification says a star in the Large Magellanic Cloud and the imaginings in the human brains on Earth must indeed be connected. Instead of fantasy, the anthropic principle arises and is reconciled with the unified theories of physics. Albert Einstein showed that space-time is curved and warped, so it’s possible that our own computer science (and terraforming, and biotechnology from many centuries in the future) found its way into the remote past. In the TV program "Catalyst", Dr Graham Phillips said,“(The physicist and writer) Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God, but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics that allow for the existence of minds in the first place. Sounds bizarre, but quantum physics actually allows that kind of thing.”
Category: Mathematical Physics

[2] viXra:1501.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-04 23:37:17

Telecommunications and Decussation (Non-Evolutionary Explanation of Nerve-Fibre Crossing)

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 4 Pages.

This is just a couple of short pages seeking an answer to a problem I’ve wondered about for years and years - Why do nerve fibres cross from one side to the other so that the hemispheres of the brain control the opposite halves of the body? I never felt satisfied by the conventional evolutionary explanations. A recent experience allowed me to frame another explanation – from the world of telecommunications. Highlights for Telecommunications and Decussation •Evolution explains adaptation but explaining origin by it is wild extrapolation. •According to Einstein and modern physics, space-time is curved and warped. •Such warping might allow future science to reach into the remote past. •This makes origin possible via human science, not evolution or supernatural means.
Category: Physics of Biology

[1] viXra:1501.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 01:52:39

Higgs Boson VS Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Astrophysics