[238] **viXra:1503.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-30 12:37:55*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new quantum-cosmological principle that I shall call the
'electro-gravitational principle'. Based on this principle I shall derive a formula for the
age of the Universe. The formula coincides with formula I published in a previous paper
in 2014 and that I derived from the Scale Law. The age of the Universe obtained through
this formulation agrees with the latest measurements carried out in 2013 by the Planck
mission.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[237] **viXra:1503.0272 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-27 11:07:37*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the prediction of a new particle with a mass of approximately 55.6 eV /c2 . This prediction is based on a new equation that I call: the fermionic “alpha” formula. This hypothetical particle could be either a new type of neutrino or a completely new type of neutral particle with sufficiently large abundance to
account for most of the observed dark matter content of the Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[236] **viXra:1503.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 17:50:28*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin, Shmuel Neumann, Joseph Friedlander, Zarek Newman

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Pioneering the development of dome technology, the authors have devised an algae dome where the algae are grown between the walls of two transparent domes, one inside the other, with only 10 cm between the outer and inner walls. These domes are inflatable and are held up only by air pressure. Circulating water in the 10 cm between the outer and inner dome is the breeding ground for the algae. It has the advantage of the bioreactors as it is insulated from outside contaminants but is inexpensive and has more area exposed than the breeding pond. Further, inside the dome, the floor space of the dome can be a shielded pond increasing the algae crop yield or can be used as a greenhouse.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[235] **viXra:1503.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 23:42:35*

**Authors:** Seema Rawat, A. S. Rawat, O. P. S. Negi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Keeping in view the application of SUSY and quaternion quantum mechanics, in this paper
we have made an attempt to develop a complete theory for quaternionic quantum mechanics.
We have discussed the N = 1, N = 2 and N = 4 supersymmetry in terms of one, two and four
supercharges respectively and it has been shown that N=4 SUSY is the quaternionic extension
of N = 2 complex SUSY.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[234] **viXra:1503.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 14:03:34*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 10 pages, 2 figures, submitted to Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering

A decade ago, the Bohr radius of hydrogen atom was interpreted as the sum of two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton, and those of the bond length of a hydrogen molecule as the cationic and anionic radii. Subsequently, this result was shown to be applicable to other elements as well. Further, the bond lengths in the structures of molecules were found to be sums of the appropriate atomic and or the Golden ratio based ionic radii. Here, the formation and structure of ozone have been explained in terms of the atomic and ionic radii of oxygen.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[233] **viXra:1503.0268 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-21 12:44:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, the critical remarks about luminal gravitational waves and luminal gravitons are presented. The mechanism of emission of the potential gravitational energy differs very much from the mechanism described within the General Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[232] **viXra:1503.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 11:18:19*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I present a very interesting characteristic of Poulet numbers, namely the property that, concatenating two of such numbers, is often obtained a semiprime which is either c-prime or m-prime. Using just the first 13 Poulet numbers are obtained 9 semiprimes which are c-primes, 20 semiprimes which are m-primes and 9 semiprimes which are cm-primes (both c-primes and m-primes).

**Category:** Number Theory

[231] **viXra:1503.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 08:05:03*

**Authors:** John R Wilson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper theorizes that the Big Bang was the result of a collision between two singularities and that dark energy is the result of gravitational forces of singularities outside of the visible universe.
Because of the conditions immediately following the Big Bang, it can be theorized that the Big Bang was caused by the collision of two supermassive singularities. Evidence for this collision event is found in cosmic inflation and how dark energy is accelerating the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[230] **viXra:1503.0265 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-18 04:36:53*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note, it is shown that there are not black holes.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[229] **viXra:1503.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 06:17:57*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I present two very interesting and easy formulas that conduct often to primes or cm-integers (c-primes, m-primes, cm-primes, c-composites, m-composites, cm-composites).

**Category:** Number Theory

[228] **viXra:1503.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 06:25:28*

**Authors:** James Arnold

**Comments:** 15 Pages. European Scientific Journal vol 11 no 9 (2015)

The Minkowski diagram, by which the concept of spacetime has been graphically represented and interpreted, is shown to have a pre-relativistic flaw: It depicts the relative motion of a body moving in time as-if it is moving along with the observer’s clock, not as it is actually observed, according to its own proper time. An alternative diagram provides an accurate representation of relativistic relationships and enables heuristic insights into the nature of relativistic effects, and of time, light, gravitation, and wave/particle duality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[227] **viXra:1503.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 16:37:23*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

Geometric algebra is universal, encompassing all the tools of the mathematical physics toolbox, is background independent, and is the foundation of gauge theory gravity. Similarly, impedance is a fundamental concept of universal validity, is background independent, and the phase shifts generated by impedances are at the foundation of gauge theory. Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. Generalizing quantum impedances from photon and quantum Hall to all forces and potentials generates a network of both scale dependent and scale invariant impedances. This essay conjectures that these quantum impedances can be identified with the gauge fields of gauge theory gravity, scale dependent with the translation field and scale invariant with rotation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[226] **viXra:1503.0261 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-02 14:00:24*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

An understandable explanation of dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[225] **viXra:1503.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 12:49:34*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Técnica 1, 50-53 (1987).

In this paper the concept of system is related to the concepts of entropy, work and heat. Through the analysis of three models it is shown that the arbitrariness in the choice of the system is related to the existence of parts of the Universe whose energy is only a function of the deformation variables. For this reason those parts may or may not be included in the system or in the work term. With this in mind we propose a new interpretation of the quantity heat and a non orthodox enunciation of the Second Principle of Thermodynamics.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[224] **viXra:1503.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 13:56:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The leading theory to explain the accelerating expansion is the existence of a hypothetical repulsive force called dark energy. But in the new study, Massimo Villata, an astrophysicist at the Observatory of Turin in Italy, suggests the effects attributed to dark energy are actually due to a kind of "antigravity" created when normal matter and antimatter repel one another. [5]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[223] **viXra:1503.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 14:06:33*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sunil P. Khatri, Janusz M. Smulko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ￼Accepted paper at the International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF 2015); to be published in its IEEE proceedings.

We briefly address Landauer’s Principle and some related issues in thermal demons. We show that an error-free Turing computer works in the zero-entropy limit, which proves Landauer’s derivation incorrect. To have a physical logic gate, memory or information-engine, a few essential components necessary for the operation of these devices are often neglected, such as various aspects of control, damping and the fluctuation–dissipation theorem. We also point out that bit erasure is typically not needed or used for the functioning of computers or engines (except for secure erasure).

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[222] **viXra:1503.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 06:29:25*

**Authors:** Kan Kuo-Hsiao

**Comments:** 6 Pages. MSC 2010: 06C15, 81P10

This short note presents the structures of lattices and continuous geometries in the energy spectrum of a quantum bound state. Quantum logic, in von Neumann's original sense, is used to construct these structures. Finally, a quantum logical understanding of the emergence of discreteness is suggested.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[221] **viXra:1503.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 06:44:35*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Via a single string theory solution, an Integrated Theory of Everything (TOE) unified all known physical phenomena from the Planck cube to the Super Universe (multiverse). Each of 129 fundamental matter and force particles was defined by its unique closed string in a Planck cube. Any object in the Super Universe was defined by a volume of contiguous Planck cubes containing fundamental matter or force particle strings. Super force string doughnut singularities existed at the center of Planck cubes at the start of the Super Universe, all precursor universes, and all universes including our universe. String theory’s six extra dimensions were the dynamic point particle position and velocity coordinates in a Planck cube. Two reasons for replacing inadequate existing matter and force particle symbols were explicit Higgs particle representation and elimination of ambiguities. Our universe’s 128 matter and force particles were created from the super force. Matter creation was time synchronous with both inflation start time and the one to seven Planck cubes energy to matter expansion. Higgs particles were God particles because they constituted approximately 82% of our universe’s total energy/mass. The sum of eight Higgs force energies associated with eight permanent matter particles was dark energy. Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurred for 17 matter particles and had two time sequential phases. Decays were a series of evaporations/condensations of matter particles and their associated Higgs forces to and from the super force. Neutrinos oscillated between three flavors via the seesaw model using a neutral heavy lepton. Dark matter consisted of zinos, photinos, and three permanent Higgsinos. There were four types of sequential universe expansions. The product of the non-uniform distribution of matter expansion rate and the graviton’s intergalactic propagation time was string theory’s seventh extra dimension. By the end of matter creation, our universe consisted of atomic/subatomic matter (4.9 %), cold dark matter (27%), and dark energy (68%), and those percentages remained constant for 13.8 billion years (Lamda cold dark matter ΛCDM cosmological model). Messenger particles contained embedded clocks/computers. The relative strengths of gravitational and electromagnetic forces were due to gravitational propagation factor dilution. All 128 matter and force particles were required for conservation of energy/mass accountability. The single vacuum Super Universe consisted of nested parallel precursor and nested parallel universes. Stellar black holes included quark stars (matter) and black holes (energy). The Friedmann metric had three scenarios. The proposed entropy formula for a quark star (matter) was proportional to the quark star’s volume and inversely proportional to a Planck cube’s volume. In our precursor universe, a super supermassive quark star (matter) instantaneously evaporated, deflated, and collapsed to its associated super supermassive black hole’s (energy) which created our universe. The prevailing cosmology theory “The Ultimate Free Lunch” satisfied only the third of three laws of physics and should be replaced by “An Integrated TOE” which satisfied all three. Our universe was nested in our precursor universe which was nested in the Super Universe. The cosmological constant problem existed because the Super Universe’s volume was 10exp120 larger than our universe. Proof of the Super Universe’s parallel universes was via two advanced optical and gravitational observatory techniques. Intrinsic or structural information was lost in a super supermassive quark star (matter)/black hole (energy) formation and none was emitted as Hawking radiation. Charge, parity, and time violation caused baryogenesis. String theory and an Integrated TOE were identical to quantum gravity theory. Two steps were required for an Integrated TOE mathematical solution, a fundamental physics step and a two part mathematics step. Conclusions: For an Integrated TOE, twenty independent existing theories were replaced by twenty interrelated amplified theories and summarized in Table 5; six Integrated TOE advanced validation techniques and independent analyses/validations by physicists were proposed.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[220] **viXra:1503.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 08:13:45*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Mathematical formulation of this model will follow soon.

Einstein’s general relativity theory predicts that our universe started from the big bang singularity. In 1929, Edwin Hubble observed this. NASA’s observations and experiments verified this. Recently, Penrose and Gurzadyan proposed pre big bang phenomena.In this short work, the author introduces a new model of pre big bang phenomena.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[219] **viXra:1503.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 08:41:30*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

The second postulate in Dr. Einstein’s 1905 paper is “…light (c) is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity v which is independent of the state of motion of the source…” The current brief paper identifies the difference between actual light speed and two different kinds of RELATIVE light speed, a critical distinction that Dr. Einstein and most current scientists did (do) not seem to understand.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[218] **viXra:1503.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 06:23:08*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I show that Smarandache concatenated sequences presented here (i.e. The consecutive numbers sequence, The concatenated odd sequence, The concatenated even sequence, The concatenated prime sequence), sequences well known for the common feature that contain very few terms which are primes, per contra, contain very many terms which are c-primes, m-primes, c-reached primes and m-reached primes (notions presented in my previous papers, see “Conjecture that states that any Carmichael number is cm-composite” and “A property of repdigit numbers and the notion of cm-integer”).

**Category:** Number Theory

[217] **viXra:1503.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 16:28:19*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Part 2 of the answer to the critique of Ghirardi.

This paper follows on from the author’s previous thoughts on the subject of the “No-communication Theorem” and Ghirardi’s critique of a communication scheme by the author and then his response to this. It is an addendum to lay bare the inadequate use of the formalism by Ghirardi, Hall et-al. To make our argument convincing, we find it necessary to explicitly lay out the machinery of the density matrix formulated argument, so that it can be seen by the incredulous, the gapping hole in the Ghirardi-Hall belief. We shall see that phase information, crucial to the interferometer setup in previous papers, is lost when: the joint evolution of the system is not considered, superposition is not explicitly brought in as an operation itself and finally, when the act of taking the reduced trace is taken too early (the act of exclusion of one system). This has lead to the limiting belief that components of entangled systems considered in isolation, are only ever in a mixed state. We shall see that when the reduced trace is taken at the right point in the analysis, phase information pertaining to the remote system is still present and this concurs with the state vector approach used to analyse the same problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[216] **viXra:1503.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 16:38:45*

**Authors:** Ozkan Keskin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The effects of participation to sports on general health have been well known. Through various studies in literature, it has been revealed that participation to sports has positive effects on physical, metabolic, psychological and spiritual health. In addition to benefits in terms of health, participation to sports provides some benefits in terms of social development as well. In this respect, in order to provide societies with socially developed individuals, physical education and participation to sports can be said to have an utmost effect. Especially children at younger ages are thought to be easy going and harmonious individuals in terms of social life provided that they are participated in sports activities at early ages. Having reviewed the literature in the field, it was seen that the number of studies focusing on the relationship between sports and socialization were plentiful, however, as to the number of studies investigating how much physical education and participation to sports activities effected social
development in children, it was quite limited. In this framework, this study aimed to find out the effects of physical education and participation to sports on social development in children.
Keywords: Physical education and sports, kids, socialization

**Category:** Social Science

[215] **viXra:1503.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 16:41:29*

**Authors:** Oguz Gurkan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

There are various factors affecting training and competition performances of athletes. Motoric characteristics the athletes have play an important role among these factors. Especially the motoric characteristics the athletes have
peculiar to a branch of sports affect the results of a competition directly. Among these motoric characteristics, jumping force has a distinct role, as it is an important factor in winning a game both in team sports and individual sports. From this aspect, especially in sport branches that depend mainly on jumping performance, the development of jumping skills of athletes becomes crucial. Although there are various methods to develop jumping performances, especially the plyometric trainings are thought to have important positive effects. Results of various
studies in literature support this idea. This study focused on jumping performance in sports and the importance of plyometric trainings in developing jumping performance.
Key Words: Jumping, jumping force, plyometric training.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[214] **viXra:1503.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 16:45:25*

**Authors:** Kerim Yıldız

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The aim of this study was to find out the effects of conflict management styles used by primary school administrators on stress levels of teachers. Participants of the study were 470 primary school teachers, 228 of whom were female and 242 male, working in ahinbey County of Gaziantep province. Data were collected through
Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II - ROCI II, and they were analyzed by using SPSS 15.0 package program for Windows. Results of the study revealed that school principals used integration, appeasement, avoidance and negotiation styles at moderate level according to the perceptions of teachers. As for ruling styles, they used it at below-moderate level. Integration style used by principals was observed to cause more stress on
teachers compared to other styles. Perceptions of female teachers on the usage of appeasement and negotiation styles were found to be statistically lower than male teachers (p<0,05). However, conflict management styles that were used by principals did not reveal any statistically significant difference in terms of gender (P>0.05). In addition, perceived conflict management styles and stress level stemmed from conflict management styles did not reveal any significant difference in terms of age groups and education level of teachers (p>0.05). The correlation analysis between used conflict management and the stress level it caused on teachers showed that there was a significant relationship between used conflict management and stress level it caused on teachers. It can be derived from those findings that ruling style used by administrators in conflict management increased stress level of teachers at a statistically significant degree (p>0.05), as to the other conflict management styles, they decreased stress level of teachers.
Key Words: Conflict, Conflict management, stress

**Category:** Social Science

[213] **viXra:1503.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 16:47:49*

**Authors:** Cansın Kulekci Tatli, Mehmet Gundogdu

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Aim of this study is to identify the problems related to sports parks built by local authorities in Mersin province and suggest solutions related to those problems. 166 participants who regularly used the sports parks built by local authorities in Mersin province participated in the study. A questionnaire that consisted of 28 questions 6 of which were demographic and 22 were close-ended questions was applied to the participants. Frequency analyses were used at SPSS 11.0 program to analyze the data of the study. Results of the study revealed that the users of these parks were women at middle or above-middle age, and as for their professional characteristics, housewives were
the most frequent job group that used sports parks. The main reasons for using sports parks were pursuing a healthy life and weight control. It was also found out that the main reason for people to prefer sports parks was doing sports in open air and their being free of charge. Furthermore, some other findings on exercise types in these parks, their being sufficient in terms of health, and the rate of people benefitting from these parks were also obtained.
Key words: Local authorities, sports, sports parks

**Category:** Social Science

[212] **viXra:1503.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 16:50:03*

**Authors:** Bayram Ali Yıldırım, Ahmet Cezmi Savas

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The aim of this study was to find out the effect of leadership styles of school principals on organizational citizenship behaviors of teachers. Participants of the study were 125 preschool, class and branch teachers who were randomly selected. Data of the study were collected through “Multifactor Leadership Scale” and
“Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Scale”. In order to find out the relationship among variables, multiple regression analysis was applied through SPSS 20 program. According to the results of this analysis, there was a positive relationship between overall average of leadership styles of school principals and organizational citizenship behaviors sub-dimensions and membership morality dimensions.
Key words: Leadership, leadership styles, organizational citizenship behavior.

**Category:** Social Science

[211] **viXra:1503.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 19:14:11*

**Authors:** Jan A. Bergstra

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Algebra and arithmetic are contrasted from a perspective of school mathematics. The surrounding container view regarding algebra and arithmetic is formulated and defended. It is argued that an encounter with
algebra may precede the introduction to arithmetic in school. In particular static process algebra is suggested as a theme which may play a useful role early on in the educational process heading towards the development of skills and competences in arithmetic.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[210] **viXra:1503.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 00:34:25*

**Authors:** Timo Huovinen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

According gravitational wave theory, gravity is caused by gravitational waves that occur between two same substances rotating around each other. This generates gravitational waves, which pulls same substance towards itself (because it matches the same wavelength as the gravitational waves). So every element has its own gravity. Bigger the atom of given substance is, the bigger the wavelength. Gravitational waves frequency is determined by how much (and how fast) there is substance in question spinning around each other. Force of gravity depends on the distance between source of gravitational waves and the substance that is affecting.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[209] **viXra:1503.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 12:26:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[208] **viXra:1503.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 10:39:36*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I want to name generically all the numbers which are either c-primes, m-primes, cm-primes, c-composites, m-composites or cm-composites with the name “cm-integers” and to present what seems to be a special quality of repdigit numbers (it’s about the odd ones) namely that are often cm-integers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[207] **viXra:1503.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-13 09:09:41*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Consider the structure of the wire with constant current \\ Рассматривается структура постоянного тока в проводе

**Category:** Classical Physics

[206] **viXra:1503.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 04:21:22*

**Authors:** Yang Liu, Bo Wei, Zhen Wang, Yong Deng

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The problem of finding a better immunization strategy for controlling the spreading of the epidemic with limited resources has attracted much attention since its great theoretical significance and wide application. In this paper, we propose a novel and successful targeted immunization strategy based on percolation transition. Our strategy immunizes the fraction of critical nodes which lead to the emergence of giant connected component. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, we conduct the experiments on several artificial networks and real-world networks. The results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing well-known methods with 18% to 50% fewer immunized nodes for same degree of immunization.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[205] **viXra:1503.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 22:47:59*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The electron is composed of sixteen parts, in Vedic Particle Physics, which is a notion contrary to western physics. The sixteen parts of the electron indicate that the electron pertains to the Sedenions - perhaps the Conic Sedenions or even the Twisted Octonions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[204] **viXra:1503.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 03:33:20*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I present three conjectures, i.e.: (1) For any prime p greater than or equal to 7 there exist n, a power of 2, such that, concatenating to the left p with n the number resulted is a prime (2) For any odd prime p there exist n, a power of 2, such that, subtracting one from the number resulted concatenating to the right p with n, is obtained a prime (3) For any odd prime p there exist n, a power of 2, such that, adding one to the number resulted concatenating to the right p with n, is obtained a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[203] **viXra:1503.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 14:41:27*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Magnetic materials are composed of microscopic regions called magnetic domains that act like tiny permanent magnets. Before an external magnetic field to be applied on the material, the domains' magnetic fields are oriented randomly. Most of the domains’ magnetic fields cancel each other out, and so the resultant magnetic field is very small. Here we derive the expression of this intrinsic magnetic filed, which can be used to calculate the magnitude of the Earth’s magnetic field at the center of the Earth’s inner core. In addition, it is also described a magnetization process using gravity. This is gravitational magnetization process (or gravitomagnetization process) since the magnetization is produced starting from gravity. It is absolutely new and unprecedented in the literature.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[202] **viXra:1503.0232 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-04 05:06:55*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

One of the great questions in modern cosmology today is what is causing the accelerating expansion of the universe – the so called dark energy. It has been recently discovered this property of accelerated expansion is not unique to the universe, but is also evident with tree (plant) growth. As trees are fractals: do fractals offer an explanation and insight to the accelerating expansion property of the universe?
An experiment was undertaken on the classical Koch snowflake fractal. The snowflake was inverted to model observations from within an iterating fractal set – as if at a static ‘measured’ position. Unlike with the fractal snowflake formation, new triangles sizes were held constant allowing earlier triangles in the set to expand as the set iterated.
Using classical kinematic equations velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area of the total fractal, and the distance between points within the fractal set. The inverted fractal was also tested for the Hubble's Law.
It was discovered that the area(s) expanded exponentially; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. The model was consistent with the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology and demonstrated: a singularity ‘Big Bang’ beginning; homogeneous isotropic expansion consistent with the CMB; Hubble's Law – with a Hubble diagram and Hubble's constant; and accelerating expansion with a ‘cosmological’ constant an expansion rate consistent with, and capable of explaining the early inflation epoch of the universe. It was concluded that the universe behaves as a general fractal object. Thought the findings have obvious relevance to the study of cosmology, they may also offer insight to all things fractal: the recently discovered accelerating growth rate of trees.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[201] **viXra:1503.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 14:50:37*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Is the universe a fractal? This is one of the great – though not often talked about – questions in cosmology. In my earlier publication where I inverted (Koch snowflake) fractal I showed the fractal demonstrated: Hubble’s Law, accelerating expansion, and a singularity beginning. Surveys of the universe – the most recent and largest, the 2012 WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey – show, galaxy distribution on small scales to be fractal, while on large-scales, homogeneity holds. There appears to be new anomaly to explain: a galaxy distribution transition from rough to smooth with cosmic distance. From my model I derived a Fractal-Hubble diagram. On this diagram, measurement points along the curve are clustered near the origin. This clustering was not addressed in discussions or part of the conclusion of my earlier experiment. Can this clustering of points account for the observed galaxy distribution transition? Could this transition be another property of fractals, and therefore could the universe – itself – be fractal? It was found, yes they do. Clustering of measurement points (and of galaxies) is as a result of observation position in the fractal. On small scales – relative to large scales – the cosmic surveys are what one would expect to see if one were viewing from within an iterating – growing – fractal. If trees – natural fractals that have also been found to grow at accelerating rates – are used to demonstrate this fractal: the large-scale smoothness maybe akin to a tree’s trunk; and the rough (fractal) on small-scales, to its branches. This discovery unifies the anomalies associated with the standard cosmological model. Together they are – through the mechanics of the fractal – inextricably linked.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[200] **viXra:1503.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 14:56:48*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In a recent publication it was discovered trees growth rate accelerates with age. Trees are described as being clear examples of natural fractals. Do fractals offer insight to the accelerating expansion?
In this investigation the classical (Koch snowflake) fractal was inverted to model the growth of a fractals seen from a fixed – new growth – perspective. New triangle area sizes represented new branch volume; these new triangles were held constant allowing earlier triangles in the set to expand as the fractal set iterated (grew) through time.
Velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area of the total fractal, and the distance between points within the fractal set using classical kinematic equations.
It was discovered that the area(s) of earlier triangles expanded exponentially, and as a consequence the total snowflake area grew exponentially. Distances between points (nodes) – from any location within the fractal set – receded away at exponentially increasing velocities and accelerations. For trees, if the new growth branch volume size remains constant through time, its supporting branches volumes will grow exponentially to support their mass. This property of fractals may account for the accelerating volumetric growth rates of trees. A trees age can be measured not only by its annual (growth ring) age, but also by its iteration age: the amount of iterations from trunk to new growth branch.
Thought the findings have obvious relevance to the study of trees directly, they may also offer insight into the recently discovered observation of the accelerating growth rate of the universe.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[199] **viXra:1503.0229 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-11 02:25:27*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Media and entertainment industries are in decline; profitability down due to ‘freer access on computers. Is the internet producing ‘Public goods’ from what were Private goods? With respect to these goods and the Internet, the assumption used to classify ‘Private goods' and Public goods in an economy (the degree of excludability and rivalry) was analysed, and the respective industries tested for being Public Goods. It was concluded these goods within the entertainment/media industries are slowly being repositioned from what are termed 'private' or 'club'/'congestion' goods, to their extreme opposite, Public goods. The ‘free rider problem’ of Public Goods has become the ‘free copy problem’ with respect to these goods. It was hypothesised the Internet was the cause. It was discussed Public Goods – by tradition – failure in the market, and are therefore provided by Government: is this to be the destiny of Internet goods, or any item on the internet subject to file sharing or digital copying in any form including – at the extreme – the human genome, solid object 3D printing, and even money in the form of bit-coins?

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[198] **viXra:1503.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 15:32:12*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 321 Pages.

For each of the 480 unique octonion Fano plane mnemonic multiplication tables, there are 7 split octonions (one for each of 7 triads in the parent octonion). This PDF is a comprehensive list of all 3840=480+3360 (octonions + split octonions), their Fano planes, and multiplication tables. They are organized in pairs of 240 parent octonions=(8-bit sign mask)*(30 canonical sets of 7 triads). The pairs of parent octonions are created by flipping (reversing) the first triad (center circular line) creating a unique Fano plane mnemonic.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[197] **viXra:1503.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 15:35:18*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In spite the fact that I wrote seven papers on the notions (defined by myself) of c-primes, m-primes, c-composites and m-composites (see in my paper “Conjecture that states that any Carmichael number is a cm-composite” the definitions of all these notions), I haven’t thinking until now to find a connection, beside the one that defines, of course, such an odd composite n, namely that, after few iterative operations on n, is reached a prime p, between the number n and the prime p. This is what I try to do in this paper, and also to give a name to this prime p, namely, say, “reached prime”, and, in order to distinguish, because a number can be same time c-prime and m-prime, respectively c-composite and m-composite, “c-reached prime” or “m-reached prime”.

**Category:** Number Theory

[196] **viXra:1503.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 11:45:41*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a Mathematica notebook saved as PDF which theorizes a relationship between fundamental constants (c, Planck, Gravity, Hubble, FineStructure) and computes within current experimental values the values of a (Higgs) particle mass of 124.443...GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[195] **viXra:1503.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 12:23:31*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Técnica 2, 33-40 (1991)

In this paper, through the criticism of the paradigmatic view of thermodynamics, we aim at showing a new perspective attained in this matter. The generalization of heat as internal energy (generalization of the kinetic energy concept of heat) permits the generalization of the Kelvin postulate: "It is impossible, without another effect, to convert internal energy into work" (no reference to heat or to a heat reservoir).

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[194] **viXra:1503.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 13:05:45*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 30 Pages. The conference is in french

Conférence pour la journée de Pi à Marseille le 3/14/15.
Conference on Pi Day of 3/14/15 in Marseille

**Category:** Number Theory

[193] **viXra:1503.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 06:17:24*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 17 pages.

In this paper we discuss some novel algorithms for linear programming inspired by geometrical considerations and use simple mathematics related to finding intersections of lines and planes. All these algorithms have a common aim: they all try to approach closer and closer to “centroid” or some “centrally located interior point” for speeding up the process of reaching an optimal solution! Imagine the “line” parallel to vector C, where CTx denotes the objective function to be optimized, and further suppose that this “line” is also passing through the “point” representing optimal solution. The new algorithms that we propose in this paper essentially try to reach at some feasible interior point which is in the close vicinity of this “line”, in successive steps. When one will be able to arrive finally at a point belonging to small neighborhood of some point on this “line” then by moving from this point parallel to vector C one can reach to the point belonging to the sufficiently small neighborhood of the “point” representing optimal solution.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[192] **viXra:1503.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 19:39:02*

**Authors:** Sbiis Saibian

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The goal in this article is to demonstrate that E# is indeed on the order of ω. Formally this means that for every member of FGH_ω there is a function in E# with at least the same growth rate, and that f_w(n) the smallest member of FGH which eventually dominates over all functions within E#.
It will be demonstrated that a certain family of functions of order-type "w" in E# dominates over corresponding members in FGH_w, thus showing that for every function in FGH_w there is a function in E# which grows at least as fast. Then it will be shown how f_w(n) diagonalizes over this family of functions and must eventually dominate every member of this family.

**Category:** Number Theory

[191] **viXra:1503.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 19:59:36*

**Authors:** Azeddine Elhassouny

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

Thèse dirigée par Pr. Driss Mammass, préparée au Laboratoire Image et Reconnaissance
de Formes-Systèmes Intelligents et Communicants IRF-SIC, soutenue le 22 juin 2013,
Agadir, Maroc.
L'objectif de cette thèse est de fournir à la télédétection
des outils automatiques de la classification et de la
détection des changements d'occupation du sol utiles à
plusieurs fins, dans ce cadre, nous avons développé
deux méthodes générales de fusion utilisées pour la
classification des images et la détection des
changements utilisant conjointement l'information
spatiale obtenue par la classification supervisée ICM et
la théorie de Dezert-Smarandache (DSmT) avec des
nouvelles règles de décision pour surmonter les limites
inhérentes des règles de décision existantes dans la
littérature.
L'ensemble des programmes de cette thèse ont été
implémentés avec MATLAB et les prétraitements et
visualisation des résultats ont été réalisés sous ENVI 4.0,
ceci a permis d'effectuer une validation des résultats
avec précision et dans des cas concrets. Les deux
approches sont évaluées sur des images LANDSAT
ETM+ et FORMOSAT-2 et les résultats sont prometteurs.
The main objective of this thesis is to provide automatic
remote sensing tools of classification and of change
detection of land cover for many purposes, in this
context, we have developed two general methods used
for classification fusion images and change detection
using joint spatial information obtained by supervised
classification ICM and Dezert-Smarandache theory
(DSmT) with new decision rules to overcome the
limitations of decision rules existing in the literature.
All programs of this thesis have been implemented in
MATLAB and C language and preprocessing and
visualization of results were achieved in ENVI 4.0, this
has allowed for a validation of the results accurately and
in concrete cases. Both approaches are evaluated on
LANDSAT ETM + and FORMOSAT-2 and the results are
promising.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[190] **viXra:1503.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 01:40:00*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

n! is defined as the product 1.2.3………n and it popularly represents the number of ways of seating n people on n chairs. We conceptualize another way of describing n! using sequential cuts to an imaginary circle and derive the following well known result

**Category:** Number Theory

[189] **viXra:1503.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 02:39:54*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Observing the sum of the digits of a number of twin primes, I make in this paper the following three conjectures: (1) for any m the lesser term from a pair of twin primes having as the sum of its digits an odd number there exist an infinity of lesser terms n from pairs of twin primes having as the sum of its digits an even number such that m + n + 1 is prime, (2) for any m the lesser term from a pair of twin primes having as the sum of its digits an even number there exist an infinity of lesser terms n from pairs of twin primes having as the sum of its digits an odd number such that m + n + 1 is prime and (3) if a, b, c, d are four distinct terms of the sequence of lesser from a pair of twin primes and a + b + 1 = c + d + 1 = x, then x is a semiprime, product of twin primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[188] **viXra:1503.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 15:12:46*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I started this paper in ideea to present the recurrence relation defined as follows: the first term, a(0), is 13, then the n-th term is defined as a(n) = a(n–1) + 6 if n is odd and as a(n) = a(n-1) + 24, if n is even. This recurrence formula produce an amount of primes and odd numbers having very few prime factors: the first 150 terms of the sequence produced by this formula are either primes, power of primes or products of two prime factors. But then I discovered easily formulas even more interesting, for instance a(0) = 13, a(n) = a(n–1) + 10 if n is odd and a(n) = a(n-1) + 80, if n is even (which produces 16 primes in first 20 terms!). Because what seems to matter in order to generate primes for such a recurrent defined formula a(0) = 13, a(n) = a(n–1) + x if n is odd and as a(n) = a(n-1) + y, if n is even, is that x + y to be a multiple of 30 (probably the choice of the first term doesn’t matter either but I like the number 13).

**Category:** Number Theory

[187] **viXra:1503.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 11:14:09*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that there exist an infinity of squares of primes that can be written as p + q + 13, where p and q are twin primes, also a conjecture that there exist an infinity of squares of primes that can be written as 3*q - p - 1, where p and q are primes and q = p + 4.

**Category:** Number Theory

[186] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-20 13:05:59*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It caused that there appeared a proposal to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, there appear approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the composite Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[185] **viXra:1503.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 13:23:11*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin, Joseph Friedlander, Shmuel Neumann, Zarek Newman

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Standard drilling has limits as at some depth the pressures and temperatures force the drilled opening tight when the drill is lifted.This paper proposes a reliable and rapid method of penetration of rock masses by melting all or part of the rock face and penetrate therein, cool the resulting glassy tube to be a stabilized liner. The methods proposed to heat the tip of the melting element include heat generated by a micro-thermonuclear reaction. High rates of advance are sustainable because only heat and cooling water must be advanced to the tunnel head. The equipment is simple and without need for unduly high pressure lithofracturing, and the equipment may be regularly removed and switched out to avoid time and personnel-intensive breakdowns in place. This method can achieve depths heretofore unreachable to access deep gas, oil, or to create an airtight and waterproof shaft for geothermic energy.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[184] **viXra:1503.0210 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-30 03:29:09*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

On link http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 it is described the first and second space deformation, while on http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097 described the third space deformation. The fourth and fifth space deformation is a consequence of the presence of a proton and an electron in the dynamic space, after the inevitable end of the primary neutron (beta decay). So, it is caused an electrostatic induction of positive and negative units of the surrounding space and an inverse electric field of the proton (nucleus) is created, with reduction of the space cohesive pressure. The nuclear force now is interpreted as an electric force, 100 times stronger than the corresponding force of the outer electric field that extends beyond the potential barrier.
The Universal and the particulate (see http://viXra.org/abs/1501.0111) antigravity force is complemented by the stronger nuclear antigravity force, since at the lower nuclear field the reduction of the cohesive pressure is rapid and contributes to the architecture of the nuclei structure. Moreover, the reduction of cohesive pressure at the lower nuclear field is the cause of the neutron mass deficit, while protons do not undergo mass deficit, as it will be described below.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[183] **viXra:1503.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 07:37:51*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I make seven conjectures on the triplets of primes [p, q, r], where q = p + 4 and r = p + 6, conjectures involving primes, squares of primes, c-primes, m-primes, c-composites and m-composites (the last four notions are defined in previous papers, see for instance the paper “Conjecture that states that any Carmichael number is a cm-composite”.

**Category:** Number Theory

[182] **viXra:1503.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 09:13:43*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that there exist an infinity of squares of primes of the form 6*k - 1 that can be written as a sum of two consecutive primes plus one and also a conjecture that states that the sequence of the partial sums of odd primes contains an infinity of terms which are squares of primes of the form 6*k + 1.

**Category:** Number Theory

[181] **viXra:1503.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 05:31:52*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Superconducting gravimeters are overloaded by strong earthquakes and stop the measurement. Here it is shown that, in the first hours after restart, most of the SG deliver erroneous data, which prevents an accurate frequency measurement. Avoiding this disturbed region, the frequency can be determined much more accurately than before.

**Category:** Geophysics

[180] **viXra:1503.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 19:18:30*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In portuguese and english

The gravitational absorption appears to be the cause of dark matter. The Nuclear Fusion can be obtained from most highly targeted way. The LHC will not need to use much higher energies than those used to find the Higgs boson to be found "dark matter".

**Category:** Astrophysics

[179] **viXra:1503.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 23:03:36*

**Authors:** Sascha Vongehr

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 4 figures

This work is suppressed since 2010 and led to established scientists to be banned on the arXiv. We thank viXra for making critical work like this still available to relatively uncorrupted parts of the scientific community. We define a mechanical analog to the electrical basic circuit element M = dφ/dQ, the ideal mechanical memristance M = dp/dx, p being momentum. A never before described mechanical memory resistor M(x) is independent of velocity v and has a pinched hysteretic loop that collapses at high frequency in the v versus p plot: a perfect memristor. However, its memristance does not crucially involve inert mass, and the mechanical system helps clarifying that memristor devices hypothesized on grounds of physical symmetries require more. The missing mechanical perfect memristor needs to be crucially mass-involving (MI) precisely like the 1971 implied memristor device needs magnetism. Discussing novel MI memristive systems clarifies why such perfect MI memristors and EM memristors have not been discovered and may be impossible.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[178] **viXra:1503.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 23:28:11*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung HU

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Besides gravity model of trade, many other physic force and energy laws can be applied to explain economics phenomenon. There should be Coulomb force, magnetic force, and impelity force to explain the business activity between two nations, industries, or companies. And, energy can also be applied for the above purpose for economic activity.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[177] **viXra:1503.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 23:31:22*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Law of conservation is the key concept in physics world. We can also apply the conservation law in economics phenomenon. Here, I use the conservation of money to explain the stock market behavior. Continuity equation is provided for this model.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[176] **viXra:1503.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-08 03:36:49*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Comments welcome.

In this short letter, we argue that the observed +38 mm/yr secular Lunar drift from the Earth does – to an admirable degree of agreement between theory and observations ; explain the observed secular increase in the Lunar eccentricity. At present, the recession of the Moon from the Earth is not any more considered as an anomaly as this is believed to be well explained by conventional physics of Lunar-Earth tides. However, the same is not true when it comes to the observed increase in the Lunar eccentricity which is considered to be an anomaly requiring an explanation as to what is the cause behind this phenomenon. We not only demonstrate an intimate connection between these two seemingly unrelated phenomenon, but show that the intimate relationship that we deduce fits so well with observations to a point that – logic dictates that, the Lunar drift must surely be the cause of the secular increase in the Lunar eccentricity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[175] **viXra:1503.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 03:29:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[174] **viXra:1503.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 03:58:41*

**Authors:** Pravendra Singh

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A smarter version of the sliding-puzzle game is developed using the Go programming language.
The game runs in computer system's terminals. Mainly, it was developed for UNIX-type systems but
because of cross-platform compatibility of the programming language used, it works very well in
nearly all the operating systems.
The game uses Go's concurrency primitives to simplify most of the hefty parts of the game. Real
time notification functionality is also developed using language's built-in concurrency support.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[173] **viXra:1503.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 11:57:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[172] **viXra:1503.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 07:46:04*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Eight pages

This paper details a replacement for Dr. Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity which, along with quantum theory, are pillars of 21st century physics. Special Relativity deals with light and other forms of radiation, such as radio, X, gamma, and delta radiation and the constant nature of the velocity of light as distinguished from the non constant nature of the relative velocity of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[171] **viXra:1503.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 08:44:34*

**Authors:** Christina Munns

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All rights reserved - Copyright 2014

Abstract:
Consideration is given to the relevance of unitary symmetry in relation to the environment in which photonic research takes place. Both a U(1) and a SU(2) environment are considered and the results compared. It is found that there is a direct polarity between these two unitary symmetry groups with regard to both photonic behaviour and research results, such that it leads to the conclusion that environmental symmetry directly affects photonic activity and also research outcomes.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[170] **viXra:1503.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 06:24:19*

**Authors:** Nikolai V. Volkov

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Keywords: Virtual proper time – Virtual scalar-electric field - Elimination of the infrared catastrophe - Field origin of the electron mass - Single-particle wave Dirac equation.

With inclusion of the virtual proper time in the metric of the physical Minkowski
space we pass to the four-dimensional bimetric space-time. Now a complete description
of the occurring physical processes includes both physical (observable) and virtual
(unobservable) objects that enter in the physical expressions. In classical electrodynamics
this conversion leads to the appearance of the virtual scalar-electric field that complements
the physical electromagnetic field and is a massive in the presence of sources. This allows
to eliminate the infrared catastrophe and to proof the field origin of the virtual (bare)
electron mass and self-energy. With inclusion of the virtual proper time in the classical
quantum theory we obtain the single-particle wave Dirac equation for which the electron
wave function retains the simple probabilistic interpretation. In the single-particle Dirac
theory the virtual scalar-electric field shifts the physical energy levels for the hydrogen
atom in an external field and this leads to two additional amendments.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[169] **viXra:1503.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 19:06:38*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Constructing an E8 Based Standard Model (SM): An approach to a Theory of Everything (ToE)

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[168] **viXra:1503.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 02:19:25*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Supri jadi, Reza Rendian Septiawan

**Comments:** 4 pages, 4 figures, technical report

A derivation of formulation for calculating porosity of three-dimension granular materials is presented in this work, where granular particles are assumed spherical. Overlapping area problem is solved in two-dimension using geometry in two overlapping circles. The three-dimension overlap is formulated through numeric integration from the two dimension overlap.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[167] **viXra:1503.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 05:52:13*

**Authors:** Lutz Kayser

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

The Einstein Postulates of Special Relativity (SR), namely the invariance of the speed of light c relative to the observer, the symmetry of relative velocities, and the Galilean Principle independent of velocity and gravitational potential are falsified. The replacement Law is: There exists an absolute universal velocity reference (Cosmic Velocity Reference, CVR). The velocity of light c is invariant and isotropic only relative to absolute universal space CVR. In honor of the discoverer, we propose to call it Smoot’s Law. Experimental evidence of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave radiation background CMB and the one-way measurements of the speed of light are given. From the new Laws it follows (in vector notation) c_(rel )=c- c_cvr . This results in the elimination from physics of the Minkowski four-vector spacetime symmetry, time dilation, length contraction, velocity and acceleration symmetrical Lorentz transformation, Einstein vector addition, covariance, invisible and unphysical net of monolithic worldlines, and other weird mathematical constructs without physical meaning resulting from Special Relativity SR and General Relativity GR. The mass increase of particles with speed by the so-called Lorentz Factor 〖ϒ=(1-v^2 /c^2 )〗^(-1/2) is so often cited by Relativists as empirical proof of SR. ϒ was fraudulently smuggled into SR without mathematical proof applying it to relative velocities which give wrong results. We show that the Lorentz Factor is a simple part of the system of classical dynamic equations and the mass-energy conservation law. But it is only valid with absolute cosmic velocity v_CVR. The increases of mass, momentum, and energy with an object’s velocity are correct but not part of or caused by SR. This is true also for the change of clock rate as a function of velocity and Newtonian gravity potential. PIPS welcomes discussions and proposals for improvement of this work for the sake of the physics community and the wider public. For the general public, we have made an effort to explain important facts in everyday examples. Periodic revisions will be published. (Second Revised Edition 3/15/2015).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[166] **viXra:1503.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-02 08:22:51*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles
into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes.
The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time.
The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles.
As a consequence, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before..
Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect.
Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster.
( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.)
If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[165] **viXra:1503.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-26 15:53:26*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The dark energy density has been derived from the density of vacuum energy at the scale of the Bohr radius in a ten-dimensional model, and from the radius of the observable universe. The Bohr radius and the radius of the observable universe were found to be related through a 5/2 power law correspondence that applies generally between subatomic length scales and cosmological distances. It follows that dark energy is carried by ultra high frequency gravitational waves. Cosmological phase transitions of the expanding universe took place at times that correspond to specific mass, and energy, scales originating from a ten-dimensional geometry. The onset of inflation is associated with the GUT scale. Recombination has an associated particle: the electron. The accelerating expansion of space that initiated about 5 billion years ago is associated with the conjectured 7.1 keV dark matter particle, with an intriguing implication.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[164] **viXra:1503.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-09 08:00:36*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We show that starting with the speed of light, Phi (the golden ratio) and the ratio 8Pi-1, we can recover the Universe fundamental constants, no fudge factors are used. In some cases, extra equations for the same constant are given to show that the numbers match exactly but also to show the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[163] **viXra:1503.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 10:29:57*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

As the author has previously written on Vixra, there are 18 types of Quarks in Vedic Particle Physics, not merely six, as described in western physics. This paper provides the sources which describe these 18 Quark types, both Vedic and western, as these 18 types of Quarks have been lingering around western science in the form of Binary Matroids – albeit the 18 irregular or Sporadic Binary Matroids.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[162] **viXra:1503.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 12:54:38*

**Authors:** Joel M WIlliams

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Based on the chemistry of minerals, Petrie's "Infamous Core #7" is shown to have been produced easily by milling techniques far less advanced than those espoused to exceed modern milling technolog

**Category:** Archaeology

[161] **viXra:1503.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 09:44:29*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to relate the concept of intelligence to the first principles of physics, and, in particular, to answer the following question: can AI system composed only of physical components compete with a human? The answer is proven to be negative if the AI system is based only on simulations, and positive if digital devices are included. It has been demonstrated that in mathematical world, the bridge from matter to intelligence requires extension and modification of quantum physics. Such an extension is implemented by quantum neural nets that perform simulations combined with digital punctuations. The universality of this quantum-classical hybrid is in capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics by moving from disorder to order without external resources. This advanced capability that could be accepted as a definition of human-like intelligence is illustrated by examples.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[160] **viXra:1503.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-02 10:03:44*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Three-page Letter

Astronomical observations of cosmological red-shift are currently interpreted in terms of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’, at the rate of H0 c; here H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c is the speed of light. Whereas a straight forward derivation presented here suggests that: rather it is the photon which is decelerating, at the rate of H0 c. Such a deceleration of photons can be caused by virtual electrons, positrons and pi-mesons, contained in the extra galactic quantum vacuum, because: they do have gravitational-acceleration of the same order as H0 c at their “surfaces”; or by decay of photon into a lighter photon and a particle of mass h H0 / c^2.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[159] **viXra:1503.0178 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-20 06:26:20*

**Authors:** Mark K Malmros

**Comments:** 1 Page.

a binomial inequality demonstrates generally Fermat's Last Theorem

**Category:** General Mathematics

[158] **viXra:1503.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 23:22:06*

**Authors:** Sidharth Ghoshal

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We write a solution for solving all equations of the type
a(x)f(x+h) + b(x)f(x) + c(x)f(x)^2 = 0
And use this to create a variety of formula for infinite nested radicals

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[157] **viXra:1503.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 13:56:16*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Long-term spectrograms show that after strong earthquakes, the frequency of the 0S0 resonance of the earth varies with no apparent regularity. This also applies to the structure and the location of the sidebands. Measurements with the zero beat method show a frequency modulation of unknown cause, which can hardly be detected by FFT.

**Category:** Geophysics

[156] **viXra:1503.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-25 15:25:59*

**Authors:** Vigneswaran Ramamoorthy

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to show the effectiveness of an approach to formulate and understand the dynamics of an observable phenomenon through Newtonian mechanics. The approach starts by taking a simpler analogue of the problem we need to understand, and solving both the simpler and real case simultaneously. Then, the real case is split into two independent cases. The major part of the paper will be concentrated on demonstrating that this approach is effective in comprehending the dynamics of the phenomenon. The problem considered is, in a circus, a co-worker saves a person who falls down during a rehearsal by dashing him in the horizontal direction, from a few feet above the ground. In the rest of the paper, for ease, the person who saved will be called as rescuer and the person who is being saved will be called as casualty. Analysis of this problem is based on assumptions that the collision between rescuer and casualty is an inelastic collision and after the total mass of rescuer and casualty come in contact with the ground, it remains stationary.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[155] **viXra:1503.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 07:30:13*

**Authors:** Wei-Xiong Huang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In sun center, pressure least direction is ends of sun spin axis. Thus, sun center ultra-high temperature gasification substance jet out along sun's rotation axis, through photosphere, chromosphere, transition, directly reach coronal top. By gravity, thermal diffusion, centrifugal force combined effects, reached corona top high-temperature gasification substance spread into sun equatorial plane, formed temperature up to 1 million K to 20 million K corona.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[154] **viXra:1503.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 07:34:10*

**Authors:** Wei-Xiong Huang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There is a mass very huge star in Milky Way Galactic disk center, known as Milky Way "Nuclear-Star". Nuclear-Star mass exceeds solar mass 9 trillion times. Nuclear-Star center temperature exceed solar center temperature 20.8 thousand times. Nuclear-Star center temperature exceed 275.446 billion K, enough make substances fission into higher frequency gamma photons. Nuclear-Star spin axis ends jet out gamma-ray. Gamma-ray circular arc-shaped trajectory form Fermi bubble.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[153] **viXra:1503.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 09:21:13*

**Authors:** Xinyang Deng, Yong Deng

**Comments:** 14 pages, 3 figures.

Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is an efficient mathematical tool to deal with uncertain information. In this theory, basic probability assignment (BPA) is the basic structure for the expression and inference of uncertainty. In this paper, quantum entanglement involved in Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is studied. A criterion is given to determine whether a BPA is in an entangled state or not. Based on that, the information volume involved in a BPA is discussed. The discussion shows that a non-quantum strategy (or observation) can not obtained all information contained in a BPA which is in an entangled state.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[152] **viXra:1503.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-20 13:02:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory, is presented the fragmentation of hadrons in the pp and Pb-Pb collisions. Applying the Stefan-Boltzmann law, the calculated production of pion/kaon/proton in pp and Pb-Pb collisions is in agreement with the ALICE data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[151] **viXra:1503.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 10:11:52*

**Authors:** Hartmut Schwab

**Comments:** 3 pages, German language

The light speed paradoxon which was until now explained by the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) and was not understood according to classic physics, is now freely explained by the laws of classic physics. The explanation is extended on all other kinds of oscillations without or with medium. Complex approaches like Einsteins space time continuum and SRT miss their basis and therefore are unnecessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[150] **viXra:1503.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-31 03:04:32*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Stephen Hawking writes, “In real time, the universe has a beginning and an end at singularities that form a boundary to space-time and at which the laws of science break down. But in imaginary time, there are no singularities or boundaries. So maybe what we call imaginary time is really more basic …” (“A Brief History of Time” by Stephen Hawking - Bantam Press, 1988, p.139)
When Hawking says there are no singularities in imaginary time, can his statement relate to physics? Or is it purely mathematical, in which case it would reinforce the idea that the universe began with a singularity and a Big Bang? I believe imaginary time has physical meaning since it can be developed from space-time where parallel lines become perpendicular without any motion occurring. Such a feat depends on a particular form of General Relativity’s space-time curvature. It leads to new cosmology and quantum physics that includes deletion of distance on every scale – plus a method for cosmogenesis or creation of the universe.
This author has a habit of copying and pasting. I’ve done it in the past to present an idea in different contexts, hoping that would demonstrate the idea’s validity. In this article, sentences are added to my recycling – showing that I still believe in the basic idea I started with, but adding information (sometimes from mathematics) to support that basis.
In addition, I’ve included a 600-word summary at the start that was inspired by a reply I gave to HarryT in the vixra forums (where I write as rodney1956) as well as by the 2012 Nature Letter “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward “ (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11472.html). The summary uses strings to unite fields and matter. I've decided to call the strings bits (Binary digITS) that aren't only regarded as units of information, but also as quantum-size pulses of energy.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[149] **viXra:1503.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 07:07:00*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I paid attention that when I seat in a bus just behind the second door , very near to the window. I see my face image magnified.
And I ask for a detailed explanation to this phenomena
Atached pictures explain the ghost problem

**Category:** Classical Physics

[148] **viXra:1503.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 07:15:31*

**Authors:** Wei-Xiong Huang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

1. Celestial body center temperature is proportional to cube root of stellar mass. 2. When stellar temperature exceeds boiling point of all elements, stellar density is inversely proportional to cube root of stellar quality. 3. Stellar brightness and light emission frequency is proportional to cube root of stellar quality. Mass super huge stellar is bound to become a tiny density luminous body. Mass super huge, density super huge, no light emission black holes do not exist.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[147] **viXra:1503.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 07:24:47*

**Authors:** Wei-Xiong Huang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

When stellar center gasification substance thermal expansion force is greater than stellar center minimum pressure, from stellar center, pressure minimal two symmetrical directions, jet out two shares mass same high-temperature gasification substances. In stellar interior, two shares jet out high-temperature gasification substances form two whirlpool. Two swirl size and shape are same. Two swirl tips are outward. Two swirl central shaft are on a straight line. Two swirl drive stellar rotation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[146] **viXra:1503.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-22 16:56:32*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In portuguese and english.

A brave and humble letter to the space agencies that protect us, talking about the deflection program and the likely nature of gravity. - x -
Uma corajosa e humilde carta às agências espaciais que nos protegem, falando sobre o programa de deflexão e da provável natureza da gravidade.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[145] **viXra:1503.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 04:48:25*

**Authors:** Hans-joerg Hochecker

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

At first, I regard magnetism. I can show that the magnetic force is an electric angle-effect by establishing two postulates: the dependence of the electric force on the velocity, and the existence of the anti-field. With the help of a third postulate, this is the quantization of the energy-transfer of the electric field, I then show that gravitation is also an electric effect. So, the three postulates describe three qualities of the electric field by which magnetism and gravitation can be derived. I finally carry out quantum-mechanical considerations at which the three postulates will be excellently confirmed. For the correct classification of this work I must mention that the theory of special relativity is absolutely considered as being correct and that it is an important and necessary component of this work.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[144] **viXra:1503.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 17:32:35*

**Authors:** Ionel DINU, M.Sc.

**Comments:** 3 Pages. A Rapid Communication supplementing the article Radio Waves – Part III The Photoelectric Effect

Abstract
This short communication is a supplement to the article Radio Waves – Part III The Photoelectric Effect in which I advanced the hypothesis that the photoelectric effect can be explained as an effect of electromagnetic induction occurring at the surface of the illuminated metal.
A striking support for the validity of this hypothesis has been discovered recently by the present author in the quantization of the magnetic flux observed experimentally more than 50 years ago.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[143] **viXra:1503.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 18:13:55*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: If N is an odd composite number that can be written as a product of k-primes not necessarily distinct, then we have devised a simple algorithm that would allow us to express N as the sum of exactly k terms all distinct derived using its prime factors.

**Category:** Number Theory

[142] **viXra:1503.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 18:36:42*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Proof and apparatus showing No-communication Theorem is wrong.

This short letter is a response to an analysis by Ghirardi of a supposed flaw in a communication scheme involving entangled state collapse. We find his analysis entirely correct but missing the point, which is subtle, the no communication theorem merely expresses the truth of the locality of quantum state information on measurement but surprisingly says nothing about the particle being present or not by dint of the communication scheme itself. Ghirardi’s analysis using the density matrix approach does not deal correctly with the analysis of superposition in the interferometer and as such, doesn’t even correctly replicate the case for non-entanglement, as did the state vector method used by Cornwall.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[141] **viXra:1503.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 12:54:48*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The number of independent components in the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor, being composed of the metric tensor and its first and second derivatives, varies considerably with the dimension of space. Since few texts provide an explicit derivation of component number, we present here a simplified method using only the curvature tensor’s antisymmetry property and the cyclicity condition. For generality and comparison, the method for computing component number in both Riemannian and non-Riemannian space is presented.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[140] **viXra:1503.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 07:25:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Atom interferometry, in which atomic waves are coherently split and later recombined, has been called the Swiss Army knife of atomic physics because of its numerous applications. Atom interferometers can be used to study gravity, observe quantum effects, and measure fundamental constants. However, the spitting of atomic beams has always been a challenging task. Several beam splitters for atoms have been developed over the years, many of which rely on complex, high-powered lasers whose photons collide with atoms to steer them along separate beam paths. [10]
As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK’s national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[139] **viXra:1503.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 00:55:28*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The best place to begin is with Einstein, who revolutionized understanding of gravity and said “time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter” (this must include matter's electric charges and magnetic poles). Following the introductory paragraphs, Einstein's theory that gravitation is a push created by the hills and valleys of curved space is recalled and there’s a paragraph explaining the Krasinsky/Blumberg astronomy paper in terms of gravitational waves being a repelling force, with a brief explanation reconciling this repulsion with gravity’s apparent attraction. Believing everything from the quantum to the cosmic is intricately united, I shift to discussion of gravity, the ocean tides and cosmology. Then the final paragraph says gravitational waves move in two directions. Since gravitation forms matter and its forces, the dualism naturally extends to the electromagnetism of particles, resulting in electric charges that are positive or negative (combination of these two produces neutrality) and magnetic polarities being either north or south.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[138] **viXra:1503.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 01:23:25*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

It is difficult to find a derivation of the Lorentz transformations beyond a single dimension in rectangular Cartesian coordinates. Here, a rigorous general derivation is established.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[137] **viXra:1503.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-20 15:29:40*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Westenberger

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

SUMMARY. The gravitation theorem is based on Newton's Gravitation Law and takes into account that each gravitational object does exert gravitation starting from its very position.
The Shell Theorem, on the other hand, sums up all positions of gravitational objects, thus calculations of gravitation are made easier.
A spherically symmetric body of equal density can be modelled as an infinite number of cones within a globe, starting from a point A upon the radius of the globe. If one of these cones can be treated as a point mass (i.e. as a single gravitation point), then a system of cones in the shape of a sphere can also be treated as a point mass.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[136] **viXra:1503.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-01 14:11:54*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Further improvements to follow

Three body motion or many body motion in relation to gravitation and other types of interaction has always occupied an enviable position in the history of physics in view of its complexity especially in comparison with the simpler two body motion. The challenge offered by these problems have been a continuous source of inspiration for mathematicians and physicists to work out solutions. This article is a modest endeavor to analyze and solve the problem as far possible .A method for solving the four body and in general the many body problem has been discussed. Certain peculiarities of the two body motion have been pointed out highlighting them in connection with three body motion and with many body motion

**Category:** Classical Physics

[135] **viXra:1503.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-21 08:17:07*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 105 Pages. Under construction (first draft). References not included in the text.

As it is known, the Standard Model for particle physics (SM) has been successfully tested at all accelerator facilities and is currently the best tool available for understanding the phenomena on the subatomic scale. Conventional wisdom is that the SM represents only the low-energy limit of a more fundamental theory and that it can be consistently extrapolated to scales many orders of magnitude beyond the energy levels probed by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Despite its impressive performance, the SM leaves out a fairly large number of unsolved puzzles. In contrast with the majority of mainstream proposals on how to address these challenges, the approach developed here exploits the idea that space-time dimensionality becomes scale-dependent near or above the low TeV scale. This conjecture has recently received considerable attention in theoretical physics and goes under several designations, from “fractional field theory”, “continuous dimension” to “dimensional flow” and “dimensional reduction”. Drawing from the principles of the Renormalization Group program, our key finding is that the SM represents a self-contained multifractal set. The set is defined on continuous space-time having arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions, referred to as a “minimal fractal manifold” (MFM). The book explores the full dynamical implications of the MFM and, staying consistent with experimental data, it offers novel explanations on some of the unsolved puzzles raised by the SM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[134] **viXra:1503.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-12 23:44:23*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Giving a new model of the lepton (or called the meson)
and the baryon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[133] **viXra:1503.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-18 23:31:03*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We show that the complex number structure of the probability allows
to express explicitly the relationship between the energy function H and
the Laplace principle of equal ignorance (LPEI). This nonlinear relation-
ship reflecting the measurement properties of the considered systems, to-
gether with the principle of causality and Newton principle separating the
dynamics from initial conditions, lead to the linear Schrodinger equation
with the Max Born interpretation, for micro and macro systems!

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[132] **viXra:1503.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-19 01:24:22*

**Authors:** Thomas Xavier

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The essay is concerned with describing the actual and ideal relationships between philosophy and science. Both science and philosophy are considered in their most general understanding. The content of the essay is almost exclusively original research and the only references it contains are common facts or ideas ascribed to their respective authors.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[131] **viXra:1503.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-19 03:21:55*

**Authors:** Paul August Winter, Carol Lynne Jessop

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The separate study of the two concepts of energy and vertex coverings of graphs has opened many avenues of research. In this paper we combine these two concepts in a ratio, called the eigen-cover ratio, to investigate the domination effect of the subgraph induced by a vertex covering of a graph (called the cover graph of ), on the original energy of , where large number of vertices are involved. This is referred to as the eigen-cover domination and has relevance, in terms of conservation of energy, when a molecule’s atoms and bonds are mapped onto a graph with vertices and edges, respectively. If this energy-cover ratio is a function of , the order of graphs belonging to a class of graph, then we discuss its horizontal asymptotic behavior and attach the graphs average degree to the Riemann integral of this ratio, thus associating eigen-cover area with classes of graphs. We found that the eigen-cover domination had a strongest effect on the complete graph, while this chromatic-cover domination had zero effect on star graphs. We show that the eigen-cover asymptote of discussed classes of graphs belong to the interval [0,1], and conjecture that the class of complete graphs has the largest eigen-cover area of all classes of graphs.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[130] **viXra:1503.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-18 11:30:02*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

Acest jurnal de lecturi cuprinde notițe mai vechi și mai noi, în română și în engleză. Prima parte ant ologhează idei din patru autori, ordonați cronologic (Vladimir Nabokov, Petre Țuțea, Amiri Baraka, Eugen Evu). Sunt gândurile directe ale acestora, transcrise instant, fără adaosuri subiective. Partea a doua conține notații indirecte pe marginea unor texte publicistice (un ele din anii 80 ai secolului trecut, altele transgresând timpurile în căutarea de paradoxuri), sau mărunte comentarii despre câțiva autori (Marin Sorescu, Florin Vasiliu, Petru Cârdu, Adolf Shvedchikov, Venkateswara Rao ș.a.). Partea a treia sunt re-citiri din scrieri proprii, auto-note.
NOUSECTOMIE (”excizia unui gând”) este un cuvânt compus din Gr. Νους, "înţelegere", "minte", "gând", "raţiune" şi Gr. .εκτομια, "excizie”, “tăiere”.
******************************************************************************
This reading diary includes old and new notes, in Romanian and English. The first part anthologizes ideas of four authors, chronological y ordered (Vladimir Nabokov, Petre Ţuţea, Amiri Baraka, Eugen Evu). There are their direct thoughts, instantly reprinted, without subjective additions. The second part contains indirect notations on some journalistic texts, or minor comments about several authors (Marin Sorescu, Florin Vasiliu, Peter Cârdu, Adolf Shvedchikov, Venkateswara Rao etc.). The third part displays re-readings from few of my own writings (Self-Notes).
NOUSECTOMY (”thought excision”) comes from Gr. Νους, understanding", "mind", "thought", "reason" and Gr. .εκτομια, "excision”, “a cutting out of”.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[129] **viXra:1503.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-18 11:30:24*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 231 Pages.

Here finite real quaternion rings, and finite complex modulo integer quaternion rings, plus neutrosophic finite quaternion rings, and complex neutrosophic quaternion rings for the first time are introduced and analyzed. All these rings behave in a very unique way.

**Category:** Algebra

[128] **viXra:1503.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-18 08:26:52*

**Authors:** M. de Abreu Faro, Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 27 Pages. EPS 10 TRENDS IN PHYSICS 10th General Conference of the European Physica Society, Abstracts p. 314 (1996)

The main purpose of this paper is to show that it is possible to understand the origin of irreversibility with a simple one-dimensional model of a collisionless gas. We begin by studying a one-particle "gas" and then we generalise the results to an N-particle gas. The gas particles are enclosed in a cylinder and their movement is perpendicular to a frictionless piston. Only elastic collisions of the particles with the cylinder bottom and the piston are consider. In order to understand the origin of irreversibility we compare the solution obtained for the differential equation f=dp/dt, where the force f on the piston is due to the gravitational field and to the particle collisions on the piston, with the solution obtained for the momentum conservation law. When the number of particles increases and are not in phase, both solutions must agree most of the time in agreement with a statistical formulation. Therefore irreversibility exists in a model without friction between the piston and the cylinder wall and without heat flux between the gas and the exterior. And, although this is commonly suggested, it is not due to mathematical hypothesis like the use of a mean value for the force due to the particle collisions. In fact irreversibility has its origin in the interaction between the particles through the piston and then the statistical formulation agree with am exact and deterministic solution, most of the time and for most of the initial conditions, but not for all time and all the initial conditions.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[127] **viXra:1503.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-21 00:36:04*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the core of stars the size of the Sun, or smaller, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. Modifications to the first and second parts of this process are proposed. In the first, one of the protons absorbs virtual particles which increase mass and account for its transformation to a neutron. In the second, tritium forms before decaying into helium-3 (allowing increased emission of electron neutrinos to reduce the solar neutrino problem). Tritium has not been discovered in nature but is formed in nuclear reactions – and the Sun uses nuclear reactions.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[126] **viXra:1503.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-12 08:20:57*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 24 Pages; 8 Tables; 1 Figure; 18 References.

In series of papers relative to the Combined Gravitational Action (CGA) as an alternative gravity theory, we have developed the CGA-formalism, which is exclusively based on a new form of velocity-dependent gravitational potential energy. The present paper is actually an additional exploration, exploitation and extension of the CGA with the main aim of showing (i) the Galilean invariance of CGA-equations; (ii) that the CGA is in a certain manner a metric gravity theory; (iii) the existence of an important similarity between the CGA and General Relativity Theory; (iv) a new CGA-formula for perigee and perihelion precession is derived and proved to be in excellent agreement with observations; (v) the CGA-effects on orbital motion inside and outside the Solar System are investigated; (vi) the conversion rate of orbital energy into gravitational radiation is calculated and its effects are studied.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[125] **viXra:1503.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-07 08:58:58*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt.
Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[124] **viXra:1503.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-17 07:29:53*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Técnica 3, 39 (1991)

ABSTRACT
An ill-formulated problem gives rise to paradoxes.However, once concepts are conveniently defined, such false paradoxes are easily eliminated. In mechanics,one of the concepts generally held as fundamental is
the reversibility of its equations. Hence, the
well-known statement that mechanics is irreconcilable with thermodynamics. We propose to show that only apparently are the two branches independent and that
wrong assumptions are at the basis of this
misinterpretation.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[123] **viXra:1503.0140 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-27 11:04:14*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The formula presented in this paper predicts the masses of 17 baryons, one lepton and 6
other particles. The formula uses non-consecutive quantum numbers. The maximum
accuracy of the formula is 3 decimal places and the minimum is 2. This paper predicts a new
particle with a rest mass between 4557.2 MeV /c2 and 4658.2 MeV /c2 . The formula
suggests the existence of a more general formula for the masses of all known particles, which is yet, to be discovered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[122] **viXra:1503.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 19:59:04*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Galileo proposed a simple gravity experiment that has yet to be performed. Suppose we drop a test mass into a hole through the center of a larger source mass. What happens? Using a modified Cavendish balance or an orbiting satellite, modern technology could have revealed the answer decades ago. General Relativity is widely regarded as being supported by empirical evidence throughout its accessible range. Not commonly realized is that, with regard to gravity-induced motion, this evidence excludes the interior regions of material bodies over this whole range. If only to fill this huge gap in our empirical knowledge of gravity, Galileo’s experiment ought to be performed without further delay.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[121] **viXra:1503.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 20:05:25*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

This is an updated and augmented version of the previously published paper, Space Generation Model of Gravitation and the Large Numbers Coincidences. The basis of the gravity model is that motion sensing devices—most notably accelerometers and clocks—consistently tell the truth about their state of motion. When the devices are attached to a uniformly rotating body this is undoubtedly true. Uniform rotation is sometimes referred to as an example of stationary motion. It is proposed here, by analogy, that gravitation is also an example of stationary motion. Einstein used the rotation analogy to deduce spacetime curvature. Similar logic suggests that in both cases the effects of curvature are caused by motion. A key distinction is that, unlike rotation, gravitational motion is not motion through space, but rather motion of space. Extending the analogy further, gravitation is conceived as a process involving movement into a fourth space dimension. Space and matter are dynamic, continuous extensions of each other, which implies that the average cosmic density is a universal constant. Assuming this to be the case leads to a cosmological model according to which ratios such as the gravitational to electrostatic force, electron mass to proton mass, Bohr radius to cosmic radius, and constants such as the fine structure constant, Hubble constant, the saturation density of nuclear matter and the energy density of the cosmic background radiation are all very simply related to one another. Measured values of these numbers are discussed in suffcient detail to facilitate judging whether or not the found and predicted relationships are due to chance. The notorious "cosmological constant" (dark energy) problem is also addressed in light of the new gravity model. Finally, it is emphasized that the model lends itself to a relatively easy laboratory test.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[120] **viXra:1503.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-17 01:36:50*

**Authors:** Jan A. Bergstra

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

A number of issues is listed which arise within primary school mathematics and where a perspective of informatics may shed some new light on the matter. Together these points prove that there are many different possible connections between informatics and primary school mathematics, each of which merit further investigation and clarification. A rationale for further investigation of these issues is given.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[119] **viXra:1503.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-17 03:59:09*

**Authors:** Gugainamasivayam S, Srinivasan M

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In emerging era there is lot of innovation are made in agriculture field to enrich the production and maintenance of crops with reduced area and labor. We planned to introduce an optic in sky unmanned aircraft to fertilize, surveillance, nebulizer [1], growth monitoring and Yield analyzing purpose. This paper helps for crop feeding and treats pests. The OUA [2] has a special sprayer that can spread the minimum level of drugs over crops for the purpose of pest control during mid or late stages of development, food it in proper timing. In which used 64 channel GPS [3] for autonomous Driving by using Latitude, Longitude, Altitude and Speed it act as an tracker of OUA. The controllers are done in remote location using laptops/android devices when it is in autonomous mode. 2.4 GHz zigbee transceiver act as a communication channel between OUA and laptop/android devices .Pest identification is done by means of capturing the image of the crops using HD wireless camera if there is any variation in crop color then the spray pump will spray fertilizer or organic pesticides. The amount of pesticides sparing is determined by the infection rate of the crops, infection range is calculated through digital image processing by comparing and analyzing pixels of the crop image. Digital compass provides driving direction for OUA. Ultrasonic transducer determines the height of the optic unmanned aircraft. DSP processor is used for image processing in OUA. Growth of the crop keyed by changes in crop color and yield analyzing is done by capturing RGB of the crop means of continuous surveillance .It operates on solar power. The plane can prevent crop damage caused by traditional mechanical work and increase economic returns.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[118] **viXra:1503.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 11:18:29*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In one of my previous paper, “Conjecture that states than any Carmichael number is a cm-composite”, I defined the notions of c-prime, m-prime, cm-prime, c-composite, m-composite and cm-composite. I conjecture that all Poulet numbers but a set of few definable exceptions belong to one of these six sets of numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[117] **viXra:1503.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 09:33:39*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

As a result of insight that elementary particles are equivalent to vacuum space, (both made of the same material named energy body), the elementary particle model that has a character of field was made up. By this model, concrete images were given to electromagnetism’s phenomena that are abstractly theorized by quantum mechanics. The shape of elementary particle model is like this; the wave of the energy body rotating around its own axis thinly and infinitely spreads out being attenuating from the central part in a spherical shape with high energy level. The central part in a spherical shape shows the character of a particle and the skirts part shows the character of field (electromagnetic field). And that gives elementary particles an important character of polarization. And more, when the two elementary particles draw close the difference of energy level of each wave works as interaction (electromagnetic interaction).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[116] **viXra:1503.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 09:57:17*

**Authors:** Yong Deng

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

It is well known that ”Bit” is the unit in information theory to measure
information volume with Shannon entropy. However, one assumption to
use bit as information unit is that each hypothesis is exclusive with each
other. This assumption is also the basic assumption in probability theory
which means that two events cannot happen synchronously. However, the
assumption is violated such as the ”Entangled state”. A typical example is
Schr?dinger’s cat where a cat may be simultaneously both alive and dead.
At this situation, bit is not suitable to measure the information volume. To
address this issue, a new information unit, called as ”Deng” and abbreviated
as ”D”, is proposed based on Deng entropy. The proposed information unit
may be used in entangle information processing and quantum information
processing.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[115] **viXra:1503.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 06:29:44*

**Authors:** Jacky Jerome, Frederic Jerome

**Comments:** Main article 6 pages + Appendices 34 pages (total 40 pages)

Recent enigmas of astrophysics such as dark energy or accelerating universe need to update General Relativity. A thorough examination of the original Einstein Field Equations (EFE) hghlights three inconsistencies concerning the nature of spacetime. Here we solve these inconsistencies. As a consequence, this article proposes a Higgs compatible 4D expression of mass, m=f(x,y,z,t), and a new explanation of gravity based on Le Sage Push Gravity. This paper is interesting and important because it touches the weakest nerve of General Relativity by asking “how mass curves spacetime”? Moreover, this article is supported
by several mathematics demonstrations such as a new version of the Newton Law, a new version of the Schwarzschild Metric, and a 4D rewriting of the Energy-Momentum Tensor and Einstein Constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[114] **viXra:1503.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-15 18:17:35*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Submitted to EJP

The double deflection of a light ray near an attracting center, which was predicted by Einstein, is explained by the space curvature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[113] **viXra:1503.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-15 19:49:29*

**Authors:** Jian-zhong Zhao

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Abstract
Variational theory of elasticity is surveyed in the context of
mathematical logic in the present paper. The problem of
variable-independence of variational principles raised by Chien
is discussed. We find that Chien’s “High-order Lagrange
Multiplier Theory”, which deals with the problem of variable-independence
and constraint of variational principles, is
inconsistent; Luo’s system, which is involved in the problem of
variable-independence, is involved in contradictions; the
conventional understanding of independence of variables of
variational principles connotes contradiction. In the context of
mathematical logic, variational theory must be established as a
mathematical system of logic, excluding vagueness and
misunderstanding. By consideration of logic, variable-independence
is understood as identity of variables and then
formalization of variational theory is a solution to the problem
of variable-independence. Two consistent systems for elasticity,
the Axiomatic System of Variation and the Formal System of
Variation, are suggested in this paper.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[112] **viXra:1503.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-17 09:37:16*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 31 pages. Physical Science International Journal, ISSN: 2348-0130, Vol. 8, Issue 4, P. 1-18 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.9734/PSIJ/2015/22197.

The formula for the gravitational force inside a spherical body is derived, as well as for the Newtonian force of attraction between bodies from the standpoint of the gravitons’ model. The parameters of the graviton field are estimated, including its energy density, energy flux and the cross section of interaction with matter. The equation is derived, from which it follows that the body mass is proportional to the power of radiation energy of the body from those of gravitons that interacted with the matter and gave their momentum to the body. The conclusion is made based on the theory of infinite nesting of matter that gravitons are generated at all matter levels by the densest objects such as nucleons and neutron stars.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[111] **viXra:1503.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-23 08:59:30*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 50 pages. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 3, P. 971-1020 (2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v8i3.18.

The formula is derived for the electric force inside a uniformly charged spherical body, as well as for the Coulomb force between the charged bodies from the standpoint of the model of the vacuum field with charged particles. The parameters of the fluxes of charged particles are estimated, including the energy density, energy flux and cross section of interaction with the charged matter. The energy density of gravitons in the Le Sage’s gravitation model is expressed in terms of the strong gravitational constant. The charge to mass ratio is determined for the charged particles that make up photons and the charged component of the gravitational field. These particles are identified as praons, while the praon level of matter is considered a lower level relative to the nucleon level of matter. The analysis of the main problems of the Le Sage’s model shows that these problems can be eliminated in the modernized model.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[110] **viXra:1503.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 04:35:07*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I present a formula, based on squares of primes, which seems to generate a large amount of c-primes and m-primes (I defined the notions of c-primes and m-primes in my previous paper “Conjecture that states that any Carmichael number is a cm-composite”).

**Category:** Number Theory

[109] **viXra:1503.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 04:59:31*

**Authors:** Paul August Winter

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The graph theoretical ratio, the tree-cover ratio, involving spanning trees of a graph G, and a 2-vertex covering (a minimum set S of vertices such that every edge (or path on 2 vertices) of G has at least vertex end in S) of G has been researched. In this paper we introduce a ratio, called the tree-3-covering ratio with respect to S, involving spanning trees and a 3-vertex covering (a minimum set S of vertices of G such that every path on 3 vertices has at least one vertex in S) of graphs. We discuss the asymptotic convergence of this tree-3-cover ratio for classes of graphs, which may have application in ideal communication situations involving spanning trees and 3-vertex coverings of extreme networks. We show that this asymptote lies on the interval with the dumbbell graph (a complete graph on n-1 vertices appended to an end vertex) has tree-3-cover asymptotic convergence of 1/e, identical to the convergence in the secretary problem, and the tree-cover asymptotic convergence of complete graphs. We also introduce the idea of a tree-3-cover area by integrating this tree-3-cover ratio.
AMS classification: 05C99
Key words: spanning trees of graphs, vertex cover, 3-vertex cover, ratios, social interaction, network communication, convergence, asymptotes.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[108] **viXra:1503.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-15 12:53:57*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In one of my previous papers I defined chameleonic numbers as the positive composite squarefree integers C not divisible by 2, 3 or 5 having the property that the absolute value of the number P – d + 1 is always a prime or a power of a prime, where d is one of the prime factors of C and P is the product of all prime factors of C but d. In this paper I revise this definition, I introduce the notions of c-chameleonic numbers and m-chameleonic numbers and I show few interesting connections between c-primes and c-chameleonic numbers (I defined the notions of a c-prime in my paper “Conjecture that states that any Carmichael number is a cm-composite”).

**Category:** Number Theory

[107] **viXra:1503.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-28 01:34:33*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: according to the basic theory of nuclear and particle physics, new related
measurement results and experimental data, and giving the structures, properties and parameters of nucleons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[106] **viXra:1503.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-17 03:05:30*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In my previous paper “Conjecture that states that any Carmichael number is a cm-composite” I defined the notions of c-prime, m-prime and cm-prime, odd positive integers that can be either primes either semiprimes having certain properties, and also the notions of c-composites, m-composites and cm-composites. In this paper I present a formula based on squares of primes which seems to lead often to primes, c-primes, m-primes and cm-primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[105] **viXra:1503.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-14 23:04:39*

**Authors:** Michael Starks

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In ‘Godel’s Way’ three eminent scientists discuss issues such as undecidability, incompleteness, randomness, computability and paraconsistency. I approach these issues from the Wittgensteinian viewpoint that there are two basic issues which have completely different solutions. There are the scientific or empirical issues, which are facts about the world that need to be investigated observationally and philosophical issues as to how language can be used intelligibly (which include certain questions in mathematics and logic), which need to be decided by looking at how we actually use words in particular contexts. When we get clear about which language game we are playing, these topics are seen to be ordinary scientific and mathematical questions like any others. Wittgenstein’s insights have seldom been equaled and never surpassed and are as pertinent today as they were 80 years ago when he dictated the Blue and Brown Books.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[104] **viXra:1503.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-14 13:41:19*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 5 pages.

In present article, we create discrete formulas for first and second Chebyshev functions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[103] **viXra:1503.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-23 11:25:10*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this short paper we extend the dialectical triad thesis-antithesis-synthesis (dynamics of and

**Category:**

[102] **viXra:1503.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-14 14:58:16*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper we introduce for the first time a new type of structures, called (T, I, F)-Neutrosophic Structures, presented from a neutrosophic logic perspective, and we show particular cases of such structures in geometry and in algebra.
In any field of knowledge, each structure is composed from two parts: a space, and a set of axioms (or laws) acting (governing) on it. If the space, or at least one of its axioms (laws), has some indeterminacy, that structure is a (T, I, F)-Neutrosophic Structure.
The (T, I, F)-Neutrosophic Structures [based on the components T=truth, I=indeterminacy, F=falsehood] are different from the Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures [based on neutrosophic numbers of the form a+bI, where I=indeterminacy and I^n = I], that we rename as Neutrosophic I-Algebraic Structures (meaning algebraic structures based on indeterminacy “I” only). But we can combine both and obtain the (T, I, F)-Neutrosophic I-Algebraic Structures, i.e. algebraic structures based on neutrosophic numbers of the form a+bI, but also having indeterminacy related to the structure space (elements which only partially belong to the space, or elements we know nothing if they belong to the space or not) or indeterminacy related to at least one axiom (or law) acting on the structure space. Then we extend them to Refined (T, I, F)-Neutrosophic Refined I-Algebraic Structures.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[101] **viXra:1503.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-17 03:00:34*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In two of my previous papers I defined the notions of c-prime respectively m-prime. In this paper I will define the notion of cm-prime and the notions of c-composite, m-composite and cm-composite and I will conjecture that any Carmichael number is a cm-composite.

**Category:** Number Theory

[100] **viXra:1503.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-16 03:13:56*

**Authors:** Waldemar Puszkarz

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We propose minimal extensions (modifications) of the Fibonacci sequence that preserve its crucial characteristics and yet are quite different from the original.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[99] **viXra:1503.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-14 09:38:18*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I show how, concatenating to the right the multiples of 3 with the digit 1, obtaining the number m, respectively with the number 11, obtaining the number n, by the simple operation n – m + 1, under the condition that both m and n are primes, is obtained often (I conjecture that always) a prime or a composite r = p(1)*p(2)*..., where p(1), p(2), ... are the prime factors of r, which have the following property: there exist p(k) and p(h), where p(k) is the product of some distinct prime factors of r and p(h) the product of the other distinct prime factors such that the number p(k) + p(h) – 1 is m-prime and I also define a m-prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[98] **viXra:1503.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-18 08:49:56*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Eight-page final version

Max Planck derived fundamental units purely from fundamental physical constants h, c and G . Tank showed that Planck’s unit of length is a geometric-mean of two un-equal lengths; namely Compton-wavelength and Gravitational-radius of every particle; and his unit of mass is a geometric-mean of two un-equal masses, namely total mass of the universe and the smallest conceivable mass h H0 / c2 ; so the units, obtained by taking square-root of a set of fundamental physical constants, may not be truly fundamental units. Weinberg obtained a unit of mass by taking cube-root of a set of four fundamental-constants, ( h , c , G and H0 , where H0 is Hubble’s constant), so we are not sure whether the multiplication of three masses in Weinberg’s formula are of the same masses or of different ones. Therefore, here we shall derive a unit of mass without taking any square-root or cube-root. There is a strong possibility of physical existence of a particle with this mass, h H0 / c^2; and it seems that a photon decays into a lighter photon plus this new particle of mass : h H0 / c^2 .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[97] **viXra:1503.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-14 06:42:24*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I show how, concatenating to the right the squares of primes with the digit 1, are obtained primes or composites n = p(1)*p(2)*...*p(m), where p(1), p(2), ..., p(m) are the prime factors of n, which seems to have often (I conjecture that always) the following property: there exist p(k) and p(h), where p(k) is the product of some distinct prime factors of n and p(h) the product of the other distinct prime factors such that the numbers p(k) + p(h) ± 1 are twin primes or twin c-primes and I also define the notion of a c-prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[96] **viXra:1503.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-14 00:28:54*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

From the dichotomy "nonlocality vs non-realism" which is the consequence of Bell Inequalities (BI) we shall choose the non-realism. We shall present here the modified Quantum Mechanics (modQM) in the axiomatic form. ModQM was introduced in [5] and we shall show its non-realism in the description of an internal measurement process. ModQM allows the restoration of locality, since BI cannot be derived in it. In modQM it is possible to solve: the measurement problem, the collapse problem, the problem of a local model for EPR correlations (see[5]). ModQM is a unique explicit realization of non-realism in QM. ModQM should be preferred as an alternative to the standard QM mainly since it restores the locality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[95] **viXra:1503.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-13 11:34:38*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four page letter

The search towards the fundamental natural units of mass, distance and time began with Weyl [1,2], Eddington [3] and Dirac [4]. Max Planck derived fundamental units purely from fundamental physical constants h, c and G [5]. Weinberg proposed a formula for obtaining a unit of mass using the constants: h , c , G and H0 , where H0 is Hubble’s constant [6]. Tank showed [7] that Planck’s unit of length is a geometric-mean of two un-equal lengths; namely Compton-wavelength and Gravitational-radius of every particle, so the units, obtained by taking square-root of a set of fundamental physical constants, may not be truly fundamental units. Weinberg obtained a unit of mass by taking cube-root of a set of fundamental-constants, so we are not sure whether the multiplication of three masses in Weinberg’s formula are of the same masses or of different masses. Therefore, here we shall derive a unit of mass without taking any square-root or cube-root. There is a possibility of physical existence of a particle with this mass, h H0 / c^2; and it seems that a photon decays into a lighter photon plus this new particle of mass : h H0 / c^2 .

**Category:** Astrophysics

[94] **viXra:1503.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-17 14:11:22*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The time scales of events occurring since the Big Bang, including the onset of inflation, electroweak symmetry breaking, nucleosynthesis, recombination and reionisation are related through an inverse 5/2 power law to subatomic mass scales characteristic of the events. Those mass scales derive from the geometry of 10D spacetime.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[93] **viXra:1503.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-16 13:42:20*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Without forcing to accept my points, I present the glim of my consistent faith to the scientific community of orthodox believers. Because I stay within the dogmas of the Orthodox Christian Church, I suggest to read the text without criticism. It is simply the beautiful and meaningful picture of my personal world. Please enjoy it.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[92] **viXra:1503.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-22 06:42:58*

**Authors:** CJ Blackwood

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

The four forces: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, the weak force and gravity can all be described using statistics. Using a Riemann spacial construct as the framework for inflation, the interaction of the basic forces can be be represented as an interaction of different statistical systems modifying the Riemann grid.
The use of an altered Higgs boson as an element of an inflationary grid creates the framework for this concept. It allows for the creation of a single simple equation which can calculate the mass of elementary particles as well as describe their composition.
This model can show a direct link between all elementary particles and the photon therefore establishing a construct for all elementary particles as well as the elements themselves.
Using this model allows for the construction of a different model for atomic structure not based on Bohr, but which achieves the same valence values for each element. This new atomic model also is based on Riemann.
This theory does not conflict with relativity. It also agrees with and compliments Quantum Theory, particularly QED and therefore can be seen to link the two concepts.
It can also replicate the result of standard theory and many of the physical constants without the need for exchange particles or a mass gap.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[91] **viXra:1503.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-22 06:45:13*

**Authors:** CJ Blackwood

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

The four forces: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, the weak force and gravity can all be described using statistics. Using a Riemann spacial construct as the framework for inflation, the interaction of the basic forces can be be represented as an interaction of different statistical systems modifying the Riemann grid.
The use of an altered Higgs boson as an element of an inflationary grid creates the framework for this concept. It allows for the creation of a single simple equation which can calculate the mass of elementary particles as well as describe their composition.
This model can show a direct link between all elementary particles and the photon therefore establishing a construct for all elementary particles as well as the elements themselves.
Using this model allows for the construction of a different model for atomic structure not based on Bohr, but which achieves the same valence values for each element. This new atomic model also is based on Riemann.
This theory does not conflict with relativity. It also agrees with and compliments Quantum Theory, particularly QED and therefore can be seen to link the two concepts.
It can also replicate the result of standard theory and many of the physical constants without the need for exchange particles or a mass gap.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[90] **viXra:1503.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 17:22:17*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that the real source of the excess energy in the generator Rossi is ether, not cold
nuclear fusion and not transmutation of chemical elements.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[89] **viXra:1503.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-20 03:42:59*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 48 Pages. 48

Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory.
The FORM and microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing Mass less Electric Dark Matter Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (Zero Point Energy) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning.
Recently, lots of new cosmological information inspired me to react by the production of poster images added with explanatory texts. The result of the latest three months is gathered in this issue.
I am an architect who is interested in the possible FORM and FORM transformation aspects as information medium in micro- and macro physics, as a realistic search for the origin of Matter Space and Time. I believe that our complex world can not be described by FORMULAS ALONE.
WHY? Because we don't know why the universe is as it is. An example: “Finetuning”: Why are the "fundamental constants" constant? My suggestion: because the sub-quantum FORM of particles and the Higgs vacuum lattice have a certain form and play a game with us.. So I designed simple convertible shapes for REAL quantum particle information use. At the same time I realized that black holes should also have some nuclear form and as a result I found that dark matter is related to black holes and Higgs particles have only energetic mass inside an oscillating Higgs vacuum lattice. Multiverse based mirror symmetric consciousness (entanglement) is assumed to be the base for all particle- wave -and human guidance or wavefunction collapse. SEE: https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/?details=1
At last, The Beginning and End of Time.
The cyclic Multiverse based on Quantum FFF model is depicted as continuous flow of increasing and decreasing numbers of Higgs particles located inside Dark Matter Black Hole Nuclei, or free oscillating in the vacuum lattice or derived as real SM particles.
http://vixra.org/author/leo_vuyk
https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/15306972174/in/photostream

**Category:** Astrophysics

[88] **viXra:1503.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 14:07:53*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** short note, 02 pages, 05 references

It is proposed that the Darwin's time, the time elapsed since the birth of the first living being until now, is proportional to the volume of the memory device of the mammals. The proportionality constant depends only on the proton mass, of the speed of light in vacuum and of the Planck constant.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[87] **viXra:1503.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 15:05:58*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that from any prime p of the form 11 + 30*k can be obtained, through a certain formula, an infinity of semiprimes q*r such that r + q = 30*m, where m non-null positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[86] **viXra:1503.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 16:09:51*

**Authors:** Andrea Pignataro

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that there exists a constant, a supposedly
irrational and transcendental number, that relates all consecutive natural numbers n (taken from 1)
when mutually divided as (n+1)/n and n/(n+1).

**Category:** Number Theory

[85] **viXra:1503.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 11:21:12*

**Authors:** Igor V. Limar, Yevhen V. Vasiliu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A cryptographic security scheme is proposed within the frame of a subsystem of the integrated computer-aided system that is intended for holding elections and counting the election returns. The solution is based on two quantum technologies of cryptographic security: quantum bit commitment and secret sharing

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[84] **viXra:1503.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 12:08:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK’s national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[83] **viXra:1503.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 12:28:42*

**Authors:** Joel M WIlliams

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This 5-page paper relates the Antarctic Vostok Ice Core data to a "free-range" roaming model for mankind. Short videos have been prepared to show the interaction of the two in 4228 frames representing 100-yr averages. The maximum thermal clamp of the globe at the equator is NOT necessarily where mankind "originated", only where the massive breeding lair resides during thermal perigees! There have been many 100-year-long, global, warm-temperature opportunities in just the past 422,800 years for mankind to spread throughout the globe. Based on the data, however, current mankind is in for a VERY LONG and RAW chilling! What technology will mankind be able to maintain for the next global warming, when squeezed to the equatorial zone? Where else can mankind go?

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[82] **viXra:1503.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-12 14:34:56*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture involving primorials which states that from any odd prime p can be obtained, through a certain formula, an infinity of semiprimes q*r such that r + q - 1 = n*p, where n non-null positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[81] **viXra:1503.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-13 09:15:01*

**Authors:** Jianwen Huang, Jianjun Wang, Guowang Luo

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We introduce logarithmic generalized Maxwell
distribution which is an extension of the generalized Maxwell
distribution. Some interesting properties of this distribution are
studied and the asymptotic distribution of the partial maximum of an
independent and identically distributed sequence from the
logarithmic generalized Maxwell distribution is gained. The
expansion of the limit distribution from the normalized maxima is
established under the optimal norming constants, which shows the
rate of convergence of the distribution for normalized
maximum tending to the extreme limit.

**Category:** Statistics

[80] **viXra:1503.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 09:20:18*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Using a recently developed model of gravity that differs from both the Newton and Einstein models, close agreement is achieved between the anomalous accelerations of the Pioneer and Cassini mission vehicles and the predictions of the model. This conjecture supports the notion of a temporal-inertial (TI) field that is the principle mediator of the gravitational and inertial interactions. The TI field is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. No assertion is made relating properties of the TI field to those of the Higgs field. The flux model posits that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. The flux model may offer an explanation for the anomalous accelerations experienced by the Pioneer and Cassini spacecraft.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[79] **viXra:1503.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 09:42:28*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The proposed flux model of the gravitational and inertial interactions posits the existence of a field that I label the temporal-inertial (TI) field. The TI field is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. The relation between the Higgs field or the Higgs mechanism and what I designate as the TI field is undefined. The flux model asserts that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. The flux model describes a system in which particles of the TI field fall radially toward the central gravitational mass. Equations defining the acceleration and velocity profiles about a gravitational body are developed for the flux model. Near a massive gravitational body, such as a black hole, the infall velocity of the TI field reaches relativistic speeds. The relativistic mass increase of particles of the field at these speeds resists further acceleration in accord with the Lorentz factor. Accordingly, particles of the TI field approach light speed as they approach the singularity. The event horizon does not exist in this model.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[78] **viXra:1503.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-01 22:31:51*

**Authors:** Takahiro Kato

**Comments:** 380 Pages.

Modules (also known as profunctors or distributors) and morphisms among them subsume categories and functors and provide more general and abstract framework to explore the theory of structures, in particular, the notion of universal property. In this book we generalize and redevelop the basic notions and results of various universal constructions in category theory using this framework of modules.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[77] **viXra:1503.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 07:20:20*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The unspoken background for this article is a hypothesis for origins (of life, the universe and everything). That hypothesis believes human science is responsible for everything, and neither supernatural nor evolutionary means originate anything. In a biological sense, the Theory of Evolution certainly explains adaptations and modifications. But believing it also explains origins is unwarranted extrapolation. It takes an idea that accounts for some parts of life and, since it’s the only scientific explanation we currently have, assumes it accounts for all parts of life.
Albert Einstein showed space-time is warped, so it’s possible our own computer science (and terraforming, and biotechnology from many centuries in the future) found its way into the past. Dr Graham Phillips said “(The physicist) Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God, but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics that allow for the existence of minds in the first place.”
To discover what the unknown is, we must relate it to the known. In this comment, a possible answer to what dark matter is will be proposed by relating it to General Relativity's curvature of space-time. A Mobius strip is given a twist of 180 degrees before its ends are joined. Assuming space-time is modelled on the Mobius strip is one way to explain why space-time is curved. Such a model is plausible if string theory is invoked.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[76] **viXra:1503.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-11 22:14:41*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

First, we get rid of three kinds from A+B=C according to their respective odevity and gcf (A, B, C) =1. After that, expound relations between C and raf (A, B, C) by the symmetric law of odd numbers. Finally, we have proven C ≤ Cε [raf (A, B, C)] 1+ ε in which case A+B=C and gcf (A, B, C) =1.

**Category:** Number Theory

[75] **viXra:1503.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 03:12:47*

**Authors:** Yowan Pradhan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

By analyzing the recently published paper of Ajay K Prasad on Goldbach’s conjecture, I have obtained the exact solution of his paper.

**Category:** Number Theory

[74] **viXra:1503.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-11 13:54:25*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Техт сканирован

Болонкин А.А., Новые Методы оптимизации и их применение. Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора технических наук. Москва, Ленинградский политехнический институт. 1971г., 28 стр.
Bolonkin A.A., New methods of optimization and their application. Abstract of post doctoral dissertation. Moscow, Leningrad, Polytechnic Institute, 1971, 28 pgs. (in Russian)

**Category:** General Mathematics

[73] **viXra:1503.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-20 16:18:31*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** This text contains two version of the paper: English version (pages 1-40) and Russian version (pages 1-86)

In our previous arXiv papers (“The Information and the Matter”, v1, v5; more systematically the informational conception is presented in the paper “The Information as Absolute”, 2014) it was rigorously shown that Matter in our Universe – and Universe as a whole - are some informational systems (structures), which exist as uninterruptedly transforming [practically] infinitesimal sub-sets of the absolutely infinite and fundamental “Information” Set. Such a conception allows not only to clear essentially a number of metaphysical and epistemological problems in philosophy but, besides, allows to suggest a reasonable physical model. Since Matter in Universe is an informational system where every interaction between Matter’s sub-structures, i.e. – particles and systems of the particles – happens always as an exchange by exclusively true information between these structures, the model is based on the conjecture that Matter is some analogue of computer. This conjecture, in turn, allows to introduce in the model the basic logical elements that constitute the material structures and support the informational exchange - i.e. the forces - between the structures. The model is experimentally testable and yet now makes be more clear a number of basic problems in special relativity, quantum mechanics, and, rather probably, in [now – in Newtonian] gravity.
This paper is a next upgrade of earlier version http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.4657, 2012
This text contains two version of the paper: English version (pages 1-40) and Russian version (pages 1-86)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[72] **viXra:1503.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-11 07:40:15*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 21 Pages. in Russian

Based on the Maxwell's equations and on the understanding of the electrical conductivity of the body of ball lightning, a mathematical model of ball lightning is built; the structure of the electromagnetic field and of electric current in it is shown. Next it is shown (as a consequence of this model) that in a ball lightning the flow of electromagnetic energy can circulate and thus the energy obtained by a ball lightning when it occurs can be saved. Sustainability, luminescence, charge, time being, the mechanism of formation and physical modeling of ball lightning are briefly discussed. \\ На основе уравнений Максвелла и представления об электропроводности тела шаровой молнии строится математическая модель шаровой молнии, показывается структура электромагнитного поля и электротоков в ней. Далее показывается (как следствие этой модели), что в шаровой молнии может циркулировать поток электромагнитной энергии и таким образом может сохраняться энергия, полученная шаровой молнией при ее возникновении. Кратко рассматриваются также устойчивость, свечение, заряд, время существования, механизм образования, физическое моделирование шаровой молнии.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[71] **viXra:1503.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-17 07:43:53*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

**Abstract:** I give a short explanation of how quantum mathematics representing pure states, is logically distinct from the mathematics of mixed states. And further: how standard quantum theory easily shows itself to contain logical independence. This work is part of a project researching logical independence in quantum mathematics, for the purpose of advancing a complete theory of quantum randomness.**Keywords:** quantum mechanics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, wave packet, unitary, orthogonal, scalar product, mathematical logic, arithmetic, formal system, axioms, Soundness Theorem, Completeness Theorem, logical independence, mathematical undecidability, semantics, syntax.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[70] **viXra:1503.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-10 17:21:38*

**Authors:** Xinyang Deng, Deqiang Han, Jean Dezert, Yong Deng, Yu Shyr

**Comments:** 31 pages, 8 figures

Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is a primary methodology for multi-source information fusion since it allows to deal with uncertain information. This theory is based on Dempster’s rule of combination to synthesize multiple evidences from various information sources. However, in some cases, counter-intuitive results may be obtained based on Dempster’s rule of combination. Lots of improved or new methods have been proposed to suppress the counter-intuitive results based on
a physical perspective that minimizes the lost or deviation of original information. In this paper, inspired by evolutionary game theory, a biological and evolutionary perspective is considered to study the combination of evidences. An evolutionary combination rule (ECR) is proposed to mimick the evolution of propositions in a given population and finally find the biologically most supported proposition which is called as evolutionarily stable proposition (ESP) in this paper. Our proposed ECR provides new insight for the combination of multi-source information. Experimental results show that the proposed method is rational and effective.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[69] **viXra:1503.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-10 19:18:56*

**Authors:** Robert M. Hartranft, Scott W. Hartranft

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We argue that inertial mass and gravitational mass are identical because inertia is simply self-gravity. We further suggest that by analogy with the photon, the graviton has mass zero.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[68] **viXra:1503.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-01 11:30:50*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 182 Pages.

In this book the authors introduce and study the following notions: Neutrosophic Crisp Points, Neutrosophic Crisp Relations, Neutrosophic Crisp Sets, Neutrosophic Set Generated by (Characteristic Function), α-cut Level for Neutrosophic Sets, Neutrosophic Crisp Continuous Function, Neutrosophic Crisp Compact Spaces, Neutrosophic Crisp Nearly Open Sets, Neutrosophic Crisp Ideals, Neutrosophic Crisp Filter, Neutrosophic Crisp Local Functions, Neutrosophic Crisp Sets via Neutrosophic Crisp Ideals, Neutrosophic Crisp L-Openness and Neutrosophic Crisp L-Continuity, Neutrosophic Topological Region, Neutrosophic Closed Set and Neutrosophic Continuous Function, etc.
They compute the distances between neutrosophic sets and extend it to Neutrosophic Hesitancy Degree.
The authors also generalize the Crisp Topological Space and Intuitionistic Topological Space to the notion of Neutrosophic Crisp Topological Space.
At the end, they present applications to Neutrosophic Database, and show a security scheme based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) using Neutrosophic Logic Manipulation. The authors utilize neutrosophic sets in order to analyze social networks data conducted through learning activities, and for the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) they employ fundamental concepts and properties of a Neutrosophic Spatial Region.

**Category:** Algebra

[67] **viXra:1503.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-10 15:02:04*

**Authors:** György Szondy

**Comments:** 1 Page. Poster - original size: A0

Minkowski 4-force is known to be perpendicular to the 4-velocity and the 4-momentum vector. In the ‘50s Károly Novobátzky worked out the generalization of this 4-force in Special Relativity. We will shortly explain how this formalism can be used to describe conservative fields and how it helps us to overcome fundamental problems in General Relativity like nonlinearity. We will introduce our results connecting such generalized 4-force with metric in a way that leads towards geometry based quantum gravity.
This poster was presented in the 5th Central Europian Relativity Seminar (26-28th February 2015, Budapest, at Hungarian Academy of Sciences) http://www.univie.ac.at/cers5/

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[66] **viXra:1503.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-10 09:48:27*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 2 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that the flow of electricity, which compensates for the heat losses in wire with alternating current, extends inside the wire. In this case, an alternating current creates of a standing electromagnetic wave in the vicinity of the wire. Standing wave not can transmit energy from outside into the wire. \\ Показывается, что поток электроэнергии, компенсирующей тепловые потери в проводе с переменным током, распространяется внутри провода. При этом переменный ток создает стоячую электромагнитную волну в окрестности провода. Такая волна не может передавать энергию извне в провод.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[65] **viXra:1503.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-11 05:43:40*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Cosmology is primarily based on the measured value of Hubble’s constant. Though its value is still being refined, the currently available value shows interesting relations with the other physical constants, as derived here. These relations can be helpful for: (i) arriving at theoretical value of Hubble’s constant, and (ii) for understanding correct mechanism behind the cosmological red-shift. The relationship of Hubble’s constant H0 with the other constants derived here are: (h H0 / me c^2) = [ ( G me mp ) / h c ] = [ λC / R0 ] = [ (G mp / c^2) / λC ] = [ mp / M0 ]^1/2 ; here: h is Planck’s constant, c the speed of light, and λC is Compton-wavelength of the electron, and me and mp are masses of the electron and proton respectively. These relations suggest that either the cosmological red-shift is based on gravity, or gravity is due to the cosmological red-shift-effect on the photons exchanged between the particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1503.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-06 18:35:19*

**Authors:** Thomas B Kerwick

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Although studies into the relation between the effects of hypothetical stable TeV-scale black holes produced in particle colliders relative to those which may be produced in nature due to cosmic ray (CR) collisions have already been conducted in great detail [3] this short paper re-examines the relationship between the two.Herein the same figures of CR flux and the planned number of collisions over the lifetime of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are used to determine a comparison between the two, though different results are concluded due to account taken of the relative flux of sub-Keplerian phenomena produced at colliders (<11.186km/s) to faster naturally occurring phenomena which would evade gravity capture. A re-visitation of alternative astrophysical safety assurances follows, where some minor concerns are raised.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[63] **viXra:1503.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-09 16:17:39*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Based on the Maxwell's equations and on the understanding of the electrical conductivity of the body of ball lightning, a mathematical model of ball lightning is built; the structure of the electromagnetic field and of electric current in it is shown. Next it is shown (as a consequence of this model) that in a ball lightning the flow of electromagnetic energy can circulate and thus the energy obtained by a ball lightning when it occurs can be saved. Sustainability, luminescence, charge, time being, the mechanism of formation and physical modeling of ball lightning are briefly discussed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[62] **viXra:1503.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-09 09:34:21*

**Authors:** Vasile Poputa

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Cartea `` Solving Diophantine Equations``, autori Octavian Cira şi Florentin Smarandache, face parte din Matematica viitorului. Matematica viitorului este o noua fază de evoluţie a matematicii care a luat avânt în ultimele trei decenii de când s-au inventat softurile matematice (Maple, Mathematica, Mathcad, Matlab, etc.).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[61] **viXra:1503.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-04 19:55:26*

**Authors:** LIU Changli

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Maxwell's equations seem overdetermined, which have six unknowns and eight equations. It is generally believed that Maxwell's divergence equations are redundant, and both equations are thought as initial conditions of curl ones. Because of this explanation, two divergence equations usually are not solved in computational electromagnetics. A circular logical fallacy of this explanation is found, and two divergence equations, which are not redundant, but fundamental, cannot be ignored in computational electromagnetics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[60] **viXra:1503.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-12 02:42:11*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Re-explanation the causes and mechanism of Superconductivity
in a new perspective and according to a new theory.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[59] **viXra:1503.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-09 07:04:47*

**Authors:** Giorgio Fabretti

**Comments:** 8 Pages. The synthetic results of the March 6th 2015 meeting on "How to Restore Domus Aurea and the Roman Forums", in the "Raffaele Fabretti" Foundation in Rome, Italy

An early practice of Neo-Ancient modern concepts can be traced back to the thought and writings of Raffaele Fabretti (1618-1700), an erudite antiquarian, historian and magistrate in charge for Ancient Ruins of Rome and the Secret Archives of the Vatican.
Fabretti, cultural adviser of several Popes, is considered an inspired founder both of Arcadia Movement and of Roman Archeology. His student and biographer Gio.Ba. Crescimbeni was the first curator of Arcadia and two of his students initiated the first archeological studies at the University of Sapienza in Rome.
According to Fabretti, reviving the Ancient could be achieved through a multiple international interdisciplinary action: 1) scientific studies of mathematics, astronomy and naturalistic measurement; 2) comparative cultural, anthropological, historical and antiquarian studies; 3) hydraulic engineering and urban re-planning the Baroque Development of the City of Rome; 4) bucolic poetical arcadian academy reviving the ancient utopias of Classic Greece and Rome, about the harmony between mankind and its environment; 5) re-elaborating global proposals to governments, to comply technological and public investments with an ethical human development.
"Decoding Neo Ancient (DNA)" has therefore been defined by Giorgio Fabretti, historical anthropologist, descendant and living curator of the Raffaele Fabretti Foundation, as "The interdisciplinary scientifical and historical studies of the ancient projections into the present and the future, decoding historical cyclic cultural patterns along naturalistic evolutionary lines, critical of human self-referential and technological excesses."
The object of such "Decoding Neo Ancient" (DNA) has also become the finality of an International Foundation based in Rome, with extensions in Greece and Great Britain since recent years.
Many Neo Ancient decoding researches and analysis have been published by the DNA Foundation Members in half a century of intense activism and experimenting.
Here we quote the studies of Piero Meogrossi on the reviving "Forma Urbis" of Ancient Rome, or of Giorgio Fabretti on the comeback of Ancient Frugivorism, or of the 'Theory of All' the historical recurrences. They will be systematically collected in the archivist work in progress of the Foundation.
On March the 6th, 2015, in the urban site of the "Raffaele Fabretti" Foundation in Rome, Via Nicola Salvi 68, the Neo Ancient comparative method of Fabretti, of re-proposing the Ancient Aqueducts as a Baroque Key to continue Roman Greatness, was again illustrated to the audience.
Updating Raffaele Fabretti method, his descendant Giorgio Fabretti announced to all the many participants the constitution of a new operative foundation entitled "DNA - Decoding Neo Ancient", and proposed to the meeting the following practical application of the “Decoding Ancient Rome Now” method to the central archeological area of Rome.
Today is impossible to decode the central archeological area of Rome because Mussolini did build an enormous motorway that cuts and covers the five central squares: the 5 Forums, the pulsing heart of Ancient Rome.
Being hyper provincial, Mussolini conceived the ancient ruins as a scenery for military parades together with Hitler.
His interpretation of the show road of a New Roman Empire was so tragically powerful and unrealistic, that was used to seduce the Italians into waging a lost war against Soviet Union, France, Albania, Greece, Egypt, English and American "plutocratic empires", all at the same time, without even having proper shoes for his soldiers.
Defeat and unprecedented national humiliation followed. The relics of that wrong Fascist Neo Ancient was the "Way on the Forums", a sort of vain imitation of the Champs Elysee in Paris. The crucial difference was that the "Way on the Forums" buried alive true visible unique remains of Ancient Rome, now protected as Unesco World Heritage.
Therefore, supported by the “Raffaele Fabretti” Foundation, it has been illustrated a plan in the spirit of Unesco, for a minimal restore of the central archeological area between the Colosseum and Venice Square, to make it decodable by the visitors in its Neo Ancient conception.
The 7 Archeological Transitional Sceneries will be - walking from the Colosseum to Venice Square:
1) From the Domus Aurea Oriental Palace straight into the Flavian Amphitheatre, and vice versa; a passage across two different conception of Civilization: from Nero' aesthetic despotism to the Flavian manipulating modern mass society.
2) The Ancient Velia Hill as a frame of the Colosseum Sacred Valley and the Renaissance Garden of 15th Century restored Villa Rivaldi, a precious antiquary of renaissance rediscoveries of Imperial Rome.
3) The Templum of Peace, a large Forum cornered by the original Map of Ancient Rome and by the hugest medieval Conti's Tower: a true transitional scenery from Ancient to Medieval Rome.
4) The Transitorium Nerva Forum, that a monumental corridor linking the Suburra popular neighborhood, still crowded and alive today, to the Ancient Public Squares: a meditative passage across a regenerated ancient site into a silent monumental area.
5) The Forum of Augustus, seen from the balcony of Alessandrina Way as a scenery for public screening of virtual reconstructions of the ancient site in time, under the renaissance balcony of the Cavaliers of Malta.
6) The huge Trajan Forum overseen by the spectacular gallery of the Trajan Markets, the mist ancient shopping mall, under the towering medieval Tower of Militias: a true square and stage to show the Ancient Stone Movie encoded in the Trajan Column.
7) The Cesarean Forum under the towering Senatorial Curia, bordering the Republican Forum, to decode the historical passage from the Agrarian Republican Rome to the Military Imperial Rome.
7 archeological passages of Ages to decode now the Ancient Greatness of Rome, a cultural ability of encoding the Spirit of Ages into a stratified syncretic Present; a decoding readable 'ever new' Ancient.
It will then finally still be possible from all directions, a pedestrian and electric cycle crossing of the seven separated archeological (Domus Aurea and Colosseum Valley, Velia Hill and 5 Forums) environments, between the Colosseum and Venice Square, along two paths, being the left on the gardens facing the Curia, and the right on Corrado Ricci square and the Alessandrina Way facing the Augustus Forum.
To conclude:containment of Mental or Ideological Social Fantasies through Scientific Historical Naturalistic Links to DNA, is a peculiar duty of a Decoding Neo Ancient, as long as it allows drawing stochastic lines of action from the Past to the Future. A Neo Ancient attitude to decode what can be preserved and what can be mutated, is a practical insurance for Progress to pass the natural selection as the fittest one.
Cultural adaptive human skills are like steam engines. They are powerful as long as a self-regulating feedback Watt valve is applied to let out steam in excess, and to avoid imploding effects.
Otherwise miscalculation of the side effects of human environmental manipulations, can promote apparently new successes that cause explosions and self-destructions.
It happens when the New ignores the Ancient, where it comes from. That is the case when a compromising New Ancient can instead be respectful of longer lasting laws of nature, and avoid painful compensations.
Decoding Neo Ancient is after all a stochastic rebalancing function in non-linear thermodynamic human environments. The more is the technological activism, the more it needs to be moderated by encoding Neo Ancient.
That is why "DNA Foundation", announced on March the 6th 2015, will be a 'Futuristic tool from the Past': "Futuristic Ancient" is its paradoxical realistic definition.

**Category:** Archaeology

[58] **viXra:1503.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-09 06:50:30*

**Authors:** Gerasimos T. Soldatos

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Published in: International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics, 2015, 3(2), 48-58.

This paper is considering geometrically the smallest possible spatial displacement of the elementary mass by equating the corresponding and thereby smallest possible historical time with the unit. This time is supposed to be the travel time under smooth rectilinear motion as the motion, with the least change in the physicochemical substance of this mass, change determining the age of the mass and owing exclusively to kinematics in void space. Yet, the passage of time as recorded by physicochemical change under other types of motion towards the same terminal point and at the same arrival time, call it “age-time”, does not coincide with the arrival time. Therefore, although void space has been assumed, some other, age-shaping factor beyond kinematics is inferred to exist in this space, so that it can be held responsible for the variations in age time. It acts so as to be ensuring the uniqueness of events. The same factor should be cited as the source of motion too, given that motion is contemplated analytically with no reference to a cause of it. This factor appears to exhibit the properties of ether, with which it is identified. Ether provides momentum to mass, altering constantly the texture of the mass, that is, the age of the mass and subsequently, the velocity of it in historical time. The operation of ether is taken to be mathematically the reason for the real-world relevance of irrational numbers. The potential infinity, associated with these numbers and with the operation of ether that is filling space, becomes embedded in the actual infinite of space by itself, in this manner.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[57] **viXra:1503.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-08 18:44:42*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 7 pages.

In present article, we create new integral representations for natural logarithm
function, the Euler-Mascheroni constant, the natural logarithm of Riemann zeta function and the first derivative of Riemann zeta function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[56] **viXra:1503.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-08 18:54:23*

**Authors:** José Salvador Ruiz Fargueta

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

When the fractals was not known it was strange to speak of non entiers dimensions. Now that they are known it can help us to understand them better the cases of figures
fractals with entier dimension.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[55] **viXra:1503.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 19:18:06*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 46 Pages. @Sergey V., Thank you, thank you, thank you, thank you very much .... In a Physics First, Light is Captured as Both Particle and Wave

Confirmation of the theory under discussion
Wave - Particle Duality as Kinetic Energy Against and In Direction of Motion
in discussion group Theoretical Physics !!!! Eureka !!!!
Light Captures as Both Particle and Wave
Sergey V. Efremov
@Sergey V.,
Thank you, thank you, thank you, thank you very much ....
In a Physics First, Light is Captured as Both Particle and Wave
Physicists have theorized for over a century that light acts as both a particle and a wave, depending on the conditions, but they've never been able to capture it being both at once — until a team in Switzerland did just that in a recent experiment. Scientists at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne managed to take a snapshot of light in all its elusive wave-particle duality, a form first proposed by Einstein in 1905.
It was no easy task: You need light in order to take pictures of things, but how do you take a picture of light itself? The EPFL team, led by Fabrizio Carbone, started by exposing a tiny metallic nanowire to a pulse of laser light. The light travels up and down this wire and interferes with itself, forming stationary "standing waves" and illustrating that portion of light's dual nature.
At the same time, though, those waves are made of innumerable photons. This was shown by barraging the standing waves with electrons — some of which would speed up, and some slow down, depending on how they strike photons in the stream. The simple fact that these "quanta" of exchanged energy exist proves that there are particles there, not just a simple waveform of radiation (like a magnetic field).
The result is the image above, which shows light exhibiting wavelike and particle-like properties at the same time. This research, published in the journal Nature Communications, significantly advances our understanding of how light works on the smallest detectable scales, and may be highly valuable in the field of quantum computing.
It is fully in line with
Wave - Particle Duality as Kinetic Energy Against and In Direction of Motion.
Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values:
Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave in transmission medium (as the energy of the electromagnetic field)
Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]
Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle (as its own kinetic energy of particle )
Tkin id = mc2[ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[54] **viXra:1503.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 19:59:10*

**Authors:** James Arnold

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Gravitation is described as a uniquely geometric phenomenon, incompatible with the concept of force, and only analogically comparable with force by means of mathematical formalisms. Two thought experiments are employed to demonstrate that the association of gravitation with force is irreconcilable with the geometric interpretation and without theoretical foundation or empirical support. Motion in time is identified as the dynamic source of what has been attributed as the energetic component of gravitational phenomena.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[53] **viXra:1503.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 14:42:18*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Employing Dirac’s suggested approach to “perfect and generalise the mathematical formalism that forms the existing basis of theoretical physics,” and thereafter “try to interpret the new mathematical features in terms of physical entities,” we obtain the complete set of mathematical solutions to the Wu-Yang differential equation for Dirac monopoles to find three general classes of solutions. The first set includes the Dirac Quantization Condition but generalizes to encompass fractional charges also. The second set includes charge quantization without any fractionalization, in the absence of magnetic monopoles. The third set includes electric and magnetic charges but exhibits a breaking of the electric-magnetic duality symmetry not only due to the low-energy experimental coupling ~1/137, but even at the theoretical level. We then offer some preliminary physical interpretations and suggest a path for experimental validation based on the fractionalized charge solutions which are part of the first solution set.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[52] **viXra:1503.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-24 16:16:51*

**Authors:** Carl S. Reiff

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper posits that ‘Gravitational Flow’ permeates the Universe, and all observed time dilation is a result of movement relative to this flow. The speed of the flow at any given location is simply the corresponding escape velocity. So time dilation can be calculated from escape velocities. The procedure is illustrated using three distinct examples: 1) The time dilation setting required by the atomic clocks aboard the GPS satellites orbiting Earth; 2) The Shapiro delay experienced by a ray of light as it passes very near the Sun; 3) The portion of the perihelion precession of Mercury’s orbit that is due to time dilation, often called ‘anomalous precession’. Also included are proposals for four distinct experiments, each of which will demonstrate the effects of the flow.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1503.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 10:53:18*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 reference

It is hypothesized that using the term “gravitational instability” to explain why structures form in the universe is nonsense, as well as empirically false.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[50] **viXra:1503.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-20 12:58:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), is presented some recapitulation concerning structure of proton. It shows that distribution of gluons described within the Quantum Chromodynamics is incorrect - there appears the spin crisis. The SST shows that there appear three super-dense fields composed of the carriers of gluons i.e. of the luminal Einstein-spacetime components i.e. of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs. The three super-dense gluon fields follow from the short-distance quantum entanglement and/or confinement of the Einstein-spacetime components and they are as follows: the torus/charge (its surface mass density is about 300,000 times higher than a plane in the Einstein spacetime; external radius is about 0.7 fm), central condensate (its mass density is about 3 times greater than 23 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter; radius is about 0.009 fm) and relativistic pion on the S orbit (radius of the orbit is about 1.2 fm). Range of the strong interactions is about 3 fm. Within such model we calculated the rigorous mass, spin and two radii (the electron radius and muon radius) of proton. The torus/charge is spinning and its spin is half-integral. We can compare the densities of the super-dense gluon fields with the mean mass density of proton on assumption that its radius is the range of the strong interactions: about 1.54 times greater than 16 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter. Barbara Jacak, a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, claims that the much faster than expected formation of baryonic-plasma droplets and the spin crisis follow from existence of a super-dense gluon field instead discrete gluons - it is consistent with SST. Here as well are calculated the fundamental quantities characteristic for partonic plasma - they are consistent with the PHENIX data. Among other things, a puzzle of anomalous enhancement of (anti)protons relative to pions is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[49] **viXra:1503.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 11:08:36*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 2 references

It will be pointed out that three false root assumptions exist which invalidate the establishment’s models of Jupiter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[48] **viXra:1503.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-28 08:47:38*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Version 8 in English

This paper presents a reformulation of classical mechanics which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without introducing fictitious forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[47] **viXra:1503.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 05:20:35*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 6 Pages. in Russian

We prove (in the framework of classical electrodynamics) that the flow of electromagnetic energy in a conductor
• directed along the axis of the wire,
• extends along the axis of the wire,
• extends inside the wire,
• compensate for heat loss.
The flow of electromagnetic energy is distributed in the wire to drive an electric current. Wherein the leading edge of propagating current creates a flow of electromagnetic energy which excites the next element of the current, etc. // Доказывается (в рамках классической электродинамики), что поток электроэнергии в проводнике
•направлен вдоль оси провода,
•распространяется вдоль оси провода,
•распространяется внутри провода,
•компенсирует тепловые потери.
Поток электромагнитной энергии распространяется в проводе, возбуждая электрический ток. При этом передний фронт распространяющегося тока создает поток электромагнитной энергии, который возбуждает следующий элемент тока и т.д.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[46] **viXra:1503.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-08 08:39:49*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this paper, we demonstrate some integral representations for harmonic number
and digamma function.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[45] **viXra:1503.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 06:42:57*

**Authors:** Paul August Winter

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Much research has been done involving the chromatic number of a graph involving the least number of colors, that the vertices of a graph can be colored, so that no two adjacent vertices have the same color. The idea of how the chromatic number of a vertex cover of a graph dominates the vertex cover of the original graph, where a large number of vertices are involved, has been investigated. The difference between the energy of the complete graph,, and the energy of any other graph G. has been studied, in terms of a ratio. The complete graph, on n vertices, has chromatic number n, and is significant in terms of its easily accessible graph theoretical properties, such as its high level of connectivity and robustness. In this paper, we introduce a ratio, the chromatic-complete difference ratio, involving the difference between the chromatic number of the complete graph, and the chromatic number of any other connected graph G, on the same number n of vertices. This allowed for the investigation of the effect of the chromatic number of G, with respect to the complete graph, when a large number of vertices are involved - referred to as the chromatic-complete difference domination effect. The value of this domination effect lies on the interval [0,1], with most classes of graphs taking on the right hand end-point, while graphs with a large clique takes on the left hand end-point. When this ratio is a function f(n), of the order of a graph, we attach the average degree of G to the Riemann integral to investigate the chromatic-complete difference area aspect of classes of graphs. We applied these chromatic-complete difference aspects to complements of classes of graphs.
AMS Classification: 05C50
1Corresponding author: Paul August Winter: Department of Mathematics, Howard College, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Glenwood, Durban, 4041, South Africa;
ORCID ID: 0000-0003-3539;
email: winterp@ukzn.ac.za
Key words: Chromatic number, domination, ratios, domination, asymptotes, areas

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[44] **viXra:1503.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-11 15:24:26*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A short explanation of the holographic interface of PHPR will be stated.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[43] **viXra:1503.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-06 13:45:13*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The failure of the laser-interferometer gravitational wave antennas to measure the tiny changes of lengths many orders of magnitude smaller than the diameter of a proton raises the question of whether the reason for this failure is a large gravitational wave background noise, and if so, where this background noise is coming from. It is conjectured that it comes from gravitational waves emitted from a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo in the center of the sun, with the large magnetic field from this dynamo shielded by thermomagnetic currents in the tachocline. Using the moon as a large Weber bar, these gravitational waves could possibly be detected by the Poisson diffraction into the center of the lunar shadow during a total solar eclipse.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[42] **viXra:1503.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-06 13:57:02*

**Authors:** James Arnold

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The evolution of the universe is described as an advancement of time, and only collaterally an expansion of space. An interpretation of time as proceeding at the equivalent of c across space, perpendicular to space, per a reconsideration of Minkowski’s spacetime geometry, supports a description of the cosmos as a four-dimensional (hyper)spherical wavefront. By treating space as the surface of a four-dimensional sphere with a current radius of 13.82 billion years (equivalent to 13.82 billion light-years), a Hubble constant of 70.6 (km/s)/Mpc is derived from the measure of the expansion of a megaparsec arc on the surface, independent of empirical measurement or mathematical inversion. It is argued that a close correlation between the advancing temporal cosmic radius and the expansion of the arc subtending a Mpc suggests at least a remarkable coincidence, worthy of further investigation. The hypothesis also has the scientific virtue of economy of explanation, dispensing with the need for the (revived) cosmological constant, cosmic inflation, dark energy, and dark matter as a gravitational constraint on expansion, as well as questions of the shape of the universe and of the influence of gravitation on the rate of expansion. A reexamination of various cosmological parameters in terms of an advancing time hypothesis is expected to provide further confirmation and confer greater simplicity and general coherence to cosmology.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[41] **viXra:1503.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-06 08:48:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15]
Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core.
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[40] **viXra:1503.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-17 15:18:40*

**Authors:** Robert M. Hartranft Scott W. Hartranft

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Suppose the laws of physics are truly invariant: they were, are, and always will be as they are here and now. And further suppose that there were no physical things before the Big Bang – no mass, no energy, just endless void. But at some point, the laws of physics came into being, including conservation of mass-energy. The three most fundamental equations for mass ( F = ma ; F = Gm1m2/r2 ; E = mc2 ) are all symmetric for positive and negative values of m. This suggests a family of negative mass particles ("unmatter"), with zero net mass-energy for the universe overall. The Big Bang would therefore have required zero net mass-energy, and would have produced two precisely concentric, inter-meshed, expanding spheres, one of positive m matter, the other of negative m unmatter. As the spheres expanded to their current, roughly 28 billion light-year diameters, they became progressively more segregated, leading to apparently huge voids if only one sphere is considered. As segregation further increased, the unbalanced local forces increased, leading to the observed and heretofore exceedingly puzzling accelerating expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1503.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-06 04:09:43*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article, which is a continuation of [34], [35] and [36], we analyze the fourth of the purely affine theories of Schrödinger (Schrödinger-IV), where he used a connection asymmetric and a metric tensor also asymmetric and the simplest Lagrangian density that is proportional to the square root of the determinant of the Ricci tensor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1503.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 13:52:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Casimir effect has been demonstrated with electromagnetic waves, which transport energy. The general idea of Quach’s proposal is to exploit the gravitational opacity of superconductors to, in theory, produce a similar effect from gravity. Doing so, by inference, would pave the way for the detection of the graviton. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[37] **viXra:1503.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 15:17:06*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Submitted for Foundational Questions Institute Essay Contest on Physics and Math, Feb. 4, 2015: http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2338

It is widely believed that mathematics provides the fundamental basis for physics. On the contrary, it is argued here that pictures of real objects moving in real space provide the proper basis for physics, and that mathematics merely provides quantitative models for calculating the dynamics of these objects. Such models may distort or even hinder the development of new physics, particularly if a consistent physical picture is lacking. This is discussed in connection with quantum mechanics, which discarded realism in favor of mathematical abstraction almost a century ago. A realistic, spin-quantized wave picture of quantum mechanics is presented that avoids the paradoxes and abstractions of the orthodox quantum theory. Quantum indeterminacy stems from an inappropriate application of a statistical point-particle model to extended soliton-like wave packets. Quantum transitions are continuous, rather than the abrupt transitions of the Hilbert space model. Quantum entanglement is an artifact of mathematical constructions incompatible with local realism. These are not merely matters of philosophical interpretation; several experimental implications are presented. It is time to remove the mathematical blinders that have prevented consideration of realistic quantum pictures.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[36] **viXra:1503.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 10:52:00*

**Authors:** Cherepanov Oleg

**Comments:** 280 Pages.

In the monograph subjected to critical analysis of semantic assertions mechanical theories of Newton, Hertz and Einstein. Shows, none of them has a compelling ontological basis. These theories are interpretations of mathematics. The examples show that the first task of physics to adequately solves math without the continuum hypothesis, and the well-known effects of gravity and light propagation successfully simulates another theory.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[35] **viXra:1503.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 12:12:50*

**Authors:** Jet Jeene

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The paper is written in Dutch with preface in English by Jan Bergstra.

!In the Netherlands a law prescribes that competence levels for arithmetic are standardized by means of so-called reference levels. National tests are constructed accordingly. It appears that at the lowest level of teaching arithmetical skills, which applies to less than 5 percent of the population only, the existing system of reference levels starring with 1F and 2F is not sufficiently refined to distinguish between relevant competence levels and to allow the measurement of students making progress. For that reason new reference levels 1/2F and 3/2 F are proposed.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[34] **viXra:1503.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-05 13:32:51*

**Authors:** Elemer Elad Rosinger

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This item is about one of those rather typical interactions with editors and referees of so called top scientific journals, in this case, an American one.
The specific feature is in the fact that the editor happens to be a Nobel Laureate in physics. By the way, he is European, and not American ...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[33] **viXra:1503.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 05:06:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6]
They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32] **viXra:1503.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-11 15:47:07*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Keywords: Earth's surface temperature; thermo-balance; Greenhouse effect

An independent heat source inside the system “Earth + atmosphere”, in addition to Earth’s heating by solar radiation, is required to account for differences between the measured and calculated values of Earth’s average surface temperature. A mathematical model of thermo-balance for Earth’s heat fluxes is used for the calculations reported here. Using well-known data (albedo of the Earth’s surface, constant of the heat radiation from the Sun, etc.), it is shown that the process of heating only by solar activity would yield an average value for Earth’s surface temperature of circa eighteen degrees below zero (Celcius scale). Since this calculated value of Earth’s surface temperature is cooler than the observed value, there must exist others, inner sources of heating for the Earth. The main source of such an internal heat generation within the system “Earth + atmosphere” is, of course, the Greenhouse effect.
Besides, the dynamics of the Earth’s surface temperature is proved to be determined by the proper elliptical integral. Thus, by obtaining of the re-inverse dependence of a solution from the time-parameter t we could present the temperature T(t) as a set of periodic cycles.

**Category:** Climate Research

[31] **viXra:1503.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-04 20:15:34*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 8 pages.

In present article, we developed infinite series representations for inverse sine function and other functions. Our main goal is to get the hypergeometric representation for Catalan constant and hyperbolic sine function; and new integral
representation for inverse sine function.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[30] **viXra:1503.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-17 14:34:43*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Spanish

This paper presents an alternative mechanical energy which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[29] **viXra:1503.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-04 11:20:47*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The essentials of quantum economic science are explained, in simple English.

**Category:** Social Science

[28] **viXra:1503.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-04 09:36:08*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 journal pages

In this paper, it is shown that the classical addition of velocities is unavoidable, and follows naturally from an intrinsic physics concept. It is revealed that the relativistic addition of velocities and the Lorentz contraction simply lead to time transformations contradicting the Special Relativity predictions. Ironically, the Special Relativity time dilation prediction could be obtained from the classical addition of velocities and the Lorentz contraction, when the travel time of a two-way light trip is considered. A one-way (forward or backward) travel time leads to contradictions with the Special Relativity predictions. The special relativity time dilation factor could be obtained from the classical addition of velocities for a light trip in the transverse direction, but in contradiction with the speed of light postulate. Analyzed light travel time between relatively moving frame origins offers outcomes inconsistent with the Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1503.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-04 01:48:36*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In one of my previous paper, namely “The mar reduced form of a natural number”, I introduced the notion of mar function, which is, essentially, nothing else than the digital root of a number, and I also presented, in another paper, a sequence based on mar function that abounds in primes. In this paper I present another sequence, based on a relation between a number and the value of its mar reduced form (of course not the intrisic one), sequence that seem also to abound in primes and semiprimes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[26] **viXra:1503.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-03 13:18:06*

**Authors:** Ray Fleming

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Neutrinos have long been a scientific puzzle. They are small neutral particles that primarily take part in weak interactions. They were invented to explain the energy and momentum inequalities measured during beta decay, and yet they cannot be seen directly. The author has shown previously that beta decay can be described as a Hawking radiation type interaction where an antiparticle from a virtual particle pair is captured via annihilation allowing the matter particle of the virtual pair to become free. 1 The vacuum fluctuation particle pair takes the place of the neutrino in the decay equation. This opens up the intriguing possibility that neutrinos are more properly described as vacuum fluctuation particle pairs.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[25] **viXra:1503.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-03 16:08:31*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In one of my previous paper, “The mar reduced form of a natural number”, I introduced the notion of mar function, which is, essentially, nothing else than the digital root of a number, but defined as an aritmethical function, on the operations of addition, multiplication etc. in such way that it could be used in various applications (Diophantine equations, divizibility problems and others). In this paper I present two notions, useful in Diophantine analysis of Smarandache concatenated sequences or different classes of numbers (sequences of squares, cubes, triangular numbers, polygonal numbers, Devlali numbers, Demlo numbers etc).

**Category:** Number Theory

[24] **viXra:1503.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-03 16:49:58*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I introduced, in one of my previous paper, namely “The mar reduced form of a natural number”, the notion of mar function, which is, essentially, nothing else than the digital root of a number, but defined as an aritmethical function, in such way that it could be used in various applications (Diophantine analysis of different types of numbers etc). In this paper I present a sequence based on a relation between a number and the value of its mar reduced form (of course not the intrisic one), sequence that seem to be interesting because many of its terms are primes or ar equal to 1 and very few composites.

**Category:** Number Theory

[23] **viXra:1503.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-03 19:59:23*

**Authors:** Qi Zhang, Meizhu Li, Yong Deng

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Monty Hall problem is a brain teaser,The problem was originally posed in a letter by Steve Selvin to the American Statistician in 1975. To nd out the principle
of this conclusion which given by Marilyn vos Savant, and to nd if there is always advantage to the contestants chose to switch their choice .we have make a simulation of this problem.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[22] **viXra:1503.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-03 10:01:33*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The 52 Shakti Peetha (places of power) in North India, Bangladesh and surrounding areas refer to the Brahma and Shakti legends, as the 42 nomes of Egypt and the 42 Stations of the Exodus refer to the Osiris legend of Ancient Egypt. This paper posits that the cultures of Ancient Egypt and of Hebrews and Jews derive from Vedic India. The 52 Shakti Peetha correspond to the F4 Exceptional Lie Algebra while the 42 nomes and stations of the Exodus correspond to the Sedenions.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[21] **viXra:1503.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-10 12:09:38*

**Authors:** Sergey Kamenshchikov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we consider a nonlinear stochastic approach to the description of quantum
systems. It is shown that a possibility to derive quantum properties - spectrum quantization,
zero point positive energy and uncertainty relations, exists in frame of Zaslavsky phase liquid.
This liquid is considered as a projection of continuous medium into a Hilbert phase space. It
has isotropic minimal diffusion defined by Planck constant. Areas of probability condensation,
formed by phase liquid turbulence, may produce clustering centers–particles, which preserve
boundaries. These areas are described as strange attractors with fractal transport properties.
The stability of attractors has been shown in frame of the first order perturbation theory.
Quantum peculiarities of considered systems have been strictly derived from markovian
Fokker-Planck equation. It turned out that the positive zero point energy has volumetric
properties and grows for higher time resolutions. We have shown that a quasi stable
condensate may be applied as a satisfactory model of an elementary quantum system. The
conditions of attractor stability are defined on the basis of Nonlinear Prigogine Theorem. It is
shown that the integrity of classical and quantum approaches is recovered while existence of
particles is derived in terms of mechanical model.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[20] **viXra:1503.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-03 08:12:08*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

What if our universe was one of many within our own spacial dimensions.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[19] **viXra:1503.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-03 08:24:42*

**Authors:** Allen Graycek

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Results of laboratory studies of hydrogen-induced redshift indicate light is shifted spectrally as found in space.[1] Due to improvement in telescopic equipment, vast regions of hydrogen in and around galaxies are now being found, the necessary ingredient for redshift. If this is the cause of the cosmological redshift, then a universe exists that is not expanding, and there was no big bang. This is an effort to compare the big bang model (BBM) to a great age model (GAM). Approximate distances and ages can still be determined based on amounts of red shift currently seen. Size of the universe might be much larger than currently thought. With a GAM, inflation and dark energy are not needed. GAM allows sufficient time for stars to have full life cycles. This process involves their birth, consumption of all their fuel, then cooling to the point of non-visibility naturally resulting in many times more cool or invisible stars than bright ones. (The PIR acronym in the following refers to Plasma-Induced Redshift, also known as New Tired Light, NTL. It is referred to above as hydrogen-induced redshift)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1503.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-14 00:11:03*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Open Access Library Journal, Volume 2, e1798.

We review the new type of Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm proposed
in {[K. Nagata and T. Nakamura,
Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 49}, 162 (2010)]}.
We suggest that
the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm can be used for quantum key distribution.
Alice sends input $N+1$ partite uncorrelated state to
a black box. Bob measures output state.
Now, Alice and Bob has promised to use a function $f$
which is of one of two kinds; either the value of $f$ is constant or balanced.
To Eve, it is secret.
Alice's and Bob's goal is to determine with certainty whether they have
chosen a constant or a balanced function.
Alice and Bob get one bit if they determine the function $f$.
The speed to get one bit improves by a factor of $2^{N}$.
This may improve the speed to establish quantum key distribution by a factor of $2^{N}$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1503.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-03 12:52:40*

**Authors:** editors Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 504 Pages.

The fourth volume on Advances and Applications of Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) for information fusion collects theoretical and applied contributions of researchers working in different fields of applications and in mathematics. The contributions (see List of Articles published in this book, at the end of the volume) have been published or presented after disseminating the third volume (2009, http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/DSmT-book3.pdf) in international conferences, seminars, workshops and journals.
First Part of this book presents the theoretical advancement of DSmT, dealing with Belief functions, conditioning and deconditioning, Analytic Hierarchy Process, Decision Making, Multi-Criteria, evidence theory, combination rule, evidence distance, conflicting belief, sources of evidences with different importance and reliabilities, importance of sources, pignistic probability transformation, Qualitative reasoning under uncertainty, Imprecise belief
structures, 2-Tuple linguistic label, Electre Tri Method, hierarchical proportional redistribution, basic belief assignment, subjective probability measure, Smarandache codification, neutrosophic logic, Evidence theory, outranking methods, Dempster-Shafer Theory, Bayes fusion rule, frequentist probability, mean square error, controlling factor, optimal assignment solution, data association, Transferable
Belief Model, and others.
More applications of DSmT have emerged in the past years since the apparition of the third book of DSmT 2009. Subsequently, the second part of this volume is about applications of DSmT in correlation with Electronic Support Measures, belief function, sensor networks, Ground Moving Target and Multiple target tracking, Vehicle-Born Improvised Explosive Device, Belief Interacting Multiple Model filter, seismic and acoustic sensor, Support Vector Machines, Alarm
classification, ability of human visual system, Uncertainty Representation and Reasoning Evaluation Framework, Threat Assessment, Handwritten Signature Verification, Automatic Aircraft Recognition, Dynamic Data-Driven Application System, adjustment of secure communication trust analysis, and so on.
Finally, the third part presents a List of References related with DSmT published or presented along the years since its inception in 2004, chronologically ordered.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[16] **viXra:1503.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-02 09:35:03*

**Authors:** Juan Sadie

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This theory postulates an inverse way to look at what is large and what is small. When we talk about quantum mechanics we automatically presume that things are smaller at this level. What this theory proposes is that as we drill down into the quantum level we are actually moving towards the infinitely large. As we get down to the atomic and sub-atomic levels things begin to get very strange. Particles pop in and out of existence. They seem to be in more than one place at the same time. They seem to interact by means of entanglement, more famously known as “spooky interaction at a distance”, so named by Albert Einstein. My theory explains why things are so strange “down there”. As we zoom into the sub-atomic levels and beyond we begin to approach the Inverse, a realm where space and time does not exist, and more importantly where the laws of nature or physics do not apply. This Inverse connects everything as we know it; atoms, molecules, matter, stars, galaxies, etc. The Inverse has no physical properties, no energy, nothing we can measure. It is however the originating point of all Universes. It has no beginning or end. It has always been and always will be. Time is of no consequence.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[15] **viXra:1503.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-19 13:37:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Ludwig et al. derived solar ages up to 22.3 Gyr (2009). The applied Th/Eu ratio is most credible. But the upper limit of the obtained interval is inconsistent with the mainstream-cosmology age of the Universe (about 13.8 Gyr). On the other hand, the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the age of the Universe is about 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr but due to the duality of relativity (due to the quantum entanglement, the speed of light, c, is the speed in relation to source of light or to a last-interaction object) we cannot see the initial period about 7.75 Gyr of evolution of the protogalaxies/quasars. The calculated time distance to the observed most distant galaxies is 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr but they are already 7.75 Gyr old. The era of the quasars and the big stars in quasars lasted about 10 Gyr but we can see only the last period about 2.3 Gyr. Due to evolution of the Universe, hydrogen transforms into helium whereas helium transforms into more massive atomic nuclei. It suggests that it can be that with time, mass abundance of helium in relation to hydrogen can slowly decrease. Here, by an analogy to the Stefan-Boltzmann law, we obtain formulae for change in abundance of helium-4 and hydrogen in the expanding Universe. For the invisible primordial Universe we obtain about 1. On the assumption that today abundances are 24.5% for helium and 75.5% for hydrogen (ratio = 3.1; we neglect the other chemical elements), we obtain that for the most distant observed Universe is 2.3 whereas for the end of the era of quasars and big stars is 2.45.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1503.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-02 11:24:40*

**Authors:** Asim M. Babikr

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

● The theory in this stage is merely a proposal, an attempt to start looking and find the missing variables of Quantum Mechanics raised by Einstein in his papers, where he stated that "Quantum Mechanics is correct indeed, but it is not the complete way of describing reality", we try to continue after his footsteps here.
● I am not saying or considering the theory as an empirical fact yet, -even if the style of writing would give such an impression, the style meant to help readers to live the possibility of the hypothesis and also for the purpose of convergence of views- but what I'm really saying, it deserves the investigation.
● The theory is intending to build upon the current theories and complete them, and it is not intending to replace them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1503.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-02 07:01:54*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The eco-energetic role of the land value Monopoly in the modern monetary production economy is elaborated.

**Category:** Social Science

[12] **viXra:1503.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-02 08:12:05*

**Authors:** Ray Fleming

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Fusion interactions occur over a broad range of energies. Deuterium-Deuterium fusion for example has a peak cross section of hundreds of KeV, but fusion can occur below 20 keV. Efforts to increase fusion efficiency require higher interaction probabilities at lower energies. Efforts to do that are hampered by a lack of understanding of the physical mechanism that allows for lower energy nuclear reactions. While there is the idea of quantum-tunneling a more detailed model would be beneficial to the research effort. This paper will consider fusion reactions mediated by a Hawking radiation type interaction where a virtual proton-antiproton pair for example effectively annihilates a proton in one atomic nucleus and deposits a proton in another.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[11] **viXra:1503.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-01 19:44:28*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The manuscript will lay out a few examples of computational control in PHPR.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10] **viXra:1503.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-01 20:16:22*

**Authors:** Michael Starks

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I have read many recent discussions of the limits of computation and the universe as computer, hoping to find some comments on the amazing work of polymath physicist and decision theorist David Wolpert but have not found a single citation and so I present this very brief summary. Wolpert proved some stunning impossibility or incompleteness theorems (1992 to 2008-see arxiv.org) on the limits to inference (computation) that are so general they are independent of the device doing the computation, and even independent of the laws of physics, so they apply across computers, physics, and human behavior. They make use of Cantor's diagonalization, the liar paradox and worldlines to provide what may be the ultimate theorem in Turing Machine Theory, and seemingly provide insights into impossibility,incompleteness, the limits of computation,and the universe as computer, in all possible universes and all beings or mechanisms, generating, among other things,a non-quantum mechanical uncertainty principle and a proof of monotheism.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[9] **viXra:1503.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-02 01:03:29*

**Authors:** Sosale Chandrasekhar

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

It is argued that the presumed mesophase theory of liquid crystals, which has evolved over the preceding century and is currently in vogue, is not only largely conjectural but also ignores fundamental theoretical principles and key experimental observations. Essentially, it is unsupported by hard experimental evidence, and the view that a large collection of molecules can remain both ordered and fluid over a wide temperature range can be challenged. Current theory overlooks the apparently unexceptional effects of liquid crystals on polarized light, which indicate the involvement of chirality (cf. the crossed-polarizers experiment). An alternative model proposed herein is based on the idea that chiral symmetry breaking is a fundamental property of matter (deriving from the thermodynamic advantage of the entropy of mixing of a racemate). Thus, even achiral molecules prefer to adopt chiral conformations when possible, which would open a kinetic channel to a non-equilibrium state that is chiral as a whole. This can happen if the racemic mixture of the metastable chiral conformers forms a ‘pseudo-conglomerate’, with ‘like’ enantiomers aggregating together. This can ultimately lead to a suspension of chiral nanoparticles in a fluid medium that is possibly also chiral, because of persistent proximity to the nanoparticles. This model of the liquid crystalline state can also explain its amazing electro-optical properties by invoking the development of surface charges on the nanoparticles in an electrical field; this would alter their aggregation behavior, and hence their optical properties. These phenomenal characteristics of matter are apparently manifested under suitable conditions leading to the liquid crystalline state.

**Category:** Chemistry

[8] **viXra:1503.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-04 17:15:12*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I estimate the mass of the electrino (new lepton) through two formulas. The first formula we shall explore is the lepto-baryonic formula for the fine-structure constant which I published in a previous paper entitled: Exponential Formula for the Fine Structure Constant. Unlike the formula presented there, this paper introduces an exact formula which is given as a function of the masses of the two lightest charged leptons: the electron and the electrino; and the lightest baryons: the neutron and the proton. The second formula we shall explore is the “alpha-23” formula for the mass of the electron. Both formulas suggest the existence of a new super-light lepton which I have called: electrino. I predicted the existence of this particle in a previous paper entitled: Is the Electron Unstable?. This investigation suggests that the mass of the electrino, if this elusive particle exists, must have a value between me /529.3 and me /517.8 approximately.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1503.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-01 10:52:36*

**Authors:** V.Skorobogatov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. The paper was published in the site vps137.narod.ru/phys/ at 20/01/2013.

In the frame of the model of 4D matter («4D medium» or «4D ether») it is given the description of some basic notions of the quantum mechanics such as the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg, the atomic spectrum, the wave function, the de Broglie's wave
and some other.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1503.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-01 11:41:49*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Using a recently developed model of gravity that differs from both the Newton and Einstein models, agreement may be achieved between the anomalous velocities of the flyby mission vehicles and the predictions of the model. This conjecture supports the notion of a temporal-inertial (TI) field that is the principle mediator of the gravitational and inertial interactions. The TI field is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. No assertion is made relating properties of the TI field to those of the Higgs field. The flux model posits that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. Thus, again, the flux model may explain the unexpected changes in velocity seen by the so-called flyby spacecraft in their gravity assist maneuvers past Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[5] **viXra:1503.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-03 08:19:01*

**Authors:** M. Kovalyov, N. Kovalyov, S. Kovalyov.

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The article discusses the global aspects of the (almost) antipodal symmetry on Earth
which should have been widely known by now but somehow managed to stay unnoticed.

**Category:** Geophysics

[4] **viXra:1503.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-04 03:13:20*

**Authors:** T.Nakashima

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is the new formula of the mobius function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[3] **viXra:1503.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-01 09:09:08*

**Authors:** A. D. Skorbun, M. V. Efetov, G. I. Odinokin, O. A. Kuchmagra

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Dynamics of intervals between moments of an ionization chamber КНТ-31-1 background pulses registration during lunar eclipse on 15.04.2014 has been studied. That chamber is intended for neutron registration, but in neutrons absence it has background current, which arises from alpha decay of electrodes materials and noises of electronics, and fluctuations of which were registered. It have been revealed, that for all standard moments of lunar eclipse phases changing, there were typical peculiarity in intervals dynamics. Especially interesting are occurrence of small series of very short intervals. The duration of such intervals are of some microseconds (3 – 4 order smaller than all intervals mean value), and length of series is up to 20 pulses. This is direct and clear observation of lunar eclipse influence on the velocity of physical processes on the Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[2] **viXra:1503.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-01 02:43:26*

**Authors:** Gerasimos T. Soldatos

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This note makes the following two points based on Cournot utility functions of the legislators and on the government budget constraint viewed from the perspective of the equation of exchange. Without logrolling, i.e. with different perceptions of the budget constraint, there can be such a legislature preference structure that can turn a pork-barrel project into welfare
enhancing public expenditure depending on economic circumstances. With logrolling, i.e. with agreement at least regarding the size of the budget, the “pork” may be taken out of the project regardless the economic conjuncture. These results are independent of the utility function used, while the use of the quantity equation serves only as the simplest macroeconomic framework in which the two general
points herein may be made.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[1] **viXra:1503.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-01 02:49:50*

**Authors:** Gerasimos T. Soldatos

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This is a note on corruption and underground economy in a Kaldor-type model of the business cycle. It appears that when the economy is booming and underground activities seek to enter the official economy, bureaucrats have the upper hand but until underground businesses cannot tolerate bureaucrats anymore and start reentering the informal sector. This is what checks the growth of the official output and gets it into its downward phase. Once in this phase, bureaucrats lose control and just follow passively the developments in the economy. At the trough of the contraction, official activities reach their nadir whereas the unofficial ones are at their zenith and seek to buy whatever has been left from the staggering official businesses. This is what leads to recovery in the absence of stabilization policies.

**Category:** Economics and Finance