[210] **viXra:1505.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-05 11:21:34*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 14 Pages. A major revision

Time Dilation has been repeatedly confirmed via experiments to be a real, natural phenomenon which can be easily demonstrated and verified in any laboratory which can obtain two sufficiently accurate atomic clocks. Yet, many physicists insist on viewing Time Dilation as nothing more than an “illusion,” a solution to a mathematical problem which has no meaning without the problem. Understanding that Time Dilation is a real, natural phenomenon is the “key” to understanding and resolving some of the greatest mysteries in science, and also to correcting some of the greatest misunderstandings in science.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[209] **viXra:1505.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-31 12:16:48*

**Authors:** Jan A. Bergstra

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The so-called Islamic Finance Requirements induce the notion of an IFR-compliant financial system.
IFR-compliance provides an axiomatic approach to Islamic finance. In order to deal with potential mismatches between IFR-compliance and Islamic principles, IFR-compliant financial systems are referred to as Crescent-Star finances and IFR serves as axioms for Crescent-Star finance (CSF). Literally following that approach negative interest rates are to be avoided in a Crescent-Star financial system just as well as positive interest rates. W.r.t. Islamic finance Crescent-Star finance may admit false positives, i.e. IFR-compliant models of finance that nevertheless fail to qualify as sound from an Islamic perspective, but there won't be false negatives.
A weaker version CSFn of CSF is formulated which formally permits negative interest rates, and a strengthening CSFpls of CSF is defined in which it is always required that profit and loss sharing takes place in connection with lending. It is argued that if only informational money is taken into account, CSFn finance prevents the occurrence of negative interest rates. It is shown that the situation is quite different for physical monies. CSFpls finance excludes negative interest rates as well as positive interest rates.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[208] **viXra:1505.0232 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-22 14:01:18*

**Authors:** Ulrich E. Bruchholz, Horst Eckardt

**Comments:** Pages. The described method solves marginal-problems with unknown margin.

A numerical method, where differential quotients are approximated
by difference quotients, is discussed. This method is commonly
underestimated, wrongly. It is explained by an ordinary differential equation
first. Then it is demonstrated how this simple method proves successful
for non-linear field equations with chaotic behaviour. Using certain discrete
values of their integration constants, a behaviour comparable with
Mandelbrot sets is obtained. As an example the Einstein-Maxwell
equations are investigated, where discrete particle quantities are obtained
from a continuous theory which is possible only by this method. The
special set of integration constants contains values identical with particle
characteristics. Known particle values are confirmed, and unknown can be
predicted. In this paper, supposed neutrino masses are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[207] **viXra:1505.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-31 02:04:10*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A maximum of 110 elements exist within the Vedic Periodic Table of Elements, in contrast to the Periodic Table of western science. This paper predicts Element 110, which is referred to in the Rig Veda. The paper provides the Vedic Particle Physics and Vedic Combinatorial Mathematics views on why the Table of Periodic Elements is naturally limited to 110 elements and no more.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[206] **viXra:1505.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-31 02:18:14*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Cleaned up and reformatted. Part of what was / is for a Marcel Grossman contribution

We initially look at a non singular universe representation of entropy, based in part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto, and then generalize it to the question of initial time step as a function of NLED (non linear Electrodynamics) . Speculations as to the contribution of initial entropy to massive gravitons is also included. In addition, the non singular nature of an initial cosmology configuration , with its emphasis upon initial density proportional to 1 over the fourth power of an initial scale factor will lead to an initial time step of the order of Planck time, as opposed to the GR equation which postulates time set at t = 0 initially.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[205] **viXra:1505.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-30 18:57:18*

**Authors:** Blazej Kot

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Previously published in Prespacetime Journal, May 2015, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp. 470-481

The fundamental structure of the universe is posited to be a network of causal relationships. Coordinate systems are interpreted as a regular structure of causal links. The discrete nature of such coordinate systems and the associated aliasing gives rise to the existence of a phase factor. This in turn leads to an interpretation of the probabilistic nature of observation and the path integral approach to quantum field theory. The symmetry group of a coordinate system built from causal links is shown to match that of the Standard Model of particle physics. The metric of such a coordinate system has Lorentzian signature, while accounting for its curvature leads to a natural interpretation of the Hilbert action of general relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[204] **viXra:1505.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-23 07:22:37*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we analyse the internal interactions in the dark-matter structures and the weak interactions via leptons of the dark-matter structures entangled with the hadronic and leptonic matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[203] **viXra:1505.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-30 06:37:16*

**Authors:** David R.B. Stockwell

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Previous studies have indicated that multi-interval discretization (segmentation) of continuous-valued attributes for classification learning might provide a robust machine learning approach to modelling species distributions. Here we apply a segmentation model to the $Bradypus~variegatus$ -- the brown-throated three-toed sloth -- using the species occurrence and climatic data sets provided in the niche modelling R package \texttt{dismo} and a set of 940 global data sets of mixed type on the Global Ecosystems Database. The primary measure of performance was the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) on a k-fold validation of predictions of the segmented model and a third order generalized linear model (GLM). This paper also presents further advances in the \texttt{WhyWhere} algorithm available as an R package from the development site at http://github.com/davids99us/whywhere.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[202] **viXra:1505.0225 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-18 16:21:53*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

– The variables and parameters of the presented model for the generation of an arbitrary photon fit like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle and therefor justify the conclusion that the model eliminates the wave-particle duality of the photon by explicitly excluding the possibility that it can be a (massless) particle too.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[201] **viXra:1505.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-07 09:59:55*

**Authors:** Todd Sicklinger

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The Universe is contracting, which causes the radii of all massive objects in the Universe to decrease with time and which causes the energy density at all points in the Universe to increase with time. The contraction of the Universe causes the rest mass of all massive objects to increase with time and it causes the g00 element of the metric tensor to decrease with time for all points. The reduction of the g00 element causes the velocity away from the Earth of all massive objects to increase with time and to decrease with distance from the Earth. The increasing velocity of massive objects with time causes an error in calculating distances using Hubble’s law such that nearby galaxies that are not gravitationally bound to the Milky Way are actually much closer to the Earth than believed, which implies that nearby galaxies have much smaller radii than is believed. If the correct galactic velocity and galactic radii are used to calculate galactic distance, then Dark Energy and Dark matter are no longer needed. Type 1A supernovae observations confirm that the supernovae velocity away from the Earth is increasing with time. Increasing differential galactic redshift is proposed as further test.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[200] **viXra:1505.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-29 14:09:19*

**Authors:** Randolf Rolff

**Comments:** 12 pages; German language – Deutsch: Theorie der 4-dimensionalen Materiewellen

This paper describes relativistic effects in the absolute, but 4-dimensional geometric space and with an absolute world time.
According to the special relativity theory (SRT) matter moves continuously in the space-time-continuum, in case of zero kinetic energy along the time axis. This is illustrated clearly in the Epstein-diagram [Epstein, Lewis C. Relativitätstheorie anschaulich dargestellt. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag, 1988]. Hence an absolute base point doesn’t exist. All movements are relative.
In contrast to this motion, the theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave presented here postulates a particle (e.g. an electron) is as a real matter wave in a 4-dimensional and absolute space. In accordance to this theory matter is moving always as a wave with the speed of light. In case of zero kinetic energy this movement runs along the 4th geometric dimension.
The resulting relativistic effects of movement in the space-time-continuum versus movement in the 4-dimensional space are nearly identical due to the similarity of these movements. However the theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave postulates a 4-dimensional and always Euclidean space.
The result of this work is an alternative but still mathematically exact point of view of relativistic physics. In contrast to the SRT, it is not dominated by abstract, mathematical axioms. Typical difficulties for intuitive understanding of SRT like the inhomogeneity of the time-axis in comparison with the space-axes or the curved space are avoided in this theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[199] **viXra:1505.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-29 15:08:28*

**Authors:** Aleksey Vaneev

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This essay presents introductory concepts and philosophy of the “social collision theory” which may offer presumably calculable suggestions on what societal habits can be cultivated which produce a more diverse and economically extensive and efficient society, regardless of the country.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[198] **viXra:1505.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-03 07:53:56*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Version 5 in English

In relational mechanics, a new theory is presented, which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without introducing fictitious forces. Additionally, in this paper, we assume that all forces can obey or disobey Newton's third law.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[197] **viXra:1505.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-29 01:56:46*

**Authors:** Grzegorz Ileczko

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This arcle is a short demonstraon of computaonal possibilies of the extreme effecve algorithm
for the Hamilton problem. In fact, the algorithm can fast solve a few similar problems, well-known in literature as:
Hamilton path
Hamilton cycle
and
Hamilton longest path
Hamilton longest cycle

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[196] **viXra:1505.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-29 02:07:15*

**Authors:** Tomasz Liskowacki, Andrzej Okninski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the present work approximate formula for periodic windows of the logistic map is derived.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[195] **viXra:1505.0216 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-28 08:50:08*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Version 3 in English

In relational mechanics, a new theory is presented, which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without introducing fictitious forces. In addition to the above, in this paper, we assume that all forces always obey Newton's third law.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[194] **viXra:1505.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-08 07:57:07*

**Authors:** Yuri Heymann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Etherington's distance-duality equation is the relationship between the luminosity distance of standard candles and the angular-diameter distance. This relationship has been validated from astronomical observations based on the X-ray surface brightness and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect of galactic clusters. In the present study, we propose a derivation of the Etherington's reciprocity relation in the dichotomous cosmology.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[193] **viXra:1505.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-16 04:48:52*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper has just been submitted for review to Journal of Advanced Mathematics. Your comments are welcome.

This paper was written in the context of a new concept of Maxwellian neutrino suggested by Valerii Temnenko. Assuming that his classical model of neutrino may be considered close to real description, then it seems also possible to write down Maxwell representation of SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. In fact, such an idea has been proposed by Sanchez-Monroy & Quimbay, and they called it: Classical Chromodynamics. Therefore, in this paper I extend further such a Maxwell representation of SU(3) Yang-Mills theory on Cantor Sets. However, I should emphasize that the proposed model as outlined here is not complete yet. It is still a long way from a complete classical description of elementary particles including neutrino masses. Therefore, more research is needed, be it theoretical and also experimental.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[192] **viXra:1505.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-28 04:33:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[191] **viXra:1505.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-28 06:05:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Quantum computers are inherently different from their classical counterparts because they involve quantum phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, which do not exist in classical digital computers. But in a new paper, physicists have shown that a classical analog computer can be used to emulate a quantum computer, along with quantum superposition and entanglement, with the result that the fully classical system behaves like a true quantum computer. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[190] **viXra:1505.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-30 03:44:13*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, the inductive-inertial phenomenon G is developed, as well as the force FG, which acts on the units of the dynamic space (see http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040). This explains the nature of the magnetic forces, that are Coulomb’s electric forces (see http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0210) between grouping units (namely electric charges or forms of the electric field), created by the accelerated electron. Also, Coulomb's Law for magnetism, the physical significance of magnetic intensities and the strangeness of the fluctuation of nucleons magnetic moment are interpreted.
De Broglie’s wave-particle is Gosdas’s motion wave (wave-like form) and his wave function replaces Schrödinger’s equation. So, the wave phenomena of particles, the atomic orbitals and the wave-particle «paradox» are interpreted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[189] **viXra:1505.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-28 03:31:06*

**Authors:** Prabu K, Sumanta Bose, D. Sriram Kumar

**Comments:** Published in Optics Communications Volume 305, 15 September 2013, Pages 185–189. DOI:10.1016/j.optcom.2013.04.056 Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0030401813004434

In this paper the performance of a free space optical (FSO) communication system is analyzed by considering heavy atmospheric losses such as scattering, absorption, channel fading and misalignment fading. For the analysis, subcarrier intensity modulated free space optical (SIM-FSO) communication system using binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is employed. The bit error rate (BER), channel capacity and outage probability of the radiated signal are then investigated over a K-distributed mutual slow fading turbulence channel with illustrative 2D and 3D plots. Novel closed-form analytical expressions are derived for the combined strong turbulent channel model, average BER, channel capacity and outage probability for the considered communication system.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[188] **viXra:1505.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-27 13:30:24*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the present note, we consider the relativistic effects, according to SR, on the "travelling" twin's body dimensions and weight.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[187] **viXra:1505.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-27 09:57:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton’s electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[186] **viXra:1505.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-27 10:43:20*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 69 Pages.

What is the Universe?
'A complex, fractal, super organism of 10 informative dimensions'.
This answer, which resumes the formal and logic principles of systems sciences, also called complexity, is surprisingly short, but 'more complex' than the one physicists explore... which only has 4 dimensions. In that sense, a physicist would reply to the same question:
'A simplex, continuous mechanism in 4 spatial dimensions'.
And this is a huge 'leap' in understanding, from 'simplex' to 'complex', from ‘continuous’ to ‘fractal’, from 'mechanism' to 'organism', from an energetic, spatial description to an informative, temporal one, from '4 meager dimensions' to a whole tetrarkys of them.
This means we complex scientists, parts of the 10D fractal Universe have 6 more real dimensions, besides the 4 usual dimensions simplex physicists used to describe reality, which are, x-length, y-height, z-width –the dimensions of space - and one dimension of time:
Present, Time Duration: T (or its inverse function of frequency, Tƒ =1/T, which measures the number of ‘wave steps’ in a motion; hence gives us more information than a continuous time duration and it is preferred in complexity).
Indeed Physicists calculate Time Duration, as a present dimension of ‘simultaneous time’, useful to measure the translation of any being in space.
This Duration/frequency dimension of time, Tƒ, however is a short; 'present' dimension both in Galilean relativity, as it is obtained with ‘instantaneous derivatives’, (∂t = ∂S/ v), and in Einstein's Relativity (as Time is defined as 'simultaneous' measure).
Reality and all of us, part of it, has more motions in time than short-lived spatial translations (external motions, created by repetitive=present steps, which do not change the internal form of the being).
There are also 'informative motions'... slow 'internal motions' that change the structure of the being, such as evolution and the life-death cycle.
And there are also multiple 'scales' of spatial size and social organization, from the quantum microcosms to the cosmological scale, which co-exist as entities with ‘different speeds of time and information processing (so a small particle turns and moves much faster than a big animal) Hence in as much as their two ‘parameters’ of measure of space (size) and time (speed) are different for entities of those ‘different scales’ of space-time, they must be treated as belonging to discontinuous planes of space-time, each one with its own dimensions.
This is the fundamental insight of complexity about the structure of the Universe.
And so to understand the complex Universe with all those 'slow changes in time from past to future' and relative scales of spatial size with different time speeds, we need to consider a more complex view of the ‘dimensions of time’, and also introduce the concept of different scales of space-time co-existing within a physical or biological system.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[185] **viXra:1505.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-27 12:31:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A collaboration of physicists and a mathematician has made a significant step toward unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics by explaining how spacetime emerges from quantum entanglement in a more fundamental theory. [5]
Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[184] **viXra:1505.0205 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-01 04:09:41*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We diagnose the body of the critical strip. Thereby, we can extract the deterministic
location of the critical line.

**Category:** Number Theory

[183] **viXra:1505.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-27 04:55:05*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. There are many similarities between The Golden Mean and Neutrosophy. In order to achieve the mission of the expansion and development of The Golden Mean towards "modernization" and "globalization", not only Chinese scholars, but also foreign scholars should participate in this mission, and not only Chinese contemporary popular ideas and methods, but also foreign contemporary popular ideas and methods should be applied. There are many different ways for interpretating and expanding The Golden Mean with “Neutrosophic tetrad”(thesis-antithesis-neutrothesis-neutrosynthesis), and come to different conclusions. This paper emphasizes the one conclusion that in practice, The Golden Mean cannot be applied lonely for long-term; it needs to be combined with other "principle".

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[182] **viXra:1505.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 15:26:42*

**Authors:** Douadi MIHOUBI

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Based on, the well-ordering (N,<) of the set of natural numbers N, and some basic concepts of number theory, and using the proof by contradiction and the inductive proof on N, we prove that the validity of the Goldbach's statement:
every even integer 2n > 4, with n > 2, is the sum of two primes.
This result confirms the Goldbach conjecture, which allows to inserting it as theorem in number theory.
Key Words: Well-ordering (N,<), basic concepts and theorems on number theory, the indirect and inductive proofs on natural numbers.
AMS 2010: 11AXX, 11p32, 11B37.

**Category:** Number Theory

[181] **viXra:1505.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 17:36:05*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Recent work (see ref. 1) of the ATLAS collaboration indicates that fermibosonic entities basic to the new theory of a cyclic universe of E8 symmetry exist (ttH process entities). It may be impossible to show the negative mc^2 character of the Higgs component crucial to a complete theory, however.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[180] **viXra:1505.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-29 09:06:43*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Unmmatter Plasma is a novel form of plasma, exclusively made of matter and its antimatter counterpart. It was first generated in the 2015 experiment [1, 2] based on the 2004 considerations [3].
Unmatter is formed by combinations of matter and antimatter that bound together, or by
long-range mixture of matter and antimatter forming a weakly-coupled phase.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[179] **viXra:1505.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 14:22:13*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In medicine, scanning is to be examined by a scanner, to determine if a patient has a problem with your body. Here, we show a new type of scanner, which is absolutely new and unprecedented in the literature. It can be widely used in medicine in order to observe noninvasively the interior of a human body.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[178] **viXra:1505.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 09:53:06*

**Authors:** Mehmet Tokgoz, Oguzhan Dalkiran

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The purpose of this study is to examine the affect of some motoric aspects on shot, pass the ball and dribbling performances at football players. 26 male football players playing different amateur football clubs in Burdur City center and having 19,65±3,452 mean age participated to study. 30m sprint, anaerobic power, log strength, flexibility, balance and coordination tests were used in measurement of some motoric aspects that football players had. Pearson Correlation, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), Simple Multiple Regression, Simple Regression analyses in SPSS 22.0 for Windows package program were used in analysis of data obtained. In the end of research, it was established that there were significant relationship among only anaerobic power, leg strength, balance, speed and flexibility performances with shot, pass the ball and dribbling performances when they were handled independently each other (p<0,05). It was established that there was no significant relationship among shot and pass the ball with coordination level (p>0,05), on the other hand, there was significant relationship between coordination level and dribbling performance (p<0,05).When the affects of motoric aspects, that football players had, on pass the ball, shot, and dribbling performances were evaluated, it was established that anaerobic power, flexibility, balance and speed performances did not affect pass the ball, shot and dribbling performances at significant level (p>0,05). Similarly, it was established that both leg strength and coordination level did not affect pass the ball and shot performances at significant level (p>0,05). Notwithstanding, it was identified that leg strength and coordination level were factors affecting dribbling performance (p<0,05). When motoric aspects were handled completely in research content, their affects on pass the ball, shot and dribbling performances were examined. As obtained results, it was established that speed, leg strength, balance, anaerobic power and coordination level as a whole affected dribbling level significantly (p<0,05). Notwithstanding, it was established that speed, leg strength, balance, anaerobic power and coordination level as a whole did not affect pass the ball and shot performances significantly (p>0,05). As a result, it may be said that handling motoric aspects independently each other did not affect technical skill in football. So, it may be said that handling motoric aspects as a whole is required while technical skills are evaluated in football players, more then one motoric aspects should be developed at certain levels to enhance technical skills in football players.
Keywords: Football, motoric aspects, technical skill

**Category:** Social Science

[177] **viXra:1505.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 09:55:23*

**Authors:** Halil Emrah Ozturk

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) generally composed instrumental concerto for the specific players. In the case of his bassoon concerto, he had written for bassoon player Freiherr Thaddäus von Dürnrtz, and his oboe concerto for Giuseppe Ferlendis. Mozart did not have any other occasion to compose any other bassoon concerto because he befriended only with one bassoon player. After he first heard the basset-horn, he used this instrument in many of his symphonies and he composed works for this instrument in chamber music genre. Mozart dedicated his Clarinet Concerto (K.622) to Anton Stadler (1753-1812) who was an important clarinet player of his time and Mozart’s good friend. Also, his ‘Clarnet Trio’ (K.498), ‘Clarnet Quintet’ (K.581) and ‘Quintet for Piano and Winds ’ (K. 452) are dedicated to Stadler. Therefore, Stadler first performed the A major Clarinet Concerto on October 16, 1791 in Prague.
Key Words: Mozart, clarnet, stadler, basset-horn

**Category:** Social Science

[176] **viXra:1505.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 09:58:35*

**Authors:** Zeynel Turan, Fisun Kose, Hatice Camliyer

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between rhythm and music education in the improvement of basic movement skills of primary school students of 1-4th grades. In this study combing method has been applied and the importance of music and rhythm education for students of these grades has been addressed. Articles on the importance of basic movement education for these children have been studied and a reasonable synthesis has been tried to be attained. When compared with the density of such an education for pre-school period, the number of studies signifying the importance of music and rhythm education during primary school period is rather insignificant, thus making such a study valuable. The importance of music and rhythm education for primary school students has been emphasized both through applied and observational studies, yet studies concerning basic movement have not sufficiently been referred to. In our combing-method study, the importance of the link between rhythm and movement has been emphasized. In the meantime, it can be regarded as a useful study as it may shed light on applied studies to be carried out and it may as well be helpful to researchers in the field.
Keywords: Child, Basic Movement, Music, Rhythm

**Category:** Social Science

[175] **viXra:1505.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 10:03:17*

**Authors:** Mesut Hekim

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Nowadays, sedentary lifestyle, improper eating habits, some environmental factors, genetic factors and various unhealthy lifestyle behaviors lead to the some diseases. Obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and psychological disorders are among some of these diseases. The cancer diseases prevalence is know that continuously increasing in this diseases. This sitution has prepared the ground for the development of new treatments against cancer of the country. Despite cancer is still high prevalence. Cancer disease in children is reported to increase the incidence compared to previous years as in adults. Therefore, to protect children from cancer, cancer support children's treatment process, removal of some importance to improve the quality of children's health has become an important condition after the treatment process. To fight childhood cancer in the literature are also sport and physical activity participation on research findings that give useful results. However, our country was found to be limited research on this subject. İn this context the study was carried out, the prevention of cancer in childhood, in the treatment of cancer, treatment is focused on completion of the children of the benefits of sport participation in the healing process.
Keywords: Childhood, cancer and sports, cancer and rehabilitation

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[174] **viXra:1505.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 10:07:13*

**Authors:** Meric Eraslan, Gokhan Caliskan, Mustafa Bas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Nowadays, sedentary lifestyle, improper eating habits, some environmental factors, genetic factors and various unhealthy lifestyle behaviors lead to the some diseases. Obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and psychological disorders are among some of these diseases. The cancer diseases prevalence is know that continuously increasing in this diseases. This sitution has prepared the ground for the development of new treatments against cancer of the country. Despite cancer is still high prevalence. Cancer disease in children is reported to increase the incidence compared to previous years as in adults. Therefore, to protect children from cancer, cancer support children's treatment process, removal of some importance to improve the quality of children's health has become an important condition after the treatment process. To fight childhood cancer in the literature are also sport and physical activity participation on research findings that give useful results. However, our country was found to be limited research on this subject. İn this context the study was carried out, the prevention of cancer in childhood, in the treatment of cancer, treatment is focused on completion of the children of the benefits of sport participation in the healing process.
Keywords: Childhood, cancer and sports, cancer and rehabilitation

**Category:** Social Science

[173] **viXra:1505.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 10:28:26*

**Authors:** Lukas Saul

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Some definitions and elementary theorems are given here describing tonal and nagual numbers, sets, and processes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[172] **viXra:1505.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 11:33:16*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Unpublished, unfinished draft published now because posterity, diagrams and stuff, etc.

It is widely accepted that a new paradigm is needed to unify the standard cosmological model (SCM) and the minimal standard model (MSM). The purpose of this article is to construct a modified cosmological model (MCM) that can serve as an entirely new paradigm in physics. Following the program of Penrose, geometry rather than differential equations will be the mathematical tool. Where possible, well-defined thought experiments are employed. Analytical methods from loop quantum cosmology are examined in the context of the Poincare conjecture. A new boundary condition is proposed for perturbative gauge theory as a string theory in twistor space. This new degree of freedom allows a reformulation of string theory without reference to any dimensionful parameter. An external time with which to evolve quantum gravity is derived. The MCM predicts dark energy, parity violation, finite vacuum energy density, and a preferred cosmological axis. Observable predictions specific to the MCM are offered for unified investigative effort.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[171] **viXra:1505.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-05 14:11:55*

**Authors:** Javier Bootello

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Comments are welcome

This article checks a perturbing gravitational potential, with the energy of elliptic
orbits. This potential produces a permanent decrease of the eccentricity and the semi-major axis
however it is a conservative angular momentum motion. Results have consistent accuracy with the
detected magnitudes of the unexplained perturbations of the Astronomical Unit and also with
eccentricity of the Moon, but with the opposite sign. Perturbing potential is also consistent with the
relativistic precession of planets

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[170] **viXra:1505.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-23 01:35:24*

**Authors:** Juergen Eibisch

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Contrary to the big bang theory a model is introduced starting out from a universe with coherent energy level. The start of the material cosmos took place by forming one seed with subsequent growth. Necessary elementary particles are defined. The well-known natural laws hold on the basis of Planck length, Planck time, and Planck mass. The cosmic background radiation is used to determine more precisely the value of the Hubble’s parameter (Hubble’s constant). Coming into being and passing away of cosmoses in the universe can be understood as a cyclic process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[169] **viXra:1505.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 16:13:55*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 8 Pages; 4 References

Since its final version and publication in 1916, it is widely reported in several specialized
textbooks and research articles that General Relativity theory reduces to Newton's theory of gravity in the limit of a weak gravitational field and slowly moving material bodies. In the present paper, the so-called reducibility of Einstein's geodesic and field equations, to Newton's equation of motion and Poisson's
gravitational potential equation, respectively, is scrutinized and proven to be mathematically, physically and dimensionally incorrect, and that the geometrization of gravity is unnecessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[168] **viXra:1505.0188 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-28 20:36:05*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Joy Christian has shown that Bell's Theorem should have been formulated in terms of the 7-sphere, and David Brown has shown that the resulting quantum structure indicates that physical reality uses the group SU(8). The non-compact version of SU(8) is SL(8,R) which is a fundamental part of the semi-direct product H92xSL(8,R) (where H92 is (8+28+56+1+56+28+8) = 185-dim and SL(8,R) is 63-dim) which is the Maximal Compactification of 248-dim E8 of E8 Physics described in viXra 1405.0030. Version 2 (v2) expands discussion, uses SL(8,R) in title, and states full viXra number.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[167] **viXra:1505.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 13:04:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8]
As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[166] **viXra:1505.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 10:38:32*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Siti Nurul Khotimah, Hari Anggit Cahyo Wibowo, Trise Nurul Ain, Dimas Praja Purwa Aji

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya 16 (1), 18-22 (2015)

Two-dimension Brazil-nut effect using acrylic plate as intruder and bed particles is observed under non-continuous sinusoidal vibration in order to obtain sufficient image quality for further process. Vibration parameters are f = 13 Hz and Γ = 2. In this work time series of intruder position is presented, which shows that it has rise time Trise = 67 steps, with initial position defined as lower side of intruder in touch with bottom of the container and final position is defined as upper side of intruder is on the bed particle surface. Initial height and width of bed particles are 21 and 92 particles, respectively. Ratio of intruder and bed particle diameter is about 2.545. Most curved of bed particle surface is observed while intruder position is about in the middle between its initial and final configurations.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[165] **viXra:1505.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-24 12:21:44*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We have proved in a few lines that there are initial velocities u^0 (x) and forces F(x,t) such that there is no solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, which corresponds to the cases (C) and (D) of the problem relating to Navier-Stokes equations available on the website of the Clay Institute.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[164] **viXra:1505.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 04:19:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The way creatures evolve in a quantum environment throws new light on the nature of life. [11]
Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[163] **viXra:1505.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 05:47:23*

**Authors:** Norman Graves

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Current theories hold that there are two mechanisms that support the presence of an electric charge, the presence of a charged particle and a changing magnetic field.
Here it is argued that this is highly unlikely indicating the presence of one or more charged particles in the photon.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[162] **viXra:1505.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 05:50:41*

**Authors:** Wei-Xiong Huang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Milky Way center exists a star of super huge mass, its called milky way "nuclear-star". Its rotation and gravitation led milky way all substances movement. Super huge mass make it produces super huge center pressure. Super huge center pressure make it produces super high center temperature.
Nuclear-star center super high temperature so any substance fissile become photons, and towards all directions jet out photons. Photon side sideswiped make it deceleration becomes low-speed-photon, micro-speed-photon. Magnetic force make micro-speed-photon bond into positive or negative electrons, atoms, molecules, cosmic dust, planets, stars. Micro-speed-photon bond substance's distribution into spherical, radius up to hundreds thousands lightyears. Nuclear-star gravitation and rotation make the spherical change into a flat disc, thus forming milky way galactic disk. Nuclear-star gravity eventually will attract them back to nuclear-star.
Milky way the substance hot transpire and cold cohesion constitute milky way's substance loop. Substance form and position determine loop cycle long or short.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[161] **viXra:1505.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 05:53:20*

**Authors:** Norman Graves

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Arguably the most important scientific debate of the 20th Century was that which took place between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr over the nature of reality. Bohr argued that reality was subjective in nature and therefore depended on the presence of an observer or observing process, while Einstein argued that reality had to be objective.
The debate was never resolved, ending prematurely with Einstein's death in 1955. Having outlived Einstein, Bohr's ideas have come to dominate modern physics and Einstein has been somewhat sidelined. Perhaps now it is time to revisit the debate to see if Einstein was correct all along.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[160] **viXra:1505.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 06:28:23*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 16 Pages. submitted to the Gravity journal of Hindawi press

We use a linkage between gravitation and electrodynamics the author shared with Unnishkan . In doing so, we find that a time step minimization procedure given by Peebles may be given further definition as to fine tune an NLED contribution to time step, which the author then links to gravity due to adopting the fifth force formalism of Fishbach . The rest of the document takes, then a derivation of a linkage between the number of gravitons, a minimum grid size, and the time evolution of Hubbles parameter, to ascertain a minimum number, n, of initial gravitons produced, which in turns of Ng’s infinite quantum statistics can be then a measure of entropy. This ‘count’ of gravitons is compared with Ng’s infinite quantum statistics versions of entropy, initially, as well as comments as to how to avoid having zero entropy initially. As to structure formation, we find that the stronger an early universe magnetic field is, the greater the likelihood of production of about 20 new domains of size 1/H with H the magnitude of the early universe Hubble’s constant, per Planck time interval in evolution.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[159] **viXra:1505.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-23 07:17:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Experimentalists used an entangled state of two photons to show that time is going in different way for internal and external observers. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that such scenario concerns the elliptical states of electron in atoms. There are two different entangled circular states of an elliptical state. The jumps of entanglon (entanglons are responsible for quantum entanglement) between them cause that global energy is static whereas an internal observer associated with one of two entangled circular states (the clock) sees evolution of the other circular state. It is the duality of time from quantum entanglement. Similar mechanism concerns two mass states of proton and of neutron but there is exchanged not an entanglon but electric charge between the very dense gluon fields in nucleons. The exchanges lead to the mean fractional charges of such gluon fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[158] **viXra:1505.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-24 23:28:45*

**Authors:** M. Romig

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Erdős-Szekeres Theorem is proven. The proof is very similar to the original given by
Erdős and Szekeres. However, it explicitly uses properties of binary trees to prove and
visualize the existence of a monotonic subsequence. It is hoped that this presentation
is helpful for pedagogical purposes.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[157] **viXra:1505.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-09 15:27:49*

**Authors:** Fabrizio Vassallo

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this short note I resubmit the model presented in vixra 1002.0054 with some corrections.
The mass of the Higgs boson has an integer relation with a particle of the model.
A conjecture is made about a possible internal structure of protons, neutrons, W bosons and neutrinos.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[156] **viXra:1505.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-24 14:58:20*

**Authors:** A.D Albert

**Comments:** Pages.

Traditionally Fuzzy Logic is defined in the unit interval of [0,1]. These notes explore what will happen if this interval was larger than the unit interval (where normalization of truth values will violate the definition of a particular fuzzy set). These notes also derive suitable logical operators applicable to this extended interval utilizing first principles.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[155] **viXra:1505.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-24 09:23:56*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, if we use Einstein’s gravity field equation, we can discover the General Robertson-Walker solution and new solution in the cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[154] **viXra:1505.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-27 04:24:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[153] **viXra:1505.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-24 11:59:01*

**Authors:** Kyle Den Hartog, The Human Species

**Comments:** 1 Page. Please leave the second author(s) "The Human Species" on there, this is intended to give credit for all so that it cannot be legally protected by any person.

This is a method of prime number verification. It is a pattern that is formed based upon the relationship of square numbers and prime numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[152] **viXra:1505.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-23 18:53:26*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factOrization reduced to a convex polynomial-time integer minimization problem.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[151] **viXra:1505.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-06 04:02:40*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This paper is Chinese

The Newton third law by the proof been the wrong been the already, had experimenting of see the substantial evidence on the video , also have the proof of the preciseness treatise. Regard this as the basis to further get, be to the false proof of the Newton second law. Therefore, rectify Newton's law false, new the second laws of motion and new the third laws of motion, then the creation come out. Include the motion of the Newton first law new three law, will become more accurate, more useful mechanics principle, guide the new mechanics system deduce and the establishes.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[150] **viXra:1505.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-28 23:37:40*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Copyright © A. A. Frempong. Paper has been included in vixra:1408.0204 (Example 7 of P vs NP: Solutions of NP Problems by the author)

For one more time, yes, P is equal to NP. For the first time in history, the traveling salesman can determine by hand, with zero or negligible error, the shortest route from home base city to visit once, each of three cities, 10 cities, 20 cities, 100 cities, or 1000 cities, and return to the home base city. The formerly NP-hard problem is now NP-easy problem.
The general approach to solving the different types of NP problems are the same, except that sometimes, specific techniques may differ from each other according to the process involved in the problem. The first step is to arrange the data in the problem in increasing or decreasing order. In the salesman problem, the order will be increasing order, since one's interest is in the shortest distances. The main principle here is that the shortest route is the sum of the shortest distances such that the salesman visits each city once and returns to the starting city. The shortest route to visit nine cities and return to the starting city was found in this paper. It was also found out that even though the length of the shortest route is unique, the sequence of the cities involved is not unique. Since an approach that solves one of these problems can also solve other NP problems. and the traveling salesman problem has been solved, all NP problems can be solved, provided that one has an open mind and continues to think. If all NP problems can be solved, then all NP problems are P problems and therefore, P is equal to NP. The CMI Millennium Prize requirements have been satisfied..

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[149] **viXra:1505.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-23 11:23:16*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper is an improvement of our paper “(t, i, f)-Neutrosophic Structures” [1], where we introduced for the first time a new type of structures, called (t, i, f)-Neutrosophic Structures, presented from a neutrosophic logic perspective, and we showed particular cases of such structures in geometry and in algebra.
In any field of knowledge, each structure is com-posed from two parts: a space, and a set of axioms (or laws) acting (governing) on it. If the space, or at least one of its axioms (laws), has some indeterminacy of the form (t, i, f) ≠ (1, 0, 0), that structure is a (t, i, f)-Neutrosophic Structure.
The (t, i, f)-Neutrosophic Structures [based on the components t = truth, i = numerical indeterminacy, f = falsehood] are different from the Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures [based on neutrosophic numbers of the form a + bI, where I = literal indeterminacy and In = I], that we rename as I-Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures (meaning algebraic structures based on indeterminacy “I” only). But we can combine both and obtain the (t, i, f)-I-Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures, i.e. algebraic struc-tures based on neutrosophic numbers of the form a+bI, but also having indeterminacy of the form (t, i, f) ≠ (1, 0, 0) related to the structure space (elements which only partially belong to the space, or elements we know noth-ing if they belong to the space or not) or indeterminacy of the form (t, i, f) ≠ (1, 0, 0) related to at least one axiom (or law) acting on the structure space. Then we extend them to Refined (t, i, f)- Refined I-Neutrosophic Algebra-ic Structures.

**Category:** Algebra

[148] **viXra:1505.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-23 08:51:59*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 42 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015. PUBLISHED BY: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics Vol.4 No.4, April 27, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.46106

Under some well-defined conditions the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics enables physicists, chemists and other to calculate and predict the outcome of a vast number of experiments. In fact, especially the Schrödinger equation which involves an imaginary quantity describes how a quantum state of a physical system changes with time and is one of the main pillars of modern quantum mechanics. The wave function itself is a determining part of the Schrödinger equation, but the physical meaning of the wave function is still not clear. Altogether, does the wave function represent a new kind of reality? This publication will solve the problem of the physical meaning of the wave function by investigating the relationship between the wave function and the theory of special relativity. It is shown that the wave function is determined by notion co-ordinate time of the special theory of relativity. Moreover, the result of this investigation suggests a new understanding of the wave function, according to which the wave function and co-ordinate time of the theory of special relativity are equivalent. Apparently, based upon the close relationship between time and gravitational field and the normalized relativistic energy-momentum relation, this contribution provides a way to calculate the “mass-equivalent” of a photon in SI units as 7.372 503 726 490 51 * 10^-51 and the “mass-equivalent” of a graviton in SI units as 1.346053370*10^-136 . A necessary mathematical formalism for the quantization of the gravitational field is developed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[147] **viXra:1505.0163 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-12 11:04:05*

**Authors:** David Harding

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Described as "the worst theoretical prediction in the history of physics." the vacuum catastrophe can best be described as the roughly 120 orders of magnitude difference between measured gravitational values of the vacuum energy density and a theoretical zero-point energy suggested by naïve application of quantum field theory. The nature of vacuum energy continues to be ambiguous. The interacting quantum field, its renormalization, and its interaction with gravity in Minkowski space (that is, in our real universe) is still being debated. Does the vacuum energy gravitate? Walther Nernst questioned the consequences of the huge vacuum energy on gravitation. How does one calculate the vacuum density? Is summing the quantum mechanical zero point energies a valid approach? Is it uniform, or does it reveal varying energy probability with varying local mass? This paper proposes that increasing gravitational effects of a body or group of bodies augment the likelihood of quantum interactions occurring. The reverse of this is also true. The emptier space is, the less likely it becomes to have quantum interactions occurring.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[146] **viXra:1505.0162 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-09 20:36:17*

**Authors:** S. Bogue, T. Bogue, E Bogue

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This theory of Quantum Gravity will describe the physical process which causes the force of Gravity due to interactions between the Vacuum Energy and matter/energy in the universe. Mass/energy interacts with the quantum vacuum and create locally uneven distribution of the vacuum energy density. All mass and energy will be accelerated towards the area of the vacuum with a lower energy density. The acceleration will occur in discrete, quantized amounts due to statistical interactions with the vacuum energy while avoiding the near instantaneous collapse of the universe in to a singularity most theories involving vacuum energy predict. This theory predicts the acceleration due to gravity, proper value of G, gravitational lensing of light, and time dilation within this quantized gravitational field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[145] **viXra:1505.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-23 00:03:25*

**Authors:** Fei Tan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Basing on analyses for the data of photoeﬀect, observed by Millikan in 1916, this paper finds that the energy in the photoeffect are not conservative obviously nearby the cutoﬀ frequency, and that the scales of the nonconservative energy fit quantitatively the theoretical prediction in 2013. The causes that the energy nonconservation phenomenon was ignored by Millikan in 1916 are: (1). The wrong measurement made by Millikan’s assistant for the relative intensity of the spectrum of his mercury lamp; (2). Absolute belief for the energy con-servation law in any cases.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[144] **viXra:1505.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-22 12:00:03*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is the first part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. The formulation is based on two postulates which take into account the discrete nature of space and time. Because the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formula violates the space quantization postulate, this formula is modified to avoid the violation. However Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time quantization postulate. This
seems to indicate that we cannot treat time the same way we treat space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[143] **viXra:1505.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 03:49:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Researchers have come a step closer to building one of the world's best dark matter detectors: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently signed off on the conceptual design of the proposed LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment and gave the green light for the procurement of some of its components. DOE's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, a key member of the LZ collaboration, is setting up a test stand for the detector prototype and a facility to purify liquid xenon, which will be the detector's "eye" for dark matter. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[142] **viXra:1505.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-28 07:56:58*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper, we analyze the anatomy of critical line.

**Category:** Number Theory

[141] **viXra:1505.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 18:24:51*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to the principle of the uniqueness of truth, there should be only one truth, namely law of conservation of energy, in the area of Newton Mechanics. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law and the original law of gravity respectively by using the law of conservation of energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[140] **viXra:1505.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 18:27:47*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Due to the existence of man-made laws, many phenomena that are not found in nature, can be manufactured with artificial method, such as instantaneous magnetic monopole. Suppose there is a long uniform rectangular-shaped magnet, along its middle cross section (the demarcation section of N-pole and S-pole) to cut it at very high speed, as the disconnected instant moment, one half of the magnet is the pure N-pole, and the other half is the pure S-pole. Similarly, other instantaneous physical phenomena such as instantaneous fractional charge may also be made with artificial method.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[139] **viXra:1505.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 11:29:29*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Some of the massless fermibosonic entity fundamental to E8 symmetry universe theory failed to develop its fully massless character (i.e. the ttH process entity) during the prior unbroken E8 symmetry epoch before the big bang and now be observed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[138] **viXra:1505.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 03:48:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is closed for refurbishment until later this year. But that doesn't discontinue the findings from flooding in. While examining through data from 2011 and 2012, particle physicists have discovered convincing data for a fresh, formerly unobserved decay channel. The pre-published paper can be found in Nature. The LHC accelerates protons, naturally located at the center of an atom, and directs them zooming around its spherical compartment deep underground. When the protons strike, they annihilate—converting from matter into unadulterated energy. Then, among the discordance of senseless energy that's vanishing in and out of reality all around the reaction chamber, particles start to appear, vanish and manifest themselves again. This pathway that the proton's energy takes through particles is termed as decay channel. [12]
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[137] **viXra:1505.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 05:07:12*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this article, first we classify A, B and C according to their respective odevity, and thereby ret rid of two kinds from AX+BY=CZ. Then affirmed AX+BY=CZ in which case A, B and C have a common prime factor by concrete examples. After that, proved AX+BY≠CZ in which case A, B and C have not any common prime factor by the mathematical induction with the aid of the symmetric law of odd numbers after the decomposition of the inequality. Finally, we have proved that the Beal’s conjecture does hold water after the comparison between AX+BY=CZ and AX+BY≠CZ under the given requirements.

**Category:** Number Theory

[136] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-03 04:26:57*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations appear to apply different parameter spaces. The equation for the electron and the equation for the positron differ in the symmetry flavor of their parameter spaces. This results in special considerations for the corresponding quaternionic second order partial differential equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[135] **viXra:1505.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-15 11:04:58*

**Authors:** Lukas A. Saul

**Comments:** Physics Essays, Volume 28: Pages 561-566, 2015

The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment and certain predictions of quantum mechanics in theoretical and experimental forms are sometimes described as exhibiting non-local action. We describe here an interpretation of one oft-discussed EPR experiment with a locally realistic model. We demonstrate a consistent description based on probabilistic measurement for Mermin and Aspect EPR setups, and show how Bell's theorem applies. Quantum non-locality is shown to be an interpretation dependent on deterministic measurement and vanishes when a treatment of probabilistic measurement and relevant information theory is included.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[134] **viXra:1505.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-28 21:36:09*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Entanglement between separate, distant systems, be it pairs of photon, atoms, or molecules, is a well-documented phenomenon. It is the basis for emerging quantum information technologies, including cryptographic secure keys, quantum teleportation and quantum computing. The current consensus among physicists is that the violation of non-locality, prescribed by quantum mechanics, should be accepted as a fact of how nature behaves, even if it conflicts with human reasoning and intuition, including the reasoning and intuitions of Albert Einstein and John Bell. In the present paper, I describe a new relativity theory, termed Information Relativity, and show that it can account, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for entanglement in a bipartite preparation like the one described in the EPR paper. The theory rests on two axioms: The relativity axiom of Special Relativity, plus an axiom designating light as the information carrier. The theory is deterministic, local, and complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. The fact that the theory, with no hidden variables, can make precise predictions of entanglement is in itself sufficient for casting serious doubts on the nonlocality condition imposed by Bell's inequality. More importantly, the theory results demonstrate that entanglement is in fact, a local phenomenon, and that communicating information between entangled systems occurs by local causality, even at long distances. These conclusions imply that quantum theory is incomplete, that entanglement is not spooky, and that the reasoning and worries of Einstein and Bell are intact. The results also demonstrate that although God might be playing dice, we can do otherwise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[133] **viXra:1505.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-31 08:05:57*

**Authors:** Nordin Zakaria

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I speculate upon the idea that qualia comprise of quanta or packets, and that each packet is generated by physical processes within a neuron, possibly at the quantum level. Pattern-specific neuronal activation causes wave-like interactions among the packets, leading to phenomenal sensation. In essence, I provide in this paper a new panpsychic interpretation of the hard problem of consciousness.

**Category:** Mind Science

[132] **viXra:1505.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-18 03:55:48*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This article shows the calculations of the Doppler shift in all possible situations and compares the result of one of these situations with the result as predicted by the STR in this same situation. An astonishing contradiction between this predicted result by the STR and the hypothesis on which the STR is built shows up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[131] **viXra:1505.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 11:30:31*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Smarandache-Coman function is the function defined on the set of non-null positive integers with values in the set of non-null positive integers in the following way: SC(n) is the least number such that SC(n)! is divisible by n + r, where r is the digital root of the number n. In other words, SC(n) = S(n + r), where S is the Smarandache function. I also state, in this paper, nine conjectures on this function which seems to be particularly interesting: beside other characteristics, it seems to have as values all the prime numbers and, more than that, they seem to appear, leaving aside the non-prime values, in natural order.

**Category:** Number Theory

[130] **viXra:1505.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-24 22:49:07*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** 4 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 11; UK English; Freelance scientist.

Abstract::
From the standard definitions of
volume of a sphere &
density of a solid:-
(cube root [mass/density]) = (cube root [volume]) & is proportional to radius.
If density is almost constant,
cube root [mass/d] = is proportional to radius, where d is constant.
[cube root of the mass], equivalent to a radius parameter, is quantized & the radius ratios form consistent patterns for the different levels of matter.
The cube root of the masses of the fundamental particles become calculable relative to the cube root of the mass of the electron! [The cube of the values then give the masses (MeV).]
[Note:- The “standard letters” for the fundamental particles below are not for for the particles themselves but one of their properties i.e. (cube root of the mass of the electron)]
[A “new” fourth level of matter is a possibility.]
[A “new “high-energy” “photon type”” is a possibility.]
[Initial “creation o is a possibility.]
4*(e1=e/4) + u{=10*e1} = d{=14*e1}, where e1 = (cube root of the mass of the electron)/4
8*(e2 = [mU]) + s{=6*e2} = c{=14*e2}, where e2 = 6*e1
10*(e3 = [tU]) + b{=4*e3} = t{=14*e3}, where e3 = 14*e1
Also:- Higgs boson = 50: w[+-] boson = 43: (3*14 =42)z[0] boson = 45:

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[129] **viXra:1505.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-26 07:10:44*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One especial function will be considered in this paper , and the difficult of quantum mechanics can be solved by the especial function ; which exists objectively and really in nature through analysis the theory which has been developed .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[128] **viXra:1505.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-16 11:35:19*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Updated document; added explanations for (hopefully) easier reading.

It is shown that the electromagnetic field is not a U(1) gauge theory, and it is shown that the Wightman axioms are inconsistent with the principle of conservation of energy and momentum.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[127] **viXra:1505.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-19 15:51:10*

**Authors:** Claudio Piantanida

**Comments:** May 2015 - 83 pages - english.

This paper proposes a Galilean-invariant theory of electromagnetism, applicable at first order
in v/c, describing both instantaneous and propagative interactions.
To extend this theory to higher orders, definitions of universal time and proper time are
introduced. New transformations between reference frames are also suggested.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[126] **viXra:1505.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-19 09:29:47*

**Authors:** Jacek Safuta

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Max Tegmark, exploring implications of the External Reality Hypothesis (ERH) that there exists an external physical reality completely independent of us humans, claims that physics is so successfully described by mathematics because the physical world is completely mathematical, isomorphic to a mathematical structure, and that we are simply uncovering this bit by bit.[1] In this essay we have tried to discover that mathematical structure.
We start from the correspondence rule as it has a potential to look at the existing empirical domain from a different angle, outside the mainstream physics.
Geometrical Universe Hypothesis (GUH) is the theory of mathematical physics compatible with ERH. If GUH is correct, then the empirical domain and the correspondence rule are redundant in the sense that they can be inferred from Thurston geometries.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[125] **viXra:1505.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-12 07:25:32*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We have proved that there are initial velocities u^0 (x) and forces F(x,t) such that there is no solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, which corresponds to the cases (C) and (D) of the problem relating to Navier-Stokes equations available on the website of the Clay Institute.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[124] **viXra:1505.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-19 00:31:36*

**Authors:** Vorobyev O.Yu., Golovkov L.S.

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article brings in two new discrete distributions: multidimensional Binomial
distribution and multidimensional Poisson distribution. Also there are its characteristics and properties.

**Category:** Statistics

[123] **viXra:1505.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-25 06:00:34*

**Authors:** L. Martino, V. Elvira, D. Luengo, J. Corander

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Monte Carlo methods represent the \textit{de facto} standard for approximating complicated integrals involving multidimensional target distributions. In order to generate random realizations from the target distribution, Monte Carlo techniques use simpler proposal probability densities to draw candidate samples. The performance of any such method is strictly related to the specification of the proposal distribution, such that unfortunate choices easily wreak havoc on the resulting estimators. In this work, we introduce a \textit{layered} (i.e., hierarchical) procedure to generate samples employed within a Monte Carlo scheme. This approach ensures that an appropriate equivalent proposal density is always obtained automatically (thus eliminating the risk of a catastrophic performance), although at the expense of a moderate increase in the complexity. Furthermore, we provide a general unified importance sampling (IS) framework, where multiple proposal densities are employed and several IS schemes are introduced by applying the so-called deterministic mixture approach. Finally, given these schemes, we also propose a novel class of adaptive importance samplers using a population of proposals, where the adaptation is driven by independent parallel or interacting Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) chains. The resulting algorithms efficiently combine the benefits of both IS and MCMC methods.

**Category:** Statistics

[122] **viXra:1505.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-18 06:49:16*

**Authors:** Fu-sui Liu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Based on exact theory of quantum transition and precise numerical calculations,
this paper demonstrates quantitatively that the Urbach tail in the
diagram of light absorption coefficient of semiconductor versus photon energy
are caused by energy nonconservation (ENC). This paper also points out
that the light absorption is a non-example of Fermi golden rule; due to ENC
the estimations on the dark energy and dark mass in our universe might be no
longer to have big significance; ENC is a non-example of the first and second
thermodynamic law.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[121] **viXra:1505.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-18 04:00:50*

**Authors:** Karl Birjukov

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Relativity is seriously flawed as a theory of reality. However, it is very often the case that even a flawed theory is acceptable when no viable alternative is offered. When this happens, the flaws are made invisible, and carried into every idea that subsequently shapes concepts without a possibility of detection. It may seem strange to imagine that what is going to be developed here is in some ways an alternative intending to render those flaws visible. However, it is not so much that the interest here is relativity. The meaning of microcosm as it will be developed requires that it should be offered up against reality in comparison. Since no idea or theory ever really does this, the intention is to compare ideas against each other. When this happens, it is clear that a certain dissonance takes place, and so it becomes necessary to look at relativity since the dissonance comes from there. It should be stressed, however, that this is not intended as a scientific enterprise. Far from it. This notion of microcosm begins its life by looking for novel ways of approaching a more tangible and accessible meaning. As such, it lies outside the traditional purview of science, yet paradoxically has something to say about the nature of reality. Consequently, the lines of distinction that are traditionally drawn between subject areas inevitably become blurred.
Microcosm is generally considered in fairly abstract terms: a part reflects a whole, or more generally, all things are connected. Poetically and artistically, it is also suggestive of man as a reflection of the whole. But here, it may be more useful to think of the microcosm as a fraction – the word ‘fraction’ already holds within itself a denominator form that expresses the idea of the whole of which it is a part.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[120] **viXra:1505.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-18 04:43:25*

**Authors:** Koen J. van Vlaenderen

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The force law of Maxwell's classical electrodynamics does not agree with Newton's third law of motion (N3LM), in case of open circuit magnetostatics. Initially, a generalized magnetostatics theory is presented that includes two additional physical fields $B_\Phi$ and $B_l$, defined by scalar functions. The scalar magnetic field $B_l$ mediates a longitudinal Ampère force that balances the transverse Ampère force (aka the magnetic field force), such that the sum of the two forces agrees with N3LM for all stationary current distributions. Secondary field induction laws are derived; a secondary curl free electric field $\E_l$ is induced by a time varying scalar magnetic field $B_l$, which isn't described by Maxwell's electrodynamics. The Helmholtz' decomposition is applied to exclude $\E_l$ from the total electric field $\E$, resulting into a more simple Maxwell theory. Decoupled inhomogeneous potential equations and its solutions follow directly from this theory, without having to apply a gauge condition. Field expressions are derived from the potential functions that are simpler and far field consistent with respect to the Jefimenko fields. However, our simple version of Maxwell's theory does not satisfy N3LM. Therefore we combine the generalized magnetostatics with the simple version of Maxwell's electrodynamics, via the generalization of Maxwell's speculative displacement current. The resulting electrodynamics describes three types of vacuum waves: the $\Phi$ wave, the longitudinal electromagnetic (LEM) wave and the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave, with phase velocities respectively a, b and c. Power- and force theorems are derived, and the force law agrees with Newton's third law only if the phase velocities satisfy the following condition: a>>b and b=c. The retarded potential functions can be found without gauge conditions, and four retarded field expressions are derived that have three near field terms and six far field terms. All six far field terms are explained as the mutual induction of two free fields. Our theory supports Rutherford's solution of the 4/3 problem of electromagnetic mass, which requires an extra longitudinal electromagnetic momentum. Our generalized classical electrodynamics might spawn new physics experiments and electrical engineering, such as new photoelectric effects based on $\Phi$- or LEM radiation, and the conversion of natural $\Phi$- or LEM radiation into useful electricity, in the footsteps of Nikola Tesla and T.Henry Moray.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[119] **viXra:1505.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-07 17:23:07*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 5 figures, minor edits

We develop some ideas that can be used to show relationships between quantum state tensors and gravitational metric tensors. After firmly grasping the math by $\alpha$ and Einstein's equation, this is another attempt to shake it and see what goes and what stays. We introduce slightly more rigorous definitions for some familiar objects and find an unexpected connection between the chirological phase $\Phi^n$ and the quaternions $\bm{q}\in\mathbb{H}$. Torsion, the only field in string theory not already present in the theory of infinite complexity, is integrated. We propose a solution to the Ehrenfest paradox and a way to prove the twin primes conjecture. The theory's apparent connections to negative frequency resonant radiation and time reversal symmetry violation are briefly treated.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[118] **viXra:1505.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-25 14:27:58*

**Authors:** Valery B. Smolensky

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: the article presents the author developed an original analytical method for determining the values of the fundamental physical constants (FPC). Given a finite formulas and the exact results of theoretical calculations 27 constants, including the fine-structure constant, the electron mass, Newton's gravitational constant, the Boltzmann constant and the molar gas constant. Presents a table comparing the results of calculations with the data CODATA 2010.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[117] **viXra:1505.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 22:27:07*

**Authors:** Sasongko Raharjo

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Velocity of an object can affect the gravitational acceleration. Black hole is an example where the light can form a circular orbit in the strong gravitational field. This light is moving around that causes the observer where is not in the path of the light orbit see the black hole as total darkness. In addition, when there is a high velocity of an object has been interacting with the gravitational acceleration, the object is in the micro or zero gravity relative to massive object therefor the gravitational acceleration does no longer exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[116] **viXra:1505.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 22:33:27*

**Authors:** Gy. Szondy

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Presentation of the seminar 2015.04.29 at Eötvö Lorand University (ELTE)

In Special Relativity minkowski four-force is known to be perpendicular to the four-velocity and four-momentum vector. In the ‘50s Károly Novobátzky worked out the generalization of this four-force. We will shortly explain how this formalism can be used to describe conservative fields and how it leads to a Scalar-Tensor gravity that also fits the mathematical background of GPS. We also explain how this Scalar-Tensor gravity related to General Relativity and how can we derive the necessary scalar function (gravitation potential) from the Ricci scalar of the metric tensor. As a final thought we introduce an enhancement of a quantum particle model, where rest mass depends on backgound curvature - explaining the correspondance between gravitation potential and background curvature as revealed in the ST theory above.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[115] **viXra:1505.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 22:54:27*

**Authors:** Agustín A. Tobla

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In classical mechanics, this paper presents the definitions and the relations of the linear, radial and scalar magnitudes of a pair of particles ij.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[114] **viXra:1505.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-20 03:41:50*

**Authors:** Vadim Matveev, Oleg Matvejev

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The paper discusses a method of measuring the one-way speed of light based on the use of a rigid rod freely rotating around its axis. The authors analyze the conditions related to phase correlation and synchronism of rotation of the rod ends in the reference frame wherein its axial velocity is zero and in the reference frames wherein it moves at a high axial velocity. The anticipated results of the experiment within special relativity and Lorentz ether theory are also considered.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[113] **viXra:1505.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-05 13:32:37*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 34 Pages. To change author to Blair D. Macdonald from Blair Macdonald

Global income has increased exponentially over the last two hundred years; while, and at the same time respective Gini coefficients have also increased: this investigation tested whether this pattern is a property of the mathematical geometry termed a fractal attractor. The Koch Snowflake fractal was selected and inverted to best model economic production and growth: all triangle area sizes in the fractal grew with iteration-time from an arbitrary size – growing the total set. Area of triangle the ‘bits’ represented wealth. Kinematic analysis – velocity and acceleration – was undertaken, and it was noted growing triangles propagate in a sinusoidal spiral. Using Lorenz curve and Gini methods, bit size distribution – for each iteration-time – was graphed. The curves produced matched the regular Lorenz curve shape and expanded out to the right with fractal growth – increasing the corresponding Gini coefficients: contradicting Kuznets cycles. The ‘gap’ between iteration triangle sizes (wealth) was found to accelerate apart, just as it is conjectured to do so in reality. It was concluded the wealth (and income) Lorenz distribution – along with acceleration properties – is an aspect of the fractal. Form and change of the Lorenz curve are inextricably linked to the growth and development of a fractal attractor; and from this – given real economic data – it can be deduced an economy – whether cultural or not – behaves as a fractal and can be explained as a fractal. Questions of the discrete and wave properties and the accelerated expansion – similar to that of trees and the conjectured growth of universe at large – of the fractal growth, were discussed.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[112] **viXra:1505.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-23 07:13:36*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a new interpretation of the Quantum Mechanics i.e. the superluminal interpretation (SIQM). Werner Heisenberg used term “the ideological superstructures” to the hidden-variables theory. All known mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics deserve such a term. It follows from the fact that all mainstream interpretations neglect physical consistency of the 3-dimensional wave functions. A wave function which fills up the Universe cannot be a coherent physical object when distant points of the wave function cannot communicate with superluminal speed. Just period of a local change in the wave function (due to a luminal Standard-Model interaction) cannot be shorter than size of the wave function divided by superluminal speed. The Planck length is the lower limit for size of gravitating particles. Objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length must be non-gravitating so non-relativistic and they must be superluminal. The SST, due to the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field, leads from the objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length (so superluminal) to objects with sizes close to the Planck length (so luminal) and larger. The question is not whether there are in existence some superluminal entanglons responsible for quantum entanglement but why we cannot see their motion directly. And the answer is very simple - just they are not the Standard-Model objects, their size is much smaller than the Planck length and the degree of filling of spacetime is very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[111] **viXra:1505.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 05:57:11*

**Authors:** Vadim N. Matveev, Oleg V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Here the so-called Bell’s accelerating rockets paradox is examined. The non-relativistic models of Bell's effect are presented, where likewise the theory of special relativity the proper distance between two rockets following one another is increased them being accelerated on identical programmes. It becomes clear that the proper distance increase is determined by Einstein’s simultaneity of the moments of the start of the programmes execution on the rockets. It is also shown that Einstein’s relative simultaneity does not ensure reversibility of the proper distance between the rockets upon their joint return to their initial state. The reversibility is only achieved by the introduction of the preferred reference frame (not necessarily absolute!) and of the universal time in all inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[110] **viXra:1505.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-02 13:16:32*

**Authors:** Misha Mikhaylov

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

It seems that statements determining features of some algebraic structures behavior are based on just intuitive assumptions or empiric observations and for sake of convenience (simplest example is the phrase: “let’s consider 0! =1”… perhaps, just because Sir Isaac Newton entrusted, so, why not choose any: e.g. 2, 5, or 7.65). So, without logical explanation these are looking a little mysterious or sometimes even magic. This article is a humble attempt to get it straight rather formally. Some troubles may appear on the way – e.g. as it was shown earlier (in the ref. [2], for example), there are at least two binary relations having properties of idempotent equivalences – algebra’s elements that may aspire to be an identity. Apparently, probable obtaining of some well-known results in the text is not an attempt of their re-discovering, but it is rather “check-points” that confirm theory validity, more by token that it was made by using of the only exceptionally formal way, while usually they are obtained rather intuitively. Usually the notion of tensor product is determined for each kind of algebraic structure – especially for modulus (in group theory it is often called direct product – but this is a matter of semantics, so, it’s rather negligible). Here it is shown that tensor product may be introduced without defining of concrete algebraic structure. Without such introduction defining of algebraic operation is strongly complicated.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[109] **viXra:1505.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-16 13:36:35*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This article may be promoted by vixra to science magazines.

A theoretical mechanism is presented for the hologram of gravity. This principle turns the Big Bang-universe into an illusion. The keystone is described as refined time, which is combined with the relativistic time of General Relativity. The refined time is time smaller than the Planck-time, which is formulated in a set of formulas in the Double Torus Theory (DTT). This is a new cosmological theory, which predicts a rotating Time Torus Universe (rTTU). In this particular article the formulations are also extended on how the rotation of the DTT-universe is calculated and can be detected by a shift of the dark spot in the CMB.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[108] **viXra:1505.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-16 11:26:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Scientists have conducted a simulation that explains the collision between two clusters of galaxies. Clusters of galaxies are the biggest objects that exist in the universe. They are collections of hundreds of thousands of galaxies pulled together by gravity. Rare, extreme examples of clusters caught in the act of colliding seem to be challenging the accepted view that dark matter is made up of heavy particles. [13]
Dark matter may not be made of tiny particles as most scientists believe, but instead may consist of large chunks of strange matter anywhere from the size of an apple to an asteroid, researchers said. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[107] **viXra:1505.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-16 10:19:18*

**Authors:** Marouane Rhafli

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

we introduce an algorithm that generates primes included in a given interval $I=[a,b]$ , the algorithm is an optimization to the segmented sieve of eratosthenes,it finds primes up to $N$ without any repetition of multiples of primes using the equation $p^{2}_{n}. p_{j}+2p_{n}.p{j}.c=N$ with $ c\in Z^{+}$ , its time complexity is sublinear $ O(nloglog(n)-n(loglog(n))^2)$.

**Category:** Number Theory

[106] **viXra:1505.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-26 00:00:43*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 65 Pages. British Journal of Mathematics & Computer Science, ISSN: 2231-0851,Vol.: 13, Issue.: 6 DOI : 10.9734/BJMCS/2016/19235

The vacuum energy density of free scalar quantum field with a distributional background spacetime also is considered.It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, sub-dominant contributions. Here we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background distributional spacetime such BHs, to become dominant over any classical energydensity component. This semiclassical gravity effect finds its roots in the singular behavior of quantum fields on curved spacetimes. In particular we obtain that the vacuum fluctuations <Ф^2> has a singular behavior on BHs horizon r_+: <Ф^2>~|r−r_+|^−2.We argue that this vacuum dominance may bear importent astrophysical implications.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[105] **viXra:1505.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-16 04:33:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Both the planet we live on and the star we orbit are made up of 'normal' matter, and though it features in many science fiction stories, antimatter seems to be incredibly rare in nature. With this new result, we have one of the first hints that we might be able to solve this mystery. [11]
Physicists in the College of Arts and Sciences have made important discoveries regarding Bs meson particles -- something that may explain why the universe contains more matter than antimatter.
Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[104] **viXra:1505.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-15 15:24:11*

**Authors:** Percy Forest

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

ABSTRACT : The Sleeping Beauty Problem is shown to be misconceived and therefore incoherent. A model of the experiment is presented along with a properly conceived treatment of betting scenarios. The views of 'thirders', 'halfers' and 'double halfers' are examined when this model comports with the experience of Sleeping Beauty. Bayesian inference and the proper role of credence are also discussed.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[103] **viXra:1505.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 15:28:08*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Comments welcome genebarbee@msn.com

Observations regarding unexpected connections in quantum mechanically entangled systems are revealing a new understanding of our position in the universe. Experiments known by the initials EPR (Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen) show a statistical correlation between separated particle properties. If two particles are produced with opposite spins and move in different directions, it is observed that changes induced in one particle cause immediate changes in its partner. The classic “dual slit experiment” demonstrates that quantum photons can either produce a spot pattern or an interference pattern depending on whether an observer can “measure” which of two slits the photon travels through. More recently, a Discovery Magazine article by Zeeva Merali (Aug 26, 2010) indicates that an entangled particle responds to future changes in its partner (called “back from the future” observations by Jack Sarfatti of Cornell University). The author discusses the implications of taking this data at face value. Three FQXi contest essays [5][6][9]lead up to what I believe to be the explanation for EPR results and back from the future observations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[102] **viXra:1505.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-15 04:55:30*

**Authors:** T.Nakashima

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The equivalent condition about mobius function
of The Generalized Riemann Hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[101] **viXra:1505.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-19 21:19:29*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In a recent paper [1] I proposed a novel relativity theory termed Information Relativity (IR). Unlike Einstein's relativity which dictates as force majeure that relativity is a true state of nature, Information Relativity assumes that relativity results from difference in information about nature between observers who are in motion relative to each other. The theory is based on two axioms: 1. the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (Special relativity's first axiom); 2. All translations of information from one frame of reference to another are carried by light or by another carrier with equal velocity (information-carrier axiom). For the case of constant relative velocities, I showed in the aforementioned paper that IR accounts successfully for the results of a class of relativistic time results, including the Michelson-Morley's "null" result, the Sagnac effect, and the neutrino velocities reported by OPERA and other collaborations. Here I apply the theory, with no alteration, to cosmology. I show that the theory is successful in accounting for several cosmological findings, including the pattern of recession velocity predicted by inflationary theories, the GZK energy suppression phenomenon at redshift z ̴ 1.6, and the amounts of matter and dark energy reported in recent ΛCDM cosmologies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[100] **viXra:1505.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 07:38:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[99] **viXra:1505.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 18:16:33*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The heat exchangers are present in many sectors of the economy. They are widely used in Refrigerators, Air-conditioners, Engines, Refineries, etc. Here we show a heat exchanger that works based on the gravity control. This type of heat exchanger can be much more economic than the conventional heat exchangers.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[98] **viXra:1505.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 23:34:42*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of positive integers m of the form 6*k + 1 such that the numbers formed by concatenation n = m081 are primes or powers of primes, respectively semiprimes p*q such that q – p + 1 is prime or power of prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[97] **viXra:1505.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 00:58:51*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of numbers ab formed by concatenation from a multiple of 30, a, and a square of a prime, b, which are primes or powers of primes, respectively semiprimes p*q such that q – p + 1 is prime or power of prime, respectively semiprimes p1*q1 such that q1 – p1 + 1 is semiprime p2*q2 such that q2 – p2 + 1 is prime or power of prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[96] **viXra:1505.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 09:18:03*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Waves need a media to travel and carry energy. A standing wave is an oscillation pattern with a stationary outline (envelope) that results either from the superposition of two identical waves travelling opposite directions or from an inner equilibrium vibration . A given particle that is bound ( confined ) in a certain region of space is a standing wave and vibrates within the constraints of the envelope function y = 2A.sin(kx).cos.(wt) . Light as Force is acting on zero area wavelength as Normal stress and thus measured as linear Momentum (since Stationary energy becomes Kinetic) and Work becomes travelling Energy .This property of energy to be converted into , velocity in wavelength as background media is the reason that doesn`t collapse by radiating away its or their energy . Work as Vibration is confined in its wavelength as a Damper , absorber , and is retained unchanged when travelling . The Why , When and the How is widely analyzed .Since also a stationary wave consists of two transverse waves then is not interpreted as an equal mixture of the two, but an inner equilibrium on monad . It was shown that the Energy-Space universe ( the beyond Planck`s length , Gravity`s and Spaces` levels ) is [PNS] and Space Anti-Space as work [38-39] , which is the cause of Spaces existence , with the only two quantized magnitudes wavelength ,λ , consisting the{MFMF = Background medium Field } and the Gravity force as momentum ,Λ, on Monads as the Gravity force . Momentum as velocity is the cross product of two velocity vectors v1,v2 which form with the two side-by-side Medium breakages ( The Electric E Magnetic P, following the cycloid motion ) and which is the Intrinsic and Stationary Electromagnetic Field of gravity`s in Medium . Breakages and Particles with velocity ,v, being the units of matter with Electric charge ,q, as their physical property is, when placed in prior referred Electromagnetic Field EP , where like charges repel and unlike charges attract , experience a force as Lorentz force , and this is called Gravity-Force , while Background-medium , is the Gravity-Field in the medium , i.e. the Quantized-Space is the medium (ds) which is also Quantized-Energy of two (±) breakages forming dipole, on which is exerted a Thrust as Velocity ,v, which is decomposed into the two equal velocity vectors ,v1,v2, and moving on two transverse cycloid trajectories which create an Intrinsic Stationary Electromagnetic wave E,P,→ the Gravity field,{ into where motion (E,P) and spin is balanced from the anti- cycloidal motion (evolute) of the Anti -Quantized-Space (-ds) }. Gravity force is exerted on breakages which are [The Material points forming dipoles] as velocity vector ,v, which is decomposed into two reverse velocities following the cycloidal motion , and consisting the intrinsic Stationary Electro-magnetic Wave of gravity, and which is binding the points of this Rest and mass-less nature Field .The infinite tiny volumes caves [Spaces of inner Electromagnetic field of particles] are the tanks in where Energy of dark points and dark fringes of two interference waves, is conserved .This is the Space-Energy unification Universe in Inertial systems consisted of this [MFMF] Field and Gravity`s inner Displacement current force and consist the Absolute frames in nature . So the immense confusion in the basic ideas regarding the Quantized Energy-Space , The Quanta , vanishes.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[95] **viXra:1505.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 09:53:42*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of primes m such that the number n = m*(m + 360) – 6240 is square of prime, respectively prime, respectively semiprime p*q such that q – p + 1 is prime or square of prime, respectively semiprime p1*q1 such that q1 – p1 + 1 is a semiprime q2*p2 such that q2 – p2 + 1 is prime or square of prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[94] **viXra:1505.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 11:00:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[93] **viXra:1505.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 06:56:28*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 6 Pages. BREAKTHROUGH THEORY OF ASTROPHYSICS

This article portrays space and time as conformal projections of motion, and reveals the co-relation between the universality of spacetime (relativistic model) and energy-frequency (quantum model). This is a new theory of cosmology with a concept of unified matter, which created supermatter previously defined as black hole, thus negating the assumption of a gravitational collapse of a star to form a black hole. In general, there is no cosmic hole in the fabric of space where the density of space and not that of matter should be comprehended. Accordingly, the assumption that light cannot escape from the “black hole” is wrong, for to emit light, the dark matter must evolve into a bright matter when it reaches its bifurcation point.
Moreover, this article contributes to the understanding of the formation of twin accretion discs and the origin of twin relativistic jets in gauge/gravity duality. This concept is in conformity with the basic principle of duality in nature, where no singular event of the alleged “Big Bang” could have taken place, for there must always be the cause and the effect in a dual interaction, as in the wave-particle duality.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[92] **viXra:1505.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 07:32:08*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) Theory, all star forming molecular clouds are the result of one or more Herbig Haro systems, equipped with so called dual hotspots which are assumed to be the result of dual new physics “electric dark matter black holes”.
Bok globules are small dark clouds of dense cosmic dust and gas in which star formation only seldom takes place.
Recently some Bok globules are found with dual and triple density distributions indicating that small Herbig Haro systems could also here be the origin of cloud formation.
One of them (ESO 9934) seems to be responsible for fast Infra Red globule production in stead of real stars. These globules discriminate themselves by showing two regular alignments of 5-7 globules. The two rows of globules show a V- shape, pointing to the centre of the small Herbig Haro system.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[91] **viXra:1505.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-18 06:27:43*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Mathematical model of a tsunami similar to mathematical models and sandy vortex soliton [1, 2, 3] proposed. The reasons of stability and vertical motion цунами considered.\\ Предлагается математическая модель цунами, аналогичная математическим моделям песчаного вихря и солитона [1, 2, 3]. Рассматриваются причины вертикальной устойчивости и движения цунами.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[90] **viXra:1505.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 08:35:14*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There are enough unknowns for not considering the special relativity as true.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[89] **viXra:1505.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-13 08:45:33*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Showing the charge non conservation in the decay of a
neutron that made of quarks according to quark model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[88] **viXra:1505.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-29 09:19:59*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 10 pages. International Frontier Science Letters, ISSN: 2349-4484, Vol. 6, P. 6 – 15 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ifsl.6.6.

Based on the similarity of properties of photons and money, and on the formula for the density of distribution of photon gas by energies, the corresponding mathematical formula for distribution of annual income per capita is obtained. Application of this formula for the data analysis reveals several independent groups of population with different average levels of their income. In particular four main groups of population contribute to the distribution of income in the economy of the USA.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[87] **viXra:1505.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 10:12:33*

**Authors:** Stephen Reucroft, Edward Williams

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We have developed models for several elementary particles that are based on simple assumptions and experimental observations. Using these models we take a semi-classical approach to derive relations between the particle masses and their radii. All results are in good agreement with measurements.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[86] **viXra:1505.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 12:06:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The recent finding by CERN of the rare process of Higgs-boson production in association with two top quarks and a Higgs makes one wonder if this process, like the tetraquark particle, serves a marker function, in this case for the existence of fermibosonic entities of E8 symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[85] **viXra:1505.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 08:47:22*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The concept of mass is usually introduced through Newton’s Laws. Associated to the concepts of force and acceleration in the second law of Newton f = m a , valid, it is affirmed, in inertial frames. Since Newton's laws does no define force and inertial frame in a logical unobjectionable manner (Eisenbud, 1957) the concept of mass must be introduced in a way consistent with previous established concepts that we assume a priori. The concepts of space and time permits the introduction of two concepts that define motion – velocity and acceleration. If we admit symmetry properties to space the mass concept emerge as a relation of distances of the centres of two spheres with mass m and mp (standard mass) and another point designated mass centre, at rest, the spheres describe a central motion. Mass is defined by motion. The spheres gravitate around the mass centre with accelerations in the same relationship of the masses, the relationship of the distances to the mass centre. Initially we admit a classical approximation since time is the same everywhere independently of the frame of reference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[84] **viXra:1505.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 05:34:43*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Vértice 66/Maio-Junho, 23 (1995).

We connect the change of complex bodies (extended deformable bodies, not a particle) with the change of entropy, Thermodynamics with Time.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[83] **viXra:1505.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 00:43:47*

**Authors:** A. Lipovka, I. Cardenas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In present paper the Duane-Hunt relation for direct measurement of the Planck constant is improved by including of relativistic corrections. New relation to determine the Planck constant, suggested in this paper contains Duane-Hunt relation as first term and can be applied in a wide range of energies.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[82] **viXra:1505.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 02:34:18*

**Authors:** Chu-Jun Gu

**Comments:** 29 Pages. 3 figures

Abstract We propose a space-time interaction principle (StIP) which states any particle with mass m
will involve a random motion without friction, due to random impacts from space-time. Every impact changes the amount \hbar
for an action of the particle. According to the principle, firstly, we prove the interaction coefficient must be \Re=\frac{\hbar}{2m_{ST}}
deriving from Langevin's equation to the corresponding Fokker-Planck Hamiltonian, where m_{ST}
is a space-time sensible mass of the particle. We can derive that an equation of motion for the particle will be the Schr\ddot{o}
dinger equation, and prove that the space-time sensible mass m_{ST}
reduce to the inertial mass in the non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Secondly, we show that there must exist the smallest mass \bar{m}_{ST}
as the minimum of space-time sensible mass, provided the speed of light in vacuum as the maximum speed due to the postulation of special relativity. Furthermore, we estimate a magnitude of this \bar{m}_{ST}
from microwave background radiation. Thirdly, an interpretation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is suggested, with a stochastic origin of Feynman's path integral formalism. It is shown that we can construct a physical picture distinct from Copenhagen interpretation, and reinvestigate the nature of space-time and reveal the origin of quantum behaviours from the materialistic point of view.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[81] **viXra:1505.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 13:28:38*

**Authors:** Vito R. D'Angelo

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

The theoretical calculation of the Planck circumference and the Planck length, with a result that is in agreement with the uncertainty limits set by the 2010 (NIST) CODATA values. The author posits the Planck circumference as the first pi, and theorizes a new profound meaning of the inverse of the elementary charge as the number of a postulated fundamental unit Y'; within the framework of a proposed finite fundamental particle grouping theory - Utrixical theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[80] **viXra:1505.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 13:46:06*

**Authors:** Roald C Maximo

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A serious conceptual error has been committed along with the experiment performed by Michelson and Morley in the year 1887 conceived in order to detect the existence of an ether and whose null outcome gave rise to far-fetched speculations regarding the nature of light and the properties of space and time. The resulting fuss caught the attention of the physicist Hendrik Lorentz who, to cope with that result, suggested the introduction of an arbitrary correction factor to the equations describing the devised experimental model. In fact, this factor was introduced to suit an ill-conceived premise to an unexpected outcome and, since then, it has become a spook that's persistently being applied as a panacea to explain other little understood phenomena in the Physics and even the Cosmology domain, not to mention Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[79] **viXra:1505.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 10:18:00*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais, Vol. 15, nº 1/2, 23 (2003).

Temperature is introduced as a derived concept from energy and entropy. We consider two sub-systems in equilibrium for several configurations. The equality of temperature of the sub-systems is obtained from the equilibrium condition. The isothermal transformation is defined for several configurations and from this definition we obtain the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. We apply the analysis to the ideal gas. The classical ideal gas appears as a limit and the problem of the measurement of temperature is analysed.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[78] **viXra:1505.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-13 07:46:40*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The question of the source of energy in a dust whirl is considered. Atmospheric conditions cannot be the sole source of energy, as such dust whirls exist on Mars, where the atmosphere is absent. Here we show that the source of energy for the dust whirl is the energy of the gravitational field. We present a mathematical model of the sand vortex, which uses a system of Maxwell-like gravitational equations. The model explains some of the properties of the dust whirl – preservation of cylindrical vertical shape of the dust whirl, motion of the dust whirl as a whole.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[77] **viXra:1505.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-24 06:54:12*

**Authors:** Rommel Nana Dutchou

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This work presents a formalism of the notions of space and of time which contains that of the special relativity, which is compatible with the quantum theories, and which distinguishes itself from the general relativity by the fact that it allows us to define the possible states of motion between two observers arbitrarily chosen in the nature. Before calculating the advance of the perihelion of an orbit, it is necessary to define the existence of a perihelion and its possible movement. In other words, it is necessary to express the use of a physical space which is a set of spatial positions, a set of world lines constantly at rest according to a unique observer. This document defines all the physical spaces of the nature (some compared with the others) by noting that to choose a temporal variable in one of these spaces, it is enough to choose a particular parametrization along each of its points. If the world lines of a family of observers are not elements of a unique physical space, then even in classical physics, how can they manage to put end to end their rulers to determine the measure of a segment of curve of their reference frame (each will have to ask to his neighbor: a little seriousness please, do not move until the measurement is ended) ? This question is the basis of the solution which will be proposed to paradox of Ehrenfest. A notion of expansion of the universe is established as being a structural reality and a rigorous theoretical formulation of the Hubble's experimental law is proposed. We shall highlight the fact that a relative motion occurs only along specific trajectories and this notion of authorized trajectories is not a novelty in physics as it is stated in the Bohr atomic model. We shall also highlight the fact that a non-uniform rectilinear motion possesses a horizon having the structure of a plan.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[76] **viXra:1505.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 07:27:49*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Teaching Modern Physics, Badajoz (Spain) 1992.

Our goal is to achieve in a condensed way, the resolution of some difficulties about the conceptual foundations of Thermodynamics-problematic ideas are identified and analysed. These difficulties have been presented and published in several and incompatible ways but the subject is still controversial. Why is this controversy still unsolved or-and this is stranger-why do some authors refuse the existence of difficulties although the existence of incompatible formulations is a fact? How can a resolution be obtained after the problem has been clearly identified? The difficulties and the solution considered are related to the followings concepts: 1. The several concepts of Heat. 2. The several concepts of Force. 3. The First Law and the concepts presented on points 1 and 2. 4. The several concepts of reversibility and the concept of quasi-static transformation. 5. The introduction of entropy in a simple and straightforward way with a physical interpretation to circumvent and clarify all the difficulties identified-we propose an energy-entropy principle.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[75] **viXra:1505.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-04 13:58:18*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Bracketed quantities removed from p2.

Motivated by T-duality, the 10D/4D correspondence is expanded to apply on trans-Planckian scales. On particle mass scales, the correspondence relates four-dimensional length scales with mass values derived from a ten-dimensional geometry. On trans-Planckian scales, the correspondence relates four-dimensional mass scales with length values derived from the ten-dimensional geometry. Trans-Planckian length scales corresponding to the masses of stellar, intermediate-mass and supermassive black holes are shown to derive from the higher-dimensional geometry. The trans-Planckian length scales calculated for supermassive black holes correlate with the masses of atomic nuclei across the Planck divide suggesting that the two types of object are analogous. Curiously, the galaxy cluster has a particle analogue.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[74] **viXra:1505.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-12 05:16:48*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

We have proved that there are initial velocities u^0 (x) and forces F(x,t) such that there is no solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, which corresponds to the cases (C) and (D) of the problem relating to Navier-Stokes equations available on the website of the Clay Institute. First we study these cases at t=0 and then at t≥0.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[73] **viXra:1505.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 06:26:34*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 57 Pages. My Course Conclusion Work, delivered in early 2009. In portuguese.

A presente monografia tem por objetivo decidir sobre qual a melhor estratégia a adotar em momentos de baixa, alta e oscilação do mercado, dentre algumas estratégias mais simples. Para isso simularemos operações de compra e venda utilizando preços reais das ações de 5 grandes empresas presentes na Bovespa: OGXP3, MMXM3, CSNA3, TNLP4 e PETR4. A OGXP3 será nosso modelo para o mercado em baixa, MMXM3 e CSNA3 representarão o mercado em alta e TNLP4 o mercado oscilante. Utilizaremos a PETR4 para simular operações bem sucedidas no mercado em geral, que chamei de trades perfeitos, e operações que acertam a tendência maior de alta ou baixa com determinada probabilidade, que chamei de trades prováveis. Também simularemos operações de compra e venda no mercado de opções, utilizando para isso as cotações reais de diversas opções de compra da Petrobrás. Todos os preços de ações utilizados neste trabalho referem-se aos anos de 2007 e 2008. Para o mercado de opções foram usados apenas os preços de 2008.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[72] **viXra:1505.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-11 12:46:46*

**Authors:** Lukas Saul

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Minor typos fixed

We are transported to the infinite hotel via processes unknown and find a way to discuss with Georg Cantor himself the cardinality of infinite sets. Using Cantor's first theorem we enumerate the numbers between zero and one, and discover that Cantor's second theorem has not been proven with the rigor we expected and the diagonalization proof fails spectacularly for certain representations. However Cantor has the last laugh. Later we visit the large but finite hotel and discover that transcendental numbers of certain classes are in fact countable, and that uncountable infinites are only created by the addition of a class of numbers or objects we describe as nagual.

**Category:** Number Theory

[71] **viXra:1505.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 03:19:58*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this article, I propose new paradigm of physics. The paradigm leads to simple and unified picture of world. Such simplification and unification has cost of several key concepts of philosophy, including Being. I propose very radical hypothesis of emergent space-time-matter, in which space-time-matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. The hypothesis of emergent reality (ER- hypothesis later) shows how it is possible to find space-time-matter from a more fundamental, static field and space without time and matter. In the article, I show how it is possible to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity in one conceptual model, how to unify all existing forces. Changes in equations of general relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. New model of Big Bang is described and new cosmological model is proposed. New law for recession velocity was proposed, the hypothesis predicts what Hubble law is not applicable at large distance. ER-hypothesis predicts what Theory of Everything is non-gauge theory and cannot be based on space of states. The ER-hypothesis also describes possible parallel universes, propose way of theoretical finding of parallel universes, and way to calculate interactions between parallel universes. Theory of time is described in the article.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[70] **viXra:1505.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-10 13:10:05*

**Authors:** Alexander S. Nudelman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we define an arithmetic theory PAM, which is an extension of Peano arithmetic PA, and prove that theory PAM has only one (up to isomorphism) model, which is the standard PA–model.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[69] **viXra:1505.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-10 09:56:06*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The zero-mass limit for quantum-fields is performed. The resulting field-quanta consist of equal components of positive and negative frequency, which result in a conserved zero 4-vector of mass current. The transformation behaviour of a field's spin variables shows that only states of zero total twist survive this limit process. As a consequence neutrinos must have non-zero mass. Static fields are the classical interpretation of stationary mass-currents which consist of positive- and negative-frequency components of equal spatial k-vector (opposite for quanta!). Such objects, which require sources and sinks, do not occur in conventional quantum field theories, but are central to the case of gravitation. Consequently, static fields have a flow-nature with corresponding retardation effects, which provided a 19th century explanation of Mercury's perihelion shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[68] **viXra:1505.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-10 11:34:55*

**Authors:** Alexander S. Nudelman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we formulate an intuitive Hypothesis about a new aspect of a well known method called “Sieve of Eratosthenes” and then prove that set of natural numbers N = {1, 2, . . .} contains infinite number of pairs of twin primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[67] **viXra:1505.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 16:10:11*

**Authors:** Austin J. Fearnley

**Comments:** Pages.

The paper shows a model for building elementary particles, including the higgs, dark matter and neutral vacuum particles, from preons and sub-preons. The preons are built from string-like hexarks each with chiral values for the fundamental properties of elementary particles. Elementary particles are unravelled and then reformed when preons disaggregate and reaggregate at particle interactions. Hexark colours are separately described by hue (hexacolour) and tone (hexatone). Hexacolour completely determines particle colour charge and hexatone completely determines particle electric charge. Hexacolour branes within the electron intertwine to form a continuously rotating triple helix structure. A higgs-like particle is implicated in fermions radiating bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[66] **viXra:1505.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 13:46:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[65] **viXra:1505.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-18 03:27:16*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

One of the claims that the Special Theory of Relativity is a valid theory is that experiments seem to prove that the velocity of astronomical light reaching the surface of our earth is always c. That inherently means ‘relative to our earth’. This article shows why this conclusion must be wrong and what is really happening when astronomical light reaches earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1505.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 09:28:40*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In his 2007 publication “Physics based calculation of the fine structure constant “ J. P. Lestone suggested that “the photon emission and absorption area A of an electron is controlled by a length scale” where the length scale is near the Planck length. What might be some of the implications of Lestone’s hypothesis? Renormalization in quantum electrodynamics deals with infinite integrals that arise in perturbation theory. Does Lestone’s hypothesis have important implications for renormalization? I conjecture that, EVEN AFTER QUANTUM AVERAGING, Maxwell’s equations might be false at the Planck scale, because Lestone’s heuristic string theory might be empirically valid. Let ρ represent the electric charge density (charge per unit volume). I conjecture that, in equation (19b) on page 23 of Einstein’s “The Meaning of Relativity” (5th edition), ρ should be replaced by the expression ρ/ (1 – (ρ^2 / (ρ(max))^2))^(1/2), where ρ(max) is the maximum of the absolute value of the electric charge density in the physical universe. Polchinski (2003) offered “two general principles of completeness: (1) In any theoretical framework that requires charge to be quantized, there will exist magnetic monopoles. (2) In any fully unified theory, for every gauge field there will exist electric and magnetic sources with the minimum relative Dirac quantum n = 1 (more precisely, the lattice of electric and magnetic charges is maximal).” It seems to me that Polchinski’s two general principles are likely to be correct if and only if nature is infinite. This brief communication considers two conjectures: String theory with the infinite nature hypothesis is empirically valid if and only if magnetic monopoles occur in nature. String theory with the finite nature hypothesis is empirically valid if and only if magnetic monopoles do not occur in nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[63] **viXra:1505.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 10:29:24*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

It is demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to the corresponding system of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. Such a non-Newtonian representation allows one to reduce foundations of statistics to better-established foundations of ODE. In addition to that, evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying dynamics supports a “violent reputation” of the power- law statistics. As preliminary information, a review of origin of randomness in physics including new class of random ODE is presented.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[62] **viXra:1505.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 06:36:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A team researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[61] **viXra:1505.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-10 16:59:54*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP.

A Moyal deformation of a Clifford $ Cl (3, 1) $ Gauge Theory of (Conformal) Gravity is performed for canonical noncommutativity (constant $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ parameters). In the very special case when one imposes certain constraints on the fields, there are $no$
first order contributions in the $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ parameters to the Moyal deformations of
Clifford gauge theories of gravity. However, when one does $not$ impose constraints on the fields, there are first order contributions in $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ to the Moyal deformations in variance with the previous results obtained by other authors and based on different gauge groups. Despite that the generators of $U(2,2), SO(4,2), SO(2,3)$ can be expressed in terms of the Clifford algebra generators this does $not$ imply that these algebras are isomorphic to the Clifford algebra. Therefore one should not expect identical results to those obtained by other authors. In particular, there are Moyal deformations of the Einstein-Hilbert gravitational action with a cosmological constant to first order in $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ . Finally, we provide a mechanism which furnishes a plausible cancellation of the huge vacuum energy density.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[60] **viXra:1505.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 01:30:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

String theorists Neil Turok of Cambridge University and Paul Steinhardt, Albert Einstein Professor in Science and Director of the Center for Theoretical Science at Princeton believe that the cosmos we see as the result of a Big Bang was actually created by the cyclical trillion-year collision of two universes (which they define as three-dimensional branes plus time) that were attracted toward each other by the leaking of gravity out of one of the universes. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[59] **viXra:1505.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-08 11:57:51*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 1 Page. EPS 12 Trends in Physics, Budapest (2002).

Lorentz Transformation is reinterpreted. It is shown that by admitting the existence of a frame of reference with synchronized clocks, we conclude that any other frame of reference that moves related to the first has desynchronized clocks. From this conclusion we will arrive at a new expression to relate the time of different frames of reference. We will also arrive at a new expression to relate the contraction of different frames. We will show that if the maximum speed on the frame with synchronized clocks is the speed of light, then the speed of light varies accordingly to the velocity of the frame of reference. The new interpretation of Lorentz Transformation explains and solves Relativity’s paradoxes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[58] **viXra:1505.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-08 05:24:55*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 19 Pages. EPS-11:Trends in Physics, London (1999).

Irreversible interactions between two subsystems constituted by ideal gases are considered. Several processes conducting the gases to the final equilibrium point and the meaning of entropy production are analysed. If the interaction between the two subsystems results from the energy exchange through a fixed partition, it was demonstrated that the positive entropy production, the local law, is a consequence of the global entropy increase of the universe-it is not possible to have a negative entropy production. If the interaction results from the energy exchange netween the two subsystems through a moving partition it is not possible to define the entropy production generalising the expressions that can be attained for the first configuration. For the first case it is unnecessary. For the other it can not be defined. For the first case it gives a false interpretation [1, 2]. For the other it was the source of an impossibility statement that does not exist [3]. If this so, it is possible to understand what are the misconceptions and prejudices at the origin of two controversies [1-3].
[1] J. Belandria, J. Chem. Educ. 72, 116 (1995).
[2] R. Battino, S. Wood, R. Freeman, L. Nash, W. Olivares, P. Colemenares, R. Tykody, J. Belandria, J. Chem. Educ. 74, 256 (1997).
[3] A. Curzon and H. Leff, Am. J. Phys. 47, 385 (1979).

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[57] **viXra:1505.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-15 23:52:53*

**Authors:** Zhiqiang Zhang

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This is one of my original works in physics specially to present periodic table of physical elements which is invented with help of rule of STC , rule of STV and SI units.
All of physical realities designated by physical units possess an common nature of space time structure that can be exclusively described by space time configuration(STC) and space time value (STV). Any physical reality bearing such kind of common nature is called as physical element , such as, space element, time element, mass element, energy element, momentum element, angular moment element, electric quantity element, magnetic moment element, temperature element, mol element and so on.
By rule of STC and rule of STV, all of physical elements known and unknown have been counted statistically and summarized in form of tables entitled Periodic Table of Physical Elements , abbreviated PTPE.
PTPE is consists of 13 tables, among which the 13th table is irregular coefficient ones, while other 12 tables are regular coefficient ones. For regular coefficient tables , each of them contains 36 physical elements , and each of 36 physical elements exhibits by its space time configuration , space time value , name of physical unit, its sign in SI units and serial No. in PTPE.
More then 400 physical elements in total showcase in such way in PTPE.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[56] **viXra:1505.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-20 11:21:43*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An addendum shows that climate modeling programs are exponentially deviating from the relatively constant, observed global temperatures for the past 35-years. A figure shows that all of the recent temperatures fall within 1-sigma of the global mean temperature for the past millennium.
---------------Observations about global temperatures and modeling are included. The current "global warm period" is compared to those of the previous three with each beginning at 1.5C below the current level and ending 1.5C below this level. Initial warming is rapid (roughly 2C/500-years) while cooling during the last half of the cycle is slow (roughly -2C/6000-years). Planet earth did not see the excessive warming of past cycles during the current heating. It should now be very near the end of a typical 12,000-year "global heat wave", however, since it has been in it for 11,400 years. The analyses in this paper are based on the reported Vostok Ice Core Data.

**Category:** Climate Research

[55] **viXra:1505.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-07 04:30:51*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 7 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that water soliton, being "ancestor" theory of solitons, drops out of the mathematical model of wave solitons. So below is describes non-wave mathematical model, is describes the flows of matter and energy in the water soliton, is detected energy source, is explained the reasons for its shape and stability of shape and motion of a soliton in general. This model is completely analogous to the mathematical model of the dust whirl [1]. \\ Показывается, что водный солитон, будучи "родоначальником" теории солитонов, выпадает из волновой математической модели солитонов. Поэтому ниже рассматривается неволновая математическая модель, рассматриваются потоки вещества и энергии внутри водного солитона, выявляется источник энергии, объясняются его форма и причины устойчивости формы и движения солитона в целом. Эта модель полностью аналогична математической модели песчаного вихря [1].

**Category:** Classical Physics

[54] **viXra:1505.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 15:50:57*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper it is presented a comprehensive theory which can explain HATS-6b.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[53] **viXra:1505.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-07 08:26:27*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A detail description of the EOC Guideline will be shown.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[52] **viXra:1505.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 16:06:19*

**Authors:** Chris O'Loughlin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Newton’s Laws of Motion (NLM) represent one of the most significant achievements in the history of science. That said, they are not without their problems. Firstly, NLM treat gravitational motion as if it is caused by a force, which as Einstein discovered, is not true. Secondly, NLM define force in terms of the acceleration a mass undergoes. However, different observers are free to employ different coordinate systems which can result in the measurement of different accelerations. This in turn can result in different observers concluding that different aggregate forces are in action when it must be true that only one aggregate force is in action. The good news is that by incorporating the fact that gravitational acceleration is not caused by a force into a slightly modified version of NLM we can eliminate these problems, and in the process derive a new perspective on the concept of inertia.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[51] **viXra:1505.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 16:21:58*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we consider four versions of quantum mechanics (QM), which form four different theories and which have the same experimental consequences (one of them is the standard QM). We consider six fundamental problems as criteria for the evaluation of these theories. The most successful is the modified QM introduced in [1] and described in the axiomatic form in [2], which
solves all six problems. The least successful is the standard QM, which does not solve any of considered problems. (It seems that the standard QM is unable to solve any of these problems.) Other two theories solve some of problems and did not solve some other problems. On the base of this result we recommend to abandon the standard QM and to accept the modified QM as the right QM,
since both variants have the same experimental content and the differences rest only in theoretical considerations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[50] **viXra:1505.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-07 03:44:52*

**Authors:** Robert Mereau

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I determine how APST is accomplished through the effects of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, in the networks I previously determined.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[49] **viXra:1505.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-18 06:51:57*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Mathematical model of dust whirl presented in [1], supplemented by the inclusion in the model of mass current, which occurs due to air resistance and inertia grains. Augmented model can explain the cause of vortex motion and argued that there is a positive feedback between the speed of the vortex and its mechanical momentum.\\ Математическая модель песчаного вихря, представленная в [1], дополняется за счет включения в модель массового тока, который появляется из-за сопротивления воздуха и инерция песчинок. Дополненная модель позволяет объяснить причину движения вихря и утверждать, что существует положительная обратная связь между скоростью движения вихря и его механическим импульсом: импульс увеличивается с увеличением скорости и, начав движение, вихрь разгоняется.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[48] **viXra:1505.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 09:40:39*

**Authors:** Yaroslav Grushka

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this comment some incorrect results published in the article "Extended Linear and Nonlinear Lorentz Transformations and Superluminality" are refuted. The article "Extended Linear and Nonlinear Lorentz Transformations and Superluminality" can be found in the journal "Advances in High Energy Physics", Volume 2013 (2013), article ID 760916.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1505.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-25 06:54:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light - a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[46] **viXra:1505.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-17 09:22:32*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Starobinsky model included, text and Latex typos corrected.

We propose a model scheme of microscopic black holes. We assume that at the center of the hole there is a spin 1/2 core field. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of the hole. Possible frameworks for non-singular models are discussed briefly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[45] **viXra:1505.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 07:29:37*

**Authors:** Fursa E.Ja.

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The discoveries in the region of quantum physics definitely indicate on the existence of the immaterial universe, does not available for a perception of our senses and scientific instruments, and the presence of pre-existing information-power "canvas" in the basis of every living organism.
Thus quantum nonlocality is, perhaps, the manifestation of the properties of the very peculiar level of the organization of matter, of so-called "thin world" (or of the "canvas"), which we are unsuccessfully are looking for around and in all: in the inexplicably reasonable, orderly, harmonious, symmetrical and in an animate…
So-called psychics almost unmistakable by the photograph able to distinguish people living and the dead. And one must admit it is an established fact. What are the causal or informational connection may exist between the human (as a living matter) and of non living copy (photograph) of this person, living or dead?
Photo (holography) there is physic-chemical process of saving the image of object (or of other biophysical parameters) on the remoted carrier (film) by means of quantum teleportation of particles (photons).
The psychic, in a known sense, is "a quantum observer" having abilities to carry out the decoherence of the quantum states.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[44] **viXra:1505.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 08:01:51*

**Authors:** M. Askin, H. Abedi, M. Salti

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Rom. J. Phys. 60 (2015) 44-55

In the present study, we discuss a non-equilibrium picture of thermodynamics at
the apparent horizon of flat Friedmann-Roberton-Walker universe in f(T;) theory of
gravity, where T is the torsion scalar and is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor.
Mainly, we investigate the validity of the first and second laws of thermodynamics in
this scenario. We consider two descriptions of the energy-momentum tensor of dark
energy density and pressure and discuss that an equilibrium picture of gravitational
thermodynamics can not be given in both cases. Furthermore, we also conclude that
the second law of gravitational thermodynamics can be achieved both in phantom and
quintessence phases of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1505.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 08:04:01*

**Authors:** H. Abedi, M. Salti

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Pramana-J. Phys. 84 (2015) 503

In the present study, using the time-like fractal theory of gravity, we mainly focus on the ghost
dark energy model which was recently suggested to explain the present acceleration of the cosmic
expansion. Next, we establish a connection between the quintessence scalar field and fractal ghost
dark energy density. This correspondence allows us to reconstruct the potential and the dynamics
of a fractal canonical scalar field (the fractal quintessence) according to the evolution of ghost dark
energy density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1505.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 06:10:48*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum operations is an important subject of quantum information processes. For the local distinction, existing researches pointed out that, since any operation performed on a quantum system must be compatible with no-signaling constraint, local discrimination between quantum operations of two spacelike separated parties cannot be realized. We found that, however, local discrimination of quantum measurements may be not restricted by the no-signaling if more multi-qubit entanglement and selective measurements were employed. In this paper we report that local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) can be completed via selective projective measurements and numerous seven-qubit GHZ states without help of classical communication if both two observers agreed in advance that one of them should measure her/his qubits before an appointed time. As an application, it is shown that the teleportation can be completed via the LQMD without classical
information. This means that the superluminal communication can be realized by using the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[41] **viXra:1505.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-05 17:14:51*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 07 pages, 16 references

The Holographic Principle (HP) is used as a means to put the concept of Darwin’s Time (DT) in a sound basis. We find again that DT is proportional to certain volume of the memory device (MD). Interestingly enough, applying HP to the oxygen nucleus, we obtain a horizon-time which reproduces the DT related to a typical volume (1.8 cm3)of the memory device.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[40] **viXra:1505.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-15 16:15:23*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The challenge of this work is to connect physics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e. in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self- supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of the information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. As a follow-up of the proposed concept, the following question is addressed: can artificial intelligence (AI) system composed only of physical components compete with a human? The answer is proven to be negative if the AI system is based only on simulations, and positive if digital devices are included. It has been demonstrated that there exists such a quantum neural net that performs simulations combined with digital punctuations. The universality of this quantum-classical hybrid is in capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics by moving from disorder to order without external resources. This advanced capability is illustrated by examples. In conclusion, a mathematical machinery of the perception that is the fundamental part of a cognition process as well as intelligence is introduced and discussed.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[39] **viXra:1505.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-05 23:48:14*

**Authors:** DaeHyeon KANG

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Euclid's formula is fundamental and looks briefly, but We generate the pythagorean triple by this formula is not easy. therefore, I found the new formula to get the pythagorean triple easily

**Category:** Number Theory

[38] **viXra:1505.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 02:24:45*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The dielectric with index of refraction n is inserted in the Planck blackbody. The spectral
formula for photons in such dielectric medium and the equation for the temperature of
photons is derived. The new equation is solved for the constant index of refraction. The
photon flow
initiates the osmotic pressure of he Debye phonons. The dielectric crystal surface
works as the osmotic membrane with the Maxwell demonic refrigerator.
Key words: Thermodynamics, blackbody, photons, phonons, dielectric medium, dispersion.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[37] **viXra:1505.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-05 07:56:22*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 7 Pages +appendix. The tenth paper based on reality

A particle model of light (complete in all respects), in which the particles move along helical paths, is proposed. How these particles acquire varying charges and integrate into systems called e-m radiations are explained; the probable physical constants have been deduced. This model replaces 'space-time' by 'gravitational dragging' and 'wave-particle duality' by 'particles following wavy path'. So, if the model is correct, the two great theories of modern physics, 'General Relativity' and 'Quantum Mechanics' will have to be abandoned.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[36] **viXra:1505.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-10 04:44:07*

**Authors:** Brian Coleman

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Equation (9) typo remedying

Eastward and westward orbiting plane time dilation formulae envisaged for Hafele&Keating’s 1971 equatorial clocks experiment were incorrectly derived in the 2004 textbook Relativity in Rotating Frames although exact analytic expressions actually result directly from velocity composition—provided gravitational effects are disregarded. Nevertheless the same idealised equations together yield the classic formula for Sagnac’s analogous 1913 experiment where interference fringe patterns from monochromatic light waves emitted in opposite directions around a rotating wheel, shifted in accordance with rotation rate—an observation misinterpreted by some as challenging special relativity theory. Although only approximately correct for the 1971 experiment, the resulting formulae also yield—independently of general relativity theory—a notable exact formula for a rotating satellite’s clock dilation. The factor’s inverse equals the versed sine of the angle whose sine equals the satellite’s peripheral speed scaled for unit limit speed—the cubic root of the product of the Earth’s mass, the universal gravitational constant and the orbit’s rate of rotation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1505.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-05 13:08:13*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: A cycling-universe theory based on cycles of E8 and E8 x U(1) symmetry is proposed. Non-quantum fermibosonic matter entities play a critical role. Three new gauge bosons are also used, for a total of 8 (the 8-fold symmetry of life). Unobservable particles of negative intrinsic energy (-mc^2) play roles of dark energy (spin 0) and dark matter (spin 1).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1505.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-04 22:10:43*

**Authors:** Pratish R. Rao, Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we present a potentially novel partition generating algorithm for a positive integer k= k1k2.…kn-1kn . In previous papers we used a similar strategy to derive two important known mathematical results regarding factorials and a novel strategy to partition odd composites(Refs 1-3). Here we will generalize this approach to make it widely applicable to all positive integers. We believe this strategy may be an important tool to mathematicians to attack unsolved conjectures as well to derive alternate possibly simpler proofs of established theorems.

**Category:** Number Theory

[33] **viXra:1505.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-18 01:51:52*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Revised version.

We present the sypersymmetric scalar-vector equations for massive and massless fields. The gauge invariance for the potentials described by second-order and first-order wave equations and for the field strengths described by the systems of Maxwell-like equations is demonstrated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[32] **viXra:1505.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-14 10:44:28*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper introduces a new quantum gravitational formula for the mass of the electron. The formula is based on the mass of the proton, the Planck mass and other fundamental physical constants. When we calibrate the value of Newton's gravitational constant to G_calibrated = 6.67265565×10^−11
N m^2/Kg^2 , we obtain the observed value for the mass of the electron. The fact that the calibrated value is very close to the value published by NIST in 1986: G_NIST 1986 = 6.67259×10^−11 N m^2/Kg^2 , suggests that the formula presented in this paper is a true
law of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[31] **viXra:1505.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-04 14:41:54*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

In this paper we leave the neighborhood of the singularity at the origin and turn to the singularity at the horizon.Using nonlinear super distributional geometry and super generalized functions it seems possible to show that the
horizon singularity is not only a coordinate singularity without leaving Schwarzschild coordinates.However the Tolman formula for the total energy E of a static and asymptotically flat spacetime,gives E=m, as it should be.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1505.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-04 10:05:20*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2015, 6, 26-36

This paper posits an extra force field, “super force field”, as the short-distance additional force field to ordinary force fields (gravitational, weak, electromagnetic, and strong) at absolute zero or extremely high density. The short distance super force field accounts for quantum phase transition at absolute zero, and provides the basic cause of superconductivity above absolute zero by quantum fluctuation. At absolute zero or extremely high density, to prevent inactivation and singularity, respectively, the short-distance super force field emerges in between the core particle and the ordinary force field, resulting in the super ordinary force field. In the super ordinary force field, the short-distance super force field excludes the long-distance ordinary force field. At absolute zero, the super ordinary force field emerges to account for quantum phase transition at absolute zero. Through quantum fluctuation, the super ordinary force appears above absolute zero as in superconductivity. Through quantum fluctuation, superconducting electric current is “super current” as one giant quantum state with the super force field that does not interact with ordinary forces, resulting in zero resistance.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[29] **viXra:1505.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-04 08:56:11*

**Authors:** Wei-Xiong Huang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Side face rub hit make photons beeline speed converted to spin speed. When photons beeline speed about reduced to 3km/s, it become low-speed-photon.
Low-speed-photon only a very small beeline kinetic energy and mass, therefore, low-speed-photon become mankind currently undetectable micro-substance.
Electromagnetic force make low-speed-photon maintain three-dimensional reseau orderly arrangement, form electromagnetic field. Photon pass through between three-dimensional reseau, excite low-speed-photon fluctuation, form electromagnetic waves. This situation makes photon show wave-particle duality.
Positive collision make low-speed-photons spin speed converted to beeline speed. Low-speed-photons beeline speed acceleration to light speed, it become photon.
Side face rub hit make low-speed-photons beeline speed converted to spin speed. When low-speed-photons beeline speed about reduced to 3cm/s, it become micro-speed-photon.
Micro-speed-photons beeline speed is very small. So, magnetic force make micro-speed-photons orderly bond into electron or positron. Electron and positron orderly bond into atom. Atoms orderly bond into molecule. Molecules orderly bond into cosmic dust.
Photon flying to cosmic every corner. Therefore, low-speed-photon, micro-speed-photon, electron positron, atom, molecule, cosmic dust, floating in cosmic every corner.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[28] **viXra:1505.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-03 16:44:02*

**Authors:** Sidharth Ghoshal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A simple technique for extending Gale Shapley to incorporate an entire cluster of k individuals with a single dominant set deciding how to form groups.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[27] **viXra:1505.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-25 13:21:58*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 10 pages, 18 references

In 1983, Paul S. Wesson developed 5D Space-Time-Mass theory that associates the fifth dimension with rest mass. The gravitational constant serves as the dimension-transposing parameter.
This paper puts the World-Universe Model (WUM) onto the theoretical basis developed by Prof. Wesson, with the following modifications: the fifth dimension is associated with the total energy of the Medium of the World, and the gravitomagnetic parameter of the Medium serves as the dimension-transposing parameter.
The Medium of the World composed of massive particles (protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles) is the manifestation of the 5D Space-Time-Energy WUM.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1505.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-03 14:31:32*

**Authors:** Chenglian Liu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In 2015, Liu et al. proposed a study relationship between RSA public key cryptosystem and Goldbach's conjecture properties. They discussed the relationship between RSA and Goldbach conjecture, twin prime and Goldbach conjecture. In this paper the author will extend to introduce the relationsip among Goldbach conjecture, twin prime and Fibonacci number. Based on their contribution, the author completely lists all combinations of twin prime in Goldbach conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[25] **viXra:1505.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-03 10:39:03*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

English (translation): We study here a possible cause of the intrinsic precession of the planetary orbits in terms of the sets of stars ["Reality elements'' Vixra.org: 1407.0107], compared with classic atomic model, which, together with the wave-particle duality, it leads to the conclusion that the thermodynamic energy is continuously being created and destroyed.
Based on the above two machines capable of generating electric power by precession resonant circuits are exposed.
Español (original): Se estudia aquí una posible causa de la precesión intrínseca de las órbitas planetarias en función de los conjuntos de estrellas ["Reality elements'' Vixra.org: 1407.0107], comparándola con la del modelo atómico clásico, que, junto con la dualidad onda-corpúsculo, da lugar a considerar que la energía termodinámica está continuamente creándose y destruyéndose.
En base a todo lo anterior se exponen dos máquinas capaces de generar energía eléctrica mediante la precesión en circuitos resonantes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1505.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-05 09:08:05*

**Authors:** Manjunath.R

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Science is not about certainty

The very expression “certainty” is a contradiction in terms. There is rarely such thing as 100% certainty – and everything less than this is uncertain. The very core of science is the deep awareness that we have wrong ideas, we have prejudices. We have ingrained prejudices and these prejudices are organized into equations. For many people this might be a startling claim. Uncertainty does not mean we know nothing, that evidence is unquestionably fraught with misinterpretation. We can say how far we are from the end state, ‘almost certain’ for instance. Our facts and knowledge of the science should always be taken with a skeptical grain salt. Uncertainty in science which in effect means that nothing is real in any absolute sort of way.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[23] **viXra:1505.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-03 02:03:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1505.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-23 09:02:43*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Spanish

During 1923 Einstein wrote three articles that developed the first purely affine field theory with which he tried to unify the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The theory was not satisfactory, but research of Einstein, first forgotten and then recovered in the forties by Schrödinger, provides interesting ideas that may serve to construct a generalization of the theory of gravity. In this research we analyze Einstein's theory, detailing the missing calculations in the work original.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1505.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 14:44:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14]
Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13]
Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20] **viXra:1505.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 08:53:25*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The objective is to formulate a foundation from which SM, GR and the dark sector are emergent. It is proposed that matrix generators with single entries ±1, ±i over a complex field are the building blocks of all physical states. The axiom that vacuum states have non-zero minima requires that all matrix elements are non-zero. In the paper [1], an extended curvature tensor was calculated and N=6d spaces were found. The 4d Weyl spinors are local gauge invariant under SU(4) and a 4d space metric. The transition of a space-like gamma matrix to time like gamma matrix results in the emergence of Space-Time. The dark sector consists of SU(4) gluons modifying the gravitational potential and the cosmological constant is the ground state of the asymmetric curvature scalar. SM fermion sector with 3 generations of quarks & leptons emerges from symmetry breaking of SU(4)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[19] **viXra:1505.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 08:57:09*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

One of the reasons for 1979 Nobel Prize for physics is "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles". While the strict "unified theory" cannot be existed, there is only "partial and temporary unified theory so far". Applying least square method, "partial and temporary unified electromagnetic theory so far", "partial and temporary unified gravitational theory so far", "partial and temporary unified theory of four fundamental interactions so far", and "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far" can be established. In this way, the theory of everything to express all of natural laws, described by Hawking that a single equation could be written on a T-shirt, is partially and temporarily realized in the form of "partial and temporary unified variational principle of natural science so far".

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[18] **viXra:1505.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 09:01:39*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

One of the reasons for 2011 Nobel Prize for physics is "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe through observations of distant supernovae". But "the accelerating expansion of the universe" is debatable. Through mathematical derivation, according to Hubble's law, the values of far away distance, far away speed, far away acceleration of a galaxy, and the force acted on this galaxy are all the exponential functions of time, these reach the unreasonable conclusions: as time tends to infinity, all of these values will tend to infinity too. Due to the observation of distance is limited, at most we can say: "partial universe is in the state of expansion (including accelerating expansion)." In addition, partial universe (such as the area nearby a black hole) is in the state of contraction. Therefore the correct conclusion is that there exist at least seven states of accelerating expansion and contraction and the like in the universe, namely "partial universe is in the state of accelerating expansion, partial universe is accelerating contraction, partial universe is uniform expansion, partial universe is uniform contraction, partial universe is decelerating expansion, partial universe is decelerating contraction, and partial universe is neither expansion nor contraction".

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[17] **viXra:1505.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 09:06:08*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

One of the reasons for 1957 Nobel Prize for physics is “for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles”. While the concepts of parity laws (law of conservation of parity and law of nonconservation of parity) are questionable. For the experiment of Chien-Shiung Wu et al in 1957, the correct way of saying should be that the probability of conservation of parity is 71% and the probability of nonconservation of parity is only 29%. The essential reason for the phenomena of nonconservation (including nonconservation of parity, momentum, angular momentum and the like) is that so far only the “law of conservation of energy” can be considered as the unique truth in physics. As for other “laws”, they are correct only in the cases that they are not contradicted with law of conservation of energy or they can be derived by law of conservation of energy; otherwise their probability of correctness should be determined by law of conservation of energy or experiment (currently for the most cases the correctness can only be determined by experiment). Conclusion: besides law of conservation of energy, all other laws of conservation in physics may not be correct (or their probabilities of correctness are all less than 100%). Discussing the examples that law of conservation of momentum and law of conservation of angular momentum are not correct (their results are contradicted with law of conservation of energy). In addition, the essential shortcomings of special relativity and general relativity are caused from the reason that law of conservation of energy was not considered at the established time of these two theories; therefore their results will appear the examples contradicted with law of conservation of energy, and in the area of general relativity the attempt to derive the correct expression of energy will never be success. Finally the examples deriving the improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity according to law of conservation of energy are discussed, which show the great potentiality of law of conservation of energy, and giving full play to the role of law of conservation of energy will completely change the situation of physics.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[16] **viXra:1505.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 09:08:56*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In 1963, 1980 and 2008, the Nobel Prize for physics is related to symmetry principle, violation of symmetry, and broken symmetry respectively. These facts show the following viewpoint: In nature, not only symmetry principles exist, but also violations of symmetry and broken symmetries exist. While this paper presents the following viewpoint: There is no strict symmetry in nature, only approximate symmetry and partial and temporary symmetry can exixt; and for any symmetry, we can find the example of violation of symmetry or broken symmetry. For example, one case for violation of principle of general covariance is the fractal rule, because the fractal distribution is a straight line only in the double logarithmic coordinates. Theoretically, any equation in natural sciences and social sciences is corresponding to a symmetry and the related conserved quantity, and this conserved quantity can be equal to an arbitrary constant. The contradiction and incompatibility between symmetries are also discussed. For example, the incompatibility is existed between the symmetry for law of gravity and the symmetry for general relativity; and the law of conservation of energy generated by time translation symmetry is contradicted with the law of conservation of momentum generated by space translation symmetry and the law of conservation of angular momentum generated by space rotation symmetry. Although the symmetry for law of conservation of energy is only approximately correct, theoretically it could be considered as the unique symmetry in physics that is strictly correct. For other symmetries, they are correct only in the cases that they are not contradicted with this unique symmetry or they can be derived by this unique symmetry.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[15] **viXra:1505.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 09:12:07*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

One of the reasons for 1945 Nobel Prize for physics is “for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle”. It has been found that bosons are not subject to the Pauli exclusion principle. This paper argues that in some cases the exclusion principle is also invalid for fermions. The reasons are as follows: first, according to Neutrosophy, any proposition has three situations of truth, falsehood and indeterminacy respectively; second, some scholars have pointed out that the exclusion principle may be broken in high-energy state; third, due to the existance of man created law (man-made law), the broken exclusion principle and the man-made (instantaneous) magnetic monopole can be artificially created; fourth, the exclusion principle is not compatible with law of conservation of energy, and in physics the principles that are not compatible with law of conservation of energy will be invalid in some cases.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[14] **viXra:1505.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 09:21:28*

**Authors:** Paolo Palazzi

**Comments:** 42 Pages. slides from the talk presented at the 2nd Workshop on Detectors for Forward Physics at LHC -- La Biodola, Elba, Italy, 28 May 2014. Earlier papers by this author on the same subject at: http://particlez.org/p3a

A mass analysis of the whole particle spectrum, combined with the hypothesis that hadrons are solid-phase and shell-structured, indicates that the proton and the neutron are made of three shells. Mesons states corresponding to shell 1 (pion) and 2 (kaon) are available, but no shells 1 and 2 baryons have been seen. This may be due to the fact that mesons and baryons are built on different lattice systems, the baryonic one being less cohesive.
One of the interpretations of the shape of the p-p elastic scattering dsigma/dt at high energies also relies on a three-layered proton.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13] **viXra:1505.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 09:14:47*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One of the reasons for 1932 Nobel Prize for physics is “for the creation of quantum mechanics”. As well-known, the most famous contribution of Heisenberg is uncertainty principle, therefore one of the most importment reasons for Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel Prize is the creation of uncertainty principle. While, this paper points out that the original uncertainty principle is improper. Considering all the possible situations (including the case that people can create laws), the author presents "certainty-uncertainty principles" with general form and variable dimension fractal form. According to the classification of Neutrosophy, "certainty-uncertainty principles" can be divided into three principles in different conditions: "certainty principle", namely a particle’s position and momentum can be known simultaneously; "uncertainty principle", namely a particle’s position and momentum cannot be known simultaneously; and neutral (fuzzy) "indeterminacy principle", namely whether or not a particle’s position and momentum can be known simultaneously is undetermined. The special cases of "certainty-uncertainty principles" include the original uncertainty principle and Ozawa inequality. In addition, in accordance with the original uncertainty principle, discussing high-speed particle’s speed and track with Newton mechanics is unreasonable; but according to "certainty-uncertainty principles", Newton mechanics can be used to discuss the problem of gravitational defection of a photon orbit around the Sun (it gives the same result of deflection angle as given by general relativity). Finally, for the reason that in physics the principles, laws and the like that are regardless of the principle (law) of conservation of energy may be invalid; therefore "certainty-uncertainty principles" should be restricted (or constrained) by principle (law) of conservation of energy, and thus it can satisfy the principle (law) of conservation of energy.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[12] **viXra:1505.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 09:17:22*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

One of the reasons for 1933 Nobel Prize for physics is “for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory” (namely Schrodinger equation and Dirac equation). While, this paper points out that Schrodinger equation and Dirac equation are improper. According to Neutrosophy, Schrodinger equation and Dirac equation have three situations of truth, falsehood and indeterminacy respectively. Three reasons lead to Schrodinger equation and Dirac equation are improper: firstly, they are not derived by the principle of conservation of energy; secondly, the random (stochastic) concept could lead to absurd results; thirdly, they cannot solve many problems such as gravitation. Applying "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far" including all the equations of natural science so far (in which, the theory of everything to express all of natural laws, described by Hawking that a single equation could be written on a T-shirt, is partially and temporarily realized in the form of "partial and temporary unified variational principle of natural science so far"), this paper presents "partial and temporary unified theory of quantum mechanics so far", this unified theory can be used to make Schrodinger equation and Dirac equation tend to be proper (making Schrodinger equation and Dirac equation are restricted (or constrained) by principle of conservation of energy, and thus they can satisfy the principle of conservation of energy; also making they are restricted (or constrained) by a certain gravitational theory, and establish "partial and temporary unified theory of quantum-gravitation so far").

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[11] **viXra:1505.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 09:56:42*

**Authors:** Paolo Palazzi

**Comments:** 61 pages. Slides from a FIAS Colloquium, Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, June 5, 2014. Earlier papers by this author on the same subject at: http://particlez.org/p3a

The spectrum of hadron masses is a mystery that the prevalent theory is unable to elucidate: there are no mass rules. In fact the hadron mass system is linear, with an increment of about 70 MeV/c^2. This rule was anticipated in 1952 already, re-discovered independently by several authors but never made it to the accepted body of knowledge. In 2003 this rule has been reassessed by this author for all the mesons listed by the RPP of the PDG, with evaluation of the statistical significance by Monte Carlo. This analysis confirms the rule with greater precision, and shows that the slightly different values of the mass unit u for the various meson groups defined by quark composition and J^PC are quantized on a u-grid of 12 equal intervals, and their location on the grid is correlated with the quantum numbers. A conjecture about shell-structured hadrons, combined with the meson mass rules, suggests that mesons are geometrically similar to nuclei, while their mass patterns imply solid-phase aggregates on an FCC lattice. The equivalent baryon analysis shows that the baryon masses are quantized with the same basic mass unit and on the same u-grid as the mesons. Baryonic shells grow with a lower increment compared to the mesons, and start only at shell 3 with the nucleon, suggesting that mesons and baryons differ for the lattice arrangement. These mass rules were obtained with a largely automatic analysis of the full hadron spectrum, and are statistically significant beyond doubt. Combined with the shells, they may offer an alternative, simpler interpretation of the structure of hadrons, their constituents, and the nature of the strong interaction.

Extended abstract and author bio at:

http://fias.uni-frankfurt.de/fileadmin/fias/common/PDF/Colloquium/fias_kollo140605.pdf

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1505.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-19 09:23:56*

**Authors:** Stephen Reucroft

**Comments:** 6 Pages. comment on galactic magnetic field added, with reference.

We investigate the hypothesis that the core of a galaxy has a positive electrical charge with an equal and opposite negative charge distributed over the galactic periphery. We present a determination of the amount of charge needed to explain the apparent anomalous rotation behaviour.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9] **viXra:1505.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 20:10:00*

**Authors:** Stephen Reucroft, Edward Williams

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We have developed models for the electron and the proton that are based on simple assumptions and experimental observations. Using these models we take a semi-classical approach to (i) derive a relation between the electron mass and its charge, (ii) derive a relation between the electron mass and the proton mass and (iii) derive a relation between the proton mass and its radius. These expressions give results that are in very good agreement with measurements.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1505.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-21 12:16:05*

**Authors:** Daniel Cordero Grau

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I lay down the Theory of Quantum Thermobiochemistry with applications to Quantum Genetics, Quantum Pathology and Quantum Pharmacology

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1505.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-10 12:48:16*

**Authors:** Joan Manuel Rodriguez Nunez.

**Comments:** 28 Pages. This theory is do not perfect scoeres, but you can say that if you have a roulette, and in continous movement, the 90 percent is light, the 9 percent is energy and 1 percent is mass, you can say that the energy is 9 times the velocity of the mass, and the

This theory is do not perfect scoeres, but you can say that if you have a roulette, and in continous movement, the 90 percent is light, the 9 percent is energy and 1 percent is mass, you can say that the energy is 9 times the velocity of the mass, and the light is 10 times and 90 times the velocity of the mass, and energy, but if you add 90 percent, plus 9 percent, plus 1 percent, you can say that is equal 100 percent, light, mass, and energy., and this is the effect of this camp, this is the same case about the gravity forcé is the same form, but in effect of camp.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1505.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 14:37:47*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Louis H. Kauffman, Elizabeth A. Rauscher, Peter Rowlands, Jean Pierre-Vigier

**Comments:** 26 Pages. From proceedings of the 7th symposium honoring J-P Vigier hels at Imperial College, London 2010

Recent attempts to consider isolated particles and real constitutive wave elements as localized,
extended spacetime structures (i.e., moving within time-like hypertubes or branes are developed within a causal
extension of the Feynman-Gell-Mann electron model. These extended structures contain real internal motions,
(i.e., internal hidden parameters) locally correlated with the "hidden parameters" describing the local collective
motions of the corresponding pilot-waves. Recent experimental evidence is briefly discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1505.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 06:52:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Icosahedral Island Pd nanoclusters in Palladium Film are described and an experiment is proposed to measure heat produced by TSC Jitterbug Fusion upon exposure to Deuterium gas.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[4] **viXra:1505.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 06:56:12*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Readers comments are most welcome.

The Un Manifested Supre Space ( UMSS) is holding our Manifested Physical Space.( MPS ) There are infinity of singularity particles in UMSS.Two or three of the singularity paricles of UMSS collided and this is the big bang.Both time and space were created at this event.Also, the universe started to expand right from the collission of singularity particles.All the singularity particles and the manifested universes are all in elliptical motion in the UMSS. When one or more a singularity partiles come very closer to the manifested space, the end of the manifested space occurs. i.e the singularity particles of the UMSS) will either swallow or torn apart the manifested physical spaces. This is the origin and end of manifested physical spaces in the UMSS.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1505.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 04:48:18*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

This review summarizes the results of a series of recent papers, where a microscopic model underlying the physics of elementary particles has been proposed. The model relies on the existence of an internal isospin space, in which an independent physical dynamics takes place. This idea is critically re-considered in the present work. As becomes evident in the course of discussion, the model not only describes electroweak phenomena but also modifies our understanding of other physical topics, like the big bang cosmology and the nature of the strong interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1505.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-02 13:05:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall ’91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1505.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 00:12:18*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make three conjectures regarding the infinity of prime terms respectively the infinity of a certain kind of semiprime terms of the sequence obtained concatenating the odd powers of the number 2 to the left respectively to the right with the digit 1.

**Category:** Number Theory