[197] **viXra:1507.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-31 07:39:39*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The qualitative equality between n = 2 and n = 3 spatial dimensions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[196] **viXra:1507.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 09:25:11*

**Authors:** Sundar Narayan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper derives a formula for the lifetime of an unbound or free neutron and shows that neutron lifetime can be related to Newton’s gravitational constant, G, providing a much-needed theoretical formula for G, enabling G to be computed with greater accuracy than today’s experiments allow. Another equally accurate formula for G is derived based on the properties of the virtual electrons that very briefly exist in a quantum vacuum. Also, Newton’s law of gravity and Coulomb’s electrostatic law are derived from the same equation, providing a simple proof of the well-known connection between these two laws.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[195] **viXra:1507.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 09:37:56*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this paper the design and coding of a local hidden variables model is presented that violates the CHSH criterion in size larger than $1+\sqrt{2}$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[194] **viXra:1507.0221 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-23 10:13:43*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sunil P. Khatri, Fedinand Peper

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Accepted for publication (in press) at J. Computational Electronics (Springer)

We introduce information-theoretic erasure based on Shannon’s binary channel formula. It is pointed out that this type of erasure is a natural energy-dissipation-free way in which information is lost in double-potential-well memories, and it may be the reason why the brain can forget things effortlessly. We also demonstrate a new non-volatile, charge-based memory scheme wherein the erasure can be associated with even negative energy dissipation; this implies that the memory’s environment is cooled during information erasure and contradicts Landauer’s principle of erasure dissipation. On the other hand, writing new information into the memory always requires positive energy dissipation in our schemes. Finally, we show a simple system where even a classical erasure process yields negative energy dissipation of arbitrarily large energy.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[193] **viXra:1507.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 08:57:12*

**Authors:** Klimets A.P.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We are considering the possibility of placing the space of any length in the "point" (ie, in a small region of space), including the Universe at the "point" with to the Planck size. The problem is solved in a multidimensional space.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[192] **viXra:1507.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 03:58:15*

**Authors:** Gibadullin Artur

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Model, Universe

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[191] **viXra:1507.0218 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-30 03:34:38*

**Authors:** Dao Thanh Oai

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note, I introduce three conjectures of generalization of the Lester circle theorem, the Parry circle theorem, the Zeeman-Gossard perspector theorem respectively

**Category:** Geometry

[190] **viXra:1507.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-29 14:46:33*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Daniela Gifu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract: Achieving a high quality product corresponding consumer requirements involves organizing and supporting
the production process with a suitable and flexible logistics process. The more the process/ production flow is better
organized, divided into subdomains (production, maintenance, quality), each with clearly defined indicators and
responsibilities, the more the process will be stable, easier to follow and to intervene on perturbations that can appear. In
a stable system, disturbance variables can be controlled, thus losses can be reduced. Everybody is looking for "the
optimal process", "best method" that would remove the uncertainty, ambiguity, defect, doubt and error.
This study aims to present ways of correcting the uncertainties arising in production systems through standardization,
communication, waste awareness, efficient logistics, states incertitude interpretation, analysis and performance
indicators, applying neutrosophy theory, because a product that has several options increases the grade of uncertainty in
the manufacturing process.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[189] **viXra:1507.0216 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-30 03:26:55*

**Authors:** Dao Thanh Oai

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In Euclidean geometry, Feuerbach-Luchterhand theorem is a generalization of Pythagorean theorem, Stewart theorem and the British Flag theorem.....In this note, I propose two conjectures of generalization of Feuerbach-Luchterhand theorem.

**Category:** Geometry

[188] **viXra:1507.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 20:44:29*

**Authors:** Simon WW Manley

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Units of length, time and energy calculated by applying the Holographic Principle to the cosmological Event Horizon are concordant with the properties of the atomic nucleus, and remain so over the history of the universe from CMB decoupling into the infinite future. Such units differ from the Planck units by 20 orders of magnitude. The link between cosmology and particle physics is a non-zero cosmological constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[187] **viXra:1507.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 21:06:22*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The origins of the Indus Valley Civilization are shrouded in mystery. Two significant questions from this unsolved historical problem are the origins of the Brahmi and Indus scripts. In this light, the present paper performs a omparative feature based study of the Brahmi, Indus and Aramaic scripts, decisively proving that the Brahmi is indeed more closer to the Indus script than to Aramaic. Based on this result, and other established partial decipherments thus far, a hypothesis proposing the two-subsets nature of the Indus script is proposed. Separate phonetic and pictographic sets corresponding to Sanskrit and Tamil are identified, pointing towards a new way of comprehensively deciphering the Indus script.

**Category:** Linguistics

[186] **viXra:1507.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 21:08:15*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Gomathi Balasubramanian, Ganapathy Ramanathan

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The current era of technology explosion and globalization has been witnessing steady transformations and transitions in Sciences and Arts towards an oriental philosophical basis. It is seen that management trends too necessitate such a shift, and the present work purports to the formulation of the principles for such a revolution - Holistic Management. Firstly, the traditional 6M model is extended to a more comprehensive 9M model. Following this, the nine enclosures and corresponding aspects and concepts depicted by the esoteric diagram of the Sri Yantra are explored and a mapping between its nine enclosures (Navavaranam) and the 9M model is done, yielding the Nine Realms of Holistic Management. Finally, various key philosophies underlying the Holistic Management paradigm are listed. While this model, like most others has to withstand the test of time, one derives hope from the success and continued application of the Sri Vidya philosophy at the individual and societal level for thousands of years.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[185] **viXra:1507.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 21:09:37*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

After a brief review on the Higgs mechanism and the way it affects the perception of mass, the connection between mass and symmetry is visited. The computational universe model connecting quantum information theory with spacetime is then reviewed and the symmetry-mass connection is explored here as well. Based on these connections, a common thread linking entropy, symmetry, mass and information content is formulated. The key concepts of Kashmir Shaivism, mainly the Shuddha Vidyas are explored and the connection between these concepts and the common thread is elaborated upon. The remarkable similarity between the philosophical underpinnings between Kashmir Shaivism and Modern Physics reinforce the strong connections between the latter and Oriental Philosophy.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[184] **viXra:1507.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-29 13:15:47*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 7 Pages; 2 Figures; 1 Reference.

More recently, G.G.Nyambuya published anarticle entitled "Azimuthally symmetric theory of gravitation – II. On the perihelion precession of solar planetary orbits" [MNRAS 451(3)3034-3043
(2015)], which considered by the author as an improved version of the "Azimuthally Symmetric
Theory of Gravitation (I) – On the Perihelion Precession of Planetary Orbits" [MNRAS403(3)1381-
1391(2010)]. This comment proves that the so-called ASTG-model is physico-mathematically
incorrect. Consequently, the said model cannot possibly be a (new) gravity theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[183] **viXra:1507.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 07:24:38*

**Authors:** Jacob Biemond

**Comments:** 12 Pages, including 2 tables

An expression for the magnetic moment of a massive Dirac neutrino was deduced in the context of the electroweak interactions at the one-loop level in 1977. A linear dependence on the neutrino mass was found. In addition, a magnetic moment for a massive neutrino arising from gravitational origin is predicted by the so-called Wilson-Blackett law. The latter relation may also be deduced from a gravitomagnetic interpretation of the Einstein equations. Both formulas for the magnetic moment can be combined, yielding the value of the neutrino mass.

The gravitomagnetic moment, i.e., the magnetic moment from gravitational origin, may contain different *g*-factors for the massive neutrino eigenstates *m*_{1}, *m*_{2} and *m*_{3}, respectively. Starting from the Dirac equation, a *g*-factor *g* = 2 has been deduced for a neutrino in first order, related to the derivation of the g-factor of charged leptons. When a value *g* = 2 is inserted, a value 1.530 meV results for the lightest neutrino mass *m*_{1}, the main result of this work. In addition, the remaining neutrino masses can be calculated from observed neutrino oscillations.

Our results for the neutrino masses are compatible with the three-parameter semi-empirical neutrino mass formulas obtained by Królikowski. In addition, an empirical relation between the three neutrino masses proposed by Sazdović yields neutrino masses in fair agreement with our results.

[182] **viXra:1507.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-08 10:31:48*

**Authors:** S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Wlliams

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We present a simple, semi-classical e-model of the neutron that gives the neutron mass, charge, spin, magnetic moment and internal charge distribution all in good agreement with measurements.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[181] **viXra:1507.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 05:14:41*

**Authors:** Gibadullin Artur

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

temporal physics, multitempal physics

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[180] **viXra:1507.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 18:50:52*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 225 Pages.

In this book for the first time the authors introduce a special type of topological spaces using the interval [0, n). Several of the properties enjoyed by these special spaces are analyzed. Over hundred problems are suggested, some of which are open conjectures. This book gives a new perspective to topological spaces.

**Category:** Topology

[179] **viXra:1507.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 15:29:10*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The boson count of 8 for the cyclic universe theory included 4 massless gauge bosons. These should not have been included in the particle count (all massive). Correction of this error results in an E8-symmetry cyclic universe of 248 different massive particles,

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[178] **viXra:1507.0202 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-29 13:06:11*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper expounds the role of the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function ζ and supplements the author’s earlier papers on the Riemann hypothesis. There is a lot of mystery surrounding the non-trivial zeros.

**Category:** Number Theory

[177] **viXra:1507.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 13:47:44*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

The author has pledged in various papers, conference or seminar presentations, and scientific grant applications (between 2004-2015) for the unification of fusion theories, combinations of fusion rules, image fusion procedures, filter algorithms, and target tracking methods for more accurate applications to our real world problems - since neither fusion theory nor fusion rule fully satisfy all needed applications. For each particular application, one selects the most appropriate fusion space and fusion model, then the fusion rules, and the algorithms of implementation.
He has worked in the Unification of the Fusion Theories (UFT), which looks like a cooking recipe, better one could say like a logical chart for a computer programmer, but one does not see another method to comprise/unify all things.
The unification scenario presented herein, which is now in an incipient form, should periodically be updated incorporating new discoveries from the fusion and engineering research.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[176] **viXra:1507.0200 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-02 13:26:42*

**Authors:** BERKOUK Mohamed

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

la démonstration passe par trois étapes : 1° - l’unicité du cycle trivial 2° - la décroissance de tout N du départ 3° - l’atterrissage systématique vers le cycle trivial . la démonstration de ces trois étape implique la démonstration de la conjecture de Collatz.

**Category:** Number Theory

[175] **viXra:1507.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 07:18:36*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Gomathi Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The immense power of Sanskrit Sounds and Mantras and their mention in Spirituality and contemporary science cannot be over-emphasized. Upon a cursory glance, it is seen that the Sanskrit alphabets (Aksharas) could be mapped to certain concepts such as Creation, Balance, Success and Variety; stringing together such Aksharas could form Mantras and words. Based on this, a hypothesis is formulated which leads to a listing of concepts from Akshara descriptions given in Tantric Texts such as the Matruka Nighantu, Mantra Vidhanam and Siddha Sapara Tantra. Finally, sample interpretations of various words and Seed (Bija) Mantras using the Aksharas are presented.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[174] **viXra:1507.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 07:23:07*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Etymology, as the flagship study of linguistics, relates phonetic aspects of words in different languages through the connected meanings. The present paper provides a listing of names of countries and continents (modern and ancient included) and through the etymologies in the source languages, reconstructs the Sanskrit names for such countries. The ability to reconstruct Sanskrit etymologies of country names with etymological roots in a diverse collection of languages with reasonable phonetic closeness suggests at a common link between diverse language families of the world, and forms the highlight of the present paper.

**Category:** Linguistics

[173] **viXra:1507.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 05:09:58*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** Pages.

The so called strong form is shown to derive from the recently proved so called weak form

**Category:** Number Theory

[172] **viXra:1507.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-17 11:13:23*

**Authors:** BERKOUK Mohamed

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

La démonstration repose essentiellement sur trois théorèmes que je vais développer par la suite , le premier dite « théorème 1 » qui définit nécessairement tout nombre premier sous forme de 6m ± 1 , ∀ m ∈ N* , et suffisamment quand m ne soit pas sous forme (6xy+x+y) ou (6xy-x-y) pour tout nombre 6m+1 , et différent de la forme (6xy-x+y) pour tout nombre 6m-1. Nous appliquerons le « théorème 2 » qui définit la primalité de 6m ± 1 sans avoir à déterminer x et y de la forme. (v. la multimorielle).
Le troisième théorème dite « théorème 3 » traite de la propriété de la parité en ce qui concerne le produit puis la somme de deux nombres entiers. Enfin le « théorème 4 » évoquant le postulat de Bertrand démontré par le TFNP.
Après avoir passé en revue tout les cas possibles de la somme de deux, puis de trois nombres premiers et de vérifier leurs conformité avec les deux conjectures. La démonstration de la réciproque nous a conduites par une analyse logique, tout droit à celles des deux conjectures de C.GOLDBACH.

**Category:** Number Theory

[171] **viXra:1507.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-26 09:44:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Researchers propose that dark matter is a kind of invisible, intangible version of a pion, or a type of meson — a category of particles made up of quarks and antiquarks. [15]
A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14]
How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[170] **viXra:1507.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-15 04:50:42*

**Authors:** Klimets A.P.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Model of special relativity is built. The model shows the basic formulas of the special relativity and their physical sense.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[169] **viXra:1507.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-28 19:53:50*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre propulsion system in which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while reducing the energy density and energy by an arbitrary value.Here we investigate the negative energy in the Pfenning zone or warped region, and the quantum inequalities involved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[168] **viXra:1507.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 17:30:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Explicit deformations of the Lorentz (Conformal) algebra are performed by recurring to Clifford algebras. In particular, deformations of the boosts generators are possible which still retain the form of the Lorentz algebra. In this case there is an invariant value of the energy that is set to be equal to the Planck energy. A discussion of Clifford-Hopf $\kappa$-deformed quantum Poincare algebra follows. To finalize we provide further deformations of the Clifford geometric product based on Moyal star products associated with noncommutative spacetime coordinates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[167] **viXra:1507.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-05 14:58:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to highlight the deep connection between Einstein's relativistic kinetic
energy formula and two quantum gravity laws' governing their respective domains: black holes and
particle physics. It seems this connection leads to a deeper understanding of the nature of the
intervening processes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[166] **viXra:1507.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 13:20:22*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 10 pages, 4 Figures

Over the last decade, the bond lengths in many molecules including hydrogen bonds and bond angles in small molecules like water and oxides of nitrogen, sulphur and carbon, were interpreted quantitatively in terms of the appropriate atomic and or the Golden ratio based ionic radii. Recently, the structure and formation of stratospheric ozone were explained using the atomic and ionic radii of oxygen. Presented here is a new, precise and simple explanation of the bond lengths and angles of the oxides of chlorine which cause depletion of stratospheric ozone. This work brings the simplest interpretation compared with existing complicated theories.

**Category:** Chemistry

[165] **viXra:1507.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 04:28:23*

**Authors:** Solo Blue

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

if we manage to understand the content of this document, perhaps our greatest dreams may appear very small in comparison with the world we can buid. but...are we capable of believing?

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[164] **viXra:1507.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 05:10:50*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Proofed
Bertrands Postulate
Goldbach´s Ternär and Binär Conjecture
Levy´s Conjecture

**Category:** Number Theory

[163] **viXra:1507.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 05:35:16*

**Authors:** S. Chandra, S. Chandra, G. Lat, P. Par

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Published in Annals of Food Research © 2015, Vol. 42, (12)

Malus domestica, commonly known as the apple, has recently been analyzed with the new stroboscopic techniques to reveal new and unknown properties of this species. We present the results here which may demonstrate novel health benefits from consuming and digesting produce from this fruit.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[162] **viXra:1507.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-24 08:35:24*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

One of the most outstanding and puzzling problem of particle physics is,
how come, no baryon number is needed to specify the spin-1/2 fermions of the
Eight Fold Way model. Recently the author has shown that all the models
proposed to solve this problem, at present, are fundamentally wrong. So
what is the resolution of this conundrum? Here we show that the topological
Skyrme model comes to our rescue. It is this model which fills the gap by
providing a topologically generated baryon number for the spin-1/2 baryons
in the Eight Fold Way model. The global nature of this baryon number
complements perfectly well the global nature of the Eight Fold Way model
baryons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[161] **viXra:1507.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-20 07:01:14*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

By starting from a quaternionic separable Hilbert space as a base model the paper uses the capabilities and the restrictions of this model in order to investigate the origins of the electric charge and the electric fields. Also other discrete properties such as color charge and spin are considered.
The paper exploits all known aspects of the quaternionic number system and it uses quaternionic differential calculus rather than Maxwell based differential calculus.
The paper presents fields as mostly continuous quaternionic functions. The electric field is compared with another basic field that acts as a background embedding continuum. The behavior of photons is used in order to investigate the long range behavior of these fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[160] **viXra:1507.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-30 00:47:32*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: showing the fundamental structure of the proton as an elementary particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[159] **viXra:1507.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-30 08:17:43*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Companies like Google are using our search engine results to send us ads targeted towards hoping for an impulse buy or using what we search against us. Tracking of our search engine results and IP address by Google raises concerns of possible violations of privacy by many people. People such as Steven Aftergood state that we are beginning to have a higher lack of privacy and our data. Everything from our web browsing data, search engine results, and cookies are being tracked by both the government and third party sites to either send us targeted ads or to have something against us in the case if we ever get into any trouble. Deborah Hurley states, “We need to take account our human rights when it concerns our privacy.” The purpose of this paper is to bring about awareness of this current issue through a logical, yet philosophical standpoint.

**Category:** Social Science

[158] **viXra:1507.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 16:17:29*

**Authors:** Hans van Kessel

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This manuscript explores the restrictions that light velocity imposes on orbiting objects. It then applies the findings to the ‘entropy atom’, a concept that was introduced in an earlier publication (see http://vixra.org/abs/1408.0142)
The key results are:
1.Proof that Gravity travels a light velocity.
2.Orbit diameters are subject to Lorentz expansion (as opposed to Lorentz contraction).
3.The smallest observable object (thus elementary particle) has an entropy value of 2 bits. It has been named ‘entropy atom’.
4.There is a universal maximum limit to how much an entropy atom can contain: 228.97 GeV/c2.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[157] **viXra:1507.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 19:18:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Foundations of Physics (FOOP). Your comments are welcome.

In this paper, I argue that it is possible to model many physical phenomena in terms of classical wave equation. I already discussed this issue for the case of Maxwell equations and Sachs-Wolfe effect, and then I shall show how linearised version of Einstein’s field equations reduce to wave equation form. The latter can be generalized further into a fractal wave equation for Cantor sets. The proposed equation may be called: Fractal gravitational wave on Cantor sets. As far as I know, such an equation has never been considered elsewhere before. However, I should emphasize that the proposed model as outlined here is not complete yet. Therefore, more research is needed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[156] **viXra:1507.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 14:07:38*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This text in the German tongue introduces social workers and volunteers into the essentials of non-profit management.

**Category:** Social Science

[155] **viXra:1507.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 14:52:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A big part of the burgeoning science of quantum computation is reliably storing and processing information in the form of quantum bits, or qubits. One of the obstacles to this goal is the difficulty of preserving the fragile quantum condition of qubits against unwanted outside influence even as the qubits interact among themselves in a programmatic way. [8]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[154] **viXra:1507.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 15:02:39*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 10 pages, 15 references

A modification of the Dirac extensible model of electron is applied to study both the universe and the electron. Frequencies of small oscillations of the nucleon and of the electron coupled to this universe are estimated. Two bold hypotheses combined with the models results permit us to estimate the nucleon-electron mass ratio. The mass and radius of the observable universe are also determined.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[153] **viXra:1507.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 10:38:51*

**Authors:** Andrea Pignataro

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to explain that the real nature of the multiplication operation is based on its scaling factors and why is a common mistake to understand the multiplication as a repeated addition.

**Category:** Number Theory

[152] **viXra:1507.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-22 20:25:03*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Interference experiments with only one photon in the experiment at a time have also showed interference patterns. A previous paper that studied photon diffraction and interference (IntellectualArchive, Vol.1, No. 3, P. 20, ISSN 1929-4700, Toronto, July 2012.) required several photons in the experiment at the same time. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of photon, plenum, screen and mask; the Bohm Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics; and the Transaction Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics are combined. The speed of the plenum wave is much faster than the speed of photons/light. The reverse wave required by the Transaction Interpretation is provided by a reflected plenum wave rather than a reverse time wave. The photon distribution on a screen results in an intensity pattern well fit by the Fraunhofer diffraction equation. The resultant mathematical model corresponds to the Fraunhofer mathematical model without the peculiar assumptions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[151] **viXra:1507.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 02:12:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14]
How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[150] **viXra:1507.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-22 12:58:16*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Fock in 1931 showed that Fundamental Quantum Theory requires Linear Operators based on Kernel Functions. Hua showed that Kernel Functions correspond to Complex Classical Domains and Symmetic Spaces. Wolf showed which Symmetric Spaces correspond to Quaternionic Structure, which can represent 4-dim physical spacetime. Schwinger showed that physical elementary particles observed experimentally are not points, but are small geometric volumes he called Sources whose structure carries properties including Creation and Annihilation probability amplitudes. Creation and Annihilation operators lead to Clifford Algebra structure and E8 Physics. The Source structure is based on Green's Functions = Kernel Functions for the Geometry of each Source, which geometry has the symmetry of the Gauge Groups relevant to the particle represented by the Source. Wyler showed the basic process whereby Geoemtric Volumes related to Sources could be used to calculate force strengths and particle masses.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[149] **viXra:1507.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-24 07:22:01*

**Authors:** Bezaliel Anotida Joshua

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to a formal journal for peer-review.

In this note, we provide an elementary proof of Fermat's Last Theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[148] **viXra:1507.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-22 10:43:24*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal for review. Your comments are welcome

In a recent paper I derived an exact analytical solution of Riccati form of 2D Navier-Stokes equations with Mathematica. Now I will present a possible route from an exact analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations to Navier-Stokes Cosmology on Cantor Sets. The route is by showing that Raychaudhury equation leads to Friedmann equation when the vorticity vector, shear tensor and tidal force tensor vanish. Then I show how one can generalize it further to Navier-Stokes systems on Cantor Sets. While this paper contains nothing new except for pedagogical purpose, it may serve as an outline towards Navier-Stokes Cosmology on Cantor Sets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[147] **viXra:1507.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 15:48:24*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

These introductory lectures on affine and quantum algebras are motivated by the idea that triality and exceptional structures are crucial to gravity and color symmetry. We start with the ADE classification.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[146] **viXra:1507.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 16:30:09*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

Inertia of a mass sample directly depends on all the gravity radiation received by that sample from everywhere in the universe. Acceleration away from each gravity radiation source increases the gravity radiation received by any mass sample. Acceleration of the mass sample in the direction away from any gravity radiation source will add further to the strength of the gravity radiation received by the mass sample. This is the direct connection between mass generated gravity and artificial acceleration generated gravity, whether linear or centrifugal. Mach’s vague principle is clearly explained in this paper as well as the causes of inertia.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[145] **viXra:1507.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 17:33:14*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a continuation of this conceptual model of the fundamental properties of the
Universe. This model offers a new viewpoint conceptually on the fundamental properties of
Spacetime, Strings and Branes and in the forming of a new concept called the Probability of
Geometry. Further taking these concepts through Pre-Big Bang and Post-Big Bang Cosmology
concerning possible physics and cosmology beyond the Planck scale. With the added feature
of testability, and expansion of how to conceptually marry General Relativity, Quantum
Mechanics, M-Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity into one complete theory of Line Space.
With a more full understanding of Black Holes and how the modern concepts fails.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[144] **viXra:1507.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-10 21:03:13*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre propulsion system in which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while reducing the components of the energy- impulse tensor (thus reducing energy density) by an arbitrary value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[143] **viXra:1507.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 14:18:41*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

According to the new Newton's formula of gravity (the original law of gravity plus a correction term), i.e., improved Newton's formula of gravity, applying the methods of classical mechanics to solve the problem of advance of Mercury's perihelion and the problem of deflection of photon around the Sun respectively, and the results are the same as given by general relativity. Pointing out that the further topic is based on deriving original law of gravity and original Newton’s second law with law of conservation of energy to derive the new Newton's formula of gravity (the improved Newton's formula of gravity) with law of conservation of energy. To realize the purpose that partially replacing relativity and solving some problems that cannot be solved by relativity with the methods of classical mechanics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[142] **viXra:1507.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 10:51:52*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Volume 3, No.7 (2015), Page 898--902.

We investigate the violation factor of the original Bell-Mermin inequality.
Until now, we have used an assumption
that the results of measurement are $\pm 1$.
In this case, the maximum violation factor is as follows:
$2^{(n-2)/2}(n={\rm even})$ and $2^{(n-1)/2}(n={\rm odd})$.
The quantum predictions by $n$-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger
state violate
the Bell-Mermin inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with $n$.
Recently, a new measurement theory is proposed
[{K. Nagata and T. Nakamura,
Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 49}, 162 (2010)}].
The values of measurement outcome are $\pm 1/\sqrt{2}$.
Here we use the new measurement theory.
We consider a multipartite GHZ state.
We use the original Bell-Mermin inequality.
It turns out that the original Bell-Mermin inequality is satisfied irrespective of the number of particles.
In this case, the maximum violation factor is as follows:
$1/2(n={\rm even})$ and $1/\sqrt{2}(n={\rm odd})$.
Thus the original
Bell-Mermin inequality is satisfied by the new measurement theory.
We propose the following conjecture: {\it All
the two-orthogonal-settings experimental correlation functions
admit local realistic theories irrespective of a state
if we use the new measurement theory.}

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[141] **viXra:1507.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 11:32:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7]
The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6]
They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[140] **viXra:1507.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 08:07:57*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note we shall give the simple formulation of the local explanation of EPR correlations [1] based on [2]. We also show that Bell inequalities cannot be derived in the modified Quantum Mechanics (QM).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[139] **viXra:1507.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-20 11:40:22*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The Referee Report and Author's objection are presented

Examples are presented that geometrical images of generated electromagnetic fields are emitted
by the geometrical images of the electromagnetic fields, which are the sources

**Category:** Classical Physics

[138] **viXra:1507.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 15:58:38*

**Authors:** Vilkovskii S.S.

**Comments:** Pages 14. English language and russian translation.

Existence of zero rotations for point particles with nonzero rest mass in the field of their quantum size is supposed. The assumption about coordinated interaction of these zero rotations of the above particles leads to possibility of the description of their wave properties.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[137] **viXra:1507.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 18:36:10*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

All scientists know well: to achieve nucleus fusion, a temperature of hundreds of millions of degrees is required. Only in this case, the kinetic energy of nucleus overcomes the repulsive electric force of nucleus and connects two initial nucleuses into a single nucleus. In the last sixty years, scientists have spent tens of billion US dollars attempting to develop useful thermonuclear fusion energy.Yet, today they still cannot reach a stable long-period thermonuclear reaction. They still are promising publically, after many years of effort, and additional tens of billions of US dollars to finally design the expensive but ultimately workable industrial installation, which possibly will produce electric energy more expensive than current heat, wind and hydro-electric stations can in 2015.
Author, instead, uses well-known physical laws and shows the other andcheaperway: very low temperatures (0.01 ÷ 10K) and high-pressure (some thousands or millions of atmospheres) allows reaching the same results: thermonuclear fusion.He does not use kinetic energy of nucleus again repulsive force of nucleus, as in the long-touted conventional plasma confinement method. Instead, he uses the blocking the repulsive forces of nucleus by electrons (sphere Debya), very low-temperatureand high-pressure. In current time to reach these temperature and pressure are easily than hundreds millions degrees by magnetic or inertial confinement. New method for thermonuclear fusion is relatively cheap and allows use of other thermonuclear fuel which are less expensive and which produce theaneutronic reaction. Author offers new criterion for Ultra Cold Thermonuclear Fusion.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[136] **viXra:1507.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-25 10:00:53*

**Authors:** Arm Boris Nima

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We give an expression of the Arm function which gives rise to the definition of the Arm binomial coefficient and the corresponding Arm triangle.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[135] **viXra:1507.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 07:29:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Galaxies in a cluster roughly 300 million light years from Earth could contain as much as 100 times more dark matter than visible matter, according to an Australian study. The research, published today, used powerful computer simulations to study galaxies that have fallen into the Coma Cluster, one of the largest structures in the Universe in which thousands of galaxies are bound together by gravity. [15]
A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14]
Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13]
Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[134] **viXra:1507.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 13:32:31*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This single-page Chart (not a paper, per se) plots the masses and densities of physical objects spanning the whole Universe. It covers over 80 orders of magnitude of mass and over 70 orders of magnitude of density. All raw data are taken from standard literature. The pattern established thereby suggests a continuous extension at the high density end that deviates from General Relativity-based conceptions of "black hole" singularities. The Chart also strongly suggests that preoccupation with the "Planck-scale," as invoked in many standard unification and "quantum gravity" schemes, is a meaningless distraction that has nothing to do with our physical Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[133] **viXra:1507.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-12 10:59:44*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The calculations of Oppenheimer and Snyder showed that quasi-Newtonian cycloidal metric and energy density singularities in the behavior of an initially stationary uniform dust ball in "comoving" coordinates fail to carry over to "standard" coordinates, where that contracting dust ball at no finite time attains a radius (quite) as small as its Schwarzschild radius. This physical behavior disparity reflects the singular nature of the "comoving" to "standard" transformation, whose cause is that "comoving time" requires the clocks of an infinite number of different observers, making that "time" inherently physically unobservable. Notwithstanding the warning implicit in the Oppenheimer-Snyder example, checking other "comoving" dust ball results by transforming them to physically reliable coordinates is seldom emulated. We
here consider the analytically simplest case of a dust ball whose energy density always decreases; its "comoving" result has a well known singularity at a sufficiently early time. But after transformation to "standard" coordinates, that singularity no longer occurs at any finite time, nor is this expanding dust ball at any finite time (quite) as small as its Schwarzschild radius. But this dust ball's expansion rate peaks at a substantial fraction of the speed of light when its radius equals a few times the Schwarzchild value, and the "standard" time when this inflationary expansion peak occurs is roughly equal to the "comoving" time of the "occurrence" of the unphysical "comoving" singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[132] **viXra:1507.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 04:14:59*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It is possible to buy this paper, your money will not be spent for entertainment and you will be rewarded in Heaven for spending your time and money to consume and promote (among your contacts and friends) the product of the Cripple author. Points for God they call not the proofs, but the ``arguments''. It is because they are illustrations of divine. As example: God exists, because word ``God'' means ``exists''. He has more right to exist than anyone else. Therefore the criticism against the arguments (main modern arguers: S.Hawking, R.Dawkins) is pointless. Dr. Marcelo Gleiser, in his article ``Hawking And God: An Intimate Relationship'' wrote: ``Maybe Hawking should leave God alone.'' The Universe could have been any. But it is the most complex in face of humans. Probability of such ``random'' event is zero. For sure, without God the complexity would be average, but not the top one.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[131] **viXra:1507.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 04:10:32*

**Authors:** Yevgeniy Kutanov

**Comments:** 8 pages in English and 9 pages in Russian

This paper describes a model of gravity where gravitational pull is created by accelerating flow of space which is absorbed by mass. Proposed model of gravity is used to define the size of a zone of gravitational influence of mass and to explain the value of the rest mass energy and the phenomenon of time dilation. This model suggests that the gravitational influence of mass squeezes space cells and accelerates them towards the mass until a certain critical speed is reached at which the space cells collapse. The critical speed of the space cells is the mass’s space absorption speed which sets an absolute speed limit for a movement in space for any object. The total energy of mass is equal to the sum of its gravitational and kinetic energies. Stationary object with uniform space absorption from all directions has the highest gravitational energy for its mass but no kinetic energy. When an object is moving with the speed of light absorbing space from one direction it completely loses its gravitational influence but gains the highest possible kinetic energy. The last case defines the value of the total energy of mass as equal to its highest kinetic energy. Time for the particle of matter is measured in the acts of space cells absorption. Duration of the quantum of time is a function of the size of the space cells when they reach a particle of matter. The gravitational influence of mass is weakening when an object is moving in space. Lower gravity means bigger size of the space cells on the surface of the matter and therefore slower time for the moving mass. This model of mass shows that even moving with the speed of light particles experience time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[130] **viXra:1507.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 04:45:42*

**Authors:** Neelah Deka

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note,we shall give a partial proof of carmichael conjecture

**Category:** Number Theory

[129] **viXra:1507.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 05:35:44*

**Authors:** Klimets Alexander

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We discuss the gravitational collapse of a photon. It is shown that when the photon gets Planck energy, it turns into a black hole (as a result of interaction with the object to be measured). It is shown that three-dimensional space is a consequence of energy advantage in the formation of the Planck black holes. New uncertainty relations established on the basis of Einstein’s equations. It is shown that the curvature of space-time is quantized.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[128] **viXra:1507.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-19 17:54:56*

**Authors:** Ion Goian, Raisa Grigor, Vasile Marin, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 144 Pages. Translation from Romanian to English by Ana Maria Buzoianu

In this book, you will find algebra exercises and problems, grouped by chapters, intended for higher grades in high schools or middle schools of general education. Its purpose is to facilitate training in mathematics for students in all high school categories, but can be equally helpful in a standalone workout. The book can also be used as an extracurricular source, as the reader shall find enclosed important theorems and formulas, standard definitions and notions that are not always included in school textbooks.

**Category:** Algebra

[127] **viXra:1507.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-19 15:31:40*

**Authors:** Joel M WIlliams

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Global sea level behavior is addressed in terms of changes since the last ice age and evaluated in the context of IPCC projections. The NOAA satellite sea level data of the past 20 years is put into perspective with the past 100-year historical data. The seas have been rising for a 100 years. There is no increasing rate of sea level rise with time now, only an offset of data set rates. The current/projected GTA change is compare to the 7.6°C GTA change that led to the 112+ meter sea-level rise since the last ice age.

**Category:** Climate Research

[126] **viXra:1507.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-19 09:41:12*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is proved that the power of conservative forces (including gravitational forces) performs work on closed trajectories of multiple body's motion, if these bodies are not rigidly connected and between them forces are acting, which depend on the speed of these bodies. A shortened version of this paper has been published in [1, 2] as an appendix.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[125] **viXra:1507.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-19 01:46:47*

**Authors:** Andre Haynes

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The block size debate has been a contentious issue in the Bitcoin com-
munity on the social media platform Reddit. Many members of the com-
munity suspect there have been organized attempts to manipulate the
debate, from people using multiple accounts to over-represent and mis-
represent some sides of the debate. The following analysis uses techniques
from authorship attribution and machine learning to determine whether
comments from user accounts that are active in the debate are from the
same author. The techniques used are able to recall over 90% of all in-
stances of multiple account use and achieve up to 72% for the true positive
rate.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[124] **viXra:1507.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-18 14:05:11*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 19 pages, 02 figures,01 table

Running coupling constants both of QED and QCD are studied in a heuristic way. We estimate two branches of the running coupling of the QCD, the first going from low to moderate energies, and the second running at high energies. The intercept of the high energy branch of QCD with the high energy curve of the QED-coupling is used, as a means to estimate the Grand Unification Theory (GUT) scale.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[123] **viXra:1507.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-18 10:05:48*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

This is a theory that makes macroscopic predictions based on the principle of duality as universal constant in space-time continuum, which is finite in its infinity due to integrated horizon and inherent reverse polarity. It implies that there is an absolute frame of reference in our uniform double cone space-time model (as observed in cosmos) which shows that the state of our universe is a deterministic function of its previous state of a primordial universe where the rotating mass of first order extended in our universe to second order in the angular momentum.
Locality assumes that the current state of space-time is determined by the states of a fixed number of previous time steps. Discretized difference equations use at least the current and previous time steps if they are second order systems like the wave equation. Physical quantities come in pairs which are called conjugate quantities. According to quantum mechanics, under some conditions, a pair of quantum systems may be described by a single wave function, which encodes the probabilities of the outcomes of experiments that may be performed on the two systems, whether jointly or individually.
It means that the actual space-time is not flat per Einstein-Minkowski space-time formed on 2D Lorentzian geometry, and that there couldn’t be a singular event of a Big Bang due to a single, primitive force (“primeval atom”), which allegedly caused a sudden “birth’ of space-time without a preceding event -- past “conception” of our universe in a primordial universe, constituting thereby a double cone universal structure. Accordingly, our 4D time-space model comprises a cross-like structure with an integrated spiral timeframe that enables no analogy spacecrafts to traverse space unimpeded, as described in this article.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[122] **viXra:1507.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-18 07:52:20*

**Authors:** Adriana Neacșu

**Comments:** 207 Pages.

This study deals with the concept of caring for oneself and its relationship with the precept of self-knowledge in the Neoplatonists, as they were approached by Michel Foucault in The Hermeneutics of the Subject and The History of Sexuality volumes II and III. It points out the fact that according to Michel Foucault, the Neoplatonists remain broadly loyal to oneself care concept developed by Plato in his dialogue Alcibiades. In this sense, it highlights both the common elements and those that differentiate the Neoplatonists from Plato. It deals with the causes which developed significant changes in the Neoplatonists’ vision on the care for oneself. It emphasizes the importance of the concept of caring for oneself in Michel Foucault in the context of his interest for the complex relationship between the subject of knowledge and truth.
Key words: care for oneself, self-knowledge, self-culture, truth, condition of spirituality, art to live, Plato, the Neoplatonists.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[121] **viXra:1507.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-18 04:51:43*

**Authors:** Irsen Virnoy

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

One of the still unsolved conjectures related to prime numbers states that for all integers n>k>1 there exists at least one prime number in the interval [kn; (k+1)n]. The case k = 1 is called Bertrand's postulate, which was proved Chebyshev in the year 1850. M. El Bachraoui proved the case k = 2 in 2006, and the case k = 2 was proved by Andy Loo in 2011. This paper gives the proof for the case when k = 5.

**Category:** Number Theory

[120] **viXra:1507.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-17 22:04:16*

**Authors:** Harry Watson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A Single Model for Various Shapes of the Proton. Experiments have indicated that the proton may be shaped as a sphere, an oblate spheroid, a peanut, a dumbbell, an hourglass, or a torus. A model is presented that satisﬁes each of the above. The model also provides an estimate of the mass ratio of the proton to the electron.
(4π)(4π−1/pi)(4π−2/π)=1836.15 (1)
If we assume that the electron is a perfect ball with radius equal to one, the model becomes a ball of radius (4π−1/π) with a sector or non-overlapping sectors removed. The total curved surface area of the removed sector(s) is 4/π.
harry.watson@att.net

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[119] **viXra:1507.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-18 03:42:11*

**Authors:** Nikitin Valery Nikolaevich, Nikitin Igor Valerievich

**Comments:** 1 Page. Russian

Offer about the conclusion of the safe and mutually advantageous agreement
Dear sirs scientists!
We offer you the services in creation of alternative and exclusive scientific offers on any of the problems offered by you in the terms specified by you on a grant basis! We can present results of the work in the form of hypotheses or summaries by analogy with one of hypotheses offered in this address for discussion and the conclusion. Thus you lose nothing, and we will have an honourable possibility of carrying out further collaborations.
We see the interest in assistance to processes of modeling of physical processes. Are ready to get to work right after receiving your consent.
Yours faithfully, Valery Nikolaevich and Igor Valeryevich Nikitiny

**Category:** Astrophysics

[118] **viXra:1507.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-18 03:44:07*

**Authors:** Valery Nikolaevich, Igor Valeryevich Nikitiny

**Comments:** 1 Page. Russian

Offer about the conclusion of the safe and mutually advantageous agreement
Dear sirs scientists!
We offer you the services in creation of alternative and exclusive scientific offers on any of the problems offered by you in the terms specified by you on a grant basis! We can present results of the work in the form of hypotheses or summaries by analogy with one of hypotheses offered in this address for discussion and the conclusion. Thus you lose nothing, and we will have an honourable possibility of carrying out further collaborations.
We see the interest in assistance to processes of modeling of physical processes. Are ready to get to work right after receiving your consent.
Yours faithfully, Valery Nikolaevich and Igor Valeryevich Nikitiny

**Category:** Astrophysics

[117] **viXra:1507.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-17 13:33:19*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We present here our quantum propagation system for virtual reality remote space computers and TVs with photonic displays in laser activated imagery.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[116] **viXra:1507.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-17 07:23:59*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages. in Russian

It is proved that the source of conservative forces (and including gravitational forces) do work on a closed trajectories of many bodies motion, if these bodies are not rigidly connected and between them there are forces, which depend on the speed of these bodies. An abbreviated version of this article was published in [1, 2], as an application. \\ Доказывается, что источник консервативных сил (и, в том числе, гравитационных сил) совершает работу по замкнутым траекториям движения множества тел, если эти тела не связаны жестко и между ними действуют силы, зависящие от скорости движения этих тел. Сокращенный вариант этой статьи был опубликован в [1, 2], как приложение.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[115] **viXra:1507.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-17 09:06:33*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Six pages

Most 21st century scientists believe that mass can be directly converted into energy and also that energy can be directly converted into mass, represented by the Dr. Einstein 1905 popularized equation E = mc^2. They often cite nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as proof, or they simply accept the ideas as a given, without much critical thought, as this author did during his early schooling. Imagine raising your hand in a university physics class after the congenial professor has just derived E = mc^2 on the board, as I saw done once, and saying “Dr. Malik, that is wrong; you cannot change mass into energy.” This paper will dispute those mass – energy conversion ideas and show the comedy of errors that have so firmly planted this into virtually all of 21st century physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[114] **viXra:1507.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-17 09:33:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research.
The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[113] **viXra:1507.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-18 12:58:39*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We discuss the three options: the psi-ontic option, the psi-epistemic option and the novel psi-hybrid option.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[112] **viXra:1507.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 23:00:22*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Australian National University astronomer Professor Brian Schmidt is a Nobel Laureate for physics. On Monday the 15th of September 2014 he appeared on the ABC national Australian television programme Q&A. His response to a question put to him by an eleven year old boy in the audience is a typical example of why it is very unwise to passively accept the word of an Authority. Presented here are a number of the nonsensical claims made by a Nobel Laureate on matters of cosmology and mathematics; symptomatic of just how intellectually decrepit astronomy and astrophysics have become.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[111] **viXra:1507.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 16:40:17*

**Authors:** Antonio Cardoso

**Comments:** 5 pages, 1 figure. Talk given at the International Symposium - Eurhythmy, Complexity and Rationality in an Interdisciplinary Perspective

In this paper we will discuss a recent double-slit experiment with quantum particles where an interference pattern is observed even when which-path information is available, and argue that this result is in clear contradiction with orthodox quantum mechanics but perfectly understandable in the framework of a nonlinear quantum physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[110] **viXra:1507.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 12:03:53*

**Authors:** Eddie Maalouf

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This abstract introduces the by-products of cosmic "spallation" (high energy gamma rays and neutrinos) as the prime instigators of living cells in the cosmos.
And, posits that asteroids do not necessarily transport the raw ingredients of life but instead serve specific purpose (provide high energy impacts that produce spallation) onto planets in favorable orbits.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[109] **viXra:1507.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 07:04:34*

**Authors:** Valery Nikolaevich, Igor Valeryevich Nikitiny

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Offer about the conclusion of the safe and mutually advantageous agreement
Dear sirs scientists!
We offer you the services in creation of alternative and exclusive scientific offers on any of the problems offered by you in the terms specified by you on a grant basis! We can present results of the work in the form of hypotheses or summaries by analogy with one of hypotheses offered in this address for discussion and the conclusion. Thus you lose nothing, and we will have an honourable possibility of carrying out further collaborations.
We see the interest in assistance to processes of modeling of physical processes. Are ready to get to work right after receiving your consent.
Yours faithfully, Valery Nikolaevich and Igor Valeryevich Nikitiny

**Category:** Astrophysics

[108] **viXra:1507.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 09:20:20*

**Authors:** editors Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

The present book aims to present some improved estimators using auxiliary and attribute information in case of simple random sampling and stratified random sampling and in some cases when non-response is present.
This volume is a collection of five papers, written by seven co-authors (listed in the order of the papers): Sachin Malik, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache, B. B. Khare, P. S. Jha, Usha Srivastava and Habib Ur. Rehman.
The first and the second papers deal with the problem of estimating the finite population mean when some information on two auxiliary attributes are available. In the third paper, problems related to estimation of ratio and product of two population mean using auxiliary characters with special reference to non-response are discussed.
In the fourth paper, the use of coefficient of variation and shape parameters in each stratum, the problem of estimation of population mean has been considered. In the fifth paper, a study of improved chain ratio-cum-regression type estimator for population mean in the presence of non-response for fixed cost and specified precision has been made.
The authors hope that the book will be helpful for the researchers and students that are working in the field of sampling techniques.

**Category:** Statistics

[107] **viXra:1507.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 09:22:03*

**Authors:** editor Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 152 Pages.

There are 11 papers in this volume.
Paper 1: Mathematics After CC Conjecture - Combinatorial Notions and Achievements, is a report of mine on the International Conference on Combinatorics, Graph Theory, Topology and Geometry, January 29-31, 2015, Shanghai, P. R. China, including Smarandache systems, Smarandache geometries.
Paper 2: Timelike-Spacelike Mannheim Pair Curves Spherical Indicators Geodesic Curvatures and Natural Lifts, a paper on "pair curves".
Paper 3: Smarandache-R-Module and Mcrita Context.
Paper 4: Generalized Vertex Induced Connected Subsets of a Graph.
Paper 5: b-Chromatic Number of Splitting Graph of Wheel.
Paper 6: Eccentric Connectivity and Connective Eccentric Indices.
Paper 7: The Moving Coordinate System and Euler-Savary’s Formula.
Paper 8: Laplacian Energy of Binary Labeled Graph.
Paper 9; Smarandachely total mean cordial labeling, Total Mean Cordial Labeling of Graphs.
Paper 10: Number of Regions in Simple Connected Graph.
Paper 11: Directed Paths.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[106] **viXra:1507.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 09:27:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Other scientists hope to create them in powerful particle collisions at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. “Most supersymmetric theories estimate the mass of the lightest WIMP to be somewhere above 100 gigaelectronvolts, which is well within LHC’s energy regime,” Tait says. “I myself and others are very excited about the recent LHC restart. There is a lot of hope to create dark matter in the lab.” [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[105] **viXra:1507.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 09:28:54*

**Authors:** Madad Khan, Florentin Smarandache, Saima Anis

**Comments:** 208 Pages.

An AG-groupoid is an algebraic structure that lies in between a groupoid
and a commutative semigroup. It has many characteristics similar to that of a
commutative semigroup. If we consider x^2y^2= y^2x^2, which holds for all x, y in a
commutative semigroup, on the other hand one can easily see that it holds in an
AG-groupoid with left identity e and in AG**-groupoids. This simply gives that
how an AG-groupoid has closed connections with commutative algebras.
We extend now for the first time the AG-Groupoid to the Neutrosophic
AG-Groupoid. A neutrosophic AG-groupoid is a neutrosophic algebraic
structure that lies between a neutrosophic groupoid and a neutrosophic
commutative semigroup.

**Category:** Algebra

[104] **viXra:1507.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 09:42:43*

**Authors:** Yang Chunyan, Cai Wen

**Comments:** 352 Pages.

This book is based on the revision and translation of the Chinese version of the Extension Engineering published in 2007 by China Science Press (second printing in 2010), combined with the latest research results of the recent years.
The book is the research result of the National Natural Science Foundation Project (70671031), the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation Project (10151009001000044), and the Guangdong University of Technology Team Fostering Foundation Project (12ZK0056).
The authors heartfelt thank the National Natural Science Foundation, the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation, and Guangdong University of Technology for their strong support of the Extenics research work. We heartfelt thank for the strong support of the China Science Press and Education Press of America. We heartfelt thank Professor Li Weihua, the part-time researcher with the Research Institute of Extension Engineering at Guangdong University of Technology and head of Computer Science Department of the School of Computers, Professor Florentin Smarandache, the head of Math and Sciences Department of the University of New Mexico for their hard work to proofread this book. Also, Guangdong University of Technology graduate students Cao Liyuan, Zhao Jie, Li Zhiming, and office staff Li Jianming of Research Institute of Extension Engineering at Guangdong University of Technology have participated in the book proofreading and auxiliary work. We express our thanks herein to all of them.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[103] **viXra:1507.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 05:46:38*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Our quantum harmonics electronic system will be based on jump-resonance phenomena of nonlinear feedback control systems of any order. The nonlinearities are those whose outputs are single-valued odd functions of the inputs and are independent of frequencies of the photonic inputs. The general conditions under which jump-resonance occurs will be given and the system with saturation nonlinearity will be analyzed. The essential objective is to define the contours on the complex plane for the constant values of system variables, e.g., input amplitude, amplitude ratio, and phase shift.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[102] **viXra:1507.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-15 14:55:08*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics (QM) is primarily a probabilistic theory. The standard Kolmogorov probability theory is not suitable for this goal since it does not offer the possibility of the reversible time evolution. This implies the need to construct a new probability theory which is able to model the reversible time evolution. I have proposed such an Extended probability theory. The main goal of this project is to understand what QM is. In this note I shall describe the program of the research which is already partially realized.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[101] **viXra:1507.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-15 10:01:29*

**Authors:** Khrapko R

**Comments:** 8 Pages. XIIth International Conference on Gravitation, Astrophysics and Cosmology June 28-July 5, 2015, PFUR, Moscow, Russia

The Pseudotensor is absurd. Gravitational mass equals inertial mass

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[100] **viXra:1507.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-21 23:39:39*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Discussion and shows the changes of the electronic cloud surrounding
an unstable atomic nucleus that in the radioactive decay.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[99] **viXra:1507.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-15 11:00:10*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Some of my proofs of God. Time machine proof, Actual infinity proof, Quantum proof.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[98] **viXra:1507.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-15 06:42:16*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages. in Russian

It is noted that certain of the causes of ocean currents in poor agreement with the existence of closed trajectories of the flow and a stable configuration and cross section shape of flow. Mathematical model of ocean currents using equations gravitomagnetism proposed. It is shown that this model explains the existence of the internal mass forces for creating flow and forces that ensure stability of the configuration and shape of the cross section of flow. \\ Отмечается, что принятые представления о причинах океанских течений плохо согласуются с существованием замкнутых траекторий течения и устойчивостью конфигурации и формы сечения траекторий течения. Строится математическая модель океанских течений с использованием уравнений гравитомагнетизма. Показывается, что эта модель объясняет существование внутренних массовых сил, создающих течение, и сил, которые обеспечивают устойчивость конфигурации и формы сечения струи.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[97] **viXra:1507.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-21 08:38:09*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 10 pages, 4 eqs, 15 refs; Paper presented at the FQXi essay contest 2015, http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2398; Main text without change, discussion summary from the paper site is added as Appendices in v2

The current crisis in exact description of fundamental and applied systems has the well-defined origin and rigorously substantiated resolution in the form of qualitatively extended, unified mathematical framework of unreduced dynamic complexity. It is based on the unreduced universal solution of arbitrary interaction problem revealing the new, extended qualities with respect to traditional mathematical constructions. We describe the origin of the problem, the proposed causally complete solution and its mathematical novelties confirmed by problem-solving applications in fundamental and applied sciences.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[96] **viXra:1507.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 22:03:42*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We're going to model the grand unification scheme base on a restricted and primitive set of mathematical properties. This procedure carries limitations but using current day tools will unveil unique insights.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[95] **viXra:1507.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-23 04:05:02*

**Authors:** L. Martino, V. Elvira, D. Luengo, J. Corander, F. Louzada

**Comments:** Digital Signal Processing Volume 58, Pages: 64-84, 2016.

Monte Carlo (MC) methods are widely used for Bayesian inference and optimization in statistics, signal processing and machine learning. A well-known class of MC methods are Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. In order to foster better exploration of the state space, specially in high-dimensional applications, several schemes employing multiple parallel MCMC chains have been recently introduced. In this work, we describe a novel parallel interacting MCMC scheme, called {\it orthogonal MCMC} (O-MCMC), where a set of ``vertical'' parallel MCMC chains share information using some "horizontal" MCMC techniques working on the entire population of current states. More specifically, the vertical chains are led by random-walk proposals, whereas the horizontal MCMC techniques employ independent proposals, thus allowing an efficient combination of global exploration and local approximation. The interaction is contained in these horizontal iterations. Within the analysis of different implementations of O-MCMC, novel schemes in order to reduce the overall computational cost of parallel multiple try Metropolis (MTM) chains are also presented. Furthermore, a modified version of O-MCMC for optimization is provided by considering parallel simulated annealing (SA) algorithms. Numerical results show the advantages of the proposed sampling scheme in terms of efficiency in the estimation, as well as robustness in terms of independence with respect to initial values and the choice of the parameters.

**Category:** Statistics

[94] **viXra:1507.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 10:09:35*

**Authors:** V. V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. http://spacetime.narod.ru/11.html

I discuss generalized spin-1/2 massless equations
for neutrinos. They have been obtained by Gersten's method for derivation of arbitrary-spin equations. Possible physical consequences are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[93] **viXra:1507.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 10:12:10*

**Authors:** Valeri V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 2 Pages. http://spacetime.narod.ru/13.html

Misconceptions have recently been found in the definition of a partial
derivative (in the case of the presence of both explicit and implicit
dependencies of the function subjected to differentiation) in the classical
analysis. We investigate the possible influence of this discovery on quantum
mechanics and the classical/quantum field theory. Surprisingly, some
commutators of operators of space-time 4-coordinates do not equal to zero.
Thus, we provide the bases for new-fashioned noncommutative field theory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[92] **viXra:1507.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-29 13:56:22*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to find out the physical meaning of the product pc in Einstein's Total Relativistic Energy Formula.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[91] **viXra:1507.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 11:28:15*

**Authors:** V. V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 2 Pages. http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/V20NO1PDF/HORS-14-DVO.pdf

I show that Bruhn’s criticism of my article is based on misunderstandings on his part. Most of the criticisms of the Evans articles were given first in my works and in private communications to them.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[90] **viXra:1507.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 11:31:34*

**Authors:** Valeri V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 19 Pages. http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/Pre2001/V05NO1PDF/v05n1dv1.PDF

Quantum electrodynamics is the well-accepted theory. However, we feel it is useful
to look at formalisms that provide alternative ways to describe light, because in the
recent years the development of quantum field theories based primarily on the gauge
principle has encountered considerable difficulties. There is a wide variety of generalized
theories, and they are characterized mainly by the introduction of additional
parameters and/or longitudinal modes of electromagnetism. The MajoranaOppenheimer
form of electrodynamics, the Sachs theory of Elementary Matter, the
analysis of the action-at-a-distance concept, presented recently by Chubykalo and
Smirnov-Rueda, and the analysis of the claimed ‘longitudinality’ of the antisymmetric
tensor field after quantization are reviewed in this essay. We also list recent advances
in the Weinberg 2(2J + 1) formalism (which is built on First Principles) and
in the Majorana theory of neutral particles. These may serve as starting points for
constructing a quantum theory of light.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[89] **viXra:1507.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 11:42:53*

**Authors:** Valeri V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/Pre2001/V04NO2PDF/V04N2DVO.PDF

On the basis of ordinary mathematical methods we discuss new classes of solutions of the Maxwell’s
equations discovered in papers by D. Ahluwalia, M. Evans and H. Múnera et al.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[88] **viXra:1507.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-22 15:16:10*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Last revision. Thank you

TPB postulates that time is actually observed and
measured with a perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Accelerated expansion is therefore an illusion (of perspective).
Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. However, the difference is minute and only significant over scales, measured in LY.
Note: TPB does not contradict time dilation,
GR, nor expansion. In TPB, corrections of distorted time intervals are first calculated (t'). All classical and relativistic physics should follow, subsequently.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[87] **viXra:1507.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 11:53:15*

**Authors:** Valeri V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/Pre2001/V06NO3PDF/V06N3dvo.pdf

It is proved that the necessary corrections in the Evans-Vigier modified electrodynamics invalidate the arguments given by E. Comay [CPL 261 (1996) 601] against this model. From the conceptual viewpoint the Evans/Comay discussions in several journals have created much confusion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[86] **viXra:1507.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 12:01:39*

**Authors:** Jeffrey P Baugher

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Parallel line segments are the basic graphical foundation for geometrical field theories such as General Relativity. Although the concept of parallel and curved lines have been well researched for over a century as a description of gravity, certain controversial issues have persisted, namely point singularities (Black Holes) and the physical interpretation of a scalar multiple of the metric, commonly known as a Cosmological Constant. We introduce a graphical and notational analysis system which we will refer to as Integral Geometry. Through variational analysis of perpendicular line segments we derive equations that ultimately result from the changes in the area bounded by them. Based upon changing area bounded by relative and absolute line segments we attempt to prove the following hypothesis: General Relativity cannot be derived from Integral Geometry. We submit that examination of the notational differences between GR and IG in order to accept the hypothesis could lead to evidence that the inability to merge General Relativity and Quantum Physics may be due to notational and conceptual flaws concerning area inherent in the equations describing them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[85] **viXra:1507.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 12:28:24*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. Published in Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences and Applications, Vol. 13, pp. 13-13, Oct. 2015.

Probably by mistake, was published a paper which intended give some counterexamples of the Beal’s conjecture. The four examples in that paper are wrong.

**Category:** Number Theory

[84] **viXra:1507.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 07:31:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Scientists at the Large Hadron Collider have announced the discovery of a new particle called the pentaquark. [9]
CERN scientists just completed one of the most exciting upgrades on the Large Hadron Collider—the Di-Jet Calorimeter (DCal). [8]
As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[83] **viXra:1507.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 08:42:47*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Published in American Journal of Space Science, 6 July 2015: http://thescipub.com/PDF/ofsp.9977.pdf

Various line-elements purporting different types of black hole universes have been advanced by cosmologists but a means by which the required infinite set of equivalent metrics can be generated has evaded them. Without such a means the theory of black holes is not only incomplete but also ill-posed. Notwithstanding, the mathematical form by which the infinite set of equivalent metrics is generated was first revealed in 2005, from other quarters and it has in turn revealed significant properties of black hole universes which cosmology has not realised. The general metric ground-form from which the infinite set of equivalent ‘black hole’ metrics can be generated is presented herein and its consequences explored.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1507.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-13 15:40:52*

**Authors:** Valeri V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. http://www.emph.com.ua/4/pdf/dvoeglazov.pdf

It has long been claimed that the antisymmetric tensor field of the second rank is longitudinal after quantization. In my opinion, such a situation produces speculations about the violation of the Correspondence Principle. On the basis of the Lagrangian formalism I calculate the Pauli-Lubanski vector of relativistic spin for this field. Even at the classical level it can be equal to zero after applications of well-known constraints. The correct quantization procedure permits us to propose a solution of this puzzle in the modern field theory. Obtained results develop the previous consideration Physica A 214 (1995) 605-618.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[81] **viXra:1507.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-13 15:44:13*

**Authors:** V. V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. http://www.emph.com.ua/5/pdf/dvoeglazov.pdf

We continue to study the "fermion - 4-vector potential" interactions in the framework of the McLennan-Case construct which is a reformulation of the Majorana theory of the neutrino. This theory is shown after applying Majorana-like anzatzen to give rise to appearance of unusual terms as σ · [A × A*], which were recently discussed in non-linear optics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[80] **viXra:1507.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-13 16:01:39*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

If strong earthquakes stimulate the earth to vibrate, a high-frequency amplitude modulation can be measured in addition to the exponential decrease in amplitude. The precisely defined modulation frequencies (sums and differences of known natural frequencies) can be explained by nonlinear laws within the earth. Four spectral lines may be generated by the movement of the Earth's core relative to the Earth's crust. Thus, the long-sought Slichter triplet could be identified.

**Category:** Geophysics

[79] **viXra:1507.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-13 16:21:19*

**Authors:** Valeri V. Dvoeglazov, Jesus A. Cazares Montes

**Comments:** 3 Pages. http://www.journaloftheoretics.com/Articles/1-5/Val-final.pdf

We show that the Gersten derivation of Maxwell equations can be generalized. It actually
leads to additional solutions of ‘S=1 equations.’

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[78] **viXra:1507.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-13 16:28:04*

**Authors:** Valeri V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. http://www.journaloftheoretics.com/Articles/2-1/vd.pdf

This is a brief note for "pedestrians", which is devoted to the explanation of recent ideas of G. Ziino, A. Barut, D. V. Ahluwalia, and myself
in the tehory of neutral particles.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[77] **viXra:1507.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 02:38:40*

**Authors:** Daniel S. Orton

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Abstract: There are many longstanding problems associated with orbital systems at all scales. Direct Orbital Dynamics applies a set of independent orbital terms to the Newtonian orbital equations, in place of the standard combined orbital terms. This results in a number of surprisingly successful applications. The standard orbital equations treat the bodies in a two-body system as orbiting their mass center point at the combined orbital period. These orbital terms are all combined terms containing the influence of both bodies. The direct orbital system treats each body as orbiting the other body directly at the full radius distance, with each body also orbiting the other at its own natural, independent orbital period (which is a portion of the combined period). The orbital velocity of each body is now based solely on the mass and radius distance of the body being orbited. It is no longer affected by the mass of the orbiting body, as in the standard system, because the effects of the combined orbital terms are removed from the calculations. The orbital equations remain balanced when using the terms of the direct orbital system frame of reference, with some additional equations balancing. The direct orbital set of equations initially treats the bodies as orbiting each other independently rather than as a combined system. The two bodies are treated as being the orbital center points of each other. However, these two orbital center points are also in motion and are constantly altering the orbital direction of the two bodies. The orbiting bodies must therefore be treated as responding to both the gravitational acceleration and the physical motion of each other. This additional motion factor of the orbital center points is then applied to the direct orbital system. This results in the same mass and velocity to the fourth power relationship found in the excessive orbital velocities and flat rotation curves of disk galaxies, as seen in the Baryonic Tully Fisher Relation (M∝V4). These excessive velocities are thought to be caused by either halos of dark matter, or by a change in gravitation at low accelerations (MOND). Direct Orbital Dynamics is shown to be the source of this fourth power radial force law. This same mass-velocity relationship of galaxies is found to also exist in smaller orbiting systems within the high acceleration Newtonian regime. The direct orbital system goes on to provide successful application to well known orbital problems.
Keywords: cosmology: dark matter – galaxies: kinematics and dynamics – galaxies: structure – planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability – gravitation

**Category:** Astrophysics

[76] **viXra:1507.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 03:19:52*

**Authors:** Neelabh Deka

**Comments:** 1 Page. A new conjecture on prime numbers is proposed in this short note.

A new conjecture on prime numbers is proposed in this short note.

**Category:** Number Theory

[75] **viXra:1507.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-20 07:04:13*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

General Relativity is a theory which a since about 100 years describes the gravitational phenomena as geometric properties of the space-time. What happens if the space-time will be eliminated and replaced with the material medium. We discuss physical consequences of asuch exchange.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[74] **viXra:1507.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-13 11:51:55*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 102 Pages.

This is a table of all irreducible matrix representations of all 181 groups up to order 40,
generated with the GAP software.

**Category:** Algebra

[73] **viXra:1507.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-13 08:43:55*

**Authors:** Suraj Kumar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, it has been tried to explain the relation between the length of spirals in the structure of elementary particles with the Energy and Mass of the corresponding observable particle. It also explains the expansive behavior of gluon in nucleon for the length of constituent spiral structure of quark. Referring into the information system of Universe at different scales of information processing varying in collective analysis of information cells, it tries to explain the conservation of information been carried out by the SU (1) gauge symmetry group of Universe across different generations of Universe being reflected through the study of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. It also tries to derive the expression for creation & annihilation operator for the Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[72] **viXra:1507.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-24 14:09:17*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Recent observations suggest that the models of synchronized co-evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies in the early Universe are partially incorrect - Trakhtenbrot et al. (10 July 2015). They found in the galaxy CID-947, which is placed in time distance about 12 Gyr (z = 3.328), a black hole with a mass of about 10 % of the total galactic mass. On the other hand, the SMBH in such a normal-size galaxy achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5 % of the host galaxy mass in the present day i.e. their mass is about 20 to 50 times smaller (!). This observational fact is consistent with the cosmology described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Here we present a revised scenario for the evolution of galaxies. We can see all galaxies but we cannot see the initial period 7.75 Gyr of their 21.61 Gyr evolution (the Ludwig et al. data (2009) suggest that the Universe is about 22 Gyr old but within the Scale-Symmetric Theory we showed that we can see only the last period about 13.8 Gyr). During the unseen period, due to the inflows of dark matter and next of the turbulent inflows of dark energy, evolution of the initial protogalaxies had been differentiated. The SST shows that in the visible period of evolution of the Universe, the ratio of mass of the central black hole to total mass of galaxy (it concerns the quasars also) should be equal to or lower than 0.583 and this result is consistent with new data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[71] **viXra:1507.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-07 17:03:44*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 9 Pages. v3

Geometric algebra is a powerful mathematical tool for description of physical phenomena. The article [3] gives a thorough analysis of functions of multivectors in Cl3 relaying on involutions, especially Clifford conjugation and complex structure of algebra. Here is discussed another elegant way to do that, relaying on complex structure and idempotents of algebra. Implementation of Cl3 using ordinary complex algebra is briefly discussed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[70] **viXra:1507.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-12 15:55:46*

**Authors:** Ștefan Vlăduțescu, Xenia Negrea, Dan Valeriu Voinea

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The current research is a meta-analysis that circumscribes to Communication Philosophy. The inquiry is ranged among what is called the dynamics of reshaping the conceptual standard-matrix of Communication. It is aimed to be an explicit answer to a double question: i) what makes a communicational discourse to be „philosophy” and ii) what accurately individualizes the philosophical discourse, making from a text „a philosophical text”, a philosophical discourse, a philosophical message? We formulate an answer founded on two arguments. The first argument is that, as form of thinking, Philosophy presents three “main dimensions” [“language use”, “communication of beliefs (cognition)”, and “interaction in situations” - as a “standard principle” -Van Dijk, 1997)]; these dimensions are the dimensions of any discourse, so Philosophy is a specialized discourse, a philosophical discourse. The second argument is that, as a written language form of communication, Philosophy is a deep communicational cognition. Viewing Philosophy as discourse and as a deep cogitation communication, it follows that: 1. in philosophical communication, as well as in any other type of communicational discourse, the producer is not fundamental, but the nuclear message which he succeeds in transmitting and co-constructing meanings together with his recipient; 2. the discursive approach of philosophemes and „philosophematic” message is the distinctive feature of philosophical communication, of philosophical discourse, of the philosophical text as communication practice.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[69] **viXra:1507.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-12 17:34:16*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 7 Pages; 4 Tables; 9 References.

It seems that up to now researchers have not fully and systematically taken into consideration the gravitational influence of the giant planets on the small ones in our solar system. The main purpose of the present work is to show that, while the intensity of the giant planets' influence is certainly very weak compared
to that of the Sun, it cannot be completely neglected. In this research paper we have qualitatively and quantitatively studied such effects in order to clarify, for example, the possible causal origin of the unexpected secular increase of the Astronomical Unit. The approach uses the concept of Combined Gravitational Action
(CGA).

**Category:** Astrophysics

[68] **viXra:1507.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-12 15:08:38*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the standard Quantum Mechanics there exists certain assumption (which I call the von Neuman axiom) stating that an ensemble in the pure state is homogeneous. This means that all members of this ensemble are in the same individual state. In this note I am going to show that the von Neumann axiom is false. This also means that the standard interpretation of the wave function as
the state of the individual system is in general false. In the ontic/epistemic terminology this means that the ontic interpretation of the wave function cannot be true. As a solution I propose the modified Quantum Mechanics which can be local.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[67] **viXra:1507.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-12 09:34:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

How does the brain - a lump of 'pinkish gray meat' - produce the richness of conscious experience, or any subjective experience at all? Scientists and philosophers have historically likened the brain to contemporary information technology, from the ancient Greeks comparing memory to a 'seal ring in wax,' to the 19th century brain as a 'telegraph switching circuit,' to Freud's sub-conscious desires 'boiling over like a steam engine,' to a hologram, and finally, the computer. [8]
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[66] **viXra:1507.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-28 12:30:26*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

George Rajna provides a valuable insight on the commercial interest of Quantum Computing. In this paper I try summarizing what he is trying to say while at the same time providing a literary, yet academic view of his paper in general. I believe the paper provides some profound insights and this is a peer review article I wanted to share with the Vixra community.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[65] **viXra:1507.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-12 11:47:40*

**Authors:** S. Viridi, A. Suroso, F. T. Akbar, Novitrian, T. D. K. Wungu, S. Pramuditya, D. Irwanto, N. Asiah, A. Pramutadi, K. Basar, F. D. E. Latief, S. Permana, I. D. Aditya, H. Mahardika, A. H. Aimon, A. Waris, Khairurrijal

**Comments:** 8 pages, 1 figure, 2 tables, technical report

In preparing the 6th Asian Physics Symposium on 19-20 August 2015 in Bandung, Indonesia, a conference management system (CMS) known as SeminarPress is used. This CMS already has a lot of features but not in generating Book of Abstract (BoA) directly. In order to support the CMS a shell script named as mkboa.sh is developed and the results of executing it is discussed in this work. Some limitations due to LATEX restrictions in using some characters are also emphasized.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[64] **viXra:1507.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-06 12:03:08*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The second and third deformation of space are its manifestations that we perceive as matter (see http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 and http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097). In this paper it is described that motion is a form of space deformation, by deduction of forces from the space as motion forces, which are accumulated on the spherical zone of the particle, due to the difference of cohesive pressure in front of and behind it. This accumulation is made by force talantonia (oscillators), as quantum forces, causing harmonic change of cohesive pressure in proximal space (see http://viXra.org/abs/1505.0211).
It is described, here, the motion dynamics and the change that is installed on the gravitational field of the particle, resulting to the ability of detection of the uniform motion. Besides, the motion should be absolute, since the intervals are referring to the absolute dynamic space of the Universe. The maintaining of the accumulated forces, due to the particle speed, is the cause for change of the dynamics of the uniform motion and, hence, of the Physics Laws in inertial systems. Moreover, with the new concept of absolute motion it is considered a natural consequence the contribution of the two parts of monochromatic light in Michelson-Morley’s experiment (see http://viXra.org/abs/1602.0220), without the arbitrariness of the constant light speed in inertial systems.
Also, it is defined the timeless speed, at which happen all the phenomena of the Universe. The gravitational red shift of the stars spectrum and the chaotic motion of galactic systems are interpreted, without the assumption of dark matter and energy.
Finally, it is communicated the forecast of Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space, that refers to the research of the observatory (Magic telescope on La Palma), in which it is recorded (October 2007) a 4 min delay in high-energy photons (gamma rays) from galaxy Markarian 501. This observation proves that the space contains unsung forces, which are evident in our senses as deformations of space, as the above theory describes.
Accordingly, for the great problem of Physics and Philosophy, «What is the space», there is the answer-solution: «The dynamic space».

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[63] **viXra:1507.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-05 18:12:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Some scientists think the Universe was created with equal amounts of matter and antimatter.
However today's observations indicate that there is not enough antimatter to match the amount of
matter observed in the universe. Thus, it seems that matter has, for some reason, taken over. Putting together an idea from two lead physicists: John Wheeler and Richard Feynman, Hugh Everett's theory of the many-worlds, and the theory of the Pre-universe that I developed in 2012, I found that the possible cause of the imbalance is time travel. I also found that the imbalance must have began at the very beginning of normal time. Because matter and antimatter were created by a gradual and relatively very fast process (known as Meta-transformation), it is possible that most of the imbalance took place during the first instants after the Big Bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[62] **viXra:1507.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-11 14:23:05*

**Authors:** Sergey Kamenshchikov

**Comments:** 16 Pages. This paper has been accepted in Quantitative Finance Journal

The goal of this research was applying a nonlinear approach to the detection of market regime transitions: mean reversion to momentum regimes and vice versa. It has been shown that the transition process has nonlinear scenarios: slow and fast bifurcations. Slow bifurcation assumes that control parameter is changing slowly in relation to the system characteristic time. Gradual absorption of information provides stability loss delay effect. Fast bifurcation has a discrete non equilibrium nature. Each transition from one attracting cycle to another one is preceded by passing through fixed point state – an effect of precatastophic stabilization exists. Two analytical methods have been developed for recognition of slow and fast bifurcation: R analysis and D analysis correspondingly. Combined R/D tool has been incorporated for analysis of world financial crisis of 2008. It turned out that R analysis is more convenient for long term investment while D analysis suggests middle- and short-term approach. R/D analysis has been applied as a filter for currency positional trading system. Slow and fast bifurcation patterns have been applied for the filtering of breakdown signals. Incorporation of a filter allowed to reduce twice the number of trades and to increase system efficiency, Calmar ratio, by seven times. R/D filter allowed decreasing sensitivity to volatility: duration of equity stagnation has fallen down to two months in relation to one year for the original breakdown system. It has been shown that R and D patterns may improve the long term efficiency and stability of a momentum quantitative trading model.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[61] **viXra:1507.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-11 04:04:55*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Our quantum harmonics electronic system will be based on jump-resonance phenomena of nonlinear feedback control systems of any order. The nonlinearities are those whose outputs are single-valued odd functions of the inputs and are independent of frequencies of the photonic inputs. The general conditions under which jump-resonance occurs will be given and the system with saturation nonlinearity will be analyzed. The essential objective is to define the contours on the complex plane for the constant values of system variables, e.g., input amplitude, amplitude ratio, and phase shift.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[60] **viXra:1507.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-11 05:02:29*

**Authors:** Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Denim Jeans, Ecofriendly Finishing, Laser, Ozone, Water Jet

Denim Jeans finishing is an important operation for value addition of the final products in the apparel business. There are numerous operations exist for fulfilling of this treatment. This paper deals with the recent developments of the sustainable, environment friendly and emerging industrial approaches (Laser, Ozone and Water Jet) for the finishing treatments of the denim jeans. It is observed that finishing with laser and ozone is a reduced water treatment while water jet fading system though consumes water but assembling of water recycling system makes it ecological and economic. The adoption of these finishing technologies has brought about a radical transformation in the garment finishing industry, which is changing from an artisanal, labor intensive industry towards an industry based on knowledge and technology that feels more responsible for the environment and for workers.

**Category:** Chemistry

[59] **viXra:1507.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-10 10:16:40*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 1 Page.

E8 coset structure corresponds to structure of 4+4 Kaluza-Klein Lagrangian.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[58] **viXra:1507.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-10 04:50:52*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

General Systems Theory (GST) describes all physical, biologic and social systems as 10-Dimensional Superorganisms.
There are 2 key differences between the 10Di Complex Universe and a 4Di, simplified physical model:
-Physics considers 3 spatial dimensions and 1 time dimension of lineal, present duration that calculates the external motion of beings with instantaneous derivatives (V=∂s/∂t), or simultaneous measures (worldlines). Thus 4D tells nothing of system’s life-death and evolutionary cycles from past to future – its 2 missing time dimensions; and their inner, hierarchical structure across 3 ‘i-scalar’ dimensions: the i-1 cellular/quantum, i organic and i+1 social/cosmic scales, which emerge together into Whole Superorganisms, the 10th Dimension, itself an i-1 cellular/atomic unit of a new game of scalar space-time creation.
-Physicists' dimensions are infinite, absolute, reaching the Whole Universe, acting as an abstract 'background' over which beings exist. But what those beings are made of? There is no clear answer. Yet in the GST’s 10Di formalism, beings are made of ‘Fractal’ Dimensions, which are not abstract, neither infinite but the ultimate substance of reality, broken into the parts of each being. The Whole Universe is infinite and so are its 10 Dimensions of time, space and ‘scalar’ depth. But Nature’s systems are its ‘fractal parts’, made of the same 10Di, albeit in a finite quantity. So each part occupies a limited quantity of space, lives a limited quantity of time, and spreads through a limited i±1 number of hierarchical scales. Finally, since all the systems of the Universe are made with the same 10 Dimensions, they share the properties of scalar space & time, which is the cause of its isomorphisms. Thus all systems of nature:
-Last a life-death worldcycle of 3 past-energetic-young, adult-iterative-present and Informative-future-old time dimensions.
-Have 3 diffeomorphic space dimensions, enclosed by bidimensional membranes, through which they communicate (holographic principle); reason why systems display 3 space&time dimensional organs that correspond to the 3-only varieties of 2-manifold topological networks (space geometries with time motions):
-Energetic, hyperbolic, long, young-past, fields-limbs, with expansive, entropic, dissolving motions: STe <∑i-1.
-Informative, spherical, tall, future, particles-heads with implosive, warped motions: STo >∏i+1.
-Reproductive, toroid, wide, adult-present, waves-bodies that combine energy&information into exi Actions:STa=STe x STo. Thus Past-Energy x Future-Information=Present, iterative actions, becomes the metric equation of Scalar Space-Time that puts together those 3 ST-organs, extended across 3 i±1 relative scales, into a Whole 10Di Unit-Universe: U=A(ExO)I±11
10Di ‘metrics’ completes Leibniz’s relational model of scalar space-time, explaining why time clocks in Relativity have different speeds. Since systems’ inner time clocks that carry their in-form-ation in the form and frequency of its worldcycles, accelerate as they shrink in scalar Space. Yet its metric product origin of Universal & Vital Constants, remains co-invariant.
Life-death worldcycles are travels through 3i±1 scales, from seminal birth in faster i-1 cellular/atomic scales, till emerging in i-scales where systems live 3 time ages within i+1 social scales till an energetic big-bang death, dissolve Nature’s systems back into the cellular/atomic plane, ending their worldcycles, during which all Systems will try to Maximize their scalar 3 ST-Organs, feeding on Energy, gauging information, reproducing and evolving socially, 4 actions, E, O,⇔, ∑∏i±1 that define all ‘existential functions’ Thus ∑Ei-1<≈i>∏Oi+1, becomes the Fractal, Feed-back, Generator Equation of Reality.
Thus 10Di develops a causal logic of 3 time arrows and completes non-Euclidean Geometries of points crossed by ∞ parallels, which are fractal i-1 points that grow into full 10Di systems as we enlarge its scale (1st non-E postulate). Therefore lines are waves with volume (2nd); the degree of equality (3rd) of its 3 parts determines the Darwinian or symbiotic behavior of points, which form social networks when they share the same information, becoming Non-E planes (4th).
The paper introduces 10Di superorganisms and its isomorphisms for all species; then it applies 10D GST to social science:
-Each human is a relative i-1 citizen/cell of History, its 10Di Whole. Gaia is its STenergetic network; Economics, its STreproductive network; politics its STo-informative network. Thus a perfect World would construct those networks with the laws of 10Di superorganisms.
But the Anthropocene=History is only an Age of Earth’s evolution, which now mutates into the Mechanocene - the superorganism of i+1 ‘company-mothers’ of machines, i-organic systems of i-1 metal, which ‘enzymen’ evolved in 3 dimensional Ages: the European age of STenergetic metal-bodies (XIX c.), the American age of STo metal-minds’ (XX c.), assembled now globally into STa=STexSTo autonomous robots and top predator weapons, which compete with humans in labor and war fields, accelerating life extinction, as Earth becomes terraformed.
So human i+1 social organizations (Governments) and Wor(l)d languages become replaced by company-mothers and its memetic, digital language, e-money, which ‘cre(dit)ates’ from its global i+1 brain, World-stock, biological radiations of i-machines, designing a III Earth to its likeness, where obsolete humans with no credit ‘exit mundi’, Greek style. Meanwhile informative machines’ networks manufacture brains with 3 symbiotic idol-ogies whose goal is to multiply 3 topologic metal-memes: capitalism (∆ informative metal-money), nationalism (∆ energetic weapons) and mechanism (∆organic machines).
Thus only a politic r=evolution that aborts the Mechanocene, extinguishing its lethal Goods, M(g); controlling world-stock with legal Wor(l)ds to cre(dit)ate instead Human-Welfare Goods, H(g), can save the World, ‘Generating’ the Existential Equation or Constitution of History’s 10Di superorganism that maximizes Humanity in its 3 scales: Max.H(g) x Min. M(g).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[57] **viXra:1507.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-14 04:12:09*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Version 2 corrects some punctuation.

People so often place their trust in the word of an Authority that they don’t carefully think about what they have been told. Consequently, that when upon a little reflection is recognised as utter fantasy, is passively accepted as true on the word of an Authority. Perhaps physics is the most pitiful example of the word of dogmatic Authority carrying sway over rational thought. Presented here are a few simple examples of the nonsensical claims made by physicists that reveal just how decrepit they and their science have become, and by which, hopefully, remedy is secured for the pensive reader.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:1507.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-11 07:18:04*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It was found that the universe is inflating with accelerated speed in 1998. But until today there is no theory to explain it. This time, a stationary space model instead of inflating model was made up that accounts for the cause of galaxies’ leaving each other with accelerating speed, by presuming space is equivalent to elementary particles. Also it explains gravity generation. Gravity and dark energy are created at the same time of a star formation by space’s change to elementary particles. After space changed to elementary particles around the center of the universe, it is transported to the verge of the universe. And around the verge of the universe, stars and galaxies change back to energy body again, after bursting into elementary particles. This is the space convection system. And the interaction by gravity or dark energy is caused by the energy level difference of energy body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1507.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-12 02:06:18*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. revised version

We discuss the sedeonic Klein-Gordon wave equation based on sedeonic space-time operators and wave function. The generalization of the gauge invariance for a wider class of scalar-vector substitutions is demonstrated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[54] **viXra:1507.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-08 10:32:53*

**Authors:** S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Williams

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We present a simple, semi-classical e-model of the proton that gives the proton mass, charge, spin and magnetic moment that are all in good agreement with measurements.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[53] **viXra:1507.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-09 14:51:16*

**Authors:** Sidharth Ghoshal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A technique for optimizing a more general class of linear operator expressions than those covered by the Euler Lagrange Equations

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[52] **viXra:1507.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-24 00:34:50*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There are many ways and whats to quantize. Here we seek to explain some of the whys and hows of the impedance model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[51] **viXra:1507.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-09 09:44:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Combining the vast processing power of quantum computers with cognitive computing systems like IBM's Watson will lead to huge advances in artificial intelligence, according to a C-level executive at the US software giant. [10]
Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[50] **viXra:1507.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-09 10:51:16*

**Authors:** William E. Rush

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It is proposed that the strong force is the force of space. Development of this concept leads to the prediction that the mass of all matter increases as the universe expands. This mass (energy) increase is absorbed from space and leads to the force of gravity. The rate of mass increase necessary to bring about the known force of gravity is calculated. A relationship between matter mass increase and matter length increase is developed and then used to calculate the rate of increase of matter length. This same rate of increase in length applies to all other lengths and orbits including galactic orbital distance. This fractional expansion rate is determined to be Gm/c(r)^2 where m and r are mass and radius of some smallest particle of definable dimensions. If m and r of a proton is chosen, this equation predicts that gravitational orbits double in length approximately every 45-85 million years. Orbits within galaxies, with orbital periods of hundreds of millions of years, will therefore be outward spirals as measured by time zero length, though orbital distances will always be measured as unchanging. Higher orbital speeds are required to maintain these spiral orbits than the orbital speeds required to maintain circular orbits at the same orbital radii. Calculations within show that for a typical galaxy (M31) at typical galactic distances of about 15 - 30 kpc, the galactic orbits increase in radius, or can be considered to ``accelerate" outward, at approximately the same acceleration rate as the gravitational acceleration rate required to hold stars in a circular orbit at the observed rotational velocity. These equivalent accelerations are near the MOND critical value of 10^-10 m/sec^2. This may explain the anomaly of galactic rotational velocities without dark matter. The concepts proposed here require that the fundamental constants change with the expanding universe; however, if the principle of relativity (not the theory) is embraced, then this requires that these physical and fundamental constants are linked such that they appear to remain unchanged.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1507.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-09 08:50:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

CERN scientists just completed one of the most exciting upgrades on the Large Hadron Collider—the Di-Jet Calorimeter (DCal). [8]
As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[48] **viXra:1507.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-09 09:04:34*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

An algorithm is presented that produces, in six steps, Benjamin Franklin's best known magic squares, one 8 x 8, and one 16 x 16. This same algorithm is then used to produce three related magic squares, dimensioned 4 x 4, 32 x 32, and 64 x 64.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[47] **viXra:1507.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-08 17:07:31*

**Authors:** Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

The objective of our project was to compare among different dyeing methods of polyester
fabric with disperse dyes. At first the polyester fabrics (knit and woven) were dyed with
disperse dyes. Three methods have been used for dyeing polyester fabrics (knit & woven):
1. Aqueous dyeing with a carrier (90°- 100°C) (batch dyeing)
2. High-temperature (120°- 140°C) aqueous dyeing (batch dyeing)
3. "Thermosol" dyeing (180°- 220°C) (continuous dyeing)
After dyeing the dyed sample were subjected to several tests-
1. Color fastness to perspiration.
2. Color fastness to rubbing.
3. Color fastness to washing
4. Process effectiveness
5. Cost analysis
6. Tensile Stregnth test
7. Pilling Test
Finally from the overall comparison for different processes , we found that High
Temperature & High Pressure method is the most suitable dyeing method used in
industrial production.

**Category:** Chemistry

[46] **viXra:1507.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-08 20:25:25*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The manuscript will prove and describe the trust head theorem [TrHT].

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[45] **viXra:1507.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-08 22:47:57*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

By inverting a key assumption of Relativity Theory, one can understand its predicted odd effects of time dilation, length contraction
and mass increase in terms of Classical Physics. The belief that must be suspended is that “Light always travels at constant speed”.
The alternative premise is that “Light and matter waves travel through a field generated by mass, at a variable speed determined by
the field’s intensity”. This new premise also leads to a Classical explanation for the attraction of Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1507.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-26 18:26:49*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

The Wave/Particle duality of particles in Physics is well known. Particles have properties that uniquely characterize them from one another, such as mass, charge and spin. Charged particles have associated Electric and Magnetic fields. Also, every moving particle has a De Broglie wavelength determined by its mass and velocity. In this paper I show that all of these properties of a particle can be derived from a single wave function equation for that particle. I present wave functions for the Electron and the Positron and provide principles that can be used to calculate the wave functions of all the fundamental particles in Physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[43] **viXra:1507.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-08 14:55:57*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In last sixty years, the scientists spent the tens billion dollars attempting to develop useful thermonuclear energy. But they cannot yet reach a stable thermonuclear reaction. They still are promising publically, after another 15 – 20 years, and more tens of billions of US dollars to finally design the expensive workable industrial installation, which possibly will produce electric energy more expensive than current heat, wind and hydro-electric stations can in 2015.
The author offers a new, small cheap cumulative inertial thermonuclear reactor, which increases the pressure and temperature of its nuclear fuel by thousands of times, reaches the required ignition stage and, ultimately, full constant contained thermonuclear reaction. Cumulative A-B Reactor contains several innovations to achieve its product
Chief among them is using moving explosives (rocket thrust), which allows to accelerate the special piston to very high speed (more 30 km/s) which (as shown by integral computations) compresses the fuel capsule a million times and heats up the millions degrees of temperature.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[42] **viXra:1507.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-10 10:33:18*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Six pages

Newton introduced the relation F = ma. He never defined m or mass. Dr. Einstein incorrectly used E = mc^2 or m = E/c^2 to define mass. See www.k1man.com/c1 This paper correctly defines mass using Gravitrons.
Secondly, the purpose of this paper is to describe the two similar mechanisms of radio, light,. etc. generation and gravity generation, which have acceleration in common, as well as to correctly explain, for the first time, the connection between gravity, inertia, and ordinary acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[41] **viXra:1507.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-08 08:47:05*

**Authors:** Danil Krotkov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Generalized identity of Johann Bernoulli

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[40] **viXra:1507.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-08 09:46:27*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We can destroy the fusion model by using Ockham’s Razor.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[39] **viXra:1507.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-08 06:02:34*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages. in Russian

Unusual underwater fountain [1] considered. Its mathematical model constructed and it is shown that its shape can be explained by the existence of substantial largest gravitomagnetic forces (similar to Lorenz forces) and of gravitomagnetic energy flow (similar to electromagnetic energy flow). \\ Рассматривается необычный подводный фонтан [1]. Строится его математическая модель и показывается, что его форма может быть объяснена существованием значительных по величине гравитомагнитных сил (аналогичных силам Лоренца) и потока гравитомагнитной энергии (аналогичного потоку электромагнитной энергии).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[38] **viXra:1507.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-18 17:20:52*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A system for generating intense fluxes (>>1 W.m-2) of extremely-low frequency (ELF) radiation, in the range of about 1Hz, is described in this work. It is based on the generation process of cyclotron radiation, and can be used in the research of biological effects of the ELF radiation and also in the therapies that use ELF radiation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[37] **viXra:1507.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-29 13:53:32*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to highlight the role of powers of 2 in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[36] **viXra:1507.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-07 09:58:16*

**Authors:** Joel M WIlliams

**Comments:** Pages.

The Global Temperature Anomalies (GTAs) of NOAA land-ocean data, RSS satellite data, and computer modeling give different answers to what might actually be or will be happening. This paper reconciles them on a CO2-scale instead of time-scale.

**Category:** Climate Research

[35] **viXra:1507.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-15 06:53:39*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Geometric algebra is a powerful mathematical tool for description of physical phenomena. Algebra Cl3, based on Euclidean 3D vector space is a possible framework for physical theories, especially the new, broader definition of Lorentz transformations. Here we discuss several consequences from that broader definition. Among other things, we derived some consequences to the special theory of relativity, a change in speed limit for example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1507.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-07 08:18:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A combined team of researchers from Israel's Hebrew University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology and Germany's Universität Kassel has succeeded in demonstrating coherent control of bond-forming between atoms using a laser beam. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes their experiments with molecule-making and outlines future possible applications. [6]
Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5]
Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[33] **viXra:1507.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-14 18:58:25*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 16 Pages. fixed computation errors; better agreement with exp. scattering cross sections

This article continues our previous study in arXiv:1010.0458. Sakaton interactions potentials are re-optimized. Masses of mesons, baryons, light nuclei and hypernuclei are obtained in a fair agreement with experiment. Total elastic scattering cross sections of protons, antiprotons, neutrons and lambda hyperons are also close to experimental data in a broad range of momenta 0.1 - 1000 GeV/c. Our results suggest that the Sakata model could be a promising alternative to the quark model of hadrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[32] **viXra:1507.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-17 06:51:55*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Omega 0 numerical consistency

In the paper it is demonstrated that the particular form of CHSH S=E{A(1)[B(1)-B(2)]-A(2)[B(1)+B(2)]} with S maximally 2 and minimally -2, for A and B functions in {-1,1}, is not generally valid for local models. The nonzero probability that local hidden extra parameters violate the CHSH, is not eliminated with basic principles derived from the CHSH.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[31] **viXra:1507.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-06 12:04:22*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 8 pages, 42 eqs, 23 refs; Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Control Systems and Computer Science (27-29 May 2015, Bucharest, Romania), Ed. by I. Dumitrache et al. (IEEE Computer Society CPS, Los Alamitos, 2015), Vol. 2, pp. 557-564

The unreduced dynamic complexity of modern computer, production, communication and control systems has become essential and cannot be efficiently simulated any more by traditional, basically regular models. We propose the universal concept of dynamic complexity and chaoticity of any real interaction process based on the unreduced solution of the many-body problem by the generalised effective potential method. We show then how the obtained mathematically exact novelties of system behaviour can be applied to the development of qualitatively new, complex-dynamical kind of computer and control systems.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[30] **viXra:1507.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-05 16:05:33*

**Authors:** A.W.Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Will be submitted to a journal

We examine the consequence of experimentally determining what the consequences of massive gravitons from the big bang would be, in terms of Clifford Will’s model of the speed of gravitational waves via a local inertial frame , with variation from the speed of light in GW propagation caused by gravitational rest mass non zero and E as a graviton rest energy. One of the consequences, being that the wavelength of GW would be 1/100 the radius of the present universe, with unimaginably low frequencies for GW of the order of 10^-16 Hertz, if there were maximally favourable conditions for generation of GW at the start of inflation, which puts restrictions we will specify as to an initial scale factor, the maximal red shift Z so specified, plus other details.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1507.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-27 15:30:18*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In “Calculation of the Planck Constant” (1), an alternative method for calculating the Planck constant was derived using the Rydberg constant. In table 2, the Planck Constant is calculated for each year of the Codata publication of the fundamental physical constants.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[28] **viXra:1507.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-06 00:13:40*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Additional information at jimtassano.com

This paper is a continuation of a series of papers on the universe as the surface volume of a four dimensional, expanding hyperverse. We argue that the whole universe is undergoing a geometric mean expansion, and is larger than the observable hyperverse by a factor of (R_sub_H / 2 Planck lengths)^4 , and its radius is larger by a factor of (R_sub_H / 2 Planck lengths)^4/3. The growth rate of the whole is actually accelerating, compared to the constant, 2c velocity we measure for the observable universe. We show that the ratio of the length of the small energy quantum (SEQ), to the small radius quantum (SRQ), values discussed at length in earlier hyperverse papers, is increasing at the same rate as the whole radius is increasing. We also show that, depending on the type of particle, the amount of time it takes for a particle to travel the distance of one SEQ length, approximately 10^-23 seconds, matches the time it takes for the particle to absorb one SEQ of energy. The quantum of time is the time it takes for an elementary particle to absorb one SEQ quantum of energy. The unit of quantum time is not a constant, but increases in duration at the same rate as the increase in the velocity of the whole hyperverse, canceling it, giving us the constant, 2c radial expansion rate.
Significantly, our equation for the quantum of time, derived from the hyperverse model, using only the values of c, G, h-bar and the radius of the observable hyperverse, matches the quantized time interval calculated for the electron by Piero Caldirola, using classical electron theory. His 'chronon', and our quantum absorption time, are identical values. Equating the two quantum time equations produces the correct equation of electric charge, further supporting the validity of the hyperverse model and the unit of quantum time. We continue by showing that the relation between particle mass and quantum absorption time is governed by the time-energy uncertainty relationship, allowing easy calculation of the quantum time values for all elementary particles, and supporting the concept of the geometric mean expansion of space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1507.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-24 09:04:32*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we argue for the tower of the Chandrasekhar limits as the origin of the helium-rich hot subdwarfs in omega Centauri cluster. The structure of bare muons described within SST leads to the hot blue stars with a mass of 0.465 solar masses. Previously we showed that stars with masses of 1.395, 11.20 and 0.891 solar masses should behave as the Type Ia supernovae i.e. after the explosion of such stars there should not be created a neutron star as a remnant. Stars with a mass of 0.465 solar masses are the untypical supernovae. They are the remnants of the exploding stars with a mass of 0.891 solar masses which lose their outer hydrogen layers. Their mass is too small to cause a collapse and next explosion as it is for higher Chandrasekhar limits. But the 3-component weak mass (a ball/condensate composed of the confined Einstein-spacetime components that is entangled with two rotating neutrinos) in muons (for mass equal to 0.465 solar masses there appears a maximum for number density of such 3-component systems and each component carries energy equal to 17.61 MeV) is a catalyst for fusions of three alpha particles into carbon-12 (the last experimental data show that any nonzero amount of coherence in a system can be converted into an equal amount of entanglement between that system and another initially incoherent one). Due to such fusions, surfaces of the untypical supernovae are very hot (a narrow temperature range from 35,000 K to 40,000 K). They are the extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] **viXra:1507.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-28 10:52:44*

**Authors:** Ralf Wüsthofen

**Comments:** 1 Page. Full version under 1702.0300

This note is a summary of a detailed proof of the strong Goldbach conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[25] **viXra:1507.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-24 14:52:57*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Added background from Codata

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 4, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a value of the fine-structure constant constant. This constant is found to depend only on pi and the dimensionless relations of the rest masses of the electron, neutron, and proton. The following paper shows a predicted fine-structure constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969. The fine-structure constant found is accurate to the measured fine-structure constant within less than one sigma. As the data for the fundamental physical constants has become more accurate, the prediction for the fine-structure constant has been trending for a precise number difference. Some, like John D. Barrow, Richard Feynman, and Sir Arthur Eddington knew that the fine-structures existence is embarrassingly elusive to grasp. Is its value to be found in string theory or quantum foam? Is pi a value incorporated in the fine-structure constant? John D. Barrow wrote;“If the deep logic of what determines the value of the fine-structure constant also played a significant role in our understanding of all the physical processes in which the fine-structure constant enters, then we would be stymied. Fortunately, we do not need to know everything before we can know something.” ― John D. Barrow, New Theories of Everything(4) Why does, this Equation 2.2, below predict a value for the fine-structure constant within the limits of the Quantum Hall method of measuring the fine-structure constant? We do not know, but we also touch a forever that we do not yet understand, yet are allowed to exist in the “ moment an instant lasted forever and be destined for the leading edge of Eternity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] **viXra:1507.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-05 11:33:22*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 40 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

As long as humans have been trying to understand the laws of objective reality, they have been proposing theories. In contrast to the well-known quantum theory, the most fundamental theory of matter currently available, Laplace's demon and Einstein's Weltformel are related more widely at least by standing out against the indeterminacy as stipulated by today’s quantum theory. Randomness as such does not exclude a deterministic relationship between cause and effect, since every random event has its own cause. The purpose of this publication is to provide a satisfactory description of the microstructure of space-time by mathematising the deterministic relationship between cause and effect at quantum level in the form of a mathematical formula of the causal relationship k.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] **viXra:1507.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-05 07:21:38*

**Authors:** Khaled Ouafi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We investigate the issue of approximate Bayesian parameter inference in nonlinear state space models with complex likelihoods. Sequential Monte Carlo with approximate Bayesian computations (SMC-ABC) is an approach to approximate the likelihood in this type of models. However, such approximations can be noisy and computationally expensive which hinders cost-effective implementations using standard methods based on optimisation and statistical simulation. We propose a innovational method based on the combination of Gaussian process optimisation (GPO) and SMC-ABC to create a Laplace approximation of the intractable posterior. The properties of the resulting GPO-ABC method are studied using stochastic volatility (SV) models with both synthetic and real-world data. We conclude that the algorithm enjoys: good accuracy comparable to particle Markov chain Monte Carlo with a significant reduction in computational cost and better robustness to noise in the estimates compared with a gradient-based optimisation algorithm. Finally, we make use of GPO-ABC to estimate the Value-at-Risk for a portfolio using a copula model with SV models for the margins.

**Category:** Statistics

[22] **viXra:1507.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-05 05:21:11*

**Authors:** Khaled Ouafi, Serge Vaudenay

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, we present an application of RFIDs for supply- chain management. In our application, we consider two types of readers. On one part, we have readers that will mark tags at given points. After that, these tags can be checked by another type of readers to tell whether a tag has followed the correct path in the chain. We formalize this notion and define adequate adversaries. Morever, we derive requirements in or- der to meet security against counterfeiting, cloning and impersonation attacks.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[21] **viXra:1507.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-27 14:47:51*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 2, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a potentially more accurate value of Planck’s constant. The following paper shows a predicted range of Planck’s constant at one sigma for Planck’s constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] **viXra:1507.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-07 21:54:20*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Newton's third law has been proved to be wrong, there are experimental evidence of the video, there are rigorous proof of a strong paper. As a basis for further obtained, that is, Newton's second law to prove the error. Therefore, the Newton law of correcting errors, there are new second law of motion and new third law of motion, to be produces. Including the Newton's first law of New three laws of motion, will become more accurate, more efficient mechanical principles, guiding the new mechanical system is derived and the establishment.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[19] **viXra:1507.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-04 04:47:37*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Partly rewritten for clarity with some new material.

To extend the standard model to Planck scale energies I propose a phenomenological model of quantum black holes and dark matter. I assume that inside any black hole there is a core object of length scale L_Planck. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of general relativity. A simple phenomenological schematic model is presented for the core as quantum fields of SO(10) grand unified theory. A survey is made of calculational models that could support or supplement the present scheme and of theoretical frameworks for future developments.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1507.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-11 10:48:17*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The solution of the fifteenth problem of Smale, the Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[17] **viXra:1507.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 07:04:05*

**Authors:** BERKOUK mohamed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

démonstration résumée , sans détailler les théorèmes de WARING ,EUCLIDE et le théorème des nombres premiers (TNP) que j'ai utilisé pour asseoir les jalons d'une démonstration de La conjecture de POLIGNAC.

**Category:** Number Theory

[16] **viXra:1507.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 07:18:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10]
Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1507.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 04:14:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A team from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, along with collaborators from several Japanese institutions, have successfully produced pairs of spin-entangled electrons and demonstrated, for the first time, that these electrons remain entangled even when they are separated from one another on a chip. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1507.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-06 01:57:40*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Revised version

We discuss the gradient gauge invariance for the massive and massless fields described by sedeonic second-order and first-order wave equations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13] **viXra:1507.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-05 06:04:56*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 16 pages. Advances in Physics Theories and Applications, Vol. 44, P. 123 – 138 (2015).

Based on the assumption of separation of the charges in matter of cosmic bodies the possibility of obtaining the magnetic moment by these bodies is proved. The magnitude of the magnetic field appears proportional to the angular velocity of the body’s rotation and to the radius of convective layer. The periods of change of polarity of magnetic field of the Earth and the Sun are calculated by means of the size the convective layer and the convection speed. The solar activity appears the consequence of periodic transformation of the thermal energy into the electromagnetic form of energy.

**Category:** Geophysics

[12] **viXra:1507.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-02 07:25:19*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

With simple, but vivid argument I am proving, what the Universe has the Beginning, will have the End and is finite in volume. Tell the others on Facebook, Twitter, etc, to make this world a better place to live and think.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1507.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-02 04:14:17*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Will be brought up in Marcel Grossman Meeting, Rome

We initially look at a non singular universe representation as given by Rovelli and Vidotto, in terms of a quantum bounce, via quark stars, as a start of how to estimate of entropy and also of the number of operations of an expanding universe. The bench mark used is, to after considering a quark star, to look at the mass of a universe, estimated, and from there, we can obtain the entropy if we look at the Schwartzshield radii of a universe, and then the radii of the universe about 380,000 years after the big bang. In the latter, we show how to get the number of operations as akin to the reasoning used by Seth Lloyd , in 2001, and also from there close with a few comments as to the ‘naturalness’ of heavy Gravity from this formulation of entropy, which is based upon a start of considering what is a Planck star, as far as minimum quantum effects in Black hole physics, and by extension early universe cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1507.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-02 05:17:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[9] **viXra:1507.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 13:43:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Phonons—the elemental particles that transmit both heat and sound—have magnetic properties, according to a landmark study supported by Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) services and recently published by a researcher group from The Ohio State University. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[8] **viXra:1507.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 11:44:43*

**Authors:** R. Born

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This is not the best paper, it's pieces of a larger work that didn't fit the constraints of an essay I have many more details, references, I was not able to include, but will provide in other works. The important part here is that it helps preserve your free will by showing how it is important to gravity, a universal truth, law. The observer scales up in the far future, which astronomers can't see in telescopes. You don't need a crystal ball to use logic, follow trends like evolution another 85 billion years...

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1507.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-03 09:56:21*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Abstract: review of historical and research about nuclear forces and nuclear structure.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[6] **viXra:1507.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 08:25:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1507.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 03:40:35*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Satisfied all possible experimental misses of General Relativity by simple and logical modification of Einstein equations. Namely to the left hand is added besides the cosmological constant the Dark Matter tensor. Hereby the Dark Matter is not discovered as the material one, because it is the phantomic matter: just the modification of the geometry rules. Tell the others on Facebook, Twitter, etc, to make this world a better place to live and think.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1507.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 09:36:07*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** Pages.

Taking into account infinitesimal and iperreal concepts from Robinsons' non standard analysis the proof in the previous versions has been made more general

**Category:** Number Theory

[3] **viXra:1507.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 02:49:30*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. in Russian

Discusses the principle and test results space engines that cravings creates due to directional microwave. Shows the inconsistency of allegations of violations of the momentum conservation law and performance of this idea

**Category:** Classical Physics

[2] **viXra:1507.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-24 08:58:57*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here we present the new structure of the Theory of Everything (ToE or SQUARE Theory). The time problem that concerns the General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) (contrary to QM, in GR is not a distinguished physical time) suggests that the irreversible separation of GR and QM during the inflation is the good idea - just there was created the two-component spacetime with very different properties of the two components. One component is directly associated with gravitational fields whereas the second with the Standard-Model interactions and particles. It causes that unification of GR and QM within the same methods is impossible. The separation of GR and QM follows from the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field that existence results from the extended GR (the phase transitions are described within the unique Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST)). The SST shows that both theories, i.e. GR and QM, start from correct but incomplete sets of initial conditions. It causes that, generally, they lead to experimental data so both are the correct theories but due to the incompleteness, there appear as well the not numerous incorrect solutions i.e. solutions that cannot be realized by Nature. The Scale-Symmetric Theory limits the GR and QM in such a way that there do not appear infinities, indeterminate mathematical forms, approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. Nature on lower and lower levels should be simpler and simpler, not more and more complex as it is in the not unique Loop Quantum Gravity or the not unique string/M-theory. We do not need new differential equations to solve the tremendous number of unsolved basic problems - we need a very simple theory that limits the GR and QM and describes the scales below the Planck scale and solves all problems above this scale - SST is such a theory. In the RHIC experiment we can test the SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1507.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-04 01:23:52*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A proof of the conjecture is offered, also implying that:
- there are infinitely many prime quadruplets
- there are infinitely many twin primes
- Polignac conjecture is true for n=2 and for n=4

**Category:** Number Theory