[254] **viXra:1509.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-30 16:36:54*

**Authors:** N.I. Yannopoulou, P.E. Zimourtopoulos

**Comments:** 17 Pages. FunkTechnikPlus # Journal, Issue 8 - Year 3, 30 September 2015, v1, 17-33, otoiser ftp#j

In order to investigate the ability of pattern analysis and RICHWIRE simulation we usually use, to further handle antenna designs under certain extreme geometric conditions, we set up a number of limiting cases of our Delta-Cross loop, an antenna shape which we devised for the additional purpose of this research. Specifically, we vary the wire radius, segment vicinity, apex angle, and central configuration, while we deliberately keep constant its total length at almost two wavelengths, and we demonstrate the results for its main antenna characteristics: the complex vector radiation pattern and the complex scalar input impedance, as well as, the real scalars directivity and SWR, respectively. In this way, we conclude practicable suggestions for managing antenna problems which particularly include similar geometric arrangements.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[253] **viXra:1509.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-30 21:11:08*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Game of Life is arguably the most popular and productive cellular automaton ever discovered, with applications in evolutionary dynamics and Turing Machine Designs. The present work purports to the design, implementation and discussion of a Sense Enhanced Game of Life (SEGoL), which is essentially the original GoL including sense enhanced perceptibility. To achieve this, two grids, namely the Life Grid L and the Sense Grid S are defined, with L taking one of two values (alive or dead) and S taking one of three values (touch, sight and sound), with the value in a particular S grid affecting the neighborhood perceptibility in the corresponding S grid. Based on the design, the evolutionary patterns are studied for various rules, coupled with the entropy values and survival rates. Among various cases explored, certain interesting cases leading to self-organization in the sense grids, with or without accompaniment of clustering of certain senses are observed. It is seen that the proposed Sense Enhanced Game of Life (SEGoL), essentially adapting Conway’s original Game of Life Rules, scaled for larger neighborhoods, and for enhanced perceptibility, displays a diverse range of interesting evolutionary dynamics, while also retaining the original features of the original Game of Life including the still-life and oscillating elements for the pure touch case. It is hoped that the results detailed here would form preliminary steps in transforming a reductionist, structural perspective of life to a radical and innovative holistic, information based understanding of life.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[252] **viXra:1509.0294 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-24 07:29:46*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The purpose of this brief note is to point out that, to the best of our knowledge, the first rationale for modeling the Higgs scalar as mixture of electroweak bosons was disclosed in refs. [1-3]. According to this interpretation, the Higgs scalar is a topological condensate of gauge bosons on spacetime having minimal fractality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[251] **viXra:1509.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-30 11:24:04*

**Authors:** Alvaro Antolinez Abellan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Proposal for a system that recovers and stores the excess kinetic energy of a spaceship arriving from another planet. It’s composed by an orbital station that capture the spaceship by electromagnetic means and stores it in batteries. The stored energy in form of electricity and a higher station

**Category:** Classical Physics

[250] **viXra:1509.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-30 12:27:00*

**Authors:** Antonio Iovane

**Comments:** Pages.

A damped stationary pendulum, at rest in the laboratory, has been characterized by a 50-day test in a non-eclipse season. Later in a solar eclipse day this pendulum showed an instability by far not consistent with the behavior observed during the characterization test, at a 5-sigma level. The fact that, relative to the observing site, this eclipse occurred mostly before sunrise allows us to easily rule out the most mundane shadow-related causes for the observed anomalies. We believe that the anomalies were not linked to the shadow neither do we think that it was a gravitational phenomenon, but we think that the observed effect was caused by other eclipse-related circumstances. We suggest a conventional explanation not involving gravity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[249] **viXra:1509.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-30 07:47:28*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this abstract, a scheme for finding The Prime Sequence’s (Of Higher Order Space’s) Generating Algorithm is elaborated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[248] **viXra:1509.0290 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-10 07:10:11*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We point out that there is no obvious contradiction between the results of quantum mechanics and consequences of general relativity

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[247] **viXra:1509.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 16:27:34*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 16 Pages. I am the first in the world who wrote an equation, a transdisciplinarity equation, a link between quantum mechanics and spirituality, a link between science and spirituality.

Ferent Energy Centers Equation
The most important question: WHO AM I?
Started from this equation I discovered more very important equations, more links between science and spirituality.
Who am I? Involves a set of questions and answers bearing on Self-enquiry.
In the beginning was the qubit.
We follow the path of information.
I defined the consciousness a probability space and the measure of the whole space is equal to One.
Our evolution level is our consciousness level.
What Darwin did not understand? The evolution of consciousness.
The wave function of each man is unique and he can always be found by it.
Great thinkers spoke about spirituality and science but none of them wrote a transdisciplinarity equation, that is why I wrote several transdisciplinarity equations.

**Category:** Mind Science

[246] **viXra:1509.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 21:42:47*

**Authors:** Vedat Tanriverdi

**Comments:** 6 pages, classical electron radius, spin, quantum mechanics

Some simple models about classical electron radius and spin are considered.
These simple models are considered for a better understanding spin and its relation with other electron properties, i.e. charge, inertia, energy.
These models have different inconsistencies with current theories, however they are still helpful for understanding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[245] **viXra:1509.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-30 00:23:47*

**Authors:** Kenneth C. Johnson

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper outlines a design concept for an EUV microscope, which is applicable to actinic photomask inspection in semiconductor manufacture with EUV lithography. The microscope employs a raster-scanned, focused-spot array, using a commercial EUV plasma source and achromatic EUV-transmission microlenses for spot generation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[244] **viXra:1509.0286 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-22 13:45:55*

**Authors:** Kenneth C. Johnson

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 4/22/2016 update: added 8-th order approximant (Eq 22)

This paper reports work-in-progress on the solution of first-order, linear, homogeneous differential equation systems, with non-constant coefficients, by generalization of the Padé-approximant method for exponential matrices.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[243] **viXra:1509.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-30 01:47:06*

**Authors:** Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu, Hilmi Yanar

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Accepted for publication in MLPA

In the present study, we mainly investigate the nature of entropy function in non-flat Kaluza-Klein universe. We prove that the first and generalized second laws of gravitational thermodynamics are valid on the dynamical apparent horizon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[242] **viXra:1509.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 13:58:36*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I derive the invariance of the product: relativistic mass times relativistic length.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[241] **viXra:1509.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 14:00:50*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to derive the formula for the momentum of a body (or particle) as a
function of its “contracted” length. The paper also shows that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction is a real effect, and therefore, not an illusion.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[240] **viXra:1509.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 11:34:02*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We propose two distinct interpretations of extended probabilities which are realistic for the physical world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[239] **viXra:1509.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 11:36:11*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We start by rewriting classical mechanics in a quantum mechanical fashion and point out that the only diﬀerence with quantum theory re- sides at one point. There is a classical analogon of the collapse of the wavefunction and an extension of the usual Born rule is proposed which might solve this problem. We work only with algebra’s over the real (com- plex) numbers, general number ﬁelds of ﬁnite characteristic allowing for ﬁnite dimensional representations of the commutation relations are not considered given that such ﬁelds are not well ordered and do not give rise to a well deﬁned probability interpretation. Our theory generalizes however to discrete spacetimes and ﬁnite dimensional algebra’s. Looking at physics this way, spacetime itself distinguishes itself algebraically by means of well chosen commutation relations and there is further nothing special about it meaning it has also a particle interpretation just like any other dynamical variable. Likewise, there is no reason for the dynamics to be Hamiltonian and therefore we have a nonconservative formulation of quantum physics at hand. The harmonic oscillator (amongst few oth- ers) distinguishes itself because the algebra forms a ﬁnite dimensional Lie algebra; the classical and quantum (discrete) harmonic oscillator are stud- ied in a some more generality and examples are given which are neither classical, nor quantum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[238] **viXra:1509.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 05:10:51*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

That motion is relative is an accepted physical principle as everything is in motion relative to some other thing in the universe. The rule of additive relative velocity is based on this simple principle. If the speed of light as measured on the ground is c, then the velocity of light as measured by an observer moving at speed w towards the source would be c+w. There is no need of any experiment to confirm if indeed the speed would be c+w as it is simply the speed that would result following the accepted practice of how physical measurements of distances and time are made - speed is just distance divided by time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[237] **viXra:1509.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 05:48:42*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. in Russian.Robert Yusupov © Notice of scientific discovery

This article provides an overview of the issues and problems found their solution in the "Theory of the nature" of the author. This theory includes natural science, dialectical materialism, physics and cosmology. Dialectical materialism equips us with a dialectical materialist world outlook in the understanding the nature and the material world around us and gives us the dialectical materialist method of the learning of the reality. According to the author, natural science should first give us a concrete picture of the universe. The understanding this pattern theory of dialectical materialism will lead us to a generalized picture of the universe. The author has developed and in this paper describes his understanding of the universe. This model of the universe includes both the microcosm and the macrocosm in their natural indissoluble unity. Researching the foundations of nature and a universe by the method of dialectical materialism has led the author to the truly fundamental discoveries./В настоящей статье представлен обзор вопросов и проблем, нашедших свое решение в «Теории природы» автора. Эта теория включает в себя общее естествознание, диалектический материализм, физику и космологию. Диалектический материализм вооружает нас диалектико-материалистическим мировоззрением в понимании природы и окружающего нас материального мира и дает нам диалектико-материалистический метод познания действительности. По мнению автора, естествознание в первую очередь должно нам дать конкретную картину мироздания. Осмысление этой картины теорией диалектического материализма приведет нас к обобщенной картине мироздания. Автор разработал и в настоящей статье описывает свое понимание мироздания. Эта модель мироздания включает в себя и микромир, и макромир в их нерасторжимом естественном единстве. Исследования основ природы и мироздания методом диалектического материализма привели автора к поистине фундаментальным открытиям.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[236] **viXra:1509.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 06:42:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

According to a new model, dark matter may be composed of clusters of electrically charged particles bound by a yet-unknown strong interaction. [13]
Other scientists hope to create them in powerful particle collisions at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. “Most supersymmetric theories estimate the mass of the lightest WIMP to be somewhere above 100 gigaelectronvolts, which is well within LHC’s energy regime,” Tait says. “I myself and others are very excited about the recent LHC restart. There is a lot of hope to create dark matter in the lab.” [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[235] **viXra:1509.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 18:06:23*

**Authors:** Gerges F. Tawadrous

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

Abstract
This paper proves The Following Hypothesis…
The Solar Eclipse Geometry Basics are different Completely from the Current Physics Basics.
i.e.
The Solar System Geometry Basics contradicts the Current Physics Basics, and violates The physics Concepts.
The Total Solar Eclipse event I use as proof for this claim.
Let’s start
The Sun diameter = 400 folds the moon diameter, but the Sun/ Earth distance= 400 folds the Moon/ Earth distance, for that reason the people on the Earth see the sun size equals the moon size approximately, that enables the total solar eclipse to be occurred before our eyes!
Is it just "a pure coincidence"? or there's a physical reason causes the equity of The Sun & Moon Angular Diameters to occur the solar eclipse.
If this is "a pure Coincidence" for just once, So No argument can be found here..
But The Solar System Geometry is filled by hundreds as such "pure Coincidences" and for that
We should discuss that deeply to see The Contradiction Roots between The Current Physics Concepts & The Solar System Geometry..

**Category:** Astrophysics

[234] **viXra:1509.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 21:29:59*

**Authors:** Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Three 100% cotton denim jeans were treated with stone acid wash with the variation of processing time (1.5, 2 & 2.5 minutes) and concentration (1.5, 2 & 2.5g/l) of potassium permanganate after typical enzyme bleach wash. Various physical and mechanical properties (Hand feel, Weight, EPI, and PPI, Tensile strength, Shrinkage, Seam strength, Count & stiffness) were investigated before and after each treatment (concentration and respective time) according to standard test methods. It was found that change in processing time and concentration reveals big difference in various properties between treated and untreated garments.

**Category:** Chemistry

[233] **viXra:1509.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 23:13:09*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 14 Pages. I discovered the graviton: the impulse of the graviton, the energy of the graviton, the speed of the graviton, the frequency of the graviton and the mass of the graviton. That is why my theory is a Quantum Gravity theory.

It is our ultimate task to discover a new quantum theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale and creates a new frontier.
I found another wall, the Ferent wall beyond the Planck wall.
I replaced Max Planck equation E = h × f with the Ferent equation for the energy of a photon:
E = h × f + a × f
I discovered the impulse of the graviton: p = a / λ
I replaced Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Δp × Δx ≥ h / 4π with Ferent Uncertainty Principle:
Δp × Δx ≥ a
I discovered a new electromagnetic theory.
The graviton has negative impulse, negative mass and negative energy.
I am the first who understood and explained that the gravitons with the speed of light are too slow to keep the constellations and the galaxy together. I explained the gravitation with the speed of the gravitons bigger than the speed of light.
The mass of a body, of a system M = m1 + im2 where m1 is the real mass and m2 is the imaginary mass, it is the rest mass of the gravitons.
I calculated the volume of the universe at Planck wall and the volume of the universe at Ferent wall.
My quantum gravity theory shows that the gravitons are too small to be detected by today’s technology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[232] **viXra:1509.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-02 21:04:16*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Re do of equation 12, with explanations of dimensional scaling put in ; 6 Pages. For Marcel Grossman 14. Details put in as to Riemannian Penrose inequality only being used here due to a non zero scale factor, initially.

Initial temperature, particle count are tied into entropy genration, and we make a reference to the Riemannian Penrose inequality, in terms of , if it is an equality what it says about admissible frequencies, as to the early universe. The author is fully aware of the Riemannian Penrose inequality's usual application, black hole physics. Its application to early universe cosmology is due to assuming a non zero, but extremely small initial scale factor at the start of inflation. The frequency, of Eq.(12) is proportional to [1/ distance] with the distance ~ Area to the 1/3rd power. Which is used as a bound to make sense of the range of frequencies assumed in this problem

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[231] **viXra:1509.0272 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-18 22:48:08*

**Authors:** Laszlo G. Meszaros

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Although more than a century has passed since Einstein introduced his Special Theory of Relativity (STR), the relation to reality of its predictions, such as length contraction, for instance, still seems obscure. This might not be surprising, if one considers the strangeness of physical reality, whose features are allowed to vary depending on the observer. Here, a simple thought-experiment is put forward, which shows that relativistic length contraction (a prediction of the STR) leads to contradictions, if considered real. Taking this together with the Einstein-proposed observer-dependent reality, it is suggested that the STR is simply an account of an "optical illusion", a result of the assumed invariance of light speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[230] **viXra:1509.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 03:18:56*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Yazid Bindar, Sony Suhandono, Edwan Kardena, Rifqi, Aulia Eka Fitriani, Sri Indah Ihsani

**Comments:** 6 pages, 7 figures, 3 tables, conference paper on the Second Symposium On Global Halal Research, 30 September 2015, Jakarta, Indonesia

A literature study of number of publications listed in Scopus has been performed. Observation is limited only from 1990 to mid of 2015. The word halal is used in searching title, abstract, and keywords of the publications. Only four subject areas are considered: (i) agricultural and biological sciences, (ii) engineering, (iii) medicine, and (iv) computer sciences. In general sum of all fields tends to increase rapidly between 2010 and 2012 but then they decrease in the last three years of observation range. It also makes smooth pattern from 1999 until 2009. Individual field shows fluctuated pattern. Moore’s law in form of N(t) = N_0 exp[k(t – t_0)] is implemented by setting some parameters such as offset of starting time t_0, exponent constant k, and proportional constant N_0. Correlation among observed fields is also discussed in brief.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[229] **viXra:1509.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 09:46:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

For a very long time mankind has questioned what consciousness is – whether our ability to think, our free will, is tied directly to our soul or if it’s a component of the complexity of our brains? [8]
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[228] **viXra:1509.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 09:55:51*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The fashion is wrongly called ``Standards of beauty''. Because the Standards, as the name says, are never changing. Therefore, let us build our character on the Uniting Standards. The spaghetti being god (their ``monster''), atheists understand much better. So, is the atheism the neo-paganism? Historically the advanced Roman pagans have not believed in divine nature of their statues, but they played their worshiping; and the system and political fashion supported this play (many Russians say: ``all our life is play''). The proof, what atheism is the old bad paganism, you see here. There is also important theological information and the physical and social one. You simply need to read this, if you want, dear theist. I am not writing for busy atheists. Very likely, that they are busy with satanic activities. Even the unconscious killers of our believing souls are the killers by the fact. Guess, who is unconscious pagan? The pagan.

**Category:** Mind Science

[227] **viXra:1509.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 10:20:50*

**Authors:** Lamont Williams

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

For many decades, the Higgs boson was the missing piece of the Standard Model of particle physics — the successful theoretical framework that describes all of the known fundamental particles and their interactions. While the Standard Model predicts the existence of the Higgs boson, it does not predict a specific mass for the particle — this must be determined through experimentation. The masses of the other fundamental particles also must be measured and, to date, there does not appear to be any logical way to derive one mass value from the others. This does not appear to be the case for the Higgs boson, however. Here the author shows that the mass of the Higgs boson can be calculated using the mass values of the Z and W bosons, which represent two of its primary decay channels. The implications of this are potentially far-reaching, particularly as it suggests that the boson discovered at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is not a fundamental particle, but instead is derived from Z and W bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[226] **viXra:1509.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 12:20:14*

**Authors:** A.A. Bolonkin

**Comments:** 140 Pages. See also Part 2 of this work

Настоящая диссертация состоит из двух частей. Первая часть посвящена математическим основам новых методов оптимизации, вторая часть – примеры и приложения этих методов к ряду технических задач.
В отличие от классической постановки задачи оптимизации:
а) Дан ункционал. Требуется найти его абсолютную минималь.
Эта задача в подавляющем большинстве случаев очень трудна и чаще всего неразрешима.
Поэтому в первой части рассматриваются также иные постановки задач:
б) Найти более «узкое» подмножество, содержащее абсолютную минималь.
в) Найти подмножество решений лучших, чем данное.
г) Найти оценки снизу данного функционала.
В настоящее время большинство исследователей, работающих в области оптимизации, заняты решением задачи в традиционной (классической) постановке – отысканием точной минимали (задача а). Инженера же, как правило, в реальных задачах интересует подмножество квазиоптимальных решений, выбирая из которого, он заранее уверен в получении функционала не хуже заданной величины (задача в) и оценки снизу, показывающих насколько далек он от точного оптимального оптимального решения (задача г). К тому же обычно у него есть много дополнительных соображений, которые нельзя учесть в математической модели или которые бы ее сильно усложнили. Постановка задачи в форме в дает ему определенную свободу выбора. Задача г имеет и самостоятельный интерес. Если есть оценка снизу, близкая к точной нижней грани функционала, то задачу оптимизации часто можно решить подбором квазиоптимального решения. Задача же б может существенно облекчить решение любой из перечисленных задач, так как сужает множество, на котором следует искать решение.
Перечисленные неклассические постановки задач потребовали новых методов решения, отличных от известных методов вариационного исчисления, принципа максимума или динамического программирования. Оказалось, что новые методы обладают значительной общностью и при попытке решить с их помощью одну из перечисленных задач можно в качестве побочного продукта получить решение другой задачи. Это может принести пользу. Так если получена хорошая оценка снизу, то, сравнивая с ней разные инженерные решения, часто удается получить решение, очень мало отличающееся от оптимального.
Излагаемый в первой части материал не сложен, но он опирается на ряд элементарных понятий и символику из теории множеств.
В диссертации принята двойная нумерация формул, теорем и рисунков. Первая цифра обзначает номер параграфа, вторая – номер формулы или теоремы в этом параграфе. Первая цифра в рисунках обозначает номер главы, вторая – номер рисунка в данной главе.
Краткое изложение (Автореферат диссертации, 28 стр.) есть в интнрнете http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0081, http://www.twirpx.com ,
Некоторые главы изложены более подробно в специальном учебном пособии «Новые методы оптимизации и их применение», Москва, Издательство МВТУ им.Баумана, 1972г., 220 стр. (См. РГБ, Российская Государственная Библиотека, Ф-801-83/869-6). http://vixra.org/abs/1504.0011 v4. , https://www.academia.edu/11054777/ Пособие содержит также большое число примеров, упражнений и задач.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[225] **viXra:1509.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 12:42:27*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: To have an E8-symmetry cyclic universe a key requirement is spin 0 and spin 1 boson fermibosonic matter to transfer matter from the old universe to the new universe starting with the big bang without destroying the universe's flatness. Study indicates this material must be supersymmetric. Both spin types have now been confirmed with with the ttH and the tZ and t anti-t Z entities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[224] **viXra:1509.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 12:49:42*

**Authors:** A.A. Bolonkin

**Comments:** 140 Pages. See also Part 1 of this work

Настоящая диссертация состоит из двух частей. Первая часть посвящена математическим основам новых методов оптимизации, вторая часть – примеры и приложения этих методов к ряду технических задач.
В отличие от классической постановки задачи оптимизации:
а) Дан ункционал. Требуется найти его абсолютную минималь.
Эта задача в подавляющем большинстве случаев очень трудна и чаще всего неразрешима.
Поэтому в первой части рассматриваются также иные постановки задач:
б) Найти более «узкое» подмножество, содержащее абсолютную минималь.
в) Найти подмножество решений лучших, чем данное.
г) Найти оценки снизу данного функционала.
В настоящее время большинство исследователей, работающих в области оптимизации, заняты решением задачи в традиционной (классической) постановке – отысканием точной минимали (задача а). Инженера же, как правило, в реальных задачах интересует подмножество квазиоптимальных решений, выбирая из которого, он заранее уверен в получении функционала не хуже заданной величины (задача в) и оценки снизу, показывающих насколько далек он от точного оптимального оптимального решения (задача г). К тому же обычно у него есть много дополнительных соображений, которые нельзя учесть в математической модели или которые бы ее сильно усложнили. Постановка задачи в форме в дает ему определенную свободу выбора. Задача г имеет и самостоятельный интерес. Если есть оценка снизу, близкая к точной нижней грани функционала, то задачу оптимизации часто можно решить подбором квазиоптимального решения. Задача же б может существенно облекчить решение любой из перечисленных задач, так как сужает множество, на котором следует искать решение.
Перечисленные неклассические постановки задач потребовали новых методов решения, отличных от известных методов вариационного исчисления, принципа максимума или динамического программирования. Оказалось, что новые методы обладают значительной общностью и при попытке решить с их помощью одну из перечисленных задач можно в качестве побочного продукта получить решение другой задачи. Это может принести пользу. Так если получена хорошая оценка снизу, то, сравнивая с ней разные инженерные решения, часто удается получить решение, очень мало отличающееся от оптимального.
Излагаемый в первой части материал не сложен, но он опирается на ряд элементарных понятий и символику из теории множеств.
В диссертации принята двойная нумерация формул, теорем и рисунков. Первая цифра обзначает номер параграфа, вторая – номер формулы или теоремы в этом параграфе. Первая цифра в рисунках обозначает номер главы, вторая – номер рисунка в данной главе.
Краткое изложение (Автореферат диссертации, 28 стр.) есть в интнрнете http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0081, http://www.twirpx.com ,
Некоторые главы изложены более подробно в специальном учебном пособии «Новые методы оптимизации и их применение», Москва, Издательство МВТУ им.Баумана, 1972г., 220 стр. (См. РГБ, Российская Государственная Библиотека, Ф-801-83/869-6). http://vixra.org/abs/1504.0011 v4. , https://www.academia.edu/11054777/ Пособие содержит также большое число примеров, упражнений и задач.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[223] **viXra:1509.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 07:55:01*

**Authors:** Gerges Francis Tawdrous

**Comments:** 89 Pages.

The Sun size = 400 folds the moon size, but the Sun/ Earth distance = 400 folds the Moon/ Earth distance, for that reason the people on the earth see the sun size equals the moon size approximately, that enables the total solar eclipse to be occurred before our eyes!
Is it just "a pure coincidence"? or there's a physical reason caused the Sun/ Moon sizes rate = the Sun / moon distances to the Earth rate, to enable the total solar eclipse to be occurred!
In this paper, I prove there's a physical reason behind this pure coincidence..

**Category:** Astrophysics

[222] **viXra:1509.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 08:44:06*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Based on interpreting and expanding Confucius' Golden Mean through neutrosophic tetrad, this paper discusses interpretating and expanding Laozi’s governing a large country is like cooking a small fish with neutrosophy and quad-stage method. There are many different ways for interpretating and expanding, and come to different conclusions. This paper emphasizes the results that besides governing a large country is like cooking a small fish, we should also consider that governing a large Chinese style country is like cooking a small Chinese style fish, governing a large American style country is like cooking a small American style fish, and the like; as well as governing a large country is like cooking a medium fish, governing a large country is like cooking a big fish, governing a medium country is like cooking a small fish, governing a medium country is like cooking a medium fish, governing a medium country is like cooking a big fish, governing a small country is like cooking a small fish, governing a small country is like cooking a medium fish, governing a small country is like cooking a big fish, and the like; governing a large country covers cooking a small fish, governing a large country is not like cooking a small fish, and the like. Finally, according to neutrosophic tetrad, this famous remark can be expanded as follows, simultaneously consider governing a large country, a medium country, and a small country are like cooking a small fish, a medium fish, and a big fish; as well as governing a large province, a medium province, and a small province are like cooking a small fish, a medium fish, and a big fish; governing a big city, a medium city, and a small city are like cooking a small fish, a medium fish, and a big fish; governing a big ministry, a medium ministry, and a small ministry are like cooking a small fish, a medium fish, and a big fish; and the like. Of course, "cooking various fishes" can also be replaced by "cooking various fishes and foods", because "Food is the paramount necessity of the people".
Key words: Neutrosophy, quad-stage method, interpretation, expansion, governing a large country is like cooking a small fish, neutrosophic tetrad

**Category:** Social Science

[221] **viXra:1509.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 08:49:29*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Although many scholars consider that original non-closed and non-symmetric solution for planetary motion equation of general relativity can be used to solve the problem of advance of planetary perihelion, it has some shortcomings really. This paper discusses the closed and symmetric solution for planetary motion equation of general relativity, and that means that general relativity cannot be used to solve the problem of advance of planetary perihelion. Also, if the solution for planetary motion equation of general relativity is unique, then the non-closed and non-symmetric solution including infinite terms should tend to the closed and symmetric solution. According to "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far" including all the equations so far related to natural science and its variational principle, the optimization method can be used to reach the optimal approximate closed and symmetric solution for problem of advance of planetary perihelion. On the basis of the closed and symmetric solution, the planetary orbit should be a rotating ellipse or a rotating approximate ellipse; namely the advance of planetary perihelion is the combined result of two motions: the first motion (the elliptical motion decided by law of gravity or the closed and symmetric approximate elliptical motion decided by planetary motion equation of general relativity) creates the perihelion, and the second motion (solar system’s vortex motion) creates the advance of perihelion; while the parameters of advance will be decided by general relativity or accurate astronomical observation.
Key words: General relativity, planetary motion equation, closed and symmetric solution, partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far, variational principle, advance of planetary perihelion, rotating ellipse

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[220] **viXra:1509.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-27 16:02:50*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This work is based on modification of the general relativity, which includes effects of production /absorption of matter by the vacuum. The theory (without fitting parameters) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations (SnIa, SDSS-BAO and reduction of acceleration of the expanding universe). In this theory, there is no Big Bang at the beginning, but some local bangs during the evolution are probable. Also, there is no critical density of the universe and, therefore, no dark energy. Based on exact Gaussian solution for the scale factor, it is shown that an effective age of the universe is about 327 billion years. Production of primary dark matter particles have started 43 billion years later. It is shown that characteristic distance between particles is 30 times smaller than the thermal de Brogle wavelength, so that quantum effects, including formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate, can dominate. "Ordinary" matter was synthesized from dark matter in galaxies. Supplementary exact solutions are obtained for various ranges of parameters. From the theory we get an interface between dark and ordinary matter (IDOM), which very likely exist not only in cosmos, but everywhere, including our body and our brain.
Key words: cosmology; age of the universe; dark matter; interface between dark and ordinary matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[219] **viXra:1509.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-27 16:13:34*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This work is based on modification of the general relativity, which includes effects of production /absorption of matter by the vacuum. The theory (without fitting parameters) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations. In this theory we got an interface between dark and ordinary matter, which very likely exist not only in cosmos, but everywhere, including our body and, especially, our brain. Subjective experiences are considered as a manifestation of that interface. This opens a possibility of a "communication" with dark matter. Probable applications of these ideas include health (brain stimulation), communication, computational capabilities and energy resources.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[218] **viXra:1509.0259 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-01 16:55:57*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes G. Granqvist

**Comments:** 8 Pages. submitted for journal publication

We introduce two new Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution schemes which are generalizations of the original KLJN scheme. The first of these, the Random-Resistor (RR–) KLJN scheme, uses random resistors with values chosen from a quasi-continuum set. It is well-known since the creation of the KLJN concept that such a system could work in cryptography, because Alice and Bob can calculate the unknown resistance value from measurements, but the RR–KLJN system has not been addressed in prior publications since it was considered impractical. The reason for discussing it now is the second scheme, the Random-Resistor–Random-Temperature (RRRT–) KLJN key exchange, inspired by a recent paper of Vadai, Mingesz and Gingl, wherein security was shown to be maintained at non-zero power flow. In the RRRT–KLJN secure key exchange scheme, both the resistances and their temperatures are continuum random variables. We prove that the security of the RRRT–KLJN scheme can prevail at non-zero power flow, and thus the physical law guaranteeing security is not the Second Law of Thermodynamics but the Fluctuation–Dissipation Theorem. Alice and Bob know their own resistances and temperatures and can calculate the resistance and temperature values at the other end of the communication channel from measured voltage, current and power-flow data in the wire. However, Eve cannot determine these values because, for her, there are four unknown quantities while she can set up only three equations. The RRRT–KLJN scheme has several advantages and makes all former attacks on the KLJN scheme invalid or incomplete.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[217] **viXra:1509.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-27 05:54:49*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 18 Pages. In Spanish.

This article presents a didactic and relatively simple example that can be very useful to examine the twin paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[216] **viXra:1509.0257 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-30 01:05:58*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Specifically reformatted to give a conclusion, i.e. a first ever link of E and M and Quantum Mechanics, in the formulation of a "massive" graviton, plus NLED put in explicitly with a nod to 5th forces. Cleaned up confusion in the earlier document

We use a linkage between gravitation and electrodynamics the author shared with
Unnishkan . First step will be to write up a Yukawa potential modification of Gravity for
the usual 1/r potential, and comparing it to fifth force potentials.. Details as to NLED and
Unnishkhan’s theories are added for an electromagnetic flavor to fifth force considerations.Leading to a first principle evaluation of the primordial graviton mass as linked to NLED.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[215] **viXra:1509.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 02:37:39*

**Authors:** Klimets A.P.

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The article deals with the physical models of various phenomena. Interesting results were obtained.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[214] **viXra:1509.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 03:10:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Scientists working with ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment), a heavy-ion detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring, have made precise measurements of particle mass and electric charge that confirm the existence of a fundamental symmetry in nature. The investigators include Brazilian researchers affiliated with the University of São Paulo (USP) and the University of Campinas (UNICAMP). [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[213] **viXra:1509.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 03:45:38*

**Authors:** Tibor Endre Nagy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

If rapid motion is added in the form of redshift to the Earth as a result of expansion of space which in turn complements the notion of an expanding universe, the information may be used to calculate both distances and time periods. In this same manner, by applying the known formula for light propagation in moving systems to the motion of the Earth (as a component of the Milky Way Galaxy), the radius of the universe and the time period required for the development of the cosmos can be estimated. When the above is combined with Einstein’s principle of equivalence and it is applied to situations when an accelerated system and gravitational field exist together at the same time, a ‘short evolving distance’ pointing towards the origin of the universe can be calculated. Furthermore, knowledge of the entire plane angle and the deviating angle of a light beam grazing the surface of the Earth renders it possible to determine enormous distances by utilizing the rules of trigonometry. This ‘long evolving distance’ in the range of the radius of the universe can be converted into ‘evolving time’ by dividing it by the speed of light. Based upon this alternative dating method, at a figure of 3.1415 redshift, the universe may have been formed 13.7355 billion years ago. In the case of the inverse ratio of the angles, the size of the Sun and the planets equates to what is known.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[212] **viXra:1509.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-27 13:35:53*

**Authors:** Jerry Zhompson

**Comments:** 8 Pages. May the persecution of the unknown be forever dissolved

We prove, absolutely, that Einstein is wrong. We then propose a theory of everything, a unified theory of physics, that time is made of light according to the equation E=c. We also show that, with this new theory in hand, the government has used alien weaponry in a global conspiracy, weaponry made of pure light, and has carried out false flag attacks for the Illuminati. I also reveal how I have been persecuted by the Illuminati.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[211] **viXra:1509.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-27 10:44:19*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper I look at MOND from the perspective of my elementary particle Dark matter halo hypothesis. First I repeat the core elements of my model, in order for the paper to be self contained. Then I show how the energy equation for the rotation curve with an extra constant term can give the natural but deceptive impression that Newton's Laws have to be corrected for the ultra low regime, if this energy perspective is missing. Special attention is given to the virtual aspect of the acceleration, virtual as in not caused by Newton's force of gravity, due to a constant kinetic energy caused by the Dark Matter halo at large distances. The rotation curve equations are discussed and the one from my model is given. Conclusions are drawn from the $\Lambda$CDM core-cusp problem in relation to this new perspective on MOND as hiding a Dark Matter model perspective. My model might well be the bridge between MOND at the galactic scale and $\Lambda$CDM at the cosmic level.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[210] **viXra:1509.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-27 04:09:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We are more than ready to hear the plucked strings of space-time. Last Friday, the revamped LIGO took its first observations – a step towards picking up the ripples that Einstein predicted should come from exotic cosmic collisions. [5]
Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star' - unlike anything we have seen. [4]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[209] **viXra:1509.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 17:34:36*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 21 Pages. in Russian.Learn Russin, please! Robert Yusupov © Mass and Energy

This article explores the relationship of mass and energy in the light of the ideas of materialistic physics (Theory of the nature), developed by the author. It is well-known formula of Einstein's the formula for the relation between mass and energy. Energy equals mass times the square of the speed of light in vacuum. According to the author's research in the nature takes place equality (identity) of the notions of the mass and energy. You can write the following identity ‘energy≡mass’ or E≡m for physical quantities.
В настоящей статье исследуется вопрос взаимосвязи массы и энергии в свете идей материалистической физики (Теория природы), разрабатываемой автором. Всем хорошо известна формула А. Эйнштейна, формула закона взаимосвязи массы и энергии. Энергия равна произведению массы на квадрат скорости света в вакууме. Согласно исследований автора в природе имеет место тождественное равенство понятий масса и энергия энергия ≡ масса и физических величин E≡m. Можно записать следующие тождества энергия ≡ масса или E≡m для физических величин.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[208] **viXra:1509.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 09:35:32*

**Authors:** Anil Kumar Kamat

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is a thought experiment in the context of theory of relativity and different frame of references. The experiment show how different frame of reference effects our observations and experiences. This is a kind of paradox, which I think is new. The tile has been Arbitrarily selected.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[207] **viXra:1509.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 12:22:14*

**Authors:** Gerges Francis Tawdrous

**Comments:** 98 Pages.

The Solar Group Planets Data shows, There's A Real Dependency between
The Planets, in Their existences, Structures, Masses and Motions.. etc
I chose Mars Data as entrance to show The Real Dependency of Mars Basic
data on Earth & Venus Data!
The Dependency of the Solar Group Planets on each other, is showed &
proved by the Planets Basic Data analysis..
So The Planets Dependency On Each Other tells Us, That
The Rest Mass Concept Is Unreal
I.e. The Planet Mass (Matter) is not independent
I.e. The Planet Mass (Matter) is created by the Planet Motion, portable
by the Motion & controlled by the Motion..
I.e. The Planet Motion Doesn't Cause By The Gravitational Forces!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[206] **viXra:1509.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 07:29:07*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. for the Marcel Grossman conference. The NLED argument is completely new, as a link to upper values of a graviton mass

This paper is to address what a fluctuation of a metric tensor becomes in early universe conditions. This metric fluctuation in conjunction with Barbour’s work on emergent time, allows for a lower bound to a graviton mass, and this lower bound mass for the graviton is contrasted with the NLED (non linear electrodynamic) calculations which may lead to an upper bound to a graviton mass. We show that the supposition of flat space uncertainty in energy is not supportable in initial phases of GR

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[205] **viXra:1509.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 08:20:24*

**Authors:** Gerges Francis Tawdrous

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

On 3rd December 2012 aligned 3 planets (Mercury, Venus and Saturn) on the three Great Pyramids heads in Egypt, that phenomenon repeated just once each 2737 years
I studied this phenomenon and proved in this paper
Part one - The 2737 Egyptian Phenomenon depends on Metonic Cycle
Part Two - The 2737 Egyptian Phenomenon related to the distance 2737 millions km from Uranus till before the Sun with 135.5 millions km.
where the Cycle 2737 and it’s identical distance 2737 millions km are related to each, effect on each other mutually.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[204] **viXra:1509.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 06:00:01*

**Authors:** Gerges Francis Tawdrous

**Comments:** 80 Pages.

I prove The following Hypothesis:
"For Each Cycle Period In The Solar System There's An Identical Distance Related To This Cycle Period And effects Each Other Mutually"

**Category:** Astrophysics

[203] **viXra:1509.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 19:03:14*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. in Russian. Robert Yusupov © Treatise on the gravitation

In the present article the physical quantity the gravitational quantity of the Universe (GQU) is considered. This quantity (GQU) is entered into the consideration in the materialistic physics (Theory of the nature) developed by the author. It is analogue of the Newtonian constant of gravitation in the modern physics. But GQU is a variable physical quantity it decreases with the age of the Universe under the certain law. It is the nature law, it is very simple law.
В настоящей статье рассматривается физическая величина гравитационная величина Вселенной (GVU). Эта величина вводится в рассмотрение в материалистической физике (Теория природы), разработанной автором. Эта величина является аналогом гравитационной постоянной Ньютона в современной физике. Но GVU переменная величина, она уменьшается с возрастом Вселенной по определенному закону. Это закон природы, это очень простой закон.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[202] **viXra:1509.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 19:05:57*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Robert Yusupov © Treatise on the gravitation

In the present article the physical quantity the gravitational quantity of the Universe (GQU) is considered. This quantity (GQU) is entered into the consideration in the materialistic physics (Theory of the nature) developed by the author. It is analogue of the Newtonian constant of gravitation in the modern physics. But GQU is a variable physical quantity it decreases with the age of the Universe under the certain law. It is the nature law, it is very simple law.
В настоящей статье рассматривается физическая величина гравитационная величина Вселенной (GVU). Эта величина вводится в рассмотрение в материалистической физике (Теория природы), разработанной автором. Эта величина является аналогом гравитационной постоянной Ньютона в современной физике. Но GVU переменная величина, она уменьшается с возрастом Вселенной по определенному закону. Это закон природы, это очень простой закон.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[201] **viXra:1509.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-26 13:22:57*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The space roar is the unsolved problem in cosmology and particle physics. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that the ARCADE 2 and other literature the space roar for frequencies from 22 MHz to 10 GHz follows from the motion of the very early Universe in relation to the ground state of the luminal Einstein spacetime, follows also from the expansion of the Universe, and from the decays of the quadrupoles of charged pions and of the bottom quark-antiquark pairs into photons. Derived here the excess power-law spectrum in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.725 +- 0.001 K is consistent with observational data. Here as well we calculated the precise mass of the bottom quark: 4167.58 MeV. We showed also that production of the Higgs bosons during the period of time the CMB was produced cannot be neglected in a theory of the early Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[200] **viXra:1509.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 02:16:59*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The non-relativistic and relativistic Strouhal number is derived from the so called
von Karman's vortex street. The relativistic derivation of this formula follows from
the addition formula for velocities. The Strouhal friction tones are generated also
during the motion of cosmic rays in relic photon sea, during the motion of bolids in
atmosphere, during the Saturn rings motion in the relic black-body sea, during the
motion of bodies in superfluid helium and so on.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[199] **viXra:1509.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 02:18:13*

**Authors:** Rev. Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 1 Page. The Big Crunch is coming.

Rev. Thomas Scott Zolotor free the souls predicted that the universe would stop expanding and fall back on itself known as the big crunch. He had this idea since 1992 when he figured out the calculations needed to explain it. He wrote a paper on it that was rejected by an astronomer back in 1994. Years later it turns out Zolotor was correct all along.
IN 2012 Zolotor wrote this to JJ Dewey his friend. JJ also came to the same conclusion that the universe was collapsing on itself. Here is the site:
http://www.freeread.com/keys-posts-2012-part-16/
And here is the link to the new exciting research that shows we are headed for the big crunch.
http://www.iflscience.com/physics/big-crunch-back-possible-end-universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[198] **viXra:1509.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 03:42:57*

**Authors:** Isaac Deronic

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Recently it was proposed that quantum mechanics, if applied to macroscopic systems, would necessarily include a form of fortune telling or psychic phenomena. In this article, this claim is presented using formal quantum mechanics methods, and the results are analysed and found to be possible.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[197] **viXra:1509.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 09:59:10*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The homogeneity symmetry is re-examined and shown to be non-unitary. This is motivated by the prospect that logical independence in elementary algebra, entering quantum mathematics, will constitute the basis for a theory explaining quantum randomness.
Keywords: foundations of quantum theory, quantum physics, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space, unitary, non-unitary, unitarity, mathematical logic, formal system, elementary algebra, information, axioms, mathematical propositions, logical independence, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[196] **viXra:1509.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 10:40:29*

**Authors:** Ranganath G Kulkarni

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

By using logic functions we can express sign function, rectangular function, box car function and Heaviside function. It is also possible to express the functions such as square wave, triangular wave, sawtooth wave and rectangular wave.

**Category:** Number Theory

[195] **viXra:1509.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 10:57:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Schrodinger's thought experiment to prepare a cat in a superposition of both alive and dead states reveals profound consequences of quantum mechanics and has attracted enormous interests. Here we propose a straightforward method to create quantum superposition states of a living microorganism by putting a small bacterium on top of an electromechanical oscillator. [11]
For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[194] **viXra:1509.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 07:38:03*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we obtain new results on the estimation of the maximum amount of information in material objects. Is considered for comparison and analysis, the limit of entropy of Bekenstein-Hawking. In the final part of the article derived the formula of the maximum amount of information for any physical system.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[193] **viXra:1509.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-09 08:38:31*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic field transformation and the electro-magnetic field equation (Maxwell equation) in Rindler spacetime. Specially, this article say the uniqueness of the accelerated frame because the accelerated frame can treat electro-magnetic field equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[192] **viXra:1509.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 03:59:36*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

From the Greek philosophers to string theorists, this is the chronology of discoveries in physics and cosmology. According to Legend, Archimedes discovered the principle of buoyancy while taking a bath. He jumped out and ran through the streets shouting "Eureka!" The scientific revolution took off 1800 years later after Gutenberg introduced the printing press in Europe and Coperincus broke the old cosmology and put humans in their place away from the centre of the universe. Since then, thousands of scientists have experienced that Eureka moment when they realised that they have seen a fundamental truth not known before.
These pages contain, in chronological order, a selective list of those discoveries from natural philosophy. These are the findings which have helped us understand the laws of physics, the universe and our place in it. The time-line is not yet complete and many more scientists will have the privilege of contributing to its future. Today the internet is taking over from print as the primary means of communicating scientific discoveries and anyone who wants to can participate.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[191] **viXra:1509.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 04:38:18*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 27 Pages. in Russian. Robert Yusupov © How to reorganize SI?

This article analyzes the SI. It is widely used in the world's system of physical units. The materialist conception of nature should be the basis of physics. Matter is a fundamental principle of our world and the whole of nature. Specifically matter manifests itself in nature in the form of particles of matter. The particles of matter formed during the collapse of the natural (physical) units of matter. The unique constant of the nature determines the number of particles of matter, which are formed as a result of decomposition. The natural unit of the matter is the unique measure of the nature. This unit is called a merilo (criterion). This is a unique unit of measure of all things and all phenomena of the nature. Such is the nature. Physics is a reflection of nature and must conform to the nature in all. This also applies to its physical units and in particular to SI. What conformity between units of SI and connatural unit a merilo? About it is told in the present article. The acceptance by physics of the concept of the universal unique measure of nature in which basis the matter lies is a revolutionary step towards nature. In this regard, the question arises for the revision of the role and place SI in the modern practice and science. The ways of the reorganization of SI are specified. The new system of the measure units, which has the roots in the material nature, will be fully commensurate with the nature. At the heart of the new system of units lies the unique unit of the nature a merilo.
В настоящей статье анализируется СИ. Это широко применяемая в мире система физических единиц. Материалистическое понимание природы должно лежать в основе физики. Материя является первоосновой нашего мира и всей природы. Конкретно материя проявляет себя в природе в виде крупиц материи. Крупицы материи образуются в процессе распада натуральной единицы материи. Уникальная константа природы определяет количество крупиц материи, которые образуются в результате этого распада. Натуральная единица материи служит уникальной мерой природы. Эта единица называется мерило. Это уникальная единица измерения всех вещей и явлений природы. Такова природа. Физика является отражением природы и должна соответствовать природе во всем. Это касается и ее единиц измерения и в частности СИ. Каково соответствие между единицами СИ и природной единицей мерило? Об этом говорится в настоящей статье. Принятие физикой концепции универсальной, уникальной меры природы, в основе которой лежит материя является революционным шагом к природе. В связи с этим возникает вопрос о пересмотре места и роли СИ в современной практике и науке. Указаны пути реорганизации СИ. Новая система единиц, имеющая материальные корни в природе, будет в полном объеме соответствовать природе. В основе новой системы единиц лежит единственная уникальная единица природы мерило.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[190] **viXra:1509.0225 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-25 12:05:10*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Replaced , since I accidentally picked the wrong file. This is the one to use. My apologies.

Brief synopsis of a quantum effect, for the Rencontres Du Vietnam (hot topics in Gravitation) conference, in Quy Nohn as of August 2016. Outlines what may be relevant quantum conditions for a minimum value of a graviton (heavy Gravitons), as opposed to the situation where Goldbauer and other researchers only talk about the top allowed maximum mass of a heavy graviton

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[189] **viXra:1509.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-24 16:19:21*

**Authors:** Johann Albers

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Several years ago three contributions in relation with astrophysics were published by the author of this paper. The first one explained the basic ideas of the alternative reflections on gravitation and several related consequences. The second one was concerned with the mass-diameter relation of spherical objects in the universe. In the third paper the obviously existing anomalous gravitational effects in the universe were the objects of interest. The statements in all three papers seem to be valid even today. In the meantime, however, a huge amount of new astrophysical observations is available. Several of them are discussed within this paper. And it seems that also these new observations, especially those which hardly can be explained by classical theories, are well compatible with the alternative reflections on gravitation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[188] **viXra:1509.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-24 19:28:31*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. in Russian.Robert Yusupov © Correspondence between SI and a merilo.

The seven SI physical quantities adopted for the basic, the rest are from the basic, i.e. the derived quantities. It seems to the author, in еру nature there are four main essence matter, space, time and electric charge. In physics, they correspond to the four physical quantities mass, time, length and electric charge. If these values are taken as the basic, all others are derived, the consequences of these basic quantities. But the nature is the material. The matter is the basis of all things and phenomena of the nature. And then everything can be measured in a matter and her unit. This unit is a certain amount of matter, a ‘merilo’ (criterion). This article discusses the conformity between of the unique unit of the nature (a merilo) and SI units./В СИ семь физических величин приняты за основные, остальные являются следствиями основных, т. е. производными величинами. Как представляется автору, в природе существуют четыре основные сущности материя, пространство, время и электрический заряд. В физике им соответствуют четыре физические величины масса, время, длина, заряд. Если эти величины принять за основные, то все другие будут производными, следствиями этих основных величин. Но природа материальна и в основе всех вещей и явлений лежит материя. И значит все можно измерять материей и ее единицей. Такой единицей является определенное количество материи, мерило. В настоящей статье рассматривается связь универсальной единицы природы мерило и единиц СИ.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[187] **viXra:1509.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-15 23:37:53*

**Authors:** Kimmo Rouvari

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Theory of Everything is The Holy Grail in physics. Physicists and like all over the world have searched the theory for a very long time. Modern day technological advances are finally opening the vast universe in all scales for curious human beings to explore. What we have accomplished is two theoretical platforms, relativity theories and quantum mechanics which are usable in their own domains. Obviously we have done good but we are still missing the theory. Due to all unsuccessful searches for the theory some people have suggested that there
won't be such a theory.
Theory of Everything by Illusion 2.0 is based on the good ideas in previous Theory of Everything by Illusion. In an addition, few new ideas have emerged and at the same time few old, not so good, ideas have vanished as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[186] **viXra:1509.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-24 10:41:58*

**Authors:** Jesus Sanchez

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Published on the General Science Journal on 25th September 2015.

The void space does not have any meaning as itself. The space exists only when a particle (a fermion or a boson) occupies it. This means, if new particles appear in a region of space, the quantity of space increases in that area, creating distortions in that area of space, distortions that we call gravitation. A type of bosons, the photons, transmit the electromagnetic field using their energy. But in parallel, they create new space by its existence itself. If a particle emits photons, apart from the electromagnetic field, creates space by the new space occupied/created by the photons emitted. This new space creates distortions that correspond to gravitation effects. We will see, that the space created by a photon (and any other elemental particle) is related to the Planck length constant. Following the model and using only geometric and electromagnetic calculations we will arrive to the factor Gm/c²r for distortions of space caused by a mass. We will see that this is exactly the factor predicted by the Schwarzschild equation of general relativity. Also, following the model and using only geometric and electromagnetic equations, we will arrive to the factor 1/sqrt{1-(v²/c²)} as the relation between a moving mass and a motionless mass. The same relation predicted by special relativity equations. Besides, the immediate question using this model of how it is possible that particles have different masses and charges will be answered.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[185] **viXra:1509.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-24 07:44:58*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

Exists a large quantity of diagnostic methods of the study of the properties of materials and models. But from the view of researchers thus far slipped off the very promising method, based on a study of the electrostatic potential of such models. This method consists in the fact that with heating or deformation of metallic models on them the electric potential appears. In the work an experimental study of this method is carried out and its theoretical substantiation is given. according to the program “Starfish” July 9, 1962 USA exploded in space above Pacific Ocean H-bomb. Explosion was accompanied by the appearance of electric pulse with the large the tension of electric field and by short duration. In the work the experiments on detection and study of the electric pulse, which appears with the discharges through the dischargers of the capacitors of great capacity, are carried out. It is shown that also with such discharges appears the pulse of electric field, whiches indicate appearance in the heated plasma of unitary charge. This fact contradicts not only the classical, but also relativistic conversions of electromagnetic field upon transfer from one inertial reference system to another and can attest to the fact that the absolute value of electric charge, in contrast to its polarity, is not the invariant of speed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[184] **viXra:1509.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-24 07:49:31*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

Существует большое количество диагностических методов исследования свойств материалов. Но от взгляда исследователей пока ускользнул перспективный метод, основанный на исследовании электростатического потенциала образцов. Этот метод заключается в том, что при нагревании или деформации металлических образцов на них возникает электрический потенциал. В работе проведено экспериментальное исследование этого метода и дано его теоретическое обоснование. По программе «Starfish» 9 июля 1962 США взорвали в космосе над Тихим океаном водородную бомбу с тротиловым эквивалентом 1.4 Мт. Взрыв сопровождался возникновением электрического импульса с большой напряженность электрического поля и малой длительностью. В работе проведены эксперименты по обнаружению и исследованию электрического импульса, возникающего при разрядах через разрядники конденсаторов большой ёмкости. Показано, что и при таких разрядах возникает импульс электрического поля, что свидетельствует о возникновении в разогретой плазме унитарного заряда. Данный факт противоречит не только классическим, но и релятивистским преобразованиям электромагнитного поля при переходе от одной инерциальной системы отсчета к другой и может свидетельствовать о том, что абсолютная величина электрического заряда, в отличие от его полярности, не является инвариантом скорости.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[183] **viXra:1509.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-24 04:06:01*

**Authors:** Klimets A.P.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We have built a model of the mass of the photon field, which fully reflects the inertial and gravitational properties of matter. It is shown that the model of mass can not move faster than 3light.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[182] **viXra:1509.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-24 05:52:47*

**Authors:** L.A.N. de Paula

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The search for a consistent theory of quantum gravity has motivated the development of radically different approaches. This seeks consists of constructing a mathematical apparatus that encapsulates both concepts of quantum theory and general relativity. However, none approach has been definitive and the problem remains open. As the quantization of the metric is an alternative, this paper shows how a metric operator may be explicitly obtained by introducing a temporal operator, defining an induced metric and invoking some spacetime symmetries. This makes it possible to relate the effective acoustic metric to the model proposed here. The metric operator equations are expressed in terms of a hamiltonian operator describing the degrees of freedom of quantum vaccum whose dynamics gives rise to the metric field. These findings may help understand and study the quantum vacuum at Planck scale, consisting of one more tool for the community working on quantization of gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[181] **viXra:1509.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-23 16:42:27*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. in Russian. Robert Yusupov © Theory of the Nature (some specifications)

The dialectics and the logic of knowledge of the world surrounding us, the realities, the nature requires constant clarification and reconsideration of the previously "extracted" knowledge. This also applies to previously written article with the same basic name. It is required to clarify some the standings of this article or take a different view, rethink other standings. Clarifications are required to the theory more fully and adequately corresponded to the nature. It is dialectic process of the endless approach to the absolute truth. But the author believes that the discovery of this his world-view is the absolute truth. The clarifications relate primarily to the dimension of the primary physical quantity, unique constants of nature, which had previously been considered a dimensionless quantity. In this paper, this value is attributed to the dimension.
Диалектика и логика познания окружающего нас мира, реальности, природы требует постоянного уточнения и переосмысления ранее “добытого” знания. Это относится и к ранее написанной статье с тем же основным названием “Теория природы”. Требуется уточнить некоторые положения этой статьи или по-иному взглянуть, переосмыслить другие положения. Уточнения требуются для того, чтобы теория более полно и адекватно соответствовала природе. Это диалектический процесс бесконечного приближения к абсолютной истине. Но автор считает, что открытое им миропонимание представляет собой абсолютную истину. Уточнения касаются в первую очередь размерности основной физической величины, уникальной константы природы, которая ранее считалась безразмерной величиной. В настоящей статье этой величине приписывается размерность.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[180] **viXra:1509.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-23 14:10:27*

**Authors:** Dimitris Mastoridis, Konstantinos Kalogirou

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The current paper presents a new idea that it might lead us to the Grand Unified
Theory. A concrete mathematical framework has been provided that could be appro-
priate for one to work with. Possible answers were given concerning the problems of
dark matter and dark energy as well as the \penetration" to vacuum dominant epoch,
combining Quantum Physics with Cosmology through the existence of Higg's boson. A
value for Higg's mass around 125,179345 Gev/c^2 and a value for vacuum density around
4,41348x10^-5Gev/cm^3 were derived . Via Cartan's theorem a proof regarding the number
of bosons existing in nature (28) has been presented. Additionally, the full Lagrangian of
our Cosmos (including Quantum Gravity) was accomplished.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[179] **viXra:1509.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-23 19:20:45*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 30 Pages. in Russian. Robert Yusupov © Crisis in the physics (a sight of the ordinary materialist)

The present article is devoted the analysis of the up-to-date crisis in the physics and natural sciences. The parents of this crisis are opened: a physics separation by nature, exile of a matter from physics, a matter non-admission in a physics bosom (lap), rejection and negation of dialectic materialism and its scientific method, excessive separation of the human consciousness from the nature, submission and servility to philosophical idealism. Real material carriers of ideas of "physical" idealism which are a brake on a progress in science way, in knowledge of laws of the nature are revealed. These are physicists themselves. Real ways of an exit from system crisis of physics, as basic science of the up-to-date natural sciences are offered.
Настоящая статья посвящена анализу современного кризиса в физике и естествознании. Вскрыты причины этого кризиса: отрыв физики от природы, изгнание материи из физики, недопущение материи в лоно физики, отвержение, отрицание диалектического материализма и его научного метода, непомерное возвеличивание и отрыв от природы мыслительной способности человеческого сознания, подчинение и прислужничество философскому идеализму. Выявлены реальные материальные носители идей “физического” идеализма, которые являются тормозом на пути прогресса науки, в познании законов природы. Это сами физики. Предложены реальные пути выхода из системного кризиса физики, как основной науки современного естествознания.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[178] **viXra:1509.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-26 03:52:47*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper I combine the elementary particle Dark matter halo hypothesis with the Baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. It results in a universal Dark Matter galaxy gravitational centripetal acceleration and connects the galaxy specific Dark Matter radius uniquely to the galaxy rotation curve's final velocity. This allows the precise operational definition of the galaxy specific Dark Matter density function and mass function.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[177] **viXra:1509.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-09 09:38:17*

**Authors:** Alexander Kritov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The author provides the evidence that Holographic principle may be formally derived from Mach’s principle and from two Large Number Numerical Coincidences hypothesized in recent author’s work. Those, two main paradigms of the physics Holographic principle and Mach’s principle may be connected with the use of Large Number Numerical Coincidences – new formal and exact relations for big Dirac’s number.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[176] **viXra:1509.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-23 08:40:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

It appears that we are approaching a unique time in the history of man and science where empirical measures and deductive reasoning can actually inform us spiritually. Integrated Information Theory (IIT)--put forth by neuroscientists Giulio Tononi and Christof Koch--is a new framework that describes a way to experimentally measure the extent to which a system is conscious. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Mind Science

[175] **viXra:1509.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-24 00:55:35*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

There is Prize committee (claymath.org), which requires publication in worldwide reputable mathematics journal and at least two years of following scientific admiration. Why then the Grisha Perelman has published only in a forum (arXiv), publication was unclear as the crazy sketch; but mummy child ``Grisha'' have being forced to accept the Millennium Prize? Am I simply ugly or poor? If the following text would not be accepted by committee as the pay-able
proofs (but I hope for) then let at least it builds your confidence to refer to these conjectures and problems (which now are having my answers), as the achieved facts. I see no logical problems with all these plain facts, are you with me at last? It is your free choice to be blind and discriminative ignorant or be better one.
One even can ignore own breathing and, thus, die. One can ignore what's ever in this world. But it is not always recommended. Please respect my copyrights!

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[174] **viXra:1509.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-23 03:35:53*

**Authors:** Reuven Tint, Michael Tint

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Original article is written in Russian

In this article, we'll present and solve problem of Euler: there are countless cuboids whose diagonal all the faces and the main diagonal are integer. Discovered a new feature of three-dimensional complex space (with respect to the metric), wherein the sum of the two sides of the triangle is less than or equal to the third, in particular, on that basis is we obtain a concise version of the proof of the Fermat's Last Theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[173] **viXra:1509.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-22 05:14:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The irrationality of how we think has long plagued psychology. When someone asks us how we are, we usually respond with "fine" or "good." But if someone followed up about a specific event — "How did you feel about the big meeting with your boss today?" — suddenly, we refine our "good" or "fine" responses on a spectrum from awful to excellent. [8]
A new trend taking shape in psychological science not only uses quantum physics to explain humans' (sometimes) paradoxical thinking, but may also help researchers resolve certain contradictions among the results of previous psychological studies. According to Zheng Joyce Wang and others who try to model our decision-making processes mathematically, the equations and axioms that most closely match human behavior may be ones that are rooted in quantum physics. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[172] **viXra:1509.0204 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-17 11:56:50*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Giving a possible structure of cosmic noumenon.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[171] **viXra:1509.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-27 12:51:06*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note we shall show the relation between the locality of Quantum Mechanics and the meaning of the quantum state.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[170] **viXra:1509.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 19:03:42*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 2 Pages. in Russian. Robert Yusupov © Treatise on the unit of the matter

The article deals with the natural units of matter. That is the quantity of the author proposes to introduce into the lap of modern physics as the basic unique physical quantity.
В статье идет речь о натуральной единице материи. Именно эту величину автор предлагает ввести в лоно современной физики в качестве основной уникальной физической величины.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[169] **viXra:1509.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 19:05:32*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Robert Yusupov © Treatise on the unit of the matter

The article deals with the natural units of matter. That is the quantity of the author proposes to introduce into the lap of modern physics as the basic unique physical quantity.
В статье идет речь о натуральной единице материи. Именно эту величину автор предлагает ввести в лоно современной физики в качестве основной уникальной физической величины.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[168] **viXra:1509.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 23:44:01*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Klein Paradox Tunnelling is a key element in TSC Fusion of Deuterium in Palladium Nano-Clusters. The electron shell structure of Palladium allows formation of a Dirac Fermion Band that is analogous to the Dirac Fermion Band in Carbon Graphene.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[167] **viXra:1509.0197 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-09 08:57:42*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract As opposed to the classical logic of true and false, when elementary algebra is treated as a formal axiomatised system, formulae in that algebra are either provable, disprovable or otherwise, logically independent of axioms. This logical independence is well-known to Mathematical Logic. The intention here is to cover the subject in a way accessible to physicists. This work is part of a project researching logical independence in quantum mathematics, for the purpose of advancing a complete theory of quantum randomness.**Keywords** mathematical logic, formal system, axioms, mathematical propositions, Soundness Theorem, Completeness Theorem, logical independence, mathematical undecidability, foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum physics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[166] **viXra:1509.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 12:19:50*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper I present a method for the levitation of a bulk semiconductor by use of the Earth’s magnetic field acting on an electrical current through the semiconductor. The theory is simplified to the case of a large semiconducting sample with a strong electrical current and specific examples are discussed for different elemental semiconductors.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[165] **viXra:1509.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 08:16:31*

**Authors:** Manjunath.R

**Comments:** 217 Pages.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF EVERYTHING: Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang is a clear, readable and self – contained introduction to chaos of physics and related areas of science. It bridges the gap and addresses the questions that are of interest to us all or at least to all of us reading this book and lead us to study science in the first place.
The book concentrates on presenting the subject from the understanding perspective of physics and brings the reader right up to date with curious aspects of physics established over the last few centuries. Necessary background information on physics is included but advanced mathematics is avoided. The book assumes science a journey not a destination and the advance of knowledge is an infinite progression towards a goal that forever recedes. This book will be of interest to students, teachers and general science readers interested in fundamental ideas of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[164] **viXra:1509.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 05:27:01*

**Authors:** Alex Patterson

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Special thanks for Michael J. Burns, of Hacking Physics

Abstract: in ideal circumstances, we know exactly what to do. But there are no ideal circumstances. That is why we have Critique. The object of critique matters not.
However, this paper is also very concerned not only with critique as such but with a possible intersection, that has arisen out of such critique, of a heretofore un-combined areas of mathematical induction, Gödelian Relativity, and their Algebras within Bayesian Networks. It is very rough attempt, but uses all the right tools, should such an Intersection be theoretically viable in the short term, at least.
Further steps are made into Ethics, which the author believes to be the basis of any elegance for that matter, of any excellent piece of intellectual effort.
This paper uses its own peculiar lettering system for each paragraph. I don’t like it: But the way I write it is the only way I can figure to impose some kind of order for the content. Seemingly arcane references will be made to philosophers such as Vico and Kant, to Heine and Goethe, to Wittgenstein and B.F. Skinner, J.L. Austin, Turing, Thomas Paine, G.H. von Wright, Marx, the “Availability Heuristic,” Quantum Logic, More Classical Systems of Axiomatic Problems, Epistemology, etc., et. al. Towards the end a Narrative will be given that attempts to address some concerns of the present world in its ethical, moral, and political makeup. There will be no cut-off at that point, but the change will be clearly visible, it is hoped that there will be a “fade to gray" effect. The Reader’s forbearance and endurance to “strange thoughts”(but which are informed by the author’s education) is solicited as the paper proceeds: Even a crank might not be a crank, as a liar may not be a liar. Such are our weak paradoxes.
Therefore, this:
1.New terms and tools are introduced for quantification that creates a more synthetic (logical, reasonable, coherent) intervention and inter-weaving into these (those) now classical problems of the assumptions and the successes in the Gödel material and literature.
2.Asymptotes are used within vertical and horizontal graphs to justify a future that need not be seen as a future in the sense of grammatical future-tense (it is considered by the best philosophical grammarians to be a tense that doesn’t exist), but as a potential part in such systems themselves that we deal with respect to incompleteness.
3.The thesis is that we can approach incompleteness by using theoretical reasoning and available tools that are allowed in theoretical reasoning to critique the very theory of incompleteness itself. That is the essential Abstract Thesis.
4.It will be seen that a real attempt is attempted. It is quite a ride. I’ve looked at everything I can think of so far. In doing Gödel you can’t tell a hypothesis from a position. So it is necessary to be very analytical, use Occam’s razor wherever you can but still brave the undesired feat of blunting the blade. This is not Quine, and there is no Neurath’s Figure to resort to as Quine does, and in his area, must do, much to his discredit, as great as he may be.
This critique (work, paper) works from Gödel’s incompleteness to Gödel relativity. It does so in with the help of formal logic and inductive thinking, and a lot of hard analysis and questioning of various facts, the interrogation of assumptions, so that the critique can end up where it belongs: in the ethical domain of inquiry, not an easy category of thought to express, but which will be further versioned in subsequent editions, or entirely new works.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[163] **viXra:1509.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-25 14:19:42*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The fashion is wrongly called ``Standards of beauty''. Because the Standards, as the name says, are never changing. Therefore, let us build our character on the Uniting Standards.

**Category:** Social Science

[162] **viXra:1509.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-20 17:07:04*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 21 Pages. in Russian. Robert Yusupov © Nature. The axiomatic approach.

The basic idea of present article consists that behind a philosophical abstract category of a matter (interpretation of the dialectic materialism) there should be a concrete matter of the nature. The author offers a universe model, YRA-model. The microcosm in this model is presented by model of an atom of a matter. An atom of a matter is concrete representation of a matter in the nature for our Universe. An atom of a matter is two-uniform material essence, a tandem «atom of a matter - fundamental particle». An atom of a matter is the content and a flesh of the Universe. The macrocosm in this model is presented by the Universe model. The Universe represents the material cosmological object dilated in sizes, a tandem «Singularity-Universe». The Singularity is a concrete representation of a matter on the cosmological gauge. The Singularity is the central core of the Universe radiating an atom of a matter in a rhythm of the nature.
Основная идея настоящей статьи состоит в том, что за философской абстрактной категорией материи (интерпретация диалектического материализма) должна стоять конкретная материя природы. Автором предложена модель мироздания, YRA-модель. Микромир в этой модели представлен моделью крупицы материи. Крупица материи это конкретное представление материи в природе для нашей Вселенной. Крупица материи это двуединая материальная сущность, тандем «крупица материи – элементарная частица». Крупица материи является содержанием и плотью Вселенной. Макромир в этой модели представлен моделью Вселенной. Вселенная представляет собой расширяющийся в размерах материальный космологический объект, тандем «Сингулярность – Вселенная». Сингулярность – это конкретное проявление материи на космологическом масштабе. Сингулярность является центральным ядром Вселенной, излучающим крупицы материи в ритме природы.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[161] **viXra:1509.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 01:53:02*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Submitted to IJMPA

After reviewing the basic ideas behind Born's Reciprocal Relativity theory, the geometry of the (co) tangent bundle of spacetime is studied via the introduction of nonlinear connections associated with certain $nonholonomic$ modifications of Riemann--Cartan gravity within the context of Finsler geometry. The curvature tensors in the (co) tangent bundle of spacetime are explicitly constructed leading to the analog of the Einstein vacuum field equations. The geometry of Hamilton Spaces associated with curved phase spaces follows. An explicit construction of a gauge theory of gravity in the $8D$ co-tangent bundle $ T^*M$ of spacetime is provided, and based on the gauge group $ SO (6, 2) \times_s R^8$ which acts on the tangent space to the cotangent bundle $ T_{ ( x, p) } T^*M $ at each point $ ({\bf x}, {\bf p})$. Several gravitational actions associated with the geometry of curved phase spaces are presented. We conclude with a discussion about the geometrization of matter, QFT in accelerated frames, {\bf T}-duality, double field theory, and generalized geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[160] **viXra:1509.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 03:57:12*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Armenian Theory of Relativity is The Only Theory of Relativity

In this current article we are analyzing in detail, T-symmetry (time reversal transformation) and P-symmetry (spatial inverse transformations) phenomenons in Armenian Theory of Relativity in one dimensional physical space. For that purpose we are referring and using our previous articles results, especially in the case of research mirror reflection phenomena (spatial inversion) where we are mostly referring to our main research article, published in Armenia on June 2013 (96 pages).
We are delighted to know that Armenian Theory of Relativity has passed the first phase of total ridicule and now is in the phase of active discussion in scientific communities across the world. This article can be considered as an answer to the physicists who criticize the Armenian Theory of Relativity by saying that the Armenian relativistic transformations and formulas are not an invariant under time-reversal transformation and therefore Armenian Theory of Relativity is wrong.
In the first section of our article we are showing that in the case of time-reversal, Armenian Theory of Relativity is in full agreement with legacy physics and therefore our opponents criticisms in that matter are baseless.
In the case of spatial inversion (in our case mirror reflection) Armenian Theory of Special Relativity does not contradict in quality with legacy physics, but gives a more detailed and fine description of that phenomena, which in the macro-world is mostly unobservable but plays a very significant role in the micro-world.
Our received results can explain many parity irregularities in elementary particle physics, especially the violation parity process in weak interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[159] **viXra:1509.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 04:30:17*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Published February 2007 in Los Angeles

In our article, we derive a new transformation of relativity for inertial systems using the following guidelines:
1. We use vector notations to obtain new transformation equations in a general form.
2. In the process of deriving the general new transformation equations in vector form, we keep the cross product term VxR as well.
3. We add one more postulate to the existing two, to resolve ambiguity problems in the orientation of the inertial coordinate systems axes.
4. Newly obtained transformation equations need to satisfy the linear transformation fundamental laws.
5. Addition of velocities we calculate in two different ways: by linear superposition and by differentiation, and they need to coincide each other. If not, then we force them to match for obtaining the final relation between coefficients.
After using the above mentioned general guidelines, we obtain direct and inverse transformation equations named the Armenian transformation equations and they are expressed in two notations: by absolute relative velocity and by local relative velocity.
Armenian transformation equations are the replacement for the Lorentz transformation equations in three dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[158] **viXra:1509.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-20 10:26:49*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The specific character of radiant energy is analyzed and the arguments in favour of not electromagnetic nature of light are resulted. It is shown, that the exchange of radiant energy is caused by spatial heterogeneity of scalar field of radiations and its motive power is the gradient of peak - frequency potential of a wave.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[157] **viXra:1509.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-22 00:47:45*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Shows the fundamental structure, state and properties of matter
in Bose-Einstein condensate in a new perspective and according
to a new theory of atomic structure.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[156] **viXra:1509.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-20 07:29:41*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 10 pages

In this paper I introduce a new Dark matter hypothesis. I assume that every elementary particle has a Dark Matter halo. Given a rest mass m_0 at r=0, it will have an additional spherical Dark Matter halo containing an extra mass in the sphere with radius r as m_DM = (r/R_DM)m_0 with the constant Dark Matter radius R_DM having a measured value somewhere in between 10 kpc and 20 kpc, so approximately once or twice the radius of an average luminous galaxy. The total rest mass of an elementary particle contained within a sphere with radius r will then be given by m = m_0 + (r/R_DM)m_0. The correlated mass density is \rho_DM = m_0/(4 pi r^2 R_DM). The new Newtonian gravitational energy will be
U_g = - GM_0 m_0/r - G M_0 m_0/R_DM resulting in an unchanged Newtonian force of gravity but with a correct galaxy velocity rotation curve, due to the still applicable virial energy theorem. The axiom is theory of gravity neutral because it is a statement about mass and mass density distribution only. But it implies that WIMP's and the like aren't necessary to explain Dark Matter; my proposal isn't WIMP neutral. Beyond the scale of galaxy clusters the model becomes problematic due to an extra halo halo interaction term becoming active at that scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[155] **viXra:1509.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-21 22:23:57*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A frequency shift is described that is derived from the difference of the kinetic energy of the particle and its gravitational potential. The frequency of photons emitted and the wave speed with an increase in the kinetic energy of the light source is decreased, and frequency of the observed photon is a combination of primary Doppler shift. The shift in gravitational frequency is due to the difference in heights, changes in the frequency of light emitted from its source, and changes in the speed of the wave and its wavelength during propagation. As an example, the flyby anomalies observed with ranging telemetry from certain spacecraft are analyzed in terms of the differences in the transverse Doppler shift and the delayed clock of the observer at infinity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[154] **viXra:1509.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-20 05:12:37*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Exists a large quantity of diagnostic methods of the study of the properties of materials and models. But from the view of researchers thus far slipped off the very promising method, based on a study of the electrostatic potential of such models. This method consists in the fact that with heating or deformation of metallic models on them the electric potential appears. In the work an experimental study of this method is carried out and its theoretical substantiation is given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[153] **viXra:1509.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-20 05:15:29*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Существует большое количество диагностических методов исследования свойств материалов и образцов. Но от взгляда исследователей пока ускользнул перспективный метод, основанный на исследовании электростатического потенциала таких образцов. Этот метод заключается в том, что при нагревании или деформации металлических образцов на них возникает электрический потенциал. В работе проведено экспериментальное исследование этого метода и дано его теоретическое обоснование.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[152] **viXra:1509.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-20 05:50:31*

**Authors:** Mahmoud Mohsen Ali Alsayes, Khaled Hazem Hamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

For centuries the Energy crisis has been a curse that made Egypt and the world suffer in various ways. Energy is the backbone of many aspects of life; yet depending on fossil fuel as the main source of energy has numerous drawbacks like the high price, transportation, unavailability and pollution to the environment. This has led us to assign the design requirement of having a cheap, available rather than green fuel for cars. As a result, our PEM hydrogen fuel cells are the solution to the problem after making essential changes in order to increase its efficiency while decreasing the price, through using nickel as a catalyst, instead of platinum. Finally the test plan has assured that it meets the design requirements mentioned before, and unquestionably proved that our PEM fuel cell is the right and suitable solution for running vehicles.

**Category:** Chemistry

[151] **viXra:1509.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-19 17:59:31*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper raises some important points about science, life and mind.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[150] **viXra:1509.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-23 19:07:35*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 27 Pages. re setting of the document, as it may be accepted for publication via JHEPGC: Also will be part of conference proceedings Wess school, Summer 2015 , Bratislavia, Slovakia

This paper is, with the permission of Stepan Moskaliuk similar to what he will put in the conference proceedings of the summer teaching school and workshop for Ukrainian PhD physics students as given in Bratislava, as of summer 2015. With his permission, this paper will be in part reproduced here for this journal.First of all, we restate a proof of a highly localized special case of a metric tensor uncertainty principle first written up by Unruh. Unruh did not use the Roberson-Walker geometry which we do, and it so happens that the dominant metric tensor we will be examining, is variation in . The metric tensor variations given by , and are negligible, as compared to the variation . Afterwards, what is referred to by Barbour as emergent duration of time is from the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle(HUP) applied to in such a way as to give, in the Planckian space-time regime a nonzero minimum non zero lower ground to a massive graviton, . The lower bound to the massive graviton, is influenced by and kinetic energy which is in the Planckian emergent duration of time as . We find from version of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (HUP), that the quantum value of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (HUP) is likely not recoverable due to . I.e. is consistent with non-curved space, so no longer holds. This even if we take the stress energy tensor approximation where the fluid approximation is used. Our treatment of the inflaton is via Handley et al, where we consider the lower mass limits of the graviton as due to when the inflaton is many times larger than a Potential energy, with a kinetic energy (KE) proportional to , with initial degrees of freedom, and T initial temperature .Leading to non-zero initial entropy as stated in Appendix A. In addition we also examine a Ricci scalar value at the boundary between Pre Planckian to Planckian regime of space-time, setting the magnitude of k as approaching flat space conditions right after the Planck regime. Furthermore, we have an approximation as to initial entropy production. N ~ Finally, this entropy is N, and we get an initial version of the cosmological “constant” as Appendix D which is linked to initial value of a graviton mass. Appendix E, is for the Riemannian- Penrose inequality, which is either a nonzero NLED scale factor or quantum bounce as of LQG. Note that , Appendix F gives conditions so that a pre Planckian kinetic energy( inflaton) value greater than Potential energy occurs, which is foundational to the lower bound to Graviton mass. We will in the future add more structure to this calculation so as to confirm via a precise calculation that the lower bound to the graviton mass, is about 10^-70 grams. Our lower bound is a dimensional approximation so far. We will make it exact. We conclude in this document with Appendix G, which is comparing our Pre Planckian space-time metric Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle with the generalized uncertainty principle in quantum gravity. Our result is different from the one given by Ali, Khali and Vagenas in that our energy fluctuation, is not proportional to that of processes of energy connected to Black hole physics, and we also allow for the possibility of Pre Planckian time. Whereas their result, (and the generalized string theory Heisenberg Uncertainty principle) have a more limited regime of interpolation of final results. We do come up with equivalent bounds to recover and the deviation of fluctuations of energy, but with very specific bounds upon the parameters of Ali, Khali, and Vegenas, but this has to be more fully explored. Finally, we close with a comparison of what this new Metric tensor uncertainty principle presages as far as avoiding the Bicep 2 mistake, and the different theories of gravity, as reviewed in Appendix H

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[149] **viXra:1509.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-19 22:06:17*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Robert Yusupov © What is the mass of the fundamental particle?

The mass of the fundamental particle is the relation of quantity of the matter containing in the fundamental particle to its diameter. The quantity of the matter containing in a fundamental particle is equal to the quantity of the matter containing in the atom of the matter. This quantity is the minimum quantity of the matter in the nature EUM≡UCN^(-1) μ. It is a constant and it is the law of the nature. The diameter of the fundamental particle also is a constant. Thus, the mass of the fundamental particle is a constant.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[148] **viXra:1509.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-19 22:10:35*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 2 Pages. in Russian. Yusupov Robert © What is the mass of the fundamental particle?

Масса элементарной частицы есть отношение количества материи, содержащейся в крупице материи к ее диаметру. Количество материи, содержащейся в элементарной частице равно количеству материи, содержащемуся в крупице материи. Эта величина есть минимальное количество материи в природе EUM≡UCN^(-1) μ. Это постоянная величина и это закон природы. Диаметр элементарной частицы также является постоянной величиной. Таким образом, масса элементарной частицы является постоянной величиной.
The mass of the fundamental particle is the relation of quantity of the matter containing in the fundamental particle to its diameter. The quantity of the matter containing in a fundamental particle is equal to the quantity of the matter containing in the atom of the matter. This quantity is the minimum quantity of the matter in the nature EUM≡UCN^(-1) μ. It is a constant and it is the law of the nature. The diameter of the fundamental particle also is a constant. Thus, the mass of the fundamental particle is a constant.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[147] **viXra:1509.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-20 02:47:05*

**Authors:** Kirana Kumara P

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Accepted for presentation at the national conference "Role of Mechanical Engineering and Computational Science for a Sustainable Future (NCAME-2015)", to be held on 25th - 26th September 2015, at Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, India.

The simple beam theory can predict the deflection of the loaded end of cantilever beams with a high level of accuracy if the length-to-diameter ratios for the beams are high. Hence the readily available formula (which is based on the simple beam theory) for cantilever beams may be used with confidence when the length-to-diameter ratios for the beams are high. However, studies on the accuracy of the results predicted by the simple beam theory are not common when the length-to-diameter ratios are small, especially when the Young's modulus is low. Hence the present work compares the results obtained through the use of the well-known formula (based on the simple bending theory) with the results obtained by making use of the well-known commercial finite element software ANSYS, for cantilever beams of different length-to-diameter ratios, in order to get an idea of the accuracy of the results that are obtained by making use of the well-known formula. The effect of Young's modulus is also looked into, by solving the same problems but for different Young's moduli. All these results are tabulated. The present study would be of use to designers who are concerned over the accuracy of the results that are obtained through the use of the well-known analytical formula.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[146] **viXra:1509.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-20 02:43:37*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 6 pages. Journal of Vectorial Relativity, September 2008, Vol. 3, No. 3, P.30 – 35.

The energy of the gravitational field and the mass related to it are calculated. The momentum of the gravitational field of a moving body and the appropriate mass of the field are determined. Comparison of the given masses shows their difference. The reasons of violation of relativity and equivalence principles are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[145] **viXra:1509.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-19 05:17:01*

**Authors:** Mahmoud Mohsen Alsayes, Khaled Hazem Hamed

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

For centuries the Energy crisis has been a curse that made Egypt and the world suffer in various ways. Energy is the backbone of many aspects of life; yet depending on fossil fuel as the main source of energy has numerous drawbacks like the high price, transportation, unavailability and pollution to the environment. This has led us to assign the design requirement of having a cheap, available rather than green fuel for cars. As a result, our PEM hydrogen fuel cells are the solution to the problem after making essential changes in order to increase its efficiency while decreasing the price, through using nickel as a catalyst, instead of platinum. Finally the test plan has assured that it meets the design requirements mentioned before, and unquestionably proved that our PEM fuel cells are the right and suitable solution for running vehicles.

**Category:** Chemistry

[144] **viXra:1509.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-19 01:38:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Dark matter has never been seen directly, but scientists know that something massive is out there due to its gravitational effects on visible matter. One explanation for how such a large amount of mass appears to be right in front of our eyes yet completely invisible by conventional means is that the dark matter is hiding in the centers of stars. [16]
Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Preliminary evidence of solar axions in XMM-Newton observations has quite recently been published by Fraser et al. These authors also estimate the axion mass to be m = 2.3 * 10-6 eV. Since an axion with this mass behaves as a cold dark matter particle, the considered preliminary detection directly concerns cold dark matter as well. So, it would be a revolutionary discovery if confirmed. Unfortunately, we have identified three distinct flaws in the analysis by Fraser et al. which ultimately make it totally irrelevant both for axions and for cold dark matter. [15]
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[143] **viXra:1509.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 09:49:48*

**Authors:** Dwayne Huang

**Comments:** 124 Pages. CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

The goal of the article, it is derivate and prove and improve acceptable current mainstream theories by the performance of dimension change in closed system. Finally it achieves a united theory to explain everything of world. The description from chapter one to chapter three: In the process of the close derivation from concept and logic to element and dimension, and with the projection of relativity 5-D (point is 1-D, line is 2-D, point and line 3-D, plane is 4-D, cube body is 5-D), it derives Square and Circle and Inclination and Ellipse these four constants. And it expressed how to realize Space and Time and Substance and Living Creature and Intelligence. In chapter four, it explains 1-D expression of number by the dimensional structure of Fibonacci number. In chapter five, it explains how to express digit in image by the projection of microscopic substance on plane (Nuclear Fusion).

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[142] **viXra:1509.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 04:00:41*

**Authors:** Bustami; Fadlisyah; Nurdania Delemunte

**Comments:** 07 Pages. Figures :04 Tables : 03, IJCAT.org, Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2015

Lie detection through voice can be detected using the algorithm bidirectional associative memory. This system is a branch of sound processing that can be used to identify the type of sound lies use some verbs like go, roads and move. This study uses an algorithm bidirectional associative memory for the process and the introduction of lie detection training through the sound use of bidirectional associative memory. The system was tested by simulating the training data and test data to generate a percentage of voice recognition and classification of these lies. Experiments performed with several changes in parameter values to obtain the best percentage of recognition and classification. The highest level of recognition contained in the verb "go" with up to 90%. Results of this research is a sound that indicated not indicated lies and deceit in the form of values are classified according to the type of sound that is known from the results of calculations of energy use bidirectional associative memory.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[141] **viXra:1509.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 04:02:48*

**Authors:** Ms. K. Sathya Sundari

**Comments:** 09 Pages. Figures :4 Tables : 0, IJCAT.org, Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2015

Job shop scheduling using ACO(Ant Colony Optimization) approach. Different heuristic information is discussed and three different ant algorithms are presented. State transition rule and pheromone updating methods are given. The concept of the new strategy is highlighted and template for ACO approach is presented.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[140] **viXra:1509.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 04:20:39*

**Authors:** Omar Shabsigh

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The September 2015 Issue of Scientific American about centenary of the General Relativity Theory is full of exaggerations and false statements that have one purpose namely: to give a God-like picture of Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[139] **viXra:1509.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 07:06:00*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The mass of an atom of matter is the ratio of the amount of matter contained in an atom of matter to its diameter. The mass of an atom of matter depends on the age of the Universe, it increases with time.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[138] **viXra:1509.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 07:09:22*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 2 Pages. in Russian. Learn Russin, please!

The mass of an atom of matter is the ratio of the amount of matter contained in an atom of matter to its diameter. The mass of an atom of matter depends on the age of the Universe, it increases with time./Масса крупицы материи есть отношение количества материи содержащегося в крупице материи к ее диаметру. Масса крупицы материи зависит от возраста Вселенной, она увеличивается со временем.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[137] **viXra:1509.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 07:13:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[136] **viXra:1509.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 01:43:27*

**Authors:** Kamaldeep Kaur; Lokesh Pawar

**Comments:** Figures :06 Tables : 01, Pages : 554 - 558, IJCSN.org, Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2015

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is an autonomous, self-configuring and infrastructure-less system in which various mobile nodes are connected by wireless links. In MANETs hello messages are periodically exchanged to maintain the connectivity of neighbour nodes. While discovering neighbour nodes, an unnecessary hello message causes the problem of battery drainage in MANET routing protocols like AODV and DYMO. These ad-hoc types of networks are mainly used in the smart phones and origin the problem of energy utilization when neighbour nodes are discovered to maintain the connectivity. For the MANET scenario we take Random Waypoint Model and also the relationship between hello interval and event interval is considered. In this paper both the protocols are made adaptive and then Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) is employed to give better results by reducing energy consumption and network overhead.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[135] **viXra:1509.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 03:45:27*

**Authors:** Akhila G.S, Prasanth R.S

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Using Personalized Web Search (PWS) we can improve the quality of search results in the Internet. The existing UPS based Personalized Web Searching has many drawbacks. First, there may be a chance of eavesdropping when generalized profile forwarded to the server. Second, web server is vulnerable to web attacks like URL manipulation attacks. The impact of these attacks will affect user’s personal information. So we introduce a new framework called UPES. Here, the data stored in the server-side and request from user will be in encrypted form. Fully Homomorphic Encryption over Integers (FHEI) is used for encrypting data. The experimental results show that this framework functioned in the best possible manner with the least waste of time and effort.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[134] **viXra:1509.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 03:56:22*

**Authors:** Rizal; Fadlisyah; Muhathir; Al Muammar Akfal

**Comments:** 08 Pages. Figures :10 Tables : 01; IJCAT.org, Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2015

Al Quran is the Muslim holy book written in Arabic. To read the Quran recitation necessary knowledge of the guidelines. In the context of everyday people find difficulty in recitation of the Quran. Therefore, the detection system tajwid needed to help users find the recitation of the Quran. In this study, the method of Bray Curtis Distance is used to detect the image of the Holy Qur'an recitation. The test results show that the accuracy of the system is 60% to 90%. The percentage of detection rate shows that the method can be used Bray curtis as one approach to detection at the image of the Holy Qur'an recitation. This system has several drawbacks that have a high false positive rate, or an error about a 40% chance. To improve the performance of this recitation detection system, can be done by providing further training with additional training data more and more varied. However, this recitation detection system does not deny the importance of teachers in learning how to read in accordance with the rules of recitation is right.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[133] **viXra:1509.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-22 18:49:24*

**Authors:** Marco Ripà

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The classic thinking problem, the “Nine Dots Puzzle”, is widely used in courses on creativity and appears in a lot of games magazines. Here are two mutually exclusive conjectures about the generic solution of the problem of the 3^k dots spread to 3 X 3 X … X 3 points, in a k-dimensional space.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[132] **viXra:1509.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-17 11:22:46*

**Authors:** Michael A. Sherbon

**Comments:** 12 Pages. International Journal of Physical Research 2, 1, 1-9 (2014). CC 3.0

Arnold Sommerfeld introduced the fine-structure constant that determines the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. Following Sommerfeld, Wolfgang Pauli left several clues to calculating the fine-structure constant with his research on Johannes Kepler's view of nature and Pythagorean geometry. The Laplace limit of Kepler's equation in classical mechanics, the Bohr-Sommerfeld model of the hydrogen atom and Julian Schwinger's research enable a calculation of the electron magnetic moment anomaly. Considerations of fundamental lengths such as the charge radius of the proton and mass ratios suggest some further foundational interpretations of quantum electrodynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[131] **viXra:1509.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-17 11:56:05*

**Authors:** E. A. Abdo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Rejected by modern science, the geocentric theory (in Greek, ge means earth), which
maintained that Earth was the center of the universe, dominated ancient and medieval
science. It seemed evident to early astronomers that the rest of the universe moved about a
stable, motionless Earth. The Sun, Moon, planets, and stars could be seen moving about
Earth along circular paths day after day. It appeared reasonable to assume that Earth was
stationary, for nothing seemed to make it move. Furthermore, the fact that objects fall
toward Earth provided what was perceived as support for the geocentric theory. Finally,
geocentrism was in accordance with the theocentric (God-centered) world view, dominant
in in the Middle Ages, when science was a subfield of theology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[130] **viXra:1509.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-17 07:58:15*

**Authors:** Eslam S. AbdulMageed

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Let us assume we are given an admissible ideal equipp ed with a negative definite arrow x. Is it possible to characterize random variables?
We show that
|T | ∨ |k| 6=
1
−∞
sin ξ¯(Φ) ± kxˆk ± · · · ∨ A 00 φ(` 00) 4, ∅ − ∞
< min B + I
y ,C.
Recently, there has been much interest in the derivation of maximal,
ultra-invertible triangles. This reduces the results of [25] to the general
theory.

**Category:** Number Theory

[129] **viXra:1509.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-16 15:56:22*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. © About the physical quantity the Planck momentum18.09.14-17.09.15

In the present paper the results of the author's researches of a problem of the Planck momentum quantity have been presented. This issue is related to the bases of a universe. The matter is a bottom of all things and phenomena in the nature. The elementary representative (carrier) of the minimum quantity of a matter in the nature is the particle of a matter which we will name atom of a matter. The atom of the matter is a concrete material embodiment in the nature of the physical quantity (idea) of the Planck momentum. More correctly here it is necessary to speak about an elementary momentum of the nature, and the Planck momentum is only analogue of this physical quantity. The atom of the matter is characterized by two basic characteristics: quantity of a matter in the atom of the matter and diameter of the atom of the matter particle of a matter. These characteristics define the basic physical quantities in the nature: an elementary matter and elementary length. It is necessary to note that in the present paper the physical quantity of the Planck momentum is viewed parallel with fundamental physical quantity of the elementary momentum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[128] **viXra:1509.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-16 21:49:15*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 14 Pages. in Russin. Learn Russian, please!

В настоящей статье представлены результаты авторского исследования проблемы о смысле физической величины планковский импульс. Эта проблема оказалась тесно связанной с проблемой основ мироздания. Материя является основой всего в природе. Материя является уникальной субстанцией природы. По мнению автора, элементарным носителем материи в природе является крупица материи. Каждая крупица имеет в своем составе минимальное в природе количество материи, это первая характеристика крупицы материи. С другой стороны, по мнению автора, крупица материи имеет шарообразную форму, в силу чего ее диаметр является ее второй характеристикой. Это основные характеристики крупицы материи являются базовыми уникальными единицами природы и также базовыми уникальными физическими величинами: элементарной единицей материи и элементарной единицей длины. Крупица материи является материальным олицетворением физической величины планковского импульса./
In the present article results of author's research of a problem about sense of physical quantities of the Planck momentum are presented. This problem has appeared closely connected with a problem of bases of a universe. The matter is a basis of all in the nature. The matter is a unique substance of the nature. According to the author, the elementary carrier of a matter in the nature is the atom of the matter. Each atom consists of the minimum quantity of a matter in the nature, and it is the first characteristic of the atom of the matter. On the other hand, according to the author, the atom of the matter has the spherical form owing to this the diameter is the second characteristic. These basic characteristics of the atom of the matter are the base unique units of the nature and also the base unique physical quantities: the elementary unit of a matter and the elementary unit of length. The atom of the matter is a material embodiment of physical quantity of the Planck momentum. It is necessary to mean that the theoretical physical quantity of the Planck momentum is considered in the present paper parallel with the natural physical quantity of the elementary momentum. The atom of the matter also personifies the natural physical quantity of the elementary momentum. The derived characteristics of the atom of the matter designate the elementary discrete quantities in the nature such as the elementary time (minimum), the elementary length (minimum), the elementary mass (maximum). The fine structure constant has appeared the inverse quantity of the modifying Planck momentum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[127] **viXra:1509.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-16 22:24:14*

**Authors:** Aloysius Sebastian

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Our present concept about gravity is related with the mass and distance of the object. Still we are following the Newtonian concepts of gravity to measure the gravity of objects. Albert Einstein has made a great work on the concept of gravity, after Newton. But still we are trying to know more about gravity. According to me gravity is the property of energy. One must have to explain gravity on the basis of energy and it should be agree with the Newtonian theory of Gravity and law of conservation of Energy. I am agreeing that mass is also a form of energy. But I prefer to find gravity in accordance with the total energy of a system. I am going to find a relation to Newton’s theory of Gravity and Einstein’s Equivalency principle (E = mc2). Here I am making an attempt on this field. I am sure that I am on the right track. I am not placing any new equations here. I am using the existing equations in physics to find the gravity through my thoughts. The way which I am using these equations are may be strange. Sometimes I am thinking in reverse order, first I have found the gravity with the concept of energy. For that I am applying a constant ‘’A’’ to relate Newtonian concepts to Einstein’s Equation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[126] **viXra:1509.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-16 23:13:53*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A quantum gravity experiment was reported in Cahill, Progress in Physics 2015, v.11(4), 317-320, with the data confirming the generalisation of the Schrodinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing consequent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. However Vrba, Progress in Physics, 2015, v.11(4), 330, has suggested the various experimental results may have been caused by magnetic field effects, but without any experimental evidence. Here we show experimentally that there is no such magnetic field effect in the Zener Diode Dynamical Space Quantum Detectors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[125] **viXra:1509.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-17 01:31:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

An international team led by Radboud University physicists has discovered that reversing the poles of magnets must be possible without a heating or a magnetic field.. A strong pulse of light can have a direct effect on the strong quantum mechanical 'exchange interaction', therefore changing the magnetism. [9]
Magnetic waves are known as solitons—for solitary waves—and were theorized to occur in magnets in the 1970s. They form because of a delicate balance of magnetic forces—much like water waves can form a tsunami. Now physicists have used a specialized x-ray method to take pictures of them. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[124] **viXra:1509.0140 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-01 05:58:16*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 33 Pages. Added more references and more explicit solutions in Version 2.

We provide a C++ program which searches for the smallest number of pouring steps
that convert a set of jugs with fixed (integer) capacities and some initial known (integer)
water contents
into another state with some other prescribed water contents. Each step
requires to pour one jug into another
without spilling
until either the source jug is empty or the
drain jug is full-because the model assumes the jugs have irregular shape and no
further marks.
The program simply
places the initial jug configuration at the root of the tree
of state diagrams and deploys the branches (avoiding loops) recursively by
generating all possible states from known states in one pouring step.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[123] **viXra:1509.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-16 08:17:25*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** Physics Journal, Volume 1, Issue 3 (2015), Page 183--188.

We use the validity of Addition and Multiplication for a hidden variables theory. First, we provide an example that the two operations Addition and Multiplication do not commute with each other as revealed by the analyses that are performed in a finite set of numbers. Our discussion leads to an initial conclusion that Sum rule and Product rule do not commute with each other in a hidden variables theory. If we accept this conclusion, we do not get the Bell- Kochen -Specker paradox. In more detail, quantum mechanics may accept the hidden variables theory. Next, we discuss the validity of operators under an assumption that Sum rule and Product rule commute with each other. In this case, we indeed get the Bell- Kochen -Specker paradox. We got the non-classicality of macroscopic experimental data observed in the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the double-slit experiment. If we detect |↑> and then we detect |↓>, the experiments cannot accept the hidden variables theory. We considered whether we can assign the predetermined “hidden” result to numbers 1 and -1 as in results of measurements with the number of measurements finite (e.g., twice) in the experiments. It turned out that we cannot assign the predetermined hidden result to such results of measurements. The next conclusion indicates interestingly that the Stern-Gerlach experiment cannot accept classical mechanics. The double-slit experiment had led to the same situation, and they were indeed quantum mechanical phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[122] **viXra:1509.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-16 08:45:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A study led by researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the University of California, Los Angeles has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders - powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13]
More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[121] **viXra:1509.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-16 05:04:31*

**Authors:** Ganesh Padole, Sandip Kamble, Devika Deshmukh, Jagdish Chakole

**Comments:** 03 Pages. IJCSN International Journal of Computer Science and Network, Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2014

Brain Machine Interface (BMI) is a most important
technological breakthrough in decades. In recent years, progress
is being made towards sensory substitution devices for the blind.
In the long run, there could be the possibility of brain implants. A
brain implant or cortical implant provides visual input from a
camera directly to the brain via electrodes in contact with the
visual cortex at the backside of the head. In this paper, we
proposed some applications where BMI can be used effectively
which are very much useful for the society.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[120] **viXra:1509.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 16:21:03*

**Authors:** Réjean Labrie

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This article is a conjecture of the presence of at least a first number in each of the n + 2 raw slices of n numbers for consecutive numbers from 1 to n * (n + 2).

**Category:** Number Theory

[119] **viXra:1509.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 13:45:00*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 16 formulas, 2 tables

Koide formula has improved on the result 2/3 in the formula (14). The tau lepton mass is also calculated. This is third version of the article.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[118] **viXra:1509.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 13:44:09*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The possibility of obtention of quantum vacuum in laboratory is shown in this work. The method consists in ward off air atoms from the surface of a solid material plate. The clearance can reach up to several nanometers, thus producing a region where there are no elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[117] **viXra:1509.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 14:32:22*

**Authors:** Oliver R Jovanovic

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Note that in "Airfoil force approach", force (rocket thrust) has quadratic dependence on the velocity.
This quadratic dependence on the velocity is giving us opportunity to reduce rate of mass ejection (fuel loss).

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[116] **viXra:1509.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-08 07:55:39*

**Authors:** Vitaliy Parpura

**Comments:** 105 Pages.

Судьба – Событие Вселенной
Электромагнитная механика Вселенной Начала теории материи
––––––
Виталий Парпура
––––––
Аннотация
В своей научно-популярной теории (гипотезе – по-научному) я изложил несколько иной взгляд на
устройство мира, нежели принят ныне. Используя, как основу, старую добрую древнегреческую идею
эфира, вместо него, вводится понятие поля материи Вселенной как единственного источника бытия. Как
единственной среды, которая создаёт всё в нашем мире, включая и духовный мир. Создаёт посредством
силы материи (силы поля материи), также единой и единственной силы в Природе. Создаёт с помощью
своих вихрей материи, идею которых наиболее подробно развил давно ещё Рене Декарт.
Вихри материи – это кирпич и цемент Вселенной. Всё из материи! (Мечта Декарта).
В этой работе даётся простое, и немного неожиданное, понимание сущности времени в физическом и
пространственном аспектах. Даётся простое и наглядное толкование спина системы. Имеют место
рассуждения об инерции, фотоне и электромагнитных волнах. Утверждается, что весь наш мир – это
электромагнитный мир, созданный стоящими и бегущими электромагнитными колебаниями плотности поля
материи Вселенной.
И в заключение предпринята попытка ввести в науку понятие Судьбы – судьбы человека, судьбы всего
человечества и Судьбы Вселенной, как единой и единственной всеобщей электромагнитной структуры поля
материи Вселенной, виртуальное существование которой (одновременно во всех временах) создаёт
всеобщую предопределённость событий в Мире.
Всё едино! – главная идея этой теории.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[115] **viXra:1509.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-05 06:05:44*

**Authors:** Marek Wojciech Kalinowski

**Comments:** 233 Pages.

We are looking for a paradigm of modern physics and this essay is devoted
to this problem. Thus in the essay we consider very important problems of
philosophy of physics: a unification and a geometrization of fundamental
physical interactions and holism. We are looking for holistic approaches in
many different domains of physics. Simultaneously we look for some holistic
approaches in the history of philosophy and compare them to approaches in
physics. We consider a unification and a geometrization of physical interac-
tions in contemporary physics in order to find some connections with many
philosophical approaches known in the history of philosophy. In this way
we want to connect humanity to natural sciences, i.e. physics. In the his-
tory of philosophy there are several basic principles, so-called “arche”. Our
conclusion is that a contemporary “arche” is geometry as in the Einstein
programme connected to a holistic approach. In our meaning geometry as
“arche” of physics will be a leading idea in a fundamental physics. Physics
itself will be a leading force in philosophy of science and philosophy itself.
Cultural quasi-reality (in R. Ingarden’s meaning) and also biology, medicine
and social sciences will be influenced by physics. In this way a cultural
quasi-reality will be closer to physical reality.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[114] **viXra:1509.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 09:28:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A new trend taking shape in psychological science not only uses quantum physics to explain humans' (sometimes) paradoxical thinking, but may also help researchers resolve certain contradictions among the results of previous psychological studies. According to Zheng Joyce Wang and others who try to model our decision-making processes mathematically, the equations and axioms that most closely match human behavior may be ones that are rooted in quantum physics. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[113] **viXra:1509.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 09:41:54*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A proof of the conjecture is offered

**Category:** Number Theory

[112] **viXra:1509.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 10:17:17*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A proof of the conjecture is offered

**Category:** Number Theory

[111] **viXra:1509.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 08:42:27*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A proof of the conjecture is offered

**Category:** Number Theory

[110] **viXra:1509.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-14 18:22:25*

**Authors:** Gerges Francis Tawdrous

**Comments:** 100 Pages.

Abstract
According to Carl Anderson Experiment 1932, by which he produced electron & positron from Gamma rays
I claim the solar system is created by the light through this same way, where, I claim
1- The Earth is The Big Electron
(i.e. the Earth Atom has a positive nucleus charge and cloud of electrons move around this nucleus "which is Real for the Earth")
2- 4 Planets (Mercury, Venus, Moon & Mars) together are The Big Positron
(i.e. The four planets Atoms have a negatives nucleuses charges and clouds of positrons move around these nucleuses (which is supposed)
3- The Attraction between the 5 inner planets depends on The Charge Attraction, Avoiding The Gravity Concept.
4 - The Outer Planets are depended on The Inner Planets
5- The sun is the solar system motions result
This paper tries to prove the Previous Theory.
(The solar system geometry is a series of papers, this first paper is dedicated for the previous theory proves only)

**Category:** Astrophysics

[109] **viXra:1509.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 01:30:11*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An elementary proof of the conjecture is offered

**Category:** Number Theory

[108] **viXra:1509.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 02:02:42*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An elemantary proof of the conjecture is offered

**Category:** Number Theory

[107] **viXra:1509.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-15 09:09:35*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An elemetary proof of the conjecture is offered

**Category:** Number Theory

[106] **viXra:1509.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 03:09:22*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A proof of the conjecture is offered

**Category:** Number Theory

[105] **viXra:1509.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-13 18:01:11*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Another point of view

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[104] **viXra:1509.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-13 20:01:24*

**Authors:** Bingyi Kang, Yong Deng

**Comments:** 17 Pages

Dempster Shafer evidence theory has widely used in many applications due to its advantages to handle uncertainty. Deng entropy, has been proposed to measure the uncertainty degree of basic probability assignment in evidence theory. It is the generalization of Shannon entropy since that the BPA is degenerated as probability, Deng entropy is identical to Shannon entropy. However, the maximal value of Deng entropy has not been disscussed until now. In this paper, the condition of the maximum of Deng entropy has been disscussed and proofed, which is usefull for the application of Deng entropy.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[103] **viXra:1509.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-12 23:38:50*

**Authors:** Le Xuan Quang, Le Huy Hoang, Vu Dinh Chuan, Nguyen Hoai Nam, Nguyen Thi Tu Anh, Vu Thi Hong Nhung

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

STEM has attracted great consideration. The purpose of research is: (1) study STEM education; (2) explore STEM education with the creative and experiential activity; (3) suggest applying STEM education by designing technical toys for the middle school student. This study used a qualitative approach to carry out teaching integration for STEM education. The study applied to teaching the technological field in Vietnamese middle schools. The design performed at the Faculty of Technology Education, Hanoi National University of Education, Vietnam in April 2015. This study used the integrated approach to design subjects for STEM education. Two procedures for integration undertook with analysis. A sample of producing technical toy was consistent with developing students competencies. Integrated approach to STEM education through designing technical toys is possible. Recently, there has been a booming interest in Integrated Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, but the approaches to STEM still remains controversial in diverse educational contexts. This study addressed this issue by exploring STEM education with the use of creative and experiential activities in a Vietnamese educational context. It also proposed a practical model for integrating STEM into teaching technology in secondary schools by designing technical toys. The implementation of the practical model suggests the possibility in using the integrated approach to STEM education through designing technical toys for middle school students in Vietnam. By applying the subject knowledge domains to solve real world problems and settings, the students can experience the benefits of a concrete and active learning in a meaningful and practical context. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary integration approaches are consistent with the development of the students competencies.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[102] **viXra:1509.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-12 09:26:56*

**Authors:** Gibadullin Artur

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

About Gibadullin's theory of everything.
The main idea is that "The whole Universe is composed of times, the times play a key role in all processes and phenomena"

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[101] **viXra:1509.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-12 06:19:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Magnetic waves are known as solitons—for solitary waves—and were theorized to occur in magnets in the 1970s. They form because of a delicate balance of magnetic forces—much like water waves can form a tsunami. Now physicists have used a specialized x-ray method to take pictures of them. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[100] **viXra:1509.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-11 20:38:30*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. in Russian © Nature and Matter

In the present article in the form of theses and short explanatories results of the research by the author of bases of a universe are presented. The matter underlies all in the nature. Nature, the world surrounding us, the Universe filled with material content. Nothing, but the matter does not exist in the nature. The Universe represents the material cosmological object extending in sizes (in diameter) with a velocity of light. The matter in the form of the atom of matter arrives into the Universe from the Singularity in the course of evolutionary development. Matter receipt is a uniform rhythmic process. The atom of the matter particle has two basic characteristics. These are the quantity of a matter in the atom and the diameter of the atom. These characteristics further define base physical quantities of the nature for our Universe. These base physical quantities are elementary matter and elementary length. Elementary time is equivalent to an elementary matter. An elementary mass is the derived physical quantity. An elementary mass is the relation of an elementary matter and elementary length./
В настоящей статье в форме тезисов и кратких пояснений представлены результаты исследования автором основ мироздания. Материя лежит в основе всего в природе. Природа, мир, окружающий человека, Вселенная, всё наполнены материальным содержанием. Ничего кроме материи в природе не существует. Вселенная представляет собой, расширяющийся в размерах (в диаметре) со скоростью света, материальный космологический объект. Материя в форме крупиц материи поступает во Вселенную из Сингулярности в процессе эволюционного развития. Поступление материи является равномерным ритмическим процессом. Крупица материи имеет две основные характеристики. Это количество материи в крупице материи и диаметр крупицы материи. Эти характеристики в дальнейшем определяют основные базовые величины природы для нашей Вселенной. Эти такие физические величины, как элементарная материя и элементарная длина. Элементарное время эквивалентно элементарной материи. Элементарная масса является производной физической величиной. Элементарная масса есть отношение элементарной материи и элементарной длины.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[99] **viXra:1509.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-11 10:08:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

An international team of researchers, including the MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology at the University of Twente in The Netherlands and the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, announced today in Science the observation of a dynamic Mott transition in a superconductor. [26]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[98] **viXra:1509.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-12 10:36:49*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Work in progress.

It is known that quantization of massless spin-1 particles runs into several related complications such as the redundancy of gauge orbits, the presence of extra degrees of freedom and the need to introduce “ghost” fields. The textbook interpretation of quantum gauge theory is that “ghosts” are unphysical objects whose function is to preserve Lorentz covariance and unitarity. In particular, Faddeev-Popov “ghosts” (FPG) violate the spin-statistics theorem and are devoid of measurable properties. FPG are shown to decouple from the spectrum of observable states, yet it remains unclear how their presence in loop diagrams and their interaction with gauge fields is even possible in the absence of any physical attributes. The object of this work is to suggest that, at least in principle, the concept of spacetime endowed with minimal fractality enables a “ghost”-free formulation of quantum gauge theory. Our approach opens the door for a non-perturbative understanding of vacuum polarization in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[97] **viXra:1509.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-11 05:37:24*

**Authors:** W.Q. Sumner

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In 1907 Einstein used special relativity to prove that vacuum permittivity is a function of gravity by assuming that acceleration and gravity are equivalent. Vacuum permittivity is the scalar in Maxwell's equations that determines the speed of light and the strength of electrical fields. Predictably, vacuum permittivity also changes with spacetime curvature in general relativity. When spacetime curvature changes, the wavelengths of both photons and atomic emissions shift. In Friedmann geometry, curvature changes in time. A photon today has a different wavelength than it did yesterday. Yesterday, an atom emitted a photon with a different wavelength than it emits today. Considered together, the evolution of atoms and photons reverse the interpretation of Hubble redshift. Hubble redshift implies that the Friedmann universe is closed and collapsing. During collapse, both atomic emissions and photons blueshift. Atomic emissions blueshift about twice as much as photons blueshift. This means that blueshifted photons seen in a telescope today are redder than blueshifted reference photons emitted by atoms today. With this insight, supernovae redshift observations are fit simply using the physics of Maxwell, Einstein, Bohr, and Friedmann from the 1920's. There is no need to postulate dark energy. Supernovae redshift data imply that the universe is very nearly flat and will collapse in about 9.6 billion years. High-z redshift observations up to 11.9 suggest that the universe is at least 2000 billion years old. This is more than a hundred times greater than a typical star's lifetime. It is probable that most dark matter is the residue of stellar evolution. The changes in atoms and photons derived here confirm Schrödinger's 1939 proof that quantum wave functions expand and contract proportionally to the radius of a closed Friedmann universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[96] **viXra:1509.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-11 02:27:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Mathematicians investigating one of science's great questions—how to unite the physics of the very big with that of the very small—have discovered that when the understanding of complex networks such as the brain or the Internet is applied to geometry the results match up with quantum behavior. [6]
Vectors are great for describing the motion of a particle. But now suppose you need to analyze something more complicated, where multiple magnitudes and directions are involved. Perhaps you’re an engineer calculating stresses and strains in an elastic material. Or a neuroscientist tracing the changing forces on water flow near nerve cells. Or a physicist attempting to describe gravity in the cosmos. For all that, you need tensors. And they might even help you unify gravitational theory with quantum physics. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[95] **viXra:1509.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-10 16:54:21*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. © Matter, Singularity, Universe and Time 10/09/15

The present article is devoted to the problem of the time and its solution. What is a time? People have been asking this question for a long time. Time inseparably linked with a matter. Time inseparably linked with the Universe and with her evolution. Here is the basic thought of this article. How this communication is shown? What is a time? What is the secret of the time? In the present article answers to these and other similar questions are given. The author uses a dialectic materialistic method of knowledge of the world and the material nature surrounding us. Author enters into consideration the materialistic model of a universe as whole and the materialistic model of the Universe as its part. As it is represented to the author the Universe mechanism is similar to the mechanism of hourglasses. The sand corresponds to a matter, atom of the matter, and there are two capacities (storehouse) for a matter. Thus, the Universe is a materialistic cosmologic object which can be named the tandem ‘Singularity – Universe’. The Singularity may be quite probably the central core of the Universe which radiates the matter. The Universe extends with the matter radiation: this is the rhythmical expansion. This expansion happens with the speed of light. The matter radiates from the Singularity and moves into the Universe in the form of the small discrete matter’s globule, which let us name the atom of the matter. Each atom of the matter contains the quite defined minimum quantity of the matter existing in the nature. Time is inseparably linked with a matter. Time is inseparably linked with the Universe and its evolution. These principles are the main idea of this article. How are these relationships manifested? What is a time? What is the secret of the time? This article gives answers to these questions. In the present article the answers on some others but closely related with these questions are given also. It is such questions ‘what is a matter’, ‘what is the Universe’, ‘what is the Singularity’./ Статья посвящена разъяснению вопроса взаимосвязи понятий материя, Сингулярность, время и Вселенная с точки зрения материалистической диалектики и физики.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[94] **viXra:1509.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-10 15:16:40*

**Authors:** Francois Zinserling

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Classical primality testing of large numbers requires a number to be rigorously divided by all prime numbers, up to the square root of the number to be tested. This method is time- and resource- consuming for large numbers. Some time is gained by only dividing by prime numbers to determine the factors, but this too falls short where large numbers are tested for which not all the required lower primes are known. The problem becomes no easier when the very next higher prime number is sought, because the entire rigorous process has to be repeated for every number, and the number of calculations increase as the numbers get bigger.
A prime number is a positive integer that can only be fully divided by 1 and itself. Regarding primality, a positive integer can only have 2 states: prime or non-prime. It is one or the other, no inbetweens. If it can be proven that a number is not non-prime, it is inherently proven that it is prime. This is also the basis upon which the Sieve of Eratosthenes works [1].
A method is presented for finding prime numbers, “from the bottom up” thereby allowing the sieve to be expanded as new prime numbers are discovered. The number of calculations required is greatly reduced by using a quadratic relationship.

**Category:** Number Theory

[93] **viXra:1509.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-10 15:44:45*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. in Russian © Tandem AM-FP 28.11.2014

The nature is material. As it is represented to the author, the matter is presented in the nature by the particles of the matter or the atoms of matter or simply atoms. It is a concrete manifestation of matter in the nature. Each atom of matter contains the same quantity of matter. It's the law of nature. Atom of the matter is a 4-dimensional very small matter ball. An atom of matter is indestructible. An atom of matter cannot neither destroy nor annihilate. It’s the law of preservation of a matter. An atom of the matter exists in the form of a tandem ‘atom of the matter - fundamental particle’. It is two phases of existence of an atom of the matter. The transition between these two phases is carried out in the form of a quantum splash or a quantum sudden leap. It's the law of nature. It is a form of motion of the matter in the nature that is not yet known and not yet studied by science. A fundamental particle also is a 4-dimensional very small matter ball. Diameter of the fundamental particle is on several orders of magnitude larger than the diameter of the atom of the matter. Diameter of a fundamental particle is constant. Diameter of the atom of the matter is the decreasing value of the nature. All the actions, all changes in nature at the micro level, at the Planck scale, committed to the rhythm of nature, including quantum splash of matter in the atom of the matter. The step of a rhythm of the nature is dimensionless elementary (minimum) unit of natural time, and its duration (constant) is a dimensional elementary (minimum) time unit./
Природа материальна. Как представляется автору, материя представлена в природе атомами материи или крупицами материи. Это конкретное проявление материи в природе. Каждая крупица материи содержит в себе одно и то же количество материи. Это закон природы. Крупица материи представляет собой 4-мерный материальный шарик. Крупица материи и материя в ее составе не уничтожимы. Крупица материи существует в виде тандема «крупица материи – элементарная частица». Это две фазы существования крупицы материи. Переход между фазами крупицы материи осуществляется в форме квантового всплеска (перехода, скачка) материи. Это закон природы. Это пока не известная и не изученная наукой форма движения материи. Элементарная частица также есть 4-мерный шарик. Но диаметр элементарной частицы на несколько порядков больше диаметра крупицы материи. Диаметр элементарной частицы является постоянной величиной. Диаметр крупицы матери является убывающей со временем по вполне определенному закону природы величиной. Все действия, все изменения в природе на микроуровне, на планковском масштабе, совершаются в ритме природы. В том числе и квантовые всплески материи в крупице материи. Такт ритма природы является безразмерной элементарной (минимальной) единицей природного времени, а его длительность (постоянная величина) является размерной элементарной (минимальной) единицей времени.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[92] **viXra:1509.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-10 11:57:07*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of single photon diffraction is a model with photons being directed by plenum forces along their trajectory (http://intellectualarchive.com/ ?link=item\&id=1557). By setting initial conditions in a simulation, predictions of screen patterns can be made. Changing the altitude produces a change in the width of the pattern. Using a pattern resulting from a single slit, a second mask can examine the result of varying the intensity of the illumination across the slit and of only one of the double slits being illuminated. The resultant patterns on a screen were photographed and are on the opposite side of center from the illuminated side of the second mask. The STOE is consistent and all other models of diffraction are inconsistent with these results.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[91] **viXra:1509.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-10 07:17:31*

**Authors:** Charles M. Beck

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

We analyze the crush-down collapse of One World Trade Center (1~WTC, North Tower) in the framework of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, 2005) collapse hypothesis. The main feature of crush-down is that a moving part of the building - the top section - falls onto the stationary base, and absorbs the mass in the way. We extend the Ba\v{z}ant-Verdure-Seffen (BVS) model of crush-down~(\bv, 2002; Seffen, 2008), where we split the crushing front in two, one at the core and to other at the perimeter of the building. We fit the BVS and the split-front crush-down model to recently published roofline motion data (MacQueen and Szamboti, 2009), to find detailed variation of crushing force $\FC(Z)$ in the storeys 97 and 96, and the average crushing force $\mean{F^C}$ in the remainder of the impact zone (storeys 95 to 93) and in the base below for the remainder of roofline data (storeys 92 through 87).
We show how within the NIST hypothesis and the BVS model $\ec{}$, defined as $\ec{} = \mean{F^C} / \FC(0)$, requires a correction factor of 1/6 to match the data. We construct a Controlled Demolition (CD) hypothesis which avoids this and other correction factors through two assumptions: $(i)$ the top section is twice as massive as what it appears to be, where its core stretches initially down to the 75-th storey; and $(ii)$, the collapse starts with the wave of massive destruction which annihilates the core below the 75-th storey and separates the top section from the base below the impact zone, following which the top section falls to the ground opposed mostly by the perimeter columns, which strength is approximately a third of the total strength. Within the CD hypothesis we achieve excellent agreement between Ba\v{z}ant-Verdure model of crushing force and the data.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[90] **viXra:1509.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-10 07:19:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Leptoquark's Tracks? The ZEUS detector began showing results that hinted at the leptoquark last fall. More intriguing results emerged from Fermilab a year ago. A preliminary analysis of a few anomalous collisions between protons suggested that their constituent quarks might be made of smaller, more fundamental entities--a direct violation of the Standard Model. After subsequent analysis, however, the "subquarks" vanished; theorists showed that with minor tweaking, the Standard Model could easily account for the data. [11]
An intriguing signal from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) might prove to be the crack that prises apart the standard model — physicists’ current best description of how matter and forces interact. [10]
Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[89] **viXra:1509.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-10 08:53:01*

**Authors:** Arundale Ramanathan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. License: CC 4.0 Attribution

The Arithmetic Coding process involves re-calculation of intervals for each symbol that need to be encoded. This article discovers a formula based approach for calculating compressed codes and provides proof for deriving the formula from the usual approach. A spreadsheet is also provided for verification of the approach. Consequently, the similarities between Arithmetic Coding and Huffman coding are also visually illustrated.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[88] **viXra:1509.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-09 15:40:23*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. © What is a Time? September 9, 2015

Time inseparably linked with a matter. Time inseparably linked with the Universe and its evolution. That is the main idea of this article. How is this relationship manifested? What is a time? What is the secret of the time? This article gives answers to these questions. In the present article the answers on some others but closely related with these questions are given also.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[87] **viXra:1509.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-10 01:27:05*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 348 Pages.

This is a series of science textbook written by Professor Jeff, which focus on mathematics and algorithm only in this volume. a person who has professional research level or a student being educated in a graduate school can read our textbook without much difficulty.
If you truly want to improve your knowledge by reading this textbook, it is better for you to study all the open problems mentioned in this textbook carefully. To write down your unique solutions and opening thought for these problems after your reading.
Any good idea about the problems appeared in this series can be mailed to the author cheng.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[86] **viXra:1509.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-09 11:05:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Earth, planets, stars, and galaxies form only the visible portion of the matter in the universe. Greater by far is the share accounted for by invisible "dark matter". Scientists have searched for the particles of dark matter in numerous experiments - so far, in vain. With the CRESST experiment, now the search radius can be considerably expanded: The CRESST detectors are being overhauled and are then able to detect particles whose mass lies below the current measurement range. As a consequence, the chance of tracking dark matter down goes up. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[85] **viXra:1509.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-08 19:58:05*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. in Russian © Time and the Universe

Time inseparably linked with a matter. Time inseparably linked with the Universe and its evolution. Here the basic thought of this article. How this communication is shown? What is a time? In what time secret consists? In the present article answers to these and other questions closely connected with these are given./
Время неразрывно связано с материей. Время неразрывно связано со Вселенной и ее эволюцией. Вот основная мысль этой статьи. Как эта связь проявляется? Что такое время? В чем состоит секрет времени? В настоящей статье даны ответы на эти и другие тесно связанные с этими вопросы.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[84] **viXra:1509.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-08 15:18:19*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The geonomic role of physical cyclicity is explained from the viewpoint of economic sustainability science.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[83] **viXra:1509.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-08 09:57:44*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 61 pages

Applying basic classical physics concepts of time and space, while considering event information was ultimately communicated through light—or electromagnetic—signals, it was shown that proper time interval measured in an inertial reference frame (labeled as the “traveling frame”) between two co-local events occurring at the frame origin underwent apparent alteration and perceived as an altered interval in another inertial frame (labeled as the “stationary frame”), when the two frames were in relative motion. It was shown through obtained modified Galilean transformations that “apparent” length contraction and expansion were associated with “apparent” time dilation and contraction, respectively. In the case the Emission Theory of light was considered, symmetry in regard to the time and space alteration factors between the frames was shown. The known classical Doppler Effect was readily derived from the established alteration factors. For all classical approaches, and in the case of light, the wave length was deemed invariant.
In the case the Special Relativity approach was considered, i.e. when the speed of light was assumed constant with respect to all inertial reference frames, inconsistent time “alterations” were perceived, so an ad hoc assumption was required, imposing an artificial conversion factor, leading to the Lorentz transformation, applicable under special conditions of the space coordinates in the direction of motion. Misconceptions in the Special Relativity interpretation of the Lorentz transformation were systematically revealed. Time alteration was perceived dilated for receding frames, and contracted for approaching ones.
When the frames receded and then approached during equal proper time intervals, the net time interval is perceived dilated by for the Special Relativity approach, as opposed to for the Light Emission theory. For the Ether Theory assumption, either time dilation or time invariance was obtained depending on whether the traveling frame was taken to be the ether frame.
The known relativistic Doppler Effect was readily derived. For the case of light, the perceived frequency exhibiting a blue shift in the case of approaching frames was in line with the established time contraction in this study, contradicting the Special Relativity prediction of time dilation. In addition, the wavelength exhibited an increase in the case of receding frames, whereas it decreased when the source was approaching.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1509.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-09 08:48:56*

**Authors:** Simon A. Okojokwu

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

A motive power generator having a magnetic potential energy of magnitude "Limk−>∞(τ * 2kπ)" Joules, where τ is the torque and "2kπ" is the angular displacement, the generator converting the magnetic potential energy into kinetic energy at the rate of (τ^2 * σ * ρ^-1 * r^-2)^1/2 Joules per second, where r, ρ, and σ are respectively the average radius, the density, and the maximum tensile strength of the generator-rotor.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[81] **viXra:1509.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-03 05:40:17*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In the article Chappell, Hartnett, Iannella, Iqbal, Abbott, “Exploring the origin of Minkowski spacetime” [2] authors almost completely revise their article [3], but there is some mathematical and other discrepancies in their articles.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[80] **viXra:1509.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-08 05:04:36*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 25 Pages. French translation of the English version of the paper ' An Elementary Proof of the BEAL Conjecture. La version anglaise est soumise au journal Integers. Bienvenue à vos commentaires.

En 1997, Andrew Beal avait annoncé la conjecture suivante: Soient A, B,C, m,n, et l des entiers positifs avec m,n,l >2. Si A^m + ^n = C^l alors A, B,et C ont un facteur commun.
Nous commençons par construire le polynôme P(x)=(x-A^m)(x-B^n)(x+C^l)=x^3-px+q avec p,q des entiers qui dépendent de A^m,B^n et C^l. Nous résolvons l'équation x^3-px+q=0 et nous obtenons les trois racines x_1,x_2,x_3 comme fonctions de p,q et d'un paramètre µ. Comme A^m,B^n,-C^l sont les seules racines de x^3-px+q=0, nous discutons les conditions pour que x_1,x_2,x_3 soient des entiers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[79] **viXra:1509.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-07 18:41:43*

**Authors:** Alejandro Rivero

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This is a draft note cointaining graphical updates.

Revisiting work of 2004, we look for the possibility of an enhancement of the yields of asymmetric fission when the mass of one of the fragments has the same size that the electroweak W mass, causing some kind of recoil resonance.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[78] **viXra:1509.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-07 18:51:15*

**Authors:** Mueiz gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Comments and criticism are Welcomed

It is shown that there is an essential difference between the expansion of the universe and the expansion of the ordinary systems and they cannot be handled by the same laws.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[77] **viXra:1509.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-08 18:58:24*

**Authors:** Arvind Chitra Rajasekaran

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this article we will introduce a cognitive architecture for creating a more human like and personable artificial intelligence. Recent works such as those by Marvin Minsky, Google DeepMind and cognitive models like AMBR, DUAL that aim to propose/discover an approach to commonsense AI have been promising, since they show that human intelligence can be emulated with a divide and conquer approach on a machine. These frameworks work with an universal model of the human mind and do not account for the variability between human beings. It is these differences between human beings that make communication possible and gives them a sense of identity. Thus, this work, despite being grounded in these methods, will differ in hypothesizing machines that are diverse in their behavior compared to each other and have the ability to express a dynamic personality like a human being. To achieve such individuality in machines, we characterize the various aspects that can be dynamically programmed onto a machine by its human owners. In order to ensure this on a scale parallel to how humans develop their individuality, we first assume a child-like intelligence in a machine that is more malleable and which then develops into a more concrete, mature version. By having a set of tunable inner parameters called aspects which respond to external stimuli from their human owners, machines can achieve personability. The result of this work would be that we will not only be able to bond with the intelligent machines and relate to them in a friendly way, we will also be able to perceive them as having a personality, and that they have their limitations. Just as each human being is unique, we will have machines that are unique and individualistic. We will see how they can achieve intuition, and a drive to find meaning in life, all of which are considered aspects unique to the human mind.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[76] **viXra:1509.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-07 09:32:13*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

According to the program «Starfish» July 9, 1962 the United States detonated in space over the Pacific Ocean H-bomb with a TNT equivalent of 1.4 Mt. The explosion was followed by the appearance of an electric pulse with a high electric field intensity and short duration. In the experiments on the detection and study of the electrical pulse that occurs when the capacitor discharges through the gaps large capacity. It is shown that when such discharges occur electric field pulses, which indicates the occurrence of a plasma heated to a unitary charge. This fact contradicts not only classic but also relativistic transformations of the electromagnetic field in the transition from one inertial reference system to another, and indicates that the absolute value of the electric charge, unlike its polarity is not an invariant speed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[75] **viXra:1509.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-07 09:35:39*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

По программе «Starfish» 9 июля 1962 США взорвали в космосе над Тихим океаном водородную бомбу с тротиловым эквивалентом 1.4 Мт. Взрыв сопровождался возникновением электрического импульса с большой напряженность электрического поля и малой длительностью. В работе проведены эксперименты по обнаружению и исследованию электрического импульса, возникающего при разрядах через разрядники конденсаторов большой ёмкости. Показано, что и при таких разрядах возникает импульс электрического поля, что свидетельствует о возникновении в разогретой плазме унитарного заряда. Данный факт противоречит не только классическим, но и релятивистским преобразованиям электромагнитного поля при переходе от одной инерциальной системы отсчета к другой и свидетельствует о том, что абсолютная величина электрического заряда, в отличие от его полярности, не является инвариантом скорости.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[74] **viXra:1509.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-26 08:22:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the inelastic cross section versus the centre-of-mass energy for proton-proton collisions. For centre-of-mass energies lower than 34.2 TeV, the obtained theoretical results overlap with the Standard-Model predictions but for energies of proton higher than 17.1 TeV, contrary to the Standard-Model prediction, there appears the asymptote: cross-section = 82.5 mb = constant. It follows from the fact that due to the production of the 17.1 TeV Higgs-boson-like particles, the protons cannot be accelerated above energy 17.1 TeV. Just whole surplus proton energy is instantaneously emitted. It is associated with the internal structure of the core of baryons. Emphasize that calculated here the cross section for energy 13 TeV (73.1 mb) is the central value obtained in the ATLAS experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[73] **viXra:1509.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-07 08:30:16*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Kaon Mesons masses are known relatively well so it is easier to use to characterize the masses of the mesons. The following paper shows that the Kaon meson mass formula is consistent with the other meson formulas used by this author. The same basic integrated polynomial is use. The basic sub formulas are also consistent between mesons. The positive and negative Kaon use the same formula as the Rho meson, except in the sub formula 14/27 is used for the positive and negative Kaon instead of 22/27 for the rho meson. As has been noted by Paolo Palazzi, (10) the mesons can be characterized as parts of 27 and all even parts of 27. The author of this paper has not characterized all of the mesons to verify if this follows for all the mesons, but it has held for the pion, rho, and kaons. The value of 27 has been used in all the polynomial calculations and the sub formula’s. It is getting less and less doubtful that this is coincidental. To this point on 9-6-2015 this author had worked out the formulas for the electron, muon, tauon, pion, rho, and kaon particles independent of Paolo Palazzi’s work, without knowledge that anyone had noticed the pattern of 27 previously, although the pattern was so obvious, except in the case of the electron, that is seemed unlikely that it had not been noticed previously. The high mass mesons, have such a large mass, that it would be difficult to determine that the pattern of 27 was used or if it was simply numerology and coincidental curve fitting. This paper uses the same technique for proposing a method that gives clues to the mass ratio of mesons to the Proton. This is for the mesons made of, at least one, up or down quarks or their anti quarks. The structure of the equations are such that the masses are related to a type of probability. For example, the 10 percent chance an emission of energy would be going in the x direction vs the 90 percent in the y direction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[72] **viXra:1509.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-16 05:35:39*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two page letter

As an attempt to explain the anomalous constant velocity of the stars at the out-skirts of galaxies, known as ‘flattening of galaxies rotation-curves’, Milgrom M. has proposed a modification to Newtonian Dynamics; that at very low gravitational accelerations, of the order of 10-10 meter/second2, and below, the gravitational acceleration experienced by the stars at the out-skirts of spiral galaxies may be: [(G M / R^2) ( a0 )]^1/2, instead of Newtonian expression: [ G M / R^2] . It has been found by this author, as well as by others, that a0 is close to H0 c (where H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c the speed of light). Also, a0 is close to G M0 / R0^2 (where M0 is total mass of the universe required for closer of the universe, and R0 is radius of the universe, R0= c/ H0). Based on these findings, it is indicated here that the strength of gravity beyond the boundary of spiral galaxies may be much higher, than expected from Newtonian gravity. Therefore, the actual attractive force between the galaxies can be much higher than that due to Newtonian Dynamics; and the total mass of the universe required for closer of the universe, may be as less as it is already observed. Thus, if MOND is correct, then even ‘dark-energy’ may not be required.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[71] **viXra:1509.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-07 08:51:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[70] **viXra:1509.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-24 16:53:06*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

After discussing various examples, the diameter of a single photon is calculated by combining the formulas of quantum mechanics and wave theory. The experimentally known coherence length is the length of the photon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[69] **viXra:1509.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-06 14:57:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Since the 1930s scientists have been searching for particles that are simultaneously matter and antimatter. Now physicists have found strong evidence for one such entity inside a superconducting material. The discovery could represent the first so-called Majorana particle, and may help researchers encode information for quantum computers.[27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[68] **viXra:1509.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-26 08:17:46*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

High frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are characteristic for the X-ray power-density spectra of a few microquasars and low mass X-ray binaries. Sometimes there appear the twin peak QPOs and then the frequency ratio for the peaks is close or equal to 3/2. Mostly the QPOs models assume oscillations of toroidal structures near black holes or neutron stars. At present, there is no consensus on the origin of QPOs. Here we present the model of the twin-peak QPOs as a result of oscillations defined by torus and a ring inside it. We use the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), especially the revised theory of black holes and accretion discs. Within presented here model we calculated the masses of the twin peak QPO microquasars. Obtained theoretical results are consistent with observational data. But accuracy of the observational data is very low whereas of the theoretical results is very high so future more precise observational data can be used to verify presented here model. We showed some analogy between the phenomena inside the core of baryons and the phenomena leading to the twin peak QPOs i.e. we showed some analogy between particle physics and cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[67] **viXra:1509.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 17:05:00*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Gravitational constant is the square ratio of proton and atomic radius.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[66] **viXra:1509.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-27 16:10:49*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This could be predictive of a more accurate mass off the Rho Mesons

The Rho Mesons mass is not known as well as the Pions and Kaons. This paper uses the same technique for proposing a method that gives clues to the mass ratio of mesons to the Proton. This is for the mesons made of, at least one, up or down quarks or their anti quarks. The structure of the equations are such that the masses are related to a type of probability.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] **viXra:1509.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 22:22:10*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. in Russian, Jun-Dec 2013

The present article “Time and a rhythm of the nature (Secret of a fine structure constant)” are presenting results of author's research on matter of a time and a rhythm of the nature and the Universe. All processes in the nature and in the Universe occur in the rhythm of the nature. This rhythm synchronizes all processes in the nature with the nature time. The nature has an own time unit. The fine structure constant is the coefficient linking two units of the time. The first unit is our usual second. The second unit is natural time unit. The nature has an own rhythm. In a natural rhythm all changes in the nature, in the world surrounding us, in the all Universe are happen. The Universe is the dynamic, material, physical object pulsing in the rhythm of the nature. The Universe is restricted at the size (in the space), at the mass and at the duration of the own evolution. The theme of this research is closely intertwined with two other themes. One of them is the theme of fundamental physical constants, and in particular the Planck’s quantities, such as the Planck’s mass, the Planck’s length, the Planck’s time. Other theme is a theme of evolutionary development of the Universe. The author adheres to a materialistic view at the nature and the Universe. It means that the basic substances of the nature are the material substances the matter, space and time. There is their indissoluble communication in the nature, first of all on the Planck’s gauge. From the point of view of physics these substances prove in the form of mass, the elemental charge, extent or length, duration or time (frequency) and submit to physical laws. These are independent substances of the nature and these are independent physical quantities. The nature on the Planck’s gauge is discrete. It means that the nature operates with certain discrete quantities of these physical quantities during the discrete moments of the time or the age of the Universe. The Universe has the beginning and has the finish (extremity), therefore time measured by age of the Universe is terrain clearance. The age of the Universe sets a Newtonian absolute time. The shape of an enunciating of article: theses and short explanations to them./В настоящей статье “Время и ритм природы (тезисы)” представлены результаты авторского исследования по вопросам времени и ритма природы и Вселенной. Все процессы в природе происходят в ритме природы. Этот ритм синхронизирует все процессы в природе со временем природы. У природы есть своя собственная единица времени. Постоянная тонкой структуры является коэффициентом, связывающим секунду, единицу нашего обычного времени с естественной, природной единицей времени. У природы есть свой собственный ритм. В природном ритме совершаются все изменения в окружающем нас мире, во Вселенной. Сама Вселенная является динамическим, пульсирующим в ритме природы физическим объектом, ограниченным, как по размеру, протяженности (в пространстве), так и по массе и по времени, длительности своей эволюции. Тема этого исследования тесно переплетается с двумя другими темами. Одна из них, это тема фундаментальных физических констант, планковских констант. Другая тема, это тема эволюционного развития Вселенной. Автор придерживается материалистического взгляда на природу и Вселенную. Это означает, что основными сущностями природы являются материальные субстанции материя, пространство и время. Существует их неразрывная связь в природе, в том числе и на планковском масштабе. С точки зрения физики эти субстанции проявляют себя в форме массы, элементарного заряда, протяженности или длины, длительности или времени (частоты) и подчиняются физическим законам. Это независимые сущности природы и это независимые физические величины. Природа на планковском масштабе дискретна. Это (дискретность) проявляется в том, что природа оперирует определенными дискретными количествами этих физических величин в дискретные моменты времени, возраста Вселенной. Возраст Вселенной задает абсолютное время. Форма изложения статьи: тезисы и краткие пояснения к ним.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[64] **viXra:1509.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 22:24:56*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. June-December, 2013

The present article “Time and a rhythm of the nature (Secret of a fine structure constant)” are presenting results of author's research on matter of a time and a rhythm of the nature and the Universe. All processes in the nature and in the Universe occur in the rhythm of the nature. This rhythm synchronizes all processes in the nature with the nature time. The nature has an own time unit. The fine structure constant is the coefficient linking two units of the time. The first unit is our usual second. The second unit is natural time unit. The nature has an own rhythm. In a natural rhythm all changes in the nature, in the world surrounding us, in the all Universe are happen. The Universe is the dynamic, material, physical object pulsing in the rhythm of the nature. The Universe is restricted at the size (in the space), at the mass and at the duration of the own evolution. The theme of this research is closely intertwined with two other themes. One of them is the theme of fundamental physical constants, and in particular the Planck’s quantities, such as the Planck’s mass, the Planck’s length, the Planck’s time. Other theme is a theme of evolutionary development of the Universe. The author adheres to a materialistic view at the nature and the Universe. It means that the basic substances of the nature are the material substances the matter, space and time. There is their indissoluble communication in the nature, first of all on the Planck’s gauge. From the point of view of physics these substances prove in the form of mass, the elemental charge, extent or length, duration or time (frequency) and submit to physical laws. These are independent substances of the nature and these are independent physical quantities. The nature on the Planck’s gauge is discrete. It means that the nature operates with certain discrete quantities of these physical quantities during the discrete moments of the time or the age of the Universe. The Universe has the beginning and has the finish (extremity), therefore time measured by age of the Universe is terrain clearance. The age of the Universe sets a Newtonian absolute time. The shape of an enunciating of article: theses and short explanations to them.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[63] **viXra:1509.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 13:35:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

An intriguing signal from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) might prove to be the crack that prises apart the standard model — physicists’ current best description of how matter and forces interact. [10]
Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[62] **viXra:1509.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 10:30:29*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Диэлектрическая и магнитная проницаемость материальных сред являются фундаментальными параметрами, которые входят в уравнения Максвелла. Однако существует ещё один не менее важный материальный параметр, а именно кинетическая индуктивность зарядов, который имеет не менее важную роль, чем указанные параметры. К сожалению, важность и фундаментальность этого параметра в работах по электродинамике до сих пор не отмечена, и кинетическая индуктивность присутствует во всех уравнениях электродинамики в неявном виде. Данная работа посвящена рассмотрению роли кинетической индуктивности зарядов в электродинамике материальных сред и восстановлению её прав как фундаментального параметра, по важности не менее значимого, чем диэлектрическая и магнитная проницаемость.
Ключевые слова: электродинамика, уравнения Максвелла, кинетическая индуктивность зарядов, диэлектрическая проницаемость, магнитная проницаемость, плотность тока.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[61] **viXra:1509.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 10:36:37*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

В современной радиотехнике вопросы распространения электрических потенциалов и токов в длинных линиях решается при помощи телеграфных уравнений, в которых используются вторые производные указанных параметров. Однако существуют такие случаи, когда такие производные отсутствуют. Это случай, когда к линии подключен источник постоянного напряжения, или когда это напряжение меняется по линейному закону. В работе представлен новый способ получения волнового уравнений, который решает указанные проблемы. Он заключается в использовании понятия параметрической реактивной самоиндукции. Приведено также физическое обоснование принципа Гюйгенса, который ранее вводился как постулат.
Ключевые слова: Законы самоиндукции, волновое уравнение, реактивная самоиндукция, волновое сопротивление, принцип Гюйгенса.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[60] **viXra:1509.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 10:41:07*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

В 1962 году при осуществлении термоядерных взрывов в космосе было обнаружено ранее неизвестное физическое явление, которое заключалось в том, что вблизи поверхности земли такие взрывы вызывают электрический импульс очень большой амплитуды и очень малой длительности. До настоящего времени нет ответа на вопрос, какие физические механизмы несут ответственность за появление такого импульса. В настоящей статье объяснение указанного явления проводится на основе концепции скалярно-векторного потенциала, который предполагает зависимость скалярного потенциала заряда от скорости.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[59] **viXra:1509.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 10:41:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A small, Santa Fe, New Mexico-based company called Knowm claims it will soon begin commercializing a state-of-the-art technique for building computing chips that learn. Other companies, including HP HPQ -3.45% and IBM IBM -2.10% , have already invested in developing these so-called brain-based chips, but Knowm says it has just achieved a major technological breakthrough that it should be able to push into production hopefully within a few years. [12]
A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[58] **viXra:1509.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 10:49:09*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

При введении постоянных токов в сверхпроводящие обмотки наблюдается их электризация, которая заключается в том, что на этих обмотках возникает статический потенциал. Этот потенциал можно измерить как при гальваническом подключении электрометра к обмоткам, так и при подключении электрометра к металлическим экранам, окружающим такие обмотки. Тот же эффект наблюдается и при введении тока в сверхпроводящие торы. Ни одна из существующих теорий, в том числе и теория относительности, такое поведение обмоток и торов объяснить не может. В работе показано, что это явление находит объяснение в рамках концепции скалярно-векторного потенциала, который предполагает зависимость скалярного потенциала заряда от его скорости.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[57] **viXra:1509.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 06:42:55*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 2 Pages. in Russian

В статье представлена материалистическая модель Вселенной (YRA-модель) и приведена формула возраста Вселенной.
In article the materialistic model of the Universe (YRA-model) is presented and the formula of age of the Universe is resulted.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[56] **viXra:1509.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 06:46:18*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In article the materialistic model of the Universe (YRA-model) is presented and the formula of age of the Universe is resulted./В статье представлена материалистическая модель Вселенной (YRA-модель) и приведена формула возраста Вселенной.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[55] **viXra:1509.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 07:18:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[54] **viXra:1509.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-21 06:00:51*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper shows that the purpose of physical theories by theoretical physicists produced in the 20th century (special and general relativity, quantum mechanics, force fields theories using force mediating particles, the standard model of quark theory, the Big Bang and the Higgs boson theories) is to conceal the existence of physical fields as a real material media.
Force action of these media is replaced in these theories by the mathematics of kinematical quantities. In fact, these kinematical quantities describe the physical material world, which works on the principle of balance and changes of pressure of the densities of the material body and of material force fields surrounding these bodies. Under the supervision of power structures and the mass information media these physically deformed theories are an untouchable truth of the order of the universe, as was the case in the past, in the case of Ptolemy’s geocentric mathematical description of the universe, an untouchable truth for 1500 years.
Special relativity has removed from the physics of the ether as a real physical media discovered by many generations of physicists at hundred year intervals exploring the phenomena of electricity and magnetism throughout the 19th century. General relativity eliminated the ether from physics as a real physical media of the gravitational field discovered by many generations of physicists around Newton. Big Bang theory removed the media from the Intergalactic Space (ether, dark energy) about which the Hubble (until the end of his life) assumed that it may be the main cause of the observed red shift in the spectra of galaxies. Quantum mechanics and the theory of Higgs boson removes the ether from physics, in quantum physics known initial medium at creation and annihilation of matter particles from and into the electromagnetic waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[53] **viXra:1509.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 04:24:45*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

Всем хорошо известно такое явление как радуга. Любому специалисту по электродинамике ясно, что возникновение радуги связано с зависимостью от частоты фазовой скорости электромагнитных волн, проходящих через капли дождя. Поскольку вода является диэлектриком, то при объяснении этого явления Дж. Хевисайд и Р. Вул предположили, что такая дисперсия связана с частотной дисперсией (зависимостью от частоты) диэлектрической проницаемости воды. С тех пор эта точка зрения является господствующей. Однако такой подход является физической и методологической ошибкой, что и показано в данной статье. Такая ошибка произошла по причине того, что при записи тока в материальных средах были перепутаны интеграл и производная гармонической функции, которые имеют одинаковый вид и отличаются только знаками.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[52] **viXra:1509.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 04:29:33*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

В статье рассмотрены проблемы, связанные с определением таких понятий, как пространство, материя, время. Вводится понятие точки единого места, которая является единственной в пространстве. Вводится понятие кластеризации пространства, представляющее пространство в виде кластеров с заданными размерами. Показано, что время не является первичной величиной, которыми являются длина, масса и сила, а зависит от указанных параметров. Вводится новая система единиц, в которой время выражено через массу и длину. Вводится понятие глобальной системы отсчёта и глобального времени. Приведены преобразования электромагнитных полей при переходе из глобальной системы отсчёта в инерциальную систему.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[51] **viXra:1509.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 04:34:06*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

В настоящее время уравнения Власова являются основными уравнениями электродинамики плазмы, в которых электромагнитные поля самосогласованы с полями зарядов, представляющих плазму. В эти уравнения входит сила Лоренца, которая в концепции скалярно-векторного потенциала может быть выражена через свойства заряженных частиц, окружающих точку наблюдения. Такой подход, реализованный в данной статье, в полной мере реализует идею дальнодействия кулоновских полей, которая является основой уравнений Власова.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[50] **viXra:1509.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 04:38:09*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Одним из методов решения задач механики является лагранжев фомализм. Под функцией Лагранжа или лагранжианом в механике понимают разность между кинетической и потенциальной энергией рассматриваемой системы. Если проинтегрировать лагранжиан по времени, то получим первую главную функцию Гамильтона, называемую действием. В общем случае кинетическая энергия системы зависит от скорости, а потенциальная энергия зависит от координат. При условии консерватизма системы лагранжев формализм предполагает принцип наименьшего действия, когда система при своём движении выбирает путь, при котором действие является минимальным. Однако запись лагранжиана, принятая в электродинамике не в полной мере удовлетворяет условию консерватизма системы. Векторный потенциал, в котором движется заряд, создают сторонние движущиеся заряды, и движущийся заряд взаимодействует не с полем векторного потенциала, а с движущимися зарядами, влияя на их движение. Но существующие модели это обстоятельство не учитывает, т.к. векторный потенциал выступает самостоятельной субстанцией, с которой и взаимодействует движущийся заряд. Более того, в обобщённый импульс движущегося заряда вводится скалярное произведение его скорости и векторного потенциала, в котором заряд движется. Но этот член представляет не кинетическую, а потенциальную энергию, что противоречит определению импульса в механике. С этими обстоятельствами и связаны те ошибки, которые имеют место в трудах по электродинамике. В работе показано, что использование концепции скалярно-векторного потенциала для вычисления лагранжиана движущегося заряда даёт возможность исключить ошибки, имеющиеся в современной электродинамике.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[49] **viXra:1509.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-05 19:54:57*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this paper I propose a quantization of gravity which leads to photon mediates gravitation. My quantization of GR depends on the modified special relativity MSRT which introduces a new interpretation to the Lorentz transformation equations depending on quantum theory (Copenhagen school) [25, 26, 27, 43, 47]. In my new transformation I propose there is no space-time continuum as in SRT, it is only time and space is invariant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:1509.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 02:22:06*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

Бытует мнение, что основной заслугой Максвелла в электродинамике является введения понятия тока смещения и вихревых полей, что дало возможность записать волновые уравнения для электромагнитных волн. Следует отметить, что в трактате вводится не только ток смещения и вихревые поля, но и векторный потенциал магнитного поля, что является не менее важной заслугой, чем введение указанных понятий. Во времена Максвелла не было того аппарата векторного исчисления, которым пользуются сегодня, и свои уравнения он записывал в кватернионной форме, используя для записи уравнений индукции субстанциональную (полную) производную. Использование этой производной требует учёта не только локальных частных производных по времени, но и её конвективной составляющей, которая связана с движением системы отсчёта, в которой определяются поля. Именно эту составляющую и опустили Герц и Хевисайд, записав уравнения электродинамики в частных производных. В таком искаженном виде эти уравнения и дошли до нас, и их принято считать уравнениями Максвелла, хотя это и не так. И если бы они этого не сделали, то развитие электродинамики могло пойти по другому пути. Основным уравнением индукции, на который опирается Максвелл в своём трактате, является закон индукции Фарадея, который вводит понятие магнитного потока. Этот закон записывается в полных производных и указывает на то, каким образом изменение магнитного поля приводит к возникновению электрических полей в неподвижной и движущейся системе отсчёта. Но до Максвелла и в его время отсутствовал закон симметричный закону индукции Фарадея, который указывал на то, каким образом изменение электрических полей приводит к появлению магнитных полей. Такой закон в то время установить не представлялось возможным по причине малой чувствительности измерительных приборов. Поэтому в трактате Максвелла решена только половина вопросов, касающихся законов индукции. Более того, поскольку Максвеллом не были записаны оба симметричных закона, он не смог установить те следствия, которые из такой симметрии следуют. Оказалось, что дальнейшее развитие идей Максвелла об использовании при записи законов индукции субстанциональной производной приводит к новому результату, который заключаются в том, что скалярный потенциал заряда зависит от его скорости. Учёт такой зависимости даёт возможность ввести новое понятие скалярно-векторного потенциала. Более того, оказывалось, что зависимость скалярного потенциала от скорости является основой вех динамических законов электродинамики, которые связаны с движением зарядов. Данная статья обобщает результаты работ, посвящённые указанной тематике.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[47] **viXra:1509.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 02:30:30*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Уравнения индукции и уравнения Максвелла играют очень важную роль в электродинамике. Однако пока отсутствует полная система уравнений, которая способна решать весь спектр электродинамических задач в материальных средах. В статье показано, что уравнения индукции могут быть симметризированы путём использования субстанциональной производной. Это даёт возможность получить преобразования полей, в первом приближении совпадающие с преобразованиями Лоренца. Уравнения Максвелла тоже могут быть представлены в симметричной форме, однако для этого требуется введение нового понятия кинетической ёмкости. Это понятие описывает энергетические процессы, связанные с прецессионным движением магнитных моментов атомов в намагниченных средах. Вводятся понятия электрокинетических и магнитопотенциальных волы, которые описывают волновые процессы в немагнитных и намагниченных материальных средах. Показано, что уравнения электродинамики могут быть записаны множественным образом с использованием различных потенциалов и токов.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[46] **viXra:1509.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-23 00:47:19*

**Authors:** George Kirakosyan

**Comments:** 33 Pages. The article is published in IJAA, 2016, 6, 23-55

An attempt to epistemological completion of formal-math theories of relativity is presented. Causal
interpretations of SR and GR are suggested. The problem to physical gist of gravity is explained
as a contradiction of cognition vs. intuition. Gravity phenomena are represented as unexplored
peculiarity of basic particles. The gravity constant is deduced from the known parameters of the
electron.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1509.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-18 18:00:29*

**Authors:** D. G. Taylor

**Comments:** Pages.

There are parallels between the time distortion equations of General and Special Relativity. The time distortion in Special Relativity limits the “Real” velocity of a particle to the speed of light |c| by slowing the velocity of bosons/energy and increasing the mass of fermion||lepton (or matter) particles. In General Relativity, the gravitational slowdown of bosons/gravitons limits the escape velocity | | to light speed. The equation |v_{Esc} = (2GM/r)^{.5}| can also be written as ||v_{Esc}^{2} = (2GM/r)|. So an alternate grammar for the equation could be:
Time’ = Time / (1 – 2GM/rc^{2})^{.5}
Time’ = Time / (1 – (2GM/r)*1/c^{2})^{.5}
Time’ = Time / (1 – (v_{Esc}^{2})*1/c^{2})^{.5}
Time’ = Time / (1 – v_{Esc}^{2}*1/c^{2})^{.5}
The above contests currently held properties of Schwarzschild Objects. Relativistic theory predicts the slowdown of gravitons/bosons, while their velocity only approaches zero. The different mathematical logic of Gravitational Force||GF|| GF = GMm / r^{2}would mean no limit on the force. Matter formed through compression of bosons can escape after formation by absorbing kinetic energy from the slowing photons/bosons in its surroundings. So matter formation can occur via a steady-state mechanism. The limit on v_{Esc}allows matter to escape in events that parallel both the Big Bang and Cyclic cosmology. Additional arguments are made as to the validity of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1509.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-18 19:00:21*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

My previous research involved representing energies (gravitational mass, inertial mass, and Planck’s constant) of different particle speeds as an equivalence for quantum (Mc = ΔmΔw = hf/c). In addition, E = Mc2 (kinetic energy is changed to mass) does not indicate that the total energy change is always proportional to particle speed. Therefore, “energy representation of a mathematical action,” and “energy change of a physical interaction” are not similar.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[43] **viXra:1509.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-08 05:28:48*

**Authors:** L. Martino, F. Louzada

**Comments:** 15 Pages. (to appear) Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation

The adaptive rejection sampling (ARS) algorithm is a universal
random generator for drawing samples eciently from a univariate
log-concave target probability density function (pdf). ARS generates independent samples from the target via rejection sampling with high acceptance rates. Indeed, ARS yields a sequence of proposal functions that converge toward the target pdf, so that the probability of accepting a sample approaches one. However, sampling from the proposal pdf becomes more computational demanding each time it is updated. In this work, we propose a novel ARS scheme, called Cheap Adaptive Rejection Sampling (CARS), where the computational effort for drawing from the proposal remains constant, decided in advance by the user. For generating a large number of desired samples, CARS is faster than ARS.

**Category:** Statistics

[42] **viXra:1509.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-04 04:53:39*

**Authors:** Subhayan Sahu

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This report contains a short review of the thermal WIMP model of Dark matter, followed by an improved numerical analysis that takes into account the evolution of effective degrees of freedom for Standard Model particles to solve the evolution equation. The result dictates that for low-mass WIMPs, the cross section required to match the current Dark Matter relic density is significantly different from the oft-quoted value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1509.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 17:47:17*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Solution of the Time’s Problem. Robert Yusupov Sep 4, 2015

In the present article the uniform, joint solution of the phenomena of the matter, the Universe, the Singularity and the time is given./В настоящей статье дается единая, совместная разгадка явлений материи, Вселенной, Сингулярности и времени.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[40] **viXra:1509.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-14 18:01:49*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A.Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The quantum gravitational formula for the mass of the electron suggests the existence of a super light particle yet to be observed. However, it is not clear whether this particle is an electrino, a new type of neutrino, a neutralino (a neutral particle that is neither a neutrino nor a darkino) or a darkino (a neutral particle “responsible” for the mysterious dark matter contents of the Universe).
The formula also suggests four possible values for the rest mass of this super light particle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[39] **viXra:1509.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 09:40:53*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Secret of the time and its solution, Robert Yusupov, Sep 4, 2015

In the present article the solution of phenomena of matter, the Universe, the Singularity and time is given./В настоящей статье дается разгадка феномена материи, Вселенной, Сингулярности и времени.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[38] **viXra:1509.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 09:47:00*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Secret of the time and its solution Robert Yusupov, Sep 4, 2015

In the present article the solution of the phenomena of a matter, the Universe, the Singularity and a time is given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[37] **viXra:1509.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 04:42:34*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents an unusual submarine fountain [1]. Its mathematical model is created and it is demonstrated that its shape may be attributed to the existence of gravitomagnetic forces (similar to Lorentz forces), significant in magnitude, and gravitomagnetic energy flow (similar to electromagnetic energy flow).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[36] **viXra:1509.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-29 16:40:09*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, a comparison is made between the standard cosmological model and a proposed model with spherical space and radial time and the field equation with the average density of the universe as another constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1509.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 22:59:29*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show the mathematical proof of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction to be an eect of the Doppler factor instead of the Lorentz factor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1509.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 01:46:35*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that we can derive the Lorentz transformation and the Doppler transformation directly from Galilean transformation by using the experiment fact of the constancy of the speed of light in the relative frames of references.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1509.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 02:45:10*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The author makes the assumption that essence, a unique substance of the nature is the matter. The atom of the matter (AM) is the universal, unique carrier of a concrete "pure" matter in the nature (within our Universe). The matter of the nature is reflected in the physics theory as key concept. Matter is entered and defined into a bosom of physics as the basic, unique physics quantity. The author also offers the model of a universe. In the present article it is investigated, as acceptance for a basis this model of a universe offered by the author, and introduction of concept and physics quantity of the matter into a bosom of physics, allow it is strictly axiomatic and logically consistently to construct the base of the new materialistic theory of physics and cosmology, to construct all building of physics.
Keywords: nature, matter, atom of the matter, fundamental particle, model of a universe, physics quantity, fine structure constant, elementary units of the nature, the Universe./Автором сделано предположение, что сущностью, уникальной субстанцией природы является материя. Определена крупица материи, как универсальный, уникальный носитель конкретной «чистой» материи в природе (в пределах нашей Вселенной). Материя природы отображается в теории физики как ключевое понятие. Материя вводится в лоно физики и определяется, как основная, уникальная физическая величина. Автором также предложена своя модель мироздания. В настоящей статье исследовано, как принятие за основу этой модели мироздания, предложенной автором, и введение понятия и физической величины материя в лоно физики, позволяют строго аксиоматически и логически непротиворечиво построить фундамент новой материалистической теории физики и космологии, построить все здание физики

**Category:** Classical Physics

[32] **viXra:1509.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-14 19:12:19*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 11 pages

A new structure is proposed for the organization of subatomic particles, based on a format familiar to science, the Periodic Table of Elements. When particles are organized into a periodic structure, similarities are found between subatomic particles and atomic elements. This paper introduces the new Periodic Table of Particles, which includes particles from the neutrino to the Higgs boson, and how to read and use the table.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[31] **viXra:1509.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 03:52:57*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Cordus nuclear theory, table showing proposed structures of the atomic nuclei for all nuclides from Hydrogen to Neon.
Online supplement to:
Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2013). Explanation of the Table of Nuclides: Qualitative nuclear mechanics from a NLHV design. Applied Physics Research, 5(6), 145-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p145

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[30] **viXra:1509.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-03 16:16:02*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: In this paper I will be arguing why I believe Dr. Earle’s point of view on preserving the Ocean as our top priority is completely absurd through reason and statistical facts. I believe her claims can be refuted when you look at the overwhelming statistics that state otherwise or look to the Deontological argument, of treating the Ocean as our top priority. I will also be pointing out what I believe to be better alternatives than Ocean preservation.

**Category:** Climate Research

[29] **viXra:1509.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 15:36:09*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Bijective epistemology requires that each element in the scientific model correspond exactly one element in the physical world. Bijective epistemology is based on bijective function of set theory where each element in a given set model correspond exactly one element in a given set physical world. Higgs boson is an artificially made particle with extremely short life time and has no existence in physical world. Higgs mechanism is an element of set model which has no Higgs boson as an element in set physical world because Higgs boson does not exist in physical world. Higgs mechanism as an element of set model has its counterpart in set physical world in some other element which generates inertial and gravitational mass which are inseparable.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[28] **viXra:1509.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 11:33:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[27] **viXra:1509.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-18 18:20:32*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The mass in Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation has two possible interpretations, whether it is limited to the invariant mass, or it applies to all energy. This paper argues that all of the energy (kg m2 s−2) has a mass (kg: a degree of weight and inertial resistance). The inertial mass is a mass that was further scaled the gravitational mass to be increased with kinetic energy. The inertial mass of elementary particle in an atomic system also varies similarly by scaling. Thereby the scalable inertial masses of elementary particles constituting the atomic add the gravitation that cannot be ignored as compared with the Coulomb force. We call this effect “Inverse fourth power (1/r4) gravity” to distinguish it from universal gravitation of the universal gravitational constant. Using these mechanisms, we explain the proton radius puzzle and the statistical error found with the muon anomalous magnetic moment. This paper demonstrates a new way of integrating general relativity and quantum theory by separating the scalable inertial mass and the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] **viXra:1509.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-02 10:58:19*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A conjecture is proposed, stronger than many of the existing conjectures that are themselves stronger than Legendre's one

**Category:** Number Theory

[25] **viXra:1509.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 04:15:45*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

В настоящей статье исследуется вопрос о научности физики на основе принципов научности теории, сформулированных автором. Принципы научности, по мнению автора неразрывно связаны с природой, с признанием материи основой природы. Критерием научности теории следует считать адекватное отражение природы и ее основы материи в понятийном аппарате теории. Это же конечно предполагает, что есть модель природы, модель мироздания, где определена материя. Это должно быть конкретным представлением материи в природе в чистом виде. Автор предлагает гипотезу, согласно которой материя представляет собой элементарные шарообразные сгустки, крупицы материи, содержащие вполне определенное постоянное минимальное количество материи. Второй основной характеристикой крупицы материи является диаметр.
In the present article the question on scientific character of physics on the basis of principles of scientific character of the theory, formulated by the author is investigated. Scientific character principles, according to the author inseparably linked with the nature, with a recognition of a matter as a nature basis. It is necessary to consider as criterion of scientific character of the theory adequate reflection of the nature and its basis of a matter in the conceptual device of the theory. Same certainly assumes that there is a nature model, universe model where the matter is defined. It should be concrete representation of a matter in the nature in the pure state. The author offers a hypothesis according to which the matter represents elementary spherical clots, the particles of a matter containing quite certain constant minimum quantity of a matter. The second basic characteristic of a particle of a matter is diameter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[24] **viXra:1509.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 04:23:55*

**Authors:** Valeriy Nikolaevich Nikitin, Igore Valereevich Nikitin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Созданный нами независимый творческий коллектив «НИКИ» инициативным порядком занимается решением актуальных задач в фундаментальных отраслях науки и техники. Результаты наших исследований понятны и не требуют каких-то допущений, догадок и ограничений. В основе наших исследований лежит оригинальный и нетрадиционный подход к решению поставленной задачи.
На сегодняшний день нами создан внушительный научный задел. До настоящего момента времени результаты наших исследований не публиковались, не защищены и не рекламировались.
Для нас процесс исследований начинается с создания законченной теории (не гипотезы!) и поэтому все известные загадки природы и науки являются доказательствами (подтверждениями) и следствиями правильности наших идей. «ГЛУПЫЕ» ИДЕИ ИНОГДА СТАНОВЯТСЯ ВЕЛИКИМИ И НАОБОРОТ!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[23] **viXra:1509.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 04:25:24*

**Authors:** Valeriy Nikolaevich Nikitin, Igore Valereevich Nikitin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Созданный нами независимый творческий коллектив «НИКИ» инициативным порядком занимается решением актуальных задач в фундаментальных отраслях науки и техники. Результаты наших исследований понятны и не требуют каких-то допущений, догадок и ограничений. В основе наших исследований лежит оригинальный и нетрадиционный подход к решению поставленной задачи.
На сегодняшний день нами создан внушительный научный задел. До настоящего момента времени результаты наших исследований не публиковались, не защищены и не рекламировались.
Для нас процесс исследований начинается с создания законченной теории (не гипотезы!) и поэтому все известные загадки природы и науки являются доказательствами (подтверждениями) и следствиями правильности наших идей. «ГЛУПЫЕ» ИДЕИ ИНОГДА СТАНОВЯТСЯ ВЕЛИКИМИ И НАОБОРОТ!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22] **viXra:1509.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 09:37:14*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article begins by defining two sets of related constants: The first set is used to define a nonstandard cubic equation. The second set is used to define equations that constrain a pair of rotation matrices. Curiously, these sets each contain an angle, each defined much like the other, where these angles separately play a central role in identifying solutions to their respective, very different equations. In this way these similarly-defined angles provide good evidence of a non-coincidental relationship between the nonstandard cubic equation and the pair of matrices. Moreover, a special case of this nonstandard cubic neatly combines with these matrices to produce values that map over to multiple physical constants
(the fine structure constant reciprocal, the Weinberg angle, and the quark and lepton mixing angles), providing further evidence of a non-coincidental relationship.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[21] **viXra:1509.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:15:51*

**Authors:** Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 1 Page. Yellow orange galaxies may be the most common

Yellow orange galaxies may be the most common 1-4 billion years from Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20] **viXra:1509.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:52:05*

**Authors:** Suleyman Senyurt

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we found the Darboux vector of the spatial quaternionic curve according to the Frenet frame. Then, the curvature and torsion of
the spatial quaternionic smarandache curve formed by the unit Darboux vector with the normal vector was calculated. Finally; these values are
expressed depending upon the spatial quaternionic curve.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[19] **viXra:1509.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:54:22*

**Authors:** Samaneh Ghandali, Bijan Alizadeh, Masahiro Fujita, Zainalabedin Navabi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper describe a system-level approach to improve the area and delay of datapath designs that perform polynomial computations over Z2m, which are used in many applications such as computer graphics and digital signal processing domains.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[18] **viXra:1509.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:55:38*

**Authors:** Shahrezad Jasim Mohammed

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we define the concepts of a Q-Smarandache n-fold strong ideal and a Q-Smarandache fuzzy (strong, n-fold strong) ideal of a BH- algebra .Also, we study some properties of these fuzzy ideals.

**Category:** Algebra

[17] **viXra:1509.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:57:09*

**Authors:** Chang-Wei Hu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The physical phenomena what modern physics describes seem all very peculiar, which results from the quantitative effects deviating from the absolute space-time theory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[16] **viXra:1509.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:59:04*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

As a powerful technique for holding relations in things, combinatorics has experienced rapidly development in the past century, particularly,
enumeration of configurations, combinatorial design and graph theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[15] **viXra:1509.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:01:00*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to extend Banach spaces on topological graphs with operator actions and show all of these extensions are also Banach space with a bijection with a bijection between linear continuous functionals and elements, which enables one to solve linear functional equations in such extended space, particularly, solve algebraic, differential or integral equations on a topological graph, find multi-space solutions on equations, for instance, the Einstein’s gravitational equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[14] **viXra:1509.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:02:09*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to extend Banach spaces on topological graphs with operator actions and show all of these extensions are also Banach space with a bijection with a bijection between linear continuous functionals and elements, which enables one to solve linear functional equations in such extended space, particularly, solve algebraic, differential or integral equations on a topological graph, find multi-space solutions on equations, for instance, the Einstein’s gravitational equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[13] **viXra:1509.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:02:57*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A natural behavior is used to characterize by differential equation established on human
observations, which is assumed to be on one particle or one field complied with reproducibility.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12] **viXra:1509.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-21 08:51:16*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Let us consider here the question relative to gravitational field of second type, to elliptical orbits and to precessional motions that happen in this type of gravitational filed. Here the cause of precessional phenomena is identified with conic motions of axes of rotation of Sun and of planets, that are not perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic but they have an angle of inclination. These inclinations are due to reciprocal interactions of central star and of orbital planets. The paper reaches the necessity to define a new law that in the event of the Sun system is the fourth law that has to be added to Kepler's three well-known laws.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1509.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:06:34*

**Authors:** Oliver Kullmann, Xishun Zhao

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We establish a new bridge between propositional logic and elementary number theory. A full clause contains all variables, and we study them in minimally unsatisfiable clause-sets (MU); such clauses are strong structural anchors, when combined with other restrictions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[10] **viXra:1509.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:08:26*

**Authors:** M.A.Gopalan, S. Vidhyalakshmi, N.Thiruniraiselvi, R.Presenna

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Number is the essence of mathematical calculation. Varieties of numbers have variety of range and
richness, many of which can be explained very easily but extremely difficult to prove.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[9] **viXra:1509.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:09:54*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, Hirudayaraj

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

New notions are introduced in algebra to study more about the congruence in number theory by Florentin smarandache.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[8] **viXra:1509.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:10:56*

**Authors:** K. Jayshree, P. Gajivaradhan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper non abstract finite semigroups which satisfy classical Lagrange’s Theorem is analysed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[7] **viXra:1509.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:12:50*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, B.fairosekani

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we introduced Samarandache-2-algebraic structure of Soft Neutrosophic-Near ring namely Smarandache-Soft Neutrosophic-Near ring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[6] **viXra:1509.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:14:04*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, the notions of smarandache soft semigroups (SS-semigroups) introduced for the
first time. An SS-semigroup (F, A) is basically a parameterized collection of subsemigroups which has atlest a proper soft subgroup of (F, A) . Some new type of SS-semigroup is also presented here such as smarandache weak commutative semigroup, smarandache weak cyclic semigroup, smarandache hyper subsemigroup etc. Some of their related properties and other notions have been discussed with sufficient amount of examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[5] **viXra:1509.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:17:16*

**Authors:** K. Jayshree, P. Gajivaradhan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper group semirings using distributive lattices as semirings is studied. The condition on the distributive lattices as well as on the groups are given for the group semiring to have zero divisors, idempotents, S-zero divisors, S-anti zero divisors and S-idempotents. This is the first time such analysis has been carried out on these group
semirings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[4] **viXra:1509.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:18:27*

**Authors:** Victor VLĂDĂREANU

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

To be able to manipulate the outcomes of situations which represent contradictory problems, we need to have in place a representation, as well as a set of
tools and an environment model in which to do so. This section will briefly explain the theoretical basis of Extenics and describe the general model of thought in an Extenics problem. The three pillars of Extenics Theory are Basic Element, Extension Set and Extension Logic.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[3] **viXra:1509.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:19:58*

**Authors:** Stanislav I. Konstantinov

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The paper presents an unconventional view of physics within non-equilibrium systems, of irreversible, nonintegrable processes the matter birth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[2] **viXra:1509.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:22:09*

**Authors:** M. Clement Joe Anand, M. Lathamaheswari

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to find out the peak age of Men affected by cardiovascular disease in Chennai. For that we have collected the data and analyzed the same disease.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1] **viXra:1509.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-11 08:31:01*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spreadsheet error noticed; graphs containing the sun removed.

Atomic electron binding energies, nuclear binding energies and the gravitational binding energies of planetary bodies are all connected to Planck scale within a coherent model based on the geometry of a standard string theory background.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory