[447] **viXra:1510.0523 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-31 20:21:02*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 47 Pages. In Russian. Robert Yusupov © YRA-Hypotheses of a Constitution of the Nature

This variant of "Theory of the Nature" has been written almost 2 years ago. It reflects sights of the author during this period. It is the first fullest article of the author devoted to questions and problems of the theory of the nature. In the present article a considerable quantity of tables is presented. Article is represented without changes. Today not with all stated in the present article the author agrees. In the subsequent articles of the author positions of the author on a problem of the device of the nature and an author's sight at the nature, author's outlook have been specified and concretized. But in essence sights of the author at the nature remained invariable. Understanding of the ideas of this article is available to schoolchildren of the senior classes.
Этот вариант «Теории природы» был написан почти 2 года назад. Он отражает взгляды автора в тот период. Это первая наиболее полная статья автора, посвященная вопросам и проблемам теории природы. В настоящей статье представлено большое количество таблиц. Статья представляется без изменений. Сегодня не со всем изложенным в настоящей статье автор согласен. В последующих статьях автора были уточнены и конкретизированы позиции автора по проблеме устройства природы и авторского взгляда на природу, авторского миропонимания. Но по существу взгляды автора на природу остались неизменными. Понимание идей статьи доступно школьникам старших классов.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[446] **viXra:1510.0522 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-31 09:28:06*

**Authors:** V. A. Kotov, F. M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 15 Pages. with partial translation in French

Abstract. The saw-edged profile of the 22-year evolution of the general magnetic field of the Sun
(1968–2014) is attributed to a cosmic origin. The same conclusion is made about 11–12 years
periodicity seen in the blazar OJ 287. The Coherent Cosmology (Sanchez et al, 2011), with overall
quantization, which assumes the permanent Big Bang-Big Crunch oscillation (10104 Hz) hypothesis
and an existence of Grandcosmos with superspeed C >> c for a transfer of information (c is speed
of light), is drawn for an explanation. Dramatic relations confirm the diophantian Holic Principle
(Sanchez 1994).

**Category:** Astrophysics

[445] **viXra:1510.0520 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-31 15:26:37*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

It has been recently demonstrated, [3], that according to the principle of release of constraints, absence of shear stresses in the Euler equations must be compensated by additional degrees of freedom, and that led to a Reynolds-type enlarged Euler equations (EE equations) with a doublevalued velocity field that do not require any closures. In the first part of the paper, the theory is applied to turbulent mixing and illustrated by propagation of mixing zone triggered by a tangential jump of velocity. A comparison of the proposed solution with the Prandtl’s solution is performed and discussed. In the second part of the paper, a semi-viscous version of the Navier-Stokes equations is introduced. The model does not require any closures since the number of equations is equal to the number of unknowns. Special attention is paid to transition from laminar to turbulent state. The analytical solution for this transition demonstrates the turbulent mean velocity profile that deviates from the laminar one.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[444] **viXra:1510.0519 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-31 15:25:45*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We give a proof of Pierre de Fermat's Last Theorem using that Beal Conjecture is true (A. Ben Hadj Salem, viXra.org, 2015).

**Category:** Number Theory

[443] **viXra:1510.0518 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-31 05:22:07*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal for review. Your comments are welcome

The Boltzmann equation is often used to calculate relic density of non-baryonic dark matter. The main idea is that particles were in thermal equilibrium with the early universe. There are many solutions for Boltzmann equation in the form of software packages, such as MadDM. This paper discusses an exact computational solution of Riccati form of Boltzmann equation with Mathematica. While in literature there is already another presentation of Mathematica routine to compute relic density, to our best knowledge, this solution has never been presented elsewhere before.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[442] **viXra:1510.0517 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-31 05:23:47*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Russian. Robert Yusupov © Supervision of far areas of the Universe

Observing through a telescope the areas of the Universe removed from us, we look in the Universe past. We see these areas during that epoch when the Universe was younger than its modern age. According to the author’s «Theory of the nature» such fundamental physical quantities as the maximum speed in the nature (analogue of a velocity of light in vacuum), the gravitational quantity of the Universe (analogue of the Newtonian constant of gravitation) and Avogadro constant are decreasing with the age of the Universe (absolute universal time). In the present article results of calculation of these quantities are presented to various epoch of the Universe in the form of the table.
Наблюдая в телескоп удаленные от нас области Вселенной, мы заглядываем в прошлое Вселенной. Мы видим эти области в ту эпоху, когда Вселенная была моложе современного ее возраста. Согласно «Теории природы» автора такие фундаментальные физические величины, как максимальная скорость в природе (аналог скорости света в вакууме) и гравитационная величина Вселенной (аналог гравитационной постоянной Ньютона) являются убывающими с возрастом Вселенной (абсолютным вселенским временем) физическими величинами. В настоящей статье представлены в виде таблицы результаты расчета этих величин в различные эпохи Вселенной.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[441] **viXra:1510.0516 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-31 06:37:27*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Taking into account the energy in the beam of light between the source and the observer which increases with the expansion of the universe one can easily and conclusively prove that the total energy is conserved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[440] **viXra:1510.0514 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-31 02:09:22*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research investigation the author has laid out a novel scheme using which one can fulfill their noble wishes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[439] **viXra:1510.0511 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-30 14:32:31*

**Authors:** Roman Lukyanenko

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Corroboration or confirmation is a prominent philosophical debate of the 20th century. Many philosophers have been involved in this debate most notably the proponents of confirmation led by Hempel and its most powerful criticism by the falsificationists led by Popper. In both cases however the debates were primarily based on the arguments from logic. In this paper we review these debates and suggest that a different perspective on falsification versus confirmation can be taken by grounding arguments in cognitive psychology

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[438] **viXra:1510.0510 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-30 11:15:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[437] **viXra:1510.0509 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-18 21:00:17*

**Authors:** Mark R. Brenneman

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This enzyme is an example of moonlighting protein which is validated and replaced by alternative reference genes that link (in their nuclear forms) on the multifunctional properties of the enzyme GAPDH known as a key enzyme in glycolysis that contributes to a number of diverse cellular functions unrelated to glycolysis depending upon its subcellular location. GAPDH is a key enzyme in glycolysis the most commonly used expression is as a housekeeping gene.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[436] **viXra:1510.0508 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-27 04:44:10*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed how are unified the particle physics and mental world within the Einstein spacetime which is composed of the luminal neutrino-antineutrino pairs and neutrinos. The neutrino-antineutrino pairs in the Einstein spacetime can interact gravitationally only (it concerns the ground state of the Einstein spacetime and the dark energy) or can be entangled (they are the dark-matter structures; the mental solitons are the dark-matter structures as well). The dark matter structures can be entangled with ordinary matter. Due to the internal structure of neutrinos, the neutrino-antineutrino pairs cannot annihilate. Such model shows the difference between the simulating computers and mental computers. Mental computers need senses and must produce mental solitons via their nervous system, not via algorithms which are used in the simulating computers but, of course, we can use algorithms additionally (the hybrid computers). Creativeness is even not probabilistic so it cannot be simulated via algorithms i.e. cannot be controlled. Here as well we showed that linear structures composed of entangled neutrinos are the precursors of DNAs.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[435] **viXra:1510.0507 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-30 08:41:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

One of the oddest predictions of quantum theory – that a system can't change while you're watching it – has been confirmed in an experiment by Cornell physicists. Their work opens the door to a fundamentally new method to control and manipulate the quantum states of atoms and could lead to new kinds of sensors. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[434] **viXra:1510.0506 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-30 10:22:42*

**Authors:** Alex Patterson

**Comments:** 42 Pages. Special Thanks to Julian C. Boyd, December 25, 1931 – April 5, 2005

Abstract: In ideal circumstances, we know exactly what to do. But there are no ideal circumstances; but then we are confusing and conflating two things if you look: When we speak of ideal circumstances, we are philosophers and thinking of our version of a Platonic ideal, not our value ideals or our ideal values [a common mistake that does not justify nominalism – it is the nominalist’s backdoor malware into the reductive Platonism], such as freedom of speech, right bear arms, habeas corpus, each one of us has those which are most important to us, sometimes many at the same time. These are not however social value-propositions. They derive of natural law in the Constitution. However, certain Platonic ideal circumstances as to our individually important value ideals can be created in real life, to the degree that we are able to invent. That is why we have Critique. It takes notice of the differences and the possibilities offered by the differences, which would be less without noticing the differences. However, in in that sense where ideal circumstances can be created [actually, are present], we have created them in our everyday lives, they are our individual lives, exist within the network of constitutive grounds for law and institutions. In strict terms of modality, these value-propositions become axiomatic with the given system of our everyday lives that.
And so, with a leap of faith to living our everyday lives practically, theoretical matters, axiomatically classical matters, classical axiomatic matters, a serious mind would see that you that in the debates in physics over cosmology, we literally have geodesics flying out through time from centrifugal non-global hyperbolic Cauchy topology like Frisbees, each one of which you can play an infinite number of games on. You don’t need or have a CTC, so there is no causal blockade in the hyperbolic Cauchy topology of strong cause and effect. Modus ponens as explained above is the only mechanical mechanism is the mode for cause and effect that man has, and its antecedence-precedence minimalism yet strong presence is enough; and it is minimum. With modus ponens what it has been since remote antiquities, to say anything otherwise would be to ask help from God to unravel all of the physics up until today’s counterarguments in favor of a vt time-lapse based arithmetic time line with counterintuitive information transfer and strangely in relation to the later, if that goes badly, the need for constructivism’s interference in mathematics, resulting in the need to use MP to take the physics apart. The solution itself takes the piled data apart. We can’t read God’s mind. But Gödel left us this. Otherwise we need God’s help, and I have written the PRF.POSTV [proof-positive] against that possibility. All that we retain from that would be the nominalist’s eased conventional respect for Occam in expostulation and discussions of formal matters such as sets.
In this [theoretical] critique of theory, new terms and tools are introduced for the Gödel material and literature. It would be precisely named, “Critique of The Theory.” Not Gödel’s theory, if he had one, but ‘The Theory’ as an object. It’s revealing that no other concept can be spoken of in that way.
Picture trees in a forest, and rocks displaced by gravity and falling through forest, hitting one tree, then another, until they stop. Hubble shows to astronomers which super-structures are found, how big, and how far back in time. It is consistent with Mach’s principle if you rotate yourself before you look into the forest at 90 degrees and find a way of suspending yourself and turnig.
Asymptotes are used within vertical and horizontal graphs to justify a future that need not be seen as a future in the sense of grammatical future-tense [which is a dubious tense in “philosophical grammar”] but as a potential part in such systems themselves that we deal with with respect to incompleteness.
The thesis is that we can approach incompleteness by using [theoretical] reasoning and available tools that are allowed in theoretical reasoning and in reasoning as we think of it in reasoning through situations, and in the sense of pure reasoning itself; and, in order to critique the very meaning of incompleteness itself. As well, as the theoretical reasoning possible inside the tools themselves, should they have domains. We will not always a domain for ourselves. We will not always be here; we will die, and epochal turns in history amounting to new antiquities will occur.
One of the most famous axioms of this type was invented by Vico, an axiom he discovered by thinking things through and studying.
In the long course that rumor has run from the beginning of the world it has been the perennial source of all the exaggerated opinions which have hitherto been held concerning remote antiquities unknown to us, by virtue of that property of the human mind noted by Tacitus in his Life of Agricola, where he says that everything unknown is taken for something great (omne ignotum fro magnifico est). – Gianbattista Vico, La Scienze nouva, The New Science

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[433] **viXra:1510.0505 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-27 10:26:01*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

For the physical sciences, the concepts of randomness and determinism are investigated. Via the GGU-model, GID and mathematical analysis, it is shown that any apparent random or lawless physical behavior within our universe is actually one of the most powerful indications that our universe is designed by a higher-intelligence.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[432] **viXra:1510.0504 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-30 02:57:34*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The friction sound is considered to be involved in the von Karman vortex street. The
non-relativistic and relativistic Strouhal numbers are derived from von Karman's
vortex street. The relativistic result follows from the relativistic addition formula
for velocities. The friction tones generated by von Karman's vortex street form the
fith sound in the fliquid helium II. This sound was still not experimentally observed
in superfuid helium II and it means that this sound is here predicted as the crucial
step in the low temperature helium II physics of the low temperature laboratories.
The electron transport in graphene is supposed to be described by the
hydrodynamic form of the viscous liquid allowing the existence of the vortex street.
It is not excluded that the discovering of the vortex street in graphene can form one
of the crucial discoveries in the graphene physics. By analogy with helium II, we propose that photon is a quantum vortex, or, the
Onsager vortexon.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[431] **viXra:1510.0503 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 22:37:48*

**Authors:** Hui-Bin Qiu

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The 2nd version of viXra:1510.0446

We propose an instructive possibility to generalize the tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing ansatz,
such that leptonic CP violation and the fractal feature of the universe can naturally be incorporated
into the resultant scenario of fractal nearly tri-bimaximal flavor mixing. The consequences of this
new ansatze on the latest experimental data of neutrino oscillations are analyzed. Our theory is
perfectly matched with the current experimental data, and we are surprised and excited to find that
the existing neutrino oscillation experimental data is the first experimental evidence supporting one
kind of higher dimensional unified theory, such as M theory. An interesting approach to construct
lepton mass matrices in fractal universe under permutation symmetry is also discussed. Our theory
opens an unexpected window on the physics beyond the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[430] **viXra:1510.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-31 09:14:24*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: a discovery about the Wormhole or called Einstein–Rosen Bridge.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[429] **viXra:1510.0501 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 19:43:19*

**Authors:** Roman Sverdlov

**Comments:** 55 Pages. I am using THE RESULTS of this paper, without derivation, in arXiv:1309.3287. At the time of posting this other paper I tried to submit the oscillator paper to arXiv as well. It was put on hold and its still on hold, after 2 years. So I submit it to viXra

The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, we would like to write down algebraic expression for the wave function of general excited state of harmonic oscillator which doesn't include derivative signs (this is to be contrasted with typical physics textbook which only gets rid of derivative signs for first few excited states, while leaving derivatives in when it comes to Hermite polynomial for general n). Secondly, we would like to write similar expression for two dimensional case as well. In the process of tackling two dimensions, we will highlight the interplay between Cartesian and polar coordinates in 2D in the context of an oscillator. All of the above mentioned results have probably been derived by others but unfortunately they are not easily available. The purpose of this paper is to make it easier for both students and general public to look up said results and their derivations, should the need arise. We also attempt to illustrate different angles from which one could look at the problem and this way encourage students to think more deeply about the material.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[428] **viXra:1510.0500 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-09 11:50:29*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 666 Pages.

This is a set of 68 selected articles published by Dr. Fran De Aquino along 17 years; all of them developed starting from the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity (first article). Together they provide the theoretical foundations for the Technology of Control of the Gravitational Energy. The author is Professor Emeritus of Physics of Maranhao State University, UEMA, and Titular Researcher (R) of National Institute for Space Research, INPE.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[427] **viXra:1510.0499 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 11:55:19*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. rus (русский)

It is shown that the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics of Everett has in their justification the false logical construction.

Многомировая интепретации квантовой механики Эверетта – эвереттика или оксфордская интерпретация – имеет в своём обосновании ложное логическое построение. Объяснение противоречия опыту «расщепления наблюдателя» обосновывается на ошибочном сходстве с невозможностью почувствовать движение Земли, которое, тем не менее, доказывается теорией Коперника.

В самом деле, проведённая Эвереттом параллель состоит в сравнении двух принципиально различных ситуаций. В случае с ощущением движения Земли доказательством ложности ощущений и истинности движения Земли является реальное физическое наблюдение. Первоначально в большинстве случаев наблюдение было косвенным, но при этом подтверждалось строгими доказательными логическими рассуждениями. В дальнейшем такое движение наблюдалось самым непосредственным образом. То есть, отсутствие субъективных ощущений движения Земли получило строгое экспериментальное объяснение.

Совершенно иная ситуация складывается с «расщеплением наблюдателей». Никто из них, бесспорно, ни в одном эксперименте субъективно не ощущает своего расщепления на разные ветви альтерверса. Но в данном случае, в отличие от экспериментального наблюдения вращения Земли, не существует и принципиально не может существовать эксперимента, способного показать такое расщепление! Здесь неуместна даже формулировка «во всяком случае, в настоящий момент таких экспериментов не проводилось». Такие эксперименты неосуществимы в принципе.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[426] **viXra:1510.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 13:14:52*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 27 pages. Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 92, No. 10, P. 1074 – 1081 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjp-2013-068.

In the weak-field approximation of the covariant theory of gravitation the 4/3 problem is formulated for internal and external gravitational fields of a body in the form of a uniform ball. The dependence of the energy and the mass of the moving body on the energy of the field accompanying the body, as well as the dependence on the characteristic size of the body are described. Additions in the energy and the momentum of the system, defined by the energy and momentum of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields, associated with the body, are explicitly calculated. The conclusion is made that the energy and the mass of the system can be described through the energy of ordinary and strong gravitation and through the energies of electromagnetic fields of particles that compose the body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[425] **viXra:1510.0497 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 13:27:55*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 31 pages. Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 93, no. 11, P. 1335-1342 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjp-2015-0134.

The difference of equations of motion in the covariant theory of gravitation and in the general theory of relativity is used to explain the Pioneer anomaly. Calculation shows that the velocities of a spacecraft in both theories at equal distances can differ by several centimetres per second. This leads also to a possible explanation of the flyby anomaly and comet disturbances which are not taken into account by the general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[424] **viXra:1510.0496 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 07:59:49*

**Authors:** C. M. Bunăiaşu, E. R. Opran, D. V. Voinea

**Comments:** 366 Pages.

CLAUDIU MARIAN BUN
Ă
IA
Ș
U
ELENA RODICA OPRAN
DAN VALERIU VOINEA
(EDITORS)
CREATIVITY IN
SOCIAL SCIENCES
[The Proceedings of
CIL 2015: Second Edition
of
International
Conference of Humanities and Social Sciences - Creativity,
Imaginary, Language
, Craiova, Romania, 15-16 May 2015
(www.cilconference.ro)]

**Category:** Social Science

[423] **viXra:1510.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 18:09:26*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Needs a home to be based in

We will be looking at the energy of a graviton, based upon the Stress energy tensor, and from there ascertaining how fluctuations in early universe conditions impact the mass of a graviton. Physically the mass of the graviton would be shrinking right after Planck time and presumably it would be going to its equilibrium value of about 10^-62 grams, for its present day value. It, graviton mass, would increase up to the Plank time of about 10^-44 seconds.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[422] **viXra:1510.0494 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:16:06*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The present work purports to the generation of a signal based chaos based on Ramanujan’s Mock Theta Functions. Specifically, the variable in these functions is viewed as an additively coupled sum of sinusoidal signals, with competing frequencies. Thus, by adapting the seven third order mock theta functions into signals, the derivatives are computed and used to form the corresponding iterative maps, which are studied using phase portraits. It is seen that the phase portraits of three of the seven forms exhibit rich, ornamental patterns, characteristic of chaos. Using these, the bifurcation diagrams are plotted, and the chaotic behavior is quantitatively characterized using Lyapunov Exponent and Kolmogorov Entropy. It is seen that the nature of chaos in the mock theta form based signals indeed depend on the frequency ratio of the driving signals, thus pertaining to a case of signal based chaos, which has the key advantage of easy tunability, which forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[421] **viXra:1510.0493 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:17:19*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Ramanujan’s Ternary Quadratic Form represents a series of numbers that satisfy a tripartite quadratic relation. In the present work, we examine the sequence of numbers generated by such forms and other related forms obtained by varying the coefficients and exponents to other values. Chaotic characterization using standard techniques such as Lyapunov Exponents, Kolmogorov Entropy, Fractal Dimensions, Phase Portraits and Distance plots is performed. It is seen that the Ramanujans Form as well as the related forms, when expressed as time series exhibit chaotic ehaviour. Finally, we conclude by stating that the form to series mapping outlined in the present work enables the generation of chaotic signals without the need for excessive system complexity and memory, and we note that such chaotic signals can be used as the basis for carriers in secure communication systems.

**Category:** Number Theory

[420] **viXra:1510.0492 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:18:43*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The present work pertains to the formulation and generation of signal based frequency controlled chaos based on Einstein Functions. Specifically, the variable in the four Einstein functions is taken as an additively coupled sum of sinusoids with competing frequencies. By adapting the four Einstein functions into signals, the time derivatives are computed and used to form the iterative maps and phase portraits. It is seen that the four phase portraits display to varying degrees, ornamental patterns, characteristic of quasiperiodicity and chaos. Using these, bifurcation diagrams are plotted, and the chaotic signal is quantitatively characterized using largest Lyapunov Exponents. It is seen that the nature of chaos in the generated signals depend on the frequency ratio of the driving signals, thus pertaining to a case of signal based chaos, which has the key advantage of easy tunability, forming the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[419] **viXra:1510.0491 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:19:51*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper discusses the origins, arithmetic operations and conversion operations involving a non-zero ternary number system, comprising of the numbers 1, 8 and 9. This number system, christened the “OEN number system”, presents itself as a strong contender for coding and encrypting applications due to the absence of zero, which makes it impossible to use conventional coding/ encrypting algorithms, thus providing a higher degree of security.

**Category:** Number Theory

[418] **viXra:1510.0489 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:23:19*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A robust high-fidelity technique to hide data in images using chaos is proposed and implemented. By efficiently harnessing the nonlinearity of a semiconductor device such as a MOSFET, a chaotic carrier signal is generated using extremely simple circuitry. This chaotic carrier forms the secure key of the proposed embedding system. The generated chaotic signal is validated using standard metrics such as Lyapunov Exponent, Fractal dimension and Kolmogorov Entropy. The generated carrier is then modulated with three message signals and are embedded into the three colors of the carrier image using a scaling factor. The exact frequencies and amplitudes used to generate the chaotic carrier are used in the receiver end to regenerate the carrier, using which the message is decoded from the embedded image. Standard measures such as Mean Square Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio are used to characterise the fidelity of the embedding process. The observed large PSNR values corresponding with high sensitivity as observed in the Lyapunov exponent of the chaotic carrier indicate the achievement of the golden advantages of Sensitivity, Fidelity and Simplicity which form the highlights of the present work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[417] **viXra:1510.0488 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:23:54*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Data hiding techniques are growing stronger day by day, and with even stronger detection techniques, a powerful way of hiding and retrieving data is the need of the hour. In this paper, we first discuss basic steganographic techniques in general and spread spectrum steganography in particular. Then we propose a steganographic method which hides data efficiently using Spread Spectrum techniques and also introduces Verification codes to check the integrity of the message at the receiver side. Finally, we look at the advantages of this system over others.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[416] **viXra:1510.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:24:58*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A Chaos based embedding process for textual data offering high capacity and high security simultaneously is designed and implemented. A chaotic image, obtained using a frequency dependant driven chaotic system is used as the data carrier in which textual data is embedded. The decryption and subsequent performance analyses reveal a high fidelity with a mean square error of around 0.0009 percent and a compression ratio increasing nonlinearly with text size, with ratio values more than 150:1 obtained for significantly large texts. Moreover, a very high level of security leading to up to 60 percent of mean square error values even for 1 percent misalignment in the decryption process is observed. The extreme simplicity of implementation coupled with the twin advantages of high compression ratios and high security forms the highlight of the present work.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[415] **viXra:1510.0486 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:26:16*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The non-degradable wastes such as plastic are a big threat for the environment. Hence an embedded system for Automation in splitting up, disposal and recycling of wastes is the best solution. The entire process is done with Artificial intelligence. The A.I. is provided with the help of Fuzzy logic. In this paper, all the common wastes such as Ferrous & its compounds, Paper, Plastic, Polythene, E-wastes, Bio-degradable wastes, etc. are considered. The input wave is given for detecting the type of wastes. By using the IF …THEN… ELSE condition it is processed. The image processing has been implemented to check the material. This paper provides the entire design of the embedded system, the entire logic for the automation with the required IF…THEN….ELSE... codes. The automation used in this paper eliminates a significant amount of entire manual work.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[414] **viXra:1510.0485 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:27:13*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The nonlinear analysis techniques have accelerated and enhanced man’s understanding of underlying system dynamics, evolution and patterns. The present work pertains to the unprecedented exploration of nonlinear analysis in two geography-oriented disciplines – cartography and vexillology. Specifically, the tools of fractal dimension and entropy are used to characterize the outline of around 200 countries, following which entropy for the red, green and blue color distributions of the corresponding flags are computed. Key inferences are listed, one of which is the remarkable correlation observed in all cases between the three entropies. Finally, it is hoped that the analysis techniques discussed and explored in the present work forms a preliminary step in applying the time tested successful techniques of nonlinear analysis to geography oriented disciplines.

**Category:** Social Science

[413] **viXra:1510.0484 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:28:50*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The pre-history of ancient India seems to be shrouded in mystery. Today, a secular country and the home of some of the most important religions, little can be said with concrete evidence about its past, especially before the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC).
This has thus become a hot topic of debate and controversy among archaeologists and historians alike, and with the uncovering of artifacts and evidences from Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics and Mythology alike, a lot of light is being shed on this mystery, and what seems to emerge are some shocking facts about this land.
This work tries in the first place to consolidate such data collected by various fields, and also by experiments and inferences made by the author. It also takes into account various theories proposed till date, and with all this information, tries to consolidate and come up with one single theory/hypothesis that details the evolution and cultural and linguistic development of India and the effects it had on the rest of the world.
Much focus is placed on the linguistic aspects at the initial stage and going forward,Genographic studies, Archaeology and mythology are also explored. As many linguists have pointed out, the earliest languages in India seem to be two, and these two are the early versions of Sanskrit and Tamil. The various inferences and the contributions made by the author together are summed up in a Core Hypothesis.

**Category:** Social Science

[412] **viXra:1510.0483 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:30:09*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A paradigm shift towards Eastern Spirituality and Philosophy in aspects of science, management, arts and medicine is more than evident. Taking cue from this, the present article looks at various key components of SandhyaVandanam from the perspective of the “modern eye”, by understanding the meaning and significance of each term used, both on lexical and deeper philosophical levels, aided by the concepts of the 51 Aksharas. From the explorations, the observation of the universality and magnificence of the practice along with its relevance even in the present day is easily observed.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[411] **viXra:1510.0482 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:31:46*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The generation of Chaos in Electronics has largely been implemented using the Chua circuits, where the initial conditions are described by system parameters such as resistors and capacitors. The present work provides a radical shift in approach by proposing signal based chaos generators. The essential design here is the coupling of two sinusoidal signal sources to a CMOS inverter circuit, which is seen to exhibit nonlinear behavior thanks to its transfer characteristics and non-quasi static behavior. The Standard Circle Map, ideally suited to describing nonlinear coupling of oscillations with competing frequencies is studied and a ‘frequency map’ is derived from it. The latter is studied using bifurcation and cobweb plots. A second perspective, the amplitude map is created by forming a difference equation using the CMOS inverter transfer function. This map is explored using the bifurcation plots and phase portraits. Finally, the proposed design is implemented experimentally and the generated chaotic output is validated using phase portraits and Fourier spectra. The effect of driving frequency on the output is characterized using Kolmogorov Entropy and Lyapunov Exponents, giving rise to the term ‘Frequency Dependent Chaos’. The fresh perspectives of a signal oriented chaos discussed in the present work exhibits the advantages of simple circuitry and easy tunability, and this forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[410] **viXra:1510.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:32:55*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A novel kind of chaos, digital chaos is proposed, and an extremely simple circuit to generate frequency controlled digital chaos using two XOR gates driven by three square signals with mismatched frequencies and duty cycles is designed and implemented in FPGA, with the basic principle that the XOR being a difference circuit, amplifies the mismatches, leading to chaos generation. The presence of chaos is ascertained using Lyapunov Exponent and the effect of driving signal frequency on the chaotic nature is studied. The generated chaotic bit sequence is then tested for randomness using standard tests from the NIST Test Suite. It is found that the generated digital chaotic bit sequence is indeed random, proving capability of the proposed circuit as a pseudo random bit generator for computing and communication applications.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[409] **viXra:1510.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:33:58*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The present work purports to a radically new perspective towards exploiting the advantages of quantum computation using classical systems. Termed ‘Quantum Tricks’, the technique relies on replacing the inherent probabilistic nature of the qubit with a pseudorandom generator. Using this, extremely simple mathematical operations are developed to implement basic Pauli X, Y and Z gates, using FPGA. Following this, entanglement is implemented and a real life application of quantum computing, namely Quantum Teleportation is implemented using the ‘QTrick Bits’. It is seen that the QTrick Bits are able to implement the teleportation with a remarkable degree of accuracy. Nonlinear characterization of the entangled states reveal the presence of chaos, thus providing subtle hints towards understanding the QTrick signal behavior. The extreme simplicity of the proposed design coupled with its efficacy in implementing quantum teleportation accurately form the highlights of the present work.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[408] **viXra:1510.0479 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:35:13*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The fluctuations accompanying the DC offset in a photovoltaic cell open circuit voltage waveform are studied. Nonlinear analyses performed on these waveforms ascertain the presence of a highly unstable chaotic behavior. The results are validated using various parameters such as Kolmogorov Entropy, Fractal Dimension and Lyapunov Exponent. It is observed that the chaotic behavior responds to atmospheric and cosmic disturbances and hence can be used to study such effects. The information and inferences about the chaotic behavior coupled with proper synchronization techniques could potentially lead to cost effective means of enhancing the solar cell output.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[407] **viXra:1510.0478 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:36:00*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Efficient techniques of Genome Data handling and storage are the need of the hour in the present genetic engineering era. The present work purports to the design and implementation of a Genome Sequence Data Compression Technique without the use of references and lookup. This is achieved by first generating a digital chaotic bit stream, formed by performing XOR operations on three square waves with mismatched frequencies. The generated bit stream is XORed with the Genome Sequence bit stream after necessary data conditioning, and the result is stored as a 2D array (image). The png format is chosen, owing to its inherent lossless properties. It is seen that the perfectly reversible operations of compression and decompression result in compression ratios of around 2.6-3.5 being achieved with absolute zero error. The use of digital chaos provides an additional layer of security, since the frequencies of the input square wave signals form a secure key, which when mismatched during decompression even by 1 percent, can result in error rates of upto 60 percent.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[406] **viXra:1510.0477 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:37:37*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A novel kind of chaos dependent on frequency and offering the twin advantages of easy tunability and simplicity of implementation is proposed, using which, a simple methodology to generate a chaotic signal is designed and implemented in hardware using FPGA, and the generated chaos is characterized using standard parameters such as Lyapunov Exponents and Kolmogorov Entropy. This temporal signal is used as the basis acting on a spatial propagation rule to generate spatiotemporal patterns. The generated patterns and their dependence on the spatial and temporal rules are studied. The distinguishing features of the obtained spatiotemporal patterns are simplicity of implementation, richness of features observed and a temporal rather than a spatial basis for generation, leading to implementation without employing memory consuming neighbourhood rules, which form the highlights of the present work. The generation of spatiotemporal patterns is seen as a road to tunable evolution and emergence, and finds immense applications such as bar code and random number generators.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[405] **viXra:1510.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:40:23*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The concept of solitons has been successfully utilized in optical communications to handle signal distortion. In this light, the present work explores a signal-oriented perspective of solitons, where it is seen that the impulse responses of semiconductor devices such as PN-diodes and MOSFETs are obtained as solitons. Consequently, a simple circuit involving a single MOS inverter to generate a train of solitons from a sinusoidal input is proposed, designed and implemented in both TCAD Virtual Fabrication and Hardware levels. Following this, the free space optic transmissions of solitons are compared with square and sine wave signals, and it is seen that solitons are able to propagate longer distances with lesser attenuation values. Finally, a soliton free space optic AM communication system is designed and demonstrated in hardware level. The extreme simplicity of the soliton generator circuit owing to its ubiquity, coupled with the longer ranges and lower attenuation values obtained for soliton free space optic transmission forms the novelty of the present work, ultimately leading to next-gen applications such as LiFi.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[404] **viXra:1510.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-27 01:08:58*

**Authors:** Stephen Crowley

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The integral R(t)=π^(-1) (lnζ(1/2+i t)+iϑ(t)) of the logarithmic derivative of the Hardy Z function Z(t)=e^(i ϑ(t)) ζ(1/2+i t), where ϑ(t) is the Riemann-Siegel vartheta function, and ζ(t) is the Riemann zeta function, is used as a basis for the construction of a pair of transcendental entire functions ν(t)=-ν(1-t)=-(ΔR(i/2-i t))^(-1)=- G(i/2-i t) where G=-(ΔR(t))^(-1) is the derivative of the additive inverse of the reciprocal of the Laplacian of R(t) and χ(t)=-χ(1-t)=ν˙(t)=-i H(i/2-i t) where H(t)=G˙(t) has roots at the local minima and maxima of G(t). When H(t) and H˙(t)=G¨(t)=ΔG(t)>0, the point t marks a minimum of G(t) where it coincides with a Riemann zero, i.e., ζ(1/2+i t)=0, otherwise when H(t)^=0 and H˙(t)=ΔG(t)<0, the point t marks a local maximum G(t), marking midway points between consecutive minima. Considered as a sequence of distributions or wave functions, ν_n(t)=ν(1+2n+2t) converges to ν_∞(t)=lim_(n→∞)ν_n(t)=sin^2(π t) and χ_n(t)=χ(1+2n+2t) to χ_∞(t)=lim_(n→∞)χ_n(t)=-8 cos(π t)sin(π t)

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[403] **viXra:1510.0474 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 03:13:43*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This idea was conceived by the author at around 11:13 AM to 11:17 AM (Indian Standard Time) on Thursday October 29th, 2015 at Dakamarri, Vizianagarnam, Andhra Pradesh State, India.

In this research monograph, the author has presented a novel scheme to find the Sequence Of Primes of Second (2nd) Order Space.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[402] **viXra:1510.0473 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-15 06:17:06*

**Authors:** Kurt Mehlhorn, Sanjeev Saxena

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Linear programming is now included in algorithm undergraduate
and postgraduate courses for computer science majors. We give
a self-contained treatment of an interior-point method which
is particularly tailored to the typical mathematical background
of CS students. In particular, only limited knowledge of linear
algebra and calculus is assumed.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[401] **viXra:1510.0472 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-29 18:51:05*

**Authors:** Amrinder Singh

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version2 29th Oct 2015

Currently accepted theory about the sun holds that it is a giant nuclear fusion reactor powered by its hot core having extremely high pressures and temperatures (~ 15MK). Even though this theory accounts for energy generation of the sun and elements formation by fusion processes from a hot plasma of Hydrogen and Helium, the theory fails to explain many of the observed phenomenon in a rational manner. Its chief shortcomings being its inability to fully explain the actual process of fusion in the core region rationally without using vague assumptions, high temperatures of corona (~ 1-2 MKelvin) around the sun whilst surface sun temperatures being less than 6000K, failure to account for the formation of coronal loop structures, failure to adequately explain the activity we observe on the sun in the form of CME’s and sun spots, unable to explain the causes of fast and slow solar winds among others. A new Theory is proposed which explains all the observed phenomenon of the sun including explanations of all the above mentioned shortcomings of the old fusion model and fits all the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle together(of the workings of sun) using our current understanding of the forces of electromagnetism. This theory provides a direct rational explanation of all observed phenomenon of the sun without resorting to any vague assumptions

**Category:** Astrophysics

[400] **viXra:1510.0470 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 07:59:32*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A novel kind of iterative map, the frequency dependent map, offering the crucial advantages of easy tunability and signal dependent control is formulated from the standard circle map, and is studied using the bifurcation and cobweb plots. Following this, the nonlinearity of a MOSFET is explored and a novel modification to a conventional ring oscillator is proposed by adding a potential divider in its feedback path, achieving adaptive bias control. It is seen that such a design gives outputs most closely resembling hyperbolic secant based solitons. The ring oscillators, nonlinearly coupled to a ‘split-gate’ CMOS inverter is seen to generate chaotic signals, which are characterized using standard measures such as phase portrait, Kolmogorov Entropy and Lyapunov Exponent, following which the effect of number of ring oscillator stages on the nature if generated chaos is studied. Finally, the chaotic signal is merged with a hyperbolic secant pulse to form a ‘chaotic solitary wavelet’, which is seen to possess a high number of vanishing moments with a distinct and unique negative logarithmic slope, a very desirable quality in wavelets, leading to applications such as secure communications, image compression and efficient detection of burst-type signals.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[399] **viXra:1510.0469 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 08:00:24*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The operation of various contemporary communication systems such as WiMax in the Microwave X-Band, coupled with the information explosion in recent times has enforced a high pressure in the capacity and security handling aspects, where it would be convenient to provide these facilities at the physical level itself. The present work proposed a radically new solution to this issue, by developing a Secure Solitary Wavelet. Specifically, a Gunn Oscillator Microwave source is fed to a microwave transistor, and by using a slave low frequency signal, the nature of the output is tuned and the envelope is observed to be chaotic, and is characterized using Kolmogorov Entropy and Lyapunov Exponents. This envelope is modulated onto a hyperbolic secant function to create a Secure Solitary Wavelet. It is seen that the solitary nature induces extreme compactness and smoothness as seen by the vanishing higher moments, while the chaotic envelope is controlled by the slave frequency acting as a key and providing a layer of security to the wavelet. A Secure Solitary Wavelet based Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed and compared with conventional OFDM in terms of performance assessment. The extreme simplicity of the proposed design coupled with the compactness and security of the Secure Solitary Wavelet form the highlights of the present work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[398] **viXra:1510.0468 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 08:01:16*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The present work pertains to the generation of a chaotic signal by taking the inverse Fourier Transform of a Fractal Spectral Profile. The presence of chaos is ascertained and characterized using phase portraits, recurrence plots, Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov entropies. This signal is modulated by a hyperbolic secant solitary pulse to formulate the “Fractal Chaotic Solitary Wavelet” (FCSW), the analysis of which reveals vanishing higher moments, translating to efficient capabilities of burst and discontinuity detection, apart from the advantage of security owing to the induced unpredictability of chaos. This results in the proposed Fractal Chaotic Solitary Wavelets having potential applications in secure communications and encryption.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[397] **viXra:1510.0467 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 08:02:21*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Chaotic signals serve as ideal candidates as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation of a ‘digital’ chaotic signal using a frequency dependent iterative map. The proposed design is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Array and nonlinear characterization using Lyapunov exponent confirms the presence of chaos. A proof-of-concept communication system is then numerically designed and evaluated using the Mean Square Error, which reveals the sensitivity of the system to perfect decryption. The simplicity of the design, coupled with the high level of security obtained form the highlights of the present work.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[396] **viXra:1510.0466 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 08:03:01*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The present work pertains to the exploration of signal based chaos generation in the Microwave X-Band frequency range. Specifically, two reflex klystrons are used as sources to two ports of the magic tee, while a third port is terminated. By taking the output from the fourth port, the envelope waveforms and phase portraits are seen to exhibit reasonable degree of richness and complexity. The presence of chaos is quantitatively ascertained using Lyapunov Exponents and Kolmogorov Entropies. The results outlined in the present work offer a far simpler alternative to generate easy-to-tune signal dependent chaos, suitable for telecommunication applications.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[395] **viXra:1510.0465 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 08:04:12*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The progressive miniaturization seen in the current era of nanoelectronics poses the significant problem of signal distortion. Taking cue from the concept of solitons introduced in recent times in optical and electronic domains, the present work proposed a new perspective on the design of a Solitary Pulse Generator Circuit. The key elements here are Ring Oscillators consisting of CMOS inverters, in whose feedback path a potential divider circuit is inserted. It is seen that the potential divider provides significant altering of Operating Point, thus transforming Ring Oscillators to Adaptive Bias Controlled Ring Oscillators (ABCRO). The output is characterized using waveforms and spectra, and a decent match with conventional hyperbolic secant based solitary pulses is observed. The effect of supply voltage on frequency and power dissipation, and the effect of number of stages are also studied. The simplicity of the proposed design in comparison with conventional soliton oscillators, coupled with low values of power dissipation and consistent frequency of operation form the significant highlights of the present work.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[394] **viXra:1510.0464 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 08:06:31*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, T. Venkata Subba Reddy, B. Madhava Reddy, R. K. Karn, G. Ramanathan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Dissipative solitons have successfully emerged as robust information carriers in optics and nanophotonics. In this work, we explore the nonlinearities arising due to processes and geometry in a 32nm CMOS technology to generate dissipative solitons with extremely simple circuitry. Deep submicron VLSI design and SPICE simulations are done using MicroWind followed by nonlinear data analysis. Finally the generated dissipative solitons are used as carriers in a prototype communication system. The dissipative solitons generated enable state-of-the-art CMOS technologies to relish some of the successes enjoyed by ultrafast nonlinear optical technology.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[393] **viXra:1510.0463 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:14:45*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Ganapathy R, Porsezian K

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A Radio-over fiber communication system operating at Terahertz frequency is designed, considering the underlying physics of nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices, and performance of non-conventional soliton based carriers is evaluated, accounting for novelty of this work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[392] **viXra:1510.0462 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:16:04*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Ganapathy R, Porsezian K, Easwaran M, Joshva RG

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Radio over Fiber refers to a technology whereby light is modulated by a radio signal and transmitted over an optical fiber link to facilitate wireless access. The present work purports to the modeling of radio over fiber systems in the MATLAB environment on employing specially designed photonic crystal fibers, consisting of subwavelength-core dielectric photonic nanowires embedded in their cladding, as optical channels between the main central station and the set of base stations and silicon photonic based electro-optic modulators.
Data transmission at terahertz frequencies using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing schemes with cyclic error control coding along with digital modulation schemes such as amplitude shift keying and binary phase shift keying have been implemented. Different carrier signals such as solitons, similaritons, square, and sine waves are considered. In simulating the radio over fiber system, three different media are considered.
In the first stage of signal propagation, photonic crystal fibers embedded with photonic nanowires in their cladding are considered and signal propagation through them is numerically modeled using the predictor-corrector symmetrized split step Fourier method. In the second stage, electrical transmission lines that are modeled as microstrips using S-parameters are considered. In the last stage of signal propagation, wireless channel modeled using additive white Gaussian noise and multipath fading, is considered. The performance of the aforementioned communication system is reviewed using standard metrics such as bit error rate and eye diagrams. It is shown that solitons are more robust carriers for terahertz communications compared to the other carriers and that it is possible to achieve a relatively distortion free communication system even amidst the worst possible SNR levels.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[391] **viXra:1510.0461 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:17:03*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, T. Venkata Subba Reddy, B. Madhava Reddy, R. K. Karn, G. Ramanathan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Conventional communication systems use either sinusoids (pass band) or square waves (baseband) as carriers. However tradeoffs have to be made with regards to bandwidth, fidelity, power consumption and system complexity. This paper explores using Non-conventional waveforms including Gaussian like pulses as carrier waveforms using a 4-user OFDMA system as the benchmark. SPICE simulations are done at the deep submicron VLSI level (120 nm) using MicroWind. The performance of the various carrier waveforms are assessed by using standard metrics such as Bit Error Rate, Signal to Noise ratio and eye-diagram. The results presented in this work give valuable insights into Non-conventional carrier waveforms and their impact on SNR and BER leading to more robust.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[390] **viXra:1510.0460 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:17:58*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The concept of solitons has been successfully utilized in optical communications to handle signal distortion. In this light, the present work explores modulation using soliton carriers and subsequently, prototype wireless communication system based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Mutiplexing (OFDM) and Code Division Multiplexing (CDMA) at 11GHz involving Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel is implemented using LabVIEW. The performance of Soliton carriers are compared with sinusoidal counterparts using eye diagrams. The low distortion values observed for solitons form the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[389] **viXra:1510.0459 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:19:22*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The basic components for most secure computing and communication systems of today are random number generators. The present work purports to a radically novel approach to the design and implementation of random number generators. Firstly, a nonlinear analysis of the photovoltaic cell open circuit voltage is performed, and the presence of chaos is ascertained using standard measures such as Lyapunov Exponents. Following this, the chaotic output is adapted into a bit stream and randomness tests from the NIST Suite are performed. It is seen that the chaotic output indeed passes all the randomness tests. The histogram of the output reveals similarities with Gaussian Normal Distributions, confirming the stochastic nature. Thus, the photovoltaic cell output is a potential power generating random number generator, drastically differing from the conventional power dissipative random number generators.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[388] **viXra:1510.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:20:30*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

One of the most successful theories of modern physics, quantum mechanics has undergone rigorous testing and validation, one of the primary motives being fanciful and informative applications of quantum information theory such as teleportation and superdense coding. Over the years, many explanations have been given for the mechanism and interpretation of the various quirks and mysteries of quantum mechanics, the latest entrant being a suggestion of nonlinearity and chaos underlying quantum mechanics. The present work purports to a formulation of quantum bit as a SU(2) Lie Group using a Chua’s chaos generator circuit as the basis. PSPICE simulations of the same are performed. Various basic quantum gates such as the Pauli X, Y, Z, Hadamard and CNOT gates are implemented using this formulation. Finally, the chaos-qubit formulation is validated using a real time application – quantum teleportation. The ability to successfully demonstrate the teleportation of a single qubit numerically suggests that the chaotic interpretation of quantum mechanics has some validity. Furthermore, it ushers in the era of low cost, high capacity, high security information systems using nonlinear electrical circuits.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[387] **viXra:1510.0457 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:21:37*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Self-heating is an undesirable phenomenon, causing intermodulation distortion in RF frequencies. The theories pertinent to passive electrothermal theory are studied, and the phenomenon giving rise to self-heating is represented as an RC equivalent circuit. After validation of the model with established experimental observations, the model is applied to various microwave transmission line configurations (coplanar and microstrip) considering various material configurations. After extracting certain useful inferences, the model is applied to smart materials such as Titanium Dioxide.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[386] **viXra:1510.0456 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:22:35*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper design of low loss passive planar low pass filter for reducing harmonics in a frequently used voltage source type nonlinear load in low voltage distribution system is proposed. The filter is comprised of a lumped high impedance line inductor made of fused silica and an interdigitated capacitor that is made of La0.5Na0.5Cu3Ti4O12 giant K material. An extensive simulation of single phase diode bridge rectifier with designed filter is carried out by employing Spice software. The subsequent analyses reveal very low insertion loss for the proposed filter. Furthermore, low total harmonic distortion values conforming to IEEE standards and 3dB cut-off in the range of 75Hz, are obtained. This enables the designed low pass filter to effectively eliminate higher order harmonics over the entire wide band in single stretch. The usage of fractal based capacitor structure with giant K resulting in large capacitance value of the order of 3mF, small size, and the effective harnessing of temperature dependent resistance in the inductor leading to stable cut-off frequency even amidst dynamic load variation form the crux of the present work.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[385] **viXra:1510.0455 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:24:08*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The nonlinear analysis of the transient response of a Gallium Oxide thin film based ammonia detector is performed using standard techniques such as Wavelet Analysis and Lyapunov Exponents, all of these targeted towards the resistance transient response as a function of ammonia concentration in ppm. While the distance plots reveal maximum asymmetry in the vicinity of 5ppm, positive Lyapunov Exponents obtained confirm the presence of chaos, while exhibiting a very prominent peak at 5ppm concentration levels. This trend is attributed to the moderate response and recovery times seen for the 5ppm concentration level, making it an ‘optimum’ level of sensitivity. It is opined that the results of nonlinear analysis presented in this work will serve as a stepping stone in the systematic benchmarking of various sensing mechanisms taking into account the nonlinearity in the underlying mechanisms.

**Category:** Chemistry

[384] **viXra:1510.0454 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:25:46*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The present work proposes designs and implements a novel microwave based material characterization technique. By connecting a klystron based microwave source to a transmitter antenna, a turn table rotates the sample to be characterized, placed in the radiation field of the antenna, by 360 degrees. A receiver antenna then collects the scattered radiation, and the distribution of intensity for various angles is recorded using power meter. Nonlinear analysis techniques such as spectrum, phase portrait, polar plot and Lyapunov exponents are then used to characterize the crystalline/amorphous nature of the sample. The techniques are validated for nanostructured samples of Titanium Oxide as well as Zinc Oxide based thin films. It is hoped that these preliminary results will lay the foundation steps towards microwave based material characterization, with the significant advantage of lesser health hazard compared with X-Ray based techniques.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[383] **viXra:1510.0453 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:27:03*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the present work, the solitary chirplet, formed by modulating a frequency modulated signal with a hyperbolic secant envelope is formulated. It is seen that this solitary chirplet possesses a high number of vanishing moments. Sample analysis of sinusoidal and FM signals using the solitart chirplet confirms its efficacy in detecting frequency changes and discontinuities, following which the analysis of an earthquake signal is presented. It is seen that the proposed solitary chirplets come in handy while analyzing frequency variations and breaks in signals.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[382] **viXra:1510.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:29:42*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A two-dimensional photonic crystal based on a lattice of silicon rods in air with a photonic bandgap in the visible and near-ultraviolet spectra is proposed, by removing some of the silicon rods or resizing their radius, to create a monotonically varying tapered line defect, thereby pertaining to a case of structure-based nonlinearity and making it possible to operate with low input powers. By properly manipulating the length of the line defect, pulse compression and consequent adiabatic amplification is seen, along with bunching/anti-bunching of pulses. For certain modes of operation, field confinement is observed, and this leads to the formation of discrete pulses, or light bullets. Following this, by appropriate use of cavity defects, the localization of discrete pulses is obtained, with the ‘gate’-output transfer curve resembling optical bistability. Such a structure can be used as a multi-functional device, with some of the functionalities being optical non-pumped amplification, frequency upconversion, memory writing, matched termination and slow wave guiding, that form the major conclusions of the work.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[381] **viXra:1510.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:30:32*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A simplified photonic crystal design for an all-optical NAND gate operating in the visible spectrum is proposed and validated with numerical experiments using Finite Difference Time Domain method. Considering the NAND gate as a optical four-port network, the scattering matrix is determined. Also, two-dimensional autocorrelation-based leakage analysis is done and temporal analysis of the output pulse is performed. From the above mentioned valuations, one can obtain the optimal performance of the NAND gate structure with minimal loss and distortion, which forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[380] **viXra:1510.0450 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:31:42*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Ganapathy R, Porsezian K

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A ‘T-shaped’ defect is introduced in a two-dimensional photonic crystal lattice made of silicon, and for a small-signal optical input, this structure thus acts as an optical amplifier. A detailed analysis yields optimal linear and nonlinear performance of the optical amplifier operating in the visible region with minimal leakage and distortion.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[379] **viXra:1510.0449 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:32:49*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An all-optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Communication system at 2 THz is modelled using photonic crystal fiber of length 1km, and the performance of four carrier waveforms - hyperbolic secant, square of hyperbolic secant, square and sinusoidal is evaluated using standard metrics such as eye diagram and bit error rate. From the above mentioned valuations, one can deduce the minimal distortion in hyperbolic secant based carriers, hence leading to unconventional carrier waveforms, which forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[378] **viXra:1510.0448 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:33:52*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

As we move steadily into the world of compact and ultrafast devices, there is a steady increase in demand for high speed devices and gadgets. Here, photonics comes handy and even more with the advent of Silicon Photonics, which enables photonics and electronics to be integrated into the same chip. In this paper, two all optical systems, one an all optical processor/multiplier based on second harmonic generation and another, a Radio Over Fibre communication system are presented. . These techniques would be potential contenders in revolutionizing the world of Telecommunication and signal processing, effectively replacing electronics with photonics, which would result in extremely fast devices and reduced thermal effects.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[377] **viXra:1510.0447 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:39:32*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We investigate some properties of
unconditional convergence of series taking
values in lattice groups.
We give some matrix and Schur-type
theorems in the filter convergence context for lattice group-valued measures, and deduce
an interchange theorem for series.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[376] **viXra:1510.0446 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-20 09:17:00*

**Authors:** Hui-Bin Qiu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The 5th version of viXra:1510.0446

We propose an instructive possibility to generalize the tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing
ansatz, such that leptonic CP violation and the fractal feature of the universe can
naturally be incorporated into the resultant scenario of fractal nearly tri-bimaximal
flavor mixing. The consequences of this new ansatze on the latest experimental data of
neutrino oscillations are analyzed. This theory is perfectly matched with the current
experimental data, and surprisedly, we find that the existing neutrino oscillation exper-
imental data is the first experimental evidence supporting one kind of high dimensional
unified theories, such as M-theory. Besides, an interesting approach to construct lep-
ton mass matrices in fractal universe under permutation symmetry is also discussed.
This theory opens an unexpected window on the physics beyond the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[375] **viXra:1510.0445 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-30 20:56:06*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

The unnecessary confusion about Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity and why E = mc^2 is incorrect is discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[374] **viXra:1510.0444 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 17:03:32*

**Authors:** Llewlyn Chang, Randall McSmith, Ignacio Tosca, Heinrich von Zimmer

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

As indicated in the seminal work of reformer physicist G. Fekete all natural constants can be derived at least to eight digit accuracy. In this work we show that his model can in fact be understood by membrane lattices in string theory. More specifically fibred non-trivial conformal algebraic varieties sequenced of super-Hirzebruch curves that approximate Maxwell-Enriques surfaces. We propose the structure of the Fekete matrix to be parametrised by all possible toric condensates. By analytic continuation we extend our result N=pi supersymmetry on a sphere. Thus the only physical sense to understand the Fekete model is through radiative fluxes in superstring theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[373] **viXra:1510.0443 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-31 11:54:54*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Adapted from a contributed talk at HTGRG-2, 11 August 2015, Quy Nhon, Vietnam.

Thirring and Feynman showed that the Einstein equation is simply a partial differential classical field equation, akin to Maxwell's equation, but it and its solutions are required to conform to the GR principles of general covariance and equivalence. It is noted, with examples, that solutions of such equations can contravene required physical principles when they exhibit unphysical boundary conditions. Using the crucially important tensor contraction theorem together with the equivalence principle, it is shown that metric tensors are physical only where all their components, and also those of their inverse matrix, are finite real numbers, and their signature is that of the Minkowski metric. Thus the "horizons" of the empty-space Schwarzschild solution metrics are unphysical, which is traced to the boundary condition that arises from the minimum energetically-allowed radius of a positive effective mass. It is also noted that "comoving" ostensible "coordinate systems" disrupt physical boundary conditions in time via their artificial "composite time" which can't be registered by the clock of any observer because it is "defined" by the clocks of an infinite number of observers. Spurious singularities ensue in such unphysical "coordinates", which fall away on transformation of metric solutions to non-"comoving coordinates".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[372] **viXra:1510.0442 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:06:47*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A solitary wavelet, based on the hyperbolic secant function is proposed, characterized and applied to real-time data. Numerical analysis of the solitary wavelet reveals that it has a huge number of vanishing higher order moments, tending rapidly towards zero with a negative logarithmic slope. It is seen that the wavelet has a very low number of oscillatory sub-lobes, thus making it the ideal candidate to perform signal analysis of burst-type phenomena without undergoing multiple levels of filtering and approximation, and this concept is illustrated by effectively detecting the QRS complex of an ECG cycle without undergoing multiple filtering levels. The ability of the proposed wavelet to perform analysis of a diverse variety of real time data without multiple levels of decomposition and reconstruction forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[371] **viXra:1510.0441 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:09:27*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The lifestyle of today’s world demands a reliable, comprehensive integrative medicine system with minimal side effects. One of the most prominent candidates is music, an enjoyable healthcare approach. The present article formulates a music based integrative medicine system. Specifically, the physician-patient interaction is explored. Based on this model, Ayurveda and modern science such as Quantum Consciousness, Chaos Theory, Statistical Theory of Communication, Information Theory and Neurodynamics, six dimensions are formulated. These are physiological (TriDoshas), emotional (TriGunas), Sociological (Temperament), Psychological (Brain Waves), Spiritual (Chakras) and Informational (Landscape). The connection between music and each of these dimensions are explored. The formulation created in this article thus opens the doors for reliable, enjoyable, holistic healthcare with minimal side effects using music.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[370] **viXra:1510.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:11:17*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The growing concerns about pro-oxidant nature and toxicity during interaction of flavonoids such as chrysin and associated metal complexes with the cell membrane has led to investigations on membrane perturbations by the same. However, the Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results show signs indicative of a hysteesis behavior. Taking cue from this, the present work is directed at a nonlinear analysis and characterization of the CV results of membrane perturbations by Chrysin and its copper and iron complexes. Plots of the Voltage-Resistance (V-R) and Voltage-Capacitance (V-C) relations show that while the capacitance is constant independent of voltage, the V-R behavior shows an interesting Hysteresis pattern with negative resistance peaks being seen. Presence of dosage-independent chaos is ascertained using the Lyapunov Exponent. The present work offers an insight into the nonlinear behavior underlying the mechanics of flavonoid-cell membrane interaction and might be the first step in a series of studies focused on the role of nonlinearity and chaos on toxicity.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[369] **viXra:1510.0439 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:12:45*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

While the revolutionary field of Genetics along with its immense applications needs no introduction, recent models of the Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) reading process have proposed a complex system of mechanical oscillators giving rise to a solitonic transmission wave, dependent largely on the ‘context’, which consists of the structures and masses of the DNA Nucleotides. This observation logically raises the question of whether the masses of nucleotides in particular, contribute to the well-known high informational efficiency and capacity of the DNA. In this context, the present work purports to a simple experiment, where the genome sequences of three virus species are used to derive a sequence of the corresponding nucleotide molar masses. Along with the original nucleotide-molar mass associations, three fictitious associations are proposed, and for each of the four associations, the histograms of molar mass occurrences are plotted. It is seen that the original association alone leads to a distribution resembling the normal probability distribution, leading to the hypothesis that this preference affects choice of molar mass by nature, which then results in the efficiency of the solitonic transmissions and thus ultimately, the observed informational efficiency of the genetic codes.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[368] **viXra:1510.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:14:32*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The strange and often counter-intuitive aspects of quantum mechanics such as collapse and entanglement have led to a series of interpretations of the reality expressed by the discipline. The present work purports to the formulation and postulation of a new interpretation of quantum mechanics, one that stems from the principles of chaos theory. Specifically, the superposed state in a quantum system is viewed as an equivalent of a chaotic signal, whose collapse is decided procedurally by the initial conditions and timing-wise by the process of measurement. The basic postulates of quantum mechanics and a glimpse of entanglement is viewed in this perspective. Following this, the proposed chaotic interpretation is compared with other standard interpretations in light of various properties such as determinism, locality, realism, counterfactual definiteness, and hidden variables. The novel perspective of quantum mechanics fundamentals through chaos theory, where the latter has undergone significant progress in terms of studying the system ehaviour using standard tools and evolutionary patterns, offers a plethora of interesting and exciting options to study the hidden realities of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[367] **viXra:1510.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:15:56*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The search for an all comprehensive Theory of Everything unifying the four fundamental forces described by Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity has always been an elusive one. Among the plethora of theories including Superstring Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity proposed in recent years, the present article focuses on the E8 Theory of Everything. After a brief overview on the underlying principles of this theory, the principles of “Metahomeomorphism” and Quantum Computation are explored to represent the 8D Charge space of the E8 Theory using a 3 Qubit system. A Chaos Theory based interpretation of Quantum Mechanics is then proposed, to represent the 3 qubits as three chaotic signals. The result is an extension of the E8 theory, termed the Chaotic Quantum Information based E8 Theory of Everything (CQIE8ToE). The physical interpretation of this theory is explored along with particle creation and particle interaction formulations. While the validation of the E8 Theory await experimental evidence, the principles of metahomeomorphism, quantum computation and subsequently the CQIE8ToE ensure that any representation of a unified theory in a Lie Group based on a charge space yields to the elegant merging of Relativity, Quantum Physics, Particle Physics and Chaos Theory, into a simple yet effective World-View.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[366] **viXra:1510.0436 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:17:33*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The present work purports to the proposal and elucidation of a novel kind of logic, where the apparent ‘practical uncertainty’ of chaos is effectively harnessed in the form of S-Bits, or Simultaneous Bits, to achieve quantum computation like effects. Specifically, it is seen that a single NMOSFET possessed the sufficient nonlinearity to generate a signal driven chaos, which is then proposed as similar to the superposed state of a qubit, and hence termed “S-Bits”. The measurement/collapse operations are performed using hysteresis, achieved using back-to-back MOS Varactors. Using these formulations, various quantum and reversible logic gates such as the three Pauli Rotation Gates, Hadamard Gate, CNOT and TOFFOLI gates are implemented in hardware level using extremely simple circuitry. Following this, the phenomenon of entanglement using S-bits is discussed, followed by implementations of quantum teleportation and superdense coding. The results reveal the effective reproduction of quantum computation applications using simple circuitry involving the S-Bit analogue, thus ushering in the golden era of affordable quantum computing.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[365] **viXra:1510.0435 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:18:58*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Radio astronomy plays a crucial role in revealing vital information about the early universe and celestial structures. A novel nonlinear analysis technique using the polar and phase plane plots for analyzing radio astronomical data is proposed, and the analysis for a pulsar B1933 is performed. It is observed that the analysis reveals information regarding the angle of emissions/ beaming of 30 degrees, and this forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[364] **viXra:1510.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:20:16*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The present work explores a radically new perspective exploiting the advantages of quantum computation using classical systems. Termed ‘Quantum Tricks’, the essence of the technique is replacing the inherent probabilistic nature of a qubit with a pseudorandom generator, resulting in the implementation of basic Quantum Gates such as the Pauli X, Y, Z, Hadamard and CNOT gates using extremely simple mathematical operations followed by an implementation of entanglement. Following this, a brief overview of the concept of cellular automata and associated rules is presented. Finally, the ‘Quantum Trick Cellular Automata’ (QTCA) concept is formulated, differing from the classical cellular automata in two aspects - presence of superposed states other than 1 and 0, and implementation of above mentioned quantum gates. It is seen that QCTA comprising of CNOT and Entanglement operations give rise to rich, complex and ornamental patterns, characteristic of the underlying chaos. The extreme simplicity of the proposed design coupled with its efficacy in implementing rich patterns using cellular automata concepts form the highlights of the present work.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[363] **viXra:1510.0433 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:24:09*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Rogue Waves are highly unstable waves extremely localized in space and time, appearing from nowhere and disappearing without leaving a trace. The observation of such waves in oceanography has led to increased interest in the physics community where optical rogue waves generated using microstructured fibers are studied for their interactions and the underlying physical phenomena. In the present article, an extremely simple rogue wave generator is proposed, where a hyperbolic secant based temporal profile evolves according to a hyperbolic secant square spatial profile. The derivative of this spatial profile gives the spatial evolution equation, and this is implemented using FPGA. It is seen that a single rogue wave exponentially rising to its peak amplitude at mid time instant and then quickly decaying is formed. The extremely simple signal-oriented design of rogue wave generator, effectively capturing the spatial and temporal propagation properties of such rogue waves, coupled with the potential applications it enables using the generated electrical rogue waves forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Geophysics

[362] **viXra:1510.0432 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:25:25*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The Annual Growth Rate of Gross Domestic Product of an economy is often seen as a key indicator to the economy’s growth and prosperity. In the present work, nonlinear analysis is performed on the GDP growth data of nations and supranational entities using two key tools, namely Averaged Lyapunov Exponent (ALE) and Distance Plot. The analyses ascertain the presence of chaos in the GDP growth rate data for both nations and supranational entities. Following this, some key inferences from the nonlinear analysis are presented, such as the high value of ALE obtained for fragile and conflict ridden economies, indicating the relationship between ALE and instability, the ALE analysis of BRICS nations as well as low ALE values of supranational entities such as OECD and EU. It is opined that the obtained results pave the way for unlocking a wealth of information regarding GDP growth rates ushering in a new era of ‘Smart Economics’.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[361] **viXra:1510.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:27:08*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Behavioral Economics, which essentially studies psychology, cognition and emotion in the context of economics, has proved that economics in the real world is not always with mathematical accuracy, predictability and clockwork precision. In an attempt to categorize the driving influences and biases underlying decisions made by people, the present article takes a leaf out of the Shiva Sutras, which essentially group the 51 Aksharas (Alphabets) of the Sanskrit language, each Akshara signifying a concept or mode of operation, into 14 categories or ‘worlds’. Essentially, the Aksharas form ‘alignments’ that drive people toward making economic and other decisions. Consequently, such a listing can be quantified using matrices and appropriate weights, thus bringing Behavioral Economics a step closer to becoming a quantifiable, deterministic study.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[360] **viXra:1510.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:28:26*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The current era of Information Technology has enabled one to access a wealth of information regarding public opinion and market trends through web search behaviour exploring tools such as Google Trends. As a testimony to this fact, the present work purports to encouraging the use of such “Smart Analytics” techniques by presenting Trend Search based inferences and discussion of interest in the four social networking sites Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Snapchat in 30 different countries around the world. The results provide valuable insights into group trends such as the rise, saturation and decline in the interests of such services and their dependence on various factors such as internet connection speeds and penetration rates, while also exploring exceptional cases and other individual aspects of social networking trends. While from a managerial perspective, such results can be used to assess market trends and demands, the inferences also provide useful information to administrators and governments, as well as the common man to understand the current trends and plan investments of time and money accordingly.

**Category:** Social Science

[359] **viXra:1510.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 23:43:58*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. The 'Complementable Bounds' part of this research manuscript was prepared on October 27th, 2015, Tuesday Evening Indian Standard Time and the idea regarding the same was conceived on October 27th, 2015, Tuesday Evening Indian Standard Time

In this research monograph, the author enlightens a fact regarding the existence of ‘Complementable Bounds’ in any Sequence Of Primes Of Rth Order Space. Also, the author enlightens another aspect of finding the ‘Universe In Parallel’ of any Sequence Of Primes Of Rth Order Space in the Sequence Of Primes Of (R+1)th Order Space or for that matter any (R+v)th Order Space for ‘v’ being a positive integer. The author also presents some insights regarding how these aspects can be used as constraints on ‘Quantization Based Evolution’ are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[358] **viXra:1510.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 00:10:14*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author sheds light on the synonymical equivalence between the five digits of human palm and the five elements of (at) the planet earth.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[357] **viXra:1510.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 02:22:32*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Several theorems are established to ease exact solution of homogeneous linear ordinary differential equations.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[356] **viXra:1510.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 15:46:51*

**Authors:** Victor Sorokine

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Preuve élémentaire du FLT en 15 lines ne comprend que quatre opérations:
1) 1 х 1 = 1,
2) a + 1 > a,
3) La solution de l'équation a+x=n est x=n-a, et une déclaration:
4) le système {A+B-C>0, A+B-C=0} est incompatible. Et TOUT! (I.e. : Si A, B, C sont naturels et A^n+B^n=C^n, alors A+B=C ! No errors!)

**Category:** Number Theory

[355] **viXra:1510.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 16:07:41*

**Authors:** Ștefan Vlăduțescu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The study is circumscribed to theory of literary communication and highlights the
fact that there are different dedicated formulas of epic addressing. The existential formula
joints in epic addressing are examined. As an example, we use Gabriel Chifuřs novel, "Story
of my Death". First, it appears that this novel belongs to a thematic topology whose axes are
are also found in books by Lev Tolstoy, AP Chekhov, J. L. Borges or F. Kafka. Later it is
made visible that the differentiating contribution of Gabriel Chifuřs epic work lies in making
clear from death an event of life and to show that, whenever it occurs, death captures as the
ultimate existential event, catching the man, however, unprepared. Existential formula in epic
addressing consists of understanding that the stake of death is the assumed life as unique
experience.

**Category:** Social Science

[354] **viXra:1510.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-29 21:29:15*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Everything is made out of the same particle and every particle has 20 strings unless it is smashed up deformed matter.

If you understand the way this works... with a little thinking anyone can figure out isotopes.

For instance why 3 protons would not make lithium-3 ...

i.e. why there can be extra neutrons but not just a bunch of protons (or extra protons)

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[353] **viXra:1510.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 09:04:47*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A Return-to-Zero Logic consisting of Soliton based clock is proposed, and is seen to exhibit more robustness in propagation through interconnects compared with conventional square pulses at microwave and illimetre wave frequencies. The generation of solitons using the nonlinearity of a single transistor is discussed and various combinational and sequential logic circuits based on soliton logic are implemented and characterized using Deep Submicron VLSI SPICE implementations at 180nm CMOS Technology. In addition, Pulse Compression based on single transistor is also discussed. The simplicity of implementation of the soliton logic, coupled with the compatibility with existing CMOS technologies form the key highlights of the present work, paving the way for a futuristic low distortion computing era.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[352] **viXra:1510.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 09:06:54*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This short article is a compilation of assorted mathematical methods discovered by the author in high school days. Particularly, methods pertaining to cube roots, fifth roots and an arithmetic progression with varying common difference are outlined.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[351] **viXra:1510.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 09:14:28*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

It is well known that the variations in frequencies (Swaras) and timbre (tone) form melody (Raga), the key aspect leading to all kinds of music experience. The pinnacle of exploring the frequencies within an octave is the Melakartha system of Carnatic Music, forming the motivation of the present work. A time domain waveform of the Swara is used to form an iterative map explaining the evolution and behavior of the Raga, and thus music experience. The presence of sensitivity, or chaotic behavior is seen and studied using phase portraits, maximal Lyapunov Exponents and Distance Plots. Following this, the basics of Meridian based healing in Traditional Chinese Medicine are explored, and by formulating a procedure to compute the “Deviance” of a Raga, the 72 Melakartha Ragas are mapped to the 72 Meridians in the Human Body. It is opined that this article takes the first step towards a series of research developments culminating in an era of “Holistic Healthcare and Personal/Personnel Management using Music”.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[350] **viXra:1510.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 09:19:46*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A simple circuit to generate chaos is proposed, with the central principle being the coupling of two sinusoidal signals with mismatched frequencies to two terminals of an NMOS transistor. Standard chaotic characterization performed using Kolmogorov Entropy and Lyapunov exponents reveal that the output is a frequency controlled chaos. By coupling this output with another sinusoidal input to a second NMOS transistor, a clear segregation of frequencies is observed, analogous to the chirping phenomenon seen typically in optical systems. The nature of chirping is investigated using phase portraits, Lyapunov Exponents and distance maps. The extreme simplicity of the proposed circuit coupled with the new phenomenon of chirping being observed as a result of frequency controlled chaos form the main highlights of the present work.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[349] **viXra:1510.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 09:23:57*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A Chaos based compression technique offering high capacity and high security simultaneously is designed and implemented. A chaotic image, obtained by reshaping the signal representing a frequency dependant driven chaotic system is used as the data carrier in which data from the file to be compressed is embedded. Implementation of the algorithm is carried out in MATLAB and Python platforms for various filetypes such as txt, png, pdf, mp3, 3gp and rar formats. A comparative performance analysis reveals a high fidelity with a mean square errors of less than 0.0009 percent as well as a relatively high compression ratio value of 5-6. A very high level of security leading to up to 60 percent of mean square error values even for 1 percent misalignment in the decryption process is observed. The execution times for the implementations are obtained reasonably at around 5 seconds. A new compression technique, termed ‘supercompression’ consisting of repeated application of the compression technique is proposed. A proof-of-concept implementation achieved extremely high compression ratios of around 40000. The extreme simplicity of implementation coupled with the twin advantages of high compression ratios and high security forms the highlight of the present work.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[348] **viXra:1510.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 09:31:25*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Our universe has a fractal nature. We can find the answers to the most obscure questions to science if we ask the right questions in the right ways to our selves. Over the years, people have perfected the art of communicating with our inner self. Outside us, the smaller the scope of the question, the easier it is to obtain an answer. This formulation is not ‘pseudoscience’, it is ‘plus-que science’, merging art and science, blending logic and intuition, and leading to philosophy. Simple. Ask – Let your mind Wander – Record the answer. Since all the six senses are engaged, the output produced in the abstract art contains the answers to the question we asked, plus a signature of our own.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[347] **viXra:1510.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 06:22:46*

**Authors:** Francesco Scotognella

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 8 figures

In this paper we present a brief discussion on the properties of one-dimensional (1D) photonic structures. We will show the light transmission through periodic structures, i.e. photonic crystals, random structures, and quasicrystals. We will discuss the possibility to describe other types of 1D structures.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[346] **viXra:1510.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 07:03:59*

**Authors:** Dimas Sulo

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

``Then came the disciples to Jesus apart, and said, Why could not we cast him out? And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief" (Matthew 17 KJV). The problem with proofs today, what they are lefting possibility of No-God idol. Preacher says in YouTube, what there is certainly the moral law. Good deed this. But he preacher spoils all by adding: the best explanation is God. No, brother, there is no room for ``No God" paganism! Our freedom is not absence of sure proofs, but

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[345] **viXra:1510.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 07:28:11*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus (русский)

It is proposed a physical experiment to determine the speed of propagation of quantum information of the collapse of the wave function of entangled photons. To transfer the information need the carrier. Because the speed of the carrier faster than light, this role can perform the tachyon.

Предложен физический эксперимент по определению скорости распространения квантовой информации при коллапсе волновой функции запутанных фотонов. Для переноса информации необходим носитель. Поскольку скорость носителя выше скорости света, в этой роли может выступить тахион (tachyon).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[344] **viXra:1510.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 07:34:18*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. rus (русский)

The article provides a relativistic solution to the Ehrenfest’s paradox . It is shown the consistency of the predictions of special relativity to the rotating wheel.

Приводится решение парадокса колеса - парадокса Эренфеста. Показано, что парадокс является мнимым. В отношении вращающегося колеса специальная теория относительности делает непротиворечивые предсказания. Формулировки парадокса имеют ошибки.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[343] **viXra:1510.0410 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 17:24:09*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

This article describes two of the major errors of Einstein's reasoning in his 1905 document which founded the Special Theory of Relativity. Einstein contradicted himself by using both the principle of the constancy of speed of light, and a variable speed of light, along with a wrong synchronization method. A 3D animated simulation accompanies and demonstrates the statements of this article, and it is available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOjNwuQUOAM

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[342] **viXra:1510.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 23:22:18*

**Authors:** Franklin Hu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The spectral lines given off by Hydrogen are well known and is simply described by the Rydberg formula. However, this only works on the hydrogen atom. If we try to describe the spectra with the Rydberg formula for helium and lithium, it fails – or does it? This a paper explores the idea that the spectra of heavier elements like helium and lithium can actually be described by just providing scaling factors to the Rydberg formula to explain the spectra given off by multi-electron atoms. This shows that the spectra is not a complex multi-body problem and that there is a very simple stair case pattern that the spectra follows.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[341] **viXra:1510.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 00:42:17*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The solar system and its planets are internal gravitational dipoles of a galaxy "Milky Way".

**Category:** Astrophysics

[340] **viXra:1510.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 01:18:11*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Thought experiment

We initially look at a non singular universe representation of time, and .of comparing a general formula of a cosmological Potential energy as given by Padmanbhan, with Weinberg’s Quintessence Potential energy . Isolating a given time component which may serve as an introduction, to a discussion which isolates a value of about 10^32 Hz for Pre Planckian value generated GW, which would drop about 22 orders of magnitude in the present era.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[339] **viXra:1510.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 01:50:05*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The horizontal component of gravitation of the Sun is the reason of existence of a precession of orbits of objects of Solar system.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[338] **viXra:1510.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 02:28:06*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The book publication:-Structure of Judaism- from Alex Barzel is discussed in a biographical manner.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[337] **viXra:1510.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 03:05:17*

**Authors:** Dainis Zeps

**Comments:** 16 Pages. The article is a Mathematica notebook

In this article we explore 4-critical graphs using Mathematica. We generate graph patterns according [1]. Using the base graph, minimal planar multiwheel and in the same time minimal according projective pattern built multiwheel, we build minimal multiwheels according [1], We forward two conjectures according graphs augmented according considered patterns and their 4-criticallity, and argue them to be proved here if the paradigmatic examples of this article are accepted to be parts of proofs.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[336] **viXra:1510.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 03:10:06*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Suprijadi, Rachmat Mauludin, Hendy Hertiasa

**Comments:** 10 pages, 8 figures, 1 table, conference paper (ICPAPS, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 7-8 September 2015)

Simulation of 2-d rectangular tablet dissolution is constructed based on short range granular interaction through repulsive and attractive force. The former is based on linear spring-dashpot model, while the later is gravitation-like force. Fluid particles around the tablet is obeying Maxwell speed distribution, which can be tuned through temperature. Dissolution process seems to be influenced by the temperature.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[335] **viXra:1510.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 12:22:29*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Time Perspective Bias (TPB) postulates that time is actually observed and measured with a perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture.
Quantum scale time intervals, as measured, appear
magnified and diverging. Resulting pluralism in time and space is proposed to be simply an illusion (of skewed perspective).
TPB predicts that altering the scales , between the observer and the particle detectors will result in a variation of the "wave function collapse", proportionately.
Note: TPB does not contradict time dilation,
GR, nor expansion. In TPB, corrections of skewed
time intervals are first converted to true length. Subsequently, all classical and relative physics (t') are then calculated.
TPB also provides a simple alternative explanation for: accelerated expansion, the "galaxy outer rim rotation problem", millisecond pulsars and the "double slit experiment".

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[334] **viXra:1510.0401 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-29 03:53:01*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

In this paper I present a baryon intrinsic Dark Matter halo model. The model gives a correct first order galactic rotation curve, leads to the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and to the MOND force for the weak acceleration regime. Then I show that the MOND force can be derived from the combination of my model's potential and the first law of thermodynamics in the Helmholtz energy A = U - TS formulation. In my model the MOND work is identical to the Helmholtz work. The entropy connected to the intrinsic Dark Matter halo allows the derivation of the Dark Matter force, the deviation from Newton, as an entropic force. The definition of the entropy leads to a new parameter, of dimensional degrees of freedom, added to MOND. This new parameter solves the galaxy cluster mass discrepancy problem of MOND and produces and exact relationship between the MOND acceleration and the Hubble acceleration, with cosmological implications. In my model the cosmic structure formation degree of freedom value $N = \sqrt{cH_0/a_0}=2.1$, is also the minimum mass discrepancy in the MOND cluster analysis. The realization that MOND is a theory based on Helmholtz work shifts the question regarding its relativistic formulation towards the larger problem of a relativistic formulation of thermodynamics, a highly discussed and accepted problem in physics. It touches upon the arrow of time issue.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[333] **viXra:1510.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 08:28:17*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

One of the exciting prospects in radio astronomy is the observation of the ‘sounds’ of the universe, owing to the fact that radio signals recorded largely falling within the audible frequency range. To this end, the present work purports to the proposal and implementation nonlinear analysis of such radio astronomical data, using qualitative techniques such as time series, spectrum, bispectrum, phase portrait, Poincare section, polar plot, spatiotemporal analysis, wavelet analysis and distance plots, as well as quantitative analysis techniques including the Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov entropy and fractal dimension. The analyses results are illustrated for a select assortment of the radio astronomical signals. The analysis techniques and results presented here, coupled with theory backed rigorous investigations into the astronomical mechanisms may serve as a valuable tool for unlocking the secrets of the universe.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[332] **viXra:1510.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 08:32:11*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An all-optical Supercontinuum based communication system at 2 THz is modeled using photonic crystal fiber of length 1km, and its performance using digital modulation techniques such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) is evaluated using standard metrics such as eye diagram and bit error rate. From the above mentioned valuations, one can obtain its robustness, hence leading to secure communication systems at Terahertz data rates, which forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[331] **viXra:1510.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 08:34:31*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The present paper pertains to the formulation and generation of a signal based frequency controlled chaos based on the Heart Curves, an assortment of parametric functions so named due to their ability to generate cardoid (heart-shaped) curves. Specifically, the variable in two parametric functions is taken as an additively coupled sum of sinusoids with competing frequencies. By adapting the x and y components of these functions into signals, the time derivatives are computed and used to form the iterative maps and phase portraits. It is seen that the four phase portraits display to varying degrees, ornamental patterns, characteristic of quasiperiodicity and chaos. Using these, bifurcation diagrams are plotted in order to investigate the chaotic behavior. It is seen that the nature of chaos in the generated signals depend on the frequency ratio of the driving signals, thus pertaining to a case of signal based chaos, which has the key advantage of easy tunability, forming the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[330] **viXra:1510.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 10:29:07*

**Authors:** Jacques Consiglio

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

Here we show that free parameters are inexistent in physics; their values are geometrical. This result originates in a resonance concept in absorber theory. The conceptual leap is that we do consider energy in all forms as a composite resonance process involving only currents.
We first address the mass and coupling parameters of the standard model of particles physics, deduce their origin, their form, and the valid resonances from group theory arguments and geometry; then we show the coherence of the mass spectrum with the predictions and we compute the fine structure constant from geometry and SU(2). We also address the CKM and PMNS matrices, and show that they come from the same resonances.
Next we show how gravitation comes from the absorber and we end-up with a complete reversal in concepts; we find that the origin of energy and gravitation is linear cosmos expansion. The link with quantum physics is rather trivial and it first shows that the wave is momentum. The resulting gravitational force gives an acceleration H c at galaxies borders but not in the solar system; it is compatible with the absence of dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[329] **viXra:1510.0396 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-06 14:27:51*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is shown that the current in the wire has a complex structure, and inside wire extends the flow of electromagnetic energy. The functioning of the Milroy engine can be explained by the existence circular currents and energy flow in the conductor. On this basis it is possible to perform the calculation Milroy engine. \\ Показывается, что ток в проводе имеет сложную структуру, а внутри провода распространяется поток электромагнитной энергии. Функционирование двигателя Мильроя можно объяснить существованием круговых тока и потока энергии в проводнике. На этой основе можно выполнить расчет двигателя Мильроя.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[328] **viXra:1510.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 07:10:54*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author devises a novel way to ascertain ‘Work Consciousness(es)’ of ‘Original Nature’. Furthermore, the author also presents a scheme to distill the ‘Foreign Work Consciousness’ components over-layed on some ‘Original Work Consciousness’ of concern by the process of ‘Reverse Engineering’. One can implement the aforesaid using the author’s concepts on ‘Primality Engineering’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[327] **viXra:1510.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 02:25:48*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The unity of creation and creator is the spiritual and physical foundation stone of the science of Israel; however, the Aristotelian assumption of eternal matter rules our modern world. Some vital implications of this distinct cosmic views are being discussed.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[326] **viXra:1510.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 02:45:01*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents a ‘Holistic And Optimal Scheme For Music Composition’. The author uses the language of ‘Samskrutam’ and the ‘Carnatic’ Music Basis for such a construction.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[325] **viXra:1510.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-31 19:22:57*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Submitted to the IJMPA

Accelerated strings in tangent bundle backgrounds are studied in further detail than it has been done in the past. The worldsheet associated with the accelerated open string described in this work envisages a continuum family of worldlines of accelerated points. It is when one embeds the two-dim string worldsheet into the tangent bundle $ TM$ background (associated with a uniformly accelerated observer in spacetime) that the effects of the maximal acceleration are manifested. The induced worldsheet metric as a result of this embedding has a $null$ horizon. It is the presence of this null horizon that limits the acceleration values of the points inside string. If the string crosses the null horizon some of its points will exceed the maximal acceleration value and that portion of the string will become causally disconnected from the rest of string outside the horizon. It is explained why our results differ from those in the literature pertaining the maximal acceleration modifications of the Rindler metric. We also find a modified Rindler metric which has a true curvature singularity at the location of the null horizon due to a finite maximal acceleration. One of the salient features of studying the geometry of the tangent bundle is that the underlying spacetime geometry becomes $observer ~dependent$ as Gibbons and Hawking envisioned long ago. We conclude with some remarks about generalized QFT in accelerated frames and the black hole information paradox.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[324] **viXra:1510.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-25 12:15:16*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The leading role of publicist-rabbi L. Phillipson in 19th century Germany is highlighted and his cultural synthesis is being explained as time-tested tool of universal human emancipation.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[323] **viXra:1510.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-25 08:06:53*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The present work purports to the spectral and nonlinear analysis of intracranially recorded Electroencephalogram (EEG) time series data resulting in the identification and characterization of a low-dimensional chaos therein. Specifically, three categories of EEG time series data are considered: those recorded in non-epileptogenic regions during normal activity (‘healthy’ EEG), those recorded in epileptogenic regions during seizure activity (‘Seizure’ EEG), and those recorded in epileptogenic regions during normal non-seizure activity. In order to perform the spectral analysis efficiently, a new kind of wavelet, the solitary wavelet is proposed based on the hyperbolic secant function, where it is seen that this wavelet possesses vanishing higher moments with a negative logarithmic slope, thus translating to efficient detection of burst type signals without multiple levels of decomposition and reconstruction. The spectral analyses of the three categories of EEG data performed using Fourier and Wavelet analyses reveal that seizure EEG spectra, to a greater extent, and non-seizure epileptogenic EEG spectra, to a lesser extent, display prominent high frequency peaks, suggestive of resonant behavior. Nonlinear analysis using phase portraits too confirm the resonance oriented periodic orbits seen in Seizure EEG. Finally, quantitative analysis performed using Largest Lyapunov Exponents (LLE) and Fractal Dimension (D) reveal that both D and LLE values for seizure EEG are much lower than the healthy counterparts, with non-seizure epileptogenic EEG D and LLE values seen somewhere in between. The essence of these results is the observation of a distinct, uniquely identifiable low-dimensional chaotic behavior in EEG taken from epileptogenic region during non-seizure activities. This information can be used both as a preventive epilepsy diagnostic technique, as well as a post-surgical recovery assessment tool, and this forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[322] **viXra:1510.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-25 08:10:04*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The complex nature of the growing organization has in recent years necessitated a fundamental change towards management strategy and formation of policies. In this light, the present article focuses on the use of various tools and techniques of nonlinear analysis, including Time Series, Phase Portrait, Multiscale Analysis, Polar Plots, Largest Lyapunov Exponents, Fractal Dimension and Kolmogorov Entropy to analyze important data such as the share revenue and price, and draw conclusions to reveal key information about public sentiment and market trends. The management could potentially use this information towards effective formation of various policies such as compensation, dividend declarations and layoff operations.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[321] **viXra:1510.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-25 08:11:52*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The present work purports to a signal based generation of chaos, thereby offering a radically innovative solution to the issues of tunability caused in conventional system based chaos generation circuits. Specifically, the Ramanujan Theta Function is seen to represent the output signal of a coupled nonlinear system with two driving signals. Using this concept, the iterative map of the Ramanujan Theta Function is developed using the frequency ratio of driving signals as the control parameter, and the ratio dependent dynamics are studied using the bifurcation plot. The proposed system is implemented in hardware using FPGA and the presence of chaos is validated qualitatively using phase portraits and quantitatively using Lyapunov Exponents, whose trend indeed agree with the one observed in the bifurcation plot. The innovative perspective of signal based chaos proposed using the Ramanujan Theta Function enables easy tunability in chaotic generation systems and this forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[320] **viXra:1510.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-25 03:55:36*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents a ‘Holistic And Optimal Scheme For Music Composition’. The author uses the language of ‘Samskrutam’ and the ‘Carnatic’ Music Basis for such a construction.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[319] **viXra:1510.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-24 22:36:18*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Will find an appropriate journal for it in the next several weeks

We will from first principles examine what adding acceleration does, and will not do as to the HUP previously derived. In doing so we will be examining a Friedmann equation for the evolution of the scale factor, using explicitly two cases, one case being when the acceleration of expansion of the scale factor is kept in, another when it is out, and the intermediate cases of when the acceleration factor, and the scale factor is important but not dominant. In doing so we will be tying it in our discussion with the earlier work done on the HUP. The ratio of 2nd derivative of a (time derivative), divided by a (a is a scale factor) set equal to zero would mean that the ratio of the 1st derivative of a (time derivative) divided by a could have complex solution roots, whereas the ration of the 2nd derivative of a (time derivative) divided by a with a, the scale factor as a ration not equal to zero, but constant, and large would frequently imply the first time derivative of a divided by a would have three dissimilar real valued roots. From the sake of physical analysis, the situation with not equal to zero yields more tractable result for which will have implications for the HUP inequality

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[318] **viXra:1510.0382 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-25 22:15:32*

**Authors:** Wayne R. Lundberg

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 5 figures, Presentation at the DPF 2015 Meeting of the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields, Ann Arbor, Michigan, August 4-8, 2015.

The No-Boundary Wave Function (NBWF) instanton formulation provides a particle theory basis due to its consistency with causality and cosmology. Terms of the NBWF instanton action are identified with intrinsic metrics of finite-dimensional particle theory. This approach yields a new type of finitary particle theory, in which the string (or finite graviton) is replaced with band representation geometry. A band is simply the well-known string with an intrinsic stiffness. Representation geometric metrics of area and curvature are thus intrinsic descriptors of particle mass and energy. The ground states of a band are inherently tripartite (having three portions), which motivates assignment of QCD color local gauge fields to portions of the band. For completeness, band-theoretic representation requires a quantum state algebra. A quantum state algebra that is one-to-one with standard model particle theory was sought -and found. The band theory quantum state algebra is a subgroup of index 12 of a cross product of two wreath products. A subgroup of this unique non-commutative algebra has proven to be 1-1 with standard model QCD particles, via its fundamental tie to preons. Further, band theory produces exactly three particle generations (or families or flavors). Three flavors of neutrinos are thus predicted by a well-founded particle formulation, which is qualitatively consistent with observations of massive oscillating neutrinos.
Band theory is the particulate portion of a comprehensive theory, which includes cyclic cosmology. Cyclic cosmology has been demonstrated to have no cosmological coincidence problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[317] **viXra:1510.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-24 15:00:34*

**Authors:** Michal Zajaczkowski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

As it becomes understood that stars and planets are evolutionary stages of the same object, it becomes necessary to assign a name for that object. Proposed by this author is to adapt the Ancient Greek word Astron.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[316] **viXra:1510.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-24 12:32:57*

**Authors:** Petr Plecháč, Robert Kolár

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In following we present the Corpus of Czech Verse (i.e. lemmatised, phonetically, morphologically,
metrically and strophically annotated corpus of Czech poetry) and the online tools that give access to its data. The following online tools are described: Database of Czech metres, Gunstick, Hex, Euphonometer, and Babel. English presentation of these tools may be found in Plecháč, Kolár 2015 or at the website of Versification Research Group http://versologie.cz/en/).

**Category:** Linguistics

[315] **viXra:1510.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-24 05:42:13*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author has presented the notion of the ‘Universal Wave Function Of The Universe’, as an example, in Pure Verbose Form. One can distill the Primality {of all three types: namely Verbal Primality, Act(ion) Recursion Primality, Sense Understanding and/ or Perception Primalit}) of this form (text) and can consequently construct the Recursion Scheme of the afore-desired Universal Wave Function Of The Universe.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[314] **viXra:1510.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 16:26:58*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In a previous paper I showed how a new parameter added to MOND, the entropic degree of freedom N, exactly solved the MOND galaxy cluster mass discrepancy problem. In this paper I show that the same entropic degree of freedom produces an exact interpretation of Milgrom's approximate 5.a_0= c.H_0. The new relation gives N^2.a_0 = c.H_0. With present day values, N = 2.13, the cosmic degree of freedom of the entropic force in relation to cosmic structure formation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[313] **viXra:1510.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 18:21:20*

**Authors:** Santoszambrano Agudo

**Comments:** 1 Page. dictado a texto en español, sera mejorado y en ingles a la mayor brevedad posible

HOW REFUTE 2º LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[312] **viXra:1510.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 18:40:34*

**Authors:** Basudeba Mishra

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Posted and discussed at FQXi forum.

Is mathematics the only language of science? Is there an equation for the "observer"? If not, can science ignore "observer" as unscientific. Was Wigner right when he talked about the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics? Was Gödel's incompleteness theorem based on natural mathematics? What is the basis of number theory? If we re-envision classical and quantum observations as macroscopic overlap of quantum effects, we may solve most problems. The physics community blindly accepts rigid, linear ideas about the nature of space, time, dimension, etc. These theories provide conceptual convenience and attractive simplicity for pattern analysis, but at the cost of ignoring equally-plausible alternative interpretations of observed phenomena that could possibly have explained the universe better.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[311] **viXra:1510.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 18:46:39*

**Authors:** Basudeba Mishra

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The concept of black-hole firewall postulated by J. Polchinski and others in July 2012
(http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.3123) was extended to suggest that typical black holes
with field theory duals have firewalls at the event horizon (10.1103/
PhysRevLett.111.171301). This argument makes no reference to entanglement between the
black hole and any distant system; hence it is not evaded by identifying degrees of freedom
inside the black hole with those outside. During the last one year, more than 100 papers and conferences/workshops have addressed the idea of firewalls and examined different
aspects. We present three different empirical solutions to the paradox by revisiting the
foundational principles in each case. In this paper, we reexamine foundations of the
Equivalence Principle (EP) using Russell’s paradox of set theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[310] **viXra:1510.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 19:12:53*

**Authors:** Alfredo Olmos Hernández

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Beal's conjecture is studied, which arises from investigations Andrew Beal, on Fermat's Last Theorem in 1993.
Beal's conjecture, proposed to the equation a^x+b^y=c^z where A, B, C, x, y, z positive integers x, y, z> 2 so that the equation has a solution A, B, and C must have a common prime factor.
Given the vain attempts to find a counterexample to the conjecture (which has been proven by the help of modular arithmetic, for all values of the six variables to a value of 1000) values for the six variables. To advance the theory of numbers.
Given the relationship that has Beal's conjecture with Fermat's last theorem; it is considered important to number theory, demonstration of this conjecture.
To solve Beal's conjecture, using Fermat's last theorem and the remainder theorem is proposed.

**Category:** Number Theory

[309] **viXra:1510.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-24 00:01:52*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

中国年底发射暗物质卫星是最大错误

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[308] **viXra:1510.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-24 02:15:34*

**Authors:** Dimitris Poulos

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The four planets that influence the most the solar surface through tidal
forcing seem to affect the Earth climate. A simple two cosine model with periods 251
years, of the seasonality of the Earth – Venus syzygies, and 265.4 years, of the
combined syzygies of Jupiter and Mercury with Earth when Earth is in synod with
Venus, fits well the Northern Hemisphere temperatures of the last 1000 years as
reconstructed by Jones et al (1998). Later reconstructions that give too much
emphasis on multy-centenial variation are due to increased error. The physical
mechanism proposed is that planetary gravitational forces derange the Solar
Corona that in turn deranges the planetary geomagnetic field causing
temperature variations. The sun is in a boundary balance state at one hand
collapsing due to gravity and at the other hand expanding due to fusion, and as
such it should be heavily influenced by minimal external forcings such as
planetary gravity. Sound waves in the solar mass, created from the planetary
movement, are responsible for the formation of solar corona and sun spots.

**Category:** Climate Research

[307] **viXra:1510.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 13:01:19*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

African origins of E8 Physics (viXra 1508.0157) are outlined.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[306] **viXra:1510.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 09:36:36*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An innovative design of millimeter wave electrical solitons using 32nm deep submicron technology is proposed and simulated at the layout (chip) level using Microwind software. The design is a CMOS differential sine oscillator followed by a single inverter acting as a sine-to-soliton converter which operates at 400GHz. The generation of robust self-starting solitons with simple circuitry forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[305] **viXra:1510.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 11:55:54*

**Authors:** Robert M L Baker Jr, Bonnie Sue Baker

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Three advances are proposed as a pathway to the cataclysmic event of our first encounter with intelligent extraterrestrial Beings. First, discovery of very large numbers of extraterrestrial planets, “Exoplanets” (approximately 1023 in our Universe); second, introduction of electronic components into the human body evolving into a cybernetic and biological “cyborg,” a model for an extraterrestrial Being. Cyborgs might allow advanced civilizations to endure hundreds of thousands of years and third, the recent development of high-frequency gravitational wave (HFGW) detectors; the communication means of choice for an advanced, cyborg civilization since they are not easily absorbed like electromagnetic radiation. Six HFGW detectors are presented for application to our first encounter with intelligent extraterrestrial Beings. Numerical estimates are made for the failure of extraterrestrial civilizations such that no two exist at the same time (Fermi’s Paradox). It is concluded that there might remain at least ≈ 1.48x10^8 Worlds intercommunicating with HFGWs at any one time in any one region of our Universe. We predict the form of such Beings by an imaginary projection of the evolution of “Earthling” homo sapiens to become “cyborgs.” We propose that such cyborg forms of intelligent Beings would be encountered by us. The first cataclysmic encounter with them is expected to be interception of their interstellar communications. The predicted frequency of intercepted messages under one set of assumptions is at least 1,500 per day. After decoding the intercepted messages, keys may be found to improve vastly the present and future quality of life for us earthlings. Advanced Beings might utilize direct brain-to-brain communication and it is concluded that research into brain-to-brain communication and HFGW detection be encouraged.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[304] **viXra:1510.0364 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-14 21:15:05*

**Authors:** Danil Krotkov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Generalized Ramanujan identity

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[303] **viXra:1510.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 07:40:34*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

. We initially look at a non singular universe representation of entropy, with statistical inference based on Ha’s presentation in the ICGC2011 meeting. We conclude with work akin to what Mukhanov worked with in early Universe cosmology in terms of in terms of leading to an initial time step of the order of Planck time, as opposed to the GR equation which postulates time set at t = 0 initially. We then compare this to when delta g(tt) times delta T(time component of energy stress tensor) = h bar / volume

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[302] **viXra:1510.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 09:17:26*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 88 Pages. If you want to order a print version of this book, go to: https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/a-biblical-theory-of-everything/isbn/978-3-659-78041-7

Theory of Everything (TOE ) is the holy grail of theoretical and mathematical physics, it is a dream of unified description of almost all problems from cosmos, to elementary particles up to economics. So far, there are a number of candidates of TOE, such as M-Theory or Superstring, but they lack observable predictions. That is why many theoreticians think that M-Theory or Superstring have a status of Not Even Wrong, in the word of Pauli.
The theme of this book is a Biblical Theory of Everything inspired by the Johannine Prologue, and the message of this book is: Jesus is the Ultimate Agent of Creation of the Universe. What I mean is that Jesus Christ is the originator of everything in Cosmos. This book is a collection of my papers which have been submitted to several journals, including Foundations of Physics. My basic tenet here is that many physical phenomena and also economics as system can be modeled using classical wave equations, especially electromagnetic wave equations. If you want to order a print version of this book, go to: https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/a-biblical-theory-of-everything/isbn/978-3-659-78041-7

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[301] **viXra:1510.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 09:16:29*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The present work purports to the formulation and characterization of signal based chaos based on Bessel Functions. Specifically, the variable in these functions is viewed as an additively coupled sum of sinusoidal signals, with competing frequencies. By adapting the regular and modified Bessel Functions of the first and second kinds into signals, the derivatives are computed and used to form the corresponding iterative maps, which are studied using phase portraits. It is seen that the phase portraits of the regular and modified Bessel functions of the first kind exhibit rich, ornamental patterns, characteristic of quasiperiodicity and chaos. Using these, the bifurcation diagrams are plotted, and the chaotic behavior is quantitatively characterized using largest Lyapunov Exponents. It is seen that the nature of chaos in the generated signals indeed depend on the frequency ratio of the driving signals, thus pertaining to a case of signal based chaos, which has the key advantage of easy tunability, which forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[300] **viXra:1510.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 09:24:11*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, T. Venkata Subba Reddy, B. Madhava Reddy

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The current era of data explosion entails the necessity of high efficiency in terms of data capacity and data security. This scenario of Big Data inevitably leads to the technology of Internet of Things (IoT) in the future.
The present project purports to the effective harnessing of nonlinear signal processing principles leading to enhanced security of data without compromising on capacity. The advantage of using nonlinear signal processing lies in the fact that the nonlinearity of a single NMOS transistor is able to provide robust security by generation of chaotic signals. This results in low power dissipation and simplicity of circuitry. The enhanced secure communication techniques are then studied giving importance to the phase variations in the signal and are then applied to real world information systems. Also, the possibility of introducing such techniques in conventional big data systems such as RDBMS and Hadoop are considered.
After significantly demonstrating the capabilities of the nonlinear signal processing approach in terms of fidelity, capacity and robustness, the techniques are extended even further to include an Internet of Things (IoT) based environment. The implementation of nonlinear signal processing techniques to IoT based systems such as RFID are explored. At the final stage, the change in the managerial perspective required to handle the IoT dominated environment is discussed. The business level implications of such a technology shift are studied. This study of IoT is termed as “Management of Things” (MoT).
The principal aim of this project is to provide a feasible, efficient, innovative yet costeffective solution to the biggest problems of the telecommunication world today – data capacity and data security. This project thus follows from the motto “Transformation through Information” and leads us gently to become effective citizens of a smarter planet.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[299] **viXra:1510.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 05:22:51*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Simple geometric algebra, logarithmic functions and equations will be used in the paper to present new quantum gravity aspects such as: curving and expansion of the space-time continuum and subsequently the acceleration of the expansion, dark matter, dark energy and that particles known as “gravitons” are a quantum of dark matter as well as relations of dimensions of space and the dimension of time regarding space-time curving and its expansion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[298] **viXra:1510.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-22 18:07:49*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I discus the degree of freedom parameter of the emergent Dark Matter force. I show how this degree of freedom parameter N results in a possible difference between observed mass and apparent mass, in cases where N is larger than one. This might solve the galaxy cluster mass discrepancy of MOND. In my model the degrees of freedom of galaxies in clusters influences their number of microstates inside the cluster and thus their entropy. And then it also influences the apparent baryonic mass in the emergent Dark Matter force, a mass that will appear a factor in between two or three bigger than can be directly observed.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[297] **viXra:1510.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 01:48:45*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V., Nikitin V. N.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Today there is no the finished uniform theory or a hypothesis not only concerning processes of emergence and evolution of the Universe, but even its separate objects and substances. The made attempts of scientists somehow to open or prove secrets of the Universe aren't perceived at all and aren't logical, and without "the beginning and the end". Persistent attempts of "impact" on human consciousness by some strange theories like strings, a set of measurements, neopredelennost etc. become even more dangerous. Also persistently and unsubstantially scientists don't want to leave alone GOD and to use his fruits. The above methods of "tests and mistakes" only take away towards effort of scientists, and also bring additional chaos in process of knowledge of ALL.
The purpose of our work is attempt of establishment of interrelation of the major physical properties of objects of the Universe with their structure and stages of evolution. Questions of a structure and evolution of planets on the basis of an exclusive hypothesis of a structure and evolution of planets are considered.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[296] **viXra:1510.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-22 09:44:59*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A frequency dependant chaos generator offering the twin advantages of simplicity of implementation and easy control and tunability is proposed using an iterative map based on the circle map and characterized using bifurcation diagrams. The nonlinearity of a single MOS transistor is effectively harnessed and is used to design a frequency dependant chaos generator using ring oscillators for the driving signals. The proposed design is implemented at the deep submicron VLSI level at 180nm CMOS Technology using SPICE Simulation. The generated chaos is characterized qualitatively using waveforms, spectra and phase portrait. Quantitative characterization using Lyapunov Exponent, Kolmogorov Entropy and Fractal Dimension ascertain the chaotic nature. Finally, the dependance of the nature of chaos generated on the power supply and on the driving signal frequency is characterized. The simplicity of circuitry coupled with the frequency dependence and low power dissipation form the key highlights of the present work. The chaotic signal generated in the present work serve as a potential candidate as a carrier in secure communication systems and encryption techniques.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[295] **viXra:1510.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-22 10:45:14*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents some novel concepts of the aspect of ‘Conservation’ of sense (of belonging to the Language, not necessarily the meaning, the meaning is different) of language when any ‘Samskrutam’ Language Statement is reversed, phonetically {syllable and/ or group of syllables wise forming one unified phonetic construct of concern} wise. Furthermore, the meaning of the considered segments in the onward sense and the meaning of the same considered segment in the reverse and/ or backward sense have a cause-effect-cause (i.e., as in CauseEffectCause) relational sense when such segments are considered cyclically! Furthermore, the author notes that given a meaningful ‘Samskrutam’ language segment one can consider another (sub-set) segment from anywhere (once it is cyclically slated) within this segment and still such segment makes sense (though it may be different). Furthermore, this aspect also satisfies the aforementioned cause-effect-cause meaning aspect detailed above. Furthermore, a ‘Universal Transformation Process Between Any Language Of Concern To Any Other Language Of Concern And Higher And/ Or Lower Order Variants Of Any Language Of Concern’ is presented. Also, a scheme to detect any tempering of ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is presented as we can note that this scheme can also be used a ‘Causality Meter’ and can be used to detect ‘Truth’ regarding CauseEffectCause when the ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is analyzed in the onward (left to right) and the reverse (right to left) and/ or backward directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[294] **viXra:1510.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-22 09:23:43*

**Authors:** Hasmukh Bhailal Patel

**Comments:** 150 Pages.

Ether Flux Theory (EFT) has been put forward to explain many physical phenomena of nature, employing a single assumption, the existence of ether. The theory explains gravity, inertial mass, diffraction, interference, quantum mechanics (double slit experiment), and radioactive decay. It has been developed based on logical deduction for the existence of ether (aka aether). Supportive evidence are provided, in places, by which one can verify the assumptions and axioms used in EFT. The EFT is a logical framework, a first step for any physical theory, rather than a system of equations as it is believed that a complete theory based on EFT may not be provided by a set of equations, rather a computer simulation model is thought necessary. There are also some experimentally verifiable predictions, arising from this theory, which when confirmed will provide proof for EFT. Using EFT gravity and quantum mechanics explained, with a single assumption, which has been a long standing problem in physics. It is hoped that based on EFT a more rigorous physico-mathematical theory will be developed by the physicists and mathematicians (uniting gravity and quantum mechanics) which has been a long standing problem in modern physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[293] **viXra:1510.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-22 06:24:48*

**Authors:** Răzvan-Alexandru Călin

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The 21st century is marked by the extensive and easy access to information
through the virtual environment.
Do we find in today’s Romanian school the presence of a formative space -
on the one hand, facilitator for a maximal exploitation of opportunities, and on
the other hand, a “sensor” for new risks, characteristic to the information era? Is
the “digital generation” (Mark Prensky) of the beginning of century in Romania
ready from these perspectives?
The present paper outlines the results of a comparative exploratory study
regarding the ordinary methods used by youngsters - from 5th and 6th grades, as
well as 11th and 12th grades, from six different schools, high-schools and colleges
from Dolj county – to find information about different topics/homework. The
results offer the premises for hypothesis regarding this phenomenon at national
level.
The conclusions indicate as the main method of obtaining information
the web-searching. They emphasize the absence of an initial specific educational
training in this domain and allow the delineation of a suggestive image regarding
possible future methods of action.

**Category:** Social Science

[292] **viXra:1510.0350 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-31 06:26:01*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Re done paper after some stupidity which no one could believe possible from the conference organizers of the Entropy conference

We initially look at a nonsingular universe representation of Entropy, based in part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto. This is a gateway to bringing up information and computational steps (as defined by Seth Lloyd) as to what would be available initially due to a modified Zero Point Energy formalism. The Zero Point Energy formalism is modified as due to Matt Vissers’s setting of an angular plane number in early universe cosmology as k(maximum) ~ 1/(Planck length), with a specific initial density giving rise to initial information content which may permit fixing the initial Planck’s constant, h, which is pivotal to the setting of physical law . This would be in the spirit of Christi Stoica’s removal of initial conditions of non-pathological initial starting points in Cosmology. What we want are necessary and sufficient conditions so . We also in addition make a brief survey into 5th force arguments in gravity which also have a strict entropy interpretation. I.e. how to link gravity, quantum mechanics, and E and M through Entropy production.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[291] **viXra:1510.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-22 02:06:35*

**Authors:** ikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V., Nikitin V. N.

**Comments:** 1 Page. The hypothesis BEFORE THE - JUST jerk! Explanatory note. We created an independent creative team «NIKI» proactively engaged in solving actual problems in the fundamental areas of science and technology. Our results are clear and do not require any assumpt

SOLID-STATE PLANETS AT THE FINAL STAGE OF EVOLUTION BECOME HOLLOW, AND GASEOUS – SOLID-STATE!BELT OF ASTEROIDS ARE SPLINTERS OF THE COVER OF THE PHAETON, WHICH KERNEL – CERES!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[290] **viXra:1510.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-21 13:19:24*

**Authors:** Victor Sorokine

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Aucune conclusion, preuve élémentaire du DTF en 15 lignes ne comprend que quatre opérations arithmétiques: 1) 1 х 1 = 1,
2) a + 1 > a,
3) La solution de l'équation a+x=n est x=n-a, et une déclaration:
4) le système {A+B-C>0, A+B-C=0} est contradictoir.
Et TOUT!
P.S. 8000 personnes (et 2 professeurs d'université) ont regardé la preuve sur les forums de discussion. Personne n'a détecté une erreur.

**Category:** Number Theory

[289] **viXra:1510.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-21 11:22:53*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The interpretation of Young's double slit experiment of diffraction and interference remains controversial. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of single photon diffraction is a model with photons being directed by plenum forces as Newton speculated. The STOE simulation of the light diffraction experiments produces the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern on the screen. An experiment used an image resulting from a single slit projected onto a second mask. If the second mask slit is placed at the center of the image, a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern is projected onto the screen. One side of a slit in the minima examined the result of varying the intensity of the illumination across the slit. One slit of two in the minima examined the result of only one of the double slits being illuminated. The resultant patterns on a screen were photographed and are on the opposite side of center from the illuminated side of the second mask. The STOE simulation reproduced the images. The STOE explains several quantum peculiarities with classical processes. These observations do not reject the Newtonian model of diffraction and does reject wave models.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[288] **viXra:1510.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-21 07:23:12*

**Authors:** Nicolae Mazilu; Maricel Agop

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The extended matter should be first characterized by a surface of separation from the empty space. This surface cannot be neatly, i.e. purely geometrically, defined. When it comes to extended particles, which are the fundamental structural units of the matter, the physical evidence is that they are not even stable: they are in a continuous transformation, and so are their limits of separation from space. The present work describes a concept of extended particle with special emphasis on this limit of separation. It turns out that the properties of inertia, as classically understood, are intrinsically related to the spin properties of quantum origin. Thus, the extended particle model cannot be but “holographic” when it comes to imbedding it in a physical structure. The spin properties turn out to be essential, inasmuch as they decide the forces of interaction issuing from the particle.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[287] **viXra:1510.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-27 08:17:12*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Research has shown that an analogy exists between potential vortex flow and the generation of space-time curvature around massive objects as predicted by Einstein’s theory of General Relativity (GR). The analogy between GR and potential vortex flow is based on results from potential vortex experimentation, GP-B researcher statements, free-surface shape extracted from Schwarzschild’s metric, a unit analysis of the curvature and energy-momentum components of potential vortex flow and the analogous components from Einstein’s Field Equations and black hole dynamics compared to potential vortex dynamics. This research indicates that gravity control and rudimentary warp drive is possible if space-time possesses the properties of a superfluid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[286] **viXra:1510.0344 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-02 09:59:46*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This discussion refers to the June 2015 Discover magazine article, “Tomorrow Never Was. A conscientious cosmologist rejects Einstein’s notion that time is an illusion and the future is already written”. This article concerns George Ellis’s ideas about time and space and how time interacts with the quantum nature of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[285] **viXra:1510.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-21 04:52:09*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents some novel concepts of the aspect of ‘Conservation’ of sense (of belonging to the Language, not necessarily the meaning, the meaning is different) of language when any ‘Samskrutam’ Language Statement is reversed, phonetically {syllable and/ or group of syllables wise forming one unified phonetic construct of concern} wise. Furthermore, the meaning of the considered segments in the onward sense and the meaning of the same considered segment in the reverse and/ or backward sense have a cause-effect-cause {i.e., as in (->)-(<-)-(->)} relational sense when such segments are considered cyclically! Furthermore, the author notes that given a meaningful ‘Samskrutam’ language segment one can consider another (sub-set) segment from anywhere (once it is cyclically slated) within this segment and still such segment makes sense (though it may be different). Furthermore, this aspect also satisfies the aforementioned cause-effect-cause meaning aspect detailed above.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[284] **viXra:1510.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-20 18:28:10*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Will the physics of GRS look similar or different from current physics [primarily strings]?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[283] **viXra:1510.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-20 14:37:38*

**Authors:** Austin J. Fearnley

**Comments:** 19 pages

Quantum gravity, dark matter and dark energy have here been modelled using Hexark and Preon Model #7. Catalyst bosons stimulate a force exchange between fermions and/or between bosons. The photon, Z and gluon form a family of three generations. There are separate families of generations of higgs, W, dark boson and also the graviton. The third generation gluon, higgs, dark and graviton are all coloured in a similar way. Gravitons are in three generations. Gravitational QCD acts as an extremely weak third generation version of QCD while Gravitational QED acts as a weak first generation copy of QED. There is also a gravitational weak force which very weakly mimics the second generation Z force. Dark matter is a third generation dark boson as also is the higgs boson. Gravity is not wholly attractive but the coloured graviton (third generation) is a mainly attractive and dominant Gravitational QCD force on an intergalactic scale, as the strong force is a dominant attractive force within an atomic nucleus. The relative weakness of the gravitational force enables an attractive dominance to extend over a huge domain, but not an unlimited extent. The first generation gravitons enable a repulsive force to dominate outside the sphere of the attractive third generation graviton, just as the first generation photon enables different nuclei to repel one other electromagnetically. This first generation gravitational QED force gives rise, at a very large distance away, to dark energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[282] **viXra:1510.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-20 15:03:17*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper I derive an emergent Dark Matter force using the virial theorem in the context of the Dark Matter halo model. This emergent force is then used to inductively derive a Dark Matter entropy S and a Dark Matter number of microstates W. I then show that this emergent force can be interpreted as an entropic force. Using the first law of thermodynamics a set of two forces can be derived from my model's potential function, with the Newtonian force of gravity derived from the energy as the first one and the emergent Dark Matter force derived from entropy as the second one.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[281] **viXra:1510.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-20 08:25:12*

**Authors:** Basudeba Mishra, Kolkata

**Comments:** Nine page first dradt

THIS PAPER PRESENTS A THEORETICAL DERIVATION OF CHARGE OF QUARKS; and THE STRENGTH OF THE FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT, Alpha

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[280] **viXra:1510.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-20 04:29:30*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. It has to find a home. So be it.

We look at what may occur if Boltzmann equations, as presented by Muramaya in 2007, Les Houches, are applied to graviton density in a pre Planckian universe setting. Two restrictions are in order. First of all, we are assuming a graviton mass on the order of 10^-62 grams, as if the pre Planckian regime does not change the nature of Graviton mass, in its low end.. Secondly, we are also assuming that a comparatively low temperature regime (far below the Planckian temperature) exist . Secondly we are leaving unsaid what may happen if Gravitational waves enter the Planck regime of ultra high temperature. With those two considerations, we proceed to examine a Graviton density value resulting from perturbation from low to higher temperatures. Either cyclic conformal cosmology as ventured by Penrose may be the genesis of a low temperature regime, or a multiverse.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[279] **viXra:1510.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-19 21:44:57*

**Authors:** Erman ZENG

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In the first part of this paper, a neoclassical framework is proposed which places the Marxian conceptions of both Constant Capital and Variable Capital into a Cobb-Douglas production function like model in order to obtain the mathematical formulations of Marx labour value function and Marx surplus value function as well as Marx production function , which leads to the Marxian 1st theorem about technical progress: . In the second part, the general equilibrium properties of the quantitative Marxian productivity theories are investigated by using variation method. The Marxian 2nd theorem about dynamic equilibrium asserts, there is a input-output equilibrium existed in the reproduction process between Two Departments ; The Marxian 3rd theorem states that only equilibrium growth leads to the positive value of the productivity parameter which is defined as the product of the change rate of the organic composite of capital with the labor output elasticity of Cobb-Douglas production function[ ], as well as the rising rate of profit. The present paper is also a generalization of the precise conditions under which the profit rate rises or falls. Only when an economic system achieves the Marxian equilibrium including its each production Department, there would be no business cycle; otherwise there exists some potential crisis. At last, an econo-sociological Marxism model is proposed as a criterion for a regional optimal economic growth.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[278] **viXra:1510.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-20 01:51:14*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This paper has just been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

In a recent paper I presented a possible route from an exact analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations to Navier-Stokes Cosmology on Cantor Sets. But that was just an outline or a view that there is coherent hydrodynamics picture for everything in this Universe, from smallest scales to galaxies and beyond. Therefore in the present paper I will review four applications of a Navier-Stokes Cosmology: a. Active Galactic Nuclei, b. Oceanography, c. Relativistic Hydrodynamics, and d. Vortex model of elementary particles. While I borrow most of these applications from some existing literature, but to my present knowledge there is no attempt so far to view these applications under a unified theme of Navier-Stokes cosmology.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[277] **viXra:1510.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-19 14:00:53*

**Authors:** A.S.Bhattacharyya, R. Praveen Kumar

**Comments:** 02 Pages. Working Paper

A model for sputter based deposition of TiN films was developed by simulations. The rate of change of partial sputtering yield with coverage was considered. The deposition pressure and time were varied to get films of different thickness.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[276] **viXra:1510.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-19 10:38:49*

**Authors:** Alicia Abarca Cifuentes, Maria Jesus Delgado

**Comments:** Alicia Abarca Cifuentes as Final project student, 26 Pages.

The goal of this Project is to study the regulation of the “nos” genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, which encodes the nitrous oxide reductase enzyme responsible for the reduction of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). To achieve this goal, I am using transcriptional fusions of the promoter regions of “nos” genes to lacZ reporter gene I have transferred by conjugation a nosRlacZ fusion into the parental strain USDA110 and a-mutant strain lacking the regulatory protein RegR. The transconjugants obtained were grown in minima media with different concentrations of oxygen. Cells have been obtained by centrifugation and I have measured the beta-Galactosidase activity of cells.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[275] **viXra:1510.0329 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-23 01:38:57*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Dust-cloud collapse gives in Moller's formula the E=0 as energy. Therefore, if such cloud flies towards a wall, the thermal energy won't be released after the impact. But warm must be (cloud of machine gun bullets).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[274] **viXra:1510.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-19 12:12:59*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

The Special Problems of E-geometry consist the Quantization Moulds of Euclidean Geometry in it , to become → The Basic monad , through mould of Space –Anti-space in itself , which is the material dipole in inner monad Structure as it is Electromagnetic cycloidal field → Linearly , through mould of Parallel Theorem , which are the equal distances between the points of parallel and line → In Plane , through mould of Squaring the circle , where the two equal and perpendicular monads consist a Plane acquiring the common Plane-meter → and in Space (volume) , through mould of the Duplication of the Cube , where any two Un-equal and perpendicular monads acquire the common Space-meter to be twice each other , as this in the analytical methods explained . The article consist also a provocation to all scarce today Geometers and to mathematicians in order to give an answer to this article and its content . All Geometrical solutions of the Old-age standing Unsolved Problems are now solved and are clearly Exposed , and reveal the pass-over-faults of Relativity .

**Category:** Geometry

[273] **viXra:1510.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-19 05:30:35*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this research monograph note, the author expresses his views on how any Technology when slated in terms of Primality Equivalents using the concepts of ‘Primality Engineering’
{see see (http://www.vixra.org/author/ramesh_chandra_bagadi)}
can find the quantized versions of this technology for all variable orders of dimensions of space, starting from one, when evolved and/ or devolved by one step every time.
For example, the author also considers the uses of the William F. Baker’s ‘Buttressed Core Concept’ in the context of variable dimensions, especially in ‘2’ Dimensions and ‘1’ Dimension. The advantage of such a technical reduction of this concept using the author’s ‘Primality Engineering’ concepts is that one can derive equivalent advantage offered by this concept in two dimensional constructs such a shear walls, pure compression bearing structures such as columns. One can also make transformations of this concept to higher dimensions as well using the author’s concepts on ‘Primality Engineering’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[272] **viXra:1510.0325 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-26 07:00:37*

**Authors:** Jesse Read, Luca Martino Jaakko Hollmén

**Comments:** 29 Pages. (accepted: to appear) Pattern Recognition

The number of methods available for classification of multi-label data has increased rapidly over recent years, yet relatively few links have been made with the related task of classification of sequential data. If labels indices are considered as time indices, the problems can often be seen as equivalent. In this paper we detect and elaborate on connections between multi-label methods and Markovian models, and study the suitability of multi-label methods for prediction in sequential data. From this study we draw upon the most suitable techniques from the area and develop two novel competitive approaches which can be applied to either kind of data. We carry out an empirical evaluation investigating performance on real-world sequential-prediction tasks: electricity demand, and route prediction. As well as showing that several popular multi-label algorithms are in fact easily applicable to sequencing tasks, our novel approaches, which benefit from a unified view of these areas, prove very competitive against established methods.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[271] **viXra:1510.0324 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-29 17:53:30*

**Authors:** Manuel Abarca Hernandez

**Comments:** 76 Pages. In this version it has been got a Bernouilli differential equation for gravitational field which allows to calculate DM density depending on radius.

Dark Matter Density Function Depending on Gravitational Field as Universal Law
The purpose this work is to study density function of Dark Matter (D.M.) depending on E, total intensity of gravitational field, in a group of six big spiral galaxies and try to explore a possible Universal law between both magnitudes.
Galaxies selected are the following ones: Milky Way, M31, NGC 3031, NGC 3992, NGC 7331, NGC 2841
The reason why it has been made this work is to check the model of DM proposed by the author in his previous paper [5] Abarca,M.2014 viXra. Dark Matter model by quantum vacuum.
Briefly, in that work was exposed a original theory of DM. This new theory defends that DM is generated by the own gravitational field according an unknown quantum gravitational mechanism. In other words, Density of Dark Matter in a point P of space, depend on E, according a Universal law. Therefore if two different points P and Q belonging different galaxies had the same E, intensity of gravitational field, then they should have the same density of DM. In short, If E(P) = E(Q) then Density DM(P) = Density DM (Q).
In the present paper, for each galaxy it will be calculated E, total intensity of gravitational field, depending on R. This calculus is carry out through the Rotational Curve and the Virial Theorem.
In addition, for each galaxy it is considered a Dark matter density function, which is tabulated depending on R. After, it is plotted DM density depending on E.
Data of eight galactic set are studied statistically and it is concluded that its coefficient correlation is enough high to fit a potential function to DM density depending on E. Statistical process has been carefully detailed through the paper, so I have found plausible to postulate this function as Universal for big galaxies. I have considered a big galaxy if its velocity inside its flat region of rotation curve is up to 200 Km/s.
Dark matter function Density as Universal law for big galaxies
Density DM = 1,26 • 10^ - 6 • E^ B where B = 1,74 inside a dominion 100 < E < 6500
Where Unit for Density D.M. is 10^ -3 MSUN /pc^3 or m MSUN /pc^3 and Unit for E is Km^ 2 / s^ 2 / Kpc
The same function with other suitable system of units is Density DM = 3,7323 • 10^ 17 • E^ B being B = 1,74 Where Unit for Density D.M. is mMSUN /pc^3 and Unit for E is m/s^2.
In chapter 12 it is calculated Local DM density (Sun region). Recent measures of Sun are Radius = and Sun Velocity = With such values, intensity of gravitational field in Sun Region ESUN = Km^2/s^2/ Kpc and Density DM in Sun region = 6,45 mMSUN / pc^3 = 0,245 GeV/cm^3 . This value agrees with direct measures of Local DM density.
In chapter 14, DM density potential function has been checked with NFW profile in Milky Way and it has been found that agreement between both curves are mainly under 10 % inside the whole dominion up to 375 Kpc which is an excellent agreement in astrophysics¡.
In chapter 15, DM density potential function has been checked with NFW profile in M31.Although the agreement between both functions is not so good as in Milky Way case, relative error is enough small to accept that M31 supports DM density potential function.
In chapter 16, density potential function is written depending on radius x, and it is clearly showed that this function is equivalent to NFW, relative error inside the whole dominion are enough small that they could be considered come from error in astronomical measures.
Finally in chapter 17 has been got a Bernoulli differential equation for gravitational field which allows to calculate potential density function depending on radius. In addition potential function has been compared with NFW density function through halo region and it has been found that relative differences are below 13% in Milky Way and below 16% in M31 galaxy. This is a superb result as can understand any astrophysicist ¡
In my opinion, it has been justified properly that results could confirm DM density as universal law, especially if it is considered experimental error in rotation curves and error in calculus of DM density functions.
The author think that it may be worth to study a bigger number of galaxies in order to check or reject results got in this paper because Dark matter nature is one of the most important challenges for astrophysics science nowadays.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[270] **viXra:1510.0323 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-20 12:35:20*

**Authors:** Julius Birch

**Comments:** 52 Pages. In ver.5 second section on Apollo 11 landing is finalized. Also fourth section is corrected for the effects of yaw rate.

NASA programme Apollo landed men on the Moon and returned them safely to Earth.
In support of their achievements NASA presented, among others, two pieces of
evidence which are subject of this report,
namely, the photographs of the Apollo 11 landing site; and,
the video-recording of the Apollo 17 lift-off.
Starting from post-landing NASA documents, the Apollo 11 landing sequence is proposed in which
the Lunar Module cruises at the height of the Lunar Surface Sensing
Probes (LSSP, some $1.7$~m above the ground) for as much as ten seconds before touchdown,
and it is the -Y/Left and +Y/Right landing gears that touched the surfrace first.
This is then compared to pre-landing NASA experimental investigation,
% of landing gear performance in simulated lunar conditions
according to which the deformation energy
$\mbox{DE} \gsimeq \mbox{KE}$, the impact kinetic energy, while the potential
energy from settling is the smallest, $\mbox{PE} \ll \mbox{KE}$;
and that the one or two gears touching the surface first, absorb most of KE.
Contrary to expectations, NASA reported that -Z/Aft landing gear absorbed as much energy
as all the other gears combined, and that $\mbox{DE} \simeq \frac12\,\mbox{KE}$.
It is shown that this outcome is consistent with the dry Lunar Module being lowered
to an uneven surface at near-zero vertical velocity and then released to settle down
in Earth-like gravity.
Next, we examine the behavior of the LSSPs in the 360\deg~yaw that
the Apollo 11 Lunar Module performed during the Inspection
and Separation Stage in the lunar circular orbit.
Contrary to NASA's own reference drawings of the fully deployed LSSPs,
we find that during the maneuver the LSSPs are always flexed mildly-inwards,
as if the Lunar Module were suspended in the presence of gravity, and not weightless
in the lunar orbit.
Lastly, detailed analysis of the Apollo 17 lift-off video recording is presented.
It is shown that the vessel trajectory implies an additional propulsion in
form of an explosion, while the video frames flicker at 5~Hz and 10~Hz rate and
carry an artefact strongly resembling an edge of film stock.
An analysis of illumination of the ascending Lunar Module is also presented, which
suggests that the vessel is approaching near-by light source rather then being lit by the Sun (at infinity).
A discussion of the entire scene follows, and an explanation for the explosion is proposed.
Overall, it is concluded that the photographs and the video recording depict
scenes that were staged here on Earth, rather then on the way to the Moon.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[269] **viXra:1510.0322 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-30 16:32:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We will be taking a look at analyzing different papers from the Cambridge University Press on Computational Mathematics, Theoretical Physics, and Mathematical Physics. We will be reviewing them through a literary, rhetorical, and ofcourse scientific perspective. Overall we will do this through an Annotated Bibliography.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[268] **viXra:1510.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-19 00:32:11*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. in Russian © A more accurate sense of the law of universal gravitation.

Закон всемирного тяготения гласит: «Два любых тела притягиваются друг к другу с силой, прямо пропорциональной произведению масс этих тел и обратно пропорционально квадрату расстояния между ними» (слова из Wikipedia) (взято из Wikipedia) (цитируется по Wikipedia). Согласно Теории природы (материалистическая физика и космология) автора, материя является основой природы и основной физической величиной в физике. Масса является производной физической величиной. Поэтому закон всемирного тяготения применим не к массам тел, а к количеству материи, входящей в состав физических тел.
In modern language, the Newton's law of universal gravitation states: “Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. The force is proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them” (quoted from Wikipedia). According to the “Theory of nature” (materialistic physics and cosmology) of the author the matter is the basis of the nature and one is the basic physical quantities in physics. The mass is the derived physical quantity. Therefore, the law of universal gravitation does not apply to the masses of bodies, and to the amounts of matter, which are the part of the physical bodies.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[267] **viXra:1510.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-19 02:52:06*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

1 October 2015: A reply to the challenge, “What’s your problem with Bell’s theorem?”

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[266] **viXra:1510.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 13:25:35*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We investigate the most general Lagrangian in the Minkowski space for the symmetric tensor field of the second rank.
Then, we apply the Higgs mechanism to provide the mass to the appropriate components.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[265] **viXra:1510.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 13:36:06*

**Authors:** Alexander SOIGUINE

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

When quantum mechanical qubits as elements of two dimensional complex Hilbert space are generalized to elements of even subalgebra of geometric algebra over three dimensional Euclidian space, geometrically formal complex plane becomes explicitly defined as an arbitrary, variable plane in 3D. The result is that the quantum state definition and evolution receive more detailed description, including clear calculations of geometric phase, with important consequences for topological quantum computing.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[264] **viXra:1510.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:40:14*

**Authors:** John M. Campbell

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We present an integral representation of Kekulé numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[263] **viXra:1510.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:41:19*

**Authors:** Taekyun Kim, C. Adiga, Jung Hun Han

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The additive analogues of Pseudo-Smarandache, Smarandache-simple functions and their duals have been recently studied by J. S´andor. In this note,
we obtain q-analogues of S´andor’s theorems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[262] **viXra:1510.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:42:14*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The isotopic invariance or universality of types and varieties of quasigroups and loops described by one or more equivalent identities has been of interest to researchers in loop theory in the recent past.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[261] **viXra:1510.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:44:27*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The study of the Smarandache concept in groupoids was initiated by W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[260] **viXra:1510.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:45:30*

**Authors:** B. O. Onasanya

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is to comparatively review some works in fuzzy and anti fuzzy group theory. The aim is to provide anti fuzzy versions of some existing theorems in fuzzy group theory and see how much similar they are to their fuzzy versions. The research therefore focuses on the properties of fuzzy subgroup, fuzzy cosets, fuzzy conjugacy and fuzzy normal subgroups of a group which are mimicked in anti fuzzy group theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[259] **viXra:1510.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:46:16*

**Authors:** Octavian Cira

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Această conjectură generalizează conjectura Andrica.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[258] **viXra:1510.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:48:47*

**Authors:** Stefan Adrian Dumitru

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Robotica reprezinta in prezent unul din cele mai mari realizari ale omenirii si este cea mai mare incercare de a produce o inta articiala capabila sa simta si sa transmita emotii, producatorii de roboti realizand in ultimii ani modele de serie extrem de complexe disponibile pentru publicul larg.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[257] **viXra:1510.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:49:45*

**Authors:** Ionel Alexandru Gal

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Scopul principal al lucrării este de a realiza o metodă nouă şi inovativă de control hibrid forţă-poziţie care se poate adapta în timp real, la orice tip de situaţie şi eveniment pe care robotul le poate întâlni în mediul de lucru.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[256] **viXra:1510.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:50:40*

**Authors:** Ionel Alexandru Gal

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to develop a new and innovative hybrid force/position control method able to adapt in real time to any kind of situation and event that the robot may encounter in the workspace. For this, in hybrid control development phase, multiple control laws are chosen, and to them is associated their way of use, followed by the definition of a real time control laws’ set that the robot will use according to the situation met in the workspace, by states and uncertainty areas for which will be defined control laws and methods with wide spectrum applicability.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[255] **viXra:1510.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:51:30*

**Authors:** Dănuț Adrian Bucur

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Robotica se ocupă cu studiul acelor maşini ce pot înlocui omul în executarea anumitor sarcini, atât
din punctul de vedere al activităţii fizice cât şi cel al luării deciziilor.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[254] **viXra:1510.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:55:13*

**Authors:** Patrik Nystedt

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We introduce fuzzy groupoid graded rings and, as a particular case, fuzzy crossed product algebras. We show that there is a bijection between the set of fuzzy graded isomorphism equivalence classes
of fuzzy crossed product algebras and the associated second cohomology group.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[253] **viXra:1510.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:56:24*

**Authors:** Daher Waly Freh Al-Rekabi, Alia Shany Hassan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we study some results of the generalized sum of a fuzzy subgroup and -cut subgroup ,we define a-cut subset and a-cut
subgroup, and then .We study some of their properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[252] **viXra:1510.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:57:09*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

As a model of spacetimes in physics, various geometries such as those of Euclid,
Riemannian and Finsler geometries are established by mathematicians.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[251] **viXra:1510.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:58:03*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The notion of the holomorph of a generalized Bol loop (GBL) is characterized afresh. The holomorph of a right inverse property loop (RIPL) is shown to be a GBL if and only if the loop is a GBL and some bijections of the loop are right (middle) regular.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[250] **viXra:1510.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:58:59*

**Authors:** Talat Körpınar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this work, new type ruled surfaces in terms of B- Smarandache TM1 curves of biharmonic B- slant helices in the SOL3 are studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[249] **viXra:1510.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:00:09*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The notion of multi-spaces is introduced by Smarandache under his idea of hybrid mathematics: combining different fields into a unifying field.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[248] **viXra:1510.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:03:54*

**Authors:** Hassan Rashed Yassein, Mazen Omran Karim

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research, we defined the term a smarandache M – semigroup (S-M-semigroup)
and studied some basic properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[247] **viXra:1510.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:05:24*

**Authors:** F. Aliniaeifarda, M. Behboodib, E. Mehdi-Nezhadc, Amir M. Rahimi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Throughout this paper, all rings are assumed to be commutative with identity.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[246] **viXra:1510.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:06:40*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A Smarandache quasigroup(loop) is shown to be universal if all its f, g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f, g-principal isotopes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[245] **viXra:1510.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:07:53*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

According to Ashbacher and Neirynck, an integer is said to be a palindrome if it reads the same forwards and backwards.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[244] **viXra:1510.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:08:55*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Parallel lines are very important objects in Euclid plane geometry and its behaviors can be gotten by one’s intuition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[243] **viXra:1510.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:12:38*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The study of the Smarandache concept in groupoids was initiated by W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[242] **viXra:1510.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:15:40*

**Authors:** Stanislav I. Konstantinov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Recognising the space environment (neo-ether) as a new corporeal entity provides the humankind with an inexhaustible source for conceptual innovations in many domains. Instantaneous transmission of the information and energy to anywhere in The Solar System, gravity control, generating unlimited amounts of electrical energy at subatomic level, fundamentally new electric motors, the power reactors on the basis of cold nuclear fusion (CNF). Formal science had not recognised new physical phenomena; nevertheless, many of those projects have been already in a stage of their technological implementation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[241] **viXra:1510.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:16:27*

**Authors:** Abbas Saliimi Lokman, Ngahzaifa Ab. Ghani, Lok Leh Leong

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper critically reviews several Special
Relativity simulation applications and proposes a method to dynamically simulate Time Dilation effect.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[240] **viXra:1510.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:17:13*

**Authors:** Catalin Barbu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note, we present a proof of Smarandache’s cevian triangle hyperbolic theorem in the Einstein relativistic velocity model of hyperbolic geometry.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[239] **viXra:1510.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:18:05*

**Authors:** Dersim Kaya

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we study Smarandache curves according to 2 type Bishop frame in Euclid-
ean 3-space.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[238] **viXra:1510.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:21:18*

**Authors:** H. S. Abdel-Aziz, M. Khalifa Saad

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the present paper, we consider a position vector of an arbitrary curve in the three-dimensional Galilean space G3. Furthermore, we give some conditions on the curvatures of this arbitrary curve to study special curves and their Smarandache curves. Finally, in the light of this study, some related examples of these curves are provided and plotted.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[237] **viXra:1510.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:22:19*

**Authors:** Sebastián Martín Ruiz

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we are going to see that the value this function takes when n is a perfect number.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[236] **viXra:1510.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:35:52*

**Authors:** Parween Ali Hummadi, Shadan Abdulkadr Osman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we study S-idempotents of the group ring ℤ2G where is a finite cyclic group of order n.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[235] **viXra:1510.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:36:56*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The concept of Smarandache isotopy is introduced and its study is explored for Smarandache: groupoids, quasigroups and loops just like the study of isotopy theory was carried out for groupoids, quasigroups and loops. The exploration includes: Smarandache; isotopy and isomorphy classes, Smarandache f, g principal isotopes and
G-Smarandache loops.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[234] **viXra:1510.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:39:25*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be
both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics

**Category:** General Mathematics

[233] **viXra:1510.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:40:10*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be
both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[232] **viXra:1510.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:41:16*

**Authors:** Akbar Rezaei, Arsham Borumand Saeid

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the notions of N-
subalgebras and N-filters based on Smarandache CI-algebra and give a number of their properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[231] **viXra:1510.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:42:10*

**Authors:** Paulo D. F. Gouveia, Delfim F. M. Torres

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We study Smarandache sequences of numbers, and related problems, via a Computer Algebra System. Solutions are discovered, and some conjectures presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[230] **viXra:1510.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:44:05*

**Authors:** M. Khalifa Saad

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper, space and timelike admissible Smarandache curves in the pseudo-Galilean space G are investigated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[229] **viXra:1510.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:45:05*

**Authors:** Ozcan Bektas¸ Salim Yuce

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this study, we determine some special Smarandache curves according to Darboux frame in E3 . We give some characterizations and consequences of Smarandache curves.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[228] **viXra:1510.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:45:51*

**Authors:** Suleyman Senyurt

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, the spherical indicatrix curves drawn by quaternionic frenet vectors are computed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[227] **viXra:1510.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:46:42*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This short paper presents an exact formula for counting twin prime pairs less than or equal to x in terms of the classical Smarandache Function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[226] **viXra:1510.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:47:30*

**Authors:** A. D. Godase

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We represent finite group in the form of a graph, these graphs are called unit graph. Since the
main role in obtaining the graph is played by the unit element of the group, this study is innovative. Also study of different properties like the subgroups of a group, normal subgroups of a group are carried out using the unit graph of the group.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[225] **viXra:1510.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:48:34*

**Authors:** Luige VLADAREANU, Cristian SPIRLEANU, Mihaiela ILIESCU, Mingcong DENG

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The paper studies the flexible robotic cells in
cooperation with automated guided vehicle (AGV), in the presence of obstacles, at constant or variable speed and variable load, aiming to optimizing the interaction between AGV and
flexible robotic cell components.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[224] **viXra:1510.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:12:18*

**Authors:** Elham Majd

**Comments:** 233 Pages.

Multi-agent systems can break interactions in distributed and heterogeneous environments. One of the fundamental challenges in such settings is that agents can enter and leave the system at will; hence malicious agents may take advantage of others by behaving in an untrustworthy way. In this case, if an agent wants to interact with unknown provider agents, they need to request other agents to advise a trustworthy provider.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[223] **viXra:1510.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:14:04*

**Authors:** Jean-Marc Tacnet, Mireille Batton-Hubert, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Mountain river torrents and snow avalanches generate human and material damages with dramatic consequences. Knowledge about natural phenomenona is often lacking and expertise is required for decision and risk management purposes using multi-disciplinary quantitative or qualitative approaches. Expertise is considered as a decision process based on imperfect information coming from more or less reliable and conflicting sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[222] **viXra:1510.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:17:11*

**Authors:** Daniel Octavian Melinte

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

De-a lungul timpului s-au folosit diferite tipuri de mecanisme de poziţionare cu precizie ridicata, printre printre cele mai performante fiind manipulatoarele şi roboţii industriali, punându-se accent în ultimul timp pe precizia de pozitionare, corelata cu interactiunea in mediu virtual, in vederea redării haptice a contactului obiect-mediu operational, in scopul utilizarii lor in operații care necesită o acuratețe ridicată, cum ar fi teleoperarea in medii periculoase, interacțiuni haptice in domeniul medical, nanorobotică etc.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[221] **viXra:1510.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:18:33*

**Authors:** Liu Zhe-xi, Yang Jian-hong, Yang De-bin, Li Min

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The common way of conflicting evidence combination is to modify the basic probability mass assignment
of evidence bodies by a certain indicator which can reflect or describe the information uncertainty of the conflicting evidence. In existing conflicting evidence combination methods, indicators such as the distance of evidence and
ambiguity are used.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[220] **viXra:1510.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:19:33*

**Authors:** Mengmeng Ma, Jiyao AN

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

To solve the invalidation problem of Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence (DS)with high conflict in multi-sensor data fusion, this paper presents a novel combination approach of conflict evidence with different weighting factors using a new probabilistic dissimilarity measure.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[219] **viXra:1510.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:23:47*

**Authors:** Antoine Masse

**Comments:** 202 Pages.

La quantité de données de télédétection archivées est de plus en plus importante et grâce aux
nouveaux et futurs satellites, ces données offriront une plus grande diversité de caractéristiques : spectrale, temporelle, résolution spatiale et superficie de l’emprise du satellite.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[218] **viXra:1510.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:26:05*

**Authors:** Bernard Robles

**Comments:** 188 Pages.

La notion de modèles de Markov cachés MMC1 ou HMM2, apparaît dans de nombreux domaines comme la théorie de l’information, la physique statistique, la compression de données, la bio-informatique (segmentation de gènes ou protéines afin de comparer des séquences d’ADN), la reconnaissance vocale, la maintenance industrielle, etc.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[217] **viXra:1510.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:28:21*

**Authors:** Guo Qiang, He You, Li Xin-de

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory and Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) are conducted
thorough reasearch, and in order to obtain more accurate fusion results in the premise of needing less computation complexity, a fast DSmT-DS approximate reasoning method is proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[216] **viXra:1510.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:31:20*

**Authors:** Vilany Kimala, Koichi Yamada

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper is about the generalization Of Conditioning and New Interpretation of Evidential Reasoning.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[215] **viXra:1510.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:32:27*

**Authors:** Arnaud MARTIN, Christophe OSSWALD

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In image classification, merging the opinion of several human experts is very important for different tasks such as the evaluation or the training. Indeed, the ground truth is rarely known before the scene imaging.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[214] **viXra:1510.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:33:30*

**Authors:** Gurpreet kaur, Vijay kumar Banga

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Edge detection is the name for a set of
mathematical methods which target at classifying points in a image at which the image intensity varies sharply or, has discontinuities. This paper has focused on detecting the edges for the Hue factor in Human visual system (HSV).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[213] **viXra:1510.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:35:35*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Rizzo, Claudia d’Amato, Nicola Fanizzi, Floriana Esposito

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In the context of Semantic Web, one of the most important issues related to the class-membership prediction task (through inductive models) on
ontological knowledge bases concerns the imbalance of the training examples distribution, mostly due to the heterogeneous nature and the incompleteness of the knowledge bases.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[212] **viXra:1510.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:38:54*

**Authors:** Zhou Jun Jing, Duan Jian-min

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Moving object detection is a key in dynamic environment perception.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[211] **viXra:1510.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:40:23*

**Authors:** ZHANG Yong-li, Ji Wen-ping, ZHANG Jing

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The complexity of battlefield environment will bring the conflict of evidences from the sensors．DSmT cannot only handle with multi—source information of uncertainty and indefiniteness，but also manage information of high level evidence conflict

**Category:** General Mathematics

[210] **viXra:1510.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:41:36*

**Authors:** Amel Ennaceur

**Comments:** 186 Pages.

As society becomes more complex, people are faced with many situations in which they have to
make a decision among different alternatives. However, the most preferable one is not always
easily selected.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[209] **viXra:1510.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:43:50*

**Authors:** Frederic Dambreville

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

When implementing the DSmT, a difficulty may arise from the possible huge dimension of hyperpower sets, which are indeed free structures.However, it is possible to reduce the dimension of these structures by involving logical constraints.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[208] **viXra:1510.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:45:37*

**Authors:** Simon Steinmeyer

**Comments:** 253 Pages.

Viele aktuelle Fahrerassistenzsysteme wie beispielsweise die adaptive Geschwindigkeitsregelung, purwechselassistenten und Systeme zur Anhaltewegverkürzung
sind auf eine verlässliche Detektion anderer Verkehrsteilnehmer und Hindernisse angewiesen. Zukünftige Assistenzsysteme wie beispielsweise Systeme für das Automatische Fahren erhöhen diese Zuverlässigkeitsanforderung weiter.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[207] **viXra:1510.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:46:26*

**Authors:** Mohamed Zaki, Alaa Hamouda, Basma Hisham

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Cairo is experiencing traffic congestion that places it among the worst in the world.
Obviously, it is difficult if not impossible to solve the transportation problem because it is
multi-dimensional problem but it's good to reduce this waste of money and the associated
waste of time resulting from congestion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[206] **viXra:1510.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:48:00*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The new notion and a very revolutionary type of mathematics has been developed in recent days and it is well-known as "Smarandache Structures".

**Category:** General Mathematics

[205] **viXra:1510.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:48:55*

**Authors:** W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, T. Ramaraj, Kannappa

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we study the notions likes Smarandache ideals in nearrings.
In 2002, the notion of Smarandache ideals in near-rings was introduced and studied by near-rings was introduced and studied by W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy. Some properties about Smarandache ideals
and Smarandache N-groups of near-rings have been analyzed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[204] **viXra:1510.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:50:06*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, Y.Showri Raju

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The concept of bigroup was started by Maggu in the year 1994.Later in the year 1998 fuzzy bigroups was defined by W.B.Vasantha and Meiyappan.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[203] **viXra:1510.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:51:02*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, Y.S.Showriraju

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The concept of bi-semigroups and S-bisemigroups are very recent, defined in 2003. Here
we define some more special classes which are generalizations of bi-semigroups and biquasi groups.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[202] **viXra:1510.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:51:52*

**Authors:** W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, M. Parimala Kanthi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we introduce the notion of Smarandache commutative loop (S-commutative loop) and S-strongly commutative loop. We prove a S-commutative loop is not in general a commutative loop.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[201] **viXra:1510.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:52:44*

**Authors:** W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Virgin Raj

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we introduce the notion of S-zero divisors, S-units, S-nilpotents, S-idempotents, S-normal elements, S-semi idempotents, S-quasi regular elements in a non-associative ring which we take mainly as a loop ring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[200] **viXra:1510.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:53:38*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy Moon Kumar Chetry

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The construction of semi-automation and automaton which can perform sequential operations uses only the basic algebraic structure viz. free semigroups or to be more specific free monoids.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[199] **viXra:1510.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:54:30*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy J.Sujatha, M.Mary John

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In 1998 Padilla Raul and S. Florentine introduced some new concepts on Smarandache Algebraic structures. The study of Smarandache semigroups (S-semigroups) has been extensively studied in the year 2002.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[198] **viXra:1510.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:55:54*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha, Moon Kumar Chetry

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The study of free groupoids is very new and we see that the free groupoids have its application to the theory of automaton provided they satisfy a special condition namely these free groupoids should contain at least a subset which is a free semigroup.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[197] **viXra:1510.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:57:06*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, Moon Kumar Chetry

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The study of non-associative rings is very meagre. When we say we do not include Lie rings or Jordan rings. By a non-associative ring we mean an associative ring in which the multiplicative operation in the ring is non-associative. The well-known and well-researched non-associative rings are loop-rings i.e. loops over rings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[196] **viXra:1510.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:57:59*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, J.Sujatha

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we introduce the concept of Smarandache groupoids (S-groupoids for short). Groupoids are the generalization of
semigroups and non-associative semigroups are termed as a groupoid.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[195] **viXra:1510.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:59:07*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, S.Christopher, A.Victor Devadoss

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We prove a S-commutative Jordan Algebra is a S-weakly commutative Jordan algebra. We define a S-Jordan algebra to be S-simple Jordan algebras if the S-Jordan algebra has no S-Jordan ideals. We obtain several other interesting notions and results on S-Jordan algebras.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[194] **viXra:1510.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:59:58*

**Authors:** W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, J. Sujatha, M. Mary John

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we introduce some notions in groups called Smarandache notions. It is important to note that we do not have the concept of Smarandache groups.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[193] **viXra:1510.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:00:42*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, J.Jon Arokiaraj

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we introduce some Smarandache substructures in groupoid rings. Study of
groupoid rings itself is totally absent in literature so the study of Smarandache
substructures in groupoid rings seems to be new and innovative.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[192] **viXra:1510.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:01:50*

**Authors:** W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, M. Mary John

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Florentine Smarandache first introduced the concept of Smarandache semigroups in the year 1998.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[191] **viXra:1510.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:02:58*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, P.Ganesan, M.Mary John

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Study of Smarandache Rings (S-rings) started in the year 2002. A S-ring is ring but all rings are not S-rings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[190] **viXra:1510.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:03:48*

**Authors:** W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, T.Subramaniyam

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Smarandache rings (S-rings) was recently introduced in 2002.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[189] **viXra:1510.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:04:32*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, T.Subramaniyan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we define specially the notions of Smarandache zero divisors and Smarandache idempotents in rings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[188] **viXra:1510.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:08:46*

**Authors:** Rittik Roy, Pintu Das

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a powerful general formal framework that has been proposed in 1995 by Smarandache. The paper aims to give a computational algorithm to solve a multi-objective linear programming problem (MOLPP) using Neutrosophicoptimization method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[187] **viXra:1510.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:09:55*

**Authors:** Asghar Ali Shah, Malik Sikander Hayat, Muhammad Daud Awan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Security is a key issue to both computer and computer networks. Intrusion detection System (IDS) is one of the major research problems in network security. IDSs are developed to
detect both known and unknown attacks.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[186] **viXra:1510.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:10:58*

**Authors:** K. Thulukkanam, R.vasuki

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper has three sections. Section
one is introductory and describes the problem.
Section two uses the Specially Merged Linked
Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (SMLFCMs) model to
study all problems faced by the Kodungaiyur
locals.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[185] **viXra:1510.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:15:50*

**Authors:** Juan-juan Peng, Jian-qiang Wang, Chao Tian, Xiao-hui Wu, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

In this paper, the new approach for multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems is developed
based on Choquet integral in the context of simplified neutrosophic environment, where the truth-membership degree, indeterminacy-membership degree and falsity-membership degree for each element are singleton subsets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[184] **viXra:1510.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:17:20*

**Authors:** G. Anusha, P. Venkata Ramana

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Going through college is stressful for everybody. Caused by many reasons, the stress is present whether one is in their first year of college or their last. However, most seniors have an easier time dealing with stress because they have experience handling it. Most of the reasons for so much stress fall into one of three categories: academic stress, that is, anything to do with studying for classes, financial stress, which has to do with paying for school, and personal stress, which is stress associated with personal problems in college. College students experience
many effects of stress and depression.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[183] **viXra:1510.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:18:36*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Neutrosophic numbers are very suitable for expressing indeterminate evaluation information in
complex decision making problems, and then projection measure is a useful method for handling the decision making problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[182] **viXra:1510.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:34:33*

**Authors:** Tarek H. M. Abou-El-Enien, Shereen Fathy El-Feky

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper presents a literature review on the theory, applications and software of Bi-level, Multi –Level Multiple Criteria Decision Making and TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity Ideal Solution) Approach.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[181] **viXra:1510.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:35:36*

**Authors:** Tahir Mahmood, Jun Ye, Qaisar Khan

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper we combine Bipolar valued fuzzy sets and interval neutrosophic set to introduce the concept of bipolar interval neutrosophic sets.
We de…ne the union, complement, intersection and containement of bipolar interval neutrosophic sets. Also we de…ned BINWA operator and BINWG
and estiblished a MADM method for BINSs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[180] **viXra:1510.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:36:42*

**Authors:** Chunfang Liu, YueSheng Luo

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The simplied neutrosophic set (SNS) is a generalization of the fuzzy set that is designed for some incomplete, uncertain and inconsistent situations in which each element has dierent truth membership, indeterminacy membership and falsity membership functions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[179] **viXra:1510.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:38:19*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The neutrosophic set model is an important tool for dealing with real scientific and engineering applications because it can handle not only incomplete information but also the inconsistent information and indeterminate information
which exist commonly in real situations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[178] **viXra:1510.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:39:32*

**Authors:** Anjan Mukherjee, Sadhan Sarkar

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this article we have introduced the concept of similarity measure for interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets based on distance between two interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, some examples and basic properties are also studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[177] **viXra:1510.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:41:03*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

For the complex structure of steam turbine-generator sets, if there is a fault of the equipment, it will produce a chain reaction and cause the fault of other parts or equipments, and then will seriously impact the reliability of power generation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[176] **viXra:1510.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:43:38*

**Authors:** Said Broumi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper we present a new concept called “generalized neutrosophic soft set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[175] **viXra:1510.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:45:12*

**Authors:** Sarbjit Kaur, Er. Ram Singh

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A critical issue in the image restoration is the problem of de-noising images while keeping the integrity of relevant image information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[174] **viXra:1510.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:46:26*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Similarity measures are an important tool in pattern recognition and medical diagnosis.
To overcome some disadvantages of existing cosine similarity measures for simplified neutrosophic
sets (SNSs) in vector space, this paper proposes improved cosine similarity measures for SNSs based
on the cosine function, including single valued neutrosophic cosine similarity measures and interval neutrosophic cosine similarity measures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[173] **viXra:1510.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:48:04*

**Authors:** Ridvan Sahin

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Clustering process is a procedure which divides a given dataset into groups such that similar
objects are collect in a group whereas objects that is not similar are in dierent groups, and
has a signicant place in many elds including medicine, computational biology, economics, image
processing and mobile communication.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[172] **viXra:1510.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:49:57*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This purpose of this paper is to introduce multi-attribute decision making based on the concept of interval neutrosophic sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[171] **viXra:1510.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:51:08*

**Authors:** Haibin Wang, Praveen Madiraju, Yanqing Zhang, Rajshekhar Sunderraman

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a part of neutrosophy which studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[170] **viXra:1510.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:52:17*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In this paper, the notion of the interval valued neutrosophic soft sets (ivn−soft sets) is defined which is a combination of an interval valued
neutrosophic sets and a soft sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[169] **viXra:1510.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:53:01*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, we develop a method of multi-attribute decision-making with both weights and attribute ratings expressed by single valued neutrosophic sets(SVN-sets).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[168] **viXra:1510.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:54:15*

**Authors:** Jian-qiang Wang, Zhang-peng Tian

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to provide a method of multi-criteria decision making that combines interval neutrosophic sets and TOPSIS involving the relative likelihood-based comparison relations of the performances of alternatives that are aggregated into interval numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[167] **viXra:1510.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:55:02*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A neutrosophic set is a more general platform, which can be used to present uncertainty,
imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent. In this paper a score function and an accuracy
function for single valued neutrosophic sets is firstly proposed to make the distinction
between them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[166] **viXra:1510.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:58:03*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Honggang Li

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Normal neutrosophic numbers (NNNs) are a significant tool of describing the
incompleteness, indeterminacy and inconsistency of the decision-making information. In this paper, we
firstly propose the definition and the properties of the NNNs, and the accuracy function, the score
function and the operational laws of the NNNs are developed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[165] **viXra:1510.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:00:11*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Fei Teng

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Neutrosophic number (NN) is an important tool which is used to express indeterminate
evaluation information. The purpose of the paper is to propose some aggregation operators based on
neutrosophic number, which are used to handle multiple attribute group decision making problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[164] **viXra:1510.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:01:11*

**Authors:** Sangeeta Mittal, Krishna Gopal, S.L. Maskara

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Complex human activity recognition suffers from ambiguity of interpretation problem. A novel neutrosophic formal concept analysis method has been proposed to quantify non-determinism leading to ambiguity of interpretation and utilize it in activity recognition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[163] **viXra:1510.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:06:05*

**Authors:** Rajashi Chatterjee, P. Majumdar, S. K. Samanta

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A notion of Quadripartitioned Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets (QSVNS) is introduced and a theoretical study on various set-theoretic operations on them has been carried out.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[162] **viXra:1510.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:08:20*

**Authors:** Suman Maity

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, we define two new type of operators of fuzzy matrices denoted by the symbol Å and Ä.Using these operators of fuzzy matrices we define row-maxaverage norm, column-max-average norm.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[161] **viXra:1510.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:21:07*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Similarity measure is an important tool in pattern
recognition and fault diagnosis. This paper proposes two cotangent similarity measures for single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) based on cotangent function. Then, the weighted cotangent similarity measures are introduced by
considering the importance of each element.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[160] **viXra:1510.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:22:30*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Lanlan Shi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Heronian mean (HM) is a useful aggregation operator which is marked by catching the interrelations of the aggregated arguments and the neutrosophic uncertain linguistic set can be better to express the incomplete, indeterminate
and inconsistent information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[159] **viXra:1510.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:24:55*

**Authors:** S. Udayakumar, A. Gurumoorthy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper the stress and social stigma suffered by parents of disabled children are analysed using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs)
model. Such study is new for researchers have studied only the problems faced by disabled children using mathematical models.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[158] **viXra:1510.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:26:31*

**Authors:** A. Prema, A.Pethalakshmi

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Data warehouse is one of the components of the overall business intelligence system. An enterprise has one data warehouse, and data marts source has their information from the data warehouse.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[157] **viXra:1510.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:27:51*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The generalized Dice measures for multiple attribute decision making under simplified neutrosophic environments.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[156] **viXra:1510.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:28:47*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Lanlan Shi

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The Neutrosophic set and Hesitant set are the important tools to describe the fuzzy
information, in this paper, we combine the interval neutrosophic sets (INSs) and interval valued hesitant fuzzy sets (IVHFSs), and propose the concept of the interval neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set (INHFS) in order to use the advantages of them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[155] **viXra:1510.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:30:10*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Xi Liu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Neutrosophic number (NN) is a useful tool which is used to overcome the difficulty of describing indeterminate evaluation information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[154] **viXra:1510.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:31:24*

**Authors:** K. Thulukkanam, R.vasuki

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper for the first time two new fuzzy models viz Merged Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (MFCMs) models and Specially Merged Linked Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (SMLFCMs) are introduced.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[153] **viXra:1510.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:32:29*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, the weighted tangent similarity measure of fuzzy sets is proposed and its properties are studied. The concept of the weighted tangent similarity measure of fuzzy sets is a decision making tool which is characterized by the degree of membership function, degree of non-membership function (sum of this two componentsis equal to one).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[152] **viXra:1510.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:34:31*

**Authors:** Temıtope. Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The present study further strengthens the use of the Keedwell CIPQ against attack on a system by the use of the Smarandache Keedwell CIPQ for cryptography in a similar spirit in which the cross inverse property has been used by Keedwell. This is done as follows.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[151] **viXra:1510.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:35:21*

**Authors:** Sebastián Martín Ruiz

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This function is called Smarandache prime function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[150] **viXra:1510.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:37:09*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

On a geometrical view, the conception of map geometries is introduced, which is a nice model of the Smarandache geometries, also new kind of
and more general intrinsic geometry of surfaces. Some open problems related combinatorial maps with the Riemann geometry and Smarandache geometries
are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[149] **viXra:1510.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:38:22*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

By studying the holomorphic structure of automorphic inverse property quasigroups
and loops[AIPQ and (AIPL)] and cross inverse property quasigroups and loops[CIPQ and (CIPL)], it is established that the holomorph of a loop is a Smarandache; AIPL, CIPL, K-loop, Bruck-loop or Kikkawa-loop if and only if its Smarandache automorphism group is trivial and the loop is itself is a Smarandache; AIPL, CIPL, K-loop, Bruck-loop or Kikkawa-loop.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[148] **viXra:1510.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:39:15*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

If two loops are isomorphic, then it is shown that their holomorphs are also isomorphic. Conversely, it is shown that if their holomorphs are isomorphic, then the loops are isotopic. It is shown that a loop is a Smarandache loop if and only if its holomorph is a Smarandache loop.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[147] **viXra:1510.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 18:50:14*

**Authors:** Kanat B. Abildinov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Using few basic principles, we can unify all kind of basic interaction forces. It makes available to us to explane many phenomenas in the High energy physics, in the Nuclear physics, in the Physics of particles, in the Astrophysics, in the Astronomy, etc.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[146] **viXra:1510.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 20:15:54*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 diagram

A simple reasoning is presented why chlorophyll is synthesized in the high atmospheres of late evolution stars according to stellar metamorphosis theory.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[145] **viXra:1510.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 13:47:01*

**Authors:** J.C. Hodge

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of single photon diffraction is a model with photons being directed by plenum forces along their trajectory. Previous papers explored the screen projections of a diffraction pattern from a first mask through second mask slits. The images on a screen by an edge of the second mask also demonstrate correlation of observed pattern and simulation pattern. The STOE is consistent and all other models of diffraction are inconsistent with these observations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[144] **viXra:1510.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 10:30:06*

**Authors:** Aline Cristiane Scheibe, Livia Teresinha Salomão Piccinini, Andrea da Costa Braga

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A região denominada Vale do Taquari abrange 36 municípios da região central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, polarizada pelo município de Lajeado e, colonizada por imigrantes de origem alemã, italiana e açoriana. O aparecimento de indústrias e o desenvolvimento do comércio e do setor de serviços provocaram um crescimento urbano regional significativo nos últimos 40 anos. Em 1970, 74,27% da população vivia no meio rural e, passadas quatro décadas, o quadro praticamente se inverteu: hoje 73,84% vive na zona urbana (IBGE, 2010). Tendo em vista tal crescimento urbano, o presente trabalho analisa o processo de evolução urbana do território do município de Lajeado através do levantamento de dados históricos e configuracionais do núcleo urbano de 1898 (ano de fundação) até os dias atuais. Trabalha-se com a hipótese de que a inserção da rodovia BR 386 alterou os padrões espaciais através dos quais se efetiva a expansão urbana modificando a estrutura de integração da configuração espacial. O enfoque adotado é o da análise configuracional, onde a estrutura da malha urbana é analisada em termos de acessibilidade e centralidade, a partir das medidas sintáticas de integração local e global e, ainda, a medida de escolha (choice).O estudo tem como objetivo principal mostrar a evolução da malha urbana ao longo do crescimento da cidade, analisando a inserção da rodovia e sua influência na rede urbana.

**Category:** Social Science

[143] **viXra:1510.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 10:38:58*

**Authors:** Cláudia Maté, Talita Micheleti, Alina Gonçalves Santiago

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Apesar de serem maioria no território nacional e também no estado de Santa Catarina, as cidades de pequeno porte são as que menos possuem ferramentas de planejamento adequadas à sua realidade. A partir de 2001, o Estatuto da Cidade prevê a obrigatoriedade de elaboração de Plano Diretor nas cidades com população superior a 20.000 habitantes. Contudo, além de não atender uma significativa parcela dos municípios brasileiros, 69,15%, esta Lei também se mostra insuficiente em estabelecer diretrizes adequadas à realidade das pequenas cidades, bem como para o planejamento do seu espaço rural. Com base nesta problemática, este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a predominância dos municípios de pequeno porte no estado de Santa Catarina. A metodologia inicialmente consiste em uma breve revisão bibliográfica sobre a temática tratada, em seguida é realizada a coleta e processamento de dados do IBGE e órgãos municipais. Como resultado, têm-se mapeamentos temáticos do estado que ilustram sua dinâmica demográfica, a ligação existente entre o espaço urbano e rural, e correlacionando-os à existência de Plano Diretor nos municípios catarinenses.

**Category:** Social Science

[142] **viXra:1510.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-30 15:04:43*

**Authors:** Kamal Barghout

**Comments:** 10 pages

The change of the state of motion of physical systems is characterized by the change of its velocity; an important aspect of Relativity Theory (RT). Quantum mechanics (QM) implies space-time itself may be quantum in nature if QM is to comply with RT geometrically; i.e. Loop quantum gravity theory (LQG) as a quantum space-time. The nature of time and its intimate relationship with space as described by RT is not so obviously defined but dealt with as an abstract entity that exists in physical reality. But physical reality demands similar dynamical space-time notion as mostly expressed by LQG. Here, following the concept of quantum space-time, I describe time as a numerical value of space such that the rules of RT are satisfied. Length contraction, time dilation and the forward arrow of time are explained accordingly. The intention here is to add dynamical aspect to the notion of time by defining it as a property of the dynamical space itself under the rules of RT but adding a dynamic aspect to it as LQG requires.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[141] **viXra:1510.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 10:50:54*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 5 pages. The twelfth paper based on reality

It is proposed that the so-called universal gravitational constant is actually the 'G of Earth' for its present speed. 'G of Earth' can be theoretically deduced from the electrostatic constant, based on the proposed structures of electron, proton and neutron. The deduced value is close to the measured value of G indicating that G depends on the nature of the body and its speed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[140] **viXra:1510.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 10:58:38*

**Authors:** José Antônio Herrera, Rodolfo Pragana Moreira

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

As discussões sobre as espacialidades do medo e a insegurança pública na geografia, configuram-se incipiente na produção do pensamento geográfico. O mote neste artigo está em compreender as desigualdades sócio-espaciais consolidadas com a construção da Usina Hidrelétrica Belo Monte (UHE Belo Monte) na Microrregião de Altamira. Para isso, analisaram-se dados secundários de organizações públicas e websites que tratam das problemáticas estruturadas no texto, mormente acerca da expansão do medo e da insegurança social na cidade, variáveis consolidadas pelas dinâmicas sócio-espaciais no bojo da construção da hidrelétrica. Sobre o contexto, percebeu-se existir um avanço exponencial nas representações sociais do medo e na materialização de desigualdades face a construção de um projeto que tem como discurso o desenvolvimento socialmente correto e ambientalmente sustentável.

**Category:** Social Science

[139] **viXra:1510.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 11:00:04*

**Authors:** Natalia Bisio, Natalie Robaina

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

El trabajo que se presenta es producto de los avances realizados en el marco de un proyecto de
investigación en curso, retomando elementos presentados en instancias tales como el VII
Congreso Latinoamericano de Ciencia Política y la X Bienal del Coloquio Transformaciones
Territoriales. El mismo pretende dar cuenta de los aspectos políticos y sociales que sustentan el
diseño e implementación de la política social de vivienda entendida como una forma de
construcción del espacio público. Para ello se toman como referencia algunos programas sociales
de vivienda desarrollados durante el período 2005 – 2012, dirigidos a atender la demanda
habitacional de sectores que no pueden acceder a ella en el mercado, poniendo énfasis en las
respuestas brindadas a aquéllos con mayores dificultades socioeconómicas. La discusión que se
presenta en el documento da cuenta de la complejidad que implica concebir a la vivienda no
sólo como espacio privado sino sobre todo como constructora del espacio público, poniendo de
manifiesto la necesidad de repensar la política social de vivienda intrínsecamente relacionada
con la estructura económica, sociopolítica y cultural de cada territorio.

**Category:** Social Science

[138] **viXra:1510.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 11:02:01*

**Authors:** Juan Ferrer Pamparato

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

El trabajo propone el estudio de áreas centrales para las ciudades intermedias del Uruguay
intentando revelar las correlaciones que se establecen entre las tensiones provocadas por el
desarrollo económico y la reducción de la calidad ambiental del espacio urbano más significativo
en estas localidades. Es precisamente la identificación de esta categoría de ciudades y una
inquietud común por la renovación de sus áreas centrales, lo que entendemos, asigna pertinencia
a este enfoque. Si bien el análisis se centra en el caso de la ciudad de Salto, la existencia de
situaciones similares permite aplicar en otros contextos, los conceptos que aquí se consideran para
este caso particular. La reflexión que se presenta gira en torno al concepto de centralidad
entendida como entidad urbana de convergencia social y ámbito de referencia para la vida
colectiva, con el objetivo de sistematizar información, a efectos de aportar algunas pautas para la
revisión de las políticas públicas relativas a la planificación urbana y la gestión del espacio público
y mejorar finalmente la calidad de vida de las poblaciones. Así entendido, el análisis intenta ser
aplicable a los centros reconocidos históricamente, así como a centralidades secundarias de
carácter barrial o zonal, que comparten un valor común: el sentido social que asume la idea de
centro en los procesos de construcción de ciudadanía.

**Category:** Social Science

[137] **viXra:1510.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 11:03:38*

**Authors:** Lisiane Ligia Mella, Jéssica Limberger, Ilana Andretta

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Políticas públicas voltadas ao adolescente em conflito com a lei têm sido amplamente
destacadas ao longo da história brasileira, principalmente após o processo de redemocratização
do país, que culminou na promulgação da Constituição Federal de 1988 e o posterior Estatuto da
Criança e do Adolescente (ECA) em 1990. A presente revisão bibliográfica objetiva descrever
estudos brasileiros de 2005 a 2015 acerca das políticas públicas dos adolescentes em conflito com
a lei, analisando se tais estudos abordam a temática no contexto das pequenas e médias
cidades. As bases de dados consultadas foram: Lilacs; Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnicocientíficos
e HISA - História da Saúde. Os artigos analisados evidenciam que a temática tem sido
pouco abordada dentro do recorte temporal estabelecido. Todavia, alguns temas centrais
aparecem, como: a necessidade de articulação das políticas públicas de cada cidade no
atendimento ao adolescente em conflito com a lei; carência na integração das políticas para o
efetivo funcionamento em rede; e a importância do trabalho interdisciplinar nas políticas públicas
de cidades tanto pequenas e médias como em cidades grandes.

**Category:** Social Science

[136] **viXra:1510.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 11:04:54*

**Authors:** Maria Ángeles Lobo Recio, Kátia Cilene Rodrigues Madruga, Thayane Bilésimo, Catherine da Rosa Rossi, Ana Raquel Bernardy e Rafaela Mussi

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A gestão de resíduos sólidos e o tratamento de esgotos urbanos estão associados a questões
ambientais, sociais, culturais, econômicas, políticas e de saúde pública. Este trabalho de carácter
qualitativo descritivo visa colaborar para as discussões sobre o papel da educação ambiental na
implantação de políticas públicas de saneamento, a partir da experiência numa cidade de
pequeno porte. Para tratar do tema é relatada a experiência com dois projetos de extensão
elaborados e executados pelo grupo de Educação Ambiental e Sustentabilidade da Universidade
Federal de Santa Catarina na cidade de Araranguá. As atividades de educação ambiental foram
efetuadas junto a alunos da quarta e quinta séries de ensino fundamental e do terceiro ano do
ensino médio de escolas públicas e em diversos condomínios da cidade de Araranguá-SC. Entre
as conclusões, destaca-se a relevância do papel da educação ambiental e da universidade na
implantação de políticas públicas e na construção da cidadania.

**Category:** Social Science

[135] **viXra:1510.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 11:06:50*

**Authors:** Osmar Henrique Ribeiro da Silva, Ítalo Itamar Caixeiro Stephan

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

O crescimento urbano de Belo Horizonte é um processo de expansão populacional e territorial
para além dos limites do município. O objetivo desse trabalho é analisar o processo de
segregação socioespacial que se expressa na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (RMBH) e
investigar o processo de expansão periférica em direção ao Município de Ribeirão das Neves. A
análise do processo tem como referência a formação do município de Neves baseada na
implantação das penitenciárias e dos loteamentos populares, exemplificando a lógica da
estruturação centro-periferia. Para a pesquisa foi realizado o levantamento documental e
bibliográfico sobre o tema em artigos, revistas e demais dados do IBGE e da Fundação João
Pinheiro. Através da pesquisa teórica foi observado um crescimento rápido e expressivo da malha
urbana da RMBH, evidenciando um fenômeno de desigualdade socioespacial nesse espaço
intrametropolitano. Constatou-se que a segregação socioespacial representa uma das dimensões
mais expressivas desse fenômeno, encontrando principalmente nos municípios periféricos
metropolitanos sua máxima, no caso em questão Ribeirão das Neves. Nesse município observou-se
a implantação de loteamentos irregulares, juntamente com a implantação de unidades prisionais,
favorecendo um cenário atual de um baixo grau de desenvolvimento destinado à população de
baixa renda e de uma paisagem homogênea onde é notável a ausência de infraestrutura
adequada.

**Category:** Social Science

[134] **viXra:1510.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 11:08:02*

**Authors:** José Antônio Herrera

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A PESQUISA URBANA NAS CIDADES AMAZÔNICAS

**Category:** Social Science

[133] **viXra:1510.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 11:09:20*

**Authors:** Silvana Nakamori, José Carlos Assunção Belotto, Moisés Francisco Farah Junior, Antônio Gonçalves Oliveira

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Congestionamentos, acidentes de trânsito e poluição são alguns problemas resultantes de uma
cultura de mobilidade que prioriza o transporte individual por meio do automóvel e o resultado
dessa prioridade é a deteriorização da qualidade de vida urbana. A fim de tentar reverter esse
panorama surge na UFPR o Programa de Extensão Universitária Ciclovida, acreditando que a
Academia tem a obrigação de estar na vanguarda das transformações que a sociedade
necessita, pois através da pesquisa, ensino e extensão visa-se à formação de uma cultura de
mobilidade urbana saudável e sustentável, pelo do uso da bicicleta como um dos meios de
transporte. O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar as contribuições da academia para a mobilidade
urbana sustentável focando no Programa Ciclovida e a metodologia utilizada foi à pesquisa
documental, sendo também uma pesquisa aplicada, qualitativa, exploratória, descritiva e
bibliográfica. Dentre os resultados está à descrição do Programa e o Desafio Intermodal (anos de
2007 a 2013), demonstrando que a Academia pode sim contribuir com a mobilidade urbana.

**Category:** Social Science

[132] **viXra:1510.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 07:53:54*

**Authors:** Valery Nikitin, Igor Nikitin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We have suggested just a few fragments of the project we had created, and, in the case of further development of the direction of research suggested by us, scientists will discover the history and predict the future of our planet and the entire Universe!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[131] **viXra:1510.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-20 20:14:59*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, gives a technical definition of curvature, "the rate of change of the angle through which the tangent to a curve turns in moving along the curve and which for a circle is equal to the reciprocal of the radius". That precisely describes a curve's intuitive curvature, but the Riemann "curvature" tensor is zero for all curves! We work out the natural extension of intuitive curvature to hypersurfaces, based on the rates that their tangents develop components which are orthogonal to the local tangent hyperplane. Intuitive curvature is seen to have the form of a second-rank symmetric tensor which cannot be algebraically expressed in terms of the metric tensor and a finite number of its partial derivatives. The Riemann "curvature" tensor contrariwise is a fourth-rank tensor with both antisymmetric and symmetric properties that famously is algebraically expressed in terms of the metric tensor and its first and second partial derivatives. Thus use of the word "curvature" with regard to the Riemann tensor is misleading, and since it can't encompass intuitive curvature, Gauss-Riemann "geometry" oughtn't be termed differential geometry either. That "geometry" is no more than the class of the algebraic functions of the metric and any finite number of the metric's partial derivatives, which it is convenient to organize into generally covariant entities such as the Riemann tensor because those potentially play a role in generally-covariant metric-based field theories.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[130] **viXra:1510.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 08:12:44*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research investigation the authors shed light on a novel aspect called ‘QuantizedEvolution’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[129] **viXra:1510.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 17:15:06*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Conference Proceedings Paper – Entropy www.sciforum.net/conference/ecea-2 ; Second international Electronic conference on Entropy; Admissible for the Journal Entropy if chosen by the Judges/

: We will reference entropy as a count of initial gravitons as part of a formulation leading to structure formation in the universe. To do this we use a linkage between gravitation and electrodynamics the author shared with Unnishkan at Rencontres De Moriond (2015). Then we find that a time step minimization procedure given by Peebles (1993) fine tunes an NLED contribution to time step as formulated by Camara et.al. (2004), which the author then links to gravity due to adopting the fifth force formalism of Fishbach et.al, in a (1988) Rencontres De Moriond 5th force – Neutrino physics school. A talk by Fishbach in (2015) Rencontres De Moriond supports using Unnishkan’s linkage of classical gravity with magnetism in a way which the author extends to the problem of not only gravity, but gravitons .Then take a linkage between the number of gravitons, a minimum grid size, and the time evolution of Hubble’s parameter, to ascertain a minimum number of initial gravitons produced, which in turns of Ng’s infinite quantum statistics is a measure of entropy. .As to structure formation, we find that the stronger an early universe magnetic field is, the greater the likelihood of production of about 20 new domains of size 1/ H, with H early universe Hubble’s constant, per Planck time interval in evolution. The H so obtained is directly from gravitons, and entropy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[128] **viXra:1510.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 02:50:28*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

本文理论上证明暗物质是不存在的

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[127] **viXra:1510.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 12:27:32*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Three pages

A new unique reference frame that Dr. Einstein missed is carefully defined and discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[126] **viXra:1510.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 13:04:59*

**Authors:** Tobias Richter

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Periodic Table of Physics
It is a first draft of a periodic table.
It serves the acquisition of new formulas and contains the essential simple formulas in physics.
It contains files written in German.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[125] **viXra:1510.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 05:25:40*

**Authors:** Sudesh Kumar Arora

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Any comments negative or positive are welcome and it will be really nice if someone can endorse this on arxiv.

Dirac equation for curved space-time is solved in Cartesian coordinates giving a result which is contrary to the generally accepted notion in cosmology that space expansion does not impact size of atoms. The solution shows that size of atoms reduces in proportion to the square of scale factor in an expanding universe. Work of McVittie, who solved the same equation with a different result is reviewed, highlighting his mistake and why he got an incorrect result. As the result is completely counter-intuitive a correction to the Dirac equation for curved space-time is attempted, which is desired due to many other reasons as well. The corrected equation when solved, shows that size of atoms changes in proportion to square of scale factor. Same result has been reported earlier as well using Schrödinger equation indicating that correction proposed is in right direction. Gravitational redshift formula is derived using the new equation, which matches with general relativistic prediction. The new equation proposed in this paper is thus indeed correct Dirac equation for curved space-time. Validity of standard model of cosmology is questioned due to this discovery.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[124] **viXra:1510.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 05:30:58*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 87 Pages.

The alternative theory to the General Relativity of Einstein

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[123] **viXra:1510.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 05:34:28*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 63 Pages.

Deduction of the new Lorentz transformation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[122] **viXra:1510.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 05:57:28*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The gravitational motion equations are not geodesics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[121] **viXra:1510.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-15 21:37:17*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille, Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** 10 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2015, v. 11(3), 236-256.

In order to account for the slight polarization of the continuum towards the limb, proponents of the Standard Solar Model (SSM) must have recourse to electron or hydrogen based scattering of light, as no other mechanism is possible in a gaseous Sun. Conversely, acceptance that the solar body is comprised of condensed matter opens up new avenues in the analysis of this problem, even if the photospheric surface itself is viewed as incapable of emitting polarized light. Thus, the increased disk polarization, from the center to the limb, can be explained by invoking the scattering of light by the atmosphere above the photosphere. The former is reminiscent of mechanisms which are known to account for the polarization of sunlight in the atmosphere of the Earth. Within the context of the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model (LMHSM), molecules and small particles, not electrons or hydrogen atoms as required by the SSM, would primarily act as scattering agents in regions also partially comprised of condensed hydrogen structures (CHS). In addition, the well-known polarization which characterizes the K-corona would become a sign of emission polarization from an anisotropic source, without the need for scattering. In the LMHSM, the K, F, and T-coronas can be viewed as emissive and reflective manifestations of a single coronal entity adopting a radially anisotropic structure, while slowly cooling with altitude above the photosphere. The presence of “dust particles”, advanced by proponents of the SSM, would no longer be required to explain the F and T-corona, as a single cooling structure would account for the properties of the K, F, and T coronas. At the same time, the polarized “Second Solar Spectrum”, characterized by the dominance of certain elemental or ionic spectral lines and an abundance of molecular lines, could be explained in the LMHSM, by first invoking interface polarization and coordination of these species with condensed matter in the chromosphere. The prevalence of polarized signals from the Rare Earth metals, a chemically unique group of the periodic table, provides powerful evidence, based on the “Second Solar Spectrum”, that chemical reactions and coordination are taking place in the atmosphere of the Sun. This concept is also supported by the polarized signal from lithium, an element previously hypothesized to assist in stabilizing metallic hydrogen structures. The possibility that some atoms are coordinated with CHS implies that the relative abundance of elements cannot be simply ascertained through the analysis of emission or absorption lines in the solar atmosphere.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[120] **viXra:1510.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 03:30:37*

**Authors:** Takis Tsoukalas, Panagiotatos Mitropolitis Thessalonikis Anthimos Roussas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Assume Z ≤ D. Recent developments in applied singular oper- ator theory [11] have raised the question of whether t < π. We show that Borel’s criterion applies. In [11, 11, 28], the main result was the derivation of multiplicative, linearly tangential paths. In [11], the authors extended lines.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[119] **viXra:1510.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 03:36:35*

**Authors:** Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It follows of the Expansive Nondecelerative Universe (ENU) model that the Universe is infinite both in time and space due to changes in some constants. We are able to determine the causal future, i.e. the maximum time which can be influenced at present. An analogous result is obtained introducing the real logarithmic time. Putting the curve of logarithmic time and the Universe worldline identical, an illusive acceleration of our universe expansion appears. This acceleration may, however, be related just to the observed past of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[118] **viXra:1510.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-15 09:16:22*

**Authors:** I. V. Drozdov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the new approach to the diffusion problem conventional statistical derivation is reconsidered
deterministically using the partition function for thermal velocities.
The resulting relation for time evolution of particle distribution is an integro-differential equation. Its first approximation provides the
conventional partial differential equation - the second Fick's law with the diffusion transport coefficient proportional to the temperature.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[117] **viXra:1510.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-15 04:14:17*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A novel kind of classical bracket of classical observables is proposed. This bracket is used directly as a derivation* of the commutator of the quantum mechanical observables that are simply obtained by Dirac quantization of the classical observables. Light bending in the presence of a massive object in Schwarzschild’s metric is considered and the above bracket is used to obtain a second quantized equation of the wave function of the photon in this situation via the Dirac quantization.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[116] **viXra:1510.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 18:30:03*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Robert Yusupov © Announcement of the scientific discovery 15.10.15

In the present article conclusions and results of author's research of bases of the nature are presented. Results are presented in the form of the list of the solved issues and problems of the world outlook, philosophy, natural sciences, physics and cosmology. The decision of all these questions and problems is found on the platform of the scientific dialectical materialist understanding of the nature and the world surrounding us. The full pre-award explanations are given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[115] **viXra:1510.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-15 01:54:04*

**Authors:** Mojtaba mahmoudi Fard

**Comments:** 14 pages

We choose to work with a simplified toy model for cosmological background as pre-space ether consisting of indivisible particles in the ground state of zero point energy, which satisfies the holographic structure of universe. Through the vacuum energy density we can find an effective cosmological constant and the dark energy effect of background, which yields the holographic dark energy (HDE) model based on the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy bound.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[114] **viXra:1510.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-15 02:57:46*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research monograph, a condition for suspension of Gravitational Field is presented. For this analysis, the concept of ‘Permittivity Of Free Space For A Graviton’ is advented and utilized.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[113] **viXra:1510.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-15 03:47:07*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Follow up to calculation of curvature paper, with emphasis upon Kinetic energy being totally dominant in the Pre Inflationary era

Abstract. We use Padmabhan’s “Invitation to Astrophysics” formalism of a scalar field evolution of the early universe, from first principles, to show something which seems counter intuitive. How could , just before inflation, KINETIC energy be larger than potential energy in pre Planckian physics, and what physics mechanism is responsible for the Planckian physics result that Potential energy is far larger than KINETIC energy. This document answers that question, as well as provides a mechanism for the dominance of KINETIC energy in Pre Planckian space-time, as well as its reversal in the Planckian era of cosmology. the KE initially proportional to g times T ^ 4 power , with g the initial degrees of freedom and T the initial temperature just before the onset of inflation. Our key assumption is the smallness of curvature, as given in the first equation, which permits adoption of the Potential energy and Kinetic energy formalism used, in the Planckian and Pre Planckian space-time physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[112] **viXra:1510.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 10:52:37*

**Authors:** Patrick Driessen

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

When interpreted in terms of a particular fractal model, regularities in the ratio of typical lengths and times between particles and galaxies are found which suggest that self-similarity between these two scales could exist.
To establish the fractal model, we first review briefly some of the evidence *pro* and *contra* the local quasar hypothesis (LH).
Forceful arguments have been advanced on both sides, whence we suggest, after others, that two classes of objects should be distinguished.
A first class would be constituted of face-on giant elliptical radio galaxies and face-on Seyfert galaxies, with slight to moderate excess redshift, mimicking quasars.
The second class would contain much smaller, faint and compact "true" quasars with large excess redshift. The latter would be emitted by the nuclei of spiral and giant elliptical galaxies.
A single quasar ejection scheme (QES) could possibly unify many observations related to active galactic nuclei (AGN's), namely Seyferts, Liners and extended radio sources (ERS's).
When the relationship between (true) quasars and galaxies is so understood, a possible link between galaxies and particles emerges:
if galaxies not only emit quasars but are also able to absorb them by a mechanism seen as the time-reversal of the ejection process, then they should interact with each other via quasar exchange.
This process would be similar to photon exchange between electrons, where spiral galaxies and quasars are considered as cosmic scale electrons and photons respectively.
Giant elliptical and super-giant cD galaxies would reproduce atomic-like nuclei, also interacting with their electron-like spiral satellites through quasar exchange.
Such a fractal model relating particles to galaxies allows the computation of scaling factors with respect to length, time, velocity, mass and angular momentum, with relatively good agreement between various tests of the model.
The velocity scaling factor is close to
a
»
1/137,
which suggests that
a
may be a characteristic constant of the fractal for which we also find a mass dimension
D »
2.09.
The quasar speed with respect to the intergalactic medium (IGM) should be a constant and fall in the range 1000-4000 km/s,
with a more probable value of 2188 km/s if the velocity scaling factor is indeed
a
.
The quanta of galactic scale charge (for quasar exchange) and angular momentum are computed. The latter is found to be about 5 10^{76} gcm^{2}s^{-1}
which is considerably larger than the values usually quoted for the angular momentum of spiral galaxies, so there seems to be an acute missing angular momentum problem.
Finally, the quasar exchange force between two spiral galaxies is evaluated and it is shown to be greater than the conventional gravitational interaction.
In analogy with the particle scale it should be repulsive between two spirals and attractive when acting between a spiral and an elliptical.
New gravitational constants must be defined for each scale, and with the value found for the particle scale, the particle Planck mass, length and time fall respectively very close to the proton mass,
the proton Compton length and the proton *Zitterbewegung* characteristic time.
This suggests that the particle scale gravitational constant is a redundant definition of the basic (proton) mass, and hence that
a
should remain as the unique dimensionless constant of a future unified
theory able to describe particles and galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[111] **viXra:1510.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 08:59:14*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

It is generally believed that Einstein derived special relativity from two postulates, the principle of relativity and the constancy of the speed of light, without paying much attention to the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment and Lorentz’s interpretation. In this study, the minimum conditions for deriving the Lorentz transformation are investigated, and one of Einstein’s derivations and one textbook derivation of the Lorentz transformation analyzed. It was found that Einstein’s two postulates are not sufficient for deriving the Lorentz transformation and at least 4 postulates are necessary. In order to obtain the Lorentz transformation, Einstein made several logical mistakes by using same symbols for different quantities and variables. When these symbols are made unequivocal, Einstein’s derivation cannot lead to the Lorentz transformation. Therefore, it is a false assertion that Einstein derived special relativity from only two postulates. This study demonstrates that there are an infinite number of linear and non-linear transformations that are consistent with the principle of relativity and the constancy of the speed of light. Having four postulates for deriving the Lorentz transformation is effectively equivalent to postulating the Lorentz transformation directly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[110] **viXra:1510.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 09:05:59*

**Authors:** Valeriy Nikolaevich Nikitin, Igore Valereevich Nikitin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Галактическая эволюция нашей Вселенной – это результат галактического распада Белой дыры и превращение её в Чёрную дыру.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[109] **viXra:1510.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 09:08:42*

**Authors:** Valeriy Nikolaevich Nikitin, Igore Valereevich Nikitin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Наличие гравитационной «оболочки» у Солнечной системы является причиной замедления движения комических аппаратов и изменения их курса!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[108] **viXra:1510.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 09:10:03*

**Authors:** Valeriy Nikolaevich Nikitin, Igore Valereevich Nikitin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Все планеты Солнечной системы находятся во власти гравитационного поля чёрной дыры! Ничего существенного с ними и с их орбитами не произойдёт даже в том случае, если просто «убрать» Солнце.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[107] **viXra:1510.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 09:11:03*

**Authors:** Valeriy Nikolaevich Nikitin, Igore Valereevich Nikitin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Наша Вселенная – это одна из галактик Мультивселенной, которая ограничена гравитационной оболочкой. В центре нашей Вселенной расположена чёрная дыра.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[106] **viXra:1510.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 04:45:47*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The conducted experimental investigations showed that mechanical stresses or destruction of conductors and dielectrics lead to the appearance of unitary charge in such models. Friction between the separate threads or the dielectric layers they lead to the same effect. With the earthquakes, which are the consequence of the accumulation of stresses in the layers of species and their subsequent break or relative shift, also must appear the electric potentials, which present the unitary of charge, whose fields can without difficulty penetrate through the rocks, falling into the atmosphere and into the ionosphere. The shift processes, which associate earthquakes, which lead to the friction between the shifting layers, also can lead to the appearance of electrical pour on. These fields can ionize the atmosphere and the ionosphere, causing its glow. If tension pour on, that appear with such processes, exceeds breakdown stress for the atmosphere, then lightning can appear. The seismic waves, which are extended during the earthquakes, also lead to the periodic mechanical deformations of the layers of species. These deformations also can cause the appearance of electrical pour on out of the zone of the propagation of such waves.
In the article the physical substantiation of the obtained experimental results is given. Conducted investigations give the physical and theoretical substantiation of the electrical phenomena, which associate earthquakes.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[105] **viXra:1510.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 05:10:20*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents some basic definitions of Fractional Derivative, Fractional integration and Functional Derivative and Functional Integral.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[104] **viXra:1510.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-13 16:16:57*

**Authors:** Mark Krinnker

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The letter consider influence of Earth's magnetic field on forming lighting channel.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[103] **viXra:1510.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 02:58:55*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 194 Pages.

Symbolic (or Literal) Neutrosophic Theory is referring to the use of abstract symbols (i.e. the letters T, I, F, or their refined indexed letters Tj, Ik, Fl) in neutrosophics.
In the first chapter we extend the dialectical triad thesis-antithesis-synthesis (dynamics of and

**Category:**

[102] **viXra:1510.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-14 13:02:10*

**Authors:** evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This work is based on quantum modification of the general relativity, which includes effects of production /absorption of gravitons by the vacuum. It turns out, that gravitons created and continued to influence the universe, including people. The theory (without fitting parameters) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations. In this theory we got an interface between gravitons and ordinary matter, which very likely exist not only in cosmos, but everywhere, including our body and, especially, our brain. Subjective experiences are considered as a manifestation of that interface. This opens a possibility of a "communication" with gravitons. Probable applications of these ideas include health (brain stimulation), communication, computational capabilities and energy resources. Social consequences of these ideas can be comparable with the effects of invention and application of electricity.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[101] **viXra:1510.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-29 21:15:16*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Einstein has been credited with deriving special relativity from two postulates, the principle of relativity and the constancy of the speed of light, in his first paper on special relativity in 1905. However, the existence of the Voigt transformation suggests that more than two postulates are needed for deriving the Lorentz transformation. In this study, Einstein’s derivation of the Lorentz transformation is examined for logical consistency and implicit assumptions. It was found that Einstein’s two postulates are insufficient for deriving the Lorentz transformation and essential additional assumptions were used. Because Einstein did not postulate all the necessary conditions, he arrived at the Lorentz transformation due to several logical mistakes caused by using same symbols for different quantities and variables. Therefore, Einstein did not derive special relativity from only two postulates in 1905. Einstein’s most important real contribution to special relativity in his first relativity paper in 1905 is the expulsion of the medium of light waves from modern physics and the reinterpretation of the Lorentz transformation with relative velocity between reference frames instead of velocity relative to ether.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[100] **viXra:1510.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-13 11:04:50*

**Authors:** V.A.Budarin

**Comments:** 7 Pages. MSC 76D09, doi:10.15587/1729-4061.2015.39886

The paper considers transformation of the equation of motion in stresses for an incompressible Newtonian fluid. The aim of the transformation is to obtain more detailed equations that account for the impact of vortex (rotational) and linear (forward) flows on the process of viscous friction. The transformation method is based on adding zero to the expressions for shear stresses with subsequent distinguishing of rotor velocity function and derivatives characterizing the linear flow. This approach as a form of recording the original equation does not require any additional restrictions. The transformation has resulted in new systems of equations for viscous vortex and vortex-free flows as well as three-dimensional vortex. The obtained equations allow obtaining the known exact solution for the laminar flow (Poiseuille’s formula) and Euler’s differential equation for an ideal fluid. We have shown that the Navier-Stokes equation is a separate case of a more general equation for Newtonian fluid motion. The obtained equations and connections between them allow improvement of the mathematical description of the incompressible fluid flow.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[99] **viXra:1510.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-13 05:56:45*

**Authors:** Mark M. Grinshtein

**Comments:** Pages.

There have been given brief comparative characteristics of main smartphone producers, Apple and Samsung. There has been studied impact of the gadgets on human health.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[98] **viXra:1510.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 16:02:23*

**Authors:** I.V. Drozdov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The second-order approach of entropy gradient maximization, applied to the problem of a quantum bosonic system, results in an integro-differential dynamic equation. Its local approximation provides the conventional diffusion and the wave equation

**Category:** Classical Physics

[97] **viXra:1510.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-17 08:20:21*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Christian Corda likes this version far better, i.e. my earlier one, so this is the one you guys get. Enjoy

This document will from first principles delineate the degree of flatness, or deviations from, in early universe models. We will, afterwards, make comparison with recent results we have looked at concerning metric tensor fluctuations and comment upon the role of what early universe gravitational energy may play a role in the presumed deviation from flat space results. Note that N ~ S ~ 10^37 will be tied into the presumed results for initial state density, in ways we will comment upon. Leading to this document as to GW, we are talking about taking steps to avoid the same mistake as Bicep2 which measured Dust, from Galaxies, i.e. steps to find a frequency of presumed GW different from Inter Galactic dust

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[96] **viXra:1510.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-28 11:30:13*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published version, Open Access Library Journal, 2: e2031. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1102031

I propose a phenomenological model for the decay of black holes near Planck mass. The decay takes place via a quantum state between general relativity and a grand unified field theory like SO(10). This group is favored also by a no-scale SUGRA GUT model for Starobinsky inflation by other authors

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[95] **viXra:1510.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-13 01:34:57*

**Authors:** Lenka Dubcova

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Transformation of the first derivatives

**Category:** General Mathematics

[94] **viXra:1510.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-23 08:36:48*

**Authors:** Gunn Quznetsov

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

RUN I of LHC took no significant new results. There are not super partners, no black holes, no extra dimensions, or dark matter particles, and so on. A single newly discovered particle turned out to be a hadrons multiplet but not Higgs.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[93] **viXra:1510.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-18 15:08:59*

**Authors:** Algirdas Antano Maknickas

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It was shown that using spatial transform obtained by applying the difference to spatial global coordinates and time integral of velocities non linear Navier-Stokes equation transforms into parabolic equations

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[92] **viXra:1510.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-05 00:27:50*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Flux particle theory is a complete theory of everything... including Gravity, The four forces and a completely new way to understand the way dimensionality actually works.

It is based solely on irrefutable logic. And although it is easily understandable by anyone, it requires an open mind and a completely new way of thinking.

It uses strings but not the string theory type and everything is easily explained:

WHY THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS "C"

There is a high tension string particle field in space (not the string theory type). Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing). A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual string lengths are approximately one Ångström). Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web.

If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a string particle field)

The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"

The particle field strings have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is.

If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'

Here is a regular string tension formula... Tension = velocity squared x mass / Length.

If we plug c in and rearrange we get... TL = mc^2

Both sides of the equation are in joules or energy... equivalent to "E".

It means the Tension of the strings in space times their length is equal to their energy.

This is why the speed of light is involved in Einsteins mass energy equivalence equation... E = mc^2 ...and actually why light travels at the speed of light

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[91] **viXra:1510.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 15:36:35*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The author generalizes thermodynamics of irreversible processes on processes
of useful transformation of energy in thermal and not thermal, cyclic and not
cyclic engines. For this purpose it suggests to find thermodynamic forces Xi
and flows Ji from the energy conservation law, but not “entropy production”.
Further it opens indissoluble communication of processes of transfer and
transformation of any forms of energy, unity of their laws and existence
for them antisymmetric reciprocal relations, confirming their fairness on
a wide class of the processes, submitting to Maxwell’s equations.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[90] **viXra:1510.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 10:05:20*

**Authors:** Sergey Vasiliev

**Comments:** 7 Pages. In English & In Russian

The purpose of this theory is to explain the physical meaning of such quantum mechanical phenomenon as stochastic behavior of elementary particles and other quantum objects. With this aim the given theory introduces the concept of "natural quantum selection", which includes phenomena described by quantum mechanics, quantum field theory and quantum cosmology. This theory partially unites the fields of study of the above mentioned theories. This theory explains why there is such a magnitude of particle masses and coupling constants of a standard model of a standard model obtained experimentally but not predicted by a model.
Предлагается теория естественного квантового отбора, целью которой является объяснение физического смысла такого квантовомеханического явления, как вероятностное поведение элементарных частиц и других квантовых объектов; и одновременно описание динамического механизма тонкой настройки Вселенной, показывающего необязательность для установления и поддержания равновесия между силами взаимодействия и веществом Вселенной конкретных значений произвольных констант стандартной модели физики элементарных частиц, которые получены экспериментально, но не предсказываются моделью.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[89] **viXra:1510.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 07:01:38*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I present two formulae which seems to conduct to primes or products of very few prime factors, both of them inspired by the prime decomposition of the first absolute Fermat pseudoprime, the number 561.

**Category:** Number Theory

[88] **viXra:1510.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 07:08:24*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Evolution is considered to be one of the most important theories in science. I am interested in the most important aspects of Evolution: Mind evolution and Consciousness evolution.

Evolution is considered to be one of the most important theories in science.
"Our evolution level is our consciousness level" Adrian Ferent
"What did Darwin not understand? The evolution of consciousness" Adrian Ferent
“Darwin developed his Evolution theory on animals; I developed my Evolution theory on people” Adrian Ferent
Ferent Consciousness Equation
The consciousness equation:
The Christians, the Muslims, the Atheists … who say we have one life are wrong because if N0 = 0, T =70 years, for example after 30 years people will have the same consciousness, which is not true.
My theory is a proof for reincarnation, Evolution!
I am interested in the most important aspects of Evolution: Mind evolution and Consciousness evolution.
The thought is a single act or product of thinking, the product of mental activity.
Who am I? I am the consciousness!
I consider the consciousness a probability space and the measure of the whole space is equal to One and because of the consciousness polarity I defined the qubit of consciousness and the consciousness states keeping the analogy with the qubits and the quantum states from quantum mechanics.
I defined the level of morality:
LM = (L4 + L5 + L6 + L7) / (L1 + L2 + L3)
Consciousness controls the complex relationships between mind, body and the environment.
Darwin did not understand the spiritual evolution, the evolution of consciousness.

**Category:** Mind Science

[87] **viXra:1510.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 08:22:11*

**Authors:** Danil Krotkov

**Comments:** Pages.

Generalized Identity of Johann Bernoulli

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[86] **viXra:1510.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 08:48:53*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Comments are Welcomed

We propose a cosmological constant that changes according to the scale of the application of the field equation. This proposal is found to resolve the cosmological constant problem , flatness problem and horizon problem and remove the contrived quantities and concepts such as dark matter , dark energy and Inflation. The proposal does not involve any modification of general relativity or any other theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[85] **viXra:1510.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 09:07:32*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author presents a novel method called ‘Universal Recursive Crossing Science Of Genetic Kind’. This method outlays how Genetic Crossing happens for the Asexual and Heterosexual kind.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[84] **viXra:1510.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 04:42:52*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The present study examined the relativistic interpretation of the increased lifetime of high speed elementary particles, which is an important experimental evidence of time dilation. It is found that the principle of relativity cannot be upheld for both the distance and the velocity between the particle frame and the earth frame in special relativity. For the particle frame, the velocity obtained by directly using the principle of relativity is different from that computed from the distance and the time interval of the particles’ proper lifetime, hence a velocity paradox. The relativistic interpretation needs to stipulate that the distance between the earth and the particles observed by the earth frame is larger than the same distance observed by the particle frame, which contradicts the principle of relativity. The aim of the present study is to present this velocity paradox to researchers and teachers in physics, in order to find a satisfactory solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[83] **viXra:1510.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 05:18:02*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The present study has examined the prevalent explanations of the twin paradox and found that they are incorrect because they failed to follow the spirit and the logic of special relativity in their application of the Minkowski space-time diagrams. Applying Minkowski diagrams strictly according to special relativity reveals that the overall effect of the frame changes or accelerations is to return the clock of the travelling twin to the same reading as the other twin’s clock in the earth frame. Therefore, within the framework of special relativity, there is no age difference between the twins when they meet again.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1510.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-10 22:23:28*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre propulsion system in which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while reducing the components of the energy-impulse tensor, which turn out to be positive, by an arbitrary value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[81] **viXra:1510.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-11 15:28:59*

**Authors:** Richard Wilson

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Coulter outlines the recent history of immigration and how it is rapidly turning America into another Mexico. From the broader perspective I take, this book presents the American chapter of the sad story of the inexorable destruction of the world by unrestrained motherhood. Forty-seven years ago 396 politicians voted to embrace the destruction of America by the 3rd world.
Without the changes they and William Brennan’s court made (along with failure to enforce
our immigration laws), we would have about 80 million fewer people now and at least 150 million fewer in 2100,along with trillions of dollars in savings. We would have a chance to deal with the immense problems we and the world face. But, burdened with a fatally fragmented
(i.e., ‘diverse’) population about twice the size we might have had, half of which
will not contribute to the solution, but rather constitute the problem, it is impossible.
What we see is that democracy as practiced here and now guarantees a fatally inept government. Peace and prosperity worldwide will vanish and military coups, terrorism
and warlords will become routine, probably by the end of this century, certainly during the next. I discuss some possible solutions.

**Category:** Social Science

[80] **viXra:1510.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-11 06:46:45*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the authors have advented ‘Recursive Consecutive Element Differential Of Prime Sequence (And/ Or Prime Sequences In Higher Order Spaces) Based Instantaneous Cumulative Imaging Of Any Set Of Concern’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[79] **viXra:1510.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-11 05:25:03*

**Authors:** Mark M. Grinshtein

**Comments:** Pages. in Russian

The article describes the approach to early diagnostics and treatment of prostate cancer from the perspective of information-wave medicine. \\ В статье описан подход к ранней диагностике и лечению рака простаты с позиции информационно-волновой медицины.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[78] **viXra:1510.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-15 20:36:26*

**Authors:** Mr Romdhane DHIFAOUI

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Proof of Fermat's last theorem with conventional means.

**Category:** Number Theory

[77] **viXra:1510.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-15 20:38:44*

**Authors:** Mr Romdhane DHIFAOUI

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Another form of Fermat's last theorem : I prove that the Fermat's last theorem consist in finding 3 integers (x, y, and z) such as
〖(x+z)〗^n +(〖y+z)〗^n = 〖(x+ y+z)〗^n
From the Pythagorean triple we obtain a square equals the sum of three squares
If c2 = a2 + b2, and where d is the complement of c to (a + b) was
(c-d) 2 = (a-d) 2 + (b-d) 2 + d2.
From each even integer we obtain at least a Pythagorean triple
The surface of the Pythagorean triangle
Any number s = ( w^(3 )- w )/4 is the surface of a Pythagorean triangle
w^2+ 〖 (( w^2-1 )/2)〗^2=〖 (( w^2+1 )/2)〗^2

**Category:** Number Theory

[76] **viXra:1510.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-10 19:58:44*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Needs a home to go to. Will find a place for it to be published in

Inter relationships between conditions for perturbation theory being appropriate for a bounce as given by Turok (non zero singularity) and the initiation of quantum effects in cosmology, using ideas from Haggard and Rovelli . The metric tensor uncertainty effect is alluded to as well, with comments as to future research conditions added.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[75] **viXra:1510.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-15 20:34:15*

**Authors:** Mr Romdhane DHIFAOUI

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Proof of Fermat's last theorem with conventional means.

**Category:** Number Theory

[74] **viXra:1510.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-30 11:01:18*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The eight geometric objects of the electron impedance model, as fortuitous happenstance would have it, are those of the 3D Pauli subalgebra of the geometric interpretation of Clifford algebra. Given that impedance is a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy, and that quantum phase is the gauge parameter in quantum mechanics, one might consider an approach in which elements of an electron gauge group would be the phase shifters, the impedances of interactions between these geometric objects. The resulting 4D Dirac algebra is briefly examined in relation to the E8 exceptional Lie group.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[73] **viXra:1510.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-10 11:55:03*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple explanation to dark matter within the framework of general relativity is given . The explanation is shown to be a result of a new proposed definition for the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[72] **viXra:1510.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-10 08:04:34*

**Authors:** Alexander Unzicker

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is shown that the paper `Gravitation without a principle of equivalence' by American Astrophysicist Robert Dicke (1916-1997) contains a simple, but consequential, technical mistake. The purpose of this comment however is not to blame Dicke, but to bring to mind the intriguing idea exposed in his article. The cosmology proposed by Dicke would have been in full agreement with Dirac's Large Number Hypothesis, had Dicke not gone astray at that decisive step.
Instead of igniting the dispute with Dirac that followed (R. Dicke, Nature 192 (1961), p. 440; P. A. M. Dirac, Nature 192 (1961) p.441), the two researchers could have joined forces in creating an alternative cosmology that incorporated Mach's principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[71] **viXra:1510.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-23 17:01:34*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Dimensionality : Are you really three dimensions?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[70] **viXra:1510.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-09 22:05:15*

**Authors:** Youbang Zhan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There are mistakes in Sections 3 and 4 of the paper [ J. Quantum Inf. Sci. 2015, 5, 71], some calculated values have been corrected in this note.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[69] **viXra:1510.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-09 02:44:32*

**Authors:** Li Weigang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Charge accelerating is the formation of "A travelling electromagnetic radiation field" necessary but not sufficient condition; Charge urged electric field doing work --F · V ≠ 0, is sufficient and necessary conditions for the formation of the electromagnetic radiation field.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[68] **viXra:1510.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-09 01:54:47*

**Authors:** Luis sancho

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Leibniz's model of relational space-time was the alternative to Newton's absolute space-time proved right by the discoveries of Einstein (a Universe of multiple time clocks) and quantum theory (a Universe of multiple space quanta that carry energy).
However, a proper formalism of such model which gets away with the obsolete concept of absolute time and absolute space was never formulated since as Einstein put it, 'if Leibniz was right we have to start science from scratch'. Thus science is still in a middle place, with complex models that as astronomy, u did in the interregnum between Copernicus and Newton uses elements of both models.
The concept of cyclical time and the metrics of the 5th dimension, which orders all space-time cycles of the Universe according to its relative length in space and duration in time, straightens up the foundations of a Universe of multiple time clocks, simplifying our understanding of the Universe, and unifying all sciences and systems of nature. This paper introduces the fundamental elements of the model: cyclical time, fractal space, 5D metrics, world cycles and the 'generator equation' of space-time beings, which we call the existential function', to stress the fundamental property of all entities of the Universe, to exist as forms made of relational space-time. We are NOT in a background absolute space and time, but we are made of vital space - space with energy and motion, and time cycles of finite length which determine through the world cycle of the 5th Dimension the duration of our existence (no longer a world line as in 4D physics, as lineal time is substituted by cyclical time which ads a new dimension to the Universe).

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[67] **viXra:1510.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-10 04:19:34*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Discussing quantum phase transition and quantum critical point

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[66] **viXra:1510.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-14 11:08:52*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The article was reconstructed. Added new elements.

In this paper was presented description of gravity without the geometry of the space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[65] **viXra:1510.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-24 16:50:55*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Mass and electric dipole moment of graviton, which is identified as dark matter particle, are estimated. This change the concept of dark matter and can help to explain the baryon asymmetry of the universe. The calculations are based on quantum modification of the general relativity with two additional terms in the Einstein equations, which takes into account production/absorption of gravitons. In this theory, there are no Big Bang in the beginning (some local bangs during the evolution of the universe are probable), no critical density of the universe, no dark energy (no need in cosmological constant) and no inflation. The theory (without fitting) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmic data.
Key words: graviton; cosmology; age of the universe; interface between gravitons and ordinary matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1510.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-08 09:27:42*

**Authors:** Elias Khalil, Atikur Rahman, Md. Solaiman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Denim Jeans finishing is one of the most important value added activities in the washing plant to meet buyer requirements. It is done by creating numerous effects on it. Potassium Permanganate (PP) is a strong oxidizing agent used to make vintage look with acid stone wash. This present investigation deals with the simultaneous effect of processing time and concentration of PP on the physical and mechanical properties of denim garments. Three 100% cotton denim jeans were separately treated with stone acid wash with simultaneous variation of processing time (1. 5, 2 & 2. 5 minutes) and of PP concentration (1. 5, 2 & 2. 5g/l) respectively after typical enzyme bleach wash. Various physical and mechanical properties (Hand feel, Weight, EPI, and PPI, Tensile strength, Shrinkage, Seam strength, Count & stiffness) were investigated before and after each treatment according to standard test methods. It was found that change in processing time and concentration reveals big difference in various properties between treated and untreated garments.

**Category:** Chemistry

[63] **viXra:1510.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-02 12:44:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[62] **viXra:1510.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-08 03:58:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[61] **viXra:1510.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-08 05:05:45*

**Authors:** Borchin Ovidiu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We present a method by which we can determine directly the propagation speed of
the sun gravitational field. We propose as to attain this objective, to compare the
lengthiness of two cosmic distances through direct measurements. The first distance is
given by the length between a planet and the sun, while the other distance is caused by the
movement of the Solar System, including the sun and planet, within its trajectory around
the galactic center of the Milky Way. Since cosmic distances have to be crossed by the
gravitational field of the sun and planet as well we show that one of them has to be
neglected. This fact creates a retarded gravitational field of the sun which falls at an acute
angle on the planet. This angle is determined by the fact that the gravitational field suffers
a composed movement in two directions simultaneously and transport phenomenon
occurs. We show that the measured angle aperture depends directly on the speed of gravity
of the sun. Further investigation is made regarding the identification of the “Privileged
directions” in the solar system, which probably shape the planetary elliptic movement due
to the motion of the whole solar system around the galaxy on the galactic circle.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[60] **viXra:1510.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-05 11:00:15*

**Authors:** A.S. Bhattacharyya, S.K.Raj, R.Ratn, Parameshwar Kommu

**Comments:** Pages. published in Material Science : Material Review

A rare dendritic growth in sputter deposited SiCN and CVD deposited CN were observed. The rapid rate of nucleation and growth process led to instabilities in the growth pattern and the surface energy release rate was more through convection than diffusion It opens up new field of fractal study in the case of CN and SiCN based materials and thin films.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[59] **viXra:1510.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-07 15:09:27*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper introduces a generalized Bode's Law. This law predicts the mean distances of
all the planets (including the asteroid/dwarf planet Ceres) from the sun with a maximum
relative error of, approximately 16% corresponding to Mars. For the rest of the planets the error is, approximately, 10 % or less. Thus, the new formula eliminates the
inaccuracies of the original Law with respect to Neptune and Pluto. The formula also works extremely well for Mercury with n = -1, eliminating the need of using arbitrary
numbers such as n = -∞. The generalized formula is suitable to predict the existence of
undetected exoplanets.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[58] **viXra:1510.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-07 07:30:27*

**Authors:** Israel Shapira, Micky Maltz, Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Concerning the constancy of the speed of light, we indicate that Feynman's "sum-over-paths" theory of quantum mechanics implicitly relates also to velocities of a photon from C to infinity through the paths, and not only to paths alone taken by the photon. We suggest a modification of Feynman's approach according to which every single photon not only travels from source to destination in all possible paths, but also in all the velocities from zero to infinity, through each of the paths. Matter, however (as already suggested by Israel Shapira several years ago), is tuned to interact with photons only at the special relative velocity C. It follows that the behavior of light as stated by the second postulate of special relativity can result from this suggested physics. We propose experimental setups that challenge special relativity in this regard.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[57] **viXra:1510.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-19 12:19:26*

**Authors:** Harry Watson

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Let B denote a ball centered at the origin with radius R=(4pi-1/pi). Gravitational forces from a singularity generate rotation about an axis. Internal rotational forces form a vacuous prolate ellipsoid, with major axis (4pi-1/pi) and minor axes {1/pi, 1/pi}. The ball B ejects a volume (4pi/3)(pi^(-2))(4pi-1/pi). This is the volume of the circumscribed prolate ellipsoid. It is also the volume of an elliptical wedge with curved surface area 4/pi and the elliptical sector with curved surface area 4/pi. It is not unreasonable to suppose that the electron is a ball of unit radius. The volume of the electron is V_e = (4pi/3). The ratio of the volume of ball B to the volume of the electron is given by V_B/V_e = (4pi-1/pi)^3 = 1837.392727.... Let V_w be the volume of the wedge of ejecta.
(V_B-V_w)/(V_e) = (4pi-1/pi)^3-(pi^(-2)(4pi-1/pi) = 1836.15
Look at V_w. V_w/V_e = (pi^(-2))(4pi-1/pi) = 1.24098801$. This ejecta easily supports a charged unit ball, whereas the original ball only had the property of gravitational attraction. At this point we have the basic two stable particles, namely the proton and the electron. We then look at the mass ratio of the proton to the electron.
V_p/V_e = (V_B-V_w)/(V_e) = 1836.15
There are several expressions that yield the same numerical value as the previous equation. First among equals is
(4pi)(4pi-1/pi)(4pi-2/pi) = 1836.15
Moreover,
64pi^3-48pi+8/pi = 1836.15
The above equation is the original estimate.
harry.watson@att.net

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[56] **viXra:1510.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-27 10:57:53*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published at World Scientific News 86(3) (2017) 365-371

The pretension in this paper is to question the constancy of light velocity.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[55] **viXra:1510.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-10 04:31:27*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Flux particle theory is a complete theory of everything... including Gravity, The four forces and a completely new way to understand the way dimensionality actually works.

It is based solely on irrefutable logic. And although it is easily understandable by anyone, it requires an open mind and a completely new way of thinking.

It uses strings but not the string theory type and everything is easily explained:

WHY THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS "C"

There is a high tension string particle field in space (not the string theory type). Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing). A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual string lengths are approximately one Ångström). Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web.

If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a string particle field)

The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"

The particle field strings have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is.

If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'

Here is a regular string tension formula... Tension = velocity squared x mass / Length.

If we plug c in and rearrange we get... TL = mc^2

Both sides of the equation are in joules or energy... equivalent to "E".

It means the Tension of the strings in space times their length is equal to their energy.

This is why the speed of light is involved in Einsteins mass energy equivalence equation... E = mc^2 ...and actually why light travels at the speed of light

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[54] **viXra:1510.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-06 14:53:50*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Doing Business can be a very hard type of career. A CEO, Financial Advisor, Real State Expert, Broker, or Investor are all career choices that are seemingly stressful but enjoyable. In this paper we will be looking at the genius of some popular businessman and their overall appeals when dealing with business, making tradeoffs, or writing to a general audience. We will take an overall literary, business, and linguistics aspect to our analysis.

**Category:** Linguistics

[53] **viXra:1510.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-06 12:19:37*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the scheme for constructing ‘Complete Recursive Subsets Of Any Set Of Concern And/ Or Orthogonal Universes In Parallel Of Any Set Of Concern In Completeness’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[52] **viXra:1510.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-06 07:45:29*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Will be a basis of inquiry if quantum processes play a role in Dark Matter formation.

This document goes to the Friedman equation and initially gives an argument as to a
quantum bounce , for a modified consideration of the inflaton. Once an inflaton for a non zero
initial starting point is established we look at the ratio of the Numerical E folds for when there
is a quantum bounce, to the Numerical E folds for when classical GR is assumed. This rests upon
looking at M. Bojowald’s reformation of the Friedman equation, with some profound physics
coming from a defined length, as given by Banerjee and Date, as of 2005. A tie in with initial
production of DM is suggested as a compliment to work L. Randall and others have initiated
with the synthesis of DM.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1510.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-06 03:47:10*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There is Prize committee (claymath.org), which requires publication in worldwide reputable mathematics journal and at least two years of following scientific admiration. Why then the God-less Grisha Perelman has published only in a
God-less forum (arXiv), publication was unclear as the crazy sketch; but mummy child "Grisha" has being forced to accept the Millennium Prize? Am I simply ugly or poor? Please respect my copyrights!

**Category:** Topology

[50] **viXra:1510.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-06 03:02:20*

**Authors:** Editura Cadrelor Didactice

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Revista Educația Azi este o publicație științifica a Editurii Cadrelor Didactice, care apare în fiecare lună în format exclusiv online. Domeniul de interes este „EDUCAȚIA” în cel mai larg sens atribuit acestui cuvânt. Nu avem o tematică anume, considerând că orice articol bine scris și documentat trebuie să fie cunoscut de un public cât mai larg. În acest sens, urmărim ca în cel mai scurt timp cu putință să fim cea mai cunoscuta revistă din mediul online care se ocupă de domeniul Educației. Orice articol de-al dumneavoastră nu face decât să ne apropie tot mai mult de acest obiectiv. Ca o mulțumire pentru ajutorul pe care ni-l oferiți, după publicarea a 3 articole/autor, va adresăm invitația de a deveni colaborator permanent și să figurați în căsuța tehnică a prezentei publicații. Pentru mai multe precizări în legătură cu publicarea articolelor, tehnoredactarea acestora și posibilele teme de abordat, accesati rubrica Apel articole de pe pagina de start a publicației. Pentru orice alte detalii, vă rugăm să ne scrieți pe e-mail: edituracadrelordidactice@yahoo.com .
REVISTA EDUCATIA AZI ESTE SINGURA REVISTĂ EDITATĂ INTEGRAL IN LIMBA ROMÂNĂ INDEXATA ÎN BAZE DE DATE INTERNATIONALE!!!

**Category:** Social Science

[49] **viXra:1510.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-06 03:29:33*

**Authors:** Zipper Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Reducing Supernova and other phenomena by using the photons' movement meet Newton's laws of motion.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[48] **viXra:1510.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 11:09:22*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this research monograph, a novel type of Colloquial Definition of Euclidean Inner Product and Outer Product is advented. Based on this definition, the author consequently presents a Proof for the formula for the Euclidean Inner Product. Also,the Euclidean Inner Product of two N-Dimensional Matrices A and B is slated by the author. Also, the Geometrical Inner Product And The Fundamental Postulate Of Modern Quantum Theory is presented. Furthermore, a Curved Path Geometric Inner Product And Outer Product and In N-Dimensional Space and the consequential Fundamental Postulate Of Quantum Theory is also advented. Finally, the author presents a novel concept of Universal Quantum Basis.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[47] **viXra:1510.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-12 18:00:50*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The possible obtention of invisibility by means of a gravitational method is shown in this work. This method is based on a gravity control process patented on 2008 (BR Patent Number: PI0805046-5). It goes far beyond the known methods of invisibility and camouflage, which use the principles of light refraction to allow light to pass right through an object (metamaterials).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[46] **viXra:1510.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-14 08:09:29*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Within a substratum, the GGU-model is either a pure substratum secular analog model for processes that produce universes, or a non-secular model that generates the General Intelligent Design (GID) Model. Specific analog models, such as Newton's dynamic geometry, are investigated and various GGU-model schemes for producing universes are discussed. With the exception of intelligent mechanical and linguistic invention via a biological entity such as the human being, our physical universe displays no linguistic information. The problem as to how it is possible that such physical behavior does follow the linguistic descriptions described by intelligent beings, descriptions that do not appear in Nature, is solved.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[45] **viXra:1510.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 07:54:38*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We propose a new interpretation of quantum mechanics without the
observer and thereby solve the micro-macro problem. Our proposal goes
beyond Bohm-de Broglie theory but is as far as it stands mathematically
isomorphic to it.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[44] **viXra:1510.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:01:20*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 102 Pages.

Am notat în jurnalul polinezian tot timpul, în
avioane, în aeroporturi, în mașină, în autobuze, în
pirogă, seara la hotel, ziua prin parcuri, în incinta muzeelor, prin restaurante, mergând pe stradă, după cum observam ceva interesant sau îmi venea vreo
idee.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[43] **viXra:1510.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:03:25*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Eugen Evu

**Comments:** 154 Pages.

Acest volum se vrea a fi (este) un volum de texte încrucişate, ca meandrele şoselelor mexicane, fără gropile noastre, un mic-joc de doi, picant şi cu zvâc sarcastic, ca un gulaş din Ardeal (nu am zis GULAG!)... ușor la lecturi (f)estivale, ca să zic așa... de navetişti... O navetă inter-spaţială, adică între spaţiile noastre carpato-vâlcene-dunărene şi cele neo-mexicane, unde se pare că avem afinităţi cu exotismul cactuşilor şi colorismul şopârlelor, de dorit fiind şi cu ai noştri, care nu vor fi niciodată ai lor... Ceva care să fie uşor la cap şi ne-greu la stomah... Ceva de noptieră, seara, ca somnifer cu efect neagresiv, o carte de recitit, pentru confort şi neuitare... Şi a supărărilor care fac bine.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[42] **viXra:1510.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:05:19*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 248 Pages.

In this book for the first time the authors study the new type of Euclid squares in various planes like real plane, complex plane, dual number plane, special dual like number plane and special quasi dual number plane.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[41] **viXra:1510.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:08:00*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 182 Pages.

Seria de jurnale de călătorie Frate cu meridianele şi paralelele are cursivitate, ține interesul pentru povestire viu, ceea ce nu este lucru ușor.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[40] **viXra:1510.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:09:38*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 82 Pages.

In one of the best-known stories of Arthurian Legend, Lancelot falls in love with Queen Guinevere, King Arthur's wife. For a long time, Guinevere kept Lancelot away from her; however, the passion overpowered and the pair became lovers. One night, a band of knights forced the doors to Guinevere's chamber where they burst in upon the lovers. Lancelot manage to escape, but Guinevere is seized and condemned to burn to death for her adultery. Of course, Lancelot returned to rescue his beloved Guinevere from the fire.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[39] **viXra:1510.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:36:00*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 156 Pages.

Neutrosophy means the study of ideas and notions
that are not true, nor false, but in between (i.e. neutral,indeterminate, unclear, vague, ambiguous, incomplete,contradictory, etc.).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[38] **viXra:1510.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:38:31*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 127 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time have made a through study of neutrosophic graphs. This study reveals that these neutrosophic graphs give a new dimension to graph theory. The important feature of this book is it contains over 200
neutrosophic graphs to provide better understanding of this concepts. Further these graphs happen to behave in a unique way inmost cases, for even the edge colouring problem is
different from the classical one. Several directions and dimensions in graph theory are obtained from this study.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[37] **viXra:1510.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:44:34*

**Authors:** editors Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali

**Comments:** Pages. 98

This volume is a collection of fourteen papers, written by different authors and co-authors (listed in the order of the papers): F. Yuhua, K. Mandal, K. Basu, S. Pramanik, K. Mondal, S. Alkhazaleh, J. Nescolarde-Selva, J. L. Usó-Doménech, A. Betancourt-Vázquez, K. Pérez-Teruel, M. Leyva-Vázquez, A. Aydoğdu, I. Arockiarani, C. A. C. Sweety, F. Smarandache, L. Zhengda, S. Kar, S. Mukherjee, P. Das, and T. K. Kumar.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[36] **viXra:1510.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:47:55*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 96 Pages.

This photolog relates through images a travel in French Polynesia,and it constitutes a love photoletter to the ocean,the islands,and its inhabitants.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[35] **viXra:1510.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 07:04:34*

**Authors:** Constantin Coandă, Gheorghe Duţă, Gheorghe Drăgan, Jean Ilie, Ionuț Ivănescu, Florentin Smarandache, Lucian Tufescu, Sami Drăghici

**Comments:** 190 Pages.

Prezenta lucrare încearcă să pună la dispoziția elevilor și profesorilor instrumente de evaluare a cunoștințelor la toate capitolele din actuala programă de matematică.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[34] **viXra:1510.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 07:07:16*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Bianca Teodorescu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

This paper presents the importance of Neutrosophy theory in order to find a method that could solve the uncertainties arising on process analysis. The aim of this pilot study is to find a procedure to diminish the uncertainties from automotive industry induced by manufacturing, maintenance, logistics, design, human resources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[33] **viXra:1510.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-04 20:13:36*

**Authors:** Roald C Maximo

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Things behave differently in Wonderland and, to make sense of experiments made over there, they must be conveniently processed by some kind of artifice in order to make sense in the real world.
In Wonderland there are no fixed reference frames and therefore it becomes very easy to choose a wrong model in trying to describe a given physical phenomenon. In a confused landscape you never know for sure where you are located and how to move about. One can eventually build a working description of a natural phenomenon starting from a wrong model, however at the cost of subsequent application of some ugly prostheses or patches as required to make the freak viable in real life. An emblematic example has been the ancient description of the astronomical orbits through the "epicycles" created by Aristotle and Ptolemy where they arbitrarily chose the Earth as a universal reference frame. It was not much different in the case of the many experiments of the Michelson and Morley type that also started up putting the Earth as the reference frame to build a model for a theory of the ether and light, a model that had to be patched by the physicist Hendrik Lorentz to justify its final outcome. In this case, that prosthesis became a magic wand in the hand of physicists to explain other phenomena related to the speed of light in space such as the relativistic time dilation and the relativistic mass increase, also to be revisited in this paper, which, as it happens, are also flawed concepts that have brought pitiful consequences for the modern scientific knowledge.
Start with the wrong question and you don't get the right answer!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1510.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-04 23:42:05*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Momentum is not conserved, the momentum conservation law is wrong. So-called internal force is equal and orientation reverse geminate appear, the plight of naught of external force, total internal force vector sum of a system is zero, so the total momentum of the system does
not change. this inference of the momentum conservation law, in fact, is only applicable in the particle one another collide, or collide plight with object centroid one another. when several objects at the same time interaction, of Its bring counterforce，sometimes do not do work to the object, at this time the vector sum of the system internal force, it not equal to zero may. so system momentum is conserved is anymore, namely momentum is not conserved.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[31] **viXra:1510.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-11 06:01:48*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract

The homogeneity symmetry is re-examined and shown to be non-unitary, with no requirement for the imaginary unit. This removes symmetry, as reason, for imposing unitarity (or self-adjointness) -- by Postulate. The work here is part of a project researching logical independence in quantum mathematics, for the purpose of advancing a full and complete theory of quantum randomness.

Keywords

foundations of quantum theory, quantum physics, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space, unitary, non-unitary, unitarity, mathematical logic, formal system, elementary algebra, information, axioms, mathematical propositions, logical independence, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[30] **viXra:1510.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-04 11:29:22*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper I continue with the elementary particle Dark Matter halo model. The first few sections will shortly repeat the basics of this model. In section II I take a better look at the modified Newtonian potential as a consequence of the changed source mass. In section VI the effect of the modified potential on Einstein lensing is touched briefly. In sections VII and VIII the order stored in the frequency gauge of the de Broglie time devices in the outer galactic disks due to Dark Matter is related to entropy. The study of order stored in frequency synchronized or desynchronized time devices is called chronodynamics and this is added to the thermodynamics part of entropy. We show that in the inner galactic range thermodynamic entropy dominates chronodynamic entropy but that in the outer flat rotation curve part of the galactic disks the chronodynamic entropy dominates by far. We show that the chronodynamic entropy of a galaxy is lowest in its outer fringes and highest in its luminous center. This creates an inward entropic force and that is how the Dark Matter halo, through the intermediate of chronodynamic entropy, stabilizes galaxies. The frequency gauge of the de Broglie elementary time devices in the outer range of galactic disks creates a sort of a gauged time bubble in a cosmic time sea, a gauge regulated by the BTF relation. In the last section we relate this galactic gauged time bubble to GR as a reference frame independent theory of gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1510.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-04 09:38:02*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Reality is argued to be fundamentally different from a Relativistic Perspective and not a simple Time slow-down

This paper formulates additional relativistic equations examining Dr. Einstein’s deductions from a Relativistically Distorted Perspective. The equations derived from a theoretic ideal “non-Relativistic” velocity distorted in the same manner as length, time, and mass – into an apparent “Relativistic” velocity. Absolute velocity is a necessary logic component for all Relativity equations – its actual determination is unimportant. Relativity physics equations presume ideals. The equations that are formulated here examine the absolute/real (no Special Relativistic Perspective Distortion, noSRPD) velocity and use it to determine the distorted (Special Relativistic Perspective Distortion, or SRPD) velocity. For an observer moving at a Relativistic Speed, some aspects of everything outside that traveller’s immediate environment would appear sped up. That would include the traveller’s movement through space: meaning an apparently higher Relativistic velocity.
Two equations developed in this paper show this relationship. Independent variables have no relativistic deformation [VelocitynoSRPD||Time], the dependent variable is |Time’| because of relativistic deformation. Existence/non-existence of ideal values for absolute non-relativistic velocity values are not contested, they are indeterminate real ideals. Velocity is one of the valid, theoretic ideals that Classic relativity (all of Physics) relies upon. Two examples of Relativistic Perspective equations are:
Time’ = Time/(1 - VelocitynoSRPD^2/c^2)^.5
This paper reasons an inverse relationship: when an independent variable is the observed velocity from the Relativistically Distorted viewpoints. The parallel equation from that Relativistic Perspective is:
Time = Time’ /(1 + VelocitySRPD^ 2/c^2)^.5
Time’ is the increase in Time units passing on an undistorted Clock, but observed from the distorted viewpoint. |Time| is what the value would be were there no distortion. The above relationship allows for the additional development of eight formulae/equations for the velocity, mass, time, and linear deformations. This paper also reasons the Relativistic significance of the Uncertainty Principle.
Relativistic Perspective equations have been confirmed to be consistent with the Classic equations to 2000 significant digits for 37 velocity values ranging from 1.0E-500m/s to (c–(1.0E-500))m/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1510.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-04 06:33:00*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the scheme for constructing ‘Complete Recursive Subsets Of Any Set Of Concern And/ Or Orthogonal Universes In Parallel Of Any Set Of Concern In Completeness’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[27] **viXra:1510.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 12:59:02*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation the author has advented a novel ‘Universal One Step Natural Evolution And/ Or Growth Scheme Of Any Set Of Concern And Consequential Evolution Quantization Based Recursion Scheme Characteristically Representing Such Aforementioned Evolution And/ Or Growth’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[26] **viXra:1510.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 13:44:25*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This work is based on modification of the general relativity, which includes effects of production /absorption of matter by the vacuum. The theory (without fitting parameters) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations (SnIa, SDSS-BAO and reduction of acceleration of the expanding universe). In this theory, there is no Big Bang at the beginning, but some local bangs during the evolution are probable. Also, there is no critical density of the universe and, therefore, no dark energy. Based on exact Gaussian solution for the scale factor, it is shown that an effective age of the universe is about 327 billion years. Production of primary dark matter particles have started 43 billion years later. It is shown that characteristic distance between particles is 30 times smaller than the thermal de Brogle wavelength, so that quantum effects, including formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate, can dominate. "Ordinary" matter was synthesized from dark matter in galaxies. Supplementary exact solutions are obtained for various ranges of parameters. From the theory we get an interface between dark and ordinary matter (IDOM), which very likely exist not only in cosmos, but everywhere, including our body and our brain.
Key words: cosmology; age of the universe; dark matter; interface between dark and ordinary matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[25] **viXra:1510.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-24 16:43:22*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This work is based on modification of the general relativity with two additional terms in the Einstein equations. The additional terms give macroscopic description of the quantum effects of production /absorption of matter by the vacuum. The theory (without fitting parameters and without hypothesis of inflation) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations (SnIa, SDSS-BAO and reduction of acceleration of the expanding universe). In this theory, there is no Big Bang at the beginning, but some local bangs during the evolution are probable. Also, there is no critical density of the universe and, therefore, no dark energy (no need in the cosmological constant). Based on exact Gaussian solution for the scale factor, it is shown that an effective age of the universe is about 327 billion years. Production of primary dark matter particles (possibly, gravitons) have started 43 billion years later. It is shown that characteristic distance between particles is much smaller than the thermal de Brogle wavelength, so that quantum effects, including formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate, can dominate, even for high temperature. "Ordinary" matter was synthesized from dark matter (with estimated small electric dipole moment (EDM)) in galaxies. Supplementary exact solutions are obtained for various ranges of parameters. From the theory we get an interface between dark and ordinary matter (IDOM), which very likely exist not only in cosmos, but everywhere, including our body and our brain.
Key words: modification of general relativity; cosmology; age of the universe; dark matter (gravitons); interface between dark and ordinary matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] **viXra:1510.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 09:54:34*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I present the theoretical calculation of net electrical charge required in order to levitate a material object with the Earth’s electric field. I also discuss the practical uses of this effect in producing an elevation device.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[23] **viXra:1510.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 04:38:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A team of researchers working at the University of Konstanz, in Germany is claiming to have directly sampled electric-field vacuum fluctuations, which would be the first ever made. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes an experiment they carried out and a part of it which they claim indicates that they have measured vacuum fluctuations directly for the first time. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1510.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 05:34:37*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this work it is shown that it is necessary to modify the schrödinger equation for
to describe the collapse of the wave function. The basic idea lies in the fact that
the Schrodinger equation is actually nonlinear in the scale of the Planck length, where
a significant role is played by gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] **viXra:1510.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 17:27:22*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 18 Pages. in Russian. Yusupov Robert © YRA-model of an universe 03.10.2015

Search for explaining of the structure of the nature at the primary level has led the author to the need to study the basics of the life, the nature and a universe. Physics is the basic science of nature. Physics declares that everything in the world, in the nature of the material, that the matter is the basis of all things and phenomena of nature. But there is no concrete evidence of this declaration in the theory of modern physics (TMP). The matter is the category of the philosophy. The philosophy of dialectical materialism naturally and convincingly proves materiality of the world around us, nature. The matter is in perpetual motion. The movement is an attribute of the matter. The matter and the motion are inseparable. But the matter is only an abstraction in the theory of dialectical materialism. The specific manifestation of matter in nature this theory does not specify. But the search of concrete exhibiting of matter in nature is not the task and the duty of the philosophy. This is the task and the matter of the natural sciences, especially of the physics. The physics should go to meet the nature and to find the concrete manifestation of the matter in the nature. But in the modern physics (the beginning of the XXI century) the matter in physics took place of the "honorary wedding general", the physicists busy of the physical idealism, and the physics is in the deep crisis. The Planck quantities in the physics attracted the attention of the author. These are such quantities as the Planck time, the Planck length and the Planck mass. At the heart of introduction and consideration of the Planck quantities the idea of the discrete of the nature at the micro level lies. The discrete of the nature means presence of the minimum connatural quantities. But this idea has not had finishing development, in the modern physics it remained at the level of ideas. It has not been found and is offered any concrete, material acknowledgement of correctness of this idea. The author has made an attempt ("brainstorming") to connect the fruitful ideas of the dialectical materialism (matter and motion) and of the physics (the idea of the discrete nature at the Planck scale). All this has led to the creation of the YRA-model of the universe.
Поиск объяснения устройства природы на первичном базовом уровне ведет с необходимостью к исследованию основ бытия, природы, мироздания. Физика является основной наукой о природе. Физика декларирует, что все в мире, в природе материально, что материя лежит в основе всех вещей и явлений природы. Но никакого конкретного подтверждения этой декларации в теории современной физики нет. Материя является и категорией философии. Философия диалектического материализма, естественно и убедительно доказывает материальность окружающего нас мира, природы. Материя в вечном ее движении, – вот первичное, основное положение диамата. Но материя в теории диалектического материализма всего лишь абстракция, конкретного проявления материи в природе эта теории не указывает. Но это и не дело философии, это дело естественных наук, в первую очередь физики. Именно физика должна пойти навстречу природе и найти материю в природе. Но в современной физике (начало XXI века) материя в физике занимает место “почетного свадебного генерала”, физики заняты физическим идеализмом, а физика находится в глубоком кризисе. Планковские величины в физики привлекли внимание автора. Это такие величины, как, например, планковское время, планковская, длина, планковская масса. В основе рассмотрения планковских величин лежит идея о дискретности природы на микроуровне. А дискретность природы подразумевает наличие минимальных природных величин. Но эта идея не получила завершающего развития, в физике она так и осталась на уровне идей. Никакого конкретного, материального подтверждения правильности этой идеи найдено и предложено не было. Автор предпринял попытку (“мозговой штурм”) с целью соединить плодотворные идеи диалектического материализма (материя и движение) и физики (идея дискретности природы на планковском масштабе). Все это привело к созданию YRA-модели мироздания.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[20] **viXra:1510.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 20:27:57*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. in Russian. Robert Yusupov © Explanation of the Universe (matter and time)

This paper considers the model of an universe, YRA-model. The Universe is the main part of an universe. The Universe, according to this model is the cosmological material object. The Universe has a center. There is the "massive" matter’s core in the center of the Universe. The Singularity as central core in the rhythm of nature "emits" a matter in the form of the atoms of the matter. The Singularity radiating matter is reduced in size (in the diameter). The quantity of matter in the Singularity is also reduced. The atoms of the matter come into the Universe. The Universe grows in size (in the diameter) and the quantity of the matter contained in the Universe grows also. This expansion of the Universe is in the pace of the rhythm of nature, or with the speed of light in vacuum. There is only one universal and unique constant of the nature of the UCN = 1.21034 +44. This constant determines the basic quantitative characteristics of the nature within our Universe.
В настоящей статье представлена авторская модель мироздания, YRA-модель. Вселенная, согласно этой модели, представляет собой материальный космологический объект. Вселенная имеет центр. В центре Вселенной находится «массивное» материальное ядро. Ядро или Сингулярность в ритме природы, «излучает» материю в виде крупиц материи. Сингулярность, излучая материю, уменьшается в размерах (в диаметре). Количество материи в Сингулярности также уменьшается. Крупицы материи поступают во Вселенную. Вселенная увеличивается в размерах (в диаметре) и по количеству содержащейся материи. Это расширение Вселенной идет в темпе ритма природы или со скоростью света. Есть единственная, универсальная, уникальная константа природы UCN=1,21034 +44. Эта константа определяет основные количественные характеристики природы в пределах нашей Вселенной.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[19] **viXra:1510.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 02:54:50*

**Authors:** Yong Deng

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, a generalized Tsallis entropy, named as Nonextensive Deng entropy, is presented. When the basic probability assignment is degenerated as probability, Nonextensive Deng entropy is identical to Tsallis entropy.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[18] **viXra:1510.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 15:13:23*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is shown, that the concepts and external manifestations of an ether, electromagnetic field and physical vacuum are various and irreducible. Therefore neither the field, nor physical vacuum cannot replace an ether wrongly expelled from physicists.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17] **viXra:1510.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-12 10:47:25*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 40 Pages. A new numerical example is added. Comments welcome. Submitted to Journal of Number Theory.

In 1997, Andrew Beal announced the following conjecture : Let A, B,C, m,n, and l be positive integers with m,n,l > 2. If A^m + B^n = C^l then A, B, and C have a common factor. We begin to construct the polynomial P(x)=(x-A^m)(x-B^n)(x+C^l)=x^3-px+q with p,q integers depending of A^m,B^n and C^l. We resolve x^3-px+q=0 and we obtain the three roots x_1,x_2,x_3 as functions of p,q and a parameter \theta. Since A^m,B^n,-C^l are the only roots of x^3-px+q=0, we discuss the conditions that x_1,x_2,x_3 are integers. Three numerical examples are given.

**Category:** Number Theory

[16] **viXra:1510.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 11:31:49*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 1 picture

Dear theist, you have kept the mind in the talks with atheists, it is very unusual: the atheism progresses very rapidly. Perhaps I can lift the fog, with which atheism covers atheists from our eyes.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[15] **viXra:1510.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 08:02:25*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

Существует большое количество диагностических методов исследования свойств материалов. Но от взгляда исследователей пока ускользнул перспективный метод, основанный на исследовании электростатического потенциала образцов. Этот метод заключается в том, что при нагревании или деформации металлических образцов на них возникает электрический потенциал. В работе проведено экспериментальное исследование этого метода и дано его теоретическое обоснование. По программе «Starfish» 9 июля 1962 США взорвали в космосе над Тихим океаном водородную бомбу с тротиловым эквивалентом 1.4 Мт. Взрыв сопровождался возникновением электрического импульса с большой напряженность электрического поля и малой длительностью. В работе проведены эксперименты по обнаружению и исследованию электрического импульса, возникающего при разрядах через разрядники конденсаторов большой ёмкости. Показано, что и при таких разрядах возникает импульс электрического поля, что свидетельствует о возникновении в разогретой плазме унитарного заряда. Данный факт противоречит не только классическим, но и релятивистским преобразованиям электромагнитного поля при переходе от одной инерциальной системы отсчета к другой и может свидетельствовать о том, что абсолютная величина электрического заряда, в отличие от его полярности, не является инвариантом скорости.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14] **viXra:1510.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 08:13:58*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The article describes the new features of reactive elements of radio circuits. It is shown that reactive elements such as the capacitance and inductance may possess properties of resistance, depending on time. A new method to obtain the wave equation of long lines, allowing the possibility to solve the problem of distribution, which can not be solved by telegraph equations. It is shown that stretches long lines have macroscopic quantum properties.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13] **viXra:1510.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-27 04:39:52*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We know that the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) fails at low energies. For example, within QCD, we cannot calculate precise mass and spin of nucleons. It does not concern the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Moreover, experimental data show that at low energies the effective range parameters for nn, np, and pp scatterings are similar, but different. Why? Here, applying SST, we calculated the effective range parameters and scattering lengths for nn (respectively 2.732 fm and -18.806 fm), for np (2.778 fm and -23.867 fm), and pp (2.824 fm and -16.995 fm). These theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. At low energies, the effective range parameters follow from exchanges of virtual pions (which are responsible for the nuclear strong interactions) and production of the virtual condensates (which are responsible for the nuclear weak interactions at low energies). The condensates insignificantly increase the effective ranges. Just at low energies, the effective range parameters for nucleons follow from their strong-weak interactions described within SST. On the other hand, the scattering lengths we interpret as the circumferences of the produced gluon/photon loops with maximum radius. The obtained here and within SST results show that QCD is the incomplete and partially incorrect theory - the same concerns the electroweak theory at low energies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1510.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 04:21:33*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

Exists a large quantity of diagnostic methods of the study of the properties of materials and models. But from the view of researchers thus far slipped off the very promising method, based on a study of the electrostatic potential of such models. This method consists in the fact that with heating or deformation of metallic models on them the electric potential appears. In the work an experimental study of this method is carried out and its theoretical substantiation is given. according to the program “Starfish” July 9, 1962 USA exploded in space above Pacific Ocean H-bomb. Explosion was accompanied by the appearance of electric pulse with the large the tension of electric field and by short duration. In the work the experiments on detection and study of the electric pulse, which appears with the discharges through the dischargers of the capacitors of great capacity, are carried out. It is shown that also with such discharges appears the pulse of electric field, which indicate appearance in the heated plasma of unitary charge. This fact contradicts not only the classical, but also relativistic conversions of electromagnetic field upon transfer from one inertial reference system to another and can attest to the fact that the absolute value of electric charge, in contrast to its polarity, is not the invariant of speed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11] **viXra:1510.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 04:29:31*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 7 pages. The eleventh paper based on reality

Confining is a top-down effect. Particles have to be confined in a region if these are to bond together. Gravity plays the required double role: it confines and bonds. Gravity confines the universe as a single unit and prevents it from disintegrating into its constituents. Thus the universe 'as a whole' has a distinct identity; it controls everything inside it. So there is a strong top-down causal effect inside the universe. The present day physics, however, ignores this crucial factor. Recognizing this 'missing link' is essential to get a complete picture of the physical world.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:1510.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 07:12:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Now in a new study, scientists from Hokkaido University in Japan have reported the first evidence of quantum tunneling as a mechanism for the surface diffusion of hydrogen atoms on the surface of ice, although quantum tunneling has previously been observed for hydrogen atoms on the surface of some metals. In quantum tunneling, the hydrogen atoms can move through barriers that they otherwise could not pass through using only classical mechanisms, such as thermal hopping. [10]
An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1510.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-01 16:34:52*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The detectability of the zero-point vacuum energy in quantum mechanics and general relativity is discussed and its shown that the geometry also has a non-zero ground state which is independent from the ground state of energy density and that the principles of general relativity imply that the field equation should relate the deviation from these ground states rather than the absolute values of energy density and curvature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1510.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-01 18:03:19*

**Authors:** Eun Ji Jang, Jihun Cha, Young Kyu Lee, Won Sang Chung

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper we extend the so-called dual or mirror image
formalism and Caldirola's- Kanai's formalism for damped harmonic oscillator to the case that both frictional coefficient and time-dependent frequency depend on time explicitly.
As an solvable example, we consider the case that frictional coefficient $ \ga (t) = \frac{ \ga_0}{1 + q t} , (q > 0 )$ and angular frequency function $ w(t) = \frac{ w_0}{ 1 + q t } $. For this choice, we construct the quantum harmonic Hamiltonian and express it in terms of $su(2)$ algebra generators. Using the exact invariant for the Hamiltonian and its unitary transform, we solve the time-dependent Schro\"dinger equation with time-dependent frictional coefficient and time-dependent frequency.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[7] **viXra:1510.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-02 13:29:38*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This work is based on modification of the general relativity, which includes effects of production /absorption of matter by the vacuum. The theory (without fitting parameters) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations. In this theory we got an interface between dark and ordinary matter, which very likely exist not only in cosmos, but everywhere, including our body and, especially, our brain. Subjective experiences are considered as a manifestation of that interface. This opens a possibility of a "communication" with dark matter. Probable applications of these ideas include health (brain stimulation), communication, computational capabilities and energy resources.

**Category:** Mind Science

[6] **viXra:1510.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 00:27:58*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Introduction of a dynamic efficient calculation model of human economic productivity for physical sustainability (balancing human-nature-interaction).

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[5] **viXra:1510.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 03:08:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Kindly note that several foreign consciousnesses (coonected to my computer) were causing constantly some changes of font size, matter deletion, etc in order to incorportae their unwanted and undesired consciousnesses in my original consciousness work.

In this research investigation the authors have advented a novel ‘Universal Natural Recursion Schemes Of Rth Order Space’. The author also sheds light on the method to build a Universal Natural Recursion Scheme characteristic of any sequence set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[4] **viXra:1510.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-01 09:40:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Is a cognitive computer the future of computing? While the computer has come a long way in the last few years, researchers at IBM say it hasn’t come far enough. Research in cognitive computing could lead to smart computers that compose, create, and digest via cognitive learning, a process that might seem a bit intimidating and complex at first, but is now being called the future of computers, and expected to be introduced into the market in as little as five to ten years. [11]
Combining the vast processing power of quantum computers with cognitive computing systems like IBM's Watson will lead to huge advances in artificial intelligence, according to a C-level executive at the US software giant. [10]
Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1510.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-01 07:18:55*

**Authors:** Omar Shabsigh

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Part II of discussing SciAm September 2015 issue

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1510.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-01 06:18:12*

**Authors:** Juan Ramón González Álvarez

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new definition of heat for open systems, with a number of advantages over previous definitions, was introduced in [2013}; Int. J. Therm., 16(3), 102--108]. We extend the previous work by analyzing the production of entropy and showing that the new definition of heat appears naturally as the proper flow [«flux density»] conjugate to the gradient of temperature, with the previous definitions only considering a subset of the physical effects associated to this gradient. We also revisit the transfer of heat in multicomponent systems, confirming the identity derived in the previous work for the identification of thermal effects associated to each one of the chemical potentials in the system.
The new definition of heat was previously obtained within the scope of the traditional thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP), which has a limited field of applicability to macroscopic systems with no too strong gradients and not too fast processes. We extend now the new definition of heat to more general situations and to the quantum level of description using a standard non-commutative phase space, with the former TIP-level definition recovered from partial integration.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] **viXra:1510.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-01 04:07:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics