[427] **viXra:1512.0499 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:36:12*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Get a good picture of everything that (they say) must be happening inside of an atom and you will realize it absolutely cannot be happening like that, what you are led to believe is actually bonkers.

The basic fundamental stuff cannot do advanced mechanical interactions, everything has to be automatic.

Gluons are a force carrier jumping back and forth (being shot) between Quarks and that is holding them together?

That is NOT an explanation. Everything must be explained or nothing is actually explained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[426] **viXra:1512.0498 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-11 17:10:18*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Assuming the existence of a fourth spatial dimension, w, the symmetry breaking mechanism is explained in terms of the transition of particles from a fourth dimensional space to a three-dimensional space. This dimensional transition was triggered by a drop in the temperature of the universe below the level corresponding to the symmetric phase.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[425] **viXra:1512.0497 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:50:25*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Universe seems to avoid all paradoxes arising from time travel through two distinct mechanisms. The first mechanism is implemented through the existence of an infinite number of parallel Universes. The second one is known as quantum superposition. Therefore, it seems that nature must be in an undefined stated to allow time travel without paradoxes.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[424] **viXra:1512.0496 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:53:21*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I present an alternative method of deriving the Schwarzschild radius of a
black hole. The method uses three of the Planck units formulas: the Planck mass, the
Planck momentum and the Planck length. Therefore it is shown that General Relativity
(GR) is not necessary to derive the formula for the radius of a black hole. Thus,
compared to GR, the simplification achieved by this derivation is enormous.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[423] **viXra:1512.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:59:33*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Assuming a time independent Schrödinger equation, this paper shows the formulas for the wavelength, momentum and group velocity of a particle as a function of its wavefunction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[422] **viXra:1512.0494 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 19:43:13*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Packaged entanglement states encapsulate the necessary physical quantities as an entirety for completely identifying the particles. They are important for particle physics and matter teleportation. Here we proposed the new packaged entanglement states (of two particles and more than two particles) in which the charge does not conserve in the process of wave function collapse. We also discussed the particle teleportation and entanglement transfer using the new packaged entanglement states. It is shown that a particle always converts into its conjugating particle during the particle teleportation process.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[421] **viXra:1512.0493 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 22:31:59*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme to Find the Recursion Scheme Of Any Complete Primality Tree Of Concern

**Category:** General Mathematics

[420] **viXra:1512.0492 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 08:14:31*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

According to the Nice Model gas giant planets were formed closer to the Sun and migrated outwards. This differs from stellar metamorphosis considerably. An explanation is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[419] **viXra:1512.0491 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-02 20:22:50*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Version-2

In the early publications, with reference to final unification, the authors suggested that, 1) There exists a strong interaction elementary charge of magnitude, es~4.72058686E-19 C. 2) Like quarks, the strong interaction elementary charge is experimentally undetectable and can be called as ‘invisible elementary nuclear charge’. 3) There exists a gravitational constant associated with strong interaction, Gs~3.329560807E28 m3/kg/sec2. 4) There exists a gravitational constant associated with electromagnetic interaction, Ge~2.374335472E37 m3/kg/sec2. Based on these concepts, an attempt is made to understand the mystery of origin of ‘discrete’ angular momentum of electron in hydrogen atom. Proceeding further, estimated value of Newtonian gravitational constant is GN~6.67985603E-11 m3/kg/sec2.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[418] **viXra:1512.0489 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-05 00:33:45*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 13 Pages. v5 modifies section 4 to cover electrodynamics with non-zero electric charge sources.

We develop a linear metric element ds in ordinary four-dimensional spacetime which, when held stationary under worldline variations, leads to the gravitational equations of geodesic motion extended to include the Lorentz force law for both abelian and non-abelian gauge fields. We see that in the presence of an electromagnetic vector potential A^µ, all that is needed to obtain this result is to follow the well-known gauge theory prescription of replacing the kinetic momentum p^µ with a canonical momentum π^µ=p^µ+eA^µ in the mass / momentum relationship m^2=p_σp^σ, and then to apply variational calculus to obtain the motion of charged particles in this potential. We also show how by this same prescription, Maxwell’s classical source-free field equations become embedded within canonical extensions of the Riemann tensor and the gravitational field equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[417] **viXra:1512.0488 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-30 10:31:30*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In French.

The papers presents the errors during the reduction of ellipsoid distances with the use of the radius of the earth.

**Category:** Geophysics

[416] **viXra:1512.0487 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-18 11:45:02*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here we show that, under certain circumstances, electromagnetic radiations can strongly reduce the lift force. An aircraft for example, can be shot down when reached by a flux of specific electromagnetic radiation. This discovery can help the aircraft pilots to avoid regions where there are electromagnetic radiations potentially dangerous. Not only the flight of the aircrafts are affected by the electromagnetic radiation, but also the flight of any flying object whose flight depends on the lift force, including birds and flying insects.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[415] **viXra:1512.0486 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-30 12:32:56*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 26 Pages. In French.

Ii is a powerpoint presentation of the geodetic calculations presented to the seminar "Intensif Calculations Week",27 november -1st december 2006, held at the ENIT school, Tunis.

**Category:** Geophysics

[414] **viXra:1512.0485 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-30 10:06:10*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 7 Pages. In French.

The paper is a review of the use of the spatial positioning technology during the years 1982-2004 at the OTC the Tunisian Institute of Surveying and Mapping.

**Category:** Geophysics

[413] **viXra:1512.0484 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-30 05:18:01*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper I present a simple list of polynomials (in one or two variables) and formulas having the property that they generate Carmichael numbers or Poulet numbers, polynomials and formulas that I have discovered over time.

**Category:** Number Theory

[412] **viXra:1512.0483 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-30 05:26:29*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In french.

We present the polynomial transformations between geodetic systems. Then we study the case of Conformal Polynomial transformations of order 1,2 and 3.

**Category:** Geophysics

[411] **viXra:1512.0482 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-30 06:00:26*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In French.

It is a note about the unification of the Tunisian geodetic terrestrial systems used in Tunisia.This note was presented to the International Conference on the Cadastre, 25-26 october 2002, Tunis, Tunisia.

**Category:** Geophysics

[410] **viXra:1512.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-30 06:09:43*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It the OTC contribution to the NORTH
AFRICAN REFERENCE PROJECT - NAFREF - presented at the Second North African Geodetic Workshop
On the Unification of the Geodetic References, held in Algiers, 26 - 27 May 2001.

**Category:** Geophysics

[409] **viXra:1512.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-30 06:24:39*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has advented a Novel Addition to the Author’s Concept of Theory Of Complete Recursive Sub-Sets Of A Given Set Of Concern. Also, a Formal Definition of a Galaxy is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[408] **viXra:1512.0479 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-30 06:31:31*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In French.

It is a paper presented at the Second North African Geodetic Workshop On the Unification of the Geodetic References, held in Algiers, 26 - 27 May 2001. The paper concerns the integration of the geodetic points determined in ADOS Project in NAFREF Project.

**Category:** Geophysics

[407] **viXra:1512.0478 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-30 06:37:27*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In French.

The paper explains how we obtain the formulas of the transformation of Bursa-Wolf between two geodetic systems.

**Category:** Geophysics

[406] **viXra:1512.0477 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-30 06:46:29*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In French.

The paper concerns the adjustment of the non-linear method by the least squares method with the example of the spatial intersection.

**Category:** Geophysics

[405] **viXra:1512.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 13:20:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A team of researchers working at Stanford University has extended the record for quantum superposition at the macroscopic level, from 1 to 54 centimeters. [13]
Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12]
A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11]
Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[404] **viXra:1512.0474 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-18 16:50:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the GASER (Gamma Amplifier by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is characteristic for stars with a mass close to one solar mass. SST shows that in reality the observed neutrino “oscillations” follow from the exchanges of the free neutrinos (they interact gravitationally only) for the neutrinos in the neutrino-antineutrino pairs the Einstein spacetime consists of, and follow from the decays of the unstable tau-neutrinos. Just due to the irreversible processes during the inflation, the neutrino-antineutrino pairs cannot annihilate and neutrinos cannot change their species. Notice as well that there is no reliable experimental data showing that at such a short distance as between the Sun and Earth, two-thirds of electron-neutrinos could change their species. SST shows that there are the exchanges and decays of the neutrinos but their abundance should be much lower than it is assumed in the mainstream cosmology. We must find a different mechanism explaining why we see only about one-third of the electron-neutrinos. Here we show that the solar neutrino problem can be solved via the stellar GASER which is characteristic for stars with a mass close to one solar mass. GASER causes that we observe only about 35.7% electron-neutrinos in comparison with abundance calculated within the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The GASER solves as well the lithium problem. The lithium problem should be characteristic for old stars with mass below 0.94 solar mass. The various nuclear transformations in such stars cause that the production of lighter nuclei is not such effective as it is assumed in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[403] **viXra:1512.0473 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 09:48:38*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make two conjectures on Super-Poulet numbers with two, respectively three prime factors.

**Category:** Number Theory

[402] **viXra:1512.0472 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-13 10:12:10*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract

I show that, in general, the Fourier transform is necessarily self-referent and logically circular.

Keywords

self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical logic, Fourier transform, vector space, orthogonality, orthogonal, unitarity, unitary, imaginary unit, foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, pure state, mixed state, wave packet, scalar product, tensor product.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[401] **viXra:1512.0471 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 10:39:11*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we conjecture that there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers of the form m*n – n + 1, where m is of the form 270*k + 13. Incidentally, verifying this conjecture, we found results that encouraged us to issue yet another conjecture, i.e. that there exist an infinity of numbers s of the form 270*k + 13 which are semiprimes s = p*q having the property that q – p + 1 is prime or power of prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[400] **viXra:1512.0470 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 10:41:51*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we conjecture that there exist an infinity of primes, respectively squares of primes, respectively semiprimes with a certain property, respectively Poulet numbers of the form (p + 270)*n – n + 1, for any p prime greater than or equal to 7, if p + 270 is also a prime number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[399] **viXra:1512.0469 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 08:23:31*

**Authors:** Ștefan Vlăduțescu, Ilie Budică, Aurelia Dumitru, Georgiana Camelia Stănescu

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This study is circumscribed to the domain of organizational communication and it is located within the specific field of managerial communication. It aims to clarify the purpose, functions and forms of managerial communication. The central approach is one of clarification and classification; in this respect, the approach is one of ontology of managerial communication (ontology includes vocabulary, terminology, classifications and typologies of a knowledge field). The research method that is used is complex and consists of a mix of meta-analytic procedures, procedures for collation, corroboration and synthesis procedures. Specialty literature is subject to a radiographic view in order to delineate ideas, opinions and theses related to the topic. Finally, our contribution consists of a) revealing, that managerial communication fulfills seven functions (information, decision transmission, influence, instruction, image, motivation, promotion) and c) in emphasizing that managerial communication is presented under seven forms (internal, external, vertical, horizontal, diagonal, linear, bipolar, and network communication).

**Category:** Social Science

[398] **viXra:1512.0468 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 09:08:19*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we conjecture that the square of any prime greater than or equal to 5 can be written in one of the following three ways: (i) p*q + q – p; (ii) p*q*r + p*q – r; (iii) p*q*r + p – q*r, where p, q and r are odd primes. Incidentally, verifying this conjecture, we found results that encouraged us to issue yet another conjecture, i.e. that the square of any prime of the form 11 + 30*k can be written as 3*p*q + p – 3*q, where p and q are odd primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[397] **viXra:1512.0467 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 09:09:50*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we conjecture that any Carmichael number C can be written as C = (p + 270)*(n + 1) – n, where n non-null positive integer and p prime. Incidentally, verifying this conjecture, we found results that encouraged us to issue yet another conjecture, i.e. that there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P2 that could be written as (P1 + n)/(n + 1) – 270, where n is non-null positive integer and P1 is also a Poulet number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[396] **viXra:1512.0466 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 04:58:39*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of detecting the Component of ‘Universal Truth Of Recursive Kind’ to an Existing Native Degree.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[395] **viXra:1512.0464 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-28 23:48:57*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of detecting the
Component of ‘Universal Truth Of Recursive Kind’ to an Existing Native
Degree.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[394] **viXra:1512.0463 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-28 23:56:30*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has advented a Novel Concept of Lower End Complementary Prime and a Higher End Complementary Prime for a Given Prime of concern.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[393] **viXra:1512.0462 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-28 03:24:27*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

Special Relativity derived by Einstein presents time and space distorsions and paradoxes. This paper presents an approach where the Lorenz transformations are build on equations with speed variables instead of space and time variables as done by Einstein. The result are transformation rules between inertial frames that are free of time dilation and length contraction for all relativistiv speeds. Particles move according to Galilei relativity and the transformed speeds (virtual speeds) describe the non linearity of the physical magnitudes relative to the Galilei speeds. All the transformation equations already existent for the electric and magnetic fields, deduced on the base of the invariance of the Maxwell wave equations are still valid. The present work shows the importance of including the characteristics of the measuring equipment in the chain of physical interactions to avoid unnatural conclusions like time dilation and lengthcontraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[392] **viXra:1512.0461 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 02:52:15*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 188 Pages.

25 scientific documents starting on an incomplete manuscript reflecting on the causes of Giao failure. The thesis aimed to respond, along his scientific life, to the comparable dimensions of success, misunderstanding and oblivion.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[391] **viXra:1512.0460 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 03:00:52*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 218 Pages.

Starting on an non published paper about microelectrons, a concept that emerged in the shadow of Louis de Broglie, before being refuted, this part contains more than 70 documents, letters as well connected pieces of a lfe full of mistery.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[390] **viXra:1512.0459 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-28 12:59:48*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Black dwarf stars are grossly misinterpreted by establishment astrophysics. Their hypothetical, unseen, unverified theoretical black dwarf is pitted against real black dwarfs as presented inside of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[389] **viXra:1512.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-28 10:27:37*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 33 Pages. The Unsolved ancient-Greek Problems , The Unsolved Special E-Problems

The Special Problems of E-geometry consist the Quantization Moulds of Euclidean Geometry in it , to become → The Basic monad , through mould of Space –Anti-space in itself , which is the material dipole in inner monad Structure which is Identical with the Electromagnetic cycloidal field → Linearly , through mould of Parallel Theorem , which are the equal distances of common Line-meter between the points of parallel and line → In Plane , through mould of Squaring the circle , where the two equal and perpendicular monads consist a Plane acquiring the common Plane-meter ,pi,→ and in Space ,(volume) , through mould of the Duplication of the Cube , where any two Un-equal and perpendicular monads acquire the common Space-meter ³√2 ,to be twice each other , as this in analytical methods explained . The article consist a provocation to all scarce today Geometers and mathematicians in order to give an answer to these Old-age standing Unsolved Problems.
All Geometrical solutions are clearly Exposed and presented on Dr-Geo machine , and unveill the pass-over-faults of Relativity . E-Geometry is proved to be the base of all natural sciences and also the reflective logic from the objective reality , which is nature , to us

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[388] **viXra:1512.0457 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-28 07:21:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14]
Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the “brightest beacons” in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar’s center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[387] **viXra:1512.0456 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-28 04:12:15*

**Authors:** Alex Patterson

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Ability to go and move on Against Method, pace PKF spoon listserve archive

A demonstration of using Against Method, of Paul K. Feyerabend.

**Category:** Topology

[386] **viXra:1512.0455 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-27 16:25:18*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is well known to industry that refractory (heat blocking) material is needed so that iron and nickel can be melted from their ore in blast furnaces, as well as superheated air at high pressures and gravitation to provide direction for the iron to flow as well as a fuel such as coke. It is posed as a challenge to the astronomers to explain how iron/nickel melt without refractory material, without superheated air (vacuum is absent air), without strong gravitation or high pressure (provided there is air and gravity), or fuel as in coke, to form meteoritic material.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[385] **viXra:1512.0454 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-14 12:37:26*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We speculate on the idea that the root cause of the recently reported diphoton excess at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a nonlinear quantum optics effect. The effect is likely to arise from the strong coupling of photons to the sea of relativistic Coulomb charges carried by light quarks.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[384] **viXra:1512.0453 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-27 22:31:48*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has Holistically Detailed Some Important Pointers on the Theory Of {Un-Biased Complete}Evolution.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[383] **viXra:1512.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-28 00:26:31*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: I write out a proof adapted from the work of W E Baylis et al showing how existence of the square root of minus one is inherent in physical theories demanding orthogonal mathematics.

Keywords: imaginary numbers, complex numbers, foundations of quantum theory, quantum physics, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation unitary, non-unitary, unitarity, elementary algebra, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[382] **viXra:1512.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-27 07:06:45*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 4, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a value of the fine-structure constant constant. This constant is found to depend only on pi and the dimensionless relations of the rest masses of the electron, neutron, and proton. The following paper shows a predicted fine-structure constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969. The fine-structure constant found is accurate to the measured fine-structure constant within less than one sigma. As the data for the fundamental physical constants has become more accurate, the prediction for the fine-structure constant has been trending for a precise number difference.
Some, like John D. Barrow, Richard Feynman, and Sir Arthur Eddington knew that the fine-structures existence is embarrassingly elusive to grasp. Is its value to be found in string theory or quantum foam? Is pi a value incorporated in the fine-structure constant?
John D. Barrow wrote;“If the deep logic of what determines the value of the fine-structure constant also played a significant role in our understanding of all the physical processes in which the fine-structure constant enters, then we would be stymied. Fortunately, we do not need to know everything before we can know something.”
― John D. Barrow, New Theories of Everything(4)
Why does, this Equation 4, below predict a value for the fine-structure constant within the limits of the Quantum Hall method of measuring the fine-structure constant? We do not know, but we also touch a forever that we do not yet understand, yet are allowed to exist in the “ moment an instant lasted forever and be destined for the leading edge of Eternity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[381] **viXra:1512.0449 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-27 06:23:11*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I give new relativistic formulas for kinetic, rest and total energies. The change in kinetic energy of a particle will be determined as the work done by the spatial part of the Minkowski four-force. I present a new relation between the relativistic kinetic energy and the spatial part of the four-momentum also interpretation of the temporal component of the Minkowski four-force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[380] **viXra:1512.0448 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 16:50:32*

**Authors:** J.Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Second chapter
Statistical Analysis of Extremes
Pendor, Lisbon, 1997

**Category:** Statistics

[379] **viXra:1512.0447 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 16:53:54*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Georges Soles, Pierre de Combas, Raymond Abellio, Lima de Freitas, Max Holzer and David Lopes Gagean are stars in a constellation of Latin thinking

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[378] **viXra:1512.0446 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 16:59:02*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Discourse at Evora University, 31 January 2012

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[377] **viXra:1512.0445 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-01 08:40:19*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. removed parts of section 5

It is becoming clear, that experimental physics will not be enough to develop the model for the construction of the Universe. Statistical Probability will be necessary for developing the model and proving the model. The equations in this paper predict a value for the Planck Constant, from other fundamental constant for each Codata year since 1969. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.2 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over six publications of Codata in a row, since 1986. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant consistently nearly equal to the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over all eight publications of Codata in a row, since 1973. To randomly generate an equation to do this, when the data has become more accurate by a factor of 700 times over this time period, is highly unlikely, perhaps as unlikely as one out of a 100000. In addition, Equation 2, below, predicted a more accurate Planck constant, than the Codata value of the respective Codata publication. This again is unlikely, but not unheard of. The sum of these data show that the mechanism for determining the Planck constant, may be mirroring the calculations, and may be measuring the same phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[376] **viXra:1512.0444 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 14:13:27*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Dark energy cannot be negative-energy radiation: it is generated by annihilation of redundant negative mass in our broken-E8 symmetry epoch in which new negative energy is not allowed

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[375] **viXra:1512.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 14:29:46*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The formulation of the Einstein-field equations are changed: Herewith I present dynamical formulations for the multiplication of Big Bang-universes embedded in an eternal rotating holographic universe. This is beyond the current assumption the universe could be a hologram; that assumption was made without detailed knowledge of shape and deeper dynamics of a holographic universe. The new formulations introduce a dynamical process of deeper dynamics by which an object or subject could be transformed to another part of the holographic universe. This may happen by recalculation. But how? The recalculation described here is based on an amount of ‘duo-bits of dark matter’, which recalculate the quantum-dynamics. The recalculation-process emerges from a domain below the Planck-scale. The ‘duo-bit recalculation’ starts for a calculated lower-limit of Planck-areas. From my calculation follows, for example: 17 x 10^53 ‘duo-bits’ can recalculate 64 x 10^6 Planck-areas. This subquantum informational process is embedded in the modified Einstein-field-equations by a geometrical ratio of quantum-gravity and Planck-areas. This ratio is correlated to an additional energy-tensor of dark matter-energy. The geometrical ratio is more refined than the Einstein cosmological constant, which is only a number. The refined ratio replaces the cosmological constant. Therefore the main-issue in this paper is, that the accelerated space-expansion in the current Big Bang-universe is based on a ‘fake-dynamic’ due to one of many possible quasi Big Bang-universes that directly exist in physical reality. Or in other words: Directly existing parallel universes are part of the holographic dynamics. According to the new formulations parallel universes do not exist outside the conservative Big Bang-universe. In an appendix a description is added for the media written in Dutch.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[374] **viXra:1512.0442 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 10:10:01*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 378 Pages.

First volume of Thesis in google approach to english

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[373] **viXra:1512.0441 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 10:15:20*

**Authors:** Joao Minga, Maria Isabel Nobre dos Santos, Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** Pages.

Biographic note on the builders of Angola University

**Category:** General Mathematics

[372] **viXra:1512.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 10:18:23*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

ERASMUS mundus coordinator missio

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[371] **viXra:1512.0439 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 11:37:44*

**Authors:** J.Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

History in our country since the beginning of nationality

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[370] **viXra:1512.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 11:50:46*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 16 Pages. PP 10-15

Geography appears to be an independence component in the set of philosophicsl practiced
Stdies by UNESCO are analyzed

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[369] **viXra:1512.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 11:56:18*

**Authors:** JJose Luis Simoes da Fonseca

**Comments:** 113 Pages.

de natura animae
psychologiae principia mathematica et
philosophiae naturalis
THe Nature of Soul

**Category:** Mind Science

[368] **viXra:1512.0436 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 12:04:44*

**Authors:** J.Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 9 Pages. First chapter

J. Tiago de Oliveira last book followed the research started by Emil Julius Gumbel

**Category:** Statistics

[367] **viXra:1512.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 12:45:19*

**Authors:** Fermin Jesus Menendez

**Comments:** Pages.

The title is a synthesis of 2 verses, of Fernando Pessoa heteronym in Opiario, and Jose Marti
A set of romanced true stories happening

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[366] **viXra:1512.0433 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 08:50:53*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the framework of the Joos-Weinberg 2(2S+1)- theory for massless particles, the dynamical invariants have been derived from the Lagrangian density which is considered to be a 4-vector. A la Majorana interpretation of the 6-component ``spinors`", the field operators of
S=1 particles, as the left- and right-circularly polarized radiation,
leads us to the conserved quantities which are analogous to those obtained by Lipkin and Sudbery. The scalar Lagrangian of the Joos-Weinberg theory is shown to be equivalent
to the Lagrangian of a free massless field, introduced by Hayashi. As a consequence of a new ``gauge" invariance this skew-symmetric field describes physical particles with the longitudinal components only.
The interaction of the spinor field with the Weinberg's 2(2S+1)-component massless field is considered. New interpretation of the Weinberg field function is proposed.
KEYWORDS: quantum electrodynamics, Lorentz group representation,
high-spin particles, bivector, electromagnetic field
potential.
PACS: 03.50.De, 11.10.Ef, 11.10.Qr, 11.17+y, 11.30.Cp

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[365] **viXra:1512.0432 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 09:11:16*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

Preface to the second volume of Doctoral Thesis on
The Scientific Personality of Antonio Giao.
Presents the hundred rare documents constituting this volume.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[364] **viXra:1512.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-25 21:17:08*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. 10 p., 2 fig.

The neutrino mass in four different independent formulations has been successfully
calculated on the basis of the mechanistic interpretation of J.Wheeler‘s
geometrodynamics concept. Mechanical analogue of the weak interaction is
presented. Its adequacy is confirmed by the various variants for calculating the
neutrino mass. The calculated mass agrees well with the indirect estimation of the
neutrino mass obtained on the basis of cosmological data. It has been established
that neutrinos can change its structure and properties, in particular, a magnetic
moment, that leads to changes in the power of detected neutrinos flow (neutrino
oscillations). The time constant of neutrino oscillations is calculated.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[363] **viXra:1512.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-25 21:31:37*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

On Oct.25,1991 without using any number theory we have proved Fermat last theorem

**Category:** Number Theory

[362] **viXra:1512.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-25 23:02:27*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a ‘Schema Of Construction f Infinity Geodesic Of Any Aspect Of Concern’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[361] **viXra:1512.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 01:50:19*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research manuscript the author has detailed the Definition of ‘Universal Un-Biased Complete Evolution’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[360] **viXra:1512.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-25 14:41:03*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 63 Pages. 63 Slides in French.

It is an introduction to GPS.

**Category:** Geophysics

[359] **viXra:1512.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-25 08:14:25*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Popular attempts to describe behavior within physical science, in non-mathematical terms, are demonstrated to lead to contradictions. How the General Grand Unification (GGU)-model cosmogony eliminates this difficulty is explained. Certain physical science theories often have a negative impact upon theological notions. In opposition to this, a theological interpretation for the GGU-model and General Intelligent Design (GID) have an extensive positive affect upon Biblical interpretations that are applied to the physical world.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[358] **viXra:1512.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-25 08:05:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Scientists at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have demonstrated a new way of controlling electrons by confining them in a device made out of atomically thin materials, and applying external electric and magnetic fields. [28]
Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[357] **viXra:1512.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-25 08:17:18*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In French

The determination of the heights of the geoïd by the method of astro-geodetic levelling is described.

**Category:** Geophysics

[356] **viXra:1512.0420 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-23 03:50:26*

**Authors:** L. Martino, J. Read, V. Elvira, F. Louzada

**Comments:** 30 Pages. (accepted; to appear) Digital Signal Processing

We design a sequential Monte Carlo scheme for the dual purpose of Bayesian inference and model selection. We consider the application context of urban mobility, where several modalities of transport and different measurement devices can be employed. Therefore, we address the joint problem of online tracking and detection of the current modality. For this purpose, we use interacting parallel particle filters, each one addressing a different model. They cooperate for providing a global estimator of the variable of interest and, at the same time, an approximation of the posterior density of each model given the data. The interaction occurs by a parsimonious distribution of the computational effort, with online adaptation for the number of particles of each filter according to the posterior probability of the corresponding model. The resulting scheme is simple and flexible. We have tested the novel technique in different numerical experiments with artificial and real data, which confirm the robustness of the proposed scheme.

**Category:** Statistics

[355] **viXra:1512.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-25 05:54:12*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed some Insights on ‘NP Versus P Problem’ that is Synonymous with ‘Schroedinger’s Cat In A Box Problem’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[354] **viXra:1512.0418 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-27 18:05:22*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Preprint of draft paper to JCF16 Proceedings

As a model mechanism to explain anomalous excess heat results observed by nano-Ni-H systems, the weak-strong (WS) fusion rate estimation during the unresolved effective life time of end state for the 4H/TSC condensation/collapse motion is of key issue. The effective life of collapsed end state on the order of 1 fs is expected. Computer simulation study was done in this work using the HME-Langevin program, using several key conditions as time-dependent TSC trapping potential, fix-up at 2.4 fm p-p distance of proton hard core collision, and the DDL (deep Dirac level) component effect by relativistic motion of electrons. Computer simulation generated chaotic oscillation of p-p distance of 4H/TSC in the range of 3-100 fm, behaving as near stable (strange attractor) lasting for rather long time ( a few fs or more may be expected).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[353] **viXra:1512.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-24 22:38:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed ‘Universal Objective Of The Universe’, ‘Universal Beauty Primality’, ‘Universal Optimal Life Primality’, ‘The Aforementioned Three Aspects As Restrictions For Evolution’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[352] **viXra:1512.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-24 08:58:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12]
A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11]
Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[351] **viXra:1512.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-23 16:14:01*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Lima de Freitas, portuguese artist from XX century,
had simultaneous initiatives on spirituality and science.
This paper was presented at Quinta da Regaleira on a conference in his honoour.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[350] **viXra:1512.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-23 16:24:57*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

ABSTRACT
Mario Markus, a Chilean scientist and artist from Dortmund Max Planck Institute, has exposed a large set of
images of Lyapunoff exponents for the logistic equation modulated through rhythmic oscillation of parameters. The
pictures display features like foreground/background contrast, visualizing superstability, structural instability and, above
all, multistability, in a way visually analogous to three-dimensional representation.
See, for instance, http://www.mariomarkus.com/hp4.html.
The present papers aims to classify, through codification of numbers in the unit interval, the ensemble of images
thus generated. The above is intended as a part of a still unfulfilled work in progress, the classification of style in visual
fractal images-a common endeavour to Art and Science.

**Category:** Geometry

[349] **viXra:1512.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-23 21:05:27*

**Authors:** Davide Mezza, Marco Pappalettera, Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 2141 Pages. submitted

Experimental evidence indicates that cells under irradiation induce in the neighbour non- irradiated cells the same biological effects affecting the irradiated ones. This is the so called bystander effect. Up to now in the scientific literature this kind of effect does not appear to be fully understood, even if several experiments show evidence of its existence. It would be reasonable that bystander effect takes place by means of paracrine chemical transmission mediators that would be broadcasted by the damaged cells to the surrounding cells. Furthermore a subset of a special class of signaling proteins, namely the cytokines, are probably the very ones involved in such signaling phenomenon. Among them, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) is a particularly relevant protein belonging to the class of cytokines, because it is known to contribute to mediate various relevant cell functions, like apoptosis, the programmed cell death. As a molecule, TNF is quite interesting, because it can issue two opposite signals through different intracellular molecular signaling chains. One signal induces apoptosis, while the other is opposite, inducing the cell resistance to apoptic signals. The crucial point is thus to understand what makes each of such two signals masking the other. Thus a mathematical model related to the TNF signaling pathway is of interest, paying special attention to the study of the TNF reception mechanisms by cells that are not passed through by the radiation beam. In this work we present a new mathematical model of cellular apoptosis - mediated by TNF - and its validation based on data existent in literature. The model that we present will result to be a stable model with respect to large variation of the parameters and simplified with respect to other models already existent.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[348] **viXra:1512.0412 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-17 21:40:44*

**Authors:** Claude Latourre

**Comments:** 5 Pages. En français

For more than a century, the equations of general relativity have evolved according to the observations of the universe. These changes are expressed through the cosmological constant (Λ), which was first added on the space-time part to account for a stationary universe, then removed when the expansion of the universe was observed. More recently, the constant reappeared on the energy-momentum part to describe an accelerated expansion of the universe. However, their contractions can express exactly the value of the cosmological constant: Λ = -1/4 (R + κ T) and fully define the equations of General Relativity: (Rµ√ -1/4 gµ√ R) = κ (Tµ√ -1/4 gµ√ T) without using other concepts: Dark energy, Quintessence...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[347] **viXra:1512.0411 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-27 09:48:34*

**Authors:** Silvia Strada, Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 10 Pages. submitted

A simple, multivariable and linearly initial- ized clustering is shown to be able to deal with unsu- pervised classification of the data originating from pan- creatic endocrine tumors (PET). Results are discussed almost only on the data science side, leaving a more biological discussion to future work, even in the quest of possible hidden pathways.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[346] **viXra:1512.0410 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-24 05:48:20*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed ‘Universal Objective Of The Universe’, ‘Universal Beauty Primality’, ‘Universal Optimal Life Primality’ and ‘The Aforementioned Three Aspects As Restrictions For Evolution’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[345] **viXra:1512.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-24 06:51:05*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 12 Pages. In French.

This paper concerns the evolution of the Tunisian geodesy from the Laplace geodetic points to the installation of GPS permanant stations in the new Tunisian geodetic network. The paper was prepared for the 120th anniversary of the creation of the Tunisian Topographic Service.

**Category:** Geophysics

[344] **viXra:1512.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-23 09:21:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Scheme wherein Each of the Alphabets of English are represented by a Distinct Prime Number and/ or Set Of Ordered Distinct Prime Numbers, such that the thusly found Set of Prime Numbers Representing All the Alphabets of English Language and/ or Set(s) of Prime Numbers Representing All The Alphabets Of English Language, also, form a Complete Recursive Sub-Set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[343] **viXra:1512.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-23 05:48:46*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Accessed throgh Thematic Lines of Research at cfcul.fc.ul.pt

Transcontinental Interdisciplinarity:
This case study is designed to analyze Interdisciplinarity in the context of transcontinental relations. In the XX
century and in cooperation with Lusophone countries - from Angola to Asia and mainly Cape Verde - the project
under scrutiny sought an exchange of knowledge between colleagues from Philosophy and Science and a
contribution to the creation of new teaching methods, as well as libraries. (+info)
Coordinator José Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[342] **viXra:1512.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-22 19:57:16*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Dark energy is a negative-energy form of radiation invisible to our eyes in our epoch of broken E8 symmetry. It is generated by annihilation of negative-mass H and Z bosons left over from their use in bringing fermonic matter into the new universe following the big bang. The dark energy radiation eventually cancels the big bang radiation before it can leave the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[341] **viXra:1512.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-22 23:48:48*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed three Schemes of ‘Theory Of Quantum Coupling’, ‘Theory Of Quantum Lensing’, ‘Theory Of Quantum Lens Invasion’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[340] **viXra:1512.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-23 03:32:54*

**Authors:** Martin Erik Horn

**Comments:** 1 Page. The complete paper can be found at http://www.phydid.de (Wuppertal 2015)

An overview over all possible elementary reflections is given. It shows that a quarter of all reflections are negative.

**Category:** Geometry

[339] **viXra:1512.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-22 11:25:45*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Keywords: Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) flow, helical flow, stationary points

The existence of stationary points for the dynamical system of ABC-flow is considered.
The ABC-flow, a three-parameter velocity field that provides a simple stationary solution of Euler's equations in three dimensions for incompressible, inviscid fluid flows, is the prototype for the study of turbulence (it provides a simple example of dynamical chaos).
But, nevertheless, between the chaotic trajectories of the appropriate solutions of such a system we can reveal the stationary points, the deterministic basis among the chaotic behaviour of ABC-flow dynamical system. It has been proved the existence of 1 point for two partial cases of parameters {A, B, C}: 1) A = B = 1; 2) C = 1 (A² + B² = 1). Moreover, dynamical system of ABC-flow allows 3 points of such a type, depending on the meanings of parameters {A, B, C}.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[338] **viXra:1512.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-22 11:38:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9]
Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[337] **viXra:1512.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-22 05:06:15*

**Authors:** Tibor Endre Nagy

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The addition of acceleration in the form of redshift to the Earth, which in turn complements the notion of an expanding universe, may be used to calculate both distances and time periods. Using this information, if redshift to the color change of blood in living creatures’ depending on respiration and circulation is also added, the theory of general relativity and rules of Euclidean geometry can be combined to define the biological evolutionary time of life. When the value of this physical redshift matches with the periodical reflexion color changes within a living creatures’ blood, the information can estimate the average time period needed to develop a species in the Darwinian evolutionary process. Based upon this chronology, life may have started 4 billion years ago. The evolution time of man and vertebrates is between 1.93-3.53 billion years, while mollusca developed about 560-599 million years and plants developed in the range of 1.82-2.35 billion years. These values correlate well with the results of the today’s radiometric geological dating.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[336] **viXra:1512.0398 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-26 18:26:52*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Corrected Equation 6 and typo on 1973 codata planck constant.

It is becoming clear, that experimental physics will not be enough to develop the model for the construction of the Universe. Statistical Probability will be necessary for developing the model and proving the model. The equations in this paper predict a value for the Planck Constant, from other fundamental constant for each Codata year since 1969. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.2 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over six publications of Codata in a row, since 1986. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.25 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over seven publications of Codata in a row, since 1973. To randomly generate an equation to do this, when the data has become more accurate by a factor of 100 times over this time period, is highly unlikely, perhaps as unlikely as one out of a 100000. In addition, over the last six Codata publications, the equations below have been closer to the next Codata publication for the Planck constant. This again is unlikely, but not unheard of. The sum of these data show that the mechanism for determining the Planck constant, must be mirroring the calculations, and must be measuring the same phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[335] **viXra:1512.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 16:01:18*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Conventional Science Locally Measured At High Speed

Conventional equations of energy and momentum are rearranged to show how the components change during prolonged acceleration. Mass is shown to be a constant when light speed is constant, and a variable when light speed is variable.
Relations are developed among total energy, mass energy, and momentum energy, with conclusions that mass energy approaches zero at high speed, giving favorable predictions for Deep Space Transport .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[334] **viXra:1512.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-22 01:04:57*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of detecting the Component of ‘Universal Truth Of Recursive Kind’ to an Existing Native Degree.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[333] **viXra:1512.0394 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-13 19:50:32*

**Authors:** Hajime Mashima

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

"It multiplies the 1/2 when the number of nature is even. It is multiplied by 3 in the case of an odd number. Furthermore it adds 1. By repeating this calculation, it leads always to 1." This is referred to as the Collatz problem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[332] **viXra:1512.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-22 02:31:47*

**Authors:** Kenneth C. Johnson

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A compact and inexpensive EUV source using high harmonic generation can provide illumination for a tabletop EUV microscope, but such microscopes typically use only one of the source’s available harmonic wavelengths. This paper outlines a microscopy system that focuses multiple harmonic wavelengths onto distinct, spatially-separated focal spots on an inspection sample, which is scanned to generate multi-spectral, diffraction-limited EUV images of the sample. The system uses diffraction optics to separate the EUV harmonics and also to separate the source’s IR wavelength out of the EUV illumination.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[331] **viXra:1512.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-21 14:03:07*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The discoverer of the thermo-dielectric effect, Joaquim da Costa Ribeiro, found that matter when undergoing a phase transition produces charge separation and electric current. This discovery was applied to solid to liquid phase transitions. In this paper it will be reasoned that charge separation and electric current can also occur in other phase transitions as well, and is a central concept to stellar evolution.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[330] **viXra:1512.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-23 06:04:01*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 15 Pages. In French with an abstract

It is the paper proposed to be presented at the FIG Working Week 2012 "Knowing to manage the territory, protect the environment, evaluate the cultural heritage" Rome, Italy, 6-10 May 2012. The paper described the unification of the Tunisian terrestrial geodetic systems.

**Category:** Geophysics

[329] **viXra:1512.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-21 05:26:05*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a ‘Universal Recursive Scheme To Generate The Sequence Of Primes Of Any Order {Say, Rth} Space’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[328] **viXra:1512.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-21 05:35:54*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of Detecting the Component of ‘Universal Truth Of Recursive Kind’ to the Natively Existing Degree.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[327] **viXra:1512.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-21 07:09:16*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

One of the three laboratories which has previously produced three entangled photons (the asymmetric GHz state) has performed the triphoton equivalent of the Bell’s Theorem experiment. The results so far are inconsistent with the traditional operator projection model of polarizers, which was previously used in mainstream explanations of Bell’s Theorem experiments, but consistent with simple local realistic models previously shown to be consistent with Bell’s Theorem results and developed by implementing the form of time-symmetric physics which we previously developed [1]. This paper gives a more detailed proposal (MQED1) for a Markovian version of Quantum Electrodynamics (MQED), which it defines as the minimal modification of traditional versions of QED needed to fit the new results, to resolve disagreements between the four mainstream variants of QED used to predict experiments today, and to be consistent with the program of stochastic realism, albeit not a local model. The paper also discusses how MQED1 might be derived as the emergent outcome of a more fundamental local model fulfilling earlier direct discussions between this author and Louis De Broglie, using new statistical distribution functions extending the Glauber-Sudarshan P mapping essential to quantum optics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[326] **viXra:1512.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-21 09:15:35*

**Authors:** Bianca Teodorescu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This study is an application of Neutrosophy in the sphere of liminality. First, the aim of this study is to underline the importance of the concept of Neutrosophy that was intro-duced by the professor Florentin Smarandache correlated with the concept of the liminality. According to Arnold Van Gennep and Victor Turner, in the liminality, the rituals are conducted to put the people in an ambiguous state where everything there is not true or neither false and meaning that the threshold state is neutral. Rituals, myths or rites are representing indeed a form of communication, but on an unclear level, determined by the uncertainty. Liminality has a part which is working under the uncer-tainty’s rules of Neutrosophy: when a person is participat-ing in the rituals, he is searching a truth and risk a false. This means that the threshold state is improving the per-ception of the people from the moment when starts a ritu-al. But the threshold state can be generated also by the media. Rituals of the mass media are created in order to change the society’s perception, persuading the idea of what is true and false.

**Category:** Social Science

[325] **viXra:1512.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-20 15:27:58*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

On December 3, 2015 a short online article was published on Carnegiecience.edu. The title was, "What Kind of Stars form Rocky Planets?". In light of 21st century science provided by the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis, it can be shown that a multitude of false assumptions are kept which place rational analysis of the wanted answer in jeopardy. Asking the wrong questions will not lead the right answers, you must ask the right questions to get the right answers. A short review of the article with the author's writing in purple is provided below.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[324] **viXra:1512.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-20 13:24:26*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Predictions for prolonged acceleration

Predictions are made for properties of space and time at increasing speed related to Deep Space Transport using a combination of Vacuum Partition with Polarizable Vacuum Theory as modified for high velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[323] **viXra:1512.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-20 05:30:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the Author details a Scheme of Approximating ‘Karma-Falam’, i.e., ‘Why-To’, i.e., ‘How Much We Ought Pay For And/ or How Do We Quantify Any Action Aspect Of Concern’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[322] **viXra:1512.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-19 13:58:30*

**Authors:** Martin Erik Horn

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A formula for (1/7)!^42 = Gamma(8/7)^42 is given.

**Category:** Number Theory

[321] **viXra:1512.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-19 11:10:25*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is hypothesized that Earth (an old astron) formed its petroleum and natural gas during earlier stages of its evolution by abiogenic processes. This means coal is the only true fossil fuel, not natural gas or petroleum. The processes that are required to study are currently occurring inside the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus and can be studied. This means we must reverse engineer the Earth's composition to account for the reactions currently happening inside of much younger Earths.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[320] **viXra:1512.0374 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-03 15:28:09*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 7 Pages; 1 Table; 16 References.

Previous work on the concept of gravito-rotational acceleration (GRA) and its dynamical role is surveyed, with main emphasis on the GRA's influence exerted on a test-body in orbital motion around a rotating gravitational source (heavy central mass). Such an influence is typically interpreted as a ʻgravito-rotational dragging (effect)ʼ, this phenomenon is very similar to the so-called Lense-Thirring effect (frame dragging) in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT). Some applications are considered include (i) the orbital plane dragging of artificial satellites LAGEOS, LAGEOS II and LARES; (ii) the effect of the Earth's GRA on the orbital motion of the Moon; (iii) the effect of the Sun's GRA on the orbital motion of Mercury. Also, it is shown that the conceptual existence of ʻgravito-rotational dragging (effect)ʼ and its quantitative agreement with GRT-predictions should imply, among other things, that the geometrization of gravity is unnecessary for physics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[319] **viXra:1512.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 21:27:02*

**Authors:** Yiyuan Wang

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

British physicist Paul Dirac, using Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity, and Erwin Schrodinger's theory, clever reasoning obtained the behavior of electrons and positrons, and predicted antiparticles presence. In the standard model Higgs field at the center of the thought lies in: even if is in a state of lowest energy, space is not empty. Through particle in the space will be more or less with the Higgs field, the effect to make particles in motion produced a "sticky" characteristics, namely mass, as a result of the Higgs field is not carrying a net electric charge or colors, photon and gluons don't interact with it, so there is still no mass, for the mass of the neutrinos. Based on these use quaternion, matrix method and linear combination of relationship, combined with Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity, and Louis de Broglie's thought, it is concluded that there are the three kinds of changes in the mass of moving objects, the relativistic state, the phase state, the relativistic state and phase state superimposed "superposition state", and through the use of de Broglie theory of phase harmony theorem，deduced the mass of moving object, regardless is in the relativity state ,or in the phase state, the same wavelength of matter waves, according to their different frequency propagation, their momentum is equal, and predicted that the mass of a moving object, in the relativistic state and the phase state "superposition state" ，the same wavelength of matter waves, according to a different frequency propagation, momentum is equal, and research the relationship between mass and energy of moving objects, obtained the evolution models of particles and anti-particles, and the mass model of elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[318] **viXra:1512.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 23:18:45*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A coming back to the steady-state cosmology permits, from the horizon radius temporal invariance, to apply the Holographic principle to Cosmology. This one invariant parameter cosmology resolves not only many problems of the standard cosmology, with its six temporally variable free parameters, but also theoretical physics problems, such as parity violation and a rehabilitation of the tachyo-bosonic string theory. In particular, this justifies the critical condition and the Universe vastness, introducing a space-time quantization, smaller than the Planck units by a factor 4.0 × 10^60, and a 'Grandcosmos' larger than the Universe in the same ratio. This Grandcosmos appears as a lacking element in the steady-state cosmology, and introduces a super-speed exceeding c in the same ratio, resolving the vacuum energy dilemma. A special form of the Eddington's horizon formula leads to a Universe mass in a specific rational ratio with the reduced electron mass, showing that the Cosmos is calculating p. Dramatic relations between cosmic and biologic canonic quantities suggests an inversion of the anthropic principle and rejection of Darwin evolution, suggesting universality of intelligent life.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[317] **viXra:1512.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-19 00:55:13*

**Authors:** Erchek Sargo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The net entropy of the universe, understood as level of complexity or order, is not increasing as time goes by, as postulated by thermodynamics, because new information is continuously being generated at all system levels and added to the grand total of the universe’s information bank. Light stores and transports information and is an essential element in the direction in which all systems evolve. A feedback mechanism in this process may prevent the universe from reaching a state of maximal entropy and allow it to evolve in perpetuity.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[316] **viXra:1512.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 12:05:26*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 31 Pages. In French.

It is a memoir of mathematical cartography concerning the traduction of the paper '' A Conformal Mapping Projection With Minimum Scale
Error” de W.I. Reilly, published in Survey Review, Volume XXII, n°168, april 1973.

**Category:** Geophysics

[315] **viXra:1512.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 12:14:14*

**Authors:** Hervé G.

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An elementary and simple proof of the formula:
$\displaystyle 3\int_0^1\dfrac{1}{x}\arctan(\dfrac{x(1-x)}{2-x})dx=G$
$G$ being the Catalan's constant.

**Category:** Number Theory

[314] **viXra:1512.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 13:23:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The quantum entanglement of a large ensemble of spins in a semiconductor has been carried out at room temperature for the first time, by researchers in the US. The team entangled more than 10,000 copies of two-qubit entangled states in a commercial silicon-carbide (SiC) wafer at ambient conditions. SiC is widely used in electronics, so this latest achievement could be an important step towards the creation of sophisticated quantum devices that harness entanglement. [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[313] **viXra:1512.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 08:55:36*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 53 Pages. In French.

This is a the numerical version of the manuscript of a course of mathematical cartography given by the General Geographe Engineer A. Commiot in the 1980's, at the ENSG, IGN France. The author has brought some developpment.

**Category:** Geophysics

[312] **viXra:1512.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 09:51:28*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a strict sense, the term “prime quadruplet” refers strictly to the primes (p, p + 2, p + 6, p + 8) - see Wolfram MathWorld; it is not known if there are infinitely many such prime quadruplets. In this paper I conjecture that for any k non-null positive integer there exist an infinity of quadruplets of primes of the form (p, p+2k^2, p+6k^2, p+8k^2). Finally, I define the generalized Brun’s constant for prime quadruplets of the type showed and I estimate its value for the particular case k = 2 (for k = 1 the value it is known being approximately equal to 0.87).

**Category:** Number Theory

[311] **viXra:1512.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 04:33:18*

**Authors:** Sosale Chandrasekhar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is argued that no net conversion of heat to work occurs in the Rankine engine, and that the putative work obtained originates in the higher pressure at which the vaporized liquid is maintained. Thus, although heat is employed to convert the working liquid to vapour, this remains as such upon performance of the work (typically, rotation of a turbine). The heat is let out to the surroundings upon condensing the vapour, which is then compressed for the next cycle of operations. This ensures that the vapour is again produced at a relatively high pressure. Thus, the expansion work obtained would only depend on the pressure drop experienced by the vapour within the turbine. Therefore, the above compression stage is the sole driver of the process. The invalidity of the Rankine cycle – much like that of the Carnot cycle – indicates the improbability of converting heat to work in a sealed system operating within a closed loop.
In fact, the traditional steam engine is based on the build-up of pressure brought on by the rapid vaporization of a mass of water in a confined space. The resulting steam then expands directly within a chamber designed to capture the work. The process is driven by the transfer of a large mass of steam, with a concomitant pressure drop, through a turbine. In the Rankine cycle, however, the vapour produced initially is allowed to expand at constant pressure – thus expending its thermal energy acquired during vaporization – before being led into the turbine.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[310] **viXra:1512.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 05:19:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12]
For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[309] **viXra:1512.0360 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-23 13:02:58*

**Authors:** Vedat Tanrıverdi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

From the total time derivative of energy an equation is obtained, this equation
gives same results with the Lagrange equations under certain conditions for holonomic systems
with potentials; velocity independent and linear velocity dependent. This method does not
include Lagrangian, it is used for only comparison.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[308] **viXra:1512.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 07:14:32*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a ‘Universal Recursive Scale Shifting Technique’ using which one can Scale any ‘Infinity’. Also, the Recursion Scheme of a Universe That Is Maximally {Vertically} Evolving is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[307] **viXra:1512.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 07:17:57*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a Scheme for ‘Removing And/ Or Minimizing The Redundancies In The Primality Of Any Aspect Of Concern’. Also, the author has detailed three examples on
Example 1: Optimal Primality Engineering.
Example 2: Universal Interference Design In Any Given Eco-System Set Of Concern.
Example 3: Retail Business Model Using Parameters That Conform To The Optimal And/ Or High Precision Of The ‘Pi’ And/ Or Its Higher Order Equivalent Value Of The Complete Recursive Sub-Sets Formed By Linearization Of The Aforementioned Business Parameters In Terms Of One Most Fundamental Parameter Of Concern Implemented At A Certain Least Count Of Concern.
Example 4: On Similar Lines as detailed in the Theory and the above Examples one can even Construct a Special Psyche Assessment Scheme Characteristic for Any Profession and/ or Task, Operation Of Concern.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[306] **viXra:1512.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 20:25:15*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Предлагается принципиально новый метод оптимизации. В отличие от классической постановки задачи:
а) Дан функционал – найти его минималь.
Рассматриваются также задачи:
б) найти более «узкое» подмножество, содержащее абсолютную минималь;
в) найти подмножество решений лучших, чем данное;
г) найти оценки снизу данного функционала.
В настоящее время большинство исследователей, работающих в области оптимизации заняты решение задачи в классической постановке – отысканием точной минимали. Инженера же, как правило, в реальных задачах интересует подмножество квази-оптимальных решений, выбирая из которого, он заранее уверен, что получит значение функционала не хуже заданной величины (задача в) и оценка снизу, показывающая насколько он далек от точного оптимального решения (задача г). Кроме того у него есть много дополнительных соображений, которые нельзя учесть в математической модели или которые бы ее сильно усложнили. Постановка задачи в форме «в» дает ему определенную свободу выбора.
This method, called the “Method of Deformation of Functional (Extreme)”, solves for a total minimum and finds a solution set near the optimum. Solutions found by this method can be exact or approximate. Most other methods solve only for a unique local minimum. The ability to create a set of solutions rather than a unique solution has important practical ramifications in many designs, economic and scientific problems because a unique solution usually is difficult to realize in practice.
This method has the additional virtue of a simple proof, one that is useful for studying other methods of optimization, since most other methods can be delivered from the Method of Deformation.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[305] **viXra:1512.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 10:24:28*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

On Tuesday, 15 December 2015, physicists from CERN published the results from Run 2. There is an excess of pairs of photons for total energy about 750 GeV. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present the origin of new LHC scalar resonance with a mass of 742 GeV. This mass follows from structure of baryonic plasma and Einstein spacetime and from the four-fermion symmetry (the quadrupole symmetry). The main mechanism is the same as for production of the composite Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV described within SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[304] **viXra:1512.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-02 08:12:02*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Five-page final version

Photon is a chunk of energy h f, where h Planck’s constant, and f is frequency. Every chunk of energy or mass must produce a gravitational field around it. Now, when this chunk of energy moves from one to another position, in the manner of ‘quantum jumps’, the gravitational-field around the previous position has to collapse, and new field should keep getting established around the new positions. These productions and collapses of gravitational field should give rise to gravitational waves or ripples. These ripples must carry certain amount of energy with them, and this energy can come only from the kinetic energy of the photon. So the energy of the photon should keep on reducing, which we have been observing as the ‘cosmological red-shift’. And we can express this reduction in kinetic-energy of the photon as deceleration of the photon. If such a deceleration is true for a chunk of energy called photon, then it must be true for every particle of matter too. Strikingly, the decelerations experienced by the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses, as carefully measured by Anderson J.D. et. Al., match perfectly with the deceleration of the ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’; thus providing supportive evidence for this simple explanation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[303] **viXra:1512.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 04:17:30*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 294 Pages.

This journal is not a popular journal for public, it is a professional research level journal for scientist and artist, even for litterateur. It focus on many topics in mainstream science, especially for future science. Since this journal is very complicated and professional, so we use the “problem-proposed problem-analysis problem-solving” mode to explain our research,to make readers easier to understand. If you truly want to improve your knowledge by reading this journal, it is better for you to study the problems mentioned in this journal carefully. To write down your unusual solutions for these problems after you have read them. Any good idea about the problems appeared in this journal can be mail to author cheng.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[302] **viXra:1512.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 04:45:31*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a Scheme for ‘Removing And/ Or Minimizing The Redundancies In The Primality Of Any Aspect Of Concern’. Also, the author has detailed Four examples on
Example 1: Optimal Primality Engineering.
Example 2: Universal Interference Design In Any Given Eco-System Set Of Concern.
Example 3: Retail Business Model Using Parameters That Conform To The Optimal And/ Or High Precision Of The ‘Pi’ And/ Or Its Higher Order Equivalent Value Of The Complete Recursive Sub-Sets Formed By Linearization Of The Aforementioned Business Parameters In Terms Of One Most Fundamental Parameter Of Concern Implemented At A Certain Least Count Of Concern.
Example 4: On Similar Lines as detailed in the Theory and the above Examples one can evenConstructa Special Psyche Assessment Scheme Characteristic for Any Profession and/ or Task, Operation of Concern.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[301] **viXra:1512.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 05:19:04*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 7 Pages. In French.

The paper presents a method to unify many terrestrial geodetic systems using GPS observations.

**Category:** Geophysics

[300] **viXra:1512.0348 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-23 03:18:08*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Followed the Dr. Cooperstock (the emeritus professor) idea to solve Dark Matter problem by means of Einstein's General Relativity. Then is discovered, what the problem of galaxies (even with help of the proposed novel numerical algorithm) do not converge into needed solution. The reason is obvious: the small factors as the non-azimuthal motion of stars have been neglected. But the exact, the non-approximative, equations are simple enough for the stationary rotating dust cylinder of huge height. Turns out, what weak fields limit of the General Relativity fully coincides with the Newton Gravity

**Category:** Astrophysics

[299] **viXra:1512.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 06:17:45*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I NEED SIGNATURE OF ANY PROFESSOR TO PUBLISH IT

BUT I NEED SIGNATURE OF ANY PROFESSOR TO PUBLISH IT IN PHYSICAL REVIEW, PLEASE HELP.
What did Einstein? He took action S and by varying metric of spacetime and by varying matter functions, he found in the minimum of S the Einstein Equations. What we suggest? Simply fix the metric, do not vary it, but vary the matter functions. In result we can describe what ever Dark Matter case of observations. Hereby Dark Matter is not matter, but a chosen form of metric. This is not trivia. Because one can hard calculate within this theory. You can study the evolving dust cloud, but holding arbitrary metric fixed. The number of dust particles is fixed. Then in the zero of energy-momentum covariant divergence, one can check is Martila's idea correct or not. Martila's idea can be verified, thus, it is very scientific.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[298] **viXra:1512.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 06:22:00*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I NEED SIGNATURE OF ANY PROFESSOR TO PUBLISH IT

Using the conservation of the Metrology Standards (it is their definition), one gets new insights into the singular nature of the black hole Universe. BUT I NEED SIGNATURE OF ANY PROFESSOR TO PUBLISH IT IN PHYSICAL REVIEW, PLEASE HELP. How much has been said in the media, that Earth-man never sees the body B fall into a black hole. Reason: time dilation. But researcher A with rocket has full control of the situation, he can come close to Black Hole, almost to contact and observe everything. Therefore, the distance between A and B may be zero. It does not depend on when in the past the body B was shut into a black hole. Therefore, the black hole horizon has one big collision of bodies. Conclusion: The falling body is flattened on the horizon like by a concrete wall. Reason: on the horizon is singularity. Therefore, near the horizon even the most powerful engine can not operate and will fall into a black hole, reaching relativistic velocities of the fall. However, the space outside the ship becomes shorten through the Lorentz contraction of lengths. And therefore it is more likely to catch B than when A was in safety. A vector and a tensor consist not only of the components, but of the basis vectors. Therefore, multiplying basis vectors on the tensor itself, I get a scalar. Singular scalar, to conclude that even when the singularity were removed from the components, it is moved to the base of the curvature tensor. Therefore "removable" "coordinate singularity" of the curvature tensor is actually real and is not removable by coordinate transformations!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[297] **viXra:1512.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 00:49:27*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has a detailed a ‘Universal Daily Wage Labour Work Order(s) Instantaneous Quantification And Exigent Work Order(s) Realization Facilitation System’ that can be maintained by the Local State Capital and/ or Local Country Capital through its Administrative Services Network of Comprehensive Nature.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[296] **viXra:1512.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 01:51:21*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The strict "unified theory" cannot exist. Referring to documents structure of public library, and applying least square method, "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far" including all the equations of natural science so far can be established. In this way, the theory of everything to express all of natural laws, described by Hawking that a single equation could be written on a T-shirt, is partially and temporarily realized in the form of "partial and temporary unified variational principle of natural science so far".
Key words: Unified theory, partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far, partial and temporary unified variational principle of natural science so far, Hawking, T-shirt

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[295] **viXra:1512.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 01:55:47*

**Authors:** Mikhail Kovalyov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The paper provides an intuitive and very short derivation of the normal distribution and the Stirling and Wallis formulas.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[294] **viXra:1512.0342 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-18 08:05:05*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

On a previous paper (see http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040) it is described the first Nature force (the Universal antigravity), because of which the galaxies follow an accelerated centrifugal motion. Therefore, what the great astronomer Edwin Hubble observed is not due to the Universe «expansion» as a result of the «Big Bang», but it is the relative motion of galaxies.
The Cosmic journey of the matter (the galaxies) takes place at the constant timeless speed (see http://viXra.org/abs/1507.0079) towards the Universe periphery, while the numbers 3, 4 and 5 express the Pythagorean harmony of matter and centrifugal antigravity motion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[293] **viXra:1512.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-16 14:56:32*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 1 Formula, 1 Table

The formula connecting fundamental physical constants has been verified based on the 2010 and 2014 recommended CODATA values of physical constants.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[292] **viXra:1512.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-04 08:08:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

When applied to a quaternionic manifold, the generalized Stokes theorem can provide an elucidating space-progression model in which elementary objects float on top of symmetry centers that act as their living domain. The paper indicates that integration depends on the ordering of the involved parameter spaces. In this way, it elucidates the origin of the electric charges and color charges of elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[291] **viXra:1512.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-16 08:12:51*

**Authors:** Philip Maulion

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Yes space-time has a source, space-time is not a natural fact as L. Smolin claim it, but space-time has not a quantum source. In this paper I refer to my article viXra: 1511.0012 submitted 2015-11-02. As it is proposed by J. Maldacena and L. Susskind two particles connected by entanglement are effectively joined by a wormhole, then causal connection principle is a principle with reference of the human's mind. Could be the same thing for C velocity unsurpassable!

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[290] **viXra:1512.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-16 09:16:24*

**Authors:** Pauline Traynard, Adrien Fauré, François Fages, Denis Thieffry

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Proper understanding of the behavior of complex biological regulatory networks requires the integration of heterogeneous data into predictive mathematical models. Logical modeling focuses on qualitative data and offers a flexible framework to delineate the main dynamical properties of such networks. However, formal analysis faces a combinatorial explosion as the number of regulatory components and interactions increases.
Here, we show how model-checking techniques can be used to verify sophisticated dynamical properties resulting from model regulatory structure. We demonstrate the power of this approach through the updating of a model of the molecular network controlling mammalian cell cycle. We use model-checking to progressively refine this model in order to fit recent experimental observations. The resulting model accounts for the sequential activation of cyclins, the role of Skp2, and emphasizes a multifunctional role for the cell cycle inhibitor Rb.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[289] **viXra:1512.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-16 06:07:38*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has incisively penetrated his mental faculties for appropriating the ‘First Meaning(s) Of The English Alphabet(s)’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[288] **viXra:1512.0334 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-03 01:48:23*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 47 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

Over nearly a year and half ago, the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in 3-D for incompressible fluid flow were analytically solved by the author. However, some of the solutions contained implicit terms. In this paper, the implicit terms have been expressed explicitly in terms of x, y, z and t. The author proposed and applied a new law, the law of definite ratio for incompressible fluid flow. This law states that in incompressible fluid flow, the other terms of the fluid flow equation divide the gravity term in a definite ratio, and each term utilizes gravity to function. The sum of the terms of the ratio is always unity. It was mathematically shown that without gravity forces on earth, there would be no incompressible fluid flow on earth as is known, and also, there would be no magnetohydrodynamics. In addition to the usual method of solving these equations, the N-S equations were also solved by a second method in which the three equations in the system were added to produce a single equation which was then integrated. The solutions by the two methods were identical, except for the constants involved. Ratios were used to split-up the equations; and the resulting sub-equations were readily integrable; and even, the nonlinear sub-equations were readily integrated. The examples in the preliminaries show everyday examples on using ratios to divide a quantity into parts, as well as possible applications of the solution method in mathematics, science, engineering, business, economics, finance, investment and personnel management decisions. The x-direction Navier-Stokes equation was linearized, solved, and the solution analyzed. This solution was followed by the solution of the Euler equation of fluid flow. The Euler equation represents the nonlinear part of the Navier-Stokes equation. Following the Euler solution, the Navier-Stokes equation was solved essentially by combining the solutions of the linearized equation and the Euler solution. For the Navier-Stokes equation, the linear part of the relation obtained from the integration of the linear part of the equation satisfied the linear part of the equation; and the relation from the integration of the non-linear part satisfied the non-linear part of the equation. The solutions and relations revealed the role of each term of the Navier-Stokes equations in fluid flow. The gravity term is the indispensable term in fluid flow, and it is involved in the parabolic and forward motion of fluids. The pressure gradient term is also involved in the parabolic motion. The viscosity terms are involved in the parabolic, periodic and decreasingly exponential motion. Periodicity increases with viscosity. The variable acceleration term is also involved in the periodic and decreasingly exponential motion. The fluid flow in the Navier-Stokes solution may be characterized as follows. The x-direction solution consists of linear, parabolic, and hyperbolic terms. The first three terms characterize parabolas. If one assumes that in laminar flow, the axis of symmetry of each parabola for horizontal velocity flow profile is in the direction of fluid flow, then in turbulent flow, the axes of symmetry of some of the parabolas would be at right angles to that for laminar flow. The characteristic curve for the integral of the x-nonlinear term is such a parabola whose axis of symmetry is at right angles that of laminar flow. The integral of the y-nonlinear term is similar, parabolically, to that of the x-nonlinear term. The characteristic curve for the integral of the z-nonlinear term is a combination of two similar parabolas and a hyperbola. If the above x-direction flow is repeated simultaneously in the y-and z-directions, the flow is chaotic and consequently turbulent.
For a spin-off, the smooth solutions from above are specialized and extended to satisfy the requirements of the CMI Millennium Prize Problems, and thus prove the existence of smooth solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[287] **viXra:1512.0333 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-16 22:38:15*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Copyright © A. A. Frempong

The system of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations has been solved analytically in this paper. The author applied the technique used in solving the Navier-Stokes equations and applied a new law, the law of definite ratio for MHD. This law states that in MHD, the other terms of the system of equations divide the gravity term in a definite ratio, and each term utilizes gravity to function. The sum of the terms of the ratio is always unity. It is shown that without gravity forces on earth, there would be no magnetohydrodynamics on earth as is known. The equations in the system of equations were added to produce a single equation which was then integrated. Ratios were used to split-up this single equation into sub-equations which were readily integrated, and even, the non-linear sub-equations were readily integrated. Twenty-seven sub-equations were integrated. The linear part of the relation obtained from the integration of the linear part of the equation satisfied the linear part of the equation; and the relation from the integration of the non-linear part satisfied the non-linear part of the equation. The solutions revealed the role of each term in magnetohydrodynamics. In particular, the gravity term is the indispensable term in magnetohydrodynamics. The solutions of the MHD equations were compared with the solutions of the N-S equations, and there were similarities and dissimilarities.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[286] **viXra:1512.0332 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-18 01:01:43*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Copyright © A. A. Frempong

This paper covers the solutions of the Euler equations in 3-D and 4-D for incompressible fluid flow. The solutions are the spin-offs of the author's previous analytic solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations (vixra:1405.0251 of 2014). However, some of the solutions contained implicit terms. In this paper, the implicit terms have been expressed explicitly in terms of x, y, z and t.
The author applied a new law, the law of definite ratio for fluid flow. This law states that in incompressible fluid flow, the other terms of the fluid flow equation divide the gravity term in a definite ratio, and each term utilizes gravity to function. The sum of the terms of the ratio is always unity. This law evolved from the author's earlier solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. In addition to the usual approach of solving these equations, the Euler equations have also been solved by a second method in which the three equations in the system are added to produce a single equation which is then integrated. The solutions by the two approaches are identical, except for the constants involved. From the experience gained in solving the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, only the equation with the gravity term as the subject of the equation was integrated. The experience was that when each of the terms of the Navier-Stokes equation was used as the subject of the equation, only the equation with the gravity term as the subject of the equation produced a solution. Ratios were used to split-up the x-direction Euler equation with the gravity term as the subject of the equation. The resulting five sub-equations were readily integrable, and even, the non-linear sub-equations were readily integrated. The integration results were combined. The combined results satisfied the corresponding equation. This equation which satisfied its corresponding equation would be defined as the driver equation; and each of the other equations which would not satisfy its corresponding equation would be called a supporter equation. A supporter equation does not satisfy its corresponding equation completely, but provides useful information which is not apparent in the solution of the driver equation. The solutions and relations revealed the role of each term of the Euler equations in fluid flow. The gravity term is the indispensable term in fluid flow, and it is involved in the forward motion of fluids. The pressure gradient term is also involved in the forward motion. The variable acceleration term is also involved in the forward motion. The fluid flow behavior in the Euler solution may be characterized as follows. The x-direction solution consists of linear, parabolic, and hyperbolic terms. If one assumes that in laminar flow, the axis of symmetry of the parabola for horizontal velocity flow profile is in the direction of fluid flow, then in turbulent flow, the axis of symmetry of the parabola would have been rotated 90 degrees from that for laminar flow. The characteristic curve for the x-nonlinear term is such a parabola whose axis of symmetry has been rotated 90 degrees from that of laminar flow. The y-nonlinear term is similar parabolically to the x-nonlinear term. The characteristic curve for the z-nonlinear term is a combination of two similar parabolas and a hyperbola. If the above x-direction flow is repeated simultaneously in the y-and z-directions, the flow is chaotic and consequently turbulent.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[285] **viXra:1512.0331 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-09 07:08:46*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 17 Pages. 1 Figure

Because all electrons, nucleons, and other particles or quanta (because quantum mechanics is applied to all particles, these should be known as quanta) undergo a persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy, they should have a unique structure that keeps them persistently spinning and provides all the properties that they display. In addition, there should be some reason or purpose why they show a persistent spin motion, because, in nature, nothing occurs without a reason or purpose. At present, research on this topic attempts to determine how electrons, nucleons, and other particles possess a persistent spin motion through their unique structures as well as the purpose why they have such persistent spin motion. These determinations provide very clear and complete explanations of all the phenomena or events related to these particles as well as the structures and/or properties of their systems, for example, nuclei, their beams, and current-carrying specimen substances.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[284] **viXra:1512.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-19 10:23:56*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 16 Pages. 1 Figure

As we know, in nature, nothing occurs unnecessarily, e.g., our hearts beat persistently without having any source of infinite energy, not unnecessarily; there is an important purpose as to why they beat persistently, and they have special structure, unlike simple balloons of blood, that keeps them beating persistently and provides all the properties our hearts possess. And therefore, as neutrons possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy and several properties; there should positively be some important purpose as to why they possess persistent spin motion, and they should have special structure, unlike simple balloons of zero net charge, that keeps them spinning persistently and provides all the properties they possess. Presently, that special structure of neutrons has been determined. It enables to give very clear and complete explanation of all the properties the neutrons possess, e.g.: 1. Persistent spin motion; 2. Magnetic moment; 3. Electric dipole moment; 4. High penetrating power; 5. Distinguishable low and high energy ranges; 6. Why and how neutron has both unstable (in its free state) and stable (in nuclei) states; 7. How and what situation is created in nuclei such that the neutron becomes stable; 8. Why and how neutron decays after about 15 minutes, while the rest of all the unstable elementary particles decay within fraction of a second; 9. How, during beta decay, the beta particles, which are electrons are emitted from the nuclei while it is believed that electrons do not reside inside the nuclei; 10. Why and how beta particles, emitted from radioactive sources, have continuous energy spectrum.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[283] **viXra:1512.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-15 10:31:47*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** 9 page power point presentation

This power point presentation, made at an international conference arranged by Lord Venkateshwara University, Tirupati,during 18-20 November 2015, describes in brief how this observable physical world can emerge from the fluctuations of an all-pervading ultimate reality, described in the Upanishads.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[282] **viXra:1512.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 06:02:39*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In nature, nothing is said to occur without reason/purpose. For example, our hearts beat persistently without having a source of infinite energy, which does not happen without reason. The reason is due to their special structure that provides all the properties our hearts possess. In the same way, as electrons, nucleons, and all other particles, or quanta (since quantum mechanics is applied to all particles, these should be known as quanta) possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy, there should be some purpose. And the purpose should be due to their special structure that provides all the properties they display. Therefore, the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion, their special structures, and properties have been determined. The account of the effect of the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion, that is, a new quantum theory (or can say quantum spin theory) enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to them. At present, applying it, it has been tried to give explanations of: 1. Phenomena of interference and diffraction; 2- Phenomenon of spectroscopy; 3- Phenomenon of transmittance T = finite for particles possessing energy E < V0, where V0 is energy of the potential barrier; 4- Phenomenon of decrease in the rate of increase in velocity of the accelerated electrons after attaining relativistic velocity by them; 5- Phenomena of: i- acquiring elliptical orbits by the orbiting electrons, despite moving in spherically symmetric field; ii- conservation of energy, momentum, and spin angular momentum of the orbiting electrons, during their motion along elliptical orbits.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[281] **viXra:1512.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-15 08:02:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

"There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[280] **viXra:1512.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-14 17:36:29*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

It is possible and thereby feasible to develop and implement a pragmatic methodology for a preemptive evidentiary system of ‘Paraphysical Jurisprudence’ for mediating the occurrence of massacres. A required comprehensive completion and formalizing of the tools of epistemology (theory of knowledge) already exists and has been tested both ecumenically and scientifically. The evolution of epistemology has followed the historical progression from myth and superstition to logic and reason to empiricism and now finally to the utility of ‘transcendence’ as a tool in knowledge acquisition. An inspiring example from popular culture is illustrated in the 2002 Hollywood film noir “Minority Report” designed by its director to present a ‘plausible future world’ for the year 2054 wherein an elaborate ‘Precrime Unit’ is tested to prevent murder by utilizing a trio of ‘precogs’ bathed in a ‘photonic milk’ able to presciently predetermine impending occurrences of homicide for which the Precrime Police Unit then intervenes to prevent. Disdain for a putative so-called scientific metaphysics by natural philosophers is deeply rooted in modern pragmatic societies; perhaps rightly so as consistency, credibility and lack of a comprehensive theory has been heretofore emphatically lacking. In addition to the major problem of repeatability is the perceived distinction between domains of the physical and so-called ‘spiritual’ as mutually exclusive. In this work a strong case is made for the rigorous viability and near term putative implementation of a system of paraphysical jurisprudence drawing on the utility of a panoply of concepts. The remaining question is when does feasible become practical in the face of a steady increase in the heinous massacre of innocents?

**Category:** Social Science

[279] **viXra:1512.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-15 00:08:54*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a ‘Recommended Human Conduct’ which Humans Can Follow to achieve a ‘Pysche’ ‘Pi’ (and/ or it’s Higher Order Equivalent) to Supplement their already achieved Topological and Functional Abilities ‘Pi’ (and/ or it’s Higher Order Equivalent) and Holistically Direct their Evolution towards becoming Benevolent Gods.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[278] **viXra:1512.0322 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-21 02:59:29*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Typos corrected. Added two more examples.

In this paper we develop a novel characterization for isomorphism of graphs. The characterization is obtained in terms of ordered adjacency lists to be associated with two given labeled graphs. We show that the two given labeled graphs are isomorphic if and only if their associated ordered adjacency lists can be made identical by applying the action of suitable transpositions on any one of these lists. We discuss in brief the complexity of the algorithm for deciding isomorphism of graphs and show that it is of the order of the cube of number of the number of edges.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[277] **viXra:1512.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-14 14:06:12*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 24 references, no figures

A modified Fermi coupling of the weak interactions is proposed and in analogy with the Planck units, a Fermi scale is defined. We define a second Fermi length, a Fermi mass (related to the threshold energy for unitarity), and a Fermi time. The holographic principle (HP) is then applied to some two-dimensional objects, where the unit cell size is given by the second Fermi length. With the aid of non-linear Dirac equation, a formula is obtained relating the Fermi, the nucleon, and the electron masses. Another relationship is found, linking the second Fermi length to cosmological constant and Planck scales. Finally HP in 2-d is employed in a stationary condition for the free energy, as a means to evaluate the neutral pion decay time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[276] **viXra:1512.0320 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-14 09:12:44*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

In this article, I present a strict interpretation of the creationary events depicted in Genesis 1-8. Such an interpretation closely adheres to the known meanings of the terms as understood by the original scribes and audience. This interpretation satisfies the GGU-model. Although this is but one of many GGU-model secular and theological interpretations, I believe that it is the most likely representation for a strict Genesis 1-8 account. Whether it is factual depends upon other considerations such as evidence or modes of judicious thought. It should be evident that details for future events may only be suggestive or entirely missing.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[275] **viXra:1512.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-14 09:37:41*

**Authors:** H. Jabbari1, M. Erfaniyan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Let fXn; n 1g be a strictly stationary sequence of negatively associated random
variables, with common continuous and bounded distribution function F. We consider
the estimation of the two-dimensional distribution function of (X1;Xk+1) based on kernel
type estimators as well as the estimation of the covariance function of the limit empirical
process induced by the sequence fXn; n 1g where k 2 IN0. Then, we derive uniform
strong convergence rates for the kernel estimator of two-dimensional distribution function
of (X1;Xk+1) which were not found already and do not need any conditions on the covari-
ance structure of the variables. Furthermore assuming a convenient decrease rate of the
covariances Cov(X1;Xn+1); n 1, we prove uniform strong convergence rate for covari-
ance function of the limit empirical process based on kernel type estimators. Finally, we
use a simulation study to compare the estimators of distribution function of (X1;Xk+1).

**Category:** Statistics

[274] **viXra:1512.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-14 04:14:04*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Knowing The Infinitely Deeper Meaning’ of any‘Consciousness Information’. Furthermore, the author highlights and envisages the significance of this scheme in constructing a ‘Universal Infinite Logic Distiller’. Furthermore, the author enlightens the readers that using a ‘Scheme Of Procedure Inverse Of Knowing The Infinite Deeper Meaning’, one can construct a‘‘Scheme Of Natural Memory Embedding’ To Exhaustion, That Is To An Infinite Order, Such Order Depending On The Least Count Of Our Technological Practicality Edge’’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[273] **viXra:1512.0317 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-16 00:33:21*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Submitted to the Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys

After a cursory introduction of the basic ideas behind Born's Reciprocal Relativity theory, the geometry of the cotangent bundle of spacetime is studied via the introduction of nonlinear connections associated with certain $nonholonomic$ modifications of Riemann--Cartan gravity within the context of Finsler geometry.
A novel gauge theory of gravity in the $8D$ cotangent bundle $ T^*M$ of spacetime is explicitly constructed and based on the gauge group $ SO (6, 2) \times_s R^8$ which acts on the tangent space to the cotangent bundle $ T_{ ( {\bf x}, {\bf p}) } T^*M $ at each point $ ({\bf x}, {\bf p})$. Several gravitational actions involving curvature and torsion tensors and associated with the geometry of curved phase spaces are presented. We conclude with a brief discussion of the field equations, the geometrization of matter, QFT in accelerated frames, {\bf T}-duality, double field theory, and generalized geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[272] **viXra:1512.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-14 06:51:22*

**Authors:** Manjunath.R

**Comments:** 143 Pages.

Subaltern notable – built on the work of the great astronomers Galileo Galilei, Nicolaus Copernicus (who took the details of Ptolemy, and found a way to look at the same construction from a slightly different perspective and discover that the Earth is not the center of the universe) and Johannes Kepler – which take us on a journey from the time when Aristotle and the world of that era believed that Earth was the center of the universe and supported on the back of a giant tortoise to our contemporary age when we know better − regards body of knowledge as painterly truth. Rather it is absolutely-absolutely false. The word “certainty” in the Game of Science is a misleading term. The history of science, from Copernicus and Galileo to the present, is replete with examples that belie the charge of uncertainism in science. Despite the fact that science (which is guided by natural law and is testable against the empirical world) has revolutionized every aspect of human life and greatly clarified our understanding of the world, it has weighty limitations and it’s a journey not a destination and the advance of knowledge is an infinite progression towards a goal that forever recedes. And it's our main ingredient for understanding − a means of accepting what we've learned, challenging what we (a hoard of talking monkeys who’s consciousness is from a collection of connected neurons − hammering away on typewriters and by pure chance eventually ranging the values for the (fundamental) numbers that would allow the development of any form of intelligent life) think, and knowing that in some of the things that we think, there may be something to modify and to change. We now have considerable empirical data and highly successful scientific interpretations that bear on the question of certainty. The time has come to examine what those data and models tell us about the validity of the scientific hypothesis.The word “certainty” in the Game of Science is a misleading term which confirm the Richard Feynman’s statement: “Scientific knowledge is a body of statements of varying degrees of certainty -- some most unsure, some nearly sure, none absolutely certain.” In fact, science can never establish "truth" or "fact" in the sense that the investigation of scientific equations provides unwitting support for the assertion that science is dogmatically correct. If a plausible scientific model or an equation consistent with all existing knowledge can be found, then the above claim fails. That model or equation need not be proven to be correct, just not proven to be incorrect. In the end, all of our scientific implications are an attempt to make sense of this fabulous and fleeting existence we find ourselves in. However, science is guided by natural law; has to be explained by reference to natural law; testable against the empirical world; its conclusions are tentative, that is, are not necessarily the final word; it can be falsifiable.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[271] **viXra:1512.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-14 06:59:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, which operates nearly a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, has already proven itself to be the most sensitive detector in the hunt for dark matter, the unseen stuff believed to account for most of the matter in the universe. Now, a new set of calibration techniques employed by LUX scientists has again dramatically improved the detector's sensitivity. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[270] **viXra:1512.0314 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 16:49:39*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Stress energy of general relativity is developed from interference patterns of electromagnetic waves where all of the electric and magnetic components are canceled out, but the Poynting vectors are not canceled.
Curved space in the vicinity of the transport vehicle is shown to be equivalent to an induced gravitational field off set from the center of mass in the vehicle.
A proposal is made that high acceleration can be achieved by field effect gravitational free fall in deep space transport removing traditional limits on acceleration for the vehicle and crew.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[269] **viXra:1512.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 23:48:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Knowing The Infinitely Deeper Meaning’ of any ‘Consciousness Information’. Furthermore, the author highlights and envisages the significance of this scheme in constructing a ‘Universal Infinite Logic Distiller’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[268] **viXra:1512.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-14 00:00:25*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a Fair Scheme using which any ‘Governmental Policy Of Acquiring And/ Or Purchase Of Individual Citizen Property For Governmental Reforms’ can be founded and/ or created, especially during the situations when the Government wishes to Acquire and/ or Purchase Individual Citizen Property for implementing Governmental Reforms, for example, as those of Extending the Width of a Highway and/ or Sub-Highway, Construction of the State Citizenl Office and City Infrastructure, Government Offices, Hospitals, Schools, Colleges, etc.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[267] **viXra:1512.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 14:17:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A new research paper published in Physical Review Letters has brought forward a significant new understanding of general relativity laws, and has found some strange physics taking place inside black holes. Specifically, that the direction of time could be reversed within them. [9]
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[266] **viXra:1512.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 10:21:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
For the first time, researchers have demonstrated the precise requirements for secure quantum teleportation – and it involves a phenomenon known 'quantum steering', first proposed by Albert Einstein and Erwin Schrödinger. [9]
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[265] **viXra:1512.0309 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-19 16:41:06*

**Authors:** Manuel Abarca Hernandez

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Calculus has been made with bigger accuracy.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated and supported, with several experimental evidences, that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field, according to an Universal law for big galaxies.
Current paper studies a similar law for NGC 3198, which is an intermediate galaxy belong to Ursa Major cluster, 14 Mpc away.
In this work has been fitted a new function for DM density as power of E.
Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with NFW ones below 5%?
The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to observational data of DM and NFW profile as well then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature.
To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum and [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law
Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about DM density inside halo of NGC 3198 galaxy. These data come from [3] E.V. Karukes, 2015.
In fourth epigraph, starting from spin speed from Karukes data, it is right to calculate gravitational field E, through Virial theorem. So in this epigraph has been tabulate gravitational field and density of dark matter inside a wide region of halo, from 18 kpc to 46 Kpc.
In fifth epigraph has been fitted data of DM density as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,99.
Particularly formula found is Density Dark matter = A • E^B Where A= 4,04598703 •10^-5 and B= 1,70654481
In sixth and seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density data, DM density as power of E, NFW & Burket profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that DM density power of E adjusts better than the other ones.
In eight epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational in halo region where density of baryonic matter is negligible. As consequence M´(r ) = 4 pi r^2 • Density Dark matter (r) and considering that Dark matter = A • E^B
then M´(r ) = 4 pi r^2 • A • E^B.
If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution is a new DM density profile.
To integrate differential equation has been taken four different values for gravitational field at four different radius to check accuracy of integration parameter.
In nineth epigraph Bernoulli, NFW and Burket DM density profiles have been compared to Karukes data of DM density. Results show clearly that Bernoulli profile fits better than the other ones.
Paper finish concluding that results supports clearly hypothesis about DM nature defended by the autor.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[264] **viXra:1512.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 08:22:04*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

How Energy actually works.

Something inert can release energy into a system.

The string Particle Field is everywhere, attached to everything and is loaded with tension.

When anything happens in it... like inert proton strings unballing / unwinding it causes a disruption in the field and that is energy.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[263] **viXra:1512.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 00:03:56*

**Authors:** Sudhanva joshi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This are series of papers I intend to publish in order for full collection of a theory(neurobiological implication of super fluid matrix theory).This is 1st installment of the same.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[262] **viXra:1512.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 00:19:58*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has wishes to enlighten the readers regarding ‘Universal Light Type Holistic Reference Frames For Characterizing Universal Electro-Magnetic Phenomena’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[261] **viXra:1512.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 02:09:33*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that for any Carmichael number C is true one of the following two statements: (i) there exist at least one prime q, q lesser than Sqr (C), such that p = (C – q)/(q – 1) is prime, power of prime or semiprime m*n, n > m, with the property that n – m + 1 is prime or power of prime or n + m – 1 is prime or power of prime; (ii) there exist at least one prime q, q lesser than Sqr (C), such that p = (C – q)/((q – 1)*2^n) is prime or power of prime. In two previous papers I made similar assumptions on the squares of primes of the form 10k + 1 respectively 10k + 9 and I always believed that Fermat pseudoprimes behave in several times like squares of primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[260] **viXra:1512.0303 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-18 20:37:40*

**Authors:** Robert B. Easter

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

This paper introduces the differential operators in the G(8,2) Geometric Algebra, called the Double Conformal / Darboux Cyclide Geometric Algebra (DCGA). The differential operators are three x, y, and z-direction bivector-valued differential elements and either the commutator product or the anti-commutator product for multiplication into a geometric entity that represents the function to be differentiated. The general form of a function is limited to a Darboux cyclide implicit surface function. Using the commutator product, entities representing 1st, 2nd, or 3rd order partial derivatives in x, y, and z can be produced. Using the anti-commutator product, entities representing the anti-derivation can be produced from 2-vector quadric surface and 4-vector conic section entities. An operator called the pseudo-integral is defined and has the property of raising the x, y, or z degree of a function represented by an entity, but it does not produce a true integral. The paper concludes by offering some basic relations to limited forms of vector calculus and differential equations that are limited to using Darboux cyclide implicit surface functions. An example is given of entity analysis for extracting the parameters of an ellipsoid entity using the differential operators.

**Category:** Geometry

[259] **viXra:1512.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 06:46:54*

**Authors:** R.V. Klinkerman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In [1] the following assumption has been put forward:
“Taking for a basis neutrino and antineutrino, it is necessary to see: the
electromagnetic interaction is caused by that the 4-potential of an electromagnetic
field is a neutrino current of transition which well interface with the electronpositron
current of transition.” In present article this assumption develops and
specified.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[258] **viXra:1512.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-12 13:51:39*

**Authors:** Hitesh Jain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

To find Henry Dudeney’s Curious Numbers using pattern.

**Category:** Number Theory

[257] **viXra:1512.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-12 02:37:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Penrose-Hameroff type Quantum Consciousness is described in terms of E8 Physics ( see viXra 1508.0157 ) and 26D String Theory with Strings seen as World-Lines and Bohm Quantum Potential and Sarfatti Thought Decoherence. Tubulin Dimer information content of Microtubules is seen to correspond to the Cl(16) Clifford Algebra in which the E8 Lie Algebra is naturally contained. Creation-Annihilation Operators and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory and AQFT Quantum Code for Bohm Quantum Theory are also described.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[256] **viXra:1512.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-12 09:01:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this research manuscript the author has presented a Scheme of ‘Maximizing Relativistic Electro-Magnetic Fringe Displacement Effect Width’ using ‘‘Pi’ Value And/ Or Its Higher Order Equivalents Value Precision Increase Based Refinement Of Any Primality And/ Or Any Recursion Scheme Of Any Aspect Of Concern’ [37], ‘Theory Of Evolution Based On Consecutive Asymmetric Imaging Technique’[39], ‘Evolution Through Quantization (Version III)’ [30],‘Living A Happy Life {Version 4}’[31], ‘Relativistic Transformations In Standard Prime Metric And/ Or Reverse Prime Metric Within Some Selected Domains Of Complementable Bounds’ [32].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[255] **viXra:1512.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-12 09:45:05*

**Authors:** Vitaly Chaban

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An explosion is a quick release of a significant amount of energy from a spontaneous chemical reaction. The liberated energy is expelled in all directions, provides yellow to red flames, and forms various gases, e.g., carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and molecular nitrogen, containing double and triple covalent bonds. The explosion reaction, once initiated, is simultaneously driven by large exothermic and positive entropy changes.

**Category:** Chemistry

[254] **viXra:1512.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 16:19:58*

**Authors:** Koen J. van Vlaenderen

**Comments:** 31 pages, 2 figures, 45 references, English

Maxwell's Classical Electrodynamics (MCED) shows several related inconsistencies, as the consequence of a single false premise. The Lorentz force law of MCED violates Newton's Third Law of Motion (N3LM) in case of General Magnetostatics (GMS) current distributions, that are not necessarily divergence free. A consistent GMS theory is defined by means of Whittaker's force law, which requires a scalar magnetic force field, $B_L$. The field $B_L$ mediates a longitudinal Ampère force, similar to the vector magnetic field, $\B_T$, that mediates a \textit{transverse} Ampère force. The sum of transverse- and longitudinal Ampère forces obeys N3LM for stationary currents in general. The scalar field, $B_\Phi$, is also a physical, as a consequence of charge continuity.
MCED does not treat the induction of the electric field, $\E_L$, by a time varying $B_L$ field, so MCED does not cover the reason for adding $E_L$ to the superimposed electric field, $E$. The exclusion of $E_L$ from $E$ simplifies MCED to Classical Electrodynamics (CED). The MCED Jefimenko fields show a far field contradiction, that is not shown by the CED fields. CED is based on the Lorentz force and therefore violates N3LM as well.
Hence, we define a General Classical Electrodynamics (GCED) as a generalization of GMS and CED. GCED describes three types of far field waves: the longitudinal $\Phi$-wave, the longitudinal electromagnetic (LEM) wave and the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave, with vacuum phase velocities respectively $a$, $b$ and $c$. GCED power- and force theorems are derived. The general force theorem obeys N3LM only if the three phase velocities satisfy the Coulomb premise: a >> c and b=c. GCED with Coulomb premise is far field consistent, and resolves the classical $\frac{4}{3}$ energy-momentum problem of a moving charged sphere. GCED with the Lorentz premise (a=c and b=c) reduces to the inconsistent MCED.
Many experimental results verify GCED with Coulomb premise, and falsify MCED. GCED can replace MCED as a new foundation of modern physics (relativity theory and wave mechanics). It might be the inspiration for new scientific experiments and electrical engineering, such as new wave-electronic effects based on $\Phi$-waves and LEM waves, and the conversion of natural $\Phi$-waves and LEM wave energy into useful electricity, in the footsteps of Nikola Tesla and Thomas Henry Moray.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[253] **viXra:1512.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-20 20:03:46*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

We consider inertial physical systems in which signals about physical measurements conducted in one reference frame are transmitted to a receiver moving with relative constant velocity v, by an information carrier with a constant velocity v_c with respect to the transmitter's rest frame. To render the model relevant to reality, we assume v_c> v. We make no other assumptions. For systems of this type, we derive the relativistic time, distance, mass, and energy transformations, relating measurements transmitted by the information sender, to the corresponding information registered at the receiver. The sender and receiver need not be human or animate observers. The resulting relativistic terms are beautiful and simple. They are functions only of the normalized velocity β = v/v_c , implying they are scale independent with respect to the velocity of the information carrier, and to the mass and spatial dimensions of the observed bodies. The model's scale independency renders it applicable for all physical systems, irrespective of their size, and the velocity of the information carrier used in the system. For β << 1, all the derived transformations reduce to Galileo-Newton physics.
The derived transformations disobey the Lorentz invariance principle. The time transformation predicts relativistic time dilation for distancing bodies and time contraction for approaching bodies. The distance transformation predicts relativistic length contraction for approaching bodies and length extension for distancing bodies. The mass transformation is inversely proportional to the distance transformation, implying an increase in relativistic mass density for approaching bodies and a decrease of mass density for distancing bodies, due to respective length contraction or extension along the body's travel path. For distancing bodies, the relativistic kinetic energy as a function of β displays a monotonic pattern, with a unique maximum at β = Φ, where Φ is the golden ratio (≈ 0.618). At sufficiently high normalized velocities, the relativistic extension can maintain spatial locality between distanced particles, suggesting quantum entanglement is not "spooky," because it is a proximal action.
For the special case of v_c = c, where c is the velocity of light, application of the proposed model yields new important insights and results and reproduces several important predictions of Special Relativity, General Relativity, observationally based ΛCDM models, and quantum theory. The model makes excellent predictions for the Michelson-Morley's "null" result, the relativistic lifetime of decaying muons, the Sagnac effect, and the neutrino velocities reported by OPERA and other collaborations. Application of the model to cosmology, without alteration or addition of free parameters, is successful in accounting for several cosmological findings, including the pattern of recession velocity predicted by inflationary theories, the amounts of matter and dark energy in various segments of redshift, reported in recent ΛCDM cosmologies, the GZK energy suppression phenomenon, and the radius of gravitational black holes. More interestingly, we show that the model, despite being deterministic and local, reproduces the predictions of quantum theory for key quantum phenomena, including matter-wave duality, quantum criticality, quantum entanglement, and the formation of Bose-Einstein condensate.
The multiplicity and range of the proposed epistemic model predictions suggests that for inertial systems, mere comparison between physical observations taken at the rest of reference and the information received about the same measurement from another moving reference frame is a potent tool for extracting the laws of nature as they are revealed to us. Put metaphorically, we contend that the hidden secrets of the book of Nature often disclose themselves by leaving fingerprints on the book's cover. From observing the fingerprints, humans and other beings can reconstruct information valuable for their survival.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[252] **viXra:1512.0295 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-07 02:07:39*

**Authors:** Kenneth C. Johnson

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Revised title and abstract; other minor edits.

A plasma light source for EUV lithography can be spectrally filtered by a phase-Fresnel collector mirror to reject all out-of-band (OoB) radiation in the IR-to-VUV spectral range, leaving only pure EUV in the filtered output. EUV collection efficiency is not significantly compromised, and EUV conversion efficiency can be enhanced by recycling rejected or uncollected OoB radiation back to the plasma via retroreflection. [U.S. Patent 9,612,370.]

**Category:** Classical Physics

[251] **viXra:1512.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-12 02:35:48*

**Authors:** Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Published in International Journal of Sciences, 2015, 4(10):1-4. DOI:10.18483/ijSci.845

Mutual information of two random variables can be easily obtained from their Shannon entropies. However, when nonadditive entropies are involved, the calculus of the mutual information is more complex. Here we discuss the basic matter about information from Shannon entropy. Then we analyse the case of the generalized nonadditive Tsallis entropy

**Category:** Statistics

[250] **viXra:1512.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-12 02:40:18*

**Authors:** Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Published in International Journal of Sciences, 2015, 4(10):47-50. DOI:10.18483/ijSci.866

Tsallis and Kaniadakis entropies are generalizing the Shannon entropy and have it as their limit when their entropic indices approach specific values. Here we show some relations existing between Tsallis and Kaniadakis entropies. We will also propose a rigorous discussion of the conditional Kaniadakis entropy, deduced from these relations.

**Category:** Statistics

[249] **viXra:1512.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-12 06:20:32*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Every individual section (particle) of the space has tension and can release energy back into space.

But you cannot add the individual particle energies together and create a massive sum -- because all of the supposed different (individual) energies are all one and the same -- coming from space as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[248] **viXra:1512.0291 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-24 22:01:04*

**Authors:** Quang Nguyen Van

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There is now no a method for searching a prime number in the interval [ $ p_{m},p_{m+1}^{2} $] by using formula, and there is no known useful formula that sets apart all prime numbers from composites. In this paper, we try to use a formula for searching a prime number in the interval [ $ p_{m},p_{m+1}^{2} $], if a complete list of prime numbers up to $ p_{m} $ is known,and we also give an open problem on this formula.

**Category:** Number Theory

[247] **viXra:1512.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 04:59:13*

**Authors:** Vitaly V. Chaban

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Locating global minimum of certain atomistic ensemble is known to be a highly challenging and resource consuming task. This works represents joint usage of the semi-empirical PM7 Hamiltonian, Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm and basin hopping scheme to navigate a potential energy surface. The Au20 nanocluster was used for calibration as its global minimum structure is well-known. Furthermore, Au18Ag2 and Au15Ag5 were simulated for illustration of the algorithm performance. The work shows encouraging results and, particularly, underlines proper accuracy of PM7 as applied to this type of heavy metal systems. The reported results motivate to use the benchmarked method for studying potential energy surfaces of manifold systems and locate their global-minimum atomistic configurations.

**Category:** Chemistry

[246] **viXra:1512.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 05:45:50*

**Authors:** R.V. Klinkerman

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In given article attempt to develop model of elementary particles (except for
resonances) is done on the basis of concept that these particles, as well as
electron, will consist of cooperating neutrino and antineutrino. Errors of the
received models are not greater then 2 %. In article structures of particles, a
background of their electric charges, bases of electromagnetic and strong
interaction, essence of strangeness and replacement of system of lepton charges on
system of neutrinos charges are offered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[245] **viXra:1512.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 07:22:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Scheme wherein Each of the Alphabets of English is represented by a Distinct Prime Number and/ or a Distinct Prime Numbers Set, such that the thusly found Set {and/ or Set(s)} of Prime Numbers also form a Complete Recursive Sub-Set [7].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[244] **viXra:1512.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 10:16:16*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 261 Pages. Key words: Geodesy, Mapping, Differential geometry of the ellipsoïde, Geostatistique. In French.

It is the second part of the selected papers of the Senior Geodesist Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem.

**Category:** Geophysics

[243] **viXra:1512.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 11:58:49*

context: Theory of Indeterminacy and Quantum Randomness

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: As opposed to the classical logic of true and false, when Elementary Algebra is treated as a formal axiomatised system, formulae in that algebra are either provable, disprovable or otherwise, logically independent of axioms. This logical independence is well-known to Mathematical Logic. Here I show that the imaginary unit, and by extension, all complex numbers, exist in that algebra, logically independently of the algebra's axioms. The intention is to cover the subject in a way accessible to physicists. This work is part of a project researching logical independence in quantum mathematics, for the purpose of advancing a complete theory of quantum randomness. Elementary Algebra is a theory that cannot be completed and is therefore subject to Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems.

keywords: mathematical logic, formal system, axioms, mathematical propositions, Soundness Theorem, Completeness Theorem, logical independence, mathematical undecidability, foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum physics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[242] **viXra:1512.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 13:06:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The European Space Agency (ESA) has launched a concept mission to test the technology required for a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. Sent into space today at 04:15 GMT (05:15 CET) on a Vega rocket from Kourou in French Guiana, LISA Pathfinder will now make its way to "Lagrange Point 1". Lying about 1.5 million kilometers from Earth in the direction of the Sun, this point in space provides a very stable environment to control the precision of the instruments on the satellite. The launch of LISA Pathfinder marks the 100th anniversary of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. [6]
We are more than ready to hear the plucked strings of space-time. Last Friday, the revamped LIGO took its first observations – a step towards picking up the ripples that Einstein predicted should come from exotic cosmic collisions. [5]
Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star' - unlike anything we have seen. [4]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[241] **viXra:1512.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 14:34:52*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that for any square of prime of the form p^2 = 10k + 1, p greater than or equal to 11, is true that there exist at least one prime q, q lesser than p, such that r = (p^2 – q)/(q – 1) is prime and, in case that this conjecture turns out not to be true, I considered three related “weaker” conjectures.

**Category:** Number Theory

[240] **viXra:1512.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-10 14:30:54*

**Authors:** Kyriakos Kefalas

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The selfvariating universe (SVU) is the cosmological model of the Theory of Selfvariations (TSV) proposed by Manousos in
(Manousos 2007) and (Manousos 2013 b). The Theory of Selfvariations (TSV) relies on the selfvariation principle and on the
zero arc length propagation principle (Manousos 2013 b, 2013 d). The selfvariation principle predicts a slight increase of the
rest mass of material particles and of the absolute electric charge of particles of matter. The selfvariating universe (SVU) is a
static and flat universe, where cosmological redshift is explained without the need of the expansion. It predicts an exponential
law for the cosmological redshift / distance relation (Manousos 2013 b, 2014 a) and a variation of the fine structure constant
(Manousos 2013 c, §9), which has been measured by Webb (2011). In this paper we
investigate the consequences of a larger set for the SV parameters than the one used by Manousos in (Manousos 2014 a, §1, 3).
The investigation leads to a narrow set of possible values. However to accurately fix all SV parameters, a precise determination
of the distance of astronomical objects, independent of any cosmological model and a more accurate measurement
of the variation of the fine structure constant is needed. The discovery of the variation of α, is a strong support for the TSV,
as no other mainstream theory can explain it. We have found that in one case, the SV universe (which begun with almost zero
rest masses) is heading to a reversal procedure where the SV rest mass unit will become infinite. After that, it enters a reversed
phase where SV rest mass unit acquires negative values. The reversal time TR, lies in the future and can be no less than 13 Bill
years from now. We also predict an anisotropy of cosmological redshift, for objects of the same distance and peculiar velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[239] **viXra:1512.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-10 14:39:13*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 7 Pages. In French.

We give the definition of a quasi-conformal mapping and we present one example.

**Category:** Geophysics

[238] **viXra:1512.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-12 06:18:10*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Gravity is not the weak force you might think it is. You are only realizing a small part of the picture.

There is an overall tension field in space that is responsible for gravity. Any masses introduced into the field create an higher tension -- that's what is thought of as gravity -- but there is more to it.

The Earth is of course pulling you down but space itself is also pulling you.

The Earth has a stronger pull (more connections) so it wins the tug-of-war.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[237] **viXra:1512.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-10 10:28:24*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we can find only certain summary of the mass-gap problem that is already solved within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). We cannot solve the Yang-Mills mass-gap problem within the quantum Yang-Mills theory because it is incomplete i.e. this theory does not lead to the internal structure of bare baryons (of the core of baryons) that is responsible for production of the massive carriers of the nuclear weak and strong interactions. To solve the mass-gap problem we must describe following three mechanisms: the real Higgs mechanism i.e. we must show how the Einstein-spacetime components (i.e. the neutrino-antineutrino pairs) acquire their gravitational mass because of their interactions with the non-gravitating superluminal Higgs field - it follows from the succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field described within SST, the mechanism of production of the condensates composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs that are responsible for the nuclear weak interactions, and the mechanism of production of the pions that are responsible for the nuclear strong interactions of baryons. Such mechanisms are described within SST which is the mathematically coherent theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[236] **viXra:1512.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-10 07:31:41*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A 1.5 TeV gluino and 35 TeV gravitino occupy mass/energy levels that descend from GUT scale and are incorporated within the sequences of the left-right symmetric Planck Model. The gluino is located in relation to both left and right-handed Higgs VEVs. Spin-3/2 baryon resonances occupy levels that descend from the gravitino mass and are incorporated within the Planck sequences. A symmetric arrangement of particles encompasses the Z-prime boson and the up-down quark doublet on the mass/energy levels.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[235] **viXra:1512.0278 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-29 23:58:38*

**Authors:** Eric Walker

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Addition of earlier references and copy-editing for clarity

A few patterns are identified in the isotopic changes seen in LENR experiments. These patterns are shown to be consistent with the parallel operation of several related processes: α decay, α capture, fragmentation of heavier nuclides following upon α capture, and β decay/electron capture. The results of several researchers working in the field are examined in the light of these processes. The analysis developed here is then applied to the 2014 report by Levi et al. on the test of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat in Lugano, Switzerland, whose fuel and ash assays are found to be broadly consistent with the isotope studies. The different processes are seen, then, to operate in systems making use of palladium, nickel, electrolysis, gas diffusion and glow discharge. A suggestion is made as to what might be inducing these decays and capture and fragmentation reactions.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[234] **viXra:1512.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 19:09:56*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Putting a theoretical limit on vacuum energy

A theory is published for partition of vacuum energy into different types of energy that oppose each other in control of curvature in space. Both general relativity and quantum field theory are accommodated by allowing the energy in space to be large, but finite while the cosmological constant is small.
Partition puts a limit on the energy in vacuum space, large enough for quantum mechanics, but not infinite. An argument is made that part of the energy can be borrowed according to Heisenberg Uncertainty, but must be repaid promptly one way or another.
The result leads to modification of polarizable vacuum theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[233] **viXra:1512.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 22:17:37*

**Authors:** Korolev Daniil Leonidovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The proposed material generates a unidirectional force as a result of the interaction with the vacuum fluctuations. Experience shows the use or lack of fluctuation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[232] **viXra:1512.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 10:45:23*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Nietzsches impact on Zionism is clarified.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[231] **viXra:1512.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 11:30:55*

**Authors:** Hsien-Pu Chen, Muneer Mohammad, Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) scheme is a statistical/physical secure key exchange system based on the laws of classical statistical physics to provide unconditional security. We used the LTSPICE industrial cable and circuit simulator to emulate one of the major active (invasive) attacks, the current injection attack, against the ideal and a practical KLJN system, respectively. We show that two security enhancement techniques, namely, the instantaneous voltage/current comparison method, and a simple privacy amplification scheme, independently and effectively eliminate the information leak and successfully preserve the system's unconditional security.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[230] **viXra:1512.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 11:58:32*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable the creation of flexible (folded) quantum computers, IPhones and TVs, engineless quantum transmission and propelling devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation (see reference) based on three fundamental laws of physico-chemical kinetics 1) the law of entire equilibrium, (2) the law of the duality of elementary processes (or the equality of direct and reverse transition probabilities), (3) the law of equal a priori probabilities. It is shown that all three follow from the law of the symmetry of time, and furthermore, that the first and third of these laws are both derivable from the second.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[229] **viXra:1512.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 05:34:41*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We cannot travel in a hyperspace because it is not a spacetime containing higher spatial dimensions. Hyperspace “acts” in the 4-dimensional spacetime and defines the degrees of freedom of different size scales obtained because of the succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field - it is described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Hyperspace described within SST leads to the origin of the base of the natural logarithm in physics, to masses of the three heaviest quarks and to the sums of squared charges of baryon components and energy thresholds that are consistent with experimental data. Emphasize that structures described within the SST hyperspace lead to the Chaos Theory also.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[228] **viXra:1512.0271 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-14 12:32:48*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez

**Comments:** 102 Pages.

Se revisan de manera crítica las bases de la relatividad, presentando evidencia matemática y diversos experimentos mentales nuevos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[227] **viXra:1512.0270 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-04 14:16:53*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

Se presenta una revisión crítica de los principios relativistas, con fundamentación matemática y numerosos experimentos mentales.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[226] **viXra:1512.0269 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-09 05:20:13*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 297 Pages. In French. Key words: Geodesy, Mapping, Theory of Errors, Differential Geometry of the ellipsoïd, Geophysics.

This is the first part of the Selected Papers of the Senior Engineer Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem.

**Category:** Geophysics

[225] **viXra:1512.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 03:30:14*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a ‘Theory Of Evolution Through Imaging Technique’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[224] **viXra:1512.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-08 14:56:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Gamma-ray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[223] **viXra:1512.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-08 10:02:19*

**Authors:** Eric Walker

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Three figures in an appendix to the report by Levi et al. show spectra with mass peaks for ions with masses at m ≥ 100. Although some of the ions were no doubt cluster ions, heavier elements might also have been present. We examine two of the figures for possible elements and derive approximate upper bounds on the counts relative to the other peaks in the figures. Ranges of mass peaks are consistent with small amounts of samarium, rhenium, hafnium and other elements. Many of the elements are either α or β emitters.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[222] **viXra:1512.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-08 06:59:58*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that for any square of prime of the form p^2 = 10k + 9, p greater than or equal to 7, is true that there exist at least one prime q, q lesser than p, such that r = (p^2 – q)/(q – 1) is prime and, in case that this conjecture turns out not to be true, I considered three related “weaker” conjectures.

**Category:** Number Theory

[221] **viXra:1512.0264 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-17 00:39:49*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the name of the author.

The present paper compares two different approaches to Relativity. One is the approach made by Einstein at the beginning of the 20th century which postulates that light moves with light speed c independent of its emitting source. The proposed approach postulates that light moves with light speed c relative to its emitting source, which also includes the reflecting and refracting surfaces. Einstein interpreted the constancy of light speed in all inertial frames as a time and space problem resulting time dilation and length contraction, while the new approach considers it a speed problem where time and space are absolute variables. The result of the proposed approach is a theory where particles move according Galilei relativity, and speeds calculated with the transformation equations are virtual speeds that allow the calculation of magnitudes like momentum, energy, Doppler effect, etc., which are not linear functions of the Galilean speeds.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[220] **viXra:1512.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-07 21:43:24*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Fields Medal is an award established in 1924 by the ICM (International Congress of Mathematicians) and is restricted to mathematicians up to the age of 40. It recognizes both existing work and future promise, and is equivalent to the Nobel Prize.
A trick is shown in this article that proves 1=2. However, during the steps division by zero is used. Since this is not allowed, the conclusion is false. Or it would be unless zero could be shown not to be nothing. Zeros are something because they're paired with ones to compose the binary digits essential to the formation of everything in space-time. This means zero has been misunderstood throughout history, division by zero is indeed permitted and the conclusion that 1=2 is correct. In turn, this means that while 1+1=2, 1+1 must also equal 1. This mathematically validates the centuries-long march of physics towards unification of everything in this cosmos. Unification occurs not just in the present but the entire past and future are naturally part of this one entity/event.
The article then explores possible consequences for 1) Einstein being correct to divide by zero, 2) Hidden Variables and Determinism, 3) that zero is not nothing but actually something, 4) that zero redefines the term infinity, 5) that there really is another explanation for the origin of the universe besides the Big Bang, 6) and another explanation for black holes, 7) possibilities regarding life after death and life before conception.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[219] **viXra:1512.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-07 21:40:45*

**Authors:** Andrew Grieco

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This manuscript describes the stationary action formulation of classical mechanics as a constrained extremization problem using differential forms. The general method entails treating the parameterization relationship as a constraint applied to the action integral, and the conditions that arise from writing the equivalent unconstrained action are then associated with the force law to derive the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian terms.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[218] **viXra:1512.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-08 04:01:09*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable the creation of flexible (folded) quantum computers, IPhones and TVs, engineless quantum transmission and propelling devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation (see reference) based on three fundamental laws of physico-chemical kinetics 1) the law of entire equilibrium, (2) the law of the duality of elementary processes (or the equality of direct and reverse transition probabilities), (3) the law of equal a priori probabilities. It is shown that all three follow from the law of the symmetry of time, and furthermore, that the first and third of these laws are both derivable from the second.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[217] **viXra:1512.0256 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-18 06:28:53*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 127 pages, 7 figures

This review summarizes the results of a series of recent papers, where a microscopic structure underlying the physics of elementary particles has been proposed. The ’tetron model’ relies on the existence of an internal isospin space, in which an independent physical dynamics takes place. This idea is critically reconsidered in the present work. As becomes evident in the course of discussion, the model not only describes electroweak phenomena but also modifies our understanding of other physical topics, like gravity, the big bang cosmology and the nature of the strong interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[216] **viXra:1512.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 18:17:45*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I observe that the formula 9*m*n^3 + 3*n^3 – 15*m*n^2 + 6*m*n – 2*n^2 produces Poulet numbers, and I conjecture that this formula produces an infinite sequence of Poulet numbers for any m non-null positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[215] **viXra:1512.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-07 03:05:14*

**Authors:** Viktor Strohm

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we consider a differential equation for 2nd-order curve of the motion of a parametric pendulum in zero gravity.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[214] **viXra:1512.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-07 03:10:55*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I observe that the formula 8*m*n^3 + 40*n^3 + 38*n^2 + 6*m*n^2 + m*n + 11*n + 1 produces Poulet numbers, and I conjecture that this formula produces an infinite sequence of Poulet numbers for any m non-null positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[213] **viXra:1512.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 15:18:33*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I present three cubic polynomials that generate (probably infinite) sequences of Poulet numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[212] **viXra:1512.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-07 09:54:12*

Мнимые парадоксы СТО. Парадокс близнецов.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus

The paradox of the twins, the paradox of Langevin, who is also known as the paradox of hours - this is the first and most well-known paradox SRT, based on thesis, formulated by Einstein in a seminal paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies". Status "paradox" become later. In the present work it is shown that the problem of twins is not a paradox, it is an ordinary task of the special theory of relativity, which has in it unambiguous, consistent solution.

Парадокс близнецов, он же парадокс Ланжевена, он же парадокс часов – это первый и наиболее известный парадокс СТО, основанный на тезисе, сформулированном Эйнштейном в основополагающей работе «К электродинамике движущихся тел». Статус «парадокса» появился позднее. В предлагаемой работе показано, что задача о близнецах не является парадоксом, это рядовая задача специальной теории относительности, имеющая в ней однозначное, непротиворечивое решение.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[211] **viXra:1512.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 10:58:04*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Abstract: All physical actions are caused, initiated and accomplished by work. Relation between magnitude of work, done about a macro body and its displacement during work is ‘force’. Hence, ‘force’ is a mathematical aspect related to work and work is the real entity. However, the term ‘force’ is usually understood as a ‘cause’ or ‘effort’ required for an action. Actions are effects of efforts due to causes. Action by an effort results in definite effect on or about a 3D matter-body. Certain mechanism is essential to perform an action. Generally, all physical actions are understood by displacement (motion) of macro bodies in space. ‘Action at a distance through empty space’ is an impossible proposition. To accomplish motion in space, four things are essential. They are; a macro body that is being moved, an entity that is instrumental to the motion, a mechanism of motion and a reason or cause for the motion. Although mechanism of motion is basically the same in all conditions, there are slight differences in its actions, when causes of motion are in different relative directions or in different planes. This article briefly describes mechanism of motion (by universal medium that is instrumental to motion of a macro body), when causes in a plane are involved.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[210] **viXra:1512.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-07 00:39:47*

Мнимые парадоксы СТО. Подобия принципа относительности.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. rus

Opponents of the theory of relativity regularly invent various thought experiments to discover his internal contradictions. But a careful analysis of those arguments, were identified always seeming contradictions. Most often subjected to attacks the second principle of SRT - an invariant speed of light. But first postulate - the principle of relativity also did not go unnoticed. Attempts are being made to show her illusory nature.

Противники теории относительности регулярно изобретают различные мысленные эксперименты, чтобы обнаружить её внутренние противоречия. Но при внимательном анализе такие выявленные противоречия всегда оказывались кажущимися. Чаще всего атакам подвергается второй принцип СТО – об инварианте скорости света. Но и первый постулат - принцип относительности также не остался без внимания. Предпринимаются попытки показать его иллюзорность.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[209] **viXra:1512.0246 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-23 13:33:02*

**Authors:** Emmanuil Manousos

**Comments:** 163 Pages.

With the term “Law of Selfvariations” we mean an exactly determined increase of the rest mass and electric charge of material particle. In this article we present the basic theoretical investigation of the law of selfvariations. We arrive at the central conclusion that the interaction of material particles, the corpuscular structure of matter, and the quantum phenomena can be justified by the law of Selfvariations. We predict a unified interaction between material particles with a unified mechanism (Unified Selfvariations Interaction, USVI). Every interaction is the result of three clearly distinct terms with clearly distinct consequences in the USVI. We predict a wave equation, whose special cases are the Maxwell equations, the Schrödinger equation, and the related wave equations. We determine a mathematical expression for the total of the conservable physical quantities, and we calculate the current density 4-vector. The corpuscular structure and wave behaviour of matter and their relation emerge clearly, and we give a calculation method for the rest masses of material particles. We prove the «internal symmetry» theorem which justifies the cosmological data. From the study we present, the method for the further investigation of the Selfvariations and their consequences also emerges.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[208] **viXra:1512.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-06 09:26:59*

**Authors:** Dmitriy Skripachov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Gamma-ray bursts are characterized by energy comparable to the rest mass of stars and duration comparable to the time of passage of light of several diameters of star. It means GRBs signal the flares occur when stars fall on supermassive neutron collapsars (SMNC) located at the centers of galaxies. Long, short, very short and weak GRBs are matched the fall of main sequence stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars (NS) and rogue planets, respectively. GRB is the result of heating of star caused by the action of three factors: transverse compression of angular convergence to SMNC, friction of light matter (LM), and volumetric compression of the entry into gravitationally distended space. GRB is a circular flare in the stellar corona. GRB lasts until the star will be hidden under the π-horizon, on which the angle of gravitational deflection of beams is 180°. Multiple peaks are caused by the fall of binary stars and stars with planets, as well as by consecutive bursts of stellar core and overlying layers. Early afterglow is due to the annihilation, and later (x-ray and radio) due to aurora and remanence of LM. FRB precedes very short GRB. Milliseconds before GRB, "magnetic lightning" arises, which is a reconnection of magnetic field lines from NS anterior pole to SMNC. Magnetic dipoles of LM nuclei are aligned along the magnetic lines of force. This is accompanied by radio emission generated strictly perpendicular magnetic tube connecting NS and SMNC. Gravitation bends the plane of FRB in the hyperboloid with the cone angle of 40°. Double FRB is due to gravitational lensing, emerging with a small angle between the axis of cone and the direction to us. In this case, the linear polarization of adjacent pulses will not coincide.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[207] **viXra:1512.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 11:56:03*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I observe that the formula m*n^2 + 11*m*n – 23*n + 19*m - 49 produces Poulet numbers, and I conjecture that this formula produces an infinite sequence of Poulet numbers for any m non-null positive integer, respectively for any n non-null positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[206] **viXra:1512.0243 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-07 07:01:16*

**Authors:** Dimitris Poulos

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Notes on the 265 year synodic cycle and it's manifestation on sun spot cycles and climate

**Category:** Climate Research

[205] **viXra:1512.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 06:56:28*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I observe that the formula 4*n^2 + 37*n + 85 produces Poulet numbers, and I conjecture that this formula is generic for an infinite sequence of Poulet numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[204] **viXra:1512.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 07:49:45*

**Authors:** Mihir N. Bhagat, Mandar P. Badve, Aniruddha B. Pandit

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Article in Press at the Int. J. of Sustainable Water & Environmental Systems Volume 8, No. 1 (2016).

p-Nitrophenol (PNP), a widely utilized intermediate, is a persistent pollutant present in industrial effluent streams. The
inherent toxicity of PNP necessitates its treatment before releasing it in the environment. The conventional approach
pertaining to degradation of PNP is based on chemical and biological methods for decomposition. Alternatively,
Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) is emerging as a promising technology for waste water treatment. This study investigates
HC as an alternative technology to degrade PNP and subsequently enhance efficiency by varying involved parameters.
The HC-H2O2 system is reported to exhibit synergism for pollutant oxidation, the applicability of which is also
investigated for degrading PNP. A PNP solution of fixed concentration was subjected to HC using a circular Venturi.
Degradation was studied by varying time, pressure, pH and H2O2 concentration. Decompostion of p-Nitrophenol was
quantified by UV-Visible Spectroscopy at 405nm. Degradation of PNP was observed to be directly proportional to time
at constant pressure and an initial increase in pressure led to higher degradation. However, on achieving a peak
decomposition level, the extent of decomposition declined with further increase in pressure. Experiments done at acidic
pH resulted in over two times the decomposition than those done at basic pH. The PNP-H2O2 system exhibited 91% more
degradation than the sum of degradations affected by PNP and H2O2 individually. Moreover, subjecting PNP:H2O2 in a
molar ratio of 1:5 to HC resulted in near-complete (>95%) degradation. This study proposes variations of parameters for
optimum decomposition of PNP using HC and explores the HC-H2O2 system as a promising alternative for the
degradation PNP.

**Category:** Chemistry

[203] **viXra:1512.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 09:39:05*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I observe that the formula 2*n^2 + 147*n + 2701 produces Poulet numbers, and I conjecture that this formula is generic for an infinite sequence of Poulet numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[202] **viXra:1512.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 09:40:25*

Мнимые парадоксы СТО. Парадокс арбалета.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. rus

In this article is consider the paradox of the crossbow arrows. The arrow from metal pierces the capacitor plates. In the inertial reference system of arrow capacitor is discharged, but In the inertial reference system of capacitor - the arrow is too short. Here is there, as it seems to the author of a paradox SRT. It is shown that the wording of the paradox is wrong. Paradox is not.

Рассмотрен парадокс арбалетной стрелы. Металлическая стрела пробивает обкладки конденсатора. В ИСО стрелы конденсатор разряжается, в ИСО конденсатора – стрела слишком коротка. Возникает, как кажется автору парадокс СТО. Показано, что формулировка парадокса ошибочна. Парадокса нет.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[201] **viXra:1512.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 22:41:33*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 85 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

In this book, we present a new physical theory, derived by us, which we called the Special Theory of Ether (STE).
The Special Theory of Ether describes the kinematics and dynamics of bodies in space. It implies that there is a universal reference system in which the universe is located.
We have discovered the truth about the Special Theory of Relativity which is considered to be one of the most important physical theories. We demonstrate that this theory is self-contradictory. It is based on erroneous assumptions on the constancy of the velocity of light in any reference system and equivalence of all reference systems. We present internal contradictions of this theory and show how the Lorentz transformation, on which it is based, should be interpreted. We demonstrate, among others, that the most famous physical formula E=mc2 is misinterpreted because in reality it has no connection with the internal energy of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[200] **viXra:1512.0236 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-26 14:42:58*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 93 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

Fragmenty książki 'Szczególna Teoria Eteru'. W książce tej przedstawiamy wyprowadzoną przez nas nową teorię fizyczną, którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru (STE). Szczególna Teoria Eteru opisuje kinematykę oraz dynamikę ciał w przestrzeni. Wynika z niej, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia, w którym umiejscowiony jest wszechświat. Odkryliśmy prawdę o Szczególnej Teorii Względności, która jest uważana za jedną z najważniejszych teorii fizycznych. Wykazujemy, że jest to teoria wewnętrznie sprzeczna. Przede wszystkim oparta jest na błędnych założeniach o stałości prędkości światła w każdym układzie odniesienia oraz równoważności wszystkich układów odniesienia. Przedstawiamy wewnętrzne sprzeczności tej teorii oraz wskazujemy jak należy interpretować transformację Lorentza, na której jest oparta. Między innymi wykazujemy, że najsłynniejszy wzór fizyczny E=mc2 jest błędnie interpretowany, gdyż w rzeczywistości nie ma związku z energią wewnętrzną materii.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[199] **viXra:1512.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 02:38:01*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a Schemeto detect the Truthfulness of any Consciousness Information of concern.Consciousness Information is the Information that is Perceived, Documented, Expressed, Felt,Disseminated,Thought, Ideated, Acted-Upon, i.e., all the Forms of Human and/ or Life Consciousness(es) and/ or its Near Causal Manifestations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[198] **viXra:1512.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 04:51:13*

Происхождение рукавов галактики Млечный Путь.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rus

The observed rotation curve of stars of the Milky Way, formed under the influence of dark matter leads to some surprising conclusions. This rotation curve could not form a sleeve of the galaxy, what today we imagine them. The hypothesis about of the origin of sleeves of the galaxy.

Наблюдаемая кривая вращения звёзд Млечного Пути, сформированная под влиянием темной материи приводит к некоторым неожиданным выводам. Эта кривая вращения не могла сформировать рукава галактики, какими сегодня мы их себе представляем. Рассмотрена гипотеза о происхождении рукавов галактики.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[197] **viXra:1512.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 05:52:26*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In French.

In this paper, we give the equations of the geodesics of the tori and the integration of it.

**Category:** Geometry

[196] **viXra:1512.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 12:51:39*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Russian

Draft calculation of balance of forces, which determine mean orbital distances of rocky planets in the spirit of Beeckman, Bullialdus, DesCartes and Newton lead to logical results. Short history of topic is discussed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[195] **viXra:1512.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 12:58:43*

Мнимые парадоксы СТО. Парадокс транспортера.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. rus

In this article is consider the conveyor's paradox of special relativity and its well-known solution. Here provides links to the animations.

Рассмотрен парадокс транспортера специальной теории относительности и его известное решение. Приведены ссылки на анимации.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[194] **viXra:1512.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 13:18:26*

**Authors:** Boris Kruglyak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Боло́нкин (род. 14 марта 1933) — советско-американский учёный, доктор технических наук (1971), профессор, специалист в области авиации, космонавтики, математики и компьютерной техники.
Им предложены принципиально новые методы в теории оптимизации и оптимального управления и сделаны их приложения к динамике полёта и автоматическому управлению. Предложены новые безракетные методы запуска и полёта космических аппаратов и разработаны соответствующих теорий. Среди научных интересов А. А. Болонкина также методы электронного бессмертия, преобразования окружающей среды (превращения холодных районов в субтропики, орошение пустынь замкнутым водяным циклом). В энергетике он предложил высотные подвесные ветроэлектростанции, высотные газопроводы и метод 100 % превращение любой материи в энергию в соответствии с законом Эйнштейна E=mc2. В фемтотехнологии Болонкин показал, что возможно создание материалов, которые будут в миллионы раз прочнее, чем существующие, способны выдерживать миллионы градусов, и могут быть невидимыми; возможно создание упругих невидимых сверхпрочных фемто-игл, способных дотянуться и проникать в недра Луны, Земли и многое другое.
А. А. Болонкин является автором более 250 научных статей и книг [27-32], 17 патентованных изобретений и более 100 заявок-изобретений [14], стр. 501—508, которые он представил для общего пользования. В частности, он написал монографии и книги: "Новые методы оптимизации и их применение (Москва, МВТУ, 1972, 220 стр.); Human Immortality and Electronic Civilization (Baltimore, Publish America, 2007, 140 pgs.); Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight (London, Elsevier, 2005, 448 pgs.); New Concepts, Ideas, Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Science, (New York, NOVA, 2008, 510 pgs.); «Macro-Projects: Environments and Technologies» (NY, NOVA, 2007, 536 pgs.) (co-author R. Cathcart); Femtotechnologies and Revolutionary Projects (LAMBERT, Germany, 2011, 538 pgs).
Болонкин участник многих международных форумов и общеамериканских конференций [14], куда он представил десятки своих работ. Например: The World Space Congress, 28 August — 5 September 1992, Washington, DC, USA (3 Reports); 45th International Astronautical Congress, Jerusalem, Israel, 9 — 14 October, 1994 (2 Reports); The World Aviation Congress, 1999 (2 Reports); The 53rd International Astronautical Congress and World Space Congress- 2002, 10 — 19 October 2002, Houston, TX, USA (13 Reports); на десятки конференций Американского Института Аэронавтики и Астронавтики (AIAA) с 1994 по 2006 гг он представил 40 докладов [21].
А. А. Болонкин работал ведущим инженер-расчётчиком в авиационном ОКБ Антонова, начальником отдела надёжности в ракетном ОКБ Глушко, преподавал в МАИ, МАТИ, МВТУ им. Баумана, в США он работал старшим научным сотрудником в НАСА и крупнейших научно-исследовательских лабораториях Военно-Воздушных сил США, работал в NYU, NJIT, CUNY и др. американских университетах [2].

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[193] **viXra:1512.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 14:13:53*

Путешествие под горизонт черной дыры с возвратом.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rus

We know that to get under the horizon of a black hole is possible, but you can not then go back. In the present paper examines some inconsistencies in these submissions. There is a real physical ability to go to the center black hole closer than almost half of her gravitational radius, and then unchecked go back.

Известно, что попасть под горизонт черной дыры можно, но нельзя затем вернуться обратно. В предлагаемой работе рассматриваются некоторые противоречия в таких представлениях. Существует реальная физическая возможность приблизиться к черной дыре ближе, чем почти на половину её гравитационного радиуса, после чего беспрепятственно покинуть её.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[192] **viXra:1512.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 11:09:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

After years of searching, researchers say they’ve lastlyidentified a glueball - a particle made only of nuclear force. Hypothesized to exist as part of the standard model of particle physics, glueballs have stunned researchers since the 1970s as they can only be spotted indirectly by measuring their procedure of decay. Now, a group of particle scientists in Austria say they've found proof for the existence of glueballs by observing the decay of a particle identified as f0(1710). Protons and neutrons - the particles that everyday matter consist of - are made of tiny elementary particles called quarks, and quarks are seized together by even minor particles called gluons. [11]
The findings build on previous research that several team members contributed to before joining NIST. In 2013, collaborators from Harvard, Caltech and MIT found a way to bind two photons together so that one would sit right atop the other, superimposed as they travel. Their experimental demonstration was considered a breakthrough, because no one had ever constructed anything by combining individual photons—inspiring some to imagine that real-life lightsabers were just around the corner. [10]
The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[191] **viXra:1512.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 07:04:40*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Elementary fermions can be represented by couplings of two quaternionic fields. Each of these fields can be represented by a pair of a quaternionic function and a quaternionic parameter space. The parameter spaces and the functions differ in their symmetry flavor. The reverse bra-ket method can be used to relate these fields, the corresponding functions and their parameter spaces to operators that reside in quaternionic Hilbert spaces. The eigenspaces of these operators act as structured storage places. Obviously the properties of the elementary fermions and their behavior are directly related to the symmetry flavors of the coupled fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[190] **viXra:1512.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 05:04:44*

Итак, парадокса (близнецов) больше нет!

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. rus

As the paper title is taken a phrase from the book by Marder "The clock paradox". It is widely believed that in the general relativity twin paradox is not a paradox, and has the clearly informed decision. The article analyzes one of the variants of the solution using dynamic charts Minkowski.

Названием статьи взята фраза из книги Л.Мардера «Парадокс часов». Распространено мнение, что в общей теории относительности парадокс близнецов не является парадоксом, а имеет четко обоснованное решение. В статье анализируется один из вариантов такого решения с использованием динамических диаграмм Минковского.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[189] **viXra:1512.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 05:31:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic anti-social behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7]
Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6]
Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5]
Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[188] **viXra:1512.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-09 16:10:09*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We present a simple theoretical strategy to represent using a single numerical value “A” called the prime vertex labeling Adjacency value product, all structural information encoded in a graph. This strategy has the potential to allow us to reconstruct the graph in its entirety based on a single number. To do so we assume that we have access to a large list of prime numbers which are infinite in number. This method will allow us to store graph backbone as a numerical value for retrieval and re-use and may also allow development of algorithms that exploit this representation feature as shortcut to address graph isomorphism.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[187] **viXra:1512.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 20:49:59*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

They used to think light needed a medium to propagate. That is actually correct. The only mistake they made was thinking the medium was fixed in space and the Earth must be rushing through it (that is what they call an erroneous constraint).

The medium is actually a lattice-type string particle field.

One particle field can explain everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[186] **viXra:1512.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 20:58:28*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Suppose, for simplicity, that there is the God. Yes. The question is, why He will do explosions? Why show bad example to future terrorists on Earth?

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[185] **viXra:1512.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-27 10:24:45*

**Authors:** Germano Resconi, Koji Nagata

**Comments:** Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 7, No.1 (2016), Page 65--73.

Feynman pointed out on a logic and mathematical paradox in particle physics. The paradox is that we get for the same entity only local dependence and global dependence at the time. This contradiction is coming from the dual nature of the particle viewed as a wave. In the first capacity it has only local dependence in the second (wave) capacity it has a global dependence. The classical logic has difficulties to resolve this paradox. Changing the classical logic to logic makes the paradox apparent. Particle has the local property or zero dependence with other particles, media has total dependence so is a global unique entity. Now, in set theory, any element is independent from the other so disjoint set has not element in common. With this condition we have that the true false logic can be applied and set theory is the principal foundation. Now with conditional probability and dependence by copula the long distance dependence has effect on any individual entity that now is not isolate but can have different type of dependence or synchronism ( constrain ) which effect is to change the probability of any particle. So particle with different degree of dependence can be represented by a new type of set as fuzzy set in which the boundary are not completely defined or where we cannot separate a set in its parts as in the evidence theory. In conclusion the Feynman paradox and Bell violation can be explained at a new level of complexity by many valued logic and new type of set theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[184] **viXra:1512.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 00:41:24*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a Novel technique using which one can Hyper-Refine any Aspect of concern, i.e., its Primality and/ or its Recursion Scheme.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[183] **viXra:1512.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 00:56:39*

**Authors:** Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Published in Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, October 2015 – ISSN 2412-5954

Among materials having zincblende lattices, we find some that are characterized by a high thermal conductivity. This is a quite important feature for their application in semiconductor technologies and related devices. In this paper, we will discuss the thermal conductivity of two zincblende crystals (SiC and GaAs), stressing the role of lattice vibrations in producing high values of conductivity and of lattice defects in reducing it. In the framework of a model dealing with phonon dispersions and reliable scattering mechanisms, we will show how lattice thermal conductivity can be estimated from the Boltzmann Transport Equation in the case of any zincblende crystal.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[182] **viXra:1512.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 02:29:57*

Мнимые парадоксы СТО. Парадокс Белла.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. rus

Bell's paradox - it is unreasonably increased of the name is quite the ordinary tasks of SRT. The article provides links to the Minkovsky's dynamic diagrams (animations).

Парадокс Белла – необоснованно усиленное название вполне рядовой задачи СТО. Приведены ссылки на динамические диаграммы задачи (анимации).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[181] **viXra:1512.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 09:51:26*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We show that a 3-sphere, whose surface volume matches the volume of the observable universe, has a radius of 27.6 billion light years, meaning it would be expanding into the fourth dimension at exactly twice the speed of light. We claim this observation has deep significance. Although the whole universe is much larger than this 'observable hyperverse', the 2c expansion rate is the actual expansion rate we experience, and this is due to the increase in the duration of the unit of quantum time as the universe expands. A model of the universe based on the 2c radial expansion rate produces equations stating that both energy and matter are continuously created with expansion, starting at the time of the Big Bang. Placing these equations into the Friedmann equation also gives a constant rate of expansion. The continuous creation of matter and energy, starting with the Big Bang, is distinct from the Steady State model, which has no Big Bang. The universe as an expanding 3-sphere is not an FRW model, as energy and matter both change with one over the scale factor squared. This negates most arguments against constant-rate expansion, as they are based on the FRW model. A 2c-hyperverse cosmology provides a new, powerful model for exploring the nature of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[180] **viXra:1512.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 10:23:00*

Радиус видимой Вселенной.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus

In the article on base of generally accepted data is defined of visible radius of the universe, which is different from generally accepted.

В предлагаемой работе на основе общепризнанных данных приводится прямое, численное определение видимого радиуса Вселенной, который отличается от общепризнанного.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[179] **viXra:1512.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 12:58:20*

Происхождение рукавов галактики Млечный Путь с наблюдаемой кривой вращения.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. rus

The observed rotation curve of stars of the Milky Way, formed under the influence of dark matter, suggests to some unexpected conclusions. With such a rotation curve of the arms of the galaxy, as we they today imagine, could arise only in extremely dubious circumstances.

Наблюдаемая кривая вращения звёзд Млечного Пути, сформированная под влиянием темной материи, наталкивает на некоторые неожиданные выводы. С такой кривой вращения рукава галактики, какими сегодня мы их себе представляем, могли возникнуть только при крайне сомнительных условиях.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[178] **viXra:1512.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:30:53*

**Authors:** Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert, Nadejda Bocheva, Pavlina Konstantinova

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The present research is aimed to: (i) characterize the ability of human visual system to define the objects’ slant on the base of combination of visual stimulus characteristics,
that in general are uncertain and even conflicting. (ii) evaluate the influence of human age on visual cues assessment and processing; (iii) estimate the process of human visual cue integration based on the well known Normalized Conjunctive Consensus and Averaging fusion rules, as well on the base of more
efficient probabilistic Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule no.5 defined within Dezert-Smarandache Theory for plausible and paradoxical reasoning.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[177] **viXra:1512.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:32:14*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Pranab Biswas, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

In this paper, we propose new vector similarity measures of single valued and interval neutrosophic sets by hybridizing the concepts of Dice and cosine similarity measures. We present their applications in multi attribute decision making under neutrosophic environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[176] **viXra:1512.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:36:38*

**Authors:** Xinde Li, Xianzhong Dai, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Map reconstruction for autonomous mobile robots navigation needs to deal with uncertainties, imprecisions and even imperfections due to the limited sensors quality and knowledge acquisition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[175] **viXra:1512.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:38:15*

**Authors:** Radja Khedam, Abdenour Bouakache, Gregoire Mercier, Aichouche Belhadj-Aissa

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to show that Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and a recent theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning introduced by Dezert and Smaradache and thus called Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT), can be successfully applied to improve a supervised classification of remotely sensed data.
Notice that application fields of these two theories are related on multisensor/multitemporal/multiscale data
fusion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[174] **viXra:1512.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:40:06*

**Authors:** Fiona Browne, Yan Jin, Niall Rooney, Hui Wang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Decision makers are required to make critical decisions throughout all stages of a life-cycle in large-scale projects. These decisions are important as they impact upon the outcome
and the success of projects. In this paper we present an evidential reasoning framework to aid decision-makers in the decision making process.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[173] **viXra:1512.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:43:06*

**Authors:** Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper the critical issue of alarms’ classification and prioritization (in terms of degree of danger) is considered and realized on the base of Proportional Conflict
Redistribution rule no.5, defined in Dezert-Smarandache Theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning. The results obtained show
the strong ability of this rule to take care in a coherent and stable way for the evolution of all possible degrees of danger, relating to a set of a priori defined, out of the ordinary dangerous directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[172] **viXra:1512.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:45:17*

**Authors:** Hong-Xia Sun, Hao-Xiong Yang, Jian-Zhang Wu, Yao Ouyang

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, the Choquet integral and the interval neutrosophic set theory are combined to make multi-criteria decision for problems under neutrosophic fuzzy environment. Firstly, a ranking index is proposed according to its geometrical structure, and an approach for comparing two interval neutrosophic numbers is given. Then, a ≤L implied operation-invariant total order which
satisfies order-preserving condition is proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[171] **viXra:1512.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:47:18*

**Authors:** Jin Wang, Huaijiang Sun

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache Theory) is actually a
natural extension of DST (Dempster-Shafer Evidence
Theory) and Bayes Probability Theory, which can handle both uncertainty and contradiction efficiently. We present the inverse problem in DSmT and research on the existence of its unique exact solution.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[170] **viXra:1512.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:51:42*

**Authors:** Nadeem Akhtar, Nishi Agarwal, Amita Burjwal

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Image Segmentation is an important step in the Image applications such as Image Processing, Recognitions Task, Medical Imaging, etc.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[169] **viXra:1512.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:47:39*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

● Space-time is a lattice type string particle field in space.

● Empty space is completely empty / null / void. There is a big difference.

Space-time must be made out of something.

Space-time is NOT empty space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[168] **viXra:1512.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:52:43*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

The universality of contradiction implies that the reality of a thing is only hold on observation with level dependent on the observer standing out
or in and lead respectively to solvable equation or non-solvable equations on that thing for human beings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[167] **viXra:1512.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:53:44*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin, Peide Liu

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper develops a method for solving the multiple attribute decision making problems with the single valued neutrosophic information or interval neutrosophic information. We first propose two discrimination functions referred to as score function and accuracy function for ranking the neutrosophic numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[166] **viXra:1512.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:55:32*

**Authors:** Xinhan Huang, Xinde Li, Zuyu Wu, Min Wang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper presents a new tool based on DSmT(Dezert-Smarandache Theory) and fast-Hough self-localization which is applied to autonomous mobile robot's reconstruction.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[165] **viXra:1512.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:56:54*

**Authors:** Alessio Benavoli, Luigi Chisci, Alfonso Farina, Branko Ristic

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Often knowledge from human experts is expressed
in the form of uncertain implication rules, such as "if A then B" with a certain degree of confidence. Therefore, it is important to include such a representation of knowledge into the process of reasoning under uncertainty.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[164] **viXra:1512.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:58:17*

**Authors:** J. Mohan, Yanhui Guo, V. Krishnaveni, Kanchana Jeganathan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, a new filtering method is presents to remove Rician noise from magnetic resonance image. This filter is based on Neutrosophic set (NS) approach of wiener filtering. A Neutrosophic Set (NS), a part of neutrosophy theory, studies
the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[163] **viXra:1512.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:00:28*

**Authors:** Zhang-peng Tian, Hong-yu Zhang, Jing Wang, Jian-qiang Wang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, two optimisation models are established to determine the criterion weights in multi-criteria decision-making situations where knowledge regarding the weight information is incomplete and the criterion values are interval neutrosophic numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[162] **viXra:1512.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:01:30*

**Authors:** Gwenole Quellec, Mathieu Lamard, Guy Cazuguel, Christian Roux, Beatrice Cochener

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Most medical images are now digitized and stored
with semantic information, leading to medical case databases.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[161] **viXra:1512.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:10:53*

**Authors:** G. Quellec, M. Lamard, L. Bekri, G. Cazuguel, C. Roux, B. Cochener

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we present a Case Based Reasoning (CBR) system for the retrieval of medical cases made up of a series of images with semantic information (such as the patient age, sex and medical history).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[160] **viXra:1512.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-06 05:08:46*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Theories that describe the same phenomena but contain more parameters are the worse theories. Mathematical constants applied in physics if they have not a physical meaning are the parameters as well. It leads to conclusion that to reduce number of parameters we must show how mathematical constants applied in physics arise from physical initial conditions. In the Scale-Symmetric Theory, number of all parameters is reduced to 7. Here, using the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we described the origin of mathematical constants in physics. We showed that the state of spacetime and the structure of baryons that due to the dark-matter structures leaks out, leads to a number that is close to the base of the natural logarithm, whereas the entanglons responsible for the quantum entanglement lead to number Pi and to the imaginary unit i = sqrt(-1).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[159] **viXra:1512.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:12:12*

**Authors:** Jun Ye, Jing Fu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Similarity measures play an important role in pattern recognition and medical diagnosis, and then existing medical diagnosis methods deal scarcely with the multi-period medical diagnosis problems with neutrosophic information. Hence, this paper proposed similarity measures between single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) based on tangent function and weighted similarity measures of SVNSs considering the importance of each element.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[158] **viXra:1512.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:13:17*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Motivated by the ideas of interval neutrosophic linguistic sets (INLSs) and hesitant fuzzy
sets (HFSs), this paper proposes the concept of hesitant interval neutrosophic linguistic sets (HINLSs) and defines the operational laws of hesitant interval neutrosophic linguistic elements (HINLEs) and the score, accuracy and certainty functions for HINLEs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[157] **viXra:1512.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:15:36*

**Authors:** Esteban Garcia, Leopoldo Altamirano

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper presents comparative results of a
model for multiple camera fusion, which is based on Dezert-Smarandache theory of evidence. Our architecture works at the decision level to track objects on a ground plane using
predefined zones, producing useful information for surveillance tasks such as behavior recognition. Decisions from cameras are
generated by applying a perspective-based basic belief assignment function, which represent uncertainty derived from cameras perspective while tracking objects on ground plane.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[156] **viXra:1512.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:16:42*

**Authors:** Peng Li, Xinhan Huang, Min Wang, Xiangjin Zeng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, a new multi-robot system framework
is introduced to solve the problem of multi-robot map building. Compared with the classical architectures introduced in the literature, this kind of framework enhances overall system
performance, especially in reducing calculations and communications, improving real-time performance.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[155] **viXra:1512.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:17:54*

**Authors:** ZHAO Xianzhang, ZENG Junfang, GAO Yibo, GUO Rui, YANG Yiping

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is well known that ultrasonic sensor is widely used in mobile robot to get range information with low cost, and the main bottle problem of using ultrasonic sensors to build an occupancy grid map is how to deal with the uncertainty in ultrasonic sensor data.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[154] **viXra:1512.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:20:24*

**Authors:** Pawalai Kraipeerapun, Chun Che Fung, Warick Brown, Kok-Wai Wong

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper describes the integration of neural
network ensembles and interval neutrosophic sets using bagging technique for predicting regional-scale potential for mineral deposits as well as quantifying uncertainty in the predictions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[153] **viXra:1512.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:21:23*

**Authors:** Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to present quality clay-brick selection approach based on multi-attribute decisionmaking with single valued neutrosophic grey relational analysis. Brick plays a significant role in construction field. So it is important to select quality clay-brick for construction based on suitable mathematical decision making tool.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[152] **viXra:1512.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:22:40*

**Authors:** Mohammad Khoshnevisan, Sukanto Bhattacharya

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we basically make two
propositions ~ firstly Q non-linear feedback process that is primarily fuelled by mass cognitive dissonance could generate systematic deviations between the theoretical and market prices of long-term options, and secondly such deviations are best reconciled in terms of neutrosophic rather than rule-based reasoning, especially in the context of the users of automated trading systems designed to generate trading signals based on analysis of information from conflicting sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[151] **viXra:1512.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:23:58*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The paper proposes the new concepts of a neutrosophic linguistic variable (NLV) and a neutrosophic linguistic set (NLS) based on the combination of a linguistic variable and a neutrosophic number. Then, we introduce basic operational laws of NLVs and the expected value of a NLV to rank NLVs. Furthermore, we propose a neutrosophic linguistic weighted arithmetic average (NLWAA) operator and a neutrosophic
linguistic weighted geometric average (NLWGA) operator and investigate their properties, and then establish a decision-making method based on the NLWAA and NLWGA operators to handle multiple attribute group decision-making problems with neutrosophic linguistic information. Finally, an illustrative
example is given to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed approach.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[150] **viXra:1512.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:28:19*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper one generalized the intuitionistic fuzzy set, paraconsistent set, and intuitionistic set to the neutrosophic set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[149] **viXra:1512.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:30:08*

**Authors:** Partha Pratim, Surapati PRAMANIK, Bibhas C. GIRI

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The objective of the paper is to present neutrosophic soft multi attribute group decision making based on grey relational analysis involving multiple decision makers. The concept of neutrosophic soft sets is derived from the hybridization of the concepts of neutrosophic set and soft set. In the decision making process, the decision makers offer the rating of alternatives with respect
to the parameters in terms of single valued neutrosophic set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[148] **viXra:1512.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:31:01*

**Authors:** Fatma Haouas, Zouhour Ben Dhiaf

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The theory of Dezert and Smarandache (DSmT)
called also the theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning represents a suitable formalism to fuse paradoxical sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[147] **viXra:1512.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:32:33*

**Authors:** Franciscu Gallego Lupianez

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The paper shows original results on fuzzy sets and topology.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[146] **viXra:1512.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:34:07*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Kaouthar Benameur, Laurent Ratton, Jean-Francois Grandin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we present a method to estimate the
quality (trustfulness) of the solutions of the classical optimal data association (DA) problem associated with a given source of information (also called a criterion).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[145] **viXra:1512.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:35:27*

**Authors:** Ioan Constantin Dima, Daniela Gîfu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The research proves that persuasion has two types of objectives. Its main objective is the change
of opinion. Its fundamental and foundational objectives are the change in attitude, generic conduct and situational behaviour. The main objective controls the fundamental objectives.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[144] **viXra:1512.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:36:17*

**Authors:** A. E. Amin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, a new technique is used to an
unsupervised learning image classification based on integration between neutrosophic sets and optimization linear programming.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[143] **viXra:1512.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:42:02*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, AIbena Tchamova, Tzvetan Semerdjiev, Pavlina Konstantinova

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we present and compare different fusion rules which can be used for Generalized Data Association (GDA)for multitarget tracking (MIT) in clutter. Most of tracking methods including Target Identification (ID) or attribute information are based on classical tracking algorithms as PDAF, JPDAF, MHT, IMM, etc and either on the Bayesian estimation and prediction of target ID, or on fusion of target class belief assignments through the Demspter-Shafer Theory (DST) and Dempster's rule of combination.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[142] **viXra:1512.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:43:22*

**Authors:** Ali Behloul, Soundous Belkacemi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Leaves images segmentation is an important task in the automated plant identification. Images leaf segmentation is the process of extracting the leaf from its background, which is a challenging task.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[141] **viXra:1512.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:44:29*

**Authors:** Young Bae Jun, Florentin Smarandache, Chang Su Kim

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Conditions for the P-intersection and P-intersection of falsity-external
(resp. indeterminacy-external and truth-external) neutrosophic cubic sets to be an falsity-external (resp. indeterminacy-external and truth-
external) neutrosophic cubic set are provided.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[140] **viXra:1512.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:45:56*

**Authors:** Pawalai Krai peerapun, Kok Wai Wong, Chun Che Fung, Warick Brown

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Qnantification of unscrtalnty in mineral prospee
tivity predictinn is an important prncess tn support decision making In mineral exploration.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[139] **viXra:1512.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:46:41*

**Authors:** Pawalai Kraipeerapun, Chun Che Fung, Kok Wai Wong

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper presents an innovative approach to solve the problem of multiclass classification. One-against-one neural networks are applied to interval neutrosophic sets (INS). INS associates a set of truth, false and indeterminacy membership values with an output.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[138] **viXra:1512.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:47:41*

**Authors:** William M. Goodman

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In recent years, many articles have promoted uses for “Benford’s Law,” claimed to identify a nearly ubiquitous distribution pattern for the frequencies of first digits of numbers in many data sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[137] **viXra:1512.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:58:58*

**Authors:** Suman Rao

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One of the key methods of ensuring effectiveness and actionability of military intelligence is “Red Teaming”. Red Teaming involves questioning the conventional analyst-driven military intelligence constructs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[136] **viXra:1512.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:05:51*

**Authors:** Jiaojiao Tian, Jean Dezert, Peter Reinartz

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Digital Surface Models (DSMs) generated from
satellite stereo imagery provide valuable but not comprehensive information for building change detection.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[135] **viXra:1512.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:07:05*

**Authors:** Jin Sun, Yi Wang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

With the development of information fusion, a new theory based on Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) was widely applied to lots of aspects. Owing to the difficulty of handling conflict evidence combination when tracking multiple
moving objects under occlusion conditions, a DSmT method with anti-occluding objects tracking in complex background is proposed based on occlusion judgment prediction, and the
corresponding computing examples of generating hyper-power sets and tracking under different occluding conditions are analyzed and discussed in this paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[134] **viXra:1512.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:13:12*

**Authors:** DUAN Jianmin, ZHENG Kaihua, SHI Lixiao

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

To make a driverless car with better environment awareness, multi-layer laser radar was applied to detect roads and obstacles. Firstly the road edge data set was extracted from numerous laser radar data based on characteristics of the road edge
data, and the cluster analysis of the data sets was done with the improved COBWEB algorithm based on Euclidean distance.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[133] **viXra:1512.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:14:32*

**Authors:** C. Antony Crispin Sweety, I. Arockiarani

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A rough set is a formal approximation of a crisp set which gives lower and upper approximation of original set to deal with uncertainties. The concept of neutrosophic set is a mathematical tool for handling
imprecise, indeterministic and inconsistent data. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of neutrosophic rough Sets and investigate some of its properties. Further as the characterisation of neutrosophic rough approxi-
mation operators, we introduce various notions of cut sets of neutrosophic rough sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[132] **viXra:1512.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:16:33*

**Authors:** Hyun Lee, Jae Sung Choi, Ramez Elmasri

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Reliable contextual information of remotely monitored patients should be generated to prevent hazardous situations and to provide pervasive services in home-based care. This is difficult for several reasons.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[131] **viXra:1512.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:17:47*

**Authors:** Jing Fua, Jun Yeb

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

When physician carries out the clinical survey of a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia
(BPH) symptom to reach the initial evaluation/diagnosis of BPH symptom, the existing initial evaluation method of BPH based on the international prostate symptom score (I-PSS) usually use the objective evaluation/diagnosis method with crisp values without considering fuzzy information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[130] **viXra:1512.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:19:36*

**Authors:** Donald J Bucci, Sayandeep Acharya, Moshe Kam

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Current methods for evaluating the effects of human opinions in data fusion systems are often dependent on human testing (which is logistically hard and difficult to arrange for repeated tests of the same population).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[129] **viXra:1512.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:20:22*

**Authors:** Yun Ye

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Clustering plays an important role in data mining, pattern recognition, and machine learning.
Then, single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) are useful means to describe and handle
indeterminate and inconsistent information, which fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets cannot
describe and deal with.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[128] **viXra:1512.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:23:31*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, P. Tamilvani

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we introduced Smarandache-2-algebraic structure of Boolean-near-ring namely Smarandache-Boolean-near-ring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[127] **viXra:1512.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:24:24*

**Authors:** Mircea Eugen Şelariu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Let’s consider a polygon (which has at least four sides) circumscribed to a circle, and D the set of its diagonals and the lines joining the points of
contact of two non-adjacent sides.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[126] **viXra:1512.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:25:36*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, K. Suresh

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we introduced algorithms for constructing Smarandache-lattice from the Boolean algebra through Atomic lattice, weakly atomic modular lattice, Normal ideals, Minimal subspaces, Structural matrix algebra, Residuated lattice. We also obtained algorithms for Smarandache-lattice from the Boolean algebra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[125] **viXra:1512.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:26:45*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, P. Hirudayaraj

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we introduced Smarandache – 2 – algebraic structure of R-Module namely Smarandache – R-Module.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[124] **viXra:1512.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:27:56*

**Authors:** N.Kannappa, B.Fairosekani

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we introduced Samarandache-2-algebraic structure of Soft Neutrosophic Near-ring namely Smarandache–Soft Neutrosophic Near-ring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[123] **viXra:1512.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:29:00*

**Authors:** K. Jayshree, P. Gajivaradhan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper defines the notion of special elements like Smarandache zero divisors, Smarandache units, Smarandache idempotents and Smarandache nilpotnents for semigroups. This is the first time such study has been carried out on semigroups

**Category:** General Mathematics

[122] **viXra:1512.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:42:27*

**Authors:** Yun Ye

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, Taylor series is used to solve
neutrosophic multi-objective programming problem (NMOPP). In the proposed approach, the truth membership, Indeterminacy membership, falsity membership functions associated with each objective of multi-objective programming problems are transformed into a single objective linear programming problem by using a first order Taylor
polynomial series.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[121] **viXra:1512.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:43:33*

**Authors:** Hai-Na Jiang, Xiao-Bin Xu, Cheng-Lin Wen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper provides a method based on
Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) for simultaneous
faults diagnosis when evidence is dependent.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[120] **viXra:1512.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:45:14*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Lili Zhang

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set is the generalization of neutrosophic set and the hesitant fuzzy set, and the VIKOR method is an effective decision making method which select the optimal alternative by the maximum ‘‘group utility’’ and minimum of an ‘‘individual regret’’. In this paper, we firstly introduced some operational laws, comparison rules and the Hamming distance measure of neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set, and detailedly described the decision making steps of VIKOR method.
Then we extended the VIKOR method to process the Neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy information, and proposed a multiple criteria decision making method based on neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy VIKOR method, and an illustrative example shows the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed approach.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[119] **viXra:1512.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:45:38*

Реликтовое излучение – день, когда оно погаснет.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rus

The universe is expanding and someday relict photons become invisible, unable to reach Earth from the horizon of the universe.

Вселенная расширяется и однажды реликтовые фотоны станут невидимы, не смогут достичь Земли от горизонта Вселенной.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[118] **viXra:1512.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:47:33*

**Authors:** Yibing Li, Jie Chen, Fang Ye, Dandan Liu

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

ATR system has a broad application prospect in
military, especially in the field of modern defense technology. When paradoxes are existence in ATR system due to adverse battlefield environment, integration cannot be effectively and
reliably carried out only by traditional DS evidence theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[117] **viXra:1512.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:50:36*

**Authors:** Xinde Li

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, the classic r ule of combination in
the Dezer t-Smarandache theory is found to be not convergent with the number increase of evidential sources since it leaves out the denominator in the Dempster ’s rule.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[116] **viXra:1512.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:52:07*

**Authors:** Tarek Gaber, Gehad Ismail, Ahmed Anter, Mona Soliman, Mona Ali, Noura Semary, Aboul Ella Hassanien, Vaclav Snasel

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The early detection of breast cancer makes many
women survive. In this paper, a CAD system classifying breast cancer thermograms to normal and abnormal is proposed. This approach consists of two main phases: automatic segmentation
and classification.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[115] **viXra:1512.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:53:19*

**Authors:** Sapogin Leo Georgy, Ryabov Yuri Alexander, Boichenko Victor Alexander

**Comments:** 556 Pages.

The book you are holding is a thoroughly unconventional work wholly devoted to a new concept called ‘Unitary Quantum Theory’ (UQT).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[114] **viXra:1512.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:54:33*

**Authors:** Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

A single-valued neutrosophic set is a special case of neutrosophic set. It has been proposed as a generalization of crisp sets, fuzzy sets, and intuitionistic fuzzy sets in order to deal with incomplete information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[113] **viXra:1512.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:55:23*

**Authors:** Yun Ye

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Based on the combination of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and a single valued neutrosophic set, this
paper proposes a trapezoidal neutrosophic set, some operational rules, score and accuracy functions for trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[112] **viXra:1512.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:56:31*

**Authors:** Haibin Wang, Yan-Qing Zhang, Rajshekhar Sunderraman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a part of neutrosophy which studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[111] **viXra:1512.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:57:26*

**Authors:** Ksawery Krenc

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper performs an investigation related to updating uncertain evidence with confirmed or verified information for the purpose of information fusion in C2 systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[110] **viXra:1512.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:58:34*

**Authors:** Patrick Maupin, Anne-Laure Jousselme

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This papers proposes a reflexion on the concept of vagueness. We relate the different kinds of vagueness to relevant mathematical frameworks with particular emphasis on recent works on neutrosophic logic, Dezert-Smarandache theory, and
rough sets. The different facets of vagueness are illustrated through a case study on Ambrosia artemisiifolia predictive cartography.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[109] **viXra:1512.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:59:36*

**Authors:** J. Mohan, V. Krishnaveni, Yanhui Guo

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper focuses on validating the proposed Neutrosophic Set (NS) approach of Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) denoising based on structural similarity such as Structural
Similarity Index (SSIM) and Quality Index based on Local Variance (QILV).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[108] **viXra:1512.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 04:03:10*

Сверхсветовая граница СТО.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 18 Pages. rus

Special relativity was formulated on the basis of the invariant speed of light, so if use it to superluminal signals leads to the paradox of causality, mutually exclusive and false predictions. The principle of reinterpretation and tachyon mechanics based on it leads instead of solving these paradoxes to the create new ones. In dynamic Minkowski's charts shown the paradox the "duality of speed" of the tachyon and the impossibility of its solution within the framework of special relativity.

Специальная теория относительности была сформулирована на основе инварианта скорости света, поэтому применение её к сверхсветовым сигналам приводит к парадоксам причинности, взаимоисключающим и ложным предсказаниям. Принцип реинтерпретации и основанная на нём тахионная механика вместо решения этих парадоксов создают новые. На динамических диаграммах Минковского показан парадокс дуальности скорости тахиона и невозможность его решения в рамках СТО.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[107] **viXra:1512.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 04:24:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Matter known as ordinary, which makes up everything we know, corresponds to only 5% of the Universe. Approximately half of this percentage still eluded detection. Numerical simulations made it possible to predict that the rest of this ordinary matter should be located in the large-scale structures that form the 'cosmic web' at temperatures between 100,000 and 10 million degrees.
A team led by a researcher from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, observed this phenomenon directly. The research shows that the majority of the missing ordinary matter is found in the form of a very hot gas associated with intergalactic filaments. The article reporting this discovery is published in the journal Nature. [7]
Astronomers in Germany have developed an artificial intelligence algorithm to help them chart and explain the structure and dynamics of the universe around us with unprecedented accuracy. The team, led by Francisco Kitaura of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics in Potsdam, report their results in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[106] **viXra:1512.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:28:13*

**Authors:** Nassim Abbas, Youcef Chibani, Hassiba Nemmour

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose in this work a new handwritten digit
recognition system based on parallel combination of SVM
classifiers for managing conflict provided between their
outputs. Firstly, we evaluate different methods of generating
features to train the SVM classifiers that operate
independently of each other.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[105] **viXra:1512.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-07 20:38:33*

**Authors:** Hajime Mashima

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

"6 or more natural number, it can be expressed as the sum of three prime numbers."
This is what you wrote in the letter to Christian Goldbach was addressed to Leonhard Euler in 1742.
Further, "6 or more even number is can be expressed by the sum of two odd primes." And it is equivalent.

**Category:** Number Theory

[104] **viXra:1512.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-18 09:02:55*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, we motivate that the superluminal neutrinos can be produced only due to the weak interactions in the central condensates of baryons and only when the quantum entanglement between produced neutrinos in the beta decays and the neutrons/protons is destroyed. We assume that in the earlier experiments, the superluminal neutrinos were not eliminated whereas in the later ones such neutrinos were eliminated because of the additional elements of apparatus between the place of collision and the detector. It is the reason that we cite the earlier scientific works. The observed neutrino speed in the earlier MINOS experiment, in the earlier OPERA experiment, and the observed time-distance between the fronts of the neutrino and photon beams, observed on the Earth, for the supernova SN 1987A are consistent with the theoretical results obtained within the Scale-Symmetric Theory. All results are obtained within the same coherent model. How we can verify presented model? We should measure time distances between photon and neutrino fronts for supernovae - they should be directly proportional to distances between supernovae and Earth. We as well should repeat the MINOS experiment at lower energies applying proper apparatus - there should be observed the upper limit for the speed of neutrinos 1.000050(21)c.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[103] **viXra:1512.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 02:24:10*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a ‘Holistic Flood Proof City Design’ and a consequential ‘Instantaneous Flood Water Draining System’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[102] **viXra:1512.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 19:17:29*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 diagram, 1 video reference

It is hypothesized that stars undergo homogeneous nucleation (crystal growth in similar patterns) of iron/nickel vapor during early stellar evolution. The evidence is provided in meteorites and inside of all ancient stars which possess these iron/nickel crystal cores.

**Category:** Geophysics

[101] **viXra:1512.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 22:22:45*

**Authors:** Chalmers Wayne Macleod

**Comments:** 19 pages, 5600 words, no references cited

Gravity is essentially caused by an unequal flow of time. Just as the constant speed of light is integral to the Special Theory of Relativity, so is the constancy of electron angular momentum integral to this theory on cancelling gravity. Although quantum 'spin' cannot be an actual rotation, it explains electron magnetism and precession and may explain by analogy a possible macro property as if it were. That property is time dilation produced by a rotating magnet. If the 'spin' of magnet and electrons of the magnet are in opposite directions, a detachment between the time regimes of Earth and magnet might occur and levitation achieved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[100] **viXra:1512.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 22:51:10*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

How nice is to make a small discovery. Journals are happy to publish your papers. Respect and friendliness surround you, grants are coming to you...a Paradise!
Not so, if you make a big discovery. Everybody suspects that you are impudent, cheat or crazy. Journals reject your papers without review. No respect, no support...a Hell!

**Category:** Social Science

[99] **viXra:1512.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 13:36:15*

Бесконечные ряды и Вселенная.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus

In the literature on mathematics and cosmology can find arguments about the infinite, which is the erroneous conclusion that the part of infinity can be equal to the whole.

В литературе по математике и космологии можно встретить рассуждения о бесконечностях, в которых делается ошибочный вывод о том, что в бесконечности часть может быть равна целому.

**Category:** Number Theory

[98] **viXra:1512.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 13:50:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11]
Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[97] **viXra:1512.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:26:46*

**Authors:** Ksawery Krenc, Adam Kawalec

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper describes the results of numerical experiments devoted to examination of influence of the target attribute hypotheses definitions on quality of information fusion. The main goal of the research works presented herein was to find
answers to the subsequent questions: ‘In the context of attribute information fusion in C2
systems, is it reasonable to extend the information scope of a sensor?’ and ‘Does
the extension of the sensor information scope always provide tangible benefits in quality
of fusion?’. In order to achieve that there have been defined two measures: decision
robustness and decision deviation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[96] **viXra:1512.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:27:50*

**Authors:** Ksawery Krenc, Adam Kawalec, Tadeusz Pietkiewicz

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents the results of numerical
experiments devoted to examination of influence
of the target attribute hypotheses definitions on quality of information fusion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[95] **viXra:1512.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:28:48*

**Authors:** Meena Arora, Ranjit Biswas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, we have we have introduced a new
intelligent soft-computing method of neutrosophic search with ranks and a new neutrosophic rank sets for neutrosophic relational data model (NRDM).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[94] **viXra:1512.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:30:11*

**Authors:** Behzad Moshiri, Arezou Moussavi Khalkhali, Hamid Reza Momeni

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Today due to the importance and necessity of
implementing security systems in homes and buildings
with the capability of higher certainty and lower cost, sensor fusion methods as applicable and high
performance methods are attracting the researchers'
attention.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[93] **viXra:1512.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:31:17*

**Authors:** Yi Wang, Yingwu Fang, Jian Zhang, Pengyang Li

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The aim of this article was to investigate multiple targets tracking in natural environment based on
Dezert–Smarandache theory (DSmT). On the basis of establishing conflict strategy and combination model, the basic framework and algorithm of fusing multi-source information were described. The multiple targets tracking platform which embedded location and colour cues into the particle filters (PFs) was developed in the framework of DSmT.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[92] **viXra:1512.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:33:31*

**Authors:** Lin He, Peipei Zhang, Weitong Ruan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Anomaly detection is very useful for hyperspectral
detection with no a priori information of spectral signature. However, most prevailing anomaly detectors are applied directly to the all-bands data without considering the characteristics of hyperspectral imagery in local spectrum range and some computation problem incurred from high dimensional data. In this paper, a Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) based anomaly detector is presented to handle these problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[91] **viXra:1512.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:34:47*

**Authors:** Yuan Ren, Tiejun Lv, Feichi Long, Jie Zhang, Yueming Lu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper proposes a novel scheduling scheme
based on Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) in an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) downlink scenario. The proposed scheme is utilized in a decoupled time/frequency domain packet scheduling framework and allows jointly optimizing both system throughput and fairness. Compared with the proportional fair (PF) scheduling algorithm, the proposed method is able to achieve higher system throughput and lower average packet delay with approximately the same
fairness among users. Simulation results verify that the proposed scheme can make a better tradeoff between system throughput and fairness among users than its counterparts.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[90] **viXra:1512.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:36:01*

**Authors:** Feichi Long, Tiejun Lv, Hui Gao, Pengfei Chang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A novel approach based on Dezert-Smarandache
Theory (DSmT) is proposed for scheduling in opportunistic beamforming (OBF) systems. By jointly optimizing among system throughput, fairness and time delay of each user, the proposed algorithm can achieve larger system throughput and lower average time delay with approximately the same fairness and acceptable complexity, as compared with the proportional fair scheduler PFS).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[89] **viXra:1512.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:36:59*

**Authors:** Xinde Li, Xinhan Huang, Min Wang, Jiansheng Xu, Hongbo Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, considering the information fusion
of multi-sensors on mobile robot, a new tool (the fusion machine of DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache Theory) coupling with PCR5 (Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rule)) is applied to autonomous mobile robot’s map reconstruction from 16 sonar
rangefinders.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[88] **viXra:1512.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:39:05*

**Authors:** Zhun-ga Liu, Jean Dezert, Grégoire Mercier, Quan Pan

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Theories of evidence have already been applied more
or less successfully in the fusion of remote sensing images. These attempts were based on the classical evidential reasoning which works under the condition that all sources of evidence and their
fusion results are related to the same invariable (static) frame of discernment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[87] **viXra:1512.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:40:08*

**Authors:** Pawalai Kraipeerapun, Chun Che Fung, Kok Wai Wong

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper presents an approach to the problem of binary classification using ensemble neural networks based on interval neutrosophic sets and bagging technique.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[86] **viXra:1512.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:42:38*

**Authors:** Albena Tchamova, Tzvetan Semerdjiev, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents an approach for target
behavior tendency estimation (Receding, Approaching). It is developed on the principles of Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) of plausible and paradoxical reasoning applied to conventional sonar amplitude measurements, which serve as an evidence for COTresponding decision-making procedures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[85] **viXra:1512.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:44:56*

**Authors:** Mangalraj P, Rakesh Singala, Anupam Agrawal

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The present paper proposes an evaluation schema for
SAR image Segmentation. The segmentation of SAR images becomes a crucial step because the segmented results will be used as the input for the post- processing like target detection, change detection applications.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[84] **viXra:1512.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:45:49*

**Authors:** Xinhan Huang, Peng Li, Min Wang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper a new method of information
fusion, Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) is introduced to deal with high conflicting and uncertain information. And then the Evidence Reasoning Machine (ERM) based on DSmT is presented for mobile robot mapping in unknown dynamic environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[83] **viXra:1512.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:46:44*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Julien Moras, Benjamin Pannetier

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

An occupancy grid map is a common world representation for mobile robotics navigation. Usually, the information stored in every cell is the probability on the occupancy state.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[82] **viXra:1512.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:47:30*

**Authors:** Ksawery Krenc

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper presents an analysis of known rules of combination as well as a new method of combining uncertain evidence.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[81] **viXra:1512.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:48:21*

**Authors:** Kanika Bhutani, Swati Aggarwal

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ontology helps us to think about the real world with its semantic constraints. But there exist different uncertainties and ambiguities that cannot be considered using traditional ontologies. This paper mainly deals with classification using fuzzy ontology and Neutrosophic ontology. Classification based on Neutrosophic ontology employs Neutrosophic logic for its working and is compared with classification based on fuzzy ontology on appendicitis dataset from Knowledge extraction based on evolutionary learning.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[80] **viXra:1512.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:49:36*

**Authors:** A.Q.Ansari, Ranjit Biswas, Swati Aggarwal

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Real world problems have been effectively modeled
using fuzzy logic that gives suitable representation of real-world data/information and enables reasoning that is approximate in
nature. It is quite uncommon that the inputs captured by the fuzzy models are 100% complete and determinate.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[79] **viXra:1512.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:50:30*

**Authors:** Suman Rao

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One of the enduring challenges in international
relations with far-reaching consequences is discerning unhealthy nuclear intentions of nation states. Explicit Strategic Intelligence information available on such issues are in many cases vague, incomplete, sketchy or fragmented, rendering the process of discerning intentions reliant on tacit knowledge of experts in discerning intentions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[78] **viXra:1512.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:52:42*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** This paper is published: American Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 5, Issue 1-1 , February 2016, Pages:33-39,

A number of methods have been employed by cosmologists to effect what they call an ‘extension’ of their ‘Schwarzschild solution’, to remove the singularity at their ‘Schwarzschild radius’ rs = 2Gm/c^2; the latter they maintain is the radius of the ‘event horizon’ of a black hole. They call the singularity at the Schwarzschild radius a coordinate singularity. The method of extension most often employed by cosmologists is the Kruskal-Szekeres extension, but sometimes the Painlevé-Gullstrand extension is used. The quantity r appearing in all these metrics is invariably treated by cosmologists as the radial distance, most evident in their ‘Schwarzschild radius’. Intuitively, radial distance is ≥ 0 and so, on their false assumption that r is the radial distance in the ‘Schwarzschild solution’, the cosmologists seek to drive it down to zero where they say there is a physical singularity . Although cosmologists have devised mathematical-like methods to seemingly do this, to produce their black hole, all their methods violate the rules of pure mathematics and so they are inadmissible. Consequently, the Painlevé-Gullstrand ‘extension’ is invalid. Moreover, since material sources cannot be both present in and absent from Einstein’s field equations by the very same mathematical constraint, the whole theory of black holes is fallacious.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[77] **viXra:1512.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:53:22*

**Authors:** Swati Aggarwal, Ranjit Biswas, A.Q.Ansari

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Prof. L. A. Zadeh recognized that to simulate soft
knowledge of human reasoning it is essential to use some formal approach to knowledge processing. So he pioneered by taking first step by proposing a novel logic, fuzzy logic in 1965, by releasing constraints imposed on existing formalisms to
accommodate important properties of natural inference.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[76] **viXra:1512.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:54:32*

**Authors:** Jian Gao, Weitai Liang, Jingjing Yan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In order to model beliefs expressed by natural
language, the qualitative belief assignment based on the linguistic labels has been presented in the Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT). However, the combination of qualitative beliefs is only based on the equidistant linguistic labels and the
calculation of non-equidistant labels is approximate. To solve the fusion problem of qualitative beliefs denoted by nonequidistant
labels, this paper proposed the universal arithmetic operations of linguistic labels, and analyzed the fusion of qualitative beliefs based on the general labels.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[75] **viXra:1512.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-16 08:01:21*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages. version 2 is published: Progress in Physics, v.12, Issue 1, pp. 68-69. No copyright limitations., 2016

Over a number of years there have been some attempts to answer the Catt Question within the context of classical electromagnetic theory. None of the authors of these attempts agree on the answer to the Catt Question, even though they all invoke the very same theory. An attempt at answering the Catt Question appeared in the journal Physics Education in 2013, penned by M. Pieraccini and S. Selleri, as a mathematical rendition of their earlier non-mathematical version published in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2012. The explanation by these two Authors contains violations of classical electromagnetic theory, although they claim to have satisfactorily answered the Catt Question by means of classical electromagnetic theory. The arguments adduced by Pieraccini and Selleri are therefore invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[74] **viXra:1512.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:55:43*

**Authors:** Kanika Bhutani, Gaurav, Megha Kumar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Fuzzy classification is very necessary because it has the ability to use interpretable rules. It has got control over the limitations of crisp rule based classifiers. This paper mainly deals with classification on the basis of soft computing techniques fuzzy cognitive maps and fuzzy inference system on the lenses dataset.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[73] **viXra:1512.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:56:42*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Sahin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A new accuracy function for the theory of
interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set, which overcomes some difficulties arising in the existing methods for determining rank of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, is proposed by taking into account the hesitancy degree of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[72] **viXra:1512.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:57:36*

**Authors:** A.A.Salama, I.R.Sumathi, I.Arockiarani

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the concept of fuzzy neutrosophic product spaces and investigate some of their properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[71] **viXra:1512.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:58:30*

**Authors:** Megha Kumar, Nidhika Yadav

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Rough set theory is a new method that deals with
vagueness and uncertainty emphasized in decision making. The theory provides a practical approach for extraction of valid rules fromdata.This paper discusses about rough sets and fuzzy rough sets
with its applications in data mining that can handle uncertain and vague data so as to reach at meaningful conclusions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[70] **viXra:1512.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:59:27*

**Authors:** Adrian Rubio-Solis, George Panoutsos

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a fuzzy uncertainty
assessment methodology based on Neutrosophic Sets (NS). This is achieved via the implementation of a Radial Basis Function Neural-Network (RBF-NN) for multiclass classification that is functionally equivalent to a class of Fuzzy Logic Systems (FLS).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[69] **viXra:1512.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 11:17:25*

Специальная теория относительности неприменима к сверхсветовым сигналам.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 22 Pages. rus

Almost all physicists relativists believe that the provisions of the special theory of relativity can be extended to superluminal phenomenon. This in no way is estimated that the theory was originally formulated on the basis of the principle of the constancy of the speed of light, which directly led to the recognition of its ultimate. The use superluminal signals in the special theory of relativity forces her to do false predictions. Journey into the past superluminal signals - is a specific feature of this theory due to incorrect interpretation unacceptable to her signals. The superluminal signals in relativity destroyed all of its kinematic effects - Lorentz transformations, time dilation, reducing lines and the relativity of simultaneity. Application of the theory of relativity to superluminal signals turns theory into nonsense. Apart from the physical superluminal carriers, unobserved directly superluminal "quantum information" leads the theory to contradictions and allows the synchronization of clock. It is shown the thought experiment based on the quantum "nonlocal cubes"
Практически все физики-релятивисты считают, что положения специальной теории относительности могут быть распространены на сверхсветовые явления. При этом никак не оценивается, что теория изначально была сформулирована на основе принципа постоянства скорости света, что напрямую вело к признанию её предельности. Использование сверхсветовых сигналов в специальной теории относительности вынуждает её делать взаимоисключающие, ложные предсказания. Движение в прошлое сверхсветовых сигналов – это специфическая особенность этой теории, вызванная ошибочной интерпретацией недопустимых для неё сигналов. Сверхсветовые сигналы в теории относительности разрушают все её кинематические эффекты – преобразования Лоренца, замедление времени, сокращение отрезков и относительность одновременности. Применение теории относительности к сверхсветовым сигналам превращает её в абсурд. Помимо физических сверхсветовых носителей к противоречиям приводит теорию и ненаблюдаемая непосредственно сверхсветовая «квантовая информация», позволяющая осуществить реальную сверхсветовую синхронизацию часов. Рассмотрен мысленный эксперимент на основе предлагаемых квантовых «нелокальных кубиков».

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[68] **viXra:1512.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:11:38*

**Authors:** Xinde Li, Xinhan Huang, Min Wang, Gang Peng

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Information acquired in map building presents
characteristics of uncertainty, imprecision and even high conflict, especially in the course of building grid map using sonar. Here a new method of information fusion-DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache Theory) recently developed from DST and Bayesian theory was
introduced to apply to managing and dealing with this uncertainty.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[67] **viXra:1512.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:14:46*

**Authors:** Hyun Lee, Jae Sung Choi, Ramez Elmasri

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In home-based care, reliable contextual information
of remotely monitored patients should be generated to recognize activities and to identify hazardous situations of the patient. This is difficult for several reasons.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[66] **viXra:1512.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:17:10*

**Authors:** Mohamed Youssfi, Omar Bouattane, Mohammed Ouadi Bensalah, Bouchaib Cherradi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a fast parallel algorithm for data classification, and its application for
Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) segmentation. The presented classification method is based on
a parallel fine grained fuzzy C-means algorithm. It is implemented on a polymorphic SIMD machine to sort out the different components of a brain image.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[65] **viXra:1512.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:23:23*

**Authors:** Min Xian, H.D. Cheng, Yingtao Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Breast tumor segmentation is an important step of breast ultrasound computer aided diagnosis systems.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[64] **viXra:1512.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:24:52*

**Authors:** I.Arockiarani

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The focus of this paper is to explore the notion of fuzzy neutrosophic sets and soft sets. A novel approach is proposed to meet the challenges in medical diagnosis. The calculation of distances, a new score function are all defined to discuss in decision making problem. A topological structure on
fuzzy neutrosophic soft set is considered as a tool to derive some of their characterizations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[63] **viXra:1512.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:27:21*

**Authors:** Li Peng, Huang Xinhang, Wang Min

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A hybrid approach for efficiently planning smooth
local paths for mobile robot in an unknown environment is presented. The single robot is treated as a multi-agent system, and the corresponding architecture with cooperative control is constructed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[62] **viXra:1512.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:30:53*

**Authors:** Guo Yanchun, Ren Ganglian, Yang Yifang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using elementary methods to study the distribution properties of Smarandache function and give a general result for it under no condition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[61] **viXra:1512.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:32:20*

**Authors:** Jinyuan Yang, Xinhan Huang, Min Wang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In multi-sources information fusion, because of the diversity of evidences, especially the imperfect evidences, it’s difficult to get a satisfied result. To avoid and reduce the influence of the
mistaken or conflicting information on the final precision of fusion, a pre-processor of evidence
sources is proposed and proved. A MES (measurement of evidence support) pre-processor is designed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[60] **viXra:1512.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:33:47*

**Authors:** Liu Aihua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is an optimal maintenance strategy due to improved planning for rehabilitation or replacement based on current evaluation of condition.In this paper, a new method of information fusion-DSmT(Dezert-Smarandache Theory) developed from DST(Dempster-Shafer Theory) and Bayesian theory is introduced to dealing with condition evaluation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[59] **viXra:1512.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:36:14*

**Authors:** Yicheng Ye, Nan Yao, Qiaozhi Wang, Qihu Wang

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In order to deal with the difficulty of ranking interval numbers in the multiple attribute decision making process, interval numbers are expressed in the Rectangular Coordinate System. On the basis of this, two-dimensional relations of interval numbers are analyzed. For interval numbers, their advantage degree functions of the symmetry axis and the length are deduced after an
information mining process, and then the advantage degree function of interval numbers is defined. Procedures of ranking interval numbers based on degrees for multiple attribute decision making are given. Finally, the feasibility and the effectiveness of this method are verified through an example.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[58] **viXra:1512.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:37:25*

**Authors:** Nadeem Akhtar, Mohd Vasim Ahamad

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A cluster can be defined as the collection of data
objects grouped into the same group which are similar to each other whereas data objects which are different are grouped into different groups. The process of grouping a set objects into
classes of similar objects is called clustering. In fuzzy c means clustering, every data point belongs to every cluster by some membership value. Hence, every cluster is a fuzzy set of all data points.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[57] **viXra:1512.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:39:45*

**Authors:** Li Hongfei, Jin Hongbin, Tian Kangsheng, Fei Xiaoyan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Proportional Conflict Redistribution (PCR)
rules based on Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) is a useful method for dealing with uncertainty problems. It is more efficient in combining conflicting evidence. Therefore, it has been successfully applied in identity identification. However, there exist shortcomings in PCR rule. So in this paper we propose a new improved rule which is based on new Proportional Conflict Redistribution. The six PCR rules (PCR1-PCR6) and improved PCR rule are analyzed and compared through numerical examples, and the results show
that the improved rule is effective.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[56] **viXra:1512.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:41:02*

**Authors:** Pascal Djiknavorian, Dominic Grenier, Pierre Valin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the context of Electronic Support Measures,
the use of the Dempster-Shafer Theory is not flexible enough to obtain a clear evaluation of the state of allegiance for a detected target. With the new theory of plausible, paradoxical, and neutrosophic reasoning, the Dezert-Smarandache Theory, we are able to get a clearer assessment. The current paper presents our research for these cases.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[55] **viXra:1512.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:43:49*

**Authors:** Ashraf Al-Quran, Emad Marei, Nasruddin Hassan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper a new approach is being introduced to study roughness through neutrosophic
soft sets. This new model is called neutrosophic right neighborhood.The concept of neutrosophic soft rough set approximations will be dened, properties of suggested approximations are deduced and proved and then some of neutrosophic soft rough set concepts will be dened along with several propositions and illustrative examples.
Finally, we illustrate that classical rough sets model can be viewed as a special case of the suggested model in this paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[54] **viXra:1512.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:52:02*

**Authors:** Hai Yang, Ruiqin Fu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using elementary methods to study the number of the solutions of the equation and give all positive integer solutions for this equation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[53] **viXra:1512.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:53:41*

**Authors:** Mohan J, Krishnaveni V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, a new filtering method to remove
Rician noise from magnetic resonance image is presented. This filter is based on Neutrosophic set (NS) approach of median filtering.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[52] **viXra:1512.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:57:15*

**Authors:** Haibin Wang, Andre Rogatko, Florentin Smarandache, Rajsnekar Sunderraman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Description Logis are appropriate, widely used, logics for managing structured knowledge.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[51] **viXra:1512.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:59:26*

**Authors:** Hyojin Park, Jinhong Yang, Sanghong An, Jun Kyun Choi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

For effective smart media service, a reliable and
confidential context recognition is required to prepare and react properly. However, it is difficult to achieve a higher confidence level for several reasons. First, raw data from multiple sensors have different degrees of uncertainty.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[50] **viXra:1512.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:01:56*

**Authors:** Patrick Kechichian, Benoıt Champagne

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper proposes the use of a peak tendency estimator (PTE)based on Dezert Smarandache Theory (DSmT) and fuzzy inference to overcome two inherent limitations of a recently proposed partial Haar dual adaptive filter (PHDAF) for sparse echo cancellation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[49] **viXra:1512.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:02:53*

**Authors:** Huimin Chai

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Situation assessment, which belongs to high level
information fusion, plays an important role in military decision-making systems. In order to combine the fuzzy evidence in situation assessment, a novel approach based on Dezert-Smarandache theory(DSmT) is described in this paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[48] **viXra:1512.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:04:12*

**Authors:** Chih-Yen Chen, Tai-Shan Liao, Tzu-Chiang Liu, Chi-Wen Hsieh, Hung-Chun Chien

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Precise and effective bony segmentation from soft
tissues on hand radiograph is very critical in the bone age assessment, especially for separating phalanx and epiphyseal/metaphyseal region of interests (EMROIs) from the background and soft tissue.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[47] **viXra:1512.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:07:03*

**Authors:** Joanna Głowacka, Marek Amanowicz

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article presents a concept of Dezert-Smarandache theory application for enhancing security in tactical mobile ad-hoc network. Tactical MANET, due to its specification, requires collection and processing of information from different sources of diverse security and trust metrics. The authors specify the needs for building a node’s situational awareness and identify data sources used for calculations of trust metrics. They provide some examples of related works and present their own conception of Dezert-Smarandache theory applicability for trust evaluation in mobile hostile environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[46] **viXra:1512.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:08:28*

**Authors:** S. Hachicha, F. Chaabane

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data enables direct observation of land surface at repetitive intervals and therefore allows temporal detection and monitoring of land changes. However, the problem of radar automatic change detection is made more difficult, mainly with the presence of speckle noise

**Category:** General Mathematics

[45] **viXra:1512.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:11:52*

**Authors:** Luigi Coppolino, Salvatore D'Antonio, Valerio Formicola, Luigi Romano

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory of evidence has signicant weaknesses when dealing with confflicting information sources, as demonstrated by preeminent mathematicians. This problem may invalidate its eectiveness when it is used to implement decision making tools that monitor a great number of parameters and metrics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[44] **viXra:1512.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:13:02*

**Authors:** Krispijn A. Scholte, Willem L. van Norden

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Modern navies face the introduction of new ships with reduced and less trained manning and new, more complex, sensor systems. These trends could result in operator overload which might be solved by in-
troducing a higher level of automation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[43] **viXra:1512.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:14:44*

**Authors:** Hyun Lee, Jae Sung Choi, Ramez Elmasri

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In home-based care, reliable contextual information of remotely monitored patients should be generated by correctly recognizing the activities to prevent hazardous situations of the patient. It is difficult to achieve a higher confidence level of contextual information for several reasons. First, low-level data from multisensors have different degrees of uncertainty. Second, generated contexts can be conflicting, even though they are acquired by simultaneous operations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[42] **viXra:1512.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:15:55*

**Authors:** M. Palanivelrajan, K. Gunasekaran, K. Kaliraju

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we made an attempt to study the algebraic nature of a (T, S)-intuitionistic fuzzy subnearring of a nearring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[41] **viXra:1512.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:17:46*

**Authors:** J. Nescolarde-Selva, J.L. Usó-Doménech

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

It is possible to view the relations between mathematics and natural language from different aspects. This relation between mathematics and language is not based on just one aspect. In this paper the authors address the role of the Subject facing reality through language. Perception is defined and a mathematical theory of the perceptual field proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[40] **viXra:1512.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:18:46*

**Authors:** Mohan J, Krishnaveni V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Brain tumor segmentation for MR images is a
difficult and challenging task due to variation in type, size, location and shape of tumors. This paper presents an efficient and fully automatic brain tumor segmentation technique. This proposed technique includes non local preprocessing, fuzzy intensification to enhance the quality of the MR images, k - means clustering method for brain
tumor segmentation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[39] **viXra:1512.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:23:40*

**Authors:** Jeethu Mary Mathew, Surya S.R, Philomina Simon

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, an approach for automatic cloud
detection and localization in satellite remote sensing images is introduced. Cloud detection is useful in improving the accuracy of land cover classification in cloudy satellite images. The
accurate detection of clouds in satellite images is vital for many atmospheric and terrestrial applications.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[38] **viXra:1512.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:24:56*

**Authors:** Mariusz Bajger, Fei Ma, Murk J. Bottema

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A technique utilizing an entropy measure is developed for automatically tuning the segmentation of screening mammograms by minimum spanning trees
(MST).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[37] **viXra:1512.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:26:04*

**Authors:** P.V. Arun

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Astrobiology addresses the possibility of extraterrestrial life and explores measures
towards its recognition. Researches in this context are founded upon the premise that indicators
of life encountered in space will be recognizable. However, effective recognition can be accomplished
through a universal adaptation of life signatures without restricting solely to those attributes
that represent local solutions to the challenges of survival.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[36] **viXra:1512.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:28:26*

**Authors:** Jiaojiao Tian, Peter Reinartz, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

3D Building change detection has become a popular
research topic along with the improvement of image quality and computer science. When only building changes are of interest, both the multi-temporal images and Digital Surface Models provide valuable but not comprehensive information in the change detection procedure. Therefore, in this paper, belief functions have been adopted for fusing information from these two sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[35] **viXra:1512.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:31:27*

**Authors:** Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca, Kieran Reynolds, Laurence T. Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Thia article presents an efficient method to calculate in parallel the values of the Smarandache function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[34] **viXra:1512.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:33:13*

**Authors:** Gwénolé Quellec, Mathieu Lamard, Guy Cazuguel, Christian Roux, Béatrice Cochener

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A novel content-based heterogeneous information
retrieval framework, particularly well suited to browse medical databases and support new generation computer aided diagnosis (CADx) systems, is presented in this paper. It was designed to retrieve possibly incomplete documents, consisting of several images and semantic information, from a database; more complex data types such as videos can also be included in the framework.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[33] **viXra:1512.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:34:57*

**Authors:** Jean-Marc Tacnet, Jean dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

To make a decision under certainty, multicriteria
decision methods aims to choose, rank or sort alternatives on the basis of quantitative or qualitative criteria and preferences expressed by the decision-makers. However, decision is often
done under uncertainty: choosing alternatives can have different consequences depending on the external context (or state of the word). In this paper, a new methodology called Cautious Ordered
Weighted Averaging with Evidential Reasoning (COWA-ER) is proposed for decision making under uncertainty to take into account imperfect evaluations of the alternatives and unknown
beliefs about groups of the possible states of the world (scenarii). COWA-ER mixes cautiously the principle of Yager’s Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) approach with the efficient fusion
of belief functions proposed in Dezert-Smarandache Theory DSmT).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[32] **viXra:1512.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:36:40*

**Authors:** Azeddine Elhassouny, Soufiane Idbraim, Driss Mammass, Danielle Ducrot

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The objective of this work is, in the first place, the integration in a fusion process using hybrid DSmT model, both, the contextual information obtained from a supervised ICM classification with constraints and the temporal information with the use of two images taken at two different dates. Secondly, we have proposed a new decision rule based on the DSmP transformation
to overcome the inherent limitations of the decision rules thus use the maximum of generalized belief functions.The approach
is evaluated on two LANDSAT ETM+ images, the results are promising.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[31] **viXra:1512.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-25 07:53:30*

**Authors:** Tiger Zhang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Construct the concept of medium body and point out the internal independence and external dependence of medium body. Construct the model of two trains and quantitatively analyze the Doppler effect of wave in medium body. Construct the theory of objective motions of wave source and receive in medium body. Apply the theory in astronomy. Point out the edge convex lens characteristics of celestial medium bodies. Make clear the objectivity of time and medium space. Point out the theory of relativty is wrong in the concept of spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1512.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:15:24*

**Authors:** Zhun-ga Liu, Gregoire Mercier, Jean Dezert, Quan Pan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We present a multidimensional evidential reasoning
(MDER) approach to estimate change detection from the fusion of heterogeneous remote sensing images. MDER is based on a multidimensional (M-D) frame of discernment composed by the Cartesian product of the separate frames of discernment used for the classification of each image.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[29] **viXra:1512.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:16:28*

**Authors:** V. Renukadevi, G. Sangeetha

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In 2014, Wang et. al gave the reduct denition for fuzzy information system. We observe that the reduct denition given by Wang et. al does not retain the optimal choice of objects. In this paper, we give the drawbacks of the reduct denition of Wang et. al and give some characterizations of normal parameter reduction of soft sets. Also, we prove that the image and inverse image of a normal parameter reduction is a normal parameter reduction under consistency map.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[28] **viXra:1512.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:18:07*

**Authors:** Kanika Bhutani, Yogita Gigras

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Fuzzy classification has become very necessary because of its ability to use simple linguistically interpretable rules and has get control over the limitations of symbolic or crisp rule based classifiers. This paper mainly deals with classification on the basis of soft computing techniques Fuzzy cognitive maps and fuzzy inference system. But the data available for classification contain some missing or ambiguous data so it is better to use the Neutrosophic logic for classification.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[27] **viXra:1512.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:19:23*

**Authors:** Wilbert van Norden, Fok Bolderheij, Catholijn Jonker

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Having a correct and timely classification
solution for objects has become increasingly important as well as increasingly difficult to obtain in new maritime military missions; a decision support system is therefore needed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[26] **viXra:1512.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:20:21*

**Authors:** Pawalai Kraipeerapun, Chun Che Fung

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, the classification results obtained
from several kinds of support vector machines (SVM) and neural networks (NN) are compared with our proposed classifier. Our approach is based on neural networks and interval neutrosophic sets which are used to classify the input patterns into one of the two binary class outputs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[25] **viXra:1512.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:21:23*

**Authors:** Jian Li, Jinhui Lan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

To resolve the target classification problem under the condition of interference, the paper presents a target classification method based on the evidence-similarity. Because the results of Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) are used in different conflict condition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[24] **viXra:1512.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:22:11*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The paper presents two new correlation coefficients of simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs) as
the further extension of the correlation coefficient of single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) and investigates their properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[23] **viXra:1512.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:23:49*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin, Peide Liu

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

As a combination of the hesitant fuzzy set (HFS) and the single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS), the
single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set (SVNHFS) is an important concept to handle uncertain and vague information existing in real-life, which consists of three membership functions including hesitancy, as the truth-hesitancy membership function, the indeterminacy-hesitancy membership function and the falsity-hesitancy membership function, and encompass the fuzzy set (FS), intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS), hesitant fuzzy set (HFS), dual hesitant fuzzy set (DHFS) and singlevalued neutrosophic set (SVNS).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22] **viXra:1512.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:25:00*

**Authors:** Faruk Karaaslan

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Neutrosophic set theory was introduced by Smarandache based on neutrosophy which is a branch of philosophy. The concept of single valued
neutrosophic refined set was defined by Ye as an extension of single valued neutrosophic sets introduced by Wang.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[21] **viXra:1512.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:25:51*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The neutrosophic set model is an important tool for dealing with real scientific and engineering applications because it can handle not only incomplete information but also the inconsistent information and indeterminate information
which exist commonly in real situations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20] **viXra:1512.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 04:05:47*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown here that when terahertz sonic waves strike on an atomic nucleus they can produce the fission of the nucleus. This fact can be now checked in practice since recently it was developed an acoustic device called a SASER that is the first to emit sonic waves in the terahertz range.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[19] **viXra:1512.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 18:44:03*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Considering the variety of division of development stages, as well as "middle transition stage", "repose stage" and so on that are related to Neutrosophy, and combining the original Quad-stage Method including the special universal relations, this paper presents various "zero-stage", "one-stage", "two-stage", "three-stage", "four-stage", "negative-stage", "mixed-number-stage", "complex-number-stage", "hypercomplex-stage", "matrix-stage", and other multiple-stage, these are differentiating from Hegelian triad thesis, antithesis, and synthesis of development. Applying original Quad-stage Method, “one divides into two” is expanded into “one divides into many”; based on this, some "three-stage" (including neutrosophic three-stage), and "four-stage" (besides original Quad-stage) are presented. The examples of the development stages from Shakespeare’s "Hamlet" to film "The Lion King" and the expansion of Internet Thinking are discussed.
Key words: Neutrosophy, Quad-stage, development, division of stages, Hegelian triad-stage, multiple-stage, expansion of Internet Thinking

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[18] **viXra:1512.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 00:53:45*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented an Universal Aspect Recursion Scheme which can be considered as the Recursion Scheme that is synonymous with the ‘Theory Of Everything’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[17] **viXra:1512.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 02:14:08*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Within the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) we cannot answer following three fundamental questions: What is the origin of masses of the quarks? What is the origin of the mass of muon? Why for decades we cannot calculate precise masses and spin of proton and neutron which are the fundamental components of Nature? It suggests that QCD must be reformulated. We already answered the above questions within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Here we present the next arguments that QCD must be extended and modified. We showed that the Titius-Bode law for the strong interactions follows from the coupling constants for electromagnetic and nuclear weak interactions of the core of baryons. We also showed that the sums of the squared charges of the components of baryons calculated within SST are consistent with experimental data for wide energy range. Within the atom-like structure of baryons do not appear singularities and infinities so renormalization is unnecessary - it causes that the reformulated QCD is mathematically very simple. We present also the theoretical curve for the kaon-to-pion ratio and we calculated the cross sections for production of the W bosons. We described as well the similar/dual structures in the reformulated QCD, General Relativity and in the theory of neutrinos (their shapes result from the Kasner metric) and we described the liquid-like plasma.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1512.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 12:41:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1512.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-27 07:41:18*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Corrected Fine structure constant equation 2

When is empirical evidence good enough to prove a hypothesis that cannot be observed directly? String Theory has the problem that strings will probably never ever be observed. The equations below, with the Fine structure constant, the mass ratio of the proton, electron, muon, and tau to the neutron all use the same patterns for developing an empirical equation for their values. The equations are remarkably similar.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1512.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 14:58:18*

Темная материя Млечного Пути.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rus

It is considered that the rotation curve of stars of the Milky Way under the influence of dark matter looks different from keplerian curve. However, the hypothesis of dark matter does not resolve the contradictions of the themselves rotation curves. With measured rotation curves for the Milky Way the galaxy cannot be of the observed species. On the flash animations shows a galaxy at different stages of its development.

Принято считать, что кривая вращения звёзд Млечного Пути под влиянием темной материи имеет вид, отличающийся от кеплеровской кривой. Однако, гипотеза о темной материи не устраняет противоречий самих кривых вращения. С измеренной для Млечного пути кривой вращения галактика не может иметь наблюдаемого вида. На флэш-анимациях показан вид галактики на различных этапах её развития.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1512.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 08:15:50*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we will theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. Then we will give a physical interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF). With the new model of dark matter, we will be naturally led to propose a new geometric model of the Universe, finite and not proposed by the Standard Cosmological model (SCM). We then will propose a first mathematical model of expansion of the Universe, based on General Relativity as the SCM, and in which the CMB rest frame plays an important role. This 1st model leads to the same mathematical predictions as the SCM. But we will propose also a 2nd mathematical model of expansion of the Universe, which is mathematically much simpler than General Relativity, but with theoretical predictions in agreement with the experimental data given by astronomical observations. Moreover this 2nd mathematical model does not need the existence of a dark energy, and consequently brings a solution to the enigma of dark matter. After this we will study according to the new proposed theory the different models of distribution of dark matter in galaxies. Then we will study the velocities of galaxies in clusters according to this distribution of dark matter, the evolution of the temperature of dark substance in the Universe and we will make appear the existence of a dark energy, due to our model of dark matter and to the expansion of the Universe.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[12] **viXra:1512.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 08:17:34*

**Authors:** Ben S. Dover, Micheal T Hunt, Christopher S Peacock

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Assumptions are the basis of astrophysical processes. The fitting of microscopic-theories such as nuclear and quantum physics into macro processes like stellar evolution is akin to modelling wood to describe the basic function of a garden shed. Recently a new model of planet formation has been proposed by Amrinder Singh which helps do away with baseless assumptions of modern physics. Here we propose a new addition to the hypothesis which we've nicknamed the MERLIN hypothesis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[11] **viXra:1512.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 05:15:16*

Нарушение причинности в СТО. Теорема об изохронном тахионе.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus

The theory of relativity does not apply to superluminal signals, because it inevitably leads to a violation of causality. For this reason, the theory of relativity does not apply to the tachyons. You can always find an inertial reference system, in which the speed of tachyon is infinite, which means instant signal at any distance. Let's prove the this theorem. The hyperbolic curve on the diagram Minkowski, which crosses the world lines of inertial reference frames in the points with equal of the times, is called isochrone. The tachyon called as the isochronous tachyon, if his the world line connects two points on one isochrone, and two corresponding them inertial reference systems.
Теория относительности неприменима к сверхсветовым сигналам, поскольку она неизбежно приводит к нарушению причинности. По этой же причине теория относительности неприменима и к тахионам. Всегда можно найти такую ИСО, в которой скорость тахиона равна бесконечности, что означает мгновенную передачу сигнала на любое расстояние. Докажем эту теорему. Гиперболическая кривая на диаграмме Минковского, пересекающая мировые линии ИСО в точках с равными показаниями часов, называется изохроной. Тахион, мировая линия которого связывает две точки на одной изохроне и две соответствующие им системы отсчета, называется изохронным тахионом.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1512.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 06:40:43*

**Authors:** Viktor Strohm

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper we consider the algorithm for calculation of motion of bodies, using the coherent graph. The graph is built through solving a differential equation of second order curves , using theorem of the center of mass and transition from a consecutive number of relative coordinates to absolute system of coordinates.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9] **viXra:1512.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-05 10:48:18*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However the theorem presupposes that distanced physical systems become spatially disconnected. This presupposition, although in agreement with our intuition, has never been confirmed experimentally. As a result Bell's Theorem prohibits only temporal locality, but not spatial locality between distanced particles. Here, I show that any local-deterministic relativity theory that violates Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies cannot be forbidden by Bell's inequality. I further show that the predictions of a recently proposed local and deterministic Information Relativity Theory, are consistent with quantum theory and quantum thermodynamics, and reproduce the same results for key quantum phenomena, including matter-wave duality, quantum criticality and phase transition, formation of Bose-Einstein condensate, and quantum entanglement.
The theory assumes that observers who are in inertial motion with respect to each other with relative velocity v, communicate information about physical observables using an information carrier with known velocity (Vc) which satisfies Vc > v. No other presumptions are made. For velocities satisfying v << Vc all the theory transformations reduce to Galileo-Newton laws. The theory is simple and is also beautiful due to its Golden Ratio symmetries. More importantly, the theory is scale independent with respect to the investigated physical systems' dimensions and the velocity of the information carrier, which renders it applicable to the dynamics of moving bodies in all inertial physical systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1512.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-08 21:44:49*

**Authors:** Zhixian Lin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As we know that Newton's law considers vacuum as empty, force between objects passing through action at a distance. But in Electromagnetism, vacuum is not considered as empty but considered as continuum, force between objects passing through vacuum. It means that Newton's law may not work if vacuum must be considered.
We know that on the electromagnetic wave propagation path, the direction of electric field at a point changes periodically. If there is a charged object at the point also changes its charge property periodically with the same frequency, then the electric field force direction on the object will not change. Therefore, the object will do directional movement. Based on this, it is possible to design a spacecraft does not follow Newton's law. And the calculation suggests that the thrust can be much higher than radiation pressure.
With the Electromagnetic Momentum Conservation Equation, this paper proved that in a limited space, Newton's second law may not work although it still work in the whole universe. Also with the Electromagnetic Momentum Conservation Equation, this paper explained why in quantum mechanics at the particle level, particles usually do not follow Newton's second law.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[7] **viXra:1512.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 00:45:31*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented an Universal Aspect Recursion Scheme which can be considered as the Recursion Scheme that is synonymous with the ‘Theory Of Everything’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[6] **viXra:1512.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 01:27:54*

**Authors:** Aleksey A. Demidov

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

We propose an algebraic approach to building ontologies which capable of evolution under the influence of new facts and which have some internal mechanisms of validation. For this purpose we build a formal model of the interactions of objects based on cellular automata, and find out the limitations on transactions with objects imposed by this model. Then, in the context of the formal model, we define basic entities of the model of knowledge representation: concepts, samples, properties, and relationships. In this case the formal limitations are induced into the model of knowledge representation in a natural way.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[5] **viXra:1512.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-04 08:02:02*

**Authors:** Patrick Solé, Yuyang Zhu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The conjectured Robin inequality for an integer $n>7!$ is $\sigma(n)<e^\gamma n \log \log n,$ where $\gamma$ denotes Euler constant, and
$\sigma(n)=\sum_{d | n} d $. Robin proved that this conjecture is equivalent to Riemann hypothesis (RH).
Writing $D(n)=e^\gamma n \log \log n-\sigma(n),$ and $d(n)=\frac{D(n)}{n},$ we prove unconditionally that
$\liminf_{n \rightarrow \infty} d(n)=0.$
The main ingredients of the proof are an estimate for Chebyshev summatory function,
and an effective version of Mertens third theorem due to Rosser and Schoenfeld.
A new criterion for RH depending solely on $\liminf_{n \rightarrow \infty}D(n)$ is derived.

**Category:** Number Theory

[4] **viXra:1512.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-12 05:08:27*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The results of the Sagnac experiment analyzed with the Standard Model (SM) are easily explained with non relativistic equations assuming that light moves with light speed independent of its source, but the results are not compatible with Special Relativity. The Sagnac results analyzed with the ``Emission \& Regeneration'' UFT present no incompatibilities within the theory which postulates that light is emitted with light speed relative to the emitting source. Electromagnetic waves that arrive with any speed to mirrors, optical lenses and electric antenas are absorbed by the level electrons and subsequently emitted with light speed "c" relative to their nuclei, explaining why light speed "c" is always measured in all inertial frames. Relativity derived in the frame of the ``E \& R'' UFT has absolute time and absolute space resulting in a theory without paradoxes..

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1512.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-01 14:29:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15]
Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14]
Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13]
Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1512.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-01 11:39:37*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Unbroken E8 symmetry is required for negative mc^2 bosonic matter and supersymmetry to exist and a flat cyclic universe to form. Our present epoch is of broken E8 symmetry, which prohibits SUSY. Study of dark matter/dark energy can show that fossil negative mc^2 bosonic matter formed before the big bang still exists, however

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1512.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-01 01:39:39*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

At last we "got to the core" and estimated all beauty and elegance of galaxies! Unfortunately, scientists should curtail the software developments to creation of the mystical space elevator and more actively to be engaged in quantum gravitation! Gravitation is dynamic

**Category:** Astrophysics