[341] viXra:1601.0367 [pdf] submitted on 20160131 20:12:19
Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 16 Pages.
The hypothesis of subatomic particles.
photon is a promising candidate for dark matter.
Light has a mass in fourdimensional space, could become a candidate for dark matter.
In the physics of current light propagates at the speed of light, the mass is zero;
That is the equivalent in mass and energy according to the equation E = mc2, and. So, say that E/c2 = m, energy has mass.
Full of outerspace according to the principle of dark energy pulsating light (Photon Group) are pulsating at the Planck time in 4dimensional space. Observation of threedimensional space represented as a horizontal line of mass zero, zero, zero is the mass of light pulsates, Photon Group, was up and down from the horizontal component is ±0. represents a mass having mass m and light in 4dimensional space is the.
If has been zero mass and light mass, would be good candidates for dark matter.
Found total out as dark matter mass discovery of the neutrino recently became the subject of the Nobel Prize in neutrinos have been expected as a prime candidate for dark matter, but as a result account for 23% of the universe, dark matter. Total mass of the photon of light has mass, then filled in space would be enough as a dark matter;
Category: Astrophysics
[340] viXra:1601.0366 [pdf] submitted on 20160131 22:34:01
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 25 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed some concepts on ‘Green Engineering’.
Category: General Mathematics
[339] viXra:1601.0365 [pdf] replaced on 20190107 20:43:47
Authors: John Linus O'Sullivan
Comments: 5 Pages.
Abstract: Space is from two kinds of energy in standing waves; (1) energy with mass which is finite energy and (2) energy without mass which is infinite energy. Given light speed is equal to frequency times wavelength C = f λ then photon half waves are twice light speed on contraction before reversal expansion at light speed. Light speed is a constant relative to mass in Special Relativity but photon half waves are twice light speed on contraction from the fundamental frequency. Infinity is half wave photon energy on contraction at twice light speed without masstime. Standing half wave photons are oscillating as medium (ether) at twice light speed where energy is infinite; consequently, energy on reversal expansion creates mass and time in the electromagnetic field. God is infinite and reaffirms existence without mass and time.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[338] viXra:1601.0364 [pdf] submitted on 20160131 10:44:35
Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages.
Most current configurations for optical biopsy contain fiber optic bundles at both the delivery and receiving ends of the optical system. Some layouts include distal lenses to either collimate or focus the incident light at various depth locations across the tissue. The inherent beam divergence, along with the highly scattering nature of the living tissue, is known to limit the penetration depth of the probe and the spatial or temporal resolution of the detected signal. In this work we study a novel modality for tissue illumination based on the use of longrange nondiffracting beams (LRNB). LRNB represent narrowwidth light pencils with a constant or linearly varying axial intensity that propagate over large distances without diffractive spreading. Recent tests have demonstrated that LRNB exhibit insignificant intensity distortions when operated as beacon beams through atmospheric turbulence. Our numerical and software simulations show that LRNB may offer the potential for larger penetration depth and enhanced contrast over setups using conventional laser beams. Clinical applications include diagnosis, laser surgery and photodynamic therapy.
Category: Classical Physics
[337] viXra:1601.0363 [pdf] submitted on 20160131 11:11:45
Authors: Nikolay Dementev
Comments: 6 Pages.
The notes explicitly describe unification of Special Relativity with Quantum Mechanics based on fundamental similarities between interval and Heisenberg’s relation. Outline for unification of General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics is presented.
Category: Quantum Physics
[336] viXra:1601.0362 [pdf] submitted on 20160131 11:43:34
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.
Interconnecting different quantum systems is important for future quantum computing architectures, but has proven difficult to achieve. Researchers from the TU Delft and the University of Vienna have now realized a first step towards a universal quantum link based on quantummechanical vibrations of a nanomechanical device. [9]
Nanotechnologists at the University of Twente research institute MESA+ have discovered a new fundamental property of electrical currents in very small metal circuits. They show how electrons can spread out over the circuit like waves and cause interference effects at places where no electrical current is driven. The geometry of the circuit plays a key role in this so called nonlocal effect. The interference is a direct consequence of the quantum mechanical wave character of electrons and the specific geometry of the circuit. For designers of quantum computers it is an effect to take account of. The results are published in the British journal Scientific Reports. [8]
The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky actionatdistance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes largescale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes smallscale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the selfmaintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics
[335] viXra:1601.0361 [pdf] submitted on 20160131 12:09:57
Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 15 Pages.
Hypothesis of Pulsation principle.
The physics of dark energy (2)
The discovery of the new 4d space.
Four dimensional space is not Carter Klein space advocate.
Pulsating hypothesis)
The density of dark energy in the vacuum space filled with horizontal lines.
The horizontal setting and zero.
Energy wave picture showed changes in the energy density,
3D space we are aware horizontal line.
Set the upper and lower parts of the horizon is 4dimensional space.
In repeatedly Planck time period pulsating particle oscillation hypothesis is a hypothesis.
Assuming the wave of changes in the density of dark energy and matter waves that propagate at the speed of light.
theoretical evidence supporting the existence of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics
[334] viXra:1601.0359 [pdf] submitted on 20160131 09:19:34
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.
Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (fourstroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometerscale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the selfmaintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics
[333] viXra:1601.0358 [pdf] submitted on 20160131 04:29:00
Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.
I try to obtain the physical law for the carbon dioxide emission for a nation, so that it can be possible the optimal political choice for its reduction
Category: Climate Research
[332] viXra:1601.0357 [pdf] replaced on 20160202 11:50:24
Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.
The observed and theoretical results for the perihelion precession of planets are very close except for the planet Venus  observed value is about 204 arc seconds per century whereas theoretical value is more than 5 times higher. It is assumed that the main reason for this is that Venus has an unusually low eccentricity (e = 0.0068) so its perihelion point is very sensitive to small perturbations. But such an explanation is not convincing because eccentricities of Neptune (e = 0.0086) and Earth (e = 0.0167) are very low as well whereas theoretical results are much better. Within the mainstream theories, we cannot show the origin of the precession rate for Venus. The ScaleSymmetric Theory provides a different explanation for the discrepancy for Venus and leads to the value about 204.5 arc seconds per century. The correct solution follows from the origin of the TitiusBode law for the modified black holes and solar system. We showed also that there is a resonance between the two values obtained by applying the two very different methods in calculating the precession rate of Mercury i.e. the Newtonian Mechanics plus the GeneralRelativity (GR) correction and the ScaleSymmetric Theory plus the PPNformalism perihelion shift. In both methods, the central value is 574.6 arc seconds per century and is consistent with observational data. But we can calculate the total precession rates for Mercury and Venus within the ScaleSymmetric Theory without the participation of the PPN formalism or other theories. Then we obtain 574.36 arcsec/century for Mercury (this result is closer to the observationaldata central value 574.10 + 0.65 arcsec/century) and 204.44 arcsec/century for Venus.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
[331] viXra:1601.0356 [pdf] replaced on 20160131 05:38:46
Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 7 Pages.
Using a new concept of the truth in quantum mechanics we show that the individual superposition principle is scientifically unfounded.
Category: Quantum Physics
[330] viXra:1601.0354 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 21:12:48
Authors: K. Kanagarajan, R. Suresh
Comments: 11 Pages.
Numerical algorithms for solving Fuzzy IntegroDifferential Equations (FIDEs) are considered. A scheme based on the classical Euler method is discussed in detail and this is followed by a complete error analysis. The algorithm is illustrated by solving linear firstorder fuzzy integrodifferential equations.
Category: General Mathematics
[329] viXra:1601.0353 [pdf] submitted on 20160131 02:08:56
Authors: Amelia Carolina Sparavigna
Comments: 4 Pages. Published on PHILICA  ISSN 17513030  11th January, 2016
In quantum statistical mechanics, the extension of the classical Gibbs entropy is the von Neumann entropy, obtained from a quantummechanical system described by means of its density matrix. Here we shortly discuss this entropy and the use of generalized entropies instead of it.
Category: Quantum Physics
[328] viXra:1601.0352 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 13:21:55
Authors: Janko Kokosar
Comments: 6 Pages.
Errors in the paper "Blackbody laws derived from a minimum knowledge
of Physics" are described. The paper claims that the density of the thermal current
in any number of spatial dimensions is proportional to the temperature to the power
of 2(n1)/(n2), where n represents the number of spatial dimensions. However, it
is actually proportional to the temperature to the power of n + 1. The source of this
error is in the claim that the known formula for the finestructure constant is valid
for any number of spatial dimensions, and in the subsequent error that the physical
dimensions of Planck's constant become dependent on n.
Category: Quantum Physics
[327] viXra:1601.0351 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:12:11
Authors: M.A.I. Essawy, H.A. Attia
Comments: 13 Pages.
The unsteady nonDarcianCouette
ow through a porous medium of a viscous incompressible
uid bounded by two parallel porous plates is studied with heat transfer. A nonDarcy model
that obeys the Forchheimer extension is assumed for the characteristics of the porous medium.
A uniform suction and injection are applied perpendicular to the plates while the
uid motion
is subjected to a constant pressure gradient. The two plates are kept at dierent but constant
temperatures while the viscous dissipation is included in the energy equation. The eects of
the porosity of the medium, inertial eects and the uniform suction and injection velocity on
both the velocity and temperature distributions are investigated.
Category: General Mathematics
[326] viXra:1601.0350 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:13:11
Authors: M. Zarebnia, S. Khaniy, R.Parvaz
Comments: 11 Pages.
In this article, a numerical method based on quasiinterpolation method is used for the
numerical solution of the linear Volterra integral equations of the second kind. Also, we
approximate the solution of Volterra integral equations by Nystrom's method. Some examples
are given and the errors are obtained for the sake of comparison.
Category: General Mathematics
[325] viXra:1601.0349 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:14:09
Authors: M. Gholami, M. Norouzi
Comments: 10 Pages.
Many practical computing problems concern large graphs. Some examples include the Web
graphs, various social networks and molecular datasets. The scale of these graphs introduces
challenges to their ecient processing. One of the main issues in such problems is that most
of the mentioned datasets cannot be t in the memory. In this paper, we present a new data
fragment framework for graph mining. The original dataset is divided into a xed number
of fragments, associated with the number of the graphs in each dataset. Then each fragment
is mined individually using a wellknown graph mining algorithm (i.e. FSG or gSpan) and
the results are combined to generate global results. A major problem in fragmenting graphs
is concerning on similarity or dissimilarity of them. Another problem corresponds to the
completeness of the output which will be discussed in this paper.
Category: General Mathematics
[324] viXra:1601.0348 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:15:02
Authors: Rostam K. Saeed, Andam A. Mustafa
Comments: 19 Pages.
In this article, we formulate two methods to get approximate solution of Glycolysis system. The first
is Laplace decomposition methods (is a method combined Lplace transform and Adomian polynomial) and
the second is semigroup decomposition method (is a method combined semigroup approach and Adomian
polynomial), In both methods the nonlinear terms in Glycolysis system treated with help Adomian
polynomial. One example are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the methods, this is done by writing a
computer programs with the aid of Maple 13.
Category: General Mathematics
[323] viXra:1601.0347 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:16:07
Authors: Andang Sunarto, Jumat Sulaiman, Azali Saudi
Comments: 14 Pages.
The main objective of this paper is to describe the formulation of QuarterSweep Successive
OverRelaxation (QSSOR) iterative method using the Caputos time fractional derivative together
with QuarterSweep implicit nite dierence approximation equation for solving onedimensional
linear timefractional diusion equations. To solve the problems, a linear system will be
constructed via discretization of the onedimensional linear time fractional diusion equations
by using the Caputos time fractional derivative. Then the generated linear system has been
solved by using the proposed QSSOR iterative method. Computational results are provided
to demonstrate the eectiveness of the proposed methods as compared with the FSSOR and
HSSOR methods.
Category: General Mathematics
[322] viXra:1601.0345 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:19:02
Authors: M. Zarebnia, R.Parvaz
Comments: 5 Pages.
In this article, the cubic Bspline collocation method is implemented to nd numerical
solution of the problem arising from chemical reactor theory. The method is tested on some
model problems from the literature, and the numerical results are compared with other methods.
Category: General Mathematics
[321] viXra:1601.0344 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:19:58
Authors: ChiiHuei Yu
Comments: 10 Pages.
This paper studies two types of denite integrals and uses Maple for verication. The
closed forms of the two types of denite integrals can be obtained mainly using Cauchy integral
theorem and Cauchy integral formula. In addition, some examples are used to demonstrate the
calculations.
Category: General Mathematics
[320] viXra:1601.0342 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:22:15
Authors: T.C. Lipscombe, C.E. Mungan
Comments: 14 Pages.
The standard harmonic balance method consists in expanding the displacement of an oscillator
as a Fourier cosine series in time. A key modification is proposed here, in which the conservative
force is additionally expanded as a Fourier sine series in space. As a result, the steadystate
oscillation frequency can be expressed in terms of a Bessel series, and the sums of many such
series are known or can be developed. The method is illustrated for five different physical
situations, including a ball rolling inside a Vshaped ramp, an electron attracted to a charged
filament, a largeamplitude pendulum, and a During oscillator. As an example of the results,
the predicted period of a simple pendulum swinging between 90° and +90° is found to be
only 0.4% larger than the exact value. Even better, the predicted frequency for the Vramp
case turns out to be exact.
Category: General Mathematics
[319] viXra:1601.0341 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:23:51
Authors: H. Saberi Naja, F. Izadi
Comments: 15 Pages.
In this work we present two finitedifference schemes for solving this equation with one initial
and boundary conditions. We study stability and consistency of these methods. Two methods
are explicit and they approximates the solutions of the wave equation with consistency of order
O, for examining the accuracy of the results , we compare the results with the
solution obtained by the methods of separation of variable, also a numerical example for each
methods is presented and compared with each other. Finally, the graphs of the error have been
plotted to show the methods work with high accuracy.
Category: General Mathematics
[318] viXra:1601.0340 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:24:56
Authors: Shumei He, Xiangtuan Xiong
Comments: 9 Pages.
Numerical differentiation is a classical illposed problem. In image processing, sometimes we
have to compute the gradient of an image. This involves a problem of numerical differentiation.
In this paper we present a truncation method to compute the gradient of a twovariables
function which can be considered as an image. A H¨oldertype stability estimate is obtained.
Numerical examples show that the proposed method is effective and stable.
Category: General Mathematics
[317] viXra:1601.0339 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:26:42
Authors: Reza Jalilian, Hamed Jalilian
Comments: 13 Pages.
A tenthorder nonpolynomial spline method for the solutions of twopoint boundary value
problem u(4)(x) + f(x; u(x)) = 0; u(a) = 1; u00(a) = 2; u(b) = 3; u00(b) = 4; is constructed.
Numerical method of tenthorder with end conditions of the order 10 is derived. The convergence
analysis of the method has been discussed. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the
applications of method, and to compare the computed results with other known methods.
Category: General Mathematics
[316] viXra:1601.0338 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:28:00
Authors: B. Sumithra, A. Tamilselvan
Comments: 10 Pages.
In this paper, we introduce a method based on the modification of the Trapezoidal Method
with a Piecewise Uniform Mesh proposed in Sumithra and Tamilselvan [1] for a numerical
solution of stiff Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) of the first order system. Using this
modification, the stiff ODEs were successfully solved and it resulted in good solutions.
Category: General Mathematics
[315] viXra:1601.0337 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:29:06
Authors: Sapan Kumar Das, S. A. Edalatpanah, T. Mandal
Comments: 7 Pages.
Several methods currently exist for solving fuzzy linear and nonlinear programming problems.
In this paper an efficient method for FLFP has been proposed, in order to obtain the fuzzy
optimal solution. This proposed method based on crisp linear programming and has a simple
structure. It is easy to apply the proposed method compare to exiting method for solving FLFP
problems in real life situations. To show the efficiency of our proposed method a numerical
example has been illustrated with a practical problem.
Category: General Mathematics
[314] viXra:1601.0335 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 09:06:22
Authors: Ch Sreenivasa Rao, AVSSKS Guptay, K Ramanarasimhaz
Comments: 10 Pages.
Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) is a two phase passive heat transfer device for low temperature
applications. Even though it is a simple,
exible and cheap structure, its complex physics has
not been fully understood and requires a robust, validated simulation tool. In the present work
the basic theoretical model by H.B. Ma et al[11] has been updated with the inclusion of capillary
forces in order to characterise the pulsating
ow under the in
uence of various non dimensional
quantities. The mathematical model is solved using explicit embedded Rangekutta method
and proved that the Poiseuille number considered in the numerical analysis assumes more
signicance since it includes
ow characteristics, geometry and
uid properties of a PHP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[313] viXra:1601.0334 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 09:07:44
Authors: Mr. Devendra N. Chaudhari, M.R.Phate
Comments: 23 Pages.
In vibration human body is unied and complex active dynamic system. Lumped parameters
are oered used to capture and evaluate the human dynamic properties.Entire body vibration
causes a multi fascinated sharing out of vibration within the body and disagreeable feelings
giving rise to discomfort or exasperation result in impaired performance and health means. This
distribution of vibration is dependent on intra subject variability and inters subject variability.
For this study a multi degree of freedom lumped parameter model has taken for
analysis. The equation of motion is derived and the response function such as seat to head
transmissibility (STHT) driving point mechanical impedance (DPMI) and apparent mass(APMS)
are determined, for this kind of study we can use a neural network (ANN) which is a powerful
data modeling tool that is able to capture and represent complex input/output relationship.
The goal of ANN is to create a model that correctly maps the input to the output using historic
data so that the model can be then used to produce the output when the desired output is
unknown.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[312] viXra:1601.0333 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 09:09:23
Authors: Mangesh R.Phate1, Mr.Rupesh V. Bhortake
Comments: 17 Pages.
Portable Scheffer reactor (PSR) is an important and useful mechanical device used solar
energy for the numerous applications. The present work consists of 2.7 square meter scheffer
re
ector used for the domestic application in Indian context such as water heating. The
parameters such as the position of the PSR surface with respect to the sun i.e. tilting angle
(AR),the processing timing (TM) measured in 24 Hr clock and the water quantity (WT ) are
considered as a independent parameters. The parameter related with the PSR performance is
the eciency of the PSR (EFF).The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to predict
and analyze the performance of PSR. The experiments conducted based on three factors,
threelevel, and central composite face centered design with full replications technique, and
mathematical model was developed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify critical
parameters. The results obtained through response surface methodology were compared with
the actual observed performance parameters. The results show that the RSM is an easy and
effective tool for modelling and analyzing the performance of any mechanical system.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[311] viXra:1601.0332 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 09:10:29
Authors: Manoj Saini, Navneet Arora, Chandan Pandey, Husain Mehdi
Comments: 8 Pages.
The reactor pressure vessel (RVP) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) or a boiling water reactor (BWR), i.e., of a light water reactor (LWR), is made of carbon steel. The inside surface is clad with stainless steel to prevent general corrosion. These pressure vessels are expected to withstand normal and postulated accident conditions. These vessels are installed within a concrete biological shield and the whole plant is in turn surrounded by a concrete containment building. Most of the operating experience relates to two and three loop design. The scope of this paper is to study of mechanical behavior of SA 516 grade 65 carbon steel used for steam generator application undergoing thermal cycling loading. The effect of temperature, cycle time, pre stress and no of cycle would be the varying parameters
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[310] viXra:1601.0331 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 09:11:29
Authors: Husain Mehdi, Anil Kumar, Arshad Mahmood, Manoj Saini
Comments: 11 Pages.
Composite materials are engineering materials made from two or more constituent materials that remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level while forming a single component. In this work the mechanical properties of GFRP (glass Fiber Reinforcement Plastic), Nylon and their composite with aluminium were evaluated with reference to ASTM D63802 a. During the tensile load, the maximum strain, and stress are obtained. The maximum strength is found in composite GFRP instead of Aluminium and composite Nylon. Composite material has shown an improvement of mechanical properties when compared with individual materials.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[309] viXra:1601.0330 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 09:12:48
Authors: Husain Mehdi, Rajan Upadhyay, Rohan Mehra, Adit Singhal
Comments: 11 Pages.
The composite materials consist of two or more different materials that form regions large enough to be regarded as continua and which are usually firmly bonded together at the interface. Many natural and Synthetic materials are of this nature, such as: reinforced rubber, filled polymers, GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforcement Plastic), Nylon, aligned and chopped fiber composites, polycrystalline aggregates (metals), etc. It is widely used in high speed machinery, aircraft and light weight structures. Crack is a main cause of damage occurring upon dynamic loading and may cause serious failure of structure. The influence of cracks on dynamic characteristics like natural frequencies, modes of vibration of structures has been investigated.
The paper presents the Computational modal analysis of a composite beam with and without cracks. In this work, the mechanical properties of aluminum and fiber (Nylon and Glass fiber reinforcement plastic) are measured a universal testing machine. The threedimensional finite element models of composite beam with and without cracks are constructed and then computational modal analysis on ANSYS14 is then performed to generate natural frequencies and mode shapes. The location of cracks will vary from 10 to 90 % of beam length. The finite element model agrees well with the analytical values.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[308] viXra:1601.0329 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 09:13:45
Authors: Galal A. Hassaan
Comments: 10 Pages.
Compensators are used in place of classical PID controllers for possible achievement of better performance. Unsatisfactory dynamics of some industrial processes represent an engineering problem that hat to be solved. Highly oscillating processes and very slow processes are examples.
In this paper a novel feedback PD compensator based is proposed and applied to control secondorder like processes having oscillating characteristics (damping ratio ≤ 0.8). The compensator proposed is capable of controlling the steadystate characteristics of the closedloop control system and its dynamic characteristics. The advantage of the proposed compensator is its simple structure and tuning using an ITAE objective function. It was possible with the proposed compensator to satisfy a system performance with very low overshoot and settling time. The compensator tuning is reduced to simple relation with the process parameters with correlation coefficient as high as 0.9999.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[307] viXra:1601.0328 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 09:14:36
Authors: Galal A. Hassaan
Comments: 14 Pages.
Optimal design of shallow foundations used in supporting various machinery is of vital importance. Badly designed foundations result in serious problems such as soil failure, large soil settlement, low vibration efficiency and resonance of structures near by the foundation.
An optimal design approach based on using MATLAB optimization tool box is used to provide the optimal design of a machinery foundation on a silty soil. To minimize the foundation cost the foundation mass is used as an objective function. To control the high technical quality of the foundation from soil mechanics and vibrations point of view, 10 functional constraints are used.
The soil isolation efficiency of the soil is responsible about the vibration transmitted to the surrounding. Therefore, the effect of the minimum isolation efficiency in the range of 71 – 81 % on the foundation optimal design is investigated in details. The performance of the foundation against the minimum isolation efficiency is outlined so that the civil and mechanical engineers can compromise between cost and performance.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[306] viXra:1601.0327 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 09:15:22
Authors: Galal A. Hassaan
Comments: 9 Pages.
Laglead compensators are well known in automatic control engineering. They have 4 parameters to be adjusted (tuned) for proper operation. The frequency response of the control system or the root locus plot are traditionally used to tune the compensator in a lengthy procedure.
A highly oscillating secondorder process has a time response to a unit step input of 85.4 % maximum overshoot and about 6 seconds settling time is controlled using a laglead compensator (through simulation). The laglead compensator is tuned by minimizing the sum of time multiplied by the absolute error (ITAE) of the control system using MATLAB. Three functional constrains are used to control the performance of the laglead compensated control system. The result was reducing the process oscillation to 6.926 % overshoot and a 1.413 seconds settling time. The steadystate characteristics of closedloop control system using the laglead compensator were excellent. It is possible reduce the steadystate error to any desired value through one of the compensator parameters.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[305] viXra:1601.0326 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 09:18:28
Authors: Nicolas Gisin
Comments: 7 Pages. Talkpresented at the Conference "Time in Physics" at the ETHZurich, September 2015.
Today's science provides quite a lean picture of time as a mere geometric evolution parameter. I argue that time is much richer. In particular, I argue that besides the geometric time, there is creative time, when objective chance events happen. The existence of the latter follows straight from the existence of freewill. Following the french philosopher Lequyer, I argue that freewill is a prerequisite for the possibility to have rational argumentations, hence can't be denied. Consequently, science can't deny the existence of creative time and thus that time really passes.
Category: Quantum Physics
[304] viXra:1601.0325 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 09:16:21
Authors: K.Kantha Rao, K. Jayathirtha Rao, B. Sudheer Premkumar
Comments: 16 Pages.
Hypersonic cruise vehicles are fly at Mach numbers of above five (7) and the aerodynamic heating would be severe. Hypersonic Vehicles encounter a severe hazardous environment such as extremely high temperature plane to aerodynamic heating, fluctuating pressures, stresses for which the structures are to be designed and fabricated to withstand these environments to protect various electronic items like guidance, control and instrumentation systems housed in the vehicle structure. High temperature of the order of 15000C and above during the hypersonic flight causes enormous thermal stresses. Inconel617 is a Nickel based alloy. Hence Inconel617 is employed as a sandwich material. Theoretical & ANSYS modeling analysis have been done for both, the square and hexagonal honeycomb panels of Inconel617 material have been performed to suit the hypersonic flight conditions. The honeycomb structures are built from thin walled metal sheets. These structures as a part of the airframe outer cover provide thermal protection to the interior parts mounted inside the vehicle. This paper is to perform geometrical (shape) analysis of different candidate honeycomb cells that have the same effective density but different geometrical shapes. To perform heattransfer analysis of hypersonic aerospace vehicle structure with different honeycomb cell geometry.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[303] viXra:1601.0324 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:03:29
Authors: T. Jayakumar, K. Kanagarajan, T. Muthukumar
Comments: 17 Pages.
In this paper three numerical methods to solve for hybrid fuzzy differential equations are
discussed. These methods are AdamsBashforth, AdamsMoulton and PredictorCorrectormethod
is obtained by combining AdamsBashforth and AdamsMoulton methods. Convergence and stability
of the proposed methods are also proved in detail. In addition, these methods are illustrated by
solving two Cauchy problems.
Category: General Mathematics
[302] viXra:1601.0323 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 10:05:31
Authors: J. LopezBonilla, R. LopezVazquez, J. C. Prajapati
Comments: 6 Pages.
We apply the results of Koepf(MasjedJamei), on polynomial solutions for differential
equations of hypergeometric type, to Hermite, Laguerre, Daubechies and Chebyshev equations.
Category: General Mathematics
[301] viXra:1601.0322 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 05:46:37
Authors: JaeKwang Hwang
Comments: 147 Pages. extended standard model
Threedimensional quantized spaces are newly introduced. Four threedimensional quantized spaces with total 12 dimensions are used to explain the universes including ours. The warped threedimensional quantized spaces with the quantum time width (t=tq) (see Fig. 4B) are applied to explain the origin of the charges and evolution of the universe. Also, the warped quantized time with the quantum space size (x=xq) of the threedimensional spaces (see Fig. 4C) is used to explain the magnetic charges. In the present work, the positive energy has the positive time momentum (E/c>0) flowing toward the positive time direction and the negative energy has the negative time momentum (E/c<0) flowing toward the negative time direction (see section 17). The birth of our positive energy matter universe is justified from the production of the positive and negative energy warped space pair. This birth is the beginning of the physical universe with the big bang. The energy is newly defined as the spacetime volume of E = ctV in the present work. It is shown that the quantum length (xq) and time (tq) of our universes are 2x_p^2 = 5.223 1070 m and xq/c = 1.7422 1078 s, respectively, which give the present masses of the elementary particles. The time is originated from the unobservable quantum space fluctuation.
There are many physical problems which we do not know how to solve. Based on the present model, those problems are discussed in the present work. Those problems are including the matter universe question, three generations of the leptons and quarks, the quark confinement, the proton decay, Majorana particle, dark matter, dark energy, dark flow, magnetic monopoles, graviton, hadronization, time before the big bang, a black hole, relative theory, very high energy cosmic rays, hard xrays, high temperature superconductor, quantum entanglement, quantum wave function collapse, neutrino oscillations, CP violations and proton spin crisis. Also, it is shown for the first time that the wave function in the quantum mechanics is closely connected to the energy of the warped space caused by the moving elementary particles.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[300] viXra:1601.0321 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 06:57:33
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 33 Pages.
Collection of formulas involving mathematical constants
Category: General Mathematics
[299] viXra:1601.0320 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 07:16:03
Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.
Abstract: giving the differences between wormholes and blackholes.
Category: Astrophysics
[298] viXra:1601.0319 [pdf] submitted on 20160130 08:09:21
Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 12 Pages.
The paper reveals a new operating principle for a planar photonic transistor in which no electronic components or nonlinear optical modules are used for digital switching.
Category: Classical Physics
[297] viXra:1601.0318 [pdf] replaced on 20160403 23:28:09
Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 25 Pages.
When contemplating the theory of evolution, many people assume evolution belongs exclusively to the biological sciences. It's maintained here that complete comprehension also requires physics. Since discovery of gravitational waves in Sep. 2015 is a recent milestone in physics, it's fitting that evolution should be reassessed by that milestone. Without a conviction that time doesn’t exclusively operate in a straight line and that time travel to the past is possible, science would have to totally agree with the evolutionary concepts Charles Darwin proposed.
This article also attempts to combine Einstein's two Relativity theories and Unified Field Theory with quantum physics and tomorrow's hypercomputers. It also uses the concepts of "real", "imaginary" and "complex" time to try to bring cosmology's Big Bang theory, the Steady State's infinity and eternity, and the Inflationary theory into the 21st century.
Einstein believed stars, planets, even quantum particles were part of, and not distinct from, the rubbersheet geometry (the topology) comprising spacetime. To read an explanation in plain English of subuniverses or observable universes using topology, go to the intimately related  indispensably so  "Topological monoverse" at the end of this article. This says that, from a purely spatial aspect, there is no multiverse (universes existing alongside ours). But remember, it regards the 13.8 billion year old structure we live in as merely a subuniverse within an infinite universe. It's saying there are no other universes beyond our infinite universe. If each subuniverse is viewed as the entire universe, the multiverse does indeed exist. From the temporal aspect of the spacetime union: everything in spacetime is unified into one thing  a product of the gravitational field. All past and future universes are unified with the present cosmos (is this the real meaning of the word "multiverse"?)
In some circles, the multiverse is not regarded as science but as philosophy or even scifi. Referring to the latter, the following was stated on the program "Catalyst" on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) and its edition of Tuesday, 1 March 2016 entitled "SCIENCE OF SCI FI FILMS – FACT OR FICTION?" (http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/4415534.htm) 
"sciencefiction can give a false sense of how science progresses." To this, Professor Lawrence Krauss added, "One of the things that always amazes me in Star Trek is having a problem and they get the engineers to gather around and they solve the problem within an hour. Whereas in the real world, as a scientist, it can take decades and baby steps to make any major progress."
What about science's own work on the Unified Field Theory and Theory of Everything? Accomplished completely, these must surely allow any problem to be solved immediately (if not sooner) by providing access to all knowledge in spacetime.
I agree that my proposals are based on many things that are still theory only. My ideas have been developing for 30 or 40 years, and I've found them to be very "internally consistent" (that's the way string theory has been described). String theory may have limits that future experiments* will reveal, but is worth pursuing at the moment. I think my ideas are worth pursuing  time will reveal their value or nonvalue.
* According to Special Relativity, experiments are overrated by modern science since the truths revealed by experimentation are necessarily restricted to one frame of reference. Regarding the question of length contraction in Special Relativity  Einstein wrote in 1911 that "It doesn't 'really' exist, in so far as it doesn't exist for a comoving observer; though it 'really' exists, i.e. in such a way that it could be demonstrated in principle by physical means by a noncomoving observer." [Einstein, Albert (1911). "Zum Ehrenfestschen Paradoxon. Eine Bemerkungzu V. Variĉaks Aufsatz". Physikalische Zeitschrift 12: 509–510]. Demonstration "in principle by physical means by a noncomoving observer" is the same meaning as "demonstration by experiments performed by scientists not moving at the speed of light".
Cosmic unification via the gravitational field is one of my deep beliefs. The example of radiating gravity waves causing draining of energy does not incorporate this gravitational unification. Taking matter as an example  mass, EM (electromagnetic) energy and nuclear forces are capable of greatly varying degrees of renewal (from the microscopic to regeneration of a liver/rib to eventual total renewal) if matter and its properties are part of the G (gravitational) field. That field always exists and only changes form, including between matter and energy  the law of conservation says things always exist and merely change form.
I have the most intense desire to understand how everything works (my main interest is cosmology). My feeling as I typed these thoughts has always been that they already exist (though, since physics' Unification appears to connect every point and time in the Cosmos, not on early 21stcentury Earth in every case). And I'm just a student, learning about them. Albert Einstein is quoted as saying  "If you can't explain it to a six year old, you don't understand it yourself." Since part of me takes Einstein literally, I avoid equations and jargon as much as possible and prefer to write clearly in plain English.
“We need a very different view of basic physics. This is the time for radical, new ideas” (theoretical physicist Neil) Turok concluded in early October, 2015. He believes that this is a great time in human history for the revolution to occur.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[296] viXra:1601.0317 [pdf] submitted on 20160129 22:22:21
Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 11 Pages.
Curvature sensing is an intensitybased technique for wavefront reconstruction using two defocused images located on the opposite sides of the focal plane. It requires either one detector placed at two consecutive axial locations or a dual path with a pair of detectors from which the sensor signal is obtained. The method yields sensitivity comparable to that of the Hartmann test in the adjustment and evaluation of groundbased optical telescopes. We introduce the analytical framework underlying the function of a curvature sensor which operates from a single defocused image. A series of twin images is computed from the propagation law of the mutual intensity along the optical axis. The polynomial decomposition of the wavefront allows retrieval of Zernike coefficients by means of the standard leastsquares algorithm. The paper concludes with a review of image sampling requirements and a discussion on the signaltonoise ratio.
Category: Classical Physics
[295] viXra:1601.0316 [pdf] submitted on 20160129 23:41:11
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 30 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has presented some ‘Insights On Universal Normalization Formula’.
Category: General Mathematics
[294] viXra:1601.0315 [pdf] submitted on 20160129 12:37:44
Authors: Salvatore Spadaro
Comments: 6 Pages.
The latest brain researches are showing the relevance of glia cells in cognitive processes like learning and memory. One of the main problems related to this type of investigations is about complexity: there are between 10 and 40 times more glia than neurons in the central nervous system of mammalians; the other main problem is about synaptic communication: glia cells (like astrocytes and microglia) use basically a chemical information system, therefore electrophysiological tecniques are not very efficient. The recent development of PALM and STORM microscopy can be a very powerful solution to these two main problems. This strategy can be included in a broader, hypothetical discipline called cognitive gliascience.
Category: Mind Science
[293] viXra:1601.0314 [pdf] submitted on 20160129 09:18:19
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.
In a surprising find, physicists from the United States, Germany and China have discovered that nuclear effects help bring about superconductivity in ytterbium dirhodium disilicide (YRS), one of the moststudied materials in a class of quantum critical compounds known as "heavy fermions." [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, XiaoJia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter
[292] viXra:1601.0313 [pdf] replaced on 20181225 14:54:08
Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 12 Pages. 3 extra conclusions have been added in version 3
The present study reveals an almost two centuries lasting and surprisingly strong relation between the total world population and the CO2concentration in the atmosphere: an increase of 1 billion people has always led to an increase of 20 ppm CO2 and, resulting from that, an increase of 0.135 °C of the longterm global temperature.
The study also reveals a surprisingly precise sinusoidal variation of the global temperature, superimposed on the longterm trend. This yet mysterious phenomenon explains why the global temperature didn’t increase anymore over the last 10 years, notwithstanding the steadily increasing CO2concentration.
The scientific results obtained here have been translated into a political message.
Category: Climate Research
[291] viXra:1601.0312 [pdf] replaced on 20160211 04:12:01
Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 16 Pages. English and portuguese versions.
A solution to the 6th millenium problem, respect to breakdown of NavierStokes solutions and the bounded energy. We have proved that there are initial velocities u^0 (x) and forces f(x,t) such that there is no physically reasonable solution to the NavierStokes equations for t>0, which corresponds to the case (C) of the problem relating to NavierStokes equations available on the website of the Clay Institute.
Category: Mathematical Physics
[290] viXra:1601.0311 [pdf] submitted on 20160128 13:23:26
Authors: Nikolaj Roerich
Comments: 5 Pages.
Using automata theory and Van Der Pol equation theory
we explain why
“when one takes money he becomes a slave”
(this formula is universal and there is no one who can escape this law):
when one takes money he inevitably makes more complexity
into his life, by this his way of thinking becomes a
cycle (he does not see the reality anymore),
and therefore he has no really new ideas never,
he falls into complete illusion that he achieves something.
This article describes the meaning of the following Buddha’s story:
Prince Gautama who had become Buddha saw one of his followers
meditating under a tree at the edge of the Ganges river.
pon inquiring why he was meditating, his follower stated
he was attempting to become so enlightened
he could cross the river unaided. Buddha gave
him a few pennies and said: "Why don't you seek
passage with that boatman. It is much easier."
As one can see the modern civilization result is actually “three pennies” because this civilization is in the cycle for several thousands years.
Category: Social Science
[289] viXra:1601.0310 [pdf] submitted on 20160128 11:01:26
Authors: Andrew Banks
Comments: 3 Pages.
An experiment is proposed in Special Relativity (SR) such that two given coordinate systems are in relative motion and a light pulse is emitted from the origins along the positive xaxis when they are common. In a specific configuration of the two coordinate systems, it will be shown that the output of the Lorentz transformations (LT) for the position of light in the primed frame does not match the position of light according to the light postulate (LP) in the primed frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[288] viXra:1601.0309 [pdf] submitted on 20160128 11:24:19
Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 20 Pages.
Uniform No. 9 Chapter gravitational and electromagnetic forces
[1] modern physics goals, Super grand unified theory hypothesis
[2] in 1980, elementary pulsation principle announced in Japan physical society
an announcement in the Japan physical society in 1980 [3] cinii National Institute of Infomatics to be stored.
[4] on the Internet Encyclopaedia Wikipedia articles
An illustrated guide [5] nuclear forces, gravity, electromagnetic force
[6] elementary pulsation principle forces, gravity, electromagnetic force of unity
[7] pulsation principle model for finite nuclei structure.
Front and back of the same photon's [8] photons and quantum gravity
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[287] viXra:1601.0308 [pdf] submitted on 20160128 11:39:17
Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 2 Pages.
Sources and further reading
Web source: Wikipedia, URL: http://ja.wikipedia.org/ date of issue: 5/1/2015
Search input field
1) Large Hadron Collider, 2) dark energy, 4) duality of particles and waves, 5) doubleslit experiment, 6) doubleslit experiment, 7) atoms and 8) probability interpretation, 9) probability interpretation 10) Goethe, 11) observation issues, 12) ether, 15) particle, 16) dark energy, 17) virtual particles, 18) extra dimensions, 19) cosmic microwave background radiation, 20) particle, 21) de Broglie waves, 22) dark energy, 23) dark energy, 24) extra dimensions, 25) dark energy, 32) Doubleslit experiment, 33) uncertainty principle, 34) fermions, 35) strong interaction, gravity, electromagnetic force, and 36) superstring theory, 37) quantum field theory, point particles, 38) unified field theory, 39) Riemann hypothesis.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[286] viXra:1601.0306 [pdf] submitted on 20160128 05:56:59
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 29 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme for evaluation of ‘The Three Critical Elements Of Any Sequence That Can Generate All The Elements Of The Sequence And Also Some Additional Elements That Conform To The Complete Recursive Set Ordered By All The Elements Of The Given Sequence Of Concern’.
Category: General Mathematics
[285] viXra:1601.0305 [pdf] submitted on 20160128 06:12:45
Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 5 Pages.
The presented experiment is a proof of the fact that a stationary flow of electromagnetic energy creates electromagnetic induction.
Category: Classical Physics
[284] viXra:1601.0304 [pdf] submitted on 20160128 09:20:23
Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana
Comments: 6 Pages. Poster presentation, PMS_003, Andhra Pradesh Academi of Sciences, 1st Science Congress, Tirupati, AP, India. (27/29Jan2016)
Till today, there is no single model available that fully incorporates the standard model of nuclear physics, quantum mechanics and general relativity. In this context, by considering the strength of Schwarzschild interaction as ‘unity’, it is possible to show that, 1) There exists an elementary charge connected with strong interaction, (es); 2) Strong coupling constant is equal to the squared ratio of electromagnetic elementary charge and strong interaction elementary charge. 3) Electromagnetic interaction and the strong interaction both associated with two different gravitational constants (Ge,Gs,). 4) Quantum mechanical constants are secondary physical constants. 5) Currently believed average binding per nucleon is equal to the gravitational self energy of proton. 6) Proton’s magnetic moment is equal to {(es.hbar)/(2mp)} and neutron’s magnetic moment is equal to {(es.hbar)/(2mp)}{ (ee.hbar)/(2mn)}. 7) Nuclear charge radius is equal to (2Gsmp/c2). 8) Root mean square radius of proton is equal to (√2.Gsmp/c2). Proceeding further, nuclear stability, nuclear binding energy and magic numbers can be understood in a very simplified manner.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
[283] viXra:1601.0303 [pdf] submitted on 20160128 09:32:48
Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana
Comments: 17 Pages. Oral presentation, PMS_002, Andhra Pradesh Academi of Sciences, 1st Science Congress, Tirupati, AP, India. (27/29Jan2016)
In an optimistic approach, some of the modern cosmologists believe that, during cosmic evolution, Planck scale quantum gravitational interactions might have an observable effect on the current observable cosmological phenomena. Clearly speaking, with respect to ‘Quantum gravity’ and Planck scale early universal laboratory, current universe can be considered as a low energy scale laboratory. If so, cosmological quantum gravity can be considered as scale independent. If one is willing to consider the current observable universe as a low energy scale laboratory, currently believed cosmic microwave back ground temperature can be considered as the low energy quantum gravitational effect. At any time in the past, i.e as the operating energy scale was assumed to be increasing; past high cosmic back ground temperature can be considered as the high energy quantum gravitational effect. Thinking in this way, starting from the Planck scale, quantum cosmology can be considered as ‘scale independent model’ and the universe can be considered as the best quantum gravitational object. With reference to the current concepts of modern cosmology, probability of ‘this’ to happen may be zero, but its possibility cannot be ruled out. By considering the current observable universe as an evolving primordial black hole, many fundamental issues of cosmology can be resolved. Proceeding further, observed deep space redshift nonlinearity can be expected to be connected with cosmological gravitational and relativistic effects and cannot be considered as a major criterion of cosmic evolution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[282] viXra:1601.0302 [pdf] submitted on 20160128 10:24:48
Authors: Namanyay Goel, Aditya Garg
Comments: 13 Pages.
This document describes the game of Bulls and Cows and the research
previously done on it. We then proceed to discuss our simplified algorithm
which can be used practically by humans during course of play. An
extended version of the algorithm, which leverages computational power
to guess the code quickly and more efficiently, has also been explored.
Lastly, extensive human trials have been conducted to study the effectiveness
of the algorithm, and it has been shown that the algorithm results
in a marked decrease in the average number of guesses in which a code is
guessed by the codebreaker.
Category: General Mathematics
[281] viXra:1601.0301 [pdf] submitted on 20160128 10:34:53
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.
New research from Griffith University's Centre for Quantum Dynamics is broadening perspectives on time and space. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[280] viXra:1601.0300 [pdf] replaced on 20170618 08:36:14
Authors: Jiangmin Zhang, Huatong Yang
Comments: 6 Pages. Published on EPL; 10.1209/02955075/114/60001
We report some nonsmooth dynamics of a Bloch state in a onedimensional tight
binding model with the periodic boundary condition. After a sudden change of the potential
of an arbitrary site, quantities like the survival probability of the particle in the initial Bloch
state show cusps periodically, with the period being the Heisenberg time associated with the
energy spectrum. This phenomenon is a nonperturbative counterpart of the nonsmooth dynamics
observed previously (Zhang and Haque, arXiv:1404.4280) in a periodically driven tight binding
model. Underlying the cusps is an exactly solvable model, which consists of equally spaced levels
extending from $\infty$ to $+\infty$, between which two arbitrary levels are coupled to each other by the
same strength.
Category: Quantum Physics
[279] viXra:1601.0299 [pdf] submitted on 20160128 03:19:09
Authors: Mr Romdhane DHIFAOUI
Comments: 8 Pages.
Proof of SyracuseCollatz3n+1conjecture
Category: Number Theory
[278] viXra:1601.0298 [pdf] submitted on 20160127 10:01:49
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.
Scientists are closer to changing everything we know about one of the basic building blocks of the universe, according to an international group of physics experts involving the University of Adelaide. If the theory is correct, it would force years of experiments to be reinterpreted, and would see the textbooks on nuclear physics rewritten. [11]
Physicists peering inside the neutron are seeing glimmers of what appears to be an impossible situation. The vexing findings pertain to quarks, which are the main components of neutrons and protons. The quarks, in essence, spin like tops, as do the neutrons and protons themselves.
Now, experimenters at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Va., have found hints that a single quark can briefly hog most of the energy residing in a neutron, yet spin in the direction opposite to that of the neutron itself, says Science News. [10]
The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton’s electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[277] viXra:1601.0297 [pdf] submitted on 20160127 12:01:54
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.
Deviations in the shadow of our Galaxy’s supermassive black hole could reveal violations of general relativity. [10]
That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9]
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[276] viXra:1601.0296 [pdf] submitted on 20160127 04:19:27
Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 15 Pages.
Currently, according to the common feeling of first class mathematician who, Lehman estimates prove key to unravel ultramicroscopic structure of vacuum space trying to complete the ultimate physical theory.
Pulsation principle of particle physics is the physics of dark energy, aiming for the ultimate physical theory.
Category: Number Theory
[275] viXra:1601.0295 [pdf] submitted on 20160127 05:08:38
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.
Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11]
Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but lesswellresearched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the selfmaintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics
[274] viXra:1601.0294 [pdf] submitted on 20160126 19:55:43
Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 28 Pages.
Chapter 5 of the dark matter discovered
[1] elementary pulsation principle hypothesis and dark matter
A perfect candidate for dark matter [2]
[3] found that dark matter equivalent to a perfect candidate
Solve the mystery of the chapter 6 the double slit experiment
Experiments led to the origin [1] quantum mechanics and probability interpretation
Solve the mystery of the doubleslit experiment [2]
[3] doubleslit experiment become a gravitational wave detection?
[4] modern version ether experiments.
[5] dark matter and dark energy candidates
[6] doubleslit experiment matter waves interpretation
Chapter 7superstring theory no. 3: revolution
[1]latest superstring theory
Frontrunner [2] the ultimate theory and superstring theory
[3] Einstein kept looking for 4dimensional space
[4] particle oscillation principle is new geometric model of superstring theory.
[5] dark energy pulsating wave ultra thongs
Back to the real Chapter 8: quantum mechanics
[1] probability interpretation
Origin [2] probability interpretation of the doubleslit experiment
Doubt to the probabilistic interpretation [3]
Process characteristics of particles [4]
Geometric explanation of concepts [5] elementary pulsation principle
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[273] viXra:1601.0293 [pdf] submitted on 20160126 13:51:20
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 6 Pages.
According to Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, all bodies in a vacuum regardless of their properties are accelerated by the Earth's gravity at the same rate. This principle of equivalence applies to stones, feathers and atoms alike. Under the conditions of microgravity very long and precise measurements can be carried out to determine whether different atoms of different mass actually "fall equally fast". [5]
We can show that the Equivalence Principle is based on the Electromagnetic Force. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
[272] viXra:1601.0292 [pdf] replaced on 20160215 10:28:34
Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages.
A new solution of Maxwell equations for vacuum is presented. First it must be noted that the proof of the solution's uniqueness is based on the Law of energy conservation which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in the known solution. The presented solution does not violate the Law of energy conservation. Besides, in this solution the electrical and magnetic components of intensity are shifted in phase. A detailed proof is given for interested readers. \\ Предлагается новое решение уравнений Максвелла для вакуума. Предварительно отмечается, что доказательство единственности известного решения основано на законе сохранения энергии, который не соблюдается (для мгновенных значений) в известном решении. Предлагаемое решение не нарушает закон сохранения энергии. Кроме того, в этом решении электрическая и магнитная компоненты напряженностей в электромагнитной волне сдвинуты по фазе. Приводится подробное доказательство для заинтересованного читателя.
Category: Classical Physics
[271] viXra:1601.0291 [pdf] submitted on 20160126 14:36:29
Authors: Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov
Comments: 41 Pages. The paper derived from the talk at the Meeting of the DPF of the APS, May 2428, 2002, The College W&M, Williamsburg, VA, USA, May 26, 2002.
The amplitude of HiggsHiggs interaction is calculated in
the Standard Model in the framework of the Sirlin's renormalization
scheme in the unitary gauge. The oneloop corrections for \lambda,
the constant of 4\chi interaction are compared with
the previous results of L. Durand et al. obtained on using
the technique of the equivalence theorem, and in the different gauges.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[270] viXra:1601.0290 [pdf] submitted on 20160126 10:08:06
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 14 Pages.
As a testimony to this growth of the ‘soft power’ culture fueled by progress in information technology, the present work presented Google Search Trend Results of three countries – Russia, China and India, all three member of the BRICS and often visualized as the past, present and future superpowers respectively. The time period of 20122016 was chosen for the analysis, and search trend data from 13 other countries (USA, UK, Brazil, France, Germany, Japan, Indonesia, Australia, Pakistan, Nigeria, Mexico, Vietnam and Turkey) are chosen, owing to various factors such as internet penetration, representative of American, Latin American, European, Australian, West, South, East and Southeast Asian perceptions, and population among the world’s top 20. On comparing Russia, India and China among global search trends between 2004 and 2016, it is seen that India clearly leads the other two nations by a significant amount, possessing a steadily increasing trend over the years. Overall, it is clearly evident that India leads by example in establishing the “Soft Power” Culture on the global platform. Apart from its own population of 1.2 billion, clearly a lot of expectant eyes and hearts are set to welcome India as the next Superpower, in the dawn of an era characterized by culture, soft power, fueled by rapid advancement and progress of information technology, with reduced violence and muddled borders, and advancing human civilization to the next level. Jai Hind!
Category: Social Science
[269] viXra:1601.0289 [pdf] submitted on 20160126 11:04:20
Authors: Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou
Comments: 7 Pages.
We give some Korovkintype theorems on
convergence and estimates of rates of approximations for nets of functions, satisfying suitable axioms, whose particular cases are filter/ideal convergence, almost convergence and triangular Astatistical convergence, where A is a nonnegative summability method. Furthermore, we give some comparison result between different types of convergence and applications to integral type
and discrete operators.
Category: Functions and Analysis
[268] viXra:1601.0288 [pdf] submitted on 20160126 11:31:02
Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 19 Pages.
Chapter 3 principle of pulsating for dark energy
Dark energy in 1998, validated by the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe [1]
[2] elementary pulsation principle and dark energy pulsating principle
Information about dark energy [3]
Present a strong candidate for dark energy [4]
Dark energy exists in the [5] 4dimensional space
[6] dark energy of particle mass generation mechanism
[7] dark energy pulsating show supersymmetry
[8] dark energy and the energy of the vacuum space equivalent mechanism.
[9] dark energy and the Higgs field.
[10] particle mass generation mechanism
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[267] viXra:1601.0287 [pdf] submitted on 20160126 11:59:23
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 12 Pages.
Some representations to the constant Pi shown
Category: General Mathematics
[266] viXra:1601.0286 [pdf] submitted on 20160126 12:02:13
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 8 Pages.
In this note we show some formulas related to an integral of serret , 1844
Category: General Mathematics
[265] viXra:1601.0285 [pdf] submitted on 20160126 08:38:17
Authors: J. S. Markovitch
Comments: 4 Pages.
It is well known that nature's dimensionless constants variously take the form of mass ratios, coupling constants, and mixing angles.
What is not generally known is that by considering a subset of these constants in a particular order (following a roadmap if you will)
one can easily find accurate, but compact, approximations for each member of this subset, with each compact expression pointing the way to the next.
Specifically, if
the taumuon mass ratio,
the muonelectron mass ratio,
the neutronelectron mass ratio,
the fine structure constant, and
the three largest quark and lepton mixing angles
are considered in that order, one can readily find a way of compressing them into a closelyrelated succession of compact mathematical expressions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[264] viXra:1601.0284 [pdf] submitted on 20160126 08:29:50
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.
Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and groundbased observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics
[263] viXra:1601.0283 [pdf] replaced on 20170216 01:16:45
Authors: Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 15 Pages. Preprint, 1 table.
In this paper we use the steerable spacetime Fourier transform (SFT), and relate the classical convolution of the algebra for spacetime $Cl(3,1)$valued signals over the spacetime vector space $\R^{3,1}$, with the (equally steerable) Mustard convolution. A Mustard convolution can be expressed in the spectral domain as the point wise product of the SFTs of the factor functions. In full generality do we express the classical convolution of spacetime signals in terms of finite linear combinations of Mustard convolutions, and vice versa the Mustard convolution of spacetime signals in terms of finite linear combinations of classical convolutions.
Category: Mathematical Physics
[262] viXra:1601.0282 [pdf] submitted on 20160125 16:51:23
Authors: Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia
Comments: 32 Pages.
A new hypothesis for stellar Discretetransitional Mechanics (DTM) is presented based on the Infophysical Spacetime Model (ISM). The concept of spatiotemporal scaleconstants is explained using familiar computer jargon and later applied to the stellar scope of Reality. The DTM are used to derive the de Broglie matterwave relativistic relations by means of the stellar spatial density (frequency) spectrum (SDS) in the Fourier spatial density domain. A tentative value for the stellar spatiotemporal scaleconstant is also postulated. The energy, mass and momentum de Broglie relativistic relations are derived, by the same means, without resorting to four dimensional Minkowsky spacetime or to the isotropy of the speed of light, resulting in novel implications such as, discretetransitional motion and its kinematical properties, natural uniform circular motion in the absence of gravity, universal 3sphere motional geometry, interscopal coupling, waveparticle equivalence, apodization/containment functions, transitional variables, transactional particles, etc., thus resulting in a novel Discretetransitional Mechanics (DTM) hypothesis which encompasses Quantum Mechanical concepts, de Broglie matterwaves, Special Relativity and Classical Mechanics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[261] viXra:1601.0281 [pdf] replaced on 20160206 18:03:20
Authors: JinHua Fei
Comments: 12 Pages.
A few years ago, I wrote my paper [4]. In the paper [4], I use Nevanlinna's
Second Main Theorem of the value distribution theory, denied the Riemann
Hypothesis. In this paper, I use the analytic methods, I once again denied the Riemann
Hypothesis
Category: Number Theory
[260] viXra:1601.0279 [pdf] replaced on 20160604 12:48:16
Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 3 Pages.
In the domain of the weak force, we find two types of elementary particles: 1) the (relatively) massive electrically charged leptons (electron, muon, tau); 2) their associated "identity charges", the (relatively) massless and electrically neutral neutrinos. Neutrinos are the "bare" identity charges of their massive leptonic namesakes, one for each type of massive lepton (the electron, muon, or tau neutrino). Although the three types of neutrinos resonate from one identity to another while in flight (apparently because their only distinguishing characteristic is a slight (?) difference in mass), they will only interact with their own specific massive and charged namesakes, during transformations or the creation/destruction of single leptonic elementary particles. Neutrino "identity charges" (the characteristic charge of the weak force) provide the foundation for the information content of the Cosmos  just as the weak force asymmetry provides the matter surplus of the Cosmos. Resonance phenomena between the three neutrino types (see the magazine Nature, June 5, 2012) suggests not only that there is not much to distinguish them from each other, but also that they are indeed one of the symmetry groups of light  perhaps the most fundamental of the lot.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[259] viXra:1601.0278 [pdf] submitted on 20160125 22:31:40
Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 8 Pages.
In this work gravicommunication (GC) is introduced, as a new form of communication (different from the gravitational waves), which involves gravitons (elementary particles of gravitation). This research is based on quantum modification of the general relativity. The modification includes effects of production /absorption of gravitons, which turn out to have small, but finite mass and electric dipole moment. It is shown, that such gravitons form the dipole BoseEinstein condensate, even for high temperature. The theory (without fitting parameters) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations. In this theory we got an interface between gravitons and ordinary matter, which very likely exist not only in cosmos, but everywhere, including our body and, especially, our brain. Subjective experiences are considered as a manifestation of that interface. A model of such interface is presented and some new experimentally verifiable aspects of natural neural systems are considered. According to the model, GC can be superluminal, which will solve the problem of quantum entanglement. Probable applications of these ideas include health (brain stimulation), new forms of communication, computational capabilities, energy resources and weapons. Potential social consequences of these developments can be comparable with the effects of discovery and applications of electricity. Some developed civilizations in the universe may already master gravicommunication (with various applications) and so should we.
Category: Quantum Physics
[258] viXra:1601.0277 [pdf] submitted on 20160126 03:05:52
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.
In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11]
Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but lesswellresearched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the selfmaintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics
[257] viXra:1601.0276 [pdf] submitted on 20160126 03:09:11
Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 25 Pages.
In this paper, we will present a new perspective of certain dimensions that manifest physically
and therefore can be studied. Theoretical ground work will be set within General Relativity since
it provides the highest accuracy in cosmology, but we will also “bridge” to quantum mechanics
near the end of the paper.
Using the notion of “physical dimensions” we will explain some aspects that have puzzled
physicists so far, including what is known as “the arrow of time”. It will be proven theoretically
that there is no such thing and that time has no direction since temporal motion requires only
expansion and a velocity of that expansion, time expands in all directions and influences the
expansion of space, hence inflating space and forming the spacetime continuum from the earliest
age of the Universe, the Big Bang, to present time.
We will first take a relatively short part of the paper to introduce the reader in the necessary
subjects.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[256] viXra:1601.0275 [pdf] submitted on 20160125 15:16:39
Authors: René LaryeaGoldsmith, Alper Sarioğlan, Parvana Aksoy, Işıl Işık Gülsaç, Berrin Engin, Yeliz Durak Çetin, Hakan Karataş
Comments: 12 Pages.
Torrefaction is mild thermochemical process similar to pyrolysis, that can be applied to biomass to improve energy density and hydrophobicity. Comparison was made between original and torreﬁed forms of hazelnut shell agricultural waste biomass, when these materials were subjected to gasiﬁcation using a “benchscale” ﬂuidised bed gasiﬁer. Results indicated that a simpliﬁed torrefaction process was successful in physical transformation of the hazelnut shell and that the resultant syngas was of a relatively higher caloriﬁc value, together with lower tar content. Keywords: biomass, TGA, thermogravimetry, thermogravimetic analysis, gasiﬁcation, ﬂuidisation
Category: Chemistry
[255] viXra:1601.0274 [pdf] submitted on 20160125 10:12:06
Authors: M. Hassan, Ayman A. Aly, M.M. Maghraby, H. Motaweh
Comments: 16 Pages.
In this work we study the interacting dark energy (DE) models with GarndaOliveros cutoff (LGO) within the work of KaluzaKlein (KK) universe. We established mathematical formulas for the equation of state parameter wA the decelaration parameter q and the geometrical statefinder parameters r and s. The results show that the universe is in an expansion mode for the model under study.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[254] viXra:1601.0273 [pdf] replaced on 20160126 06:30:54
Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. Published in: Graphene, 5, 3538, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/graphene.2016.52004
Carbon forms a variety of compounds with single, double, triple and the intermediate resonance bonds with atoms of its own or other kinds. This paper is concerned with graphite, a very useful material, which is a stack of electrically conducting graphene layers held together by weak van der Waals (vdW) bonds. It crystallizes in hexagonal and rhombohedral forms, in which the hexagon interplanar bond distance is 0.34 nm. Here a new and simple approach accounts for this bond length and shows the coulombic nature of the vdW bond.
Category: Chemistry
[253] viXra:1601.0272 [pdf] submitted on 20160125 12:25:35
Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 20 Pages.
The physics of dark energy. Chapter 2.
Hypothesis of Pulsation principle
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[252] viXra:1601.0271 [pdf] submitted on 20160125 08:46:06
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.
From gene mapping to space exploration, humanity continues to generate everlarger sets of data—far more information than people can actually process, manage, or understand. [8]
The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky actionatdistance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes largescale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes smallscale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the selfmaintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics
[251] viXra:1601.0270 [pdf] submitted on 20160125 06:06:21
Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, ClaesGoran Granqvist, Sunil P. Khatri, Ferdinand Peper
Comments: 5 Pages. Accepted for publication in the Journal of Computational Electronics
We prove that statistical information theoretic quantities, such as information entropy, cannot generally be interrelated with the lower limit of energy dissipation during information erasure. We also point out that, in deterministic and errorfree computers, the information entropy of memories does not change during erasure because its value is always zero. On the other hand, for informationtheoretic erasure—i.e., “thermalization” / randomization of the memory—the originally zero information entropy (with deterministic data in the memory) changes after erasure to its maximum value, 1 bit / memory bit, while the energy dissipation is still positive, even at parameters for which the thermodynamic entropy within the memory cell does not change. Information entropy does not convert to thermodynamic entropy and to the related energy dissipation; they are quantities of different physical nature. Possible specific observations (if any) indicating convertibility are at most fortuitous and due to the disregard of additional processes that are present.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy
[250] viXra:1601.0268 [pdf] submitted on 20160124 22:03:40
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 25 Pages.
In this research monograph, an algorithm to compute Determinants in a Complete and Holistic manner is presented.
Category: General Mathematics
[249] viXra:1601.0267 [pdf] submitted on 20160125 03:03:13
Authors: Amelia Carolina Sparavigna
Comments: 8 Pages. MECHANICS, MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING JOURNAL, 2016, Volume 3
The Divine Comedy is a poem of Dante Alighieri representing, allegorically, the journey of a soul towards God, in the framework of Dante's metaphysics of the divine light. However, besides metaphysics, we can find in the poem several passages concerning the natural phenomena. Here we discuss some them, in order to investigate Dante’s knowledge of Physics and, in particular, of Optics.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[248] viXra:1601.0266 [pdf] replaced on 20160220 11:22:31
Authors: Kim YoungCheol
Comments: 7 Pages. I found my mistake, so I corrected it.
Because I felt a paradox about the age of the universe of modern cosmology, I have calculated the universe's age to compare with it based on special relativity.
As result, I found another cosmology model that is consistent with current cosmology in a flat and constantly expanding Universe.
Theoretically, my calculation is an examination for any kind cosmology for the case of flat and constant expansion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[247] viXra:1601.0265 [pdf] submitted on 20160124 10:19:32
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.
Scientists from the international ALPHA Collaboration just published a paper that has been heralded as a “breakthrough in antimatter research.” [12]
Both the planet we live on and the star we orbit are made up of 'normal' matter, and though it features in many science fiction stories, antimatter seems to be incredibly rare in nature. With this new result, we have one of the first hints that we might be able to solve this mystery. [11]
Physicists in the College of Arts and Sciences have made important discoveries regarding Bs meson particles  something that may explain why the universe contains more matter than antimatter.
Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[246] viXra:1601.0264 [pdf] submitted on 20160124 10:49:06
Authors: Pavlova Sobakevich
Comments: 2 Pages.
We show that Albert Camus was right when depicting modern people work as a Sisypus work.
Data structures and algorithms can be used in different directions. One direciton is to create imitation of a "work" by this raising the suffer and noise of everyone. Another direction is to not imitate any work because no one can walk against the river too long but rather go straight to the point  lessening suffer and then raising the pleasure.
In ther words, the first thing should be always first: pamper yourself and then help others.
It was needed to pass several thousands years till it is now proved mathematically so that there is no one now who can create so much chaotical noise in the people's mind and vision of the reality that noone sees anything anymore.
This article is a cleaning instrument that helps to overcome this confuse happened due to a mischief.
Dr. Watson (recall computer project called Watson) can learn from Sherlock and do not seat in prostration anymore.
If any questions Dr. Watson the address of Sherlock: B 221.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms
[245] viXra:1601.0261 [pdf] submitted on 20160124 12:00:37
Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 6 Pages.
The physics of dark energy
Table of contents
Introduction
Theoretical physics, Chapter 1: current conditionsand issues
[1] modern physics in the challenge
[2] elementary pulsation principle and dark energy pulsating principle
[3] Einstein kept looking for 4dimensional space
The geometry of the universe [4]
[5] all equations, quantum gravity theory
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[244] viXra:1601.0260 [pdf] submitted on 20160124 07:51:06
Authors: Peter H. Michalicka
Comments: 4 Pages.
The well known Planck Constants Length, Time and
Mass will be extended by the Planck Acceleration. This paper shows howto solve Einstein's Field Equations evaluated in Robertson Walker metric, within the Planck Era context
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[243] viXra:1601.0259 [pdf] submitted on 20160124 05:51:07
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 27 Pages.
In this research monograph, an algorithm to compute Determinants in a Complete and Holistic manner is presented.
Category: General Mathematics
[242] viXra:1601.0258 [pdf] submitted on 20160123 22:06:29
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 29 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has elucidated the ‘Universal Cross Product’ of two Sets not necessarily equal in Size.
Category: General Mathematics
[241] viXra:1601.0257 [pdf] submitted on 20160124 03:05:09
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.
A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9]
In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8]
'In the new run, because of the highestever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7]
The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6]
They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these massgiving particles have more in common than was thought. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity spacetime curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[240] viXra:1601.0256 [pdf] submitted on 20160123 13:59:51
Authors: Einstein, Marx, Gumbel, Pradip Baksi, Tiago de Oliveira
Comments: 1 Page.
Presentation of history and philosopky of sciences includes online access yo main Authors.Princeton constructed a link to 80 thousand Albert Einstein titles.Emil Julius Gumbel, Moscow Academy of Sciences and Pradip Baksi, as well as Paulus Gerdes, analyzed the mathematical works of Karl Marx.Emil Julius Gumbel and J.Tiago de Oliveira created the Statistical Analysis of Extremas.
All these subjects have relevant titles accessible, as well as a collection, including Asia, provided by Pradip Baksi.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[239] viXra:1601.0255 [pdf] submitted on 20160123 15:50:19
Authors: Ahmed E. Gado, AbdelRahman M. Mousa, Mohamed A. Hussein
Comments: 6 Pages.
The beat was stifled in a state of trauma; the flow was snarled in a narrow tube; and the heart was completely dysfunctional. Until that moment, 1.6 million people in Egypt were suffering from heart diseases. Trying to raise our level of consciousness and visualize that problem from various perspectives, we came up with the solution. Firstly, leave the room to explain the problem itself. Clearly, we tried to perceive communication by considering the molecular interactions in the vital biological activities. Indeed, heart disorders have become an exacerbating grand challenge for Egypt. According to the Fig.1, heart disorders represents 51.75% of the notable disorders in Egypt .One of the predominant heart diseases is heart attack. The danger of the disorder underlies in the ensuing strokes and the total dysfunction of lungs. As enacted by the GMC, the death toll emanated from heart attack has reached 25% and the odds are increasingly hiking. Furthermore, 40% of the total deaths by the disease took place due to the considerable delay time till an effective treatment. All these facts triggered our minds to establish their own solution that will destroy such tragedies. Goring through the project, you will find how we could implement our test plan to prove our scientific hypothesis, and test the design requirements associated with it in order to obtain a reasonable bunch of findings. By setting the tests, we proved the rightness of the hypothesis, measured the accuracy and the different factors affecting it. As a result, we managed to exploit ECG readings to detect heart attack before erupting by error percent of 7.1%, provide a reasonable heart status for the patient, and even maintain their heart function in 67 seconds using intravenous oxygen. In addition, we have utilized the drugs verapamil and nifedipine to vasodilate the coronary artery as a treatment. Simply, we have emancipated the previous chocked flow to fix its stifled state!
Category: Biochemistry
[238] viXra:1601.0254 [pdf] submitted on 20160123 10:03:49
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.
For the first time, physicists have proposed a method for teleporting the memory of a living creature to another location, while also offering up a way to create a Schrödinger's catlike state, where this creature theoretically exists in two places at the same time. At this stage, they’ve only figured out how to do this to bacteria, but they say mastering it could be the key to teleporting more complex things. [10]
Most biology students will be able to tell you that neural signals are sent via mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, and diffusion processes, but a new study suggests there's another way that our brains transmit information from one place to another. [9]
Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From twophoton microscopy to magnetoencephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8]
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the selfmaintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology
[237] viXra:1601.0253 [pdf] submitted on 20160123 11:21:38
Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 3 Pages.
Pulsating hypothesis found a 4dimensional space?
That dark energy exists in 4dimensional space.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[236] viXra:1601.0252 [pdf] replaced on 20160412 09:23:07
Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 148 Pages.
Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and antibaryons which, in turn, is
based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of: doubleflavoured
pentaquarks and doubleflavoured mesobaryonic particles, tripleflavoured pentaquarks
and tripleflavoured mesobaryonic particles, quadrupleflavoured pentaquarks and
quadrupleflavoured mesobaryonic particles, quintupleflavoured pentaquarks and
quintupleflavoured mesobaryonic particles, two distict groups of pentaquarks and mesobaryonic particles with zero total strangeness. The theory, of course, also predicts the antipentaquarks and antimesobaryonic particles corresponding to all predicted particles. More importantly, this theory predicts the existence of the (u u d c ̄c) pentaquark and the existence of the (u u d c ̄c) mesobaryonic molecules. This prediction was confirmed on July 14th, 2015 by CERN researchers with the discovery of two charmoniumpentaquark states with a composition: (u u d c ̄c) with a significance of more than 9 standard deviations. However, there are doubts on whether the discovered particles are pentaquarks  a strongly bound state of five quarks  or mesobaryonic molecules – a weakly bound state of a baryon, (u u d) , and a meson, (c̄c) . Finally, two remarkable aspects of this theory are: firstly, it predicts the existence of all the pentaquarks and mesobaryonic particles that exist in nature, and, secondly, it predicts the existence of hexaquarks and dibaryon molecules. However, since this theory is about pentaquarks, only two points containing hexaquarks are analysed as an example of the intrinsic predicting power of the formulation.
Category: Quantum Physics
[235] viXra:1601.0251 [pdf] submitted on 20160123 07:20:02
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 6 Pages.
In this note we show some formulas related to an integral of beukers
Category: General Mathematics
[234] viXra:1601.0250 [pdf] submitted on 20160123 09:17:20
Authors: Arkady L. Shifrin
Comments: 17 Pages. Reply to: arkady.shifrin@gmail.com
In this article I show that by applying inversions to a set of bitstrings generated in a naturally arising way, I obtain subsets of bitstrings which exactly mimic classes of confirmed particles in the Standard Model. I show that questions regarding the number of particle families, number of particles in each class, and such become trivial in this model.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[233] viXra:1601.0249 [pdf] submitted on 20160123 09:56:17
Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 1 Page.
The physics of dark energy (2)
The discovery of the new 4d space.
Four dimensional space is not Carter Klein space advocate.
Pulsating hypothesis)
The density of dark energy in the vacuum space filled with horizontal lines.
The horizontal setting and zero.
Energy wave picture showed changes in the energy density,
3D space we are aware horizontal line.
Set the upper and lower parts of the horizon is 4dimensional space.
In repeatedly Planck time period pulsating particle oscillation hypothesis is a hypothesis.
Assuming the wave of changes in the density of dark energy and matter waves that propagate at the speed of light.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[232] viXra:1601.0248 [pdf] submitted on 20160123 04:06:55
Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 19 Pages. In French.
In this paper,we present the definitions and the mathematical formulas of the two cartographic mappings UTM and GaussKrüger.
Category: Geophysics
[231] viXra:1601.0247 [pdf] submitted on 20160122 21:57:43
Authors: Quang Nguyen Van
Comments: 14 pages. We have other one written in tex.file
We choose one of four colors as a temporary color for all regions that have not been colored,and made the initial conditions corresponding to The Four Color Theorem. If these conditions hold for any n regions figure, then they will hold for n + 1 regions figure  formed n regions figure by adding next region. By induction, step by step we have proved The Four Color theorem successfully on paper (in 2015).
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory
[230] viXra:1601.0246 [pdf] submitted on 20160122 22:18:38
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 26 Pages.
In this research monograph, an algorithm to compute large sized determinants in a novel fashion is presented.
Category: General Mathematics
[229] viXra:1601.0244 [pdf] submitted on 20160122 14:27:11
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.
A noncontradictory statement concerning the measurement of the spectral characteristics of the most ancient stars is provided.
Category: Astrophysics
[228] viXra:1601.0243 [pdf] submitted on 20160122 11:06:28
Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 1 Page.
In 1980.
In the Japan physical society of Fukushima University announced.
Hypothesis as a mass of energy repeatedly divergence and contraction (pulsating) ultra high speed subatomic particles.
Vacuum space is filled with a tenuous energy, which form a field.
Ripples of pulsating in matter waves. Matter waves that propagate at the speed of light.
Subatomic particle with the pulsating, particlewavenegative particlewaveconstantly in transformation of particles.
In 1998, space observation discovered dark energy.
Its identity is a mystery.
In 1980, predicted the existence of dark energy (energy air).
Named elementary pulsation principle (principle of dark energy pulsating) hypothesis.
In theoretical physics, the mystery of that try by the physics of dark energy.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[227] viXra:1601.0242 [pdf] replaced on 20160814 14:14:45
Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 22 Pages. V3  It is calculated halo mass by integration of Bernoulli profile and compared with halo mass NFW.
The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated it that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. Also were proposed several experimental test to check that theory.
In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for M31. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with NFW ones below 10%?
The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to NFW DM profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature.
To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. [ 9] Abarca,M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile as Power of Gravitational Field for Coma Cluster.
Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about rotational velocity depending on radius inside M31 galaxy. These data come from [5]Sofue,Y.2015.
In fourth epigraph, considering rotation curve of M31 from Sofue data, has been tabulate gravitational field inside a wide region of halo, from 40 kpc to 300 Kpc.
In fifth epigraphs has been tabulated data of NFW DM density profile published by [5] Sofue, Y.2015. for M31.
In sixth epigraph has been fitted data of NFW DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E. Particularly formula found is DM density= A*E^B. Where A = 0,0012004275 B= 1.878838501 and correlation coefficient r = 0,9996041653 into I.S. of units.
In seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and NFW profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are mainly below 6%.
In eight epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field, E, in halo region where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile called hereafter Bernoulli density profile.
In nineth epigraph Bernoulli and NFW DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 10% for radius bigger than 100 kpc, and below 12% from 40 kpc to 100 kpc. This is a super result, speciallly if it is considered that Do parameter of NFW profile has 10,7 % as relative error.
In addition Bernoulli density is rewritten with a similar formula to NFW profile thanks a variable change.
In tenth chapter has been calculated total masses under radius 200 kpc, 385 kpc and 475 kpc through NFW profile and Bernoulli profile. Last one profile is very hard to integrate but thanks Wolfram alpha software on line it has been possible.
Category: Astrophysics
[226] viXra:1601.0241 [pdf] submitted on 20160122 07:42:16
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.
Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'  unlike anything we have seen. [4]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
[225] viXra:1601.0239 [pdf] submitted on 20160121 23:58:41
Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 194 Pages.
Jurnalul instantaneu La capătul Pământului: Expediție în Antarctica, bogat ilustrat fotografic, dar și video, relatează o aventură spre Polul Sud (cu vaporul “Plancius”), la care temerarul Florentin Smarandache, după ce a vizitat toate meridianele și paralele, era inevitabil să nu se încumete, iar apoi să nu neo redea, în aceeași notă concisă, fragmentară, refractară la prea mult subiectivism, cu care nea obișnuit din precedentele însemnări instante de călătorie.
Category: Education and Didactics
[224] viXra:1601.0238 [pdf] replaced on 20160304 04:01:46
Authors: Tobias Wowereit
Comments: 56 Pages.
The Einstein equations are completed. The electromagnetic nature of energetic phenomena is derived. Alternative units are introduced.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[223] viXra:1601.0237 [pdf] submitted on 20160122 01:50:56
Authors: N.S. Baaklini
Comments: 6 pages, 37 equations, 6 references
In the framework of divergencefree quantum field theory, we demonstrate how to compute the thermal free energy of bosonic and fermionic fields. While our computations pertain to one loop, they do indicate the method to be applied in higherloops. In the course of our derivations, use is made of Poisson's summation formula, and the resulting expressions involve the zeta function. We note that the logarithmic terms involve temperature as an energy scale term.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[222] viXra:1601.0236 [pdf] submitted on 20160122 04:01:41
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.
When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the selfmaintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology
[221] viXra:1601.0235 [pdf] submitted on 20160120 22:32:04
Authors: Andrea Lenz, Korolev Daniil Leonidovich.
Comments: 5 Pages.
Today, there are a lot of projects equipment and products in the field of nanotechnology, but modern technology cannot adequately implement them because of the impossibility of creating high 3D nanostructures, despite all the advances in 2D technology. Modern technology spend hundreds minutes for creating a structure of thin layer. Consequence: the creation of high 3D nanostructures with good resolution will go for decades. However, it is these structures are necessary for many products. Conventional 3D printing also cannot solve these problems. Minimum resolution of modern 3D printers 30 micrometers. We developed a 3D printer based on the assembly from ion beams with a resolution better than 30 nanometers, and without limitation in the used materials. Progress by 1000 times. This printer removes the drawbacks of modern technology. This fact and selfassembly of this printer open the way to new types of technology.
Category: Classical Physics
[220] viXra:1601.0234 [pdf] replaced on 20180704 11:35:05
Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 15 Pages. proton mass related to gravity
Originally. I had worked on an equation for charge and gravity. I had found that charge was mostly related to the electron mass, I since found out that gravity is most related to the proton mass. The realization came when I was working on “The Answer to the Universe, the Life and Everything is Still 42” I had an extra term for the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. To get rid of that term, I came to the realization that Gravity was related to the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. This paper is then an up dated version of “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”, which are the previous versions of this update.
This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated granular spacetime. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza).
The calculations, herein, imply spacetime to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Spacetime that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, substructure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
[219] viXra:1601.0233 [pdf] submitted on 20160120 23:48:28
Authors: Nima Fathi, Seyed Sobhan Aleyasin, Peter Vorobieff
Comments: 14 Pages. Preprint
This study considers an appropriate expression to estimate the output
power of solar chimney power plant systems (SCPPS). Recently several mathematical
models of a solar chimney power plant were derived, studied for a variety of boundary conditions, and compared against CFD calculations. An important concern for modeling SCPPS is about the accuracy of the derived
pressure drop and output power equation. To elucidate the matter, axisymmetric
CFD analysis was performed to model the solar chimney power plant and calculate the output power for diffrent available solar irradiation. Both analytical and numerical results were compared against the available experimental
data from the Manzanares power plant. We also evaluated the fidelity of the assumptions underlying the derivation and present reasons to believe that some of the derived equations, specially the power equation in this
model, may require a correction to be applicable in more realistic conditions.
This paper provides an approach to estimate the output power with respect to radiation available to the collector.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy
[218] viXra:1601.0232 [pdf] replaced on 20170406 03:44:21
Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.
Abstract: showing the neutrino has no its own antiparticle and the basis
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[217] viXra:1601.0231 [pdf] submitted on 20160121 04:49:08
Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 18 Pages.
Modelling of elementary particles is a very important question in contemporary physics, in fact in the absence of a real physical representation, due to smallest sizes of particles, the identification of suitable models becomes necessary. It is known that postmodern physics is characterized still by the indeterministic dualism wavecorpuscle that prevents to give an unequivocal identity to elementary particles as per the obsolete paradigm: is the particle wave or corpuscle? or: is the particle at the same time wave and corpuscle? Research of suitable and coherent models is therefore fundamental in contemporary physics and it can give an important contribution also to the solution of the present problem relative to the physical phenomenon of oscillation that regards neutrino but also all other elementary particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[216] viXra:1601.0230 [pdf] submitted on 20160121 06:53:26
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.
A collection of integral formulas involving constants classic shows
Category: General Mathematics
[215] viXra:1601.0229 [pdf] submitted on 20160121 06:56:54
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.
this note contains five representations for Pi constant
Category: General Mathematics
[214] viXra:1601.0228 [pdf] submitted on 20160121 11:38:50
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.
Scientists at Aalto University (Finland) and Amherst College (USA) have created knotted solitary waves, or knot solitons, in the quantummechanical field describing a gas of superfluid atoms, also known as a Bose–Einstein condensate. [13]
Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12]
A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11]
Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the selfmaintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics
[213] viXra:1601.0226 [pdf] submitted on 20160121 12:33:26
Authors: Henrique Lara
Comments: 1 Page.
“The gravitational field is space". This idea summarises Einstein's General Theory of Relativity and enables force to be thought of as a curvature, thereby reducing Mechanics to Geometry. The Principle of Equivalence postulated in the present paper enables scales and rulers to be calibrated, just like clocks, whose calibration was achieved thanks to the Theory of Special Relativity through the constancy of the speed of light for all inertial systems. Using the same method, in this paper we deliberate on the meaning of temperature, and put forward a new theory that covers not only rulers, clocks and scales, but also thermometers. To this end, we propose to use the concept of curvature (of spacetime) to provide a solution to the problem we seek to solve
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[212] viXra:1601.0225 [pdf] submitted on 20160121 12:35:49
Authors: Henrique Lara
Comments: 1 Page.
The Einstein equation may be understood as a state equation. For this to be possible, entropy must be regarded as being proportional to the area of the causal horizon. However, for this equivalence to make sense, we must seek to define what is meant by temperature and flow of energy in the new context.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[211] viXra:1601.0224 [pdf] submitted on 20160121 12:46:56
Authors: Murat CALISOGLU, Tolga TORTUM, Fatih ERISMIS, Derya KOCYIGIT
Comments: 11 Pages.
In this study, it was aimed to determine the teachers’s views related to the science class curriculum which was separated from social studies class in 20142015 academic years with the change of the education system of Turkey. The study has been conducted with the teachers who gave 3rd grade social studies class before and with the 3rd grade teachers who currently gives the social studies class. To analyse the data, descriptive analysis was used in this correlational survey. 5 openended questions developed by the researchers were asked to the teachers and the answers were recorded with a recorder and the interviews were put in writing. As a result of the study, it was determined that the views of the teachers related to the renewed science class curriculum are generally positive. However, it was also determined that the teachers talk about shortcomings such as decreasing the weekly course hours and the number of acquisitions, adding a workbook and lack of material.
Keywords: Science, views of the teachers, social studies
Category: Social Science
[210] viXra:1601.0223 [pdf] submitted on 20160121 12:48:24
Authors: Meric ERASLAN, Murat OZMADEN, Mehmet BAYANSALDUZ, Mehmet GOKTEPE, Ibrahim Ilhami KOC
Comments: 8 Pages.
The aim of this research is to examine the assertiveness levels of the hearing impaired sports persons according to the gender, the year of making sports and the sports branch. Among the people who make sports regularly and have hearing impairment, totally 173 hearing impaired sports persons participated in the research who were invited to the national team camp. In the determination of the sports persons’ assertiveness levels, the Rathus Assertiveness Inventory was used. In the statistical analysis of the data which were obtained, the Frequency, Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis H analyses were used. At the end of the research, it was fixed that the assertiveness levels of the sports persons with hear impairment were low. It was determined that the assertiveness levels of the sports persons revealed no significant difference statistically according to their genders. Besides this, it was concluded that the assertiveness levels of these sports persons revealed no significance difference statistically according to their years of making sports and the sports branch they were interested in. (p>0.05). As a result, it was concluded that the demographic variables which were discussed in the research, are not important determinants on the assertiveness levels of the hearing impaired individuals.
Keywords: Hearing impaired individuals, sports, assertiveness
Category: Social Science
[209] viXra:1601.0222 [pdf] submitted on 20160121 12:49:47
Authors: Huseyin Talha GULSOY, Rasim ONDER
Comments: 13 Pages.
Education is an important and indispensable part of community life. There is a linear relationship between the development levels of society and the level of education they receive.Therefore, the quality of education services offered to people in the provision of social development is very important. Technological elements which entered into every part of human life in recent years has been used in the training of education department as well . In particular, it is seen that the increasingly widespread use of computerassisted instructional materials in training education. In some of the researches of literature ıt has been found out that the use of the computer support field research courses increase the academic achievement of students in an educational environment, improve their motivation and attitudes towards the course which is determined to increase the retention of learned information. Also computeraided instructional materials used commonly in science teaching. As in other courses in science courses ıt is also noted that there is the positive impact of computer use on student achievement. Findings located in the literature research also support this view. In this research ıt is aimed to evaluate the effects on student achievements of science courses in computeraided instructional materials.
Keywords: Computerassisted education, science education, student achievement
Category: Social Science
[208] viXra:1601.0221 [pdf] submitted on 20160121 12:51:00
Authors: Mehmet TOKGOZ, Mehmet SEYRAN, Sahika YILDIRIM, Burhan DEMIROGLU
Comments: 16 Pages.
In this study, secondary school students according to gender variable was to investigate recreational preferences. In this study 105 women and 48 men enrolled at Tarsus Ayhan Bozpınar Anatolian high school Research a total of 153 secondary school students who participated. Students have the choice of free time activity in the determination of Tel (2007) were used in the survey was developed by leisure. Statical analysis of the results was accomplished using frequency and chisquare analysis with SPSS 15.0 program. At the end of the study, the students most frequently in their preferred leisuretime activities listening to music or playing a musical instrument, spending time with family, chatting with friends, leisurely activities and hobbies to spend time on the internet deal with and it was determined that came. Students at a low level to their preferred leisuretime activities for the rest of the cinema or Theatre, go to the bazaar and Sunday sightseeing, shopping, going to visit neighbors or relatives, it was determined that activities such as it came. Female students who participated in the research also viewing TV and video, books, newspapers and magazines (p<0.05), male students more often preferred leisure activities such as reading, sport and sport competitions, monitoring, participation in social and cultural activities, go to the cafeteria or the coffee shop, a bar, a casino and activities such as going on a hunt or go to the pub when compared with female students, male students more often it has been found that it is preferred (p<0.05).
Keywords: Secondary education, recreation, gender
Category: Social Science
[207] viXra:1601.0220 [pdf] submitted on 20160121 12:52:09
Authors: Tonguc VARDAR
Comments: 9 Pages.
It is known that aggressive behavior among youth has increased in recent years. There are many factors that contribute to the increasein aggressive behavior among youth. Primary factors among these are environmental factors, social structure, domestic factors, harmful habits, substance abuse, social circle, negative effects of technologic developments and some psychological problems. Due to the increase in aggressive behavior among youth, it has become necessary to take some measures in order to minimalize aggressive behavior. One of the effective factors in decreasing aggressive behavior in youth is sports. Conducted research shows that participation in sports activities supports decreasing aggressive behavior in youth. This research focuses on the advantages of sports in preventing aggressive behavior in youth. Findings of research conducted in the light of relevant literature are evaluated within the scope of this research.
Keywords: Youth, aggressive behavior, sports
Category: Social Science
[206] viXra:1601.0219 [pdf] submitted on 20160120 15:05:30
Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.
In this paper I present the following conjecture: for any 3Poulet number (Fermat pseudoprime to base two with three prime factors) P = x*y*z is true that there exist an infinity of triplets of primes [a, b, c] such that x*a + a – x = y*b + b – y = z*c + c – z.
Category: Number Theory
[205] viXra:1601.0218 [pdf] submitted on 20160120 12:46:32
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.
Analyzing the motion of Xray sources could help researchers identify dark matter signals. [15]
Gammaray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics
[204] viXra:1601.0217 [pdf] submitted on 20160120 07:38:03
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.
Some formulas are shown for the constant Pi
Category: General Mathematics
[203] viXra:1601.0216 [pdf] submitted on 20160120 07:41:25
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.
In this paper we show some formulas for constant e
Category: General Mathematics
[202] viXra:1601.0215 [pdf] submitted on 20160120 07:57:26
Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 5 Pages. in Russian
We consider the experiment, which is proof that the stationary flow of electromagnetic energy creates an electromagnetic induction. \ Рассматривается эксперимент, являющийся доказательством того, что стационарный поток электромагнитной энергии создает электромагнитную индукцию.
Category: Classical Physics
[201] viXra:1601.0214 [pdf] replaced on 20160122 17:56:52
Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 2 Pages. Pls keep both versions. Thank you.
We prove using Bezout’s identity that a1p1m + a2p2m+……+ anpnm =0 has integral solutions for a1, a2,……,an, where p1,p2,…,pn is a sequence of distinct prime and m is any positive integer.
Category: Number Theory
[200] viXra:1601.0213 [pdf] submitted on 20160119 22:41:32
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 25 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has presented a System of ‘Classification Of Prime Numbers’.
Category: General Mathematics
[199] viXra:1601.0212 [pdf] submitted on 20160119 22:50:40
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 26 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme for ‘Generation Of Elements Forming A Complete Recursive Set On The Higher And Lower Side {Up To A Specified Limit} Of A Three Distinct Element Set’.
Category: General Mathematics
[198] viXra:1601.0211 [pdf] submitted on 20160120 00:36:54
Authors: Rongchao Ma
Comments: 4 Pages.
Baryogenesis, or the origin of matterantimatter asymmetry of the universe, is one of the major unsolved problems in physical cosmology. Here we present a new interpretation to the baryogenesis based on the theory of packaged entanglement states in which the particles are indeterminate and hermaphroditic. A measurement or an external perturbation to these packaged entanglement states will cause the wave function to collapse and therefore break the system's Csymmetry. This process satisfies the Sakharov conditions. By further proposing an entanglement selection principle, we can give a selfconsistent interpretation to the origin of matterantimatter asymmetry produced in early universe. Thus, the collapse of packaged entanglement states with Csymmetry breaking could be or at lease contribute to the origin of matterantimatter asymmetry.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[197] viXra:1601.0210 [pdf] submitted on 20160119 07:06:55
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.
THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during highenergy collisions. It’s how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9]
In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8]
'In the new run, because of the highestever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7]
The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6]
They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these massgiving particles have more in common than was thought. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity spacetime curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[196] viXra:1601.0209 [pdf] replaced on 20161224 07:32:11
Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 36 Pages.
Ensuing from first principles, the theory of spacetime and its metaphysical axioms are introduced as prerequisites to physical theology and the socalled relative scale spacetime.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[195] viXra:1601.0208 [pdf] submitted on 20160119 06:40:44
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages. the abstract in english and the main text in spanish
In this note we show a collection of series for constant Pi,the series are special cases of a general formula
Category: General Mathematics
[194] viXra:1601.0207 [pdf] replaced on 20160129 12:44:49
Authors: Kunle Adegoke
Comments: 6 Pages. added examples, corrected typos
In interpreting the sigma notation for finite summation, it is generally assumed that the lower limit of summation is less than or equal to the upper limit. This presumption has led to certain misconceptions, especially concerning what constitutes an empty sum. This paper addresses how to construe the sigma notation when the lower limit is greater than the upper limit
Category: Number Theory
[193] viXra:1601.0206 [pdf] replaced on 20160130 22:16:49
Authors: Hosein Majlesi
Comments: 22 Pages+2 Video for journal,Patent:139350140003006698,Tuesday,September16,2014
In this article some observed objects in the experiment and the way of compatibility classical relationships between empirical observations from the view points of the plasma physics have been investigated, the plasma physics equations rooted in classical physics and quantum mechanics equations; given that the possibility of separation and direct observation the spin of free electron is one of the most discussable issues in the quantum philosophy during the last few decades, this paper has been studied some of technical and scientific issues of the experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics
[192] viXra:1601.0205 [pdf] submitted on 20160118 13:25:43
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.
An international team of researchers from the DukeNUS Medical School (DukeNUS), the University of Bristol, Monash University and RIKEN have developed an algorithm that can predict the factors required to convert one human cell type to another. These gamechanging findings, recently published online on 18 January 2016 in the journal Nature Genetics, have significant implications for regenerative medicine and lay the groundwork for further research into cell reprogramming. [11]
Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the selfmaintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology
[191] viXra:1601.0204 [pdf] submitted on 20160118 15:13:54
Authors: Aurelia Dumitru, Marioara Avram, Marian Siminică
Comments: 11 Pages.
This study explores the main theories with incidence in describing, explaining and predicting
behavior of touristic services consumer’s. The research method is of metaanalysis type. Our study
assumes that consumers’ perceptions and beliefs play an important role in the decision to become a
beneficiary of a tourist service offered by a travel company or by a touristic services intermediary. The
literature retains several models that explain the relationship between consumers’ behavior and
information promotion of touristic product. There are four theories underlying the action of implementing
these models subsequent to the idea of consumer’s behavior: Selective Attention Theory, Congruity
Principle Balance Theory, Cognitive Dissonance Theory. After exploring the potential of these theories in
order to generate a competitive advantage for tourism service providers it is concluded that the
convergent use of these four theories of planning, organizing, implementing, managing and controlling
the marketing touristic activities is the method with the most significant impact on the behavior of travel
services consumer.
Category: Social Science
[190] viXra:1601.0203 [pdf] replaced on 20160120 06:20:05
Authors: Ştefan Vlăduţescu
Comments: 7 Pages.
This study explores the literature on the name of discipline which seeks communication. It notes that
there are various names designating this subject: Communication Theory, Communication Science, Sciences de
l'Information
et of Communication (SIC), Communicology, Communication studies. It appears, then, that the
discipline dealing with the phenomena of communication is (along with Psychology, Anthropology and
Sociology) a social science. There is that, although seem to refe
r to one and the same phenomenon of
communication,referred disciplines not examine the communication as a whole, but focuses on different areas;
ie they are fragmented. Starting from the origin and connection (Lat. "Communis" + the Gr. Word "logos"
"speech
, thought, study") and making use of the analogy of Sociology (Latin word "Socius" + Gr. "Logos" )
and Anthropology (Gr. "anthropos" + "logos") is seeking a convergence of names. It is estimated that it should
reach convergence in respect of at least two c
riteria: the study of communication as a whole and
understanding communication as a multi

structured universe. Such criteria somehow it would comply with a
title like "Strong Communication Science Communicology". Yet the question persists and therefore the
future
must be sought arguments to name a possible unitary communication science.
Category: Social Science
[189] viXra:1601.0202 [pdf] submitted on 20160118 15:18:54
Authors: Bianca Teodorescu, Oprea Valentin Bușu
Comments: 8 Pages.
The aim of this study is to underline the effective used of liminality by mass media for
transform in ritual a daily event. Theoretical backgound is constituted by concept of liminality which
was launched by Arnold Van Gennep and was developed by Victor Turner (who has named the
concept of the liminality – liminoid). In this framework, the study proves that in contemporary society,
mass media are commited as responsible for mediatization of rituals in distinctive ceremonials:
social, political, religious, and other. When people are watching television, they are introduced, by the
media, in a liminal space, where they get to be members in the act of rites of passage. From the
moment when their attention is enthralled by what is on television, people are induced in an
ambiguous state; they are separated from reality. The media creates for each important ritualised
ceremonial, the necessary time, in order to create a subjection of the public. In the contemporary
society our basic activities are, in fact, rituals.
Category: Social Science
[188] viXra:1601.0201 [pdf] submitted on 20160118 15:20:57
Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu
Comments: 9 Pages.
This study aims to clarify the core functions of human communication. The method used is
complex and consists of critical analysis and synthesis of the views expressed by leading specialists in
settling elements of convergence and divergence and configure a wide set of admissible functions and
practices observed. On compatible functions and apply practices observed in the second stage, a set of
procedures for corroboration, collation and confrontation with communication phenomenology.
Finally, are retained as general functions of communication: relationship (networking) function, and
“communization” (sharing) function. We check viability and generality of these functions on an
example of organizational communication.
Category: Social Science
[187] viXra:1601.0200 [pdf] replaced on 20160130 07:39:24
Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 3 Pages.
In a previous paper we described a method to represent graph information as a single numerical value by distinctly labeling each of its vertices with unique primes. In this paper, we modify the previous approach to again represent a graph as a single numeric value, we log transform this value and approximate it with an optimum value which if minimized by appropriate prime labeling of the graph should allow us to compare it with another graph on which an identical algorithm is implemented. Identical optimum value minima is a necessary but not sufficient condition for graph isomorphism.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory
[186] viXra:1601.0199 [pdf] submitted on 20160118 06:58:37
Authors: Colin Bruce Jack
Comments: 6 Pages.
This paper adds supplementary information to my previous papers on Detecting The Detector and should be read in conjunction with them. It lists potentially widespread categories of use of a detectordetecting sense, including some which may be ecologically or scientifically important. Candidates described are:
 The Histioteuthidae family, common name cockeyed squid
 Chameleons
 Members of the tarantula family which have convergently evolved a blue coloration of specific wavelength
 Fish and other marine animals which use counterillumination generally assumed to be for concealment, yet actually emit light from a pattern of discrete spots, which is not optimum for concealment but could be optimum for retroreflectordetection
 Some of the very wide range of animals which have lightdetecting opsins distributed over their body surface. Especially in conjunction with the ability to vary the intensity or other properties of light reflected or emitted from the local body surface, this could enable omnidirectional detection of animals hiding in shadow: largeeyed predators at medium range, or smalleyed prey at close range.
Also potentially relevant to the widespread importance of a retroreflectordetecting sense is the existence of animals with pupils which do not have circular symmetry. This may be evidence of an ‘arms race’: how you do evolve an effective eye which minimizes its own detectability by retroreflection?
Category: Physics of Biology
[185] viXra:1601.0198 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 15:58:32
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.
Terraforming happens naturally as an endproduct of stellar evolution as is covered via the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Geophysics
[184] viXra:1601.0197 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 17:52:15
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.
An alternative type of magnetochronology as applied to stellar evolution is hypothesized in light of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. The presence of a core structure can be determined by whether the star has a strong global magnetic field, as well as other inferences.
Category: Astrophysics
[183] viXra:1601.0196 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 18:07:24
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 5 Pages.
Richard P. Feynman in His book "Six easy steps" was telling about energy supplies in the nature and finally He wrote “Therefore it is up to the physicists to figure out how to liberate us from the need for having energy. It can be done”.
This article suggests a way for such liberation.
The opposite is wellknown  the delta of information is always a money that used only for one goal  create more money. "Those who own the delta of information own the World".
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms
[182] viXra:1601.0195 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 18:28:57
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 3 Pages.
Using mathematical methods we show that two solutions of Maxwell's equations correspond to two time directions. One comes as an echo from a Divine word that marks all the thoughts and deads as bad or good by this forming Karma that also Richard Feynman was speaking about.
Everything in the Universe is built as a Wave  some solution of corresponding equations such as Schrodinger equations with some Hamiltonian (see eg. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schr%C3%B6dinger_equation#/media/File:StationaryStatesAnimation.gif).
So, the Universe is actually some Hilbert space of such waves, in other words information, or Turing Machine that created and creates that space and all its elements (people, animals, plants and so on).
The surrounding world is only a mirror  "Big TV"  that shows everything and teaches people.
Due to people decided not to look into the mirror there is a gap or duality in the human conscience called Karma. The same as wellknown duality in Quantum Physics.
The article shows that there is no duality and that there is always the Watcher who sees All.
Category: Social Science
[181] viXra:1601.0194 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 18:40:25
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 3 Pages.
using wellknown method of "Fire triangle" we show that in “Building Information Society” process people loose Freedom. Also, the average prosperity level goes to zero. As a result they become robots. The final result is a Universal Automaton (UA) that just produces copies of itself.
Category: Social Science
[180] viXra:1601.0193 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 18:49:05
Authors: Nikolaj Roerich
Comments: 3 Pages.
We show that Riemann Hypothesis is actually an Axiom.
Prooving it would mean knowing how to build the Universe.
That is the future that people evolution will lead to.
To build the Universee one needs to know the details about the corresponding Hilbert Space since Universe = Hilbert Space,
and Riemann Hypothesis solution is equivalent to the knowing the linear operator in that Hilbert Space that is called "L" which has the eigenvalues equal to the zeros of Riemann Function.
Category: Set Theory and Logic
[179] viXra:1601.0192 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 18:54:06
Authors: Nikolaj Roerich
Comments: 3 Pages.
Using methods of Computational theory we show the possibilities in the society development.
Category: Social Science
[178] viXra:1601.0191 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 21:59:29
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 25 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme for ‘Generation Of Elements Forming A Complete Recursive Set On The Higher Side {Up To A Specified Limit} Of A Three Distinct Element Set Arranged In Ascending Order’.
Category: General Mathematics
[177] viXra:1601.0190 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 22:07:29
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 27 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme to implement ‘Natural Memory Embedding’.
Category: General Mathematics
[176] viXra:1601.0189 [pdf] replaced on 20160926 21:24:48
Authors: GuagSan Yu
Comments: 8 Pages.
The Newton's second law and third law has proven to be wrong, his mistake is the derivative operation the limitation resulting. Therefore new derivative the computation method desiderate the creation, this is the Inverse Derivative algorithm. The Inverse Derivative is a kind of extension of the derivative computation, it is based on the derivative calculated generated, using most of the derivative formulas to converted adjusted. In the field of physics and mechanical engineering, Inverse Derivative may be a large number of employed, to replace original derivative computation method. Will produce the enormous and profound influence.
Category: Functions and Analysis
[175] viXra:1601.0188 [pdf] submitted on 20160118 03:36:03
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 25 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme for ‘Generation Of Elements Forming A Complete Recursive Set On The Higher And Lower Side {Up To A Specified Limit} Of A Three Distinct Element Set’.
Category: General Mathematics
[174] viXra:1601.0186 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 10:14:55
Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Single page preliminary note
Photon is a chunk of energy h f where h is Planck’s constant, and f the frequency. Every chunk of energy has to produce a gravitational field around it. The ‘particle’ photon travels in the manner of ‘quantum jumps’; whereas the field travels in the manner of ‘waves’. Therefore, when the photon jumps to a new position from ‘a’ to ‘b’ at a distance, say equal to its ‘wavelength’, the gravitationalfield produced by its previous position ‘a’ is present there; so the ‘photon’ experiences the ‘gravitational redshift’. By this time the gravitationalfield around the position ‘a’ collapses and new field at the position ‘b’ gets established; so when the photon jumps to a new position ‘c’, it has to ‘climb’ the gravitational potentialwell produced at ‘b’; and so it again experiences the gravitational redshift. This process continues for every jump of the photon, reducing its frequency at every step. It is proposed here that the ‘cosmological redshift’, first observed by Edwin Hubble, is possibly caused by this mechanism, termed here as ‘dynamic gravitational redshift’.
Category: Astrophysics
[173] viXra:1601.0185 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 12:48:17
Authors: Bo Mann
Comments: 86 Pages.
We show how to distinguish illusiion and reality. We use method upanddown with a small number of samples due to limited availability of those. In the study we compare actual and expected results.
Category: Social Science
[172] viXra:1601.0184 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 06:43:47
Authors: S.mallika, R.saravanakumar
Comments: 15 Pages.
The paper presents a closed loop current control technique of three phase grid connected
systems with a renewable energy source. The proposal optimizes the system design, permitting
reduction of system losses and harmonics for the three phase grid connected system. The
performance of the proposed controller of grid connected PV array with DCDC converter and
multilevel inverter is evaluated through MATLABSimulation. The results obtained with the
proposed method are compared with those obtained when using without current controller
for threephase photovoltaic multilevel inverter in terms of THD and switching frequency.
Experimental works were carried out with the PV module WAREE WS 100, which has a
power rating of 10 W, 17 V output voltages and 1000 W=m2 irradiance. The test results show
that the proposed design exhibits a good performance.
Category: Digital Signal Processing
[171] viXra:1601.0183 [pdf] replaced on 20160117 11:34:46
Authors: David Brown
Comments: 3 Pages.
The empirical successes of Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) suggest that there is a serious problem with NewtonianEinsteinian gravitational theory. Could dark matter have positive gravitational massenergy and zero inertial massenergy? Einstein wrote (“The Meaning of Relativity”, 5th edition, page 57) that “A little reflection will show that the law of the equality of the inert and the gravitational mass is equivalent to the assertion that the acceleration imparted to a body by a gravitational field is independent of the nature of the body. For Newton's equation of motion in a gravitational field, written out in full, is (Inert mass) * (Acceleration) = (Intensity of the gravitational field) * (Gravitational mass). It is only when there is numerical equality between the inert and gravitational mass that the acceleration is independent of the nature of the body.” Is it necessarily true that IT IS ONLY WHEN THERE IS NUMERICAL EQUALITY between inertial massenergy and gravitational massenergy that THE ACCELERATION IS INDEPENDENT OF THE NATURE OF THE BODY? There is a possibility that the acceleration is independent of the nature of the body but THERE IS A SYSTEMATIC DEVIATION between the inertial massenergy and gravitational massenergy. Consider Einstein’s field equations: R(mu,nu) + (1/2) * g(mu,nu) * R =  κ * T(mu,nu)  Λ * g(mu,nu) — what might be wrong? Consider the possible correction R(mu,nu) + (1/2 + darkmattercompensationconstant) * g(mu,nu) * R =  κ * (T(mu,nu) / equivalenceprinciplefailurefactor)  Λ * g(mu,nu), where equivalenceprinciplefailurefactor = (1  (T(mu,nu)/T(max))^2)^(1/2) — if darkmattercompensationconstant = 0 and T(max) = +∞ then Einstein’s field equations are recovered. Empirical evidence shows that black holes exist. The event horizons of black holes might be figments of the imagination caused by believing in Einstein’s equivalence principle. John P. Lestone’s ideas might suggest that something is wrong with Einstein’s field equations. This brief communication argues that relativistic MOND is the FernándezRañadaMilgrom effect.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
[170] viXra:1601.0182 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 06:36:54
Authors: F. Karbalaei, M. Ranjbar, M. Kavyani
Comments: 6 Pages.
This paper compares the sensitivity method with a proposed nonlinear optimization method for setting of transmission network load tap
changers (LTCs) as a preventive action for voltage instability. The aim of preventive actions is to increase voltage stability margin. In contrast to
emergency actions, preventive ones implemented when the power system is stable. Thus, in calculation of a preventive action, in addition to increase
stability margin, its effects on current operating point of the system must be considered. The sensitivity method is a linearized based method that
uses the sensitivity of the loadability margin with respect to tap values. In the proposed optimization method, the tap values are calculated using
optimal powerflow model. Two groups of variables are used in optimization problem: one group is related to base case (current operating point) and
the other is related to the voltage stability boundary. By this work, the preventive actions do not cause undesirable changes in the system current
variables.
Category: Digital Signal Processing
[169] viXra:1601.0181 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 06:38:54
Authors: Asaad Shemshadi, Seyed Mohammad Tagi Bathaee, Sima Jalali Kashani
Comments: 11 Pages.
A smart grid is a modern system combined from power system and a network of computers which communicate and process the data achieved from measuring centers located in the power system network. They achieve specific local goals such as: enhancement the reliability, fast and easy control of power network and online monitoring.
To control the blocks of a smart grid (entrance or outage), HV, MV and LV switching actions frequently are needed. Nowadays Vacuum interrupters (VI) are the most widespread switching devices especially in LV and MV voltage levels (up to 38 kV), through their reliability, heavy duty and maintenance free characteristics.
In this article, the important lifetime factors of a VI for smart grid applications will be discussed. Further more the closing and opening speed of a proposed circuit breaker mechanism, as the most important lifetime factor, will be so planned that an important enhancement in the total lifetime of the VI is achieved.
Category: Digital Signal Processing
[168] viXra:1601.0180 [pdf] submitted on 20160117 06:41:12
Authors: Mohit Kumar, Nirbhow Jap Singh, Sandeep Sharma
Comments: 10 Pages.
A lot of research has been carried out in the field of health care monitoring. In the recent years, development of wireless health care monitoring system has emerged as an area of research. The presented work falls under the health care monitoring system. Here the system monitors the patient continuously while simultaneously transmitting the physiological data to the doctors and other medical staff. The presented system is based on a dedicated communication protocol for sensor networks, ZigBee. The system has low cost, low power requirements and compact. The performance of the system is analysed for indoor and outdoor environment, under various conditions. It is observed that the system provides reliable monitoring and secure wireless transmission of the monitored data. Further it is observed that the current consumption of the system is 64.1 mA and 71.2 mA at the sensing node and coordinator respectively, when transmitted power is set at 18 dBm. The range of the system varies from 10m (indoor environment) to 30m (line of sight range in outdoor environment) at 18 dBm transmitted power, which is suitable for hospital environment.
Category: Digital Signal Processing
[167] viXra:1601.0179 [pdf] submitted on 20160116 22:40:19
Authors: D. Luengo, L. Martino, V. Elvira, M. Bugallo
Comments: 22 Pages.
Many signal processing applications require performing statistical inference on large datasets, where computational and/or memory restrictions become an issue. In this big data setting, computing an exact global centralized estimator is often unfeasible. Furthermore, even when approximate numerical solutions (e.g., based on Monte Carlo methods) working directly on the whole dataset can be computed, they may not provide a satisfactory performance either. Hence, several authors have recently started considering distributed inference approaches, where the data is divided among multiple workers (cores, machines or a combination of both). The computations are then performed in parallel and the resulting distributed or partial estimators are finally combined to approximate the intractable global estimator. In this paper, we focus on the scenario where no communication exists among the workers, deriving efficient linear fusion rules for the combination of the distributed estimators. Both a Bayesian perspective (based on the Bernsteinvon Mises theorem and the asymptotic normality of the estimators) and a constrained optimization view are provided for the derivation of the linear fusion rules proposed. We concentrate on minimum mean squared error (MMSE) partial estimators, but the approach is more general and can be used to combine any kind of distributed estimators as long as they are unbiased. Numerical results show the good performance of the algorithms developed, both in simple problems where analytical expressions can be obtained for the distributed MMSE estimators, and in a wireless sensor network localization problem where Monte Carlo methods are used to approximate the partial estimators.
Category: Statistics
[166] viXra:1601.0178 [pdf] submitted on 20160116 23:01:39
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 2 Pages.
We show that there is no probability in events. We prove using Godel Theorem that any profession that uses any instrument people do eventually leads to trauma in a person.
Category: Education and Didactics
[165] viXra:1601.0177 [pdf] replaced on 20160117 13:50:34
Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 4 Pages.
65,536dimensional Cl(16) not only contains the E8 of E8 Physics (viXra 1508.0157) but also corresponds to the information content of Microtubules that are the basis of PenroseHameroff Quantum Consciousness (viXra 1512.0300) and to information content of DNA chromosome condensation and to information content of mRNA triple  amino acid transformations. Version 2 (v2) adds material about interaction between Microtubules and DNA during mitosis.
Category: Quantum Physics
[164] viXra:1601.0176 [pdf] submitted on 20160116 15:19:49
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.
Most biology students will be able to tell you that neural signals are sent via mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, and diffusion processes, but a new study suggests there's another way that our brains transmit information from one place to another. [9]
Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From twophoton microscopy to magnetoencephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8]
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the selfmaintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics
[163] viXra:1601.0175 [pdf] replaced on 20160119 10:46:04
Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 9 Pages.
Orbits are parameterized with the space−time dimensions of the gravitational constant. Novel solutions for the flyby anomaly, dark matter, and the gravitational lensing effect are deduced from first principles. Observable evidence is provided with several experimental predictions to test the modified Keplerian dynamics (MoKD) hypothesis.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[162] viXra:1601.0174 [pdf] replaced on 20160715 02:12:10
Authors: V. Elvira, L. Martino, D. Luengo, M. F. Bugallo
Comments: 30 Pages.
Population Monte Carlo (PMC) sampling methods are powerful tools for approximating distributions of static unknowns given a set of observations. These methods are iterative in nature: at each step they generate samples from a proposal distribution and assign them weights according to the importance sampling principle. Critical issues in applying PMC methods are the choice of the generating functions for the samples and the avoidance of the sample degeneracy. In this paper, we propose three new schemes that considerably improve the performance of the original PMC formulation by allowing for better exploration of the space of unknowns and by selecting more adequately the surviving samples. A theoretical analysis is performed, proving the superiority of the novel schemes in terms of variance of the associated estimators and preservation of the sample diversity. Furthermore, we show that they outperform other state of the art algorithms (both in terms of mean square error and robustness w.r.t. initialization) through extensive numerical simulations.
Category: Statistics
[161] viXra:1601.0173 [pdf] replaced on 20160122 00:48:36
Authors: Mohammad Humayoun Khan
Comments: 28 Pages.
For thousands of years philosophers and scientists have struggled to understand the phenomenon of time. We have known for the last one hundred years about time dilation or slowing of time with motion and in gravity yet true understanding of time have evaded us. I believe there is a clear solution to the enigma of time. This brings to light the reason behind many predictions of Special and General Relativity such as why time slows with motion and in gravity? What is the cause of gravity and why it is only attractive? Why space is curved by gravitational fields? Why objects gain mass when accelerated by a force but do not gain mass when falling in gravity? What is the cause of inertia and length contraction and why there cannot be a twin paradox? The concepts are simple so that anyone with knowledge of high school physics and math should be able to follow.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[160] viXra:1601.0172 [pdf] replaced on 20160708 10:30:35
Authors: S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Williams
Comments: 13 Pages.
We suggest that electrons, positrons and neutrinos are the fundamental buildingblocks of the universe. Based on the concept of selfmass, we have constructed models and derived relations between the mass and charge and the mass and radius for each of these particles. This approach constrains the strengths of the electrostatic and gravitational fields at very short distances. We have also developed models for the proton and neutron in which they are composed of these fundamental constituents and their shortdistance interactions. With these models we are able to reproduce the internal charge distribution of the proton and the neutron and derive many results that are in good agreement with measurements, including: (i) relations between the proton and neutron masses and the electron mass; (ii) relations between the proton and neutron masses and their radii; (iii) expressions for the magnetic moments of the proton and neutron; (iv) size estimates of the electron, muon and tau; (v) an explanation of the apparent universal matterantimatter imbalance.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[159] viXra:1601.0171 [pdf] submitted on 20160115 18:18:38
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 reference
Anthony Abruzzo hypothesized the foundational understanding that planets are byproducts of stellar evolution, and not the byproducts of their formation. The principle is described below. The title of Abruzzo's paper is misleading, as this is a new understanding and requires that a considerable amount of discernment be used.
Category: Astrophysics
[158] viXra:1601.0170 [pdf] submitted on 20160115 23:30:40
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 25 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme to find the ‘Recursion Scheme Of Any Set Of Concern’.
Category: General Mathematics
[157] viXra:1601.0167 [pdf] replaced on 20171105 10:44:50
Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 10 pages. Copyright © 2006 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved. Published by:
Titans like Bertrand Russell or Karl Pearson warned us to keep our mathematical and statistical hands off causality and at the end David Hume too. Hume's scepticism has dominated discussion of causality in both analytic philosophy and statistical analysis for a long time. But more and more researchers are working hard on this field and trying to get rid of this positions. In so far, much of the recent philosophical or mathematical writing on causation (Ellery Eells (1991), Daniel Hausman (1998), Pearl (2000), Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour and Richard Scheines (2000), ...) either addresses to Bayes networks, to the counterfactual approach to causality developed in detail by David Lewis, to Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause or to the Causal Markov Condition. None of this approaches to causation investigated the relationship between causation and the law of independence to a necessary extent. Nonetheless, the relationship between causation and the law of independence, one of the fundamental concepts in probability theory, is very important. May an effect occur in the absence of a cause? May an effect fail to occur in the presence of a cause? In so far, what does constitute the causal relation? On the other hand, if it is unclear what does constitute the causal relation, maybe we can answer the question, what does not constitute the causal relation. So far, a cause as such can not be independent from its effect and vice versa, if there is a deterministic causal relationship. This publication will prove, that the law of independence defines causation to some extent ex negativo.
Category: Statistics
[156] viXra:1601.0166 [pdf] submitted on 20160115 11:56:49
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 9 Pages. the abstract in english and the main text in spanish
In this note we show a collection of series for the constant Pi
Category: General Mathematics
[155] viXra:1601.0165 [pdf] replaced on 20160123 08:13:42
Authors: Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 16 Pages. Submitted to special issue of Adv. in Appl. Cliff. Algs., 1 color figure.
In this paper we use the general twosided quaternion Fourier transform (QFT), and relate the classical convolution of quaternionvalued signals over $\R^2$ with the Mustard convolution. A Mustard convolution can be expressed in the spectral domain as the point wise product of the QFTs of the factor functions. In full generality do we express the classical convolution of quaternion signals in terms of finite linear combinations of Mustard convolutions, and vice versa the Mustard convolution of quaternion signals in terms of finite linear combinations of classical convolutions.
Category: Functions and Analysis
[154] viXra:1601.0164 [pdf] submitted on 20160115 05:32:01
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 35 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed all about Primality Tree Analysis
Category: General Mathematics
[153] viXra:1601.0163 [pdf] replaced on 20180314 13:53:02
Authors: PV Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.
They say that the origin of life is a mystery, but I believe that life can emerge anywhere. Why?, because the universe and the subatomic particles in it are similar to something in nature.
Category: Physics of Biology
[152] viXra:1601.0162 [pdf] replaced on 20160225 11:58:52
Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages. My math is cumbersome for a 92 yearold, rightbrained stroke person but correct
Abstract: Annihilation of spin 0/spin 1 negativeenergy mass produces expansion of space in our afterbig bang brokenE8 symmetry epoch in which generation of new negativeenergy matter is not possible and that presently is redundant. Expansion of space in this way minimizes big bang radiation energy loss external to the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[151] viXra:1601.0161 [pdf] submitted on 20160115 03:20:47
Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.
In this paper I present three conjectures on the numbers of the form p*(p + 4*n) – 60*n, where p and p + 4*n are primes, more accurate a general conjecture and two particular ones, on the numbers of the form p*(p + 4) – 60 respectively p*(p + 20)  300.
Category: Number Theory
[150] viXra:1601.0160 [pdf] submitted on 20160115 03:19:40
Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: Pages.
A statistical definition of life
Category: Physics of Biology
[149] viXra:1601.0159 [pdf] submitted on 20160115 03:26:31
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.
Nextgeneration telescopic surveys will work handinhand with supercomputers to study the nature of dark energy. [15]
Gammaray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics
[148] viXra:1601.0158 [pdf] replaced on 20160116 11:16:21
Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 16 Pages.
Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and antibaryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of three quadruply bottom pentaquarks: b b b b ̄u , b b b b ̄c , and b b b b ̄t , and their antiparticles: b̄ b̄ ̄b ̄b u , ̄b ̄b ̄b ̄b c , and ̄b ̄b ̄b ̄b t . Although this theory is intended for experts, it is simple enough, so that, it is also suitable for the general public.
Category: Quantum Physics
[147] viXra:1601.0157 [pdf] submitted on 20160114 11:30:46
Authors: Vedant Chandra
Comments: 11 Pages.
The study of orbital mechanics is vast and fascinating, but requires a prerequisite knowledge of some basic concepts. This paper aims to be a formal introduction into the field of astrodynamics. It teaches the tools and measures used to describe spaceflight, and will give the reader a strong base upon which to pursue further study.
Category: Astrophysics
[146] viXra:1601.0156 [pdf] submitted on 20160114 12:39:01
Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.
In this paper I state two conjectures on the numbers of the form 4*p^4 – 800*p^2 + 5, where p is prime, i.e. that there exist an infinity of primes of such form respectively that there exist an infinity of sempiprimes q*r of such form, where r = q + 40*n, where n positive integer.
Category: Number Theory
[145] viXra:1601.0155 [pdf] submitted on 20160114 12:41:06
Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.
In this paper I first conjecture that for any nonnull positive integer n there exist an infinity of primes p such that the number q = (p – 1)/2^n – n is also prime and than I conjecture that for any odd prime q there exist an infinity of positive integers n such that the number p = (q + n)*2^n + 1 is prime.
Category: Number Theory
[144] viXra:1601.0154 [pdf] submitted on 20160114 07:56:25
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages. the abstract in english and the main text in spanish
In this note we show an infinite product for the constant e
Category: General Mathematics
[143] viXra:1601.0153 [pdf] submitted on 20160114 09:22:29
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.
Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand highenergy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and righthanded particles. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[142] viXra:1601.0152 [pdf] replaced on 20181028 11:23:13
Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 10 Pages. 1 Figure
Currently, the rest mass of photons is assumed to be = 0. Otherwise, according to expression of moving mass, the moving mass of photons becomes infinite, because, according to Einstein’s postulate of the theory of relativity, the velocity of photons (v) is assumed to be = c (constant). Since the moving mass (or any type of mass) of photons (or of any particle) cannot be infinite, their rest mass is assumed to be = 0. However, the current assumption cannot be true. Because, there are several evidences and plausible arguments to prove that the photons possess finite rest mass. Therefore, presently, a solution has been determined such that the moving mass of photons may not become infinite despite they possess finite rest mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[141] viXra:1601.0151 [pdf] submitted on 20160113 23:33:32
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 22 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed ‘Any Sequence Of Concern’s Evolution Function With Respect To The Evolution Function Of Sequence Of Primes’.
Category: General Mathematics
[140] viXra:1601.0150 [pdf] submitted on 20160114 03:12:16
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 21 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has elucidated the ‘Universal Cross Product’ of two Sets not necessarily equal in Size.
Category: General Mathematics
[139] viXra:1601.0149 [pdf] submitted on 20160113 09:50:33
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.
Using the principles of CQI and E8 charge spacequbit entanglement mentioned above, it is possible to represent various particle creations and particleparticle interactions using creation, rotation and other qubit operators. Discussed here are formulations, procedures and examples of the same.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
[138] viXra:1601.0148 [pdf] submitted on 20160113 09:51:43
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 7 Pages.
The concept of metahomeomorphism, mapping all ndimensional information systems can be put to good use in enhancing the visualization of the E8 model particles. This is done by mapping the charge space to a music based information system with the same number of dimensions.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[137] viXra:1601.0147 [pdf] submitted on 20160113 09:52:48
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 3 Pages.
The work purports to discussion of a rarely explored method of answering questions – looking within, where answers might not be “correct” as in the scientific sense, but atleast, they are not answers that promote violence and hatred. The discussions elucidate key points as well as a formulation of asking questions within us and finding the answers.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[136] viXra:1601.0146 [pdf] replaced on 20160219 03:47:47
Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 5 Pages. Some minor changes.
The EM drive is an object composed by a Magnetron feeding a tapered resonant cavity whose area is greater at one end. Both ends of the cavity are sealed. When the Magnetron is turned on, the EM drive manifests a thrust toward the smaller end of the cavity.
Nothing is emitted outside.
Mainstream Physics is reluctant to recognize the EM drive as valid as it appears to break the law of conservation of momentum
For this reason EM drive caused discussions, theories more or less exotic, and skepticisms.
But the experiments seem to confirm it works.
Here I discuss a simple theory in the framework of classical physics.
Category: Classical Physics
[135] viXra:1601.0145 [pdf] submitted on 20160113 12:35:55
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.
Nanotechnologists at the University of Twente research institute MESA+ have discovered a new fundamental property of electrical currents in very small metal circuits. They show how electrons can spread out over the circuit like waves and cause interference effects at places where no electrical current is driven. The geometry of the circuit plays a key role in this so called nonlocal effect. The interference is a direct consequence of the quantum mechanical wave character of electrons and the specific geometry of the circuit. For designers of quantum computers it is an effect to take account of. The results are published in the British journal Scientific Reports. [8]
The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky actionatdistance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes largescale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes smallscale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the selfmaintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics
[134] viXra:1601.0144 [pdf] submitted on 20160113 07:57:10
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 7 Pages. the abstract in english and the main text in spanish
In this note we show a collection of identities involving the constant Pi , identities are inspired by a formula of the mathematician L. Euler , 1781.
Category: General Mathematics
[133] viXra:1601.0143 [pdf] submitted on 20160113 08:08:20
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.
A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics
[132] viXra:1601.0142 [pdf] submitted on 20160113 09:19:43
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.
A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics
[131] viXra:1601.0141 [pdf] submitted on 20160113 06:12:40
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.
An exploration into the concept and philosophy of Shri Vidhya from a new perspective is presented. Three concepts are seen to firmly draw the foundation of the Shri Vidhya philosophy. First, The world we live in is beautiful and perfect. Second, By properly coordinating and managing our resources, we can enjoy Bhukthi in this world (Ka). Third, By continually focusing our thoughts on the Mother, we can cross the Ocean of Samsara and attain Mukthi (Hreem).
Category: Religion and Spiritualism
[130] viXra:1601.0140 [pdf] submitted on 20160113 06:33:34
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 23 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a ‘Universal Scheme To Find The Next Term Of A Triplet Sequence Not Containing Zero And Arranged In Ascending Order’.
Category: General Mathematics
[129] viXra:1601.0139 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 20:23:49
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thrikandiyoor Jayadev
Comments: 36 Pages.
The importance attached to filtering noise out of signal is growing significantly due to the requirement for faster and improved communication systems such as highspeed Internet access and wireless communication. The lownoise amplifier (LNA) is one of the major components in a wireless communication system, employed at the receiver side and is usually the immediate component to the Antenna in the receiver chain. This report attempts to explain the design of a lownoiseamplifier according to specifications. Using 0.35 μm technology to build the layout and the opessource layout design tool  Microwind to simulate its operation, the performance of the LNA was optimized through the use of different circuit topologies and components. Based on the results obtained from simulation, the components were varied and sized to reach the desired results. The other aspect of the design process that was explored was effect of parasitics to assess the impact of physical structure and it's impact on the over all operation the LNA. To execute this task, the inbuilt parasitic extraction tool of Microwind was used. To a large extent, the objectives were met, thereby satisfying the requirements of the project. This include meeting the peak gain requirement of 22dB at the desired frequency of 435MHz, an input impedance of 50 ohms and a high output impedance with good noise removal characteristics. However, further study is proposed to explore the use of the Microwind design tool in designing complex analog circuitry and also using the circuit model in many other applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing
[128] viXra:1601.0138 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 20:35:01
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thadigotla Venkata SubbaReddy, Bommepalli Madhava Reddy
Comments: 30 Pages.
Chaos refers to complex behavior nonetheless deterministic, which arises in nonlinear systems. Chaos embodies two important principles: Extreme sensitivity towards initial conditions (also wellknown as the butterfly effect.) Cause (reason) and effect (outcome) are not proportionate  Nonlinearity Chaotic signals serve as ideal candidates as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and application of a ‘Digital’ chaotic signal using an iterative map. The present work implements the chaos generation using basic logical operations such as Exclusive OR (XOR) switching on four individual clocks with different frequencies and duty cycles. The above mentioned process is implemented in hardware level using XOR gates and 556 timer IC’s and in layout and simulation levels using Microwind respectively. Secondly Digital chaos generation is implemented in MATLAB and in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The generated chaotic signal is characterized using different parameters like Kolmogorov entropy (K2), Fractal Dimension (D2), Largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Phase plane portrait and Recurrence plot (RP). The main advantages of this work are 1. Simplicity  because of simple logical operations. 2. Security  due to high sensitivity of chaos to its initial conditions. Finally different applications of digital chaos have been explored.
Category: Digital Signal Processing
[127] viXra:1601.0137 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 20:37:47
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thadigotla Venkata SubbaReddy, Bommepalli Madhava Reddy
Comments: 13 Pages.
Chaos refers to complex behavior nonetheless deterministic, which arises in nonlinear systems. Chaos embodies two important principles: Extreme sensitivity towards initial conditions (also wellknown as the butterfly effect.) Cause (reason) and effect (outcome) are not proportionate  Nonlinearity Chaotic signals serve as ideal candidates as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and application of a ‘Digital’ chaotic signal using an iterative map. The present work implements the chaos generation using basic logical operations such as Exclusive OR (XOR) switching on four individual clocks with different frequencies and duty cycles. The above mentioned process is implemented in hardware level using XOR gates and 556 timer IC’s and in layout and simulation levels using Microwind respectively. Secondly Digital chaos generation is implemented in MATLAB and in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The generated chaotic signal is characterized using different parameters like Kolmogorov entropy (K2), Fractal Dimension (D2), Largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Phase plane portrait and Recurrence plot (RP). The main advantages of this work are 1. Simplicity  because of simple logical operations. 2. Security  due to high sensitivity of chaos to its initial conditions. Finally different applications of digital chaos have been explored.
Category: Digital Signal Processing
[126] viXra:1601.0136 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 21:02:53
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Sri Kalyan Kambhampati
Comments: 21 Pages.
Chaotic signals are ideal nominees as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and an interesting application of a Chaotic signal using an iterative map. The generation of a chaotic signal using simple microwave circuitry has been analyzed and implemented. By use of experiment, it was discovered that an ecient use of the nonlinearity in the semionductor device such as BFU725F/N1 NPN microwave bipolar junction transistor, can be used to generate a chaotic signal. The signal generated by the Gunn source is confirmed as a microwave pulse by operating it in the Negative Resistance region. The signal from the AFO is mixed with the Gunn source signal in the transistor producing a chaotic signal at the collector terminal. The bias voltage values are varied to characterize the output waveform. The parameters of a chaotic signal such as Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov Entropy and Fractal dimension are calculated for different waveforms obtained at different bias voltages. Frequency Spectrum analysis for both Gunn Source and the chaotic signal is done to ascertain the nonlinearity contributed by the transistor alone. Chaotic signal generated using simple microwave circuitry is more securable and reliable. Circuit complexity has been reduced very much which in turn reduces the cost. It has been observed that only the nonlinearity in the transistor is enough to generate a chaotic Microwave signal. The BFU725F/N1 transistor at 6.02 volts of Gunn bias gives a chaos signal. Chirping phenomenon is observed to be chaotic also.
Category: Digital Signal Processing
[125] viXra:1601.0135 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 21:05:11
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Sri Kalyan Kambhampati
Comments: 21 Pages.
Chaotic signals are ideal nominees as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes an interesting application of a Chaotic signal using an iterative map. By use of experiment, it was discovered that an ecient use of the nonlinearity in the semionductor device such as BFU725F/N1 NPN microwave bipolar junction transistor, can be used to generate a chaotic signal. Frequency Spectrum analysis for both Gunn Source and the chaotic signal is done to ascertain the nonlinearity contributed by the transistor alone. The effect of coupling of two transistors on the output waveform is observed using simulation. The waveform thus obtained is observed to be negatively chirped or down chirped. The characterization of the signal obtained with parameters mentioned above to know its nature is also done. Possible application of the above circuitry in the communication by checking the robustness of signal in a noisy environment is done using MATLAB. Chirping phenomenon is observed to be chaotic also.
Category: Digital Signal Processing
[124] viXra:1601.0134 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 21:34:25
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 27 Pages.
We have obtained an equivalent circuit that explains selfheating effects and have tested the presence of nonlinearity and IMD using simulation. The significance of the approach lies in successfully modeling thermal effects in interconnects in ICs using SOI technology with al conductors. Future work: proposing of circuits and techniques that can be used for compensation of selfheating effects.
Category: Mathematical Physics
[123] viXra:1601.0133 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 21:36:05
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 61 Pages.
The following are learnt and achieved: 1. A robust electrical soliton oscillator/ generator was designed. 2. Soliton and similariton pulses propagated with far less distortion than their square counterparts. 3. Soliton trains could be implemented effectively in digital communication techniques with better results than sinusoidal waves. 4. Soliton modulation could be used in optical communication, leading to a cost effective yet powerful laser.5. Chip to chip communication is successfully implemented using solitons.
Category: Classical Physics
[122] viXra:1601.0132 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 21:38:55
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 2 Pages.
The speaker realizes that in a country like India, where around half the population is under 25 years of age, where people are so many and resources are so few, where even “cutthroat” is not enough to describe the level competition, seen by children as young as eighthgrade preparing for the IIT’s, where worldclass institutions like IITs, IIMs and IISc sometimes seen as on par with MIT and Harvard, yet the research output is at a paltry 3.5%, in such a country, the speaker realizes that to survive, prosper and grow as well as contributing to the country and community, “NonConventional Thinking” is indeed the Mantra. It is this idea that the author wishes to share with the world, contributing to a small yet significant step towards enabling, empowering and transforming the youth of the world. While the speaker shall continue involving in perspectiveenhancing research with viXra as the primary platform of publication, the speaker is however willing and shall accept invitations to publish as books, monographs and in peerreviewed journals, from publishers that deem the quality of research work by the speaker to be meritorious and credible.
Category: Education and Didactics
[121] viXra:1601.0131 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 21:46:39
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 106 Pages.
Globalization, international trade and technology development have largely increased the complexity of management of large organizations such as IBM. As IBM faces a major restructuring phase in early 2014, a clear shift of paradigm is essential to frame policies and management decisions more effectively. This is when contemporary management theories such as systems theories and chaos theories lend a helping hand. They provide concepts and visualizations that can be effectively used for the modeling and understanding of the complexity, growth and dynamic evolution of such large organizations. The present project purports to the formulation of an effective analysis methodology based in systems theory and chaos theory that will help the management make effective and informed decisions. As a starting step, the basic concepts of signals and systems are reviewed, and special attention is devoted to special systems such as chaotic systems. Following this, a signals and systems based model of a large organization such as IBM is proposed. This model takes into account the primary source of assets, the primary source of revenue and finance, and the interrelations between them. Using this model as a platform, the formulation of an analysis method is attempted. To this end, a thorough study of the various standards and metrics used in systems theory and chaos theory are considered. Based on this an analysis method is formulated. This analysis method enables analyzing the output signal such as the share revenue data and understanding the patterns and trends occurring therein. The analysis formulation comprises of three categories: 1. Temporal Analysis: Time Series, Phase Portrait and Multiscale Analysis. 2. Spectral Analysis: Magnitude Spectrum, Polar Plot and Spatial Distribution. 3. Nonlinear Analysis: Lyapunov Exponent, Fractal Dimension and Kolmogorov Entropy. To evaluate and validate the analysis methodology formulated, four case studies are considered, These case studies correspond to significant events in the recent policy making history of IBM. The case studies are as follows: 1. Acquisition of Cognos BI in 2007. 2. Announcement of hikes of around 20% in IBM India in 2011. 3. Layoffs and Global Restructuring Program, Q1 2014. 4. Declaration of Dividends, 2013. For each of the above cases, two suitable timeframes are selected: one before the event and one after. For both timeframes, the formulated analysis is conducted. The analysis results are mapped with the decisions and policies in each case, and suitable interpretations are obtained. These interpretations indicate how the share market responded to the decisions and declarations. Based on the analysis formulation and the case studies, the major inferences and the contributions of the analysis to the company management process are enumerated. The project enables the application of the contemporary systems and chaos theory to modeling an organization using the signals and systems approach, and formulation of analysis techniques to identify patterns and market response trends to company decisions and declarations. The minimal requirement of data and tools required for the analysis proposed form the major highlight of the present project. Thus, the present project is a testimony to the phrase “Transformation through Information”.
Category: Economics and Finance
[120] viXra:1601.0130 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 13:40:57
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.
A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[119] viXra:1601.0129 [pdf] replaced on 20181211 15:47:04
Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 2 Pages.
I find the mistake in Cauchy's theorem of Complex variables.
Category: Functions and Analysis
[118] viXra:1601.0128 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 07:38:39
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 19 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Schema for ‘HyperCausality Invokement Of Verbose Sounds Through Electromagnetic WaveGuide Effect’.
Category: General Mathematics
[117] viXra:1601.0127 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 09:19:21
Authors: Kang Yang, Kevin yang, Shuangren Ren Zhao
Comments: 13 Pages. This is one of best method to create a polygon or to solve the problem "inside the polygon"
There are many method for nding whether a point is inside a polygon or not. The congregation
of all points inside a polygon can be referred point congregation of polygon. Assume on a plane
there are N points. Assume the polygon have M vertexes. There are O(NM) calculations to create
the point congregation of polygon. Assume N>>M, we oer a parallel calculation method which
is suitable for GPU programming. Our method consider a polygon is consist of many fan regions.
The fan region can be positive and negative.
We wold like to extended this method to 3 D problem where a polyhedron instead of polygon should be drawn using cones.
Category: Geometry
[116] viXra:1601.0126 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 05:16:11
Authors: Vladimir F. Tamari
Comments: 13 Pages.
This paper documents how one of the author's inventions, sketched in 1983 in his notebook and published nowhere else, came to be independently developed and won Eric Betzig and others the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The concept was to take multiple sequences of images of the same object, randomly lit by fluorescent light one molecule at a time, digitally process these images and combine them in a final image so sharp it goes beyond the theoretical resolution limits set by Abbe for microscopes. As confirmed by the company's present CEO the basic idea was mentioned in an awards application to Carl Zeiss company in1995. Now Zeiss is manufacturing microscopes based on the same principle, revolutionizing biological and medical research because it allows the imaging of live cells in unprecedented finely resolved detail.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics
[115] viXra:1601.0125 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 05:36:34
Authors: Akovantsev Petr Ivanovich
Comments: 97 Pages.
УДК 053
Акованцев Пётр Иванович,
сменный мастер ВПАТП №3,
г.Воронеж, Российская Федерация.
Эфирное устройство Мира.
Аннотация: В статье изложено описание устройства Мира с помощью одной сущностиЭфира. Впервые даны представления о структурах электрона и протона. Дана природа основных физический явлений, как гравитация, электростатические и электромагнитные взаимодействий. Описана природа возникновения центробежной силы. Даны описания экспериментов, проведение которых, покажет наличие Эфира вокруг нас. Дано представление о формировании элементов таблицы Менделеева, показаны взаимодействия на уровне атомов и молекул. На космологическом уровне показаны этапы развития Вселенной.
Я оперирую не символами, а образами и математику не привлекаю для доказательства своих выводов. Для доказательства я привлекаю эксперимент и наблюдения астрономии и астрофизики. По моим понятиям природа силы заложена в движении Эфира. В основе всех явлений Природы лежит СВЕТОЭфиродинамика. Во Вселенной происходит только один процесс перехода Эфира в СВЕТ. Все явления в Природе предназначены для обеспечения этого процесса или являются следствием этого процесса.
Ключевые слова: Эфир, Свет, СветоЭфиродинамика.
UDC 053
Akovantsev Peter Ivanovich,
shift foreman MTE №3,
Voronezh, Russian Federation.
The essential structure of the world.
Abstract: The article described a device description of the world through a single entityether. For the first time we are given insight into the structure of electron and proton. Given the nature of the basic physical phenomena such as gravity, electrostatic and electromagnetic interactions. It described the nature of occurrence of the centrifugal force. The descriptions of experiments conducted which show the presence of ether around us. The representation of the formation of the elements of the periodic table, showing the interaction at the level of atoms and molecules. On the cosmological level shows the stages of development of the universe.
I do not operate on symbols, and images, and do not attract the math to prove their conclusions. To prove this I draw the experiment and observation of astronomy and astrophysics. According to my notions of the nature of power lies in the motion of the ether. The basis of all the phenomena of Nature is SVETOEfirodinamika. In the universe takes only one transition in the light of Aether. All phenomena in nature are intended to ensure that the process or are a consequence of this process.
Keywords: Ether, Light, SvetoEfirodinamika.
Category: Classical Physics
[114] viXra:1601.0124 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 06:34:19
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 6 Pages.
A collection of formulas involving constant s is shown
Category: General Mathematics
[113] viXra:1601.0123 [pdf] replaced on 20160116 11:12:25
Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 17 Pages.
Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and antibaryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of three quadruply strange pentaquarks: s s s s ̄u , s s s s ̄c and s s s s ̄t , and their antiparticles: s̄ s̄ s̄ s̄ u , ̄s̄ s̄ s̄ s̄ c and ̄s̄ s̄ s̄ s̄ t . Although this theory is intended for experts, it is simple enough, so that, it is also suitable for the general public.
Category: Quantum Physics
[112] viXra:1601.0122 [pdf] submitted on 20160111 18:20:03
Authors: Krishan P Vats
Comments: 1 Page.
Instantaneous (Spooky) action was deemed necessary to explain observed spin measurement of entangled electrons. The reason sited is that hidden variables can not explain the experimentally observed behavior. Well, they can!
Category: Quantum Physics
[111] viXra:1601.0121 [pdf] submitted on 20160111 22:59:26
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 48 Pages.
In this research monograph, the author presents some novel concepts of the aspect of ‘Conservation’ of sense (of belonging to the Language, not necessarily the meaning, the meaning is different) of language when any ‘Samskrutam’ Language Statement is reversed, phonetically {syllable and/ or group of syllables wise forming one unified phonetic construct of concern} wise. Furthermore, the meaning of the considered segments in the onward sense and the meaning of the same considered segment in the reverse and/ or backward sense have a causeeffectcause (i.e., as in Cause<>Effect<>Cause) relational sense when such segments are considered cyclically! Furthermore, the author notes that given a meaningful ‘Samskrutam’ language segment one can consider another (subset) segment from anywhere (once it is cyclically slated) within this segment and still such segment makes sense (though it may be different). Furthermore, this aspect also satisfies the aforementioned causeeffectcause meaning aspect detailed above. Furthermore, a ‘Universal Transformation Process Between Any Language Of Concern To Any Other Language Of Concern And Higher And/ Or Lower Order Variants Of Any Language Of Concern’ is presented. Also, a scheme to detect any tempering of ‘WorkConsciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is presented as we can note that this scheme can also be used a ‘Causality Meter’ and can be used to detect ‘Truth’ regarding Cause<>Effect<>Cause when the ‘WorkConsciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is analyzed in the onward (left to right) and the reverse (right to left) and/ or backward directions.
Category: General Mathematics
[110] viXra:1601.0120 [pdf] submitted on 20160112 02:28:12
Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 10 Pages.
The real asset approach towards bubbles and cycles as consequently crisis is explained by the monetary mechanism of economic rent from the land value of natural resources and locational value of buildings, i.e. further capital formation is inhibited by this kind of value extraction from the working body economic in physical patterns of cyclical crises.
Category: Social Science
[109] viXra:1601.0119 [pdf] replaced on 20171017 02:15:41
Authors: Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov
Comments: 12 Pages. Revised version
In the present paper we propose the generalized equations for ideal fluid based on spacetime algebra of sixteencomponent sedeons. It is shown that the dynamics of isentropic fluid can be described by sedeonic firstorder wave equation for fluid potentials. The key features of the proposed formalism are illustrated on the problem of the sound waves propagation. We consider the plane wave solution of linearized sedeonic wave equation and derive the secondorder relations for the sound potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem in electrodynamics. The generalization of proposed sedeonic equations for the description of viscous fluid is also discussed.
Category: Condensed Matter
[108] viXra:1601.0118 [pdf] submitted on 20160111 13:45:07
Authors: Ștefan Vlăduțescu, Janusz Grabara, Sebastian Kot
Comments: 13 Pages.
This study reveals Aristotle's modeling contribution to the establishment of a recognizable figure of argumentation and demonstration. These two ways of imposing an idea configure similarly: from the premises, relying on principles and with the help of some rules of inference arguments are presented which induce, inevitably or within the truth limits, a conclusion. Aristotle introduces the concept of topos, and a canon of argumentation and a canon demonstration are delineated. For stated figures of argumentation and demonstration, the Aristotelian canons constitute the first opening look.
Category: Social Science
[107] viXra:1601.0117 [pdf] submitted on 20160111 09:56:20
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 14 Pages.
Any given musical composition can be precisely analyzed for its emotional impact. This invention systematically categorizes all kinds of music on a valence  arousal plane (explained below) using a probabilistic approach akin to communication systems. All music  irrespective of region, lyrics and culture  is identified as evoking a certain combination of emotions that can be precisely quantified and located on the valencearousal plane. A detailed questionnaire is designed to validate the assumptions and predictions of the theoretical approach. A sample set of 79 individuals who were given the questionnaire were asked to adopt a rating scale to quantitatively assess the impact of each musical piece. Analysis of the data so gathered lends excellent support of the estimated impact (from theory) of any given musical composition. We all know that music of any kind or culture evokes/inspires/stimulates to a large extent an emotional response that is very specific to the stimulus. To start with, classical Carnati Indian music is considered in all its flavor. The fundamental claim is that every note (swara) evokes a corresponding emotional response independent of the specific position in the melody (raga). We consider the collective emotional impact of the fundamental 16 notes of an octave. Of these four notes termed dissonant notes (vivadis) also play a decisive role although only 12 notes are known to be 'fundamental'. One of the most common frameworks in the emotions field proposes that affective experiences are best characterized by two main dimensions: arousal and valence. The dimension of valence ranges from highly positive to highly negative, whereas the dimension of arousal ranges from calming or soothing to exciting or agitating. The product of the analysis is a mapping of all the ragas  for that matter any kind of music  onto an 2D (valence vs. arousal) plane, is enclosed.
Category: Mind Science
[106] viXra:1601.0116 [pdf] submitted on 20160111 10:03:07
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 86 Pages.
The prehistory of ancient India seems to be shrouded in mystery. Today, a secular country and the home of some of the most important religions, little can be said with concrete evidence about its past, especially before the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC). This has thus become a hot topic of debate and controversy among archaeologists and historians alike, and with the uncovering of artifacts and evidences from Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics and Mythology alike, a lot of light is being shedded on this mystery, and what seems to emerge are some shocking facts about this land.This work tries in the first place to consolidate such data collected by various fields, and also by experiments and inferences made by the author. It also takes into account various theories proposed till date, and with all this information, tries to consolidate and come up with one single theory/hypothesis that details the evolution and cultural and linguistic development of India and the effects it had on the rest of the world.
Category: Archaeology
[105] viXra:1601.0115 [pdf] replaced on 20160111 20:16:30
Authors: Robert Kardien Vanderhoek
Comments: 3 Pages.
A viable protonneutron fusion model based on an oscillating proton and classical mechanics
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics
[104] viXra:1601.0114 [pdf] submitted on 20160111 07:25:32
Authors: G.L.W.A Jayathilaka
Comments: 1 Page. This is very important to the world because This proof may be Fermat original proof because brief and easy to understand. So it matches to Fermat time.
Fermat last theorem original proof when n>2, proved by me. My name is G.L.W.A Jayathilaka. AddressGuruwattha walawwa, Meetiyagoda, Srilanka
Category: Number Theory
[103] viXra:1601.0113 [pdf] replaced on 20160116 09:12:42
Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 5 Pages. none
In this article it is shown that it is possible to explain the thrust generated by the EM Drive as a reaction force of emitted gravitational waves. This eliminates the controversy that surrounds the experiments performed with this device showing positive results that seemingly violate the Newton’s third law of action and reaction.
Keywords: EM Drive, Hubble constant, dark matter mass density, dark matter mass quantum, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation temperature, finite space model of the universe
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[102] viXra:1601.0112 [pdf] submitted on 20160111 09:51:21
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 42 Pages.
Music affects emotions and this is a universal truth. Carnatic music has a wide repertoire of ragas and hence houses a wide range of emotions. In this dissertation, the emotions caused by the swaras and other aspects of carnatic music such as ragas are analysed, both qualitatively and quantitatively, such that the emotional effect of any raga can be given as a “profile” consisting of percentages of various emotions. Then a notation scheme convenient for emotional analysis is proposed. The musical systems from different parts of the world are then considered. Techniques are then stated to apply chords to carnatic music to enhance the emotional content. A four dimensional theory of music and emotions is then proposed. Finally, a universal quantitative and qualitative emotional analysis procedure is specified, which can be applied to any musical piece/system from any part of the world.
Category: Mind Science
[101] viXra:1601.0111 [pdf] submitted on 20160111 09:54:15
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 12 Pages.
The hypothesis is that Music can be broken down into melody, rhythm, harmony and lyrics, Melody and harmony playing significant roles. Melody consists of notes whose emotions sum up to give total emotion of the musical piece. In this solution, Emotions of notes are quantitatively described followed by the emotions of melodies; this gives the emotion of the musical piece. The classification of emotions given by Robert Plutchik is used. Music is modelled as a communication system. Here the channel is not additive but transformative (transforms musical notes into emotions). A statistical approach is used where the time under consideration is the instant before the singing of a note. Two events are described. Event ‘x’ is the singing of a note whose chance is restricted by the melody allowing only certain notes. Probability matrix p(x) denotes probabilities of each note in the melody i.e. Composition of the melody. Event ‘y’ is the arousing of an emotion in the listener, which is probabilistic, and the probability matrix p(y) denotes the “emotion profile” of the melody.
Category: Mind Science
[100] viXra:1601.0110 [pdf] replaced on 20160125 06:23:53
Authors: H. Kubel
Comments: 3 pages
With Einstein’s interpretation, “everything is relative”, the socalled twin experiment discloses what is called a paradox, when the travelling twin returns and they compare watches (and aging). Some assign the solution to acceleration, which they claim should be taken into account so that the paradox evaporates. However, it’s easy to construct an experiment in which any acceleration lays outside the considered part of the experiment, so that within the measured part we have only constant velocities. We can then have one observer at rest, and two travelers who run through the travelling twin’s route, but without acceleration. Within a hypothetical absolute underlying medium, particles oscillate slower for an observer who moves through the Aether than they do for an observer at rest. An acceleration free experiment can be made in which all three agree on that. The conflict appears if the traveling ‘twins’ measure how fast the first observers clock runs, based on their respective lines of simultaneity, because then the travelling ‘twins’ then insist that A’s particles oscillate slower than their own. Even without the physical experiment, the thought experiment itself discloses that the twinparadox is a product of the “everything is relative” interpretation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[99] viXra:1601.0109 [pdf] replaced on 20160118 21:00:12
Authors: Angel Isaac Cruz Escalante
Comments: 1 Page.
A proof of Goldbach's conjecture
Category: Number Theory
[98] viXra:1601.0108 [pdf] submitted on 20160111 01:41:26
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.
Motivated by the growing trend in anonymity, the present work studies and explores online anonymity and its effect on psychological aspects from both mathematical and experimental perspectives. Mathematically, using mappings, it is seen that anonymity corresponds to quantum entanglement like states, corresponding to an increase in chaotic nature. Experiments and subsequent analysis focusing on three psychological aspects, namely Structural Model of the Psyche, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Affective Experience suggest that the barrier of identity protection offered by anonymity drives people to orient their psychological states towards id dominance, openness of negative emotions, and dominance of physical needs over higher level needs. From the results and discussions, one can easily observe and characterize the shift in behavioural trends of people during anonymity.
Category: Mind Science
[97] viXra:1601.0107 [pdf] submitted on 20160111 03:51:38
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 21 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has stated the Significance of ‘Quantizing Ability And/ Or HyperCausality Invoking Ability Of Truth Statements In Samskrutam Language’.
Category: General Mathematics
[96] viXra:1601.0106 [pdf] submitted on 20160110 13:54:58
Authors: Alex Patterson
Comments: 4 Pages. Paper 1, of program.
Using Functor Substitutability for the basis of creating an intuitionist interpretation of the results of that subscribe. Laying the Grounds for Challenging Goedel's Incompleteness Theorems with the Aspects of the Poincare Group. Proceeding with: Propositional Quantum Logic, Transitioning “NonCommensurable” Smoothly to FunctorAuxiliary Substitutability and Detachment.
Category: Topology
[95] viXra:1601.0105 [pdf] submitted on 20160110 14:35:45
Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian: Yusupov Robert © Time in the drop of water
Согласно учебникам физика является наукой о природе, физика изучает природу. В физике считается, что природа материальна. Из естествознания и философии мы знаем, что понятия материя и время являются фундаментальными понятиями природы и мироздания. Время широко используется в физике. Но в теории современной физики не определены физические величины материя и время. Это нонсенс. Что такое время? Как время соотносится с природой, с реальностью и материей? В предлагаемой вниманию статье предпринята попытка решения проблемы времени с позиции диалектического материализма. Для решения используется простая модель, представленная в природе примитивным процессом свободного истечения воды из резервуара по каплям.

According to the textbooks the physics is the science of nature, the physics studies nature. In the physics it is believed that the nature of the material. Because of the natural sciences and philosophy we know that the concepts of matter and time are the fundamental concepts of the nature and the universe. Time is widely used in physics. But in the theory of modern physics the physical quantities matter and time are not determined. This is nonsense. What is time? How time is related to the nature, reality and the matter? The attention of the proposed article is an attempt to solve the problem of time from a position of dialectical materialism. For solution using a simple model presented in the nature by the primitive process of the free expiration of the water from the reservoir dropwise.
Category: Classical Physics
[94] viXra:1601.0103 [pdf] submitted on 20160110 11:56:30
Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 5 Pages.
Sabine Hossenfelder states, “The Holographic Principle requires that the number of different states inside a volume is bounded by the surface of the volume. That sounds like a rather innocuous and academic constraint, but once you start thinking about it it’s totally mindboggling.”(2)This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties. It gives a mechanism of why the Holographic Principle is true.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
[93] viXra:1601.0102 [pdf] submitted on 20160110 08:52:42
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 8 Pages.
The present work presents an insight into how complexity, chaos and nonlinear dynamics play a crucial role in determining the coevolution of the societyandlaw system. The paradigm shift obtained from a reductionist dominant to a holistic dynamical systems approach entails reversing a “reductionist funnel” to ensure better balance and coordination among the freedom, rights and regulations attractors, driving sociolegal principles in the context of human free will. Also, the significance of freedomrightregulation balance in sociolegal design in the context of various Indian philosophy schools are understood.
Category: Social Science
[92] viXra:1601.0101 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 18:27:54
Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 4 Pages.
In a recent Nature article Hensen et al. reported that they have accomplished a "loopholefree" test of Bell's theorem. The authors speculated that further improvements in their experimental design could settle an 80 year debate in favor of quantum theory's stance that entanglement is "action at a distance". We direct attention to a spatial aspect of locality, not considered by Bell's Theorem or by any of its experimental tests. We refer to the possibility that two distanced particles could remain spatially disconnected, even when distanced enough to ensure that information between them was transmitted faster than the velocity of light. We show that any localdeterministic relativity theory which violates Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies can maintain spatial locality at any distance. We conclude that until the loophole of spatial locality is closed by future experiments, the news about the death of locality will remain greatly exaggerated.
Category: Quantum Physics
[91] viXra:1601.0100 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 22:13:59
Authors: Yang Yu, Qian Wang, Xuelin Wang, Yuhang Wu, Jing Liu
Comments: 11 pages, 4 figures, 1 table.
We discovered for the first time a fundamental phenomenon that arc discharge plasma can be easily triggered in liquid through jetting liquid metal stream to the electrode under only very small voltage. Along with the liquid metal stream, repetitive plasmas with light emission were generated which could last for several milliseconds each time, yet with a consistent current. The principal peaks of such optical emission spectrum lie in the ultraviolet and visible blue and violet sections, which are mainly caused by the plasma of gallium and indium. Some micro/submicro metal droplets and other arbitraryshaped products such as “liquid metal pea” were also fabricated via the process. A series of critical factors to affect such fundamental events were experimentally clarified and interpreted. This finding opens an extremely easy and unconventional way to generate plasma at room temperature which would offer diverse applications such as serving as a light emitter for either optical or ultraviolet illuminations, as an electroacoustic source, or fabricating micro or particles of the liquid metal and other compounds.
Category: Condensed Matter
[90] viXra:1601.0099 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 22:07:27
Authors: Alagu S, Meyyappan T
Comments: 12 Pages.
This paper analyses the different traffic schemes for handoff handling and call blocking
attempts. As traffic in mobile cellular networks increases, Handoffs will become an increasingly
important issue and as cell sizes shrink to accommodate an increasingly large demand of services,
newer more efficient handoff schemes need to be used. In this paper the author analyses the various
Handoff schemes for multiple traffic system and simulates an ATM based wireless Personal
Communication Network to implement the nonpreemptive Measurement Based Prioritization Scheme
(MBPS).
Category: Digital Signal Processing
[89] viXra:1601.0098 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 22:08:59
Authors: Mrs. Prachi Karandikar, Sachin Deshpande
Comments: 8 Pages.
Data mining, the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases, is nothing but
discovering hidden value in the data warehouse. Because of the increasing ability to trace and collect large
amount of personal information, privacy preserving in data mining applications has become an important
concern. Data distortion is one of the well known techniques for privacy preserving data mining. The objective
of these data perturbation techniques is to distort the individual data values while preserving the underlying
statistical distribution properties. These techniques are usually assessed in terms of both their privacy
parameters as well as its associated utility measure. In this paper, we are studying the use of nonnegative
matrix factorization (NMF) with sparseness constraints for data distortion.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms
[88] viXra:1601.0097 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 22:10:00
Authors: F. Emily Manoz, Priya, P.s. Ramesh, B.shanthi
Comments: 5 Pages.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a new class of networking technology .When we use sensor
network in brutal environment, security is most important concern. The technology may face against various
attacks. These attacks produce vulnerability against authentication, confidentiality and trustworthiness. This
paper introduces an adaptive method for securing the transformation of messages in wireless sensor networks in
the harsh environment. The light weight protocols are highly suitable for achieving authentication. The efficient
matching algorithm will be used for performing packet matching and also it detects the malicious attack
efficiently within the transformation of data. Finally, the encryption/decryption algorithm secures our original
data.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms
[87] viXra:1601.0096 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 22:12:21
Authors: Saida Ibnyaich, Raefat Jalila El Bakouchi, Samira Chabaa, Abdelilah Ghammaz, Moha M’rabet Hassani
Comments: 8 Pages.
With the current expansion and the anticipated further increase in the
use of cellular telephones and other wireless communication devices,
considerable research effort is devoted to investigations of interactions between
antennas on handsets and the human body. This interaction significantly
changes the antenna characteristics from that in free space or even on the device
(handset, laptop). In this paper and in order to study this problem, firstly a
planar invertedF antenna (PIFA) was designed and simulated to operate over
the frequency 2,45 GHz , then the influence of the human head on the return
loss and on the radiation efficiency of the antenna has been studied.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms
[86] viXra:1601.0095 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 22:13:17
Authors: Sharma Shelja, Kumar Suresh, Rathy R. K.
Comments: 13 Pages.
Ad hoc networks are infrastructureless collection of mobile nodes,
characterized by wireless links, dynamic topology and ease of deployment. Proactive
routing protocols maintain the network topology information in the form of routing
Tables, by periodically exchanging the routing information. Mobility of nodes leads to
frequent link breaks, resulting in loss of communication and thus the Information in the
Table may become stale after some time. DSDV routing protocol follows proactive
approach for routing and uses stale routes in case of link break, which is the major cause
of its low performance as mobility increases. We have focused on two variants of DSDV
namely EffDSDV and IDSDV, which deals with the broken link reconstruction and
discussed in these protocols, the process of route reconstruction due to broken links. To
analyze this route reconstruction mechanism, we have used a terrain of size 700m × 800
m with 8 nodes placed randomly. Analysis shows that both EffDSDV & IDSDV,
perform better than DSDV in Packet Delivery Ratio and Packet Loss with slight increase
in Routing Overheads.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms
[85] viXra:1601.0094 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 22:14:17
Authors: Mohammed Bsiss, Amami Benaissa
Comments: 8 Pages.
Currently, the achievements of security systems is becoming more and more ground in different areas
not only through the development of new technologies of programmable circuits, with the ability to achieve very
complex systems in a single chip but thanks also a common and coherent organization of the different safety
standard.This paper describes the implementation for a safety fuzzy logic controller (SFLC) on the basis of Safety
Norm 61508. The SFLC is programmed with the hardware description language VHDL and implemented in
FPGA.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms
[84] viXra:1601.0093 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 22:15:09
Authors: Vasanth H, A.R.Aswath
Comments: 8 Pages.
Interrupt controller is designed with the concept of priority based selection
of peripherals which requires immediate attention or service. Here AHB is optimized
to interface with VIC to initiate data transfer on the AHB. Both read and write cycles
are designed with AHB bus.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms
[83] viXra:1601.0092 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 22:15:59
Authors: Sarita Rani, Sanju Saini, Sanjeeta Rani
Comments: 6 Pages.
Temperature is a very important parameter in industrial production. Recently, lots of researches have been
investigated for the temperature control system based on various control strategies. This paper presents the comparison of
GAPID, fuzzy and PID for temperature control of water bath system. Different control schemes namely PID, PID tuning
using Genetic Algorithms(GAPID), and Fuzzy Logic Control, have been compared through experimental studies with respect
to setpoints regulation, influence of impulse noise and sum of absolute error. The new algorithm based on GAPID improve the
performance of the system. Also, it's fit for the complicated variable temperature control system. The simulation results show that
the validity of the proposed strategy is more effective to control temperature.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms
[82] viXra:1601.0091 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 22:17:06
Authors: S. Anupama Kumar, Vijayalakshmi M.N
Comments: 7 Pages.
Educational data mining is an emerging technology concerned with developing methods for exploring the various
unique data that exists in the educational settings and uses them to understand the students as well as the domain in which they
learn. Educational domain consists of a lot of data related to students, teachers and other learning strategies. Classification
algorithms can be used on various educational data to mine the academic records. It can be used to predict student‘s outcome
based on their previous academic performance. The various predictive algorithms like, C4.5, Random tree are applied on
student‘s previous academic results to predict the outcome of the students in the university examination. The prediction would
help the tutor in understanding the progress and attitude of the student towards the studies. It would also help them to identify the
students who are constantly improving in their studies and help them to achieve a higher percentage. It also helps them to identify
the underperformers so that extra effort can be taken to achieve a better result. The algorithms are analyzed based on their
accuracy of predicting the result, the recall and the precision values. The accuracy of the algorithm is predicted by comparing the
output generated by the algorithm with the original result obtained by the students in the university examination.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms
[81] viXra:1601.0090 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 22:17:56
Authors: Affum Emmanuel, Edward Ansong
Comments: 14 Pages.
Ultra wideband (UWB) technology is one of the promising solutions for future shortrange
communication which has recently received a great attention by many researchers. However,
interest in UWB devices prior to 2001 was primarily limited to radar systems, mainly for
military applications due to bandwidth resources becoming increasingly scarce and also its
interference with other commutation networks. This research work provides performance
analysis of multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MBOFDM) UWB MIMO
system in the presence of binary phaseshift keying timehopping (BPSKTH) UWB or BPSKDS
UWB interfering transmissions under Nakagamim and Lognormal fading channels
employing various modulation schemes using MATLAB simulations. The research work
indicates that it is totally impossible to predict the performance of UWB system in
Lognormal channel.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms
[80] viXra:1601.0089 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 22:32:00
Authors: Rajashree Sukla, Chinmaya Kumar Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.
In this paper we introduce a new interconnection network Fault Tolerant Hierarchical Interconnection network for parallel Computers denoted by FTH(k, 1).This network has fault tolerant hierarchical structure which overcomes the fault tolerant properties of Extended hypercube(EH).This network has low diameter, constant degree connectivity and low message traffic density in comparisons with other hypercube type networks like extended hypercube and hypercube. In this network we proposed the fault tolerant algorithm for node fault and also we introduce the hamiltonian Circuit for the proposed network FTH(k,2).
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms
[79] viXra:1601.0088 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 23:39:50
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 21 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Preventing
Cancerous Growth’
Category: General Mathematics
[78] viXra:1601.0087 [pdf] submitted on 20160110 06:05:04
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 20 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘One Step Evolutionary Growth of Any Set Of Concern’.
Category: General Mathematics
[77] viXra:1601.0086 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 10:24:26
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.
In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8]
'In the new run, because of the highestever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7]
The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6]
They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these massgiving particles have more in common than was thought. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity spacetime curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[76] viXra:1601.0085 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 07:28:07
Authors: Vyacheslav Pavlovich Telnin
Comments: 3 Pages. look to the viXra paper 1407.0190
Two ideas : 1) The existence of H – the Hubble constant, and 2) The possibility of tachyons existence. They gives me the hope to try to describe the motion of galaxies on the other side of the border between visible and invisible parts of the Universe. And also how to expand the visible Universe part with the help of the tachyons.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[75] viXra:1601.0084 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 08:41:16
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 21 Pages.
In this research investigation, the author has presented Construction of Three Types of Primalities– namely, Verbal Primality, Act(ion) Primality and Sense Understanding and/ or Perception Primality.
Category: General Mathematics
[74] viXra:1601.0083 [pdf] submitted on 20160108 22:13:29
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 21 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Schema for ‘Solving Any Puzzle’.
Category: General Mathematics
[73] viXra:1601.0082 [pdf] submitted on 20160109 01:41:44
Authors: Jason Lind
Comments: 3 Pages. The linked papers are just as important of a read as the posted work itself.
This paper convincingly demonstrates the existence of a timespacethought continuum in metaphysics and theorizes that it indeed exists in the physics.
Largely published in 2012 on www.lindi.com it has been updated to reflect the author's current interpretations of the subject matter.
Category: General Science and Philosophy
[72] viXra:1601.0081 [pdf] submitted on 20160108 07:48:36
Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 14 Pages. the abstract in english and the main text in spanish
In this paper we show some formulas for constant Pi
Category: General Mathematics
[71] viXra:1601.0080 [pdf] replaced on 20170227 14:48:22
Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 9 Pages. Presented at/Published in 20th Annual Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference  College Park, MD, July 1013, 2013
The following is an attempt to explain that time dilation in relativity is an apparent phenomenon only, i.e., when one frame moves relative to another at a constant speed, it only appears that its clock runs slower than the other. In the first (simple) case, the box remains stationary. In the second, it moves horizontally at speed = 0.5c. By having lights flash simultaneously at the ends of the box, the “photos” that reach the observers (at positions = 0 in each frame) record simultaneous positions for comparison to determine the “true” box length because both photos are taken at the same time, even though they do not reach the observers simultaneously. Each photo records the light flash and the corresponding positions and times in both frames when the flash occurred. The conclusion drawn from this analysis is that, whether or not reference frames are moving relative to one another, time does not vary – any such variation is apparent only.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[70] viXra:1601.0079 [pdf] replaced on 20170227 14:57:49
Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 7 Pages. Presented at/Published in 1st Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference  Florida Atlantic University, August 58, 2015
The MichelsonMorley Interferometer Experiment of 1887 is often cited as one of the cornerstones (and perhaps THE cornerstone) upon which Einstein built his theory of special relativity. Allegedly, it “proved” there was no aether. Once Einstein postulated that the speed of light was invariant, the only explanation that became accepted was that time slowed and length contracted due to relative motion according to the Lorentz Transformation formulae, adopted by Einstein as tenets of his special relativity. Despite subsequent experiments contradicting the alleged “null result,” reanalysis of the results indicating positive (“nonnull”) results, and even maintaining the validity of the null result but explaining it via classical physics, the M&M Interferometer Experiment remains a special relativity foundation. However, if the limitation of the invariance of the speed of light is removed, the “null result” can be easily explained without resort to special relativity and its postulates of time dilation and length contraction. Yet this is seldom done.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[69] viXra:1601.0078 [pdf] replaced on 20170227 14:53:09
Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 13 Pages. Presented at/Published in 1st Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference  Florida Atlantic University, August 68, 2015
Linked with the concept of a cosmological Doppler redshift is an expanding universe with rapidly receding stars, galaxies, etc. Assuming no form of matter, especially a reasonably macroscopic and tenuous one like a star, let alone an entire galaxy, could possibly travel at speeds approaching that of light and remain ‘intact’ (except, perhaps, something as dense as a neutron star), the only possible way for such an entity to exhibit recession speeds approaching that of light would be for space itself to be expanding. And whether one accepts the traditional or Galilean Doppler redshift as the correct explanation, one is still left to conclude that ‘something’ is ‘racing away.’ I endeavor to cast doubt on the traditional explanation of a cosmological Doppler redshift due to universe expansion. A Galilean Doppler redshift may be an equally plausible explanation for those who adhere to the premise of stars, galaxies, etc., receding for whatever reason.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[68] viXra:1601.0077 [pdf] replaced on 20170227 15:12:16
Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 12 Pages. Presented at/Published in 1st Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference  Florida Atlantic University, August 58, 2015
Einstein’s relativity contends that time, as measured by clocks, slows with increasing speed, becoming especially noticeable as the speed of light is approached. Discussions of this usually focus on constant speeds, albeit near the speed of light, and phenomena such as muon decay (near light speed), or even the HafeleKeating experiment (at much slower speeds), are cited as ‘proof.’ Dissident scientists often contend that time remains invariant, although clocks may appear to run slower at increasing speeds. At least one such scientist contends that accelerated clocks can run both slower and faster, an interesting departure that I decided to examine via some examples. To the extent that my examples are correct, I too would agree with this conjecture, namely that, while time remains invariant, clocks can run faster and slower when accelerated (but not at constant velocity).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[67] viXra:1601.0075 [pdf] submitted on 20160108 13:26:02
Authors: Rami Mehrem
Comments: 5 Pages.
The integral $\int_0^\infty r^{2\lambda}\,
j_0(k_1r)\,j_0(k_2r)\,j_\lambda(k_3r)\,dr$ is evaluated for any real positive $k_1$, $k_2$, $k_3$ and $\lambda \ge 0$
Category: Mathematical Physics
[66] viXra:1601.0074 [pdf] submitted on 20160108 13:57:20
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 6 Pages.
The curved spacetime around current loops and solenoids carrying arbitrarily large steady electric currents is obtained from the numerical resolution of the coupled EinsteinMaxwell equations in cylindrical symmetry. The artificial gravitational field associated to the generation of a magnetic field produces gravitational redshift of photons and deviation of light. Null geodesics in the curved spacetime of current loops and solenoids are also presented. We finally propose an experimental setup, achievable with current technology of superconducting coils, that produces a phase shift of light of the same order of magnitude than astrophysical signals in groundbased gravitational wave observatories. [4]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
[65] viXra:1601.0073 [pdf] submitted on 20160108 09:17:53
Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 9 Pages.
Nonlinear Science has witnessed exponential growth in recent years, due to the enhanced ability it offers in understanding intricate patterns of system evolution. The present work purports to the application of such nonlinear analysis tools to obtain an enhanced perspective of the home planet earth. Specifically, nonlinear analyses of latitudinal and longitudinal altitude profiles reveal the presence of underlying chaotic dynamics and patterns. Interpretations of these results lead to the concept of interconnectedness of every location on earth to every other location, through space and time, where man and his evolutions and developments are seen as an integral part of nature’s transformation. Taking cue from this, the concept of “GeoCompatibility” is introduced, given by the covariance of their chaotic signatures. Following this, GeoCompatibilities of assorted location pairs are computed. From the results, it is seen that geographical similarities across and within continents show low and high GeoCompatibilities respectively. However, the most interesting results are the high values of GeoCompatibility obtained for pairings between Holy Sites suggesting that the development of civilizations and cultures, which are a result of mannature interactions over hundreds of years, too possess intricate patterns. The entire work is thus a testimony to the concept of interconnectedness.
Category: Geophysics
[64] viXra:1601.0072 [pdf] submitted on 20160108 03:20:32
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.
A trio of brightly pulsating stars at the outskirts of the Milky Way is racing away from the galaxy and may confirm a method for detecting dwarf galaxies dominated by dark matter and explain ripples in the outer disk of the galaxy. [16]
A recent uptick in the discovery of the smallest, oldest galaxies benefits studies of dark matter, galaxy formation and the evolution of the universe. [15]
Gammaray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics
[63] viXra:1601.0071 [pdf] submitted on 20160108 05:19:14
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 19 Pages.
In this research manuscript the author has detailed the Importance of Street Vendor Business(es) Quantification and Consequential Optimization using author’s ‘Optimal Business Varietization’ [72].
Category: General Mathematics
[62] viXra:1601.0070 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 16:41:10
Authors: J.Tiago de Oliveira
Comments: 37 Pages.
Statistical Analysis of Extremes
chapter 3
Category: Statistics
[61] viXra:1601.0069 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 16:42:58
Authors: J.Tiago de Oliveira
Comments: 11 Pages.
Statistical Analysis of Extremes
chapter 4
Category: Statistics
[60] viXra:1601.0068 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 17:07:45
Authors: Isabel Barahona da Fonseca, José Carlos Tiago de Oliveira, José Barahona da Fonseca, J. S. da Fonseca
Comments: 3 Pages.
An original interpretation of the artist Almada Negreiros by the medical doctor who followed him
Category: Mind Science
[59] viXra:1601.0067 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 17:13:20
Authors: JJose Luis Simoes da Fonseca
Comments: 6 Pages.
The disciple of Warren McCulloch on Neuronal Model specifies, half a century later, a new logical formalism for consciousness and behaviour
Category: Mind Science
[58] viXra:1601.0066 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 11:35:21
Authors: S. Halayka
Comments: 4 Pages.
Some 2D and 3D black hole exterior solutions for Quantum Graphity are briefly presented.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
[57] viXra:1601.0065 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 12:02:09
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 1 Page.
We prove that World economical crisis never ends.
Category: Economics and Finance
[56] viXra:1601.0064 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 12:05:18
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 2 Pages.
We show how random waalks can be used in economics and how to erase the closed circle of economical crisis.
Category: Economics and Finance
[55] viXra:1601.0063 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 12:09:15
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 3 Pages.
We show that over time innovation abilities are flattened resulting in raise of unemployment and the distribution of world wealth to be a peak for one and zero for others.
Category: Economics and Finance
[54] viXra:1601.0062 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 12:15:25
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 1 Page.
Using Brownian Motion approach we show that if the egoism of one tends to infinity then the exchange in innovations tends to zero.
We show that if inflexibility of a person mind tends to infinitty then the exchange in innovations tends to zero.
That leads to Stagnation and eventually to Society Marasmus.
Category: Economics and Finance
[53] viXra:1601.0061 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 12:18:34
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 2 Pages.
We show that countries economics are like train that move faster and faster. Pensioners are the load (vagons). We show the way to find out when the load is cut off from the train because it is too heavy amd the train is not able to move as fast as needed.
Category: Economics and Finance
[52] viXra:1601.0060 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 12:21:26
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 1 Page.
We prove that bank is Pitekantrop. Hence it is safer to put money under pillow.
Category: Economics and Finance
[51] viXra:1601.0059 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 12:26:20
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 2 Pages.
We prove that current world people conscience leaves in duality.
Category: Social Science
[50] viXra:1601.0058 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 12:30:28
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 2 Pages.
We prove that World economics development results in exponental growth of garbage.
Category: Social Science
[49] viXra:1601.0057 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 07:46:03
Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 18 Pages.
In this paper, we will present a new perspective of certain dimensions that manifest physically and therefore can be studied. Theoretical ground work will be set within General Relativity since it provides the highest accuracy in cosmology, but we will also “bridge” to quantum mechanics near the end of the paper.
Using the notion of “physical dimensions” we will explain some aspects that have puzzled physicists so far, including what is known as “the arrow of time”. It will be proven theoretically that there is no such thing and that time has no direction since temporal motion requires only expansion and a velocity of that expansion, time expands in all directions and influences the expansion of space, hence inflating space and forming the spacetime continuum from the earliest age of the Universe, the Big Bang, to present time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[48] viXra:1601.0056 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 07:53:38
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 2 Pages.
How much does the work of a sanitary worker cost? In new European union countries it costs 100
eur for two days work to reinstall the water pipes in bath and kitchen, and in old European country
to suck sewage from the ground sewer costs 300 eur for 10 min, and sanitary hourly work is about
70 eur.
One can ask why is so huge difference? The materials are the same, the technology is the same.
What makes that difference?
Is the cost of work just an illusion as Karl Marx wrote in Capital that capitalists manipulate so well.
In this article, we show that there is a Law that proves that Work Cost is Illusion.
The work cost is proprotional to the number of rules of the underlied economical system.
Category: Social Science
[47] viXra:1601.0055 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 06:55:25
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.
Scientists have recreated an elusive form of the material that makes up much of the giant planets in our solar system, and the sun. [10]
Stephen Hawking described it as the most spectacular failure of any physical theory in history. Can a new theory of information rescue cosmologists? [9]
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics
[46] viXra:1601.0054 [pdf] submitted on 20160107 00:35:00
Authors: Ross Nickel
Comments: 11 Pages.
An equation (1) is presented which introduces a velocity term based upon Newton’s law of gravity. This term is included in equation (2) which is proposed as a universal velocity law. These two equations are then used to: 1. establish a maximum energy ceiling for cosmic rays, 2. account for the rotational velocities of stars formed from interstellar clouds, 3. predict solar planetary velocities, 4. apply them to the universe itself, 5. calculation of radius of quarks. Quantities are calculated which have not been calculated before, with modest success.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[45] viXra:1601.0053 [pdf] submitted on 20160106 13:59:31
Authors: G.L.W.A Jayathilaka
Comments: 1 Page. all journals are invited by the Author to consider this great proof
This proof may be the original proof of Fermat last theorem that Fermat had. Because It is not difficult and easy to understand. So this proof is very useful to the world.
Category: Number Theory
[44] viXra:1601.0052 [pdf] replaced on 20160718 12:57:14
Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 3 Pages.
In this paper I introduce two new formulas for the finestructure constant based on the number pi. The accuracy of the first formula is 10 decimal places, while the accuracy of the second formula is 11 decimal places. Thus, both formulas improve the accuracy of a previous formula I published in July 2015.
Category: General Mathematics
[43] viXra:1601.0051 [pdf] submitted on 20160106 11:22:53
Authors: P.Dervissis
Comments: 2 Pages.
In this note we are examining the contribution of yoga in the management of work stress. The need for work, its preservation but also its loss can become sources of great physical and psychological tension. Because of the current financial crisis professional stress has reached alarming levels. This has as a result the transfer of work insecurities to the home. We find that the educational character of yoga while respecting personal boundaries cultivates skill in practice and develops our degree of self –receptivity. This has as a result physical benefits that last beyond the duration of thelesson, such as relaxation, vigilance, resilience and endurance under conditions of intense competitive work stress.
Category: Mind Science
[42] viXra:1601.0050 [pdf] submitted on 20160106 11:30:46
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.
A recent uptick in the discovery of the smallest, oldest galaxies benefits studies of dark matter, galaxy formation and the evolution of the universe. [15]
Gammaray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics
[41] viXra:1601.0049 [pdf] submitted on 20160106 05:19:42
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 25 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a ‘Universal Recursive Scale Shifting Technique’ using which one can Scale any ‘Infinity’. Also, a ‘Universal Recursion Scheme That Is Vertically {Maximally} Evolving is presented’.
Category: General Mathematics
[40] viXra:1601.0048 [pdf] submitted on 20160106 05:30:54
Authors: Quang Nguyen Van
Comments: 5 Pages.
We introduce an efficient method for exporting a sequence of prime numbers by using Excel.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory
[39] viXra:1601.0046 [pdf] submitted on 20160106 08:54:14
Authors: Amelia Carolina Sparavigna
Comments: 5 Pages. Keywords: Patterned Vegetation, Ecosystems, Satellite images, Google Earth.
Largescale patterns can arise in the vegetation of homogeneous areas due to biotic interactions of animals and plants. If the satellite imagery has a high enough resolution, such patterns can be easily observed. Here we show some large polkadot arrangements, probably created by the red harvester ants, in Arizona, near the Grand Canyon.
Category: Quantitative Biology
[38] viXra:1601.0045 [pdf] replaced on 20160417 08:36:40
Authors: Carsten S.P. Spanheimer
Comments: 26 Pages. In german language.
Die Einführung 'quaternionischer Differentialformen' auf dem Tangentialraum einer vierdimensionalen Mannigfaltigkeit ergibt ein vielversprechendes mathematisches System zur Beschreibung unserer physikalischen (3+1)Raumzeit
schon mit einem Minimum von Grundannahmen.
Hier wird die Grundlage dieses Modells einer 'Quaternionischen Raumzeit' dargestellt.
Category: Mathematical Physics
[37] viXra:1601.0044 [pdf] submitted on 20160106 10:11:52
Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Eightpage Letter
We first find here that the ratio of: (loss in energy of cosmologically redshifting photon) and (loss in electrostatic potentialenergy of an electron at the same distance D) remains equal to the famous ratio (G me mp) / e2 leading us towards a possibility that ‘cosmological redshift’ may be due to gravitational effect. So we consider three different possibilities how the reduction in energy of the photon can be understood in terms of gravitational effects; namely: (i) absorption and reemission of intergalactic photons by the ‘virtual particles’ in space, (ii) photons have to climb the gravitational potential well produced by their own energy, and (iii) the quantum jumps of the photons causing repeated productions and collapses of gravitational fields giving rise to gravitational waves or ripples. Then it is argued that if such a deceleration is true for a chunk of energy called photon, then it must be true for every particle of matter too. Strikingly, the decelerations experienced by the spaceprobes Pioneer10, Pioneer11, Galileo and Ulysses, as carefully measured by Anderson J.D. et. al. match perfectly with the deceleration of the ‘cosmologically redshifting photons’; thus providing supportive evidence for the simple explanation proposed here.
Category: Astrophysics
[36] viXra:1601.0043 [pdf] submitted on 20160105 18:05:23
Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 23 Pages.
In this article, we first classify A, B and C according to their respective odevity, and thereby get rid of two kinds from AX+BY=CZ. Then, affirmed the existence of AX+BY=CZ in which case A, B and C have at least a common prime factor by certain of concrete examples. After that, proved AX+BY≠CZ in which case A, B and C have not any common prime factor by the mathematical induction with the aid of the symmetric law of positive odd numbers after divide the inequality in four. Finally, we proved that the Beal’s conjecture does hold water via the comparison between AX+BY=CZ and AX+BY≠CZ under the given requirements.
Category: Number Theory
[35] viXra:1601.0042 [pdf] submitted on 20160105 20:56:52
Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 5 Pages. This is draft version, noit submitted yet to any journal
In accordance with Edward Said’s Culture and Imperialism, it has become more obvious that culture is a vehicle of imperialism all over the world through globalization. Or, in the context of postcolonial studies, there are dominance and resistance movement around everything in this world’s history. Similarly, there are cultural dominance and cultural resistance. In this paper, I argue that the term of Cultural Advantage which I and Prof. Florentin Smarandache coined back in 2008, can be a postcolonial resistance, i.e. a method which can be used by developing and underdeveloping countries (especially in Asia) to resist the globalization of culture brought by the First World Countries. In this paper, I first discuss why Postcolonialism matters.
Category: Social Science
[34] viXra:1601.0041 [pdf] submitted on 20160105 21:44:29
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.
An overview of an article published in the January, 2016 issue of Scientific American in opposition to stellar metamorphosis theory is presented.
Category: Astrophysics
[33] viXra:1601.0040 [pdf] submitted on 20160105 22:37:06
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 20 Pages.
In this research manuscript the author has detailed a Schema for ‘Universal Vision Tunneling’. Also, the author has detailed a Schema for ‘Universal Infinite Frequency Tunneling’.
Category: General Mathematics
[32] viXra:1601.0039 [pdf] replaced on 20160926 21:16:25
Authors: GuagSan Yu
Comments: 7 Pages. The Chinese
The Newton second law and the law of third have beened wrong by the proof, his mistake be caused by the localization of the derivative. Therefore new derivative the computation method desiderate the creation, this is the Inverse Derivative computation method. The inverse derivative is a kind of extension of the derivative computation, it creation been according to derivative the computation, the adoption is through regulatory and conversion the computation formula of the mostly derivative. In the physics and mechanics engineering realm, the Inverse Derivative be may adopted in largeness, to replace original derivative computation method. Will produce the enormous and profound influence.
Category: Functions and Analysis
[31] viXra:1601.0038 [pdf] submitted on 20160106 02:41:47
Authors: Sevtsov Sergey Viktorovich
Comments: 7 Pages.
The author considers the reasons which cause the necessity of changing configuration of a discharge camera of plasma focus installation. The new construction with noncylindrical Zpinch installations is offered. The author forwards a proposal about the cardinal change of formation and gas discharge process in the offered working camera, expected growth of thermonuclear efficiency coefficient and reducing the neutron scaling saturation in megajoule installations.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics
[30] viXra:1601.0037 [pdf] submitted on 20160104 13:51:03
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.
Today, quantum optical experiments provide methods to prove the rules that have been thought of and pressed into elegant mathematical equations in those days. In this regard, scientists in the Quantum ManyBody Division of Professor Immanuel Bloch at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have made a big step forward. [8]
Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic antisocial behavior is that it allows for carbonbased life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7]
Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6]
Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5]
Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'waveparticle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics
[29] viXra:1601.0036 [pdf] submitted on 20160105 04:59:27
Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 12 Pages. Submitted to Foundations of Physics Letters
A brief review of the basics of the Clifford $ Cl ( 5, C ) $ Unified Gauge Field Theory formulation of Conformal Gravity
and $ U (4) \times U (4) \times U(4) $ YangMills in $ 4D$ is presented. A physically relevant subgroup is $ SU (2, 2) \times SU (4)_C \times SU (4)_L \times SU (4)_R $ and which is compatible with the ColemanMandula theorem (in the absence of a mass gap). This proposal for a Clifford Algebraic Unification of Conformal Gravity with an Extended Standard Model deals mainly with models of $four$ generations of fermions. Mirror fermions can be incorporated as well. Whether these mirror fermions are dark matter candidates is an open question. There are also residual $U(1)$ groups within this Clifford group unification scheme that should play an important in Cosmology in connection to dark matter particles coupled to gravity via a Bimetric extension of General Relativity. Other four generation scenarios based on $ Cl (6,R), Cl (8,R) $ algebras, Supersymmetric Field Theories and Quaternions are discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[28] viXra:1601.0035 [pdf] submitted on 20160105 06:13:47
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 19 Pages.
In this research manuscript the author has detailed a Schema for ‘Universal
Space Folding Recursion Scheme’.
Category: General Mathematics
[27] viXra:1601.0034 [pdf] submitted on 20160105 09:24:47
Authors: J Arnold
Comments: 11 Pages.
The socalled “Twin Paradox”, wherein a relativistic effect is hypothesized to produce different clock rates between bodies, has not been resolved to the satisfaction of many theorists, and it is disbelieved entirely by others. Experiments have confirmed the relativistic effect of acceleration, but there has been an abiding difficulty with clarifying how arbitrary periods of uniform motion between accelerations, when both twins will observe the other’s clock to move more slowly, can be resolved at their reunion. Spacetime diagrams are used here to demonstrate visually and conceptually that there is a nonparadoxical explanation for the effect of periods of uniform motion that has not been previously proposed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[26] viXra:1601.0033 [pdf] submitted on 20160105 09:54:55
Authors: Thomas Alexander Meyer
Comments: 4 Pages.
It is speculated that free energy accumulation may be achieved by repeating or looping a charged particle interference effect. This model is based upon a previous paper where it was shown that a small amount of free energy might be acquired in charged particle interference. By repeating an amplitude splitting interference effect in conjunction with a measurement of the system, the desired amount of free energy accumulation is achieved.
Category: Quantum Physics
[25] viXra:1601.0032 [pdf] submitted on 20160105 10:37:48
Authors: M. Srinivas, S. Sambasiva Rao
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has been published in Indian Journal of Physical Education and Allied Sciences, ISSN: 23956895, Vol.1, No.5, pp.3744.
The statistical analysis of angular data is typically encountered in biological and geological studies, among several other areas of research. Circular data is the simplest case of this category of data called directional data, where the single response is not scalar, but angular or directional. A statistical analysis pertaining to two dimensional directional data is generally referred to as “Circular Statistics”. In this paper, an attempt is made to review various fundamental concepts of circular statistics and to discuss its applicability in sports science.
Category: Statistics
[24] viXra:1601.0031 [pdf] submitted on 20160105 10:40:24
Authors: H.E. Winkelnkemper
Comments: 7 Pages.
Using Artin Presentation Theory, we mathematically augment a
remark of Atiyah on physics and Donaldson's 4D theory which, conversely, explicitly
introduces the theoretical physical relevance of AP Theory into Modern
Physics. AP Theory is a purely discrete grouptheoretic, in fact, a framed pure
braid theory, which, in the sharpest possible holographic manner, encodes all
closed, orientable 3manifolds and their knot and linking theories, and a large
class of compact, connected, simplyconnected, smooth 4manifolds with a connected
boundary, whose physical relevance for Atiyah's remark we explain.
Category: Topology
[23] viXra:1601.0030 [pdf] submitted on 20160105 11:29:55
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.
Physicists peering inside the neutron are seeing glimmers of what appears to be an impossible situation. The vexing findings pertain to quarks, which are the main components of neutrons and protons. The quarks, in essence, spin like tops, as do the neutrons and protons themselves.
Now, experimenters at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Va., have found hints that a single quark can briefly hog most of the energy residing in a neutron, yet spin in the direction opposite to that of the neutron itself, says Science News. [10]
The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton’s electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics
[22] viXra:1601.0029 [pdf] submitted on 20160105 12:11:28
Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 7 Pages.
The economic problem of rent in Pakistan is being explored, with reference to South Asian development.
Category: Social Science
[21] viXra:1601.0028 [pdf] submitted on 20160104 07:49:22
Authors: Sudhanva Joshi
Comments: 8 Pages.
For many centuries now, scientists have been trying to find the origin of time.Perhaps,on more deeper thoughts what is TIME itself? Some think it as some sort of cymatic matter,some think that it is the result of uniform flow of spacetime continuum while others think it as quantitative term for ‘existence’. But nobody knows till now what exactly is time?what does it stand for?will it ever end? Etc.In this paper,I have simply tried some tricks with einsteins field equations to get an exact low energy solution for possible physical properties of TIME.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
[20] viXra:1601.0027 [pdf] replaced on 20160608 10:35:47
Authors: François Barriquand
Comments: 10 Pages.
Abstract. A special statistical model illustrates how an object moving in one dimension, embedded in a tubular structure, can progress anisotropically towards a single direction and produce work. The anisotropic motion of the object is fueled by the thermal fluctuations originating from an ordinary thermal bath, whose coupling with the object depends in a carefully adjusted way on the position of the object itself. A limiting case of this scenario can be solved exactly in a very simple way. From a global physical point of view, it is justified to say that the object and its environment become ever more correlated as time increases ; surprisingly, however, the infinite topology of the system makes it theoretically possible for the object to continue its anisotropic progression at an unabated speed during an infinite time.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy
[19] viXra:1601.0026 [pdf] submitted on 20160104 03:59:49
Authors: Peter J Carroll.
Comments: 16 Pages. This upgraded paper deals with the issues of entropy and metallicity in a nonexpanding universe and the effects of lensing at high and low redshifts. The author welcomes critical feedback.
Abstract. The author proposes that a reinterpretation of cosmological redshift as arising from the small positive spacetime curvature of a 4rotating Hyperspherical Universe of constant size can eliminate the current requirement for spacetime singularities, cosmic inflation, dark matter, and dark energy from cosmological models. This second paper further addresses angular diameter at low and high redshifts, and the constant metallicity of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[18] viXra:1601.0024 [pdf] submitted on 20160104 06:27:06
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 6 Pages.
The paper proves that we leave in Matrix.
We show that Matrix was built by the creator. By this
we solve the question how everything is built.
We prove that the creator is infinite Turing machine or infinite Cellularautomaton.
We show that Universe is Cellularautomaton or Turing machine too. And everything in the
Universe is built as Cellularautomaton. We show that our Universe was created by “vegetative
birth” from another Universe. In other words, there is an infinite Life Tree that is actually the
creator itself.
In other words, we show that everything is only Information, i.e. the creator.
We show that there is no Time, moreover Time is the creator. So, the time is reversible. The
arrow of time depends on Information entropy: if entropy increases – people leave in one world,
if the entropy does not increase, in other words, no lost of information occurs – people step by
step become closer to another world – the world where the creator is sensed directly.
Someone can call the creator of Matrix – God.
We would like to recall that Immanuel Kant tried to prove the existence of God but He did not
succeed.
The main reason for this is that he searched for a proof outside His own mind or His own
conscience. Also, he did not take into consideration any evolutionary processes.
The given paper tries to fill some gaps and show another way in understanding the reality. It is
based on the existing science. In the paper we use mathematical methods in creating scientific
concepts. The results are presented in the form Definition – Theorem to present them in a
straightforward way.
The immediate consequences of the obtained results are so that in studying the reality it is
enough to develop Number Theory, Poetry, Art and other Sciences that are based on the Nature
and Inner World of a person.
We also give a simple solution for YangMills Mass gap problem: there is no time and mass has
no sense since it was invented artificially as an approximation of reality.
Category: Artificial Intelligence
[17] viXra:1601.0023 [pdf] submitted on 20160104 06:29:47
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 2 Pages.
We solve P vs NP Millenium problem.
Category: Set Theory and Logic
[16] viXra:1601.0022 [pdf] submitted on 20160104 06:33:20
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 6 Pages.
using mathematical methods we prove that technological process leads to Chaos. Moreover, we prove that anything that is built upon arithemtic leads to Chaos.
Category: Social Science
[15] viXra:1601.0021 [pdf] submitted on 20160104 06:35:52
Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 7 Pages.
Using methods of Thermodynamics we show that Egoism of one leads to poverty and suffer of others.
We show that if the number of personal contacts decreases the society becomes the least effective society that produces no value.
Category: Social Science
[14] viXra:1601.0019 [pdf] submitted on 20160103 21:40:40
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Schema for the Construction of a ‘Universal Recursive Comparator’.
Category: General Mathematics
[13] viXra:1601.0018 [pdf] submitted on 20160103 21:55:45
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 20 Pages.
In this research investigation, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Finding the Recursion Scheme Of Any Complete Primality Tree Of Concern’. Also, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Generation Of The Recursion Scheme Of Any Complete Primality Tree Of Concern’.
Category: General Mathematics
[12] viXra:1601.0017 [pdf] replaced on 20160109 02:32:25
Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 11 Pages.
There is an equation that eluded Einstein for the last 30 years of his life: the oneinch equation that will in a sense summarize everything we know about the physical laws governing the universe we live in. Dr. Kaku believes that one day, perhaps the destiny of all intelligent life in the universe may hinge on this equation. Finding it is the goal of a lifetime.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[11] viXra:1601.0016 [pdf] submitted on 20160103 23:15:18
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 19 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the Author has Enlightened Some Useful Aspects regarding ‘Optimal Business Varietization’.
Category: General Mathematics
[10] viXra:1601.0015 [pdf] submitted on 20160103 11:40:45
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.
Gammaray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics
[9] viXra:1601.0014 [pdf] replaced on 20160110 10:09:54
Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 32 Pages. Contains new chapters where have been shwon that it is possible to extrapolate the new DM profile outside dominion data.
The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated and supported, with several experimental evidences, that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. That paper studied six big galaxies whose velocity in flat area of rotation curve is bigger than 200 km/s.
Current paper studies a similar law for M33, which is an intermediate satellite galaxy of M31, it is 850 kpc away from Earth and its velocity in flat area of rotation curve is approximately 120 km/s.
In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for M33. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with Burket ones below 2%?
The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to Burket DM profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature.
To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field.
Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about DM density inside halo of M33 galaxy. These data come from [4] E. Corbelli, 2014.
In fourth epigraph, considering rotation curve of M33 from Corbelli data, it is right to calculate gravitational field E, through Virial theorem. So in this epigraph has been tabulate gravitational field inside a wide region of halo, from 8 kpc to 22 Kpc.
In fifth epigraphs has been tabulated and plotted data of Burket DM density profile published by [4] E. Corbelli, 2014. for M33.
In sixth epigraph has been fitted data of Burket DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is Density of D.M = A•E^B. Where A= 29,02219371 and B= 2,242193511 into I.S. of units.
In seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and Burket profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are mainly below 5%.
In eight epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r^2•D.M Density. Considering that Density D.M = A•E^B then M´(r) = 4Pi • r^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula Density D.M = A•E^B.
In nineth epigraph Bernoulli and Burket DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 2% for radius bigger than 10 kpc, which is a superb result.
The tenth chapter makes a comparison between DM densities as power of E for M33 and NGC 3198 galaxies. The goal is to show a general law for galaxies: the more massive galaxy is the less DM density at a specific value of E.
In the eleven chapter it is fitted DM density as power of E for a reduced data set, and it is studied its behaviour outside dominion regression. In chapter twelve DM Bernoulli profile is extrapolated up to 70 kpc and it is compared with Burket profile.
Category: Astrophysics
[8] viXra:1601.0013 [pdf] submitted on 20160102 23:18:29
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 19 Pages.
In this research investigation, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Finding the Recursion Scheme Of Any Complete Primality Tree Of Concern’. Also, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Generation Of The Recursion Scheme Of Any Complete Primality Tree Of Concern’.
Category: General Mathematics
[7] viXra:1601.0011 [pdf] replaced on 20160122 07:32:06
Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: Pages. To be published, spring 2017, in Springler series Progress in Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, n°30 'Quantum systems in Physics, Chemistry and Biology' : 'A Coherent Resonant Cosmology Approach and its Implications in Microphysics and Biophysics'
Analysis of present day cosmology crisis suggests a return to the steadystate model, but adding a new source of the cosmic microwave background: the Grandcosmos. Indeed, elementary dimensional analysis shows the temporal invariance of both the horizon radius, the mean material density and the background temperature, reestablishing the perfect cosmological principle. This temporal invariance permits to apply the holographic principle, with 1D terms explaining both Grandcosmos, extending Universe radius by 1061, and critical condition (flatness), with a general quantization reducing the Plank units by a factor of 1061, while a tachyonic parallel world (C ≈ 1061c) resolves the vacuum energy dilemma. The time quantization is tied to a general monofrequency coherence principle, so that the Universe would be a computer ruled by a 10104 Hz BigBang/BigCrunch oscillation. The dramatic appearance of the neutrino background wavelength in the special holographic series confirms the need for a synthesis of the two main cosmological models. This explains the apparent confirmations of the standard model, but with necessity of a radical reinterpretation (inflation and multiverse are unnecessary). The nonDoppler KotovLyuty coherent cosmic oscillation confirms tachyonicity and is an absolute clock in tight holographic connexion with the background temperature, itself tied to Grandcosmos, absolute space. The rejection of Relativity at Universe level leads to the critical condition and matter density 3/10, eliminating the dark energy problem, and corresponds to the Eddington prediction for the hydrogen atom number 136 × 2256. The formula shows a symmetry between the Newton and Fermi constants supporting an oriented cosmical sweeping character (parity violation) of the matterantimatter oscillation (dark matter would vibrate in quadrature). A hydrogen gravitational molecule model confirms the formula and precises the black matter density, while a Black atom model relies directly micro and macro physics. Holographic analysis leads to graviton and photon masses, and to a Topological Axis rehabilitating the tachyonic bosonic string theory. Physical and biological essential parameters are interconnected, in relation with musical and economic numbers, as the Combinatorial Hierarchy, pointing to a Diophantine Grand Theory, rejecting Darwin evolution and favoring universality of Intelligent Life. Keywords: Quantum Theory, Holographic Principle, Steadystate Cosmology, Coherent Cosmology, Eddington Theory, Dark energy, Antimatter, Dark matter, Combinatorial Physics, Photon mass, String Theory, Cosmobiology.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[6] viXra:1601.0010 [pdf] submitted on 20160102 13:05:02
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.
Two separate research groups, one of which is from MIT, have presented evidence that wormholes — tunnels that may allow us to travel through time and space — are “powered” by quantum entanglement. Furthermore, one of the research groups also postulates the reverse — that quantum entangled particles are connected by miniature wormholes. [6]
A collaboration of physicists and a mathematician has made a significant step toward unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics by explaining how spacetime emerges from quantum entanglement in a more fundamental theory. [5]
Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the WaveParticle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Astrophysics
[5] viXra:1601.0008 [pdf] submitted on 20160102 08:47:00
Authors: Jian Ye
Comments: 6 Pages.
The Goldbach theorem and the twin prime theorem are homologous. The paper from the prime origin, derived the equations of the twin prime theorem and the Goldbach theorem, and new prime number theorem.
This paper has been published in American Journal of Mathematics and Statistics, Vol. 5 No. 6, 2015, pp. 325328.
http://article.sapub.org/10.5923.j.ajms.20150506.01.html
Category: Number Theory
[4] viXra:1601.0005 [pdf] submitted on 20160101 14:16:42
Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 1 Page.
Matter cannot be fat, round, bulging, bulbous or anything other than stringlike.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
[3] viXra:1601.0003 [pdf] submitted on 20160101 04:59:36
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 19 Pages.
In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Lateral Load Increment Scheme Quantization For Use In Push Over Analysis Scheme Generally Used In MultiStoreyed Structural Analysis.
Category: General Mathematics
[2] viXra:1601.0002 [pdf] submitted on 20160101 06:06:12
Authors: Xavier Terri Castañé
Comments: 39 Pages.
About Time, True, God and other things
Category: Relativity and Cosmology
[1] viXra:1601.0001 [pdf] replaced on 20160107 02:11:53
Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 10 Pages.
Laser power requirements for an EUV laserproduced plasma source can be reduced by using powerrecycling optics to reflect plasmascattered IR radiation back onto the plasma. Previously proposed spherical retroreflective mirrors can be used to form an inverted image of the plasma on itself, but an erect (noninverted) image would be more tolerant of positional alignment errors. Erectimaging optical design alternatives for power recycling are described in this paper.
Category: Classical Physics