[318] **viXra:1604.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 22:06:51*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments prove that the speed of light is changing by the evolution of the universe , this paper tries to give some explanation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[317] **viXra:1604.0393 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 15:07:27*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Removing a main cause of PV theory rejection

Frame dragging resulted from modifications of Polarizable Vacuum Theory that were done to bring high velocity terms into PV consistent with established science of energy and momentum at high speed.
It was found that velocity terms could not be brought into PV theory without formalism for exchange of kinetic energy with the vacuum space. Planck’s Law in general and Heisenberg Uncertainty in a specific case were used to develop a mechanism for continual exchange of kinetic energy with the local vacuum.
The mechanism calls for incurring equal exchange of energy with space when acceleration does not occur, and unequal exchange when a physical object is accelerating. Accumulating kinetic energy in space was found to polarize the vacuum in a way equivalent to the polarizing parameter K of Harold Puthoff.
Frame dragging results from the continual increase of vacuum stress energy trailing longitudinally and propagating transversely from an accelerating deep space vehicle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[316] **viXra:1604.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 17:18:06*

**Authors:** István Aggott Hönsch

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A terminological framework is proposed for the mathematical examination and analysis of the Mandelbrot set's correlative ectocopial set. The Apeiropolis and anthropobrot multisets are defined and explained to be the mathematical entities underlying the well-known Buddhabrot visualization.
The definitions are presented as tools conducive to finding novel approaches and generating discoveries that might otherwise be missed via a primarily programmatic approach.
The anthropobrot multisets are introduced as a new, infinite repository of unique pareidolic figures as richly diverse as the Julia sets.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[315] **viXra:1604.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 19:01:30*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

1) The function of the prime number, the wave pattern of the zeta function are equivalent with the friendship of the sin wave of the having many kinds, cos wave by Fourier transform.
2) There are a sin wave, a cos wave and the point of intersection (0 points) with the axis on an axis. The point of intersection that left the axis (straight line) does not exist.
3) The top of the pulsation wave pattern has deep relation to prime number, mass, quark, 0 points, ...
4) Circle that is a trace of the circular motion is a quantum-mechanical autocoupling operator, an L meat operator.
5) Circle to assume a prime number a radius is a trace of the tops of the material wave of the pulsation principle, and Japanese yen and the point of intersection with the axis are zero points.
(6) As for the product indication equation of the oiler, a radius is a circle of 1 integral multiple.
(7) As for the quantum mechanics, a radius is a circle of the integral multiples of "h".
(8) As for the mass of the quantum-mechanical mass, a radius is a circle of the integral multiples of "m".
9) Circle of the prime number, all the circular center have a radius on 1/2 line. (Lehman expectation)
10) The top (prime number, mass) of the pulsation wave pattern becomes the straight line by レッジェ trace graph.
11) As for the レッジェ trace graph, square of the mass becomes the straight line.
12) 1/2h is the important fixed number to often come up in a quantum-mechanical equation.
13) 1/2 of the Lehman expectation is the straight line that is the mystery that 0 points form a line of the infinite unit.
14) A sine wave by the Fourier transform, a cosine wave and the point of intersection of the 1/2 straight line are 0 points.
15) The eddy of the solution (material wave) of the Schrodinger equation is equivalent with circular motion.

**Category:** Number Theory

[314] **viXra:1604.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 19:19:34*

**Authors:** Ahmed El Demerdash - Hassan Sameh

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

“In the battle against cancer, which kills nearly 8 million people worldwide each year, doctors have in their arsenal myriads of powerful weapons, including various forms of Chemotherapy and Radiation. What they lack, however, is good reconnaissance — a reliable way to obtain realtime data about how well a particular therapy is working for any given patient. That’s why, a tiny biochemical sensor that is implanted in the cancerous tissue will be made; the sensor then wirelessly sends chemical measurements to an external “reader” device, allowing doctors to better monitor a patient’s progress and switch therapies accordingly. This device boosts treatments’ efficacy while reducing patients’ exposure to serious side effects. “
Design requirements are critical for the success of any project. And so, accuracy and cost are considered the main design requirements of our project. A simple prototype has been crafted in order to test the mechanism of our idea. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and pH levels are measured, and a simulation has been made in order to mimic the environment of the tumor. In conclusion, our smart device offers an opportunity to accurately monitor the state of the cancerous tissues with a quite low cost.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[313] **viXra:1604.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 23:59:25*

**Authors:** LI WeiGang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Traced in that linearly polarized light experiments require that the S-wave. That the only way to explain the phenomenon of linear polarization. However, if the above photon do that kind of understanding, then no single photon is linearly polarized! Coupled with appropriate phase two photons, the near-field vibration direction of the electric field was presented as some kind of linear polarization direction, can concerted direction by the analyzer polarizer.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[312] **viXra:1604.0387 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 16:26:24*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This monograph was motivated by the following question posted by the author at the ResearchGate (RG) Website: In the context of Special Relativity (SR): is it time dilation, clock frequency increase, both of the above or none of the above?
At the writing of this document there were over 520 RG postings related to the above question by many different scholars/researchers, both proponents and dissenters of Special Relativity. The discourse of the answers clearly shows in my opinion that most of the apparent incongruencies mentioned in the posts about Special Relativity were not necessarily because of its formulation, but because of the different interpretations that arise from the physical effects that the Lorentz Transformation (LT) predicts. This is not to say that SR has or has not problems as a theory but that its general acceptability is hampered by the many interpretational paradoxes that can be formulated because of its notoriously ambiguous concepts regarding time dilation and length contraction. Not surprisingly, the concepts of relativistic momentum and energy were not subject to scrutiny, I suspect because of their already accepted relative nature and their established relativistic relation to motion as empirically demonstrated in particle accelerators and the like.
Needless to say, most of the so called incongruencies that were posted dealt with time dilation, as to its meaning or as to whether it is real or apparent. As usual on RG posts, many of the answers were diametrically opposed.
In this monograph, I propose a comparative scenario of SR that is shown to be free of incongruencies or paradoxes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[311] **viXra:1604.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 12:49:08*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

1) The function of the prime number, the wave pattern of the zeta function are equivalent with the friendship of the sin wave of the having many kinds, cos wave by Fourier transform.
2) There are a sin wave, a cos wave and the point of intersection (0 points) with the axis on an axis. The point of intersection that left the axis (straight line) does not exist.
3) The top of the pulsation wave pattern has deep relation to prime number, mass, quark, 0 points, ...
4) Circle that is a trace of the circular motion is a quantum-mechanical autocoupling operator, an L meat operator.
5) Circle to assume a prime number a radius is a trace of the tops of the material wave of the pulsation principle, and Japanese yen and the point of intersection with the axis are zero points.
(6) As for the product indication equation of the oiler, a radius is a circle of 1 integral multiple.
(7) As for the quantum mechanics, a radius is a circle of the integral multiples of "h".
(8) As for the mass of the quantum-mechanical mass, a radius is a circle of the integral multiples of "m".
9) Circle of the prime number, all the circular center have a radius on 1/2 line. (Lehman expectation)
10) The top (prime number, mass) of the pulsation wave pattern becomes the straight line by レッジェ trace graph.
11) As for the レッジェ trace graph, square of the mass becomes the straight line.
12) 1/2h is the important fixed number to often come up in a quantum-mechanical equation.
13) 1/2 of the Lehman expectation is the straight line that is the mystery that 0 points form a line of the infinite unit.
14) A sine wave by the Fourier transform, a cosine wave and the point of intersection of the 1/2 straight line are 0 points.
15) The eddy of the solution (material wave) of the Schrodinger equation is equivalent with circular motion.

**Category:** Number Theory

[310] **viXra:1604.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 16:13:27*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Wikipedia has planetary systems as mutually exclusive of star systems and multiple star systems. A simple correction (with options) is provided so that astronomy can be simplified for the 21st century in light of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[309] **viXra:1604.0384 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-31 07:24:19*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A new principle of science is presented to connect biology with astronomy.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[308] **viXra:1604.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 23:16:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘Universal Forecasting Model - A Locally Parameter Element Wise Linear Transformations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic State Systems With Large Number Of Parameters’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[307] **viXra:1604.0382 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-17 04:18:18*

**Authors:** Vladimir Dzhunushaliev

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Small nonassociative corrections for the SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$ are considered. The smallness is controlled by the ratio of the Planck length and a characteristic length $\ell_0 = \Lambda^{-1/2}$. Corresponding corrections of the momentum operator arising from the anticommutator of the SUSY operators are considered. The momentum operator corrections are defined via the anticommutator of the unperturbed SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$
and nonassociative corrections $Q_{1, a, \dot a}$. Choosing different anticommutators, one can obtain either a modified or $q$ -- deformed commutator of position $x^\mu$ and momentum operators $P_\nu$.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[306] **viXra:1604.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 03:52:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A curious type of nonlocal phenomenon known as one-way quantum steering has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time by two independent groups of physicists. This phenomenon is similar to quantum entanglement but applies when one of the two parties sharing a quantum state does not trust the source of quantum particles. The researchers say their work could help to broaden applications of quantum cryptography. [12] Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[305] **viXra:1604.0380 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-29 16:50:07*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that infinite series of strictly positive numbers cannot converge to a positive number, unless the series has at most a countable number of terms.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[304] **viXra:1604.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 14:05:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It might be said that the most difficult part of building a quantum computer is not figuring out how to make it compute, but rather finding a way to deal with all of the errors that it inevitably makes. Errors arise because of the constant interaction between the qubits and their environment, which can result in photon loss, which in turn causes the qubits to randomly flip to an incorrect state. [16]
Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15]
University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14]
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13]
One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]
We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[303] **viXra:1604.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 15:41:48*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is presented a simple principle to explain stars as they evolve in star systems.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[302] **viXra:1604.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 06:24:59*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper is part of a paper presented at, "Conference on Science of Consciousness, Tuscon, Arizona, USA, April 2016". The original paper is entitled - "REVEALING THE REAL SCIENCE OF CONSCIOUSNESS THROUGH A NOVEL DIVINE SACRED GEOMETRICAL STRUCTURE OF CO

Consciousness is projected as property of a particle termed - "The Conscious Spiritual-Energy Quanta (CSE Quanta)". This paper assumes a correspondence between the physical laws and meta-physical laws. Meta-Wave functions of CSE Quanta, meditative state, rapture, avtar, and creation and annhilation operators for CSE Quanta are proposed. Concept of Meta-Bose-Einstein condensation during meditation is presented. Fractal sub-structure of CSE Quanta and mechanism for storage of an infinite amount of information in it is proposed. This paper is part of a paper presented at, "Conference on Science of Consciousness, Tuscon, Arizona, USA, April 2016". The original paper is entitled - "REVEALING THE REAL SCIENCE OF CONSCIOUSNESS THROUGH A NOVEL DIVINE SACRED GEOMETRICAL STRUCTURE OF CONSCIOUS QUANTA".

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[301] **viXra:1604.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 06:12:02*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We give necessary and sufficient
conditions for exchange of limits of
double-indexed families, taking values in sets
endowed with an abstract structure of convergence, and for preservation
of continuity or semicontinuity of the limit family, with respect to filter convergence.
As consequences, we give some filter
limit theorems and some characterization of
continuity and semicontinuity of
the limit of a pointwise convergent family of set functions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[300] **viXra:1604.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 01:57:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Photonics applications rely greatly on what physicists call nonlinear optics-the different way in which materials behave depending on the intensity of light that passes through them. The greater the nonlinearity, the more promising the material for real-life applications. Now a team, led by Robert W. Boyd, Professor of Optics and Physics at the University of Rochester and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Quantum Nonlinear Optics at the University of Ottawa, has demonstrated that the transparent, electrical conductor indium tin oxide can result in up to 100 times greater nonlinearity than other known materials. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[299] **viXra:1604.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 02:59:36*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The electromagnetic wave is shown to propagate in a charged capacitor with the mathematical description of this wave being a solution to the Maxwell equations. It is demonstrated that there is a stationary flow of electromagnetic energy in the charged capacitor, and the energy accumulated in the capacitor which is known as the potential electric energy, is the electromagnetic energy stored in the capacitor in the form of stationary flow.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[298] **viXra:1604.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 03:05:44*

**Authors:** Randolf Rolff

**Comments:** 12 pages; German language – Deutsch: Quantentheorie der 4-dimensionalen Materiewellen – Modell zur anschaulichen Erklärung quantentheoretischer Effekte

This paper describes a physical model to intuitively explain quantum theoretical effects. The developed model describes a mechanism, which gives a logical sense to the calculation of probability amplitudes. Hence the double-slit experiment and Schrödinger’s cat become understandable. The here described model is an extension of the physical model described in the prior manuscript “Theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave”. That paper describes a model which postulates a particle as a real matter wave in a 4-dimensional and absolute space. With that theory it is possible to describe the relativistic effects in qualitatively and quantitatively accuracy.
The quantum theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave shows that this model already presages a way to explain the quantum theoretical effects. From the introduction of the long extent in the 4th dimension it is not far to a model in which a particle uses many paths simultaneously. It is a conclusive derivation of the quantum theoretical effects using the model to describe the relativistic effects.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[297] **viXra:1604.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 03:42:03*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 15

Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory.
The rigid FORM and Microstructure of elementary particles (strings) , is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles.
As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing new paradigm Black Holes, seem to be able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy and even matter and explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, by so called Stellar Anchor Black Holes (SABHs), Herbig Haro Hotspots ( Bowshocks), down to Sunspots, Comets and even Ball Lightning.
Recent observation of a Cosmic Hotspot under the big dipper is reason to assume that this is the location of one of our solar Stellar Anchor Black Hole (the North-SABH), reason to search for the other one: south located. At the same time it is proposed that Galaxies also are supported by dual black hole systems being the former Big Bang splitted primordial black holes. Called Galaxy Anchor Black Holes ( GABHs)

**Category:** Astrophysics

[296] **viXra:1604.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-28 06:34:03*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A solution of the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic wave in a spherical capacitor which is included in an alternating current circuit or in an constant current circuit is proposed. A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented on the basis of this solution.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[295] **viXra:1604.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 11:49:13*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

centrifugal force explains General Relativity and the elavator equivalent principle in 4 pages

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[294] **viXra:1604.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 08:05:07*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Homogeneous , Reduction of Order Homogeneous , and Inhomogeneous Second Order Linear Ordinary Differential Equations Solution may be established in one analytical proof-process.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[293] **viXra:1604.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-20 05:29:09*

**Authors:** Uyiosa Omoregie

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A country’s financial system facilitates economic growth by ensuring that funds are available when and where they are required. The provision of alternative financing windows available to operators in the real sector is dependent on the structure of the financial system is place. The Government can ensure (through polices put forward) that transparency and fairness is the norm in the financial sector, this will go a long way towards sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. The financial sector that creates sustainable economic growth must be resilient and strong, with institutional development as a priority, this sector must facilitate fund mobilization for the low-income people to increase and stabilize their income and assets. An investment-friendly interest rate regime (single digit) is a pre-requisite for economic growth in Nigeria, because it would encourage lower costs of borrowing and credit expansion. Tax incentives policies must be maintained to encourage large-scale investment in the economy.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[292] **viXra:1604.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 09:04:53*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover New Einstein’s gravity field equation. We treats New Einstein-Maxwell Equation. In this time, we can think Kaluza-Klein theory. We need 5 Dimension-New Kaluza-Klein theory that can express New Einstein-Maxwell Equation. Reissner-Nodstrom solution, Cosmology, etc in present Einstein gravity field equation are the same in new Einstein gravity field equation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[291] **viXra:1604.0366 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-15 21:49:27*

**Authors:** Mai Ben-Adar Bessos, Simon Birnbach, Amir Herzberg, Ivan Martinovic

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Technichal Report of the original paper E-bots vs. P-bots Cooperative Eavesdropping in (partial) Silence

We study the trade-off between the benefits obtained by communication, vs. the exposure of the location of the transmitter.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[290] **viXra:1604.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 04:05:01*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid, Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Although many experiments have been cited as empirical verification of special relativity, they are not experiments that could not have
questions raised about their validity as proofs. There is one simple experiment that could be carried out to put to rest, incontrovertibly, the controversies concerning the validity of special relativity - by a direct measurement of the speed
of beta particles from beta decay. If special relativity is correct, no electrons would be found to go faster than light speed. If special relativity is invalid, then kinetic energy obeys the old 1 / 2 mv2 formula. Some beta particles could be ejected with kinetic energy greater than 1 MeV; such electrons would be detected to travel at about twice the speed of light. Though it is one of the simplest experiment that many laboratories over the world could perform,until now, the experiment has yet to be carried out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[289] **viXra:1604.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 05:55:08*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Notion of causality in G\"{o}del universe, is compared with what is implied by the Einstein-Podolski-Rosen (EPR) type experiments of quantum mechanics. Red shift of light from distant galaxies is explained by employing Segal's compact time coordinate - in the G\"{o}del universe - which indeed was considered by G\"{o}del in his seminal paper. Various possibilities for the rotation of the universe are discussed. It is note worthy that in recent years, the scope of research on G\"{o}del univese, has expanded to include topics in string theory, supersymmetry and embedding of black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[288] **viXra:1604.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-27 16:37:25*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note we are rewriting the reduced mass formula into a form that potentially gives more intuition on what is truly behind the reduced mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[287] **viXra:1604.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-27 17:42:25*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this note we are simplifying the Klein--Gordon Equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[286] **viXra:1604.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 02:47:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[285] **viXra:1604.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-27 13:23:17*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Three-page initial draft

This letter attempts to understand the observed flattening of galaxies’ rotation-curves in terms of gravitational-pull of fast-rotating interior-stars on the slow-rotating stars at out-skirts of the galaxy. Due to fast rotation of the interior-stars, the relative-position of the stars vary at different times, adding a sinusoidal-component to the tangential-velocity of the stars at the out-skirts. These sinusoidal-components, caused by different stars in the interior, are of different frequencies, depending upon the tangential-speed of the star. The resultant sum of these sinusoidal components of different frequencies mutually nullify up to a certain radial distance, but then start adding coherently at the out-skirts; causing significant increase in the rotational velocity of the star at the out-skirts. Thus, it may not be necessary to invoke Dark-Matter, or to modify Newtonian Dynamics, as proposed in MOND or scalar-vector-theory of John Moffat.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[284] **viXra:1604.0359 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-27 10:45:10*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Version 2 in English.

This article presents a relational formulation of special relativity whose kinematic and dynamic quantities are invariant under transformations between inertial reference frames. In addition, a new universal force is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[283] **viXra:1604.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 17:10:47*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Hodge Experiment was designed to support the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) particle model of the photon. It also rejected the wave models of light. The general model of light waves within the Hodge Experiment's conditions is shown to lead to unobserved effects. It also provides an insight into inertia. The STOE model of particles and the wave model of a continuous medium yield indistinguishable results for the screen image in the traditional diffraction experiment. Therefore, the Hodge Experiment provides a method to distinguish between a direct wave caused diffraction pattern and a particle caused diffraction pattern that resolves the wave--particle duality conundrum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[282] **viXra:1604.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 20:35:55*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

0 points and the distribution map of the prime number of the zeta function are expressed by a complex number coordinate.
The figure of elementary particle pulsation principle energy wave pattern is expressed by a complex number coordinate.
The figure of fusion synchronized a straight line and the horizon of the figure of elementary particle pulsation principle energy wave pattern where 0 points formed a line and fused with neither.
Four dimensions of lower domains express space on the horizon, and the prime number in the top of the material wave pulsates by a turn of the four-dimensional space as a top of the waves.
There are all the non-self-evident zero points of the zeta function on the horizon (three-dimensional space) of the figure of elementary particle pulsation principle energy wave pattern and is real part 1/2.
It fuses in a complex number coordinate and a figure of elementary particle pulsation principle energy wave pattern (complex number coordinate) that 0 points of a prime number and the zeta function present.

**Category:** Number Theory

[281] **viXra:1604.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 13:16:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A unique rapid-fire electron source—originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers—is helping scientists at the) study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale. This could provide new insight in how to make materials with custom, controllable properties and improve the efficiency and output of chemical reactions. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[280] **viXra:1604.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-28 06:32:33*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A solution of the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic wave in a spherical capacitor which is included in an alternating current circuit or in an constant current circuit is proposed. A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented on the basis of this solution. \\ Предлагается решение уравнений Максвелла для электромагнитной волны в сферическом конденсаторе который включен в цепь переменного или постоянного тока. На основе этого решения предлагается гипотеза о природе Земного магнетизма.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[279] **viXra:1604.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 14:39:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[278] **viXra:1604.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-18 04:47:23*

**Authors:** Peter C. Morris

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 6 Figures. Some fixes and improvements.

In 2013 a paper was published which described detection of dynamical 3-space waves through correlation analysis of data from quantum Random Event Generator devices within the Global Consciousness Project network.
We found this discovery extremely interesting and decided to attempt similar analysis using different data from the same network. We were able to extract correlations such as those reported, estimate the velocities of 3-space waves and 3-space flow and observe Earth orbit aberration effects. Herein we describe our analysis and results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[277] **viXra:1604.0350 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-26 23:38:55*

**Authors:** Anthony J. Browne

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

A conversation on the importance of conversating.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[276] **viXra:1604.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 04:10:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Publishing in Nature Physics April 25, the scientists, led by Professor of Physics Mingzhong Wu in CSU's College of Natural Sciences, are the first to demonstrate using non-polarized light to produce in a metal what's called a spin voltage - a unit of power produced from the quantum spinning of an individual electron. Controlling electron spins for use in memory and logic applications is a relatively new field called spin electronics, or spintronics, and the subject of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics. [12]
Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[275] **viXra:1604.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 01:26:10*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, an interferometer experiment that can be highly sensitive to absolute motion is proposed. This has been possible because the new theory (Apparent Source Theory) already proposed by this author revealed the fallacy in conventional and modern Michelson-Morley experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[274] **viXra:1604.0346 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-17 05:49:32*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The article is published in the International Journal of Phisics, vol.4, No. 5 (2016), pp. 140-145

My purpose consisted in creation of a new relativistic space-time theory instead of Einstein’s Relativity Theory, but basing upon only one postulate. This could become feasible only if a law of light propagation in a moving inertial reference frame could be made a consequence of the relativity postulate. It was made a reality by P.M. Rapier’s discovery of a quadratic dependence of the light speed upon the light source speed. Considering various ways of making the second postulate superfluous the most short of them was through introducing into the theory of a new concept “light speed in a moving inertial reference frame” by means of usage of the known four-dimensional Minkovski’s formalism. This new light speed was defined as equal to a fourth component of a four-dimensional speed of any moving particle. Then using this newly introduced concept the time-measurement unit was calculated for a moving light clock that occurred to be equal to the time measurement unit of a stationary light clock. And as a very happy event the time dilation effect was deleted from the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[273] **viXra:1604.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 03:04:31*

**Authors:** Anthony J. Browne

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A humble attempt is made at proving the twin prime conjecture. An argument involving a form derived from a set of characteristic equations and a parity argument is used in the proof.

**Category:** Number Theory

[272] **viXra:1604.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-25 23:39:15*

**Authors:** Anthony J. Browne

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Use of the harmonic numbers to create congruencies is discussed. Interesting relations to known congruencies are shown.

**Category:** Number Theory

[271] **viXra:1604.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-25 12:56:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In a recent theoretical paper, a group from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science in Japan showed that momentum density in non-uniform optical fields has an unusual component, which is orthogonal to the propagation direction of light and is proportional to the optical spin, which means the degree of circular polarization. They predicted that this spin momentum would produce a transverse spin-dependent optical force, a few orders of magnitude weaker than the usual radiation pressure. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[270] **viXra:1604.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-25 08:41:45*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper, we diagnose the critical line.

**Category:** Number Theory

[269] **viXra:1604.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-25 06:51:21*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 17 pages, 53 equations, 8 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to the theory of scalar electrodynamics, describing the interaction of the electromagnetic photon field with a charged
scalar. This gives an example of the applicability of our divergence-free methods to a system with Abelian gauge invariance. Results of loop computations are given, demonstrating gauge invariance of the effective vertices. Whereas an infrared-regulating mass parameter is given to the virtual photon, the masslessness of the effective photon is demonstrated as well.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[268] **viXra:1604.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-25 07:01:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Small objects like electrons and atoms behave according to quantum mechanics, with quantum effects like superposition, entanglement and teleportation. One of the most intriguing questions in modern science is if large objects – like a coffee cup-could also show this behavior. Scientists at the TU Delft have taken the next step towards observing quantum effects at everyday temperatures in large objects. They created a highly reflective membrane, visible to the naked eye, that can vibrate with hardly any energy loss at room temperature. The membrane is a promising candidate to research quantum mechanics in large objects. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[267] **viXra:1604.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-24 18:48:11*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The use of specialized filtering techniques allows the identification of three eigenresonances of the earth near 4800 µHz, which are sensitive to the inner core. Careful programming prevents the formation of interfering intermodulation products and lowers the noise level. The accurately measured frequencies differ by about 1.1% from the PREM predictions.

**Category:** Geophysics

[266] **viXra:1604.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-24 19:45:00*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A prime number was the top of the material wave in the theory physics and, in "a challenge to Lehman expectation which I announced in YOUTUBE for 2,012 years ," expected it so that a material wave and the point of intersection of the figure of pulsation energy wave pattern were non-self-evident zero points of the Lehman expectation.
I tried a prime number and the conversion of the equation indicating the connection with π (Circle) that Euler discovered recently.
As a result of the right side sprinkling π to a denominator, molecules of the left side of a go board of the product formula of π 2, and having converted it into the equation of the area of Japanese yen, a radius got an equation of Circle of the prime number. This suggests that expectation of 2012 saying that it is a prime number on the top of the material wave of the figure of pulsation energy wave pattern was right.

**Category:** Number Theory

[265] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-25 12:35:36*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Updated Paper

The following paper shows how a possible resonance of Cherenkov Radiation with the ratio of Bremsstrahlung-Parallel Bremsstrahlung under special circumstances could give the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. It would suggest that all of the activity within the nucleons are powered by a main power driver and that quarks are far from fundamental. When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from -pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation deeper than the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[264] **viXra:1604.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-24 14:06:02*

**Authors:** Alexander F. Jonkeren

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper describes a modification of the curvature in which spacetime is shaped under the influence of energy and matter. With this modified curvature it is possible to predict and probably explain many observed phenomena in Cosmology that cannot be accounted for by the generally accepted General Relativity spacetime curvature. Regarding all other aspects it does fully comply with General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[263] **viXra:1604.0328 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-07 05:31:04*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

About the twin paradox of special relativity theory, there are some resolutions. But these might not be the best fit resolution considering the core concept of special relativity theory. Here we will approach the concept of special relativity theory thinking the resolution of twin paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[262] **viXra:1604.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-13 05:14:06*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper, we analyze the behavior of prime numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[261] **viXra:1604.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-24 09:38:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[260] **viXra:1604.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 16:45:15*

**Authors:** A.S.Bhattacharyya, R. Mandal

**Comments:** 05 Pages. Addition to a previous communication

The fitting relations for Vickers’s indentation for SiCN films as obtained previously. The parameter P’s are the ones which quantify the thin film hardness and substrate effect. The Variation of Hardness with thickness for different P1 values was given in our previous publication. Here we provide the variation of hardness with other parameters.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[259] **viXra:1604.0324 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 01:33:52*

**Authors:** Anthony J. Browne

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Approximations of square roots are discussed. A very close approximation to their decimal expansion is derived in the form of a simple fraction. Their relationship with the AKS test is also discussed.

**Category:** Number Theory

[258] **viXra:1604.0323 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 08:13:27*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s BIDUM version 1.1), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE, together with the concept of biological information (BI) which is also measurable in qbits.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[257] **viXra:1604.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 10:18:42*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. original article

The motion of the mathematical extra-terrestrial pendulum is considered in
the spherical gravitational field. The potential energy of the pendulum bob is
approximated to give the nonlinear equation of motion. After solving it by the
Landau-Migdal method we obtain the frequency of motion and the swing amplitude.
The crucial point of our experiment is, that if the inertial mass m depends on
its distance from the reference body M, then the calculated frequuency of our
pendulum is not identical with the measured frequency. This crucial knowledge of
the pendulum project can have substantional
influence on the future development
of general relativity and physics of elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[256] **viXra:1604.0321 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 16:31:25*

**Authors:** Anthony J. Browne

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Summing characteristic equations to find forms of theoretical functions in number theory will be discussed. Forms of many number theoretic functions will be derived. Although many may not be efficient in a computing sense for large numbers, the aim in this paper will simply be to explore what these forms are and show relationships between expressions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[255] **viXra:1604.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 08:10:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[254] **viXra:1604.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 08:38:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A new center has been established on campus to help researchers probe the structure of biological molecules. Housed in the basement of the Shriram Center, the Macromolecular Structure Knowledge Center contains equipment and resources for producing and crystallizing biological molecules. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[253] **viXra:1604.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 05:13:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A small team of researchers with Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics, both in Germany has successfully demonstrated a means for shaping electron beams in time through interactions with terahertz electromagnetic fields. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[252] **viXra:1604.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 05:47:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Quantum Tunneling Water Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[251] **viXra:1604.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 06:05:21*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Tijdeman–Zagier conjecture, also known as Beal's conjecture, is a conjecture in number theory: –
If A^x+B^y=C^z,
Where A, B, C, x, y, and z are positive integers with x, y, z > 2, then A, B, and C have a common prime factor. Equivalently,
There are no solutions to the above equation in positive integers A, B, C, x, y, z with A, B, and C being pairwise coprime and all of x, y, z being greater than 2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[250] **viXra:1604.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 06:09:00*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to show how a Pseudo Random pattern appears in Pi.The reason there are no repeating numbers in Pi is because there is a Pseudo Random process in Pi. The Pseudo Random Process causes no repeating numbers in Pi. As in the prime numbers A+B +/- 1=C there is a Pseudo Random Process in Pi. In Pi, characteristics of the Pseudo Random Process can be seen by taking the digits in Pi and doing a progression which starting with 3 take its square root. Then take the next two digits, add them up and take the square root. After progressing the patterns appear. At the 6th &7th series,11th & 12th series and 16th&17th series.

**Category:** Number Theory

[249] **viXra:1604.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 06:08:37*

**Authors:** Hochecker, Hans-Joerg

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

I can show that gravitation is an electric effect. To this, it is necessary to better understand the qualities of the electric charges and their forces. I start by showing that the magnetic field can be represented as an angled electric field. To this, the electric field must have two qualities: the dependence of the electric force on the velocity, and the electric anti-field. All previous cognitions on electrodynamics stay with it untouched. Then, I apply these two new qualities to gravitation, and it turns out that gravitation is an electric effect if a third quality applies to the electric field: the quantization of the energy transfer of the electric field. These three new qualities complete our picture of electrodynamics. Finally, I go to the origins of the three new qualities with the help of the early quantum mechanics. This turns out well by representing the electric charge as a spacetime wave, in which its frequency corresponds to its mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[248] **viXra:1604.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-22 17:43:43*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A passage from the metallicity page on Wikipedia is corrected in this paper. Explanation is provided of the issues.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[247] **viXra:1604.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-22 18:12:38*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

I write the alleles dynamics far from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[246] **viXra:1604.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 03:07:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[245] **viXra:1604.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 03:51:49*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 3 pages

We investigate the violation factor of the Bell-Mermin inequality.
Until now, we use an assumption that the results of measurement are $\pm 1$.
In this case, the maximum violation factor is $2^{(n-1)/2}$.
The quantum predictions by $n$-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)
state violate
the Bell-Mermin inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with $n$.
Recently, a new measurement theory based on the truth values is proposed.
The values of measurement outcome are either $+1$ or 0.
Here we use the new measurement theory.
We consider multipartite GHZ state.
It turns out that the
Bell-Mermin inequality is violated
by the amount of $2^{(n-1)/2}$.
The measurement theory based on the truth values provides
the maximum violation of the Bell-Mermin inequality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[244] **viXra:1604.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 04:03:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In a proof-of-principle experiment, researchers at UNSW Australia have demonstrated that a small group of individual atoms placed very precisely in silicon can act as a quantum simulator, mimicking nature-in this case, the weird quantum interactions of electrons in materials. [9] Dartmouth College and Griffith University researchers have devised a new way to "sense" and control external noise in quantum computing. Quantum computing may revolutionize information processing by providing a means to solve problems too complex for traditional computers, with applications in code breaking, materials science and physics, but figuring out how to engineer such a machine remains elusive. [8] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[243] **viXra:1604.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-22 08:36:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Experiments provide evidence for one-way quantum steering—an effect by which distant entangled systems can influence one another in a directional way. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[242] **viXra:1604.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-22 09:23:47*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

Contains the List 5.2 of Bolonkin’s scientific researches, works, articles and books written or published in 2007-2015 and free links to them.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[241] **viXra:1604.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-22 01:25:58*

**Authors:** Bradly Alicea

**Comments:** 13 pages, 7 Figures, 2 Supplemental Figures. Full dataset can be found at doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.944542

What makes a good prediction good? Generally, the answer is thought to be a faithful accounting of both tangible and intangible factors. Among sports teams, it is thought that if you get enough of the tangible factors (e.g. roster, prior performance, schedule) correct, then the predictions will be correspondingly accurate. While there is a role for intangible factors, they are thought to gum up the works, so to speak. Here, I start with the hypothesis that the best and worst teams in a league or tournament are easy to predict relative to teams with average performance. Data from the 2013 MLB and NFL seasons plus data from the 2014 NCAA Tournament were used. Using a model-free approach, data representing various aspects of competition reveal that mainly the teams predicted to perform the worst actually conform to expectation. The reasons for this are then discussed, including the role of shot noise on performance driven by tangible factors.

**Category:** Statistics

[240] **viXra:1604.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-21 11:33:27*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Jason J. Sharples of the University of New South Wales wrote an undated article titled ‘On Crothers’ counter-examples to the Kruskal-Szekeres extension’, in which he asserted, “The claims relating to the counter-examples made by the author in [1] about the invalidity of the Kruskal-Szekeres extension and the Schwarzschild black hole are completely erroneous.” However, Sharples failed to understand the arguments I adduced and consequently committed serious errors in both mathematics and physics. In his endeavour to prove me ‘erroneous’, Sharples introduced what he calls “an inverted radial coordinate”. Contrary to Sharples’ allegation, there is no ‘inverted radial coordinate’ involved. Sharples simply failed to comprehend the geometry of the problem. Sharples’ mathematical proof that I am ‘erroneous’ violates the rules of pure mathematics. The Kruskal-Szkeres extension and the Schwarzschild black hole it facilitates are fallacious because they violate the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[239] **viXra:1604.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-12 10:48:29*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Abstract:

In 2008, Tomasz Paterek et al published ingenious research, proving that quantum randomness is the output of measurement experiments, whose input commands a logically independent response. Following up on that work, this paper develops a full mathematical theory of quantum indeterminacy. I explain how, the Paterek experiments imply, that the measurement of pure eigenstates, and the measurement of mixed states, cannot both be isomorphically and faithfully represented by the same single operator. Specifically, unitary representation of pure states is contradicted by the Paterek experiments. Profoundly, this denies the axiomatic status of Quantum Postulates, that state, symmetries are unitary, and observables Hermitian. Here, I show how indeterminacy is the information of transition, from pure states to mixed. I show that the machinery of that transition is unpreventable, logically circular, unitary-generating self-reference: all logically independent. Profoundly, this indeterminate system becomes apparent, as a visible feature of the mathematics, when unitarity --- imposed by Postulate --- is given up and abandoned.

Keywords:

foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, measured state, pure states, mixed states, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[238] **viXra:1604.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-21 07:41:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Neutron scattering at ANSTO has contributed to building evidence for the existence of a highly exotic and elusive state of matter, known as a magnetic 'spin nematic' phase in a natural mineral called linarite. [13] Post-doctoral researchers, Karim Essafi, Owen Benton and Ludovic Jaubert in the Theory of Quantum Matter Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) are on a quest to find out as much as they can about unusual states of matter called spin liquids and if these spin liquids could generate advances in the field of physics. The results could lead to the development of quantum computing, which require an exploration of new materials to become a reality. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[237] **viXra:1604.0297 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-01 08:33:24*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published version: Open Access Library Journal, 3, e2788 (2016). New title. Slightly expanded.

I consider a statistical mechanical model for black holes as atoms of spacetime with the
partition function sum taken over area eigenvalues as given by loop quantum gravity. I
propose a unied structure for matter and spacetime by applying the area eigenvalues
to a black hole composite model for quarks and leptons. Gravitational baryon number
non-conservation mechanism is predicted. Argument is given for unified field theory be
based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions only. The non-Abelian gauge
interactions of the standard model are briefly
discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[236] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-25 20:12:44*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We have recently shown that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) may be configured as a multifractal set, with all field components acting as primary generators of this set. The goal of this brief note is to point out that a multifractal description of General Relativity (GR) is also possible, starting from the definition of the metric tensor and relativistic interval. This finding paves the way to an unforeseen homeomorphism between the structure of SM and classical gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[235] **viXra:1604.0295 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-01 04:58:57*

**Authors:** Jan Pavo Barukčić, Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 10 Pages. (C) Jan Pavo Barukčić, Münster and Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2016.

Unfortunately, however, the relation between a finite and an infinite is not always so straightfor-ward. The infinite and the finite mutually related as sheer others are inseparable. A related point is that while the infinite is determined in its own self by the other of itself, the finite, the finite itself is determined by its own infinite. Each of both is thus far the unity of its own other and itself. The inseparability of the infinite and the finite does not mean that a transition of the finite into the infinite and vice versa is not possible. In the finite, as this negation of the infinite, we have the sat-isfaction that determinateness, alteration, limitation et cetera are not vanished, are not sublated. The finite is a finite only in its relation to its own infinite, and the infinite is only infinite in its rela-tion to its own finite. As will become apparent, the infinite as the empty beyond the finite is bur-dened by the fact that determinateness, alteration, limitation et cetera are vanished. The relation between the finite and the infinite finds its mathematical formulation in the division of one by zero. As we will see, it is +1/+0=+oo.

**Category:** Number Theory

[234] **viXra:1604.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 13:42:39*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We show a formula for constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[233] **viXra:1604.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 14:00:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A team of researchers from across the country, led by Alexander Spott, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA, have built the first quantum cascade laser on silicon. The advance may have applications that span from chemical bond spectroscopy and gas sensing, to astronomy and free-space communications. [14] A bright laser beam was used to draw energy out of waves on the surface of the superfluid. Dr Christopher Baker and Professor Warwick Bowen Australian researchers from the University of Queensland have, for the first time, used laser light to cool a special form of quantum liquid, called a superfluid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[232] **viXra:1604.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 10:40:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Quantum physics has a reputation for being mysterious and mathematically challenging. That makes it all the more surprising that a new technique to detect quantum behaviour relies on a familiar tool: a "zip" program you might have installed on your computer. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[231] **viXra:1604.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 12:18:14*

**Authors:** E.A Nazimudeen, T.E.Girish

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Presented in International Conference on Quantum Optics and Photonic during Feb 2016 at Ernakulam,Kerala India

Aranmula mirror is a typical speculum metal mirror, cast and polished according to traditional techniques from Kerala in Southern India. We report our experimental investigations on detailed elemental chemical compositions, chemical surface structure, surface morphology, thermal stability, and optical reflectance of Aranmula metal mirror. The results of EDS based elemental chemical composition studies at the reflecting surface of cast, thin film coated and powder form of mirror samples have revealed the use of Arsenic (As), Silver (Ag), Gold (Au), Iron (Fe), Phosphorous (P), Sulphur (S) and Zinc (Zn) as minor constituents in Aranmula mirror making. The detailed surface structure and morphology of the mirror sample is studied for the first time using XRD and AFM. The Combined use of EDS, AFM and XRD analysis of the mirror samples reveal the presence of a transparent, non-metallic, corrosion resistant, smooth, nano structured thin film layer mainly consisting of a tin enriched delta phase (Cu_31 Sn_8) on the mirror surface, which is amorphous in nature. It also suggests that Aranmula metal mirror contains nano-particles that are considered to be quasi-crystalline in nature. We could prepare thin films of cast Aranmula mirror material with significantly higher optical reflectance for the first time. The average optical reflectance of the cast Aranmula mirror sample in the visible region is found to increase by 10 % when it is prepared in the form of thin film.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[230] **viXra:1604.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 07:29:32*

**Authors:** Tim Moon

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This contribution tries to pioneer an objective understanding of flowing time. It takes the form of a sketchy, pre-scientific sort of story but is intended to be broadly congruent with established scientific knowledge. The true nature of flowing time remains almost uncharted territory, so the aim is tentative exploration - to provide a hypothetical picture which is sufficiently intelligible that it could serve heuristically. It might have the potential to help future efforts to make scientific headway in this notoriously paradoxical domain. To formulate this story it's been necessary to adopt one of the radical views of space that modern physics offers. Some physicists see space in purely relational terms, not as an independent entity. But in sharp contrast to this view, and in accordance with the perspective inherent in quantum field theory (QFT), this story about time is based on the premise that space is the primary reality of the universe. What we normally think of as bits of matter are seen by QFT as secondary, as spatial field disturbances. The quantum fields of space are considered to be substantive, structurally complex and ubiquitously energetic. What moves the story a step beyond current science is that it also takes on board the ancient aphorism that "everything flows". Accordingly, the heart of space everywhere is imagined to be in an incessant state of turbulence and flow. The unfolding tale suggests how this hypothesis, were it true, might help explain the fleeting passage of time within an enduring, law-bound material world, much as we perceive and have begun to know it.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[229] **viXra:1604.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 02:18:31*

**Authors:** A.S.Bhattacharyya, P.Prabhakar, R. Praveen Kumar, S.Sharma

**Comments:** Pages. published in Material Science : Material Review

Epitaxial thin films of materials used in solid state ionics like Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), Rare Earth Oxides (REO) are suitable systems to study the interfacial ion transport. YSZ is an efficient oxygen ion conductor, vacancy present are responsible for ionic transport. By altering the structure we can increase the ionic conductivity. An attempt was made to computationally mock the sputtering process and deposit these films and study the diffusion of the adatom on the surface. There exists a strong interaction of the ions formed in the plasma during the sputtering process

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[228] **viXra:1604.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 13:09:55*

**Authors:** Kirat Pal Singh, Shiwani Dod

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Special Issue on International Journal of Recent Advances in Engineering & Technology (IJRAET) V-4, I-2 For National Conference on Recent Innovations in Science, Technology & Management (NCRISTM) ISSN (Online): 2347-2812, Gurgaon Institute of Technology a

We propose an efficient hardware architecture design & implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES algorithm defined by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) of United States has been widely accepted. The cryptographic
algorithms can be implemented with software or built with pure hardware. However Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) implementation offers quicker solution and can be easily upgraded to incorporate any protocol
changes. This contribution investigates the AES encryption cryptosystem with regard to FPGA and Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description language (VHDL). Optimized and Synthesizable VHDL code is
developed for the implementation of 128- bit data encryption process. AES encryption is designed and implemented in FPGA, which is shown to be more efficient than published approaches. Xilinx ISE 12.3i software is
used for simulation. Each program is tested with some of the sample vectors provided by NIST and output results are perfect with minimal delay. The throughput reaches the value of 1609Mbit/sec for encryption process with
Device XC6vlx240t of Xilinx Virtex Family.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[227] **viXra:1604.0286 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-22 08:33:41*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Version 2 in English.

In special relativity, this article presents a relativistic dynamics of massive and non-massive particles which can be applied in any inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[226] **viXra:1604.0285 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-26 08:22:04*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Regarding to the Ladder Paradox, there are some misunderstanding and insufficient understanding of the special relativity theory. Accurate recognition of the theory would make clear the core mechanism of both the theory and the paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[225] **viXra:1604.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 10:21:38*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We aim to discuss some earlier unification candidates and whether such unification candidates are suitable or non-suitable for the grand unification scheme?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[224] **viXra:1604.0283 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-26 09:10:43*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We find an exact solution for the system of Euler equations, supposing that there is some solution, following the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions, for spatial dimension n = 3. As we had seen in other previous articles, it is possible that there are infinite solutions for pressure and velocity, given only the condition of initial velocity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[223] **viXra:1604.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 06:09:40*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Our project is cheaper that Hawking-Milner project

The motion of the mathematical extra-terrestrial pendulum is considered in the spherical
gravitational field. The potential energy of the pendulum bob is approximated by the linear
term mgh and additional quadratical term in h, where h is height of the pendulum bob over
the reference point. The nonlinear equation of motion of pendulum is solved by the Landau-
Migdal method to obtain the frequency of motion and the swing amplitude. While the
Foucault pendulum bob moves over the sand surface, our pendulum bob moves in ionosphere.
It is not excluded that the pendulum project will be the integral part of the NASA cosmical
physics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[222] **viXra:1604.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 16:19:40*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. It will be given a home in the next 2 weeks, ie, a journal

We use the work of de Vega, Sanchez, and Comes (1997), to approximate the ‘particle density’ of a ‘graviton gas’ This ‘particle density’ derivation is compared with Dolgov’s (1997) expression of the Vacuum energy in terms of a phase transition. The idea is to have a quartic potential , and then to utilize the Bogomol’nyi inequality to refine what the phase transition states. We utilize Ng, Infinite quantum information procedures to link our work with initial entropy and other issues and close with a variation in the HUP: in the start of the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[221] **viXra:1604.0278 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-05 18:04:18*

**Authors:** Roman Vinokur

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The free-fall time in air was studied using the new dimensionless number GH (here mentioned as the Galilei-Huygens number to commemorate the achievements of Galileo Galilei and Christian Huygens in physics of free fall), a combination of the falling body mass and effective cross-section area, air density, and air drag coefficient. This number equals zero in vacuum and can be interpreted as the ratio of the air drag resistance force, calculated for the final velocity of the freefall in vacuum from the same height, to the gravity force. The free-fall time in air is shown to be a function of two parameters: the free-fall time in vacuum and dimensionless parameter GH . In most practical cases ( ), this function can be closely approximated as the product of the free-fall time in vacuum and a linear function of the parameter GH. To illustrate the accuracy and simplicity of the approximate equation, the free-fall time was calculated for various spherical bodies (ping-pong and tennis balls, hailstones, basketball, and track-and-field men’s shot) if dropped off the Leaning Tower of Pisa. The results obtained are straightforward and traceable and can be of educational value and interest for physics teachers and students.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[220] **viXra:1604.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 20:00:10*

**Authors:** Roman Vinokur

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Using a simple mathematical model (with the final quadratic equation), the paper clearly illustrates elevated risks of thermal failure in the electric systems with a negative temperature coefficient of resistance (in particular, for the electronics elements made of carbon and semiconductors). If the temperature coefficient of resistance is positive, the thermal equilibrium exists at any temperature below the melting point. But if the temperature coefficient of resistance is negative, there are three potential cases depending on cooling: (1) for a relatively low cooling rate, a thermal equilibrium is not feasible and the temperature goes up unlimitedly; (2) for a relatively high cooling rate, there are two thermal equilibrium states, stable and unstable; (3) in the borderline case, there is just one unstable thermal equilibrium.
As known, the heat produced in an undercooled electric circuit elevates a risk of thermal failure (for instance, Central Processing Units can generate a notable heat and crash if overheated). Such a risk is higher in the electric circuits with negative temperature coefficients of resistance [1-4], in particular for the elements made of semiconductors (silicon, germanium, etc.). The goal is to illustrate the relevant thermal effects using a simple engineering theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[219] **viXra:1604.0276 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-20 14:38:16*

**Authors:** Peter Leifer

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It is commonly understood that the Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge fields is the natural generalization of the well known Abelian gauge group symmetry $U(1)$ in the electrodynamics. Taking into account that the problems of the localization and divergences in QFT are not solved in the framework of the Standard Model (SM), I proposed a different approach to the quantum theory of the single self-interacting electron. In connection with this theory, I would like attract the attention to the state-dependent gauge transformations $U(1) \times U(N-1)$ associated with the Jacobi vector fields of the geodesic variations in the complex projective Hilbert space $CP(N-1)$ of the unlocated quantum states (UQS's).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[218] **viXra:1604.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 02:02:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Dartmouth College and Griffith University researchers have devised a new way to "sense" and control external noise in quantum computing. Quantum computing may revolutionize information processing by providing a means to solve problems too complex for traditional computers, with applications in code breaking, materials science and physics, but figuring out how to engineer such a machine remains elusive. [8] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[217] **viXra:1604.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 03:49:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

While Bell inequalities have been proven to be an optimal tool for ruling out local realism in quantum experiments, Lucas Clemente and Johannes Kofler from the Theory Division of the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) in Garching, Germany, have now shown that inequalities can never be optimal for tests of macroscopic realism. [11] Physicists have developed a new protocol to detect entanglement of many-particle quantum states using a much easier approach. The new protocol is particularly interesting for characterizing entanglement in systems involving many particles. These systems could help us not only to improve our understanding of matter but to develop measurement techniques beyond current existing technologies. [10] Using some of the largest supercomputers available, physics researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have produced one of the largest simulations ever to help explain one of physics most daunting problems. [9] Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[216] **viXra:1604.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 13:04:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[215] **viXra:1604.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 13:20:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

RMIT University researchers have trialled a quantum processor capable of routing quantum information from different locations in a critical breakthrough for quantum computing. [12] EPFL scientists have built a single-atom magnet that is the most stable to-date. The breakthrough paves the way for the scalable production of miniature magnetic storage devices. [11] Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10] Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[214] **viXra:1604.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 14:55:04*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Author offers a new nuclear generator which allows to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with the Einstein equation E=mc2. The method is based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH) and the Hawking radiation created by this MBH. As is well-known, the vacuum continuously produces virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, the photons and anti-photons. The MBH event horizon allows separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to the MBH and be annihilated; decreasing the mass of the MBH, the resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by author as AB-Generator) utilizes the Hawking radiation and injects the matter into MBH and keeps MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass.
The AB-Generator can produce gigantic energy outputs and should be cheaper than a conventional electric station by a factor of hundreds of times. One also may be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for many vehicles.
Many scientists expect the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce one MBH every second.
A technology to capture them may follow; than they may be used for the AB-Generator.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[213] **viXra:1604.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 10:41:25*

**Authors:** Junnichi Fujii

**Comments:** LibreOffice5.0 pdf, 5 pages, 4 figures, Japanese.

現代物理における時間の定義は, フォトンによる電磁相互作用 （光速やセシウムの励起）に依存しているが, 時間の定義としては十分ではない. 4つの仮定のもとで, 時間の定義を, 「時間＝作用可能なボソン数」と定義することで, 時間にまつわる6つの問題を, 解決または説明できることを示す.
1つめは, 時間の逆行を原理的に否定できることである. 2つめは, 相対性理論における重力と加速度の等価性をより簡潔に説明できることである. 3つめは, 重力によって時間が遅れることを, 直接的に説明できることである. 4つめは, 空間の歪みをより簡潔に説明できることである. 5つめは, 一般相対性理論の, 強重力下での計算不可能性に対する提案である. 6つめは, 一般相対性理論の, 量子サイズでの計算不可能性に対する提案である.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[212] **viXra:1604.0268 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-18 14:10:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[211] **viXra:1604.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 08:01:12*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

First, some background information from Wikipedia's article "Flying Spaghetti Monster" (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flying_Spaghetti_Monster) -
The Flying Spaghetti Monster (FSM) is the deity of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster or Pastafarianism (a portmanteau of pasta and Rastafarian), a social movement that promotes a light-hearted view of religion and opposes the teaching of intelligent design and creationism in public schools. Pastafarianism is legally recognized as a religion in Poland, in The Netherlands, and in New Zealand - where Pastafarian representatives have been authorized to celebrate weddings and where the first legally recognized Pastafarian wedding was performed in April 2016. In the same month in the United States, a Federal Judge ruled that the "Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster" is not a real religion. The "Flying Spaghetti Monster" was first described in a satirical open letter written by Bobby Henderson in 2005 to protest the Kansas State Board of Education decision to permit teaching intelligent design as an alternative to evolution in public school science classes. In that letter, Henderson satirized creationism by professing his belief that whenever a scientist carbon-dates an object, a supernatural creator that closely resembles spaghetti and meatballs is there "changing the results with His Noodly Appendage". Henderson argued that his beliefs were just as valid as intelligent design, and called for equal time in science classrooms alongside intelligent design and evolution. After Henderson published the letter on his website, the Flying Spaghetti Monster rapidly became an Internet phenomenon and a symbol of opposition to the teaching of intelligent design in public schools.
Now for the science bits I wrote after switching on my computer and learning of the world's first Pastafarian wedding. I had to look up the P word – I was right about the Rastafarian part, but thought the first letters had something to do with Pakistan. A mere 10 years ago, the prophet Bobby Henderson revealed that an invisible and undetectable Flying Spaghetti Monster created the universe. Many people regard the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster as a light-hearted look at religion. But since the prophet has stated that "the only dogma allowed in the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster is the rejection of dogma", more serious speculation is also permitted. This includes the Mathematical Might of the Monster – an attribute bestowing Monster-ous SubGenius such that this world (especially its "enlightened" science journals) cannot imagine or acknowledge.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[210] **viXra:1604.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 08:44:03*

**Authors:** Ashes Mi

**Comments:** 113 Pages.

Solves Prime Numbers using PRIMES to Count With

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[209] **viXra:1604.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 08:49:40*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[208] **viXra:1604.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 16:45:01*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An update to wikipedia’s page on direct imaging of exoplanets is provided in light of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. The author cannot edit the Wikipedia page to correct it, so an account of what it says will be recorded here, and the correction as well so that editors cannot erase the history.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[207] **viXra:1604.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 18:13:27*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Alexander Oparin was a Soviet scientist working behind the Iron Curtain. Many of his ideas are true and can be further developed by utilizing the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Explanation is with author’s writing in dark green.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[206] **viXra:1604.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 02:48:29*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Motivated by the increasing significance of Indian Spirituality and its cornerstone, the Pranava Aum, the present article explores the results of a signal based nonlinear analysis of Aum recital. Aum is seen to possess a rich frequency profile, with an array of integral and non-integral harmonic components. The phase portrait of Aum is rich, dense and ornamental, typical of chaotic systems. Polar plots of Aum show a remarkable uniformity in phase distribution. The bispectrum shows ordered pattern of scintillations, ruling out random processes. Quantitative analyses of Aum assert the presence of chaos, while also revealing a high degree of uncertainty, instability and self-similarity in the underlying process. In comparisons with chaos observed in solar cell open circuit output voltage, the similarities between Aum and solar processes become apparent. It is hoped that the results discussed in the present article throw light on Aum, as an audio signal, helping to understand the underlying features and characteristics of this primordial signal. The chaotic nature of Aum speaks volumes about the intricacies and complexities underlying the universal primordial sound, suggesting that it indeed possesses the necessary complexity to be the universal wave function. The similarity with solar cell based signals indicates the ubiquity of this primordial chaos in natural systems, further accentuating the omnipresent nature of Aum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[205] **viXra:1604.0261 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-01 13:24:52*

**Authors:** James R Johnson

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Version two

It is easy to confuse multiverse proposals because many divergent models exist. This overview defines the characteristics of ten popular multiverse proposals. The characteristics which are compared to our universe are: initial conditions, values of constants, laws of nature, number of space dimensions, number of universes, and fine tuning explanations. Multiverses are predictions based on theories. Focusing on each theory’s assumptions is key to evaluating a proposed multiverse. Future scientific experiments may validate selected assumptions. Using intuition as perspective, theories supporting multiverses have “strange” assumptions, but nature is not always intuitive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[204] **viXra:1604.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 13:47:45*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2016, 4, 881-887. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.45096

In contrast to many other physical theories quantum mechanics is generally regarded as above any theory we have ever had and perhaps the best candidate for a universal and fundamental de-scription of objective realty as such. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is not the only aspect of the conceptual difference between quantum and classical physics but is certainly one of the most important and famous aspects of quantum mechanics. As we will see, quantum mechanics as a theory and especially Heisenberg's uncertainty principle challenges not only our imagination but violates some fundamental principles of classical logic as such. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is refuted.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[203] **viXra:1604.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 14:22:16*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In the simplest terms here is a counterexample to Fermat's Last Theorem and s solution to Beal's Conjecture. Dr. Andrew Wiles proved Fermat's Last Theorem but I think my solution below is an example for n=3 if allowed. It also satisfies Beal's conjecture and is a counterexample to Fermat’s Last Theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[202] **viXra:1604.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 14:25:44*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to show that prime numbers are structured in a Pseudo Random manner. Like the Fibonacci or the Lucas sequence, the prime number sequence is a sequence in which 2 primes when added together (+ or -1) makes the next prime. The sum of the two primes, A+B(+or-1)=C dictates the next prime number in the sequence. Goldbach's conjecture is that every even integer is the sum of two primes, A+B(+or-1)=C is two primes +or-1 make up another prime and dictates the gap between the primes. Progressing along the prime number line is similar to the Fibonacci sequence and the Lucas sequence. In a sense the A+B(+or-1)=C is a sequence but for prime numbers. In the Pseudo Random Prime Number Sequence or A+B(+or -1)=c, 5+3-1=7 and 7+5-1=11. The "A" side progresses or dictates the progression and in the progression or sequence if 5 were used in 5+5+1=11 instead of 7+5-11 it would be out of order in the progression sequence.

**Category:** Number Theory

[201] **viXra:1604.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 14:29:48*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to show how Riemann Zeros and Prime Numbers synchronize at N+6 and why there are no Riemann Zeros smaller than 14.

**Category:** Number Theory

[200] **viXra:1604.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 16:02:09*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to provide algorithm that is 4 lines of code and that finds P & Q when N is given. It will work for RSA-1024 & RSA-2018 if the computer can float large numbers in PyCharm or Python.

**Category:** Number Theory

[199] **viXra:1604.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 12:03:52*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abstract
In my prior article, Empirical formulas for Rest-Mass Energies of Sub -Atomic Particles (http://vixra.org/abs/1604.0192), 74 subatomic particles were studied and assigned simple formulas that closely approximated the current measured masses. A closer examination of these formulas reveals that most of the particle masses can be grouped around factors containing 7 times the reciprocal of the fine-structure constant.
by Roger N. Weller (proton3@gmail.com) April 17, 2016

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[198] **viXra:1604.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 05:54:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[197] **viXra:1604.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 02:56:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Submitted to Physical Review D

Modifications of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra $ [ { \bf x}^i, {\bf p}^j ] = i \hbar g^{ij} ( {\bf p } ) $ are proposed where the classical limit $g_{ij} ( p ) $ corresponds to a metric in (curved) momentum spaces. In the simplest scenario, the $ 2D$ de Sitter metric of constant curvature in momentum space furnishes
a hierarchy of modified uncertainty relations leading to a minimum value for the position uncertainty $ \Delta x $. The first uncertainty relation of this hierarchy has the same functional form as the $stringy$ modified uncertainty relation with a Planck scale minimum value for $ \Delta x = L_P $ at $ \Delta p = p_{Planck} $.
We proceed with a discussion of the most general curved phase space scenario (cotangent bundle of spacetime) and provide the noncommuting phase space coordinates algebra in terms of the symmetric $ g_{ ( \mu \nu ) } $ and nonsymmetric $ g_{ [ \mu \nu ] } $ metric components of a Hermitian complex metric
$ g_{ \mu \nu} = g_{ ( \mu \nu ) } + i g_{ [ \mu \nu ] } $, such $ g_{ \mu \nu} = (g_{ \nu \mu})^*$. Yang's noncommuting phase-space coordinates algebra, combined with the Schrodinger-Robertson inequalities involving angular momentum eigenstates, reveals how a quantized area operator in units of $ L_P^2$ emerges like it occurs in Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). Some final comments are made about Fedosov deformation quantization, Noncommutative and Nonassociative gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[196] **viXra:1604.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 03:58:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In fact, one of the biggest disagreements involves one of the most common particles in the Universe: the neutron. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[195] **viXra:1604.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-16 10:00:04*

**Authors:** Mahmoud Mohsen Ali Alsayes

**Comments:** 1 Page.

As known, Egypt faces many grand challenges such as saving energy, Water and air Pollution, poverty and housing problem. In our capstone's project, we have tried to find a solution for over-population by exploiting Egypt's vast areas of deserts to build integrated houses that are refurbishing for air, eco-friendly, self-cleaning and cheap.
The project's design requirements are to make the temperature suitable for residents in deserts and make the house resistant to the natural disasters. We made a prototype for our original design by using foam instead of rammed earth. We prove that the design has met our design requirements through the test plan. And the results were fantastic and unexpected.
We have chosen North Plateau in The
western desert to apply the Project where
underground water and fertile soil found.
We use wastes as a key to generate biogas
and electricity. In addition, we use a
hydrogen fuel cell technology as a second
source. We are supposed to use rammed
earth and palm fronds materials in building
as they are found in that area

**Category:** Social Science

[194] **viXra:1604.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-16 06:49:59*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A critical pathway towards economic sustainability is explained, in physical terms.

**Category:** Social Science

[193] **viXra:1604.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-15 16:02:15*

**Authors:** A.Antipin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

SdRu и технология анализа и прогнозирования
на основе 3D Карт вероятности будущих сделок.
А.Антипинrelief-ds@mail.ru
Данная статья является непосредственным продолжением статьи [2].
В этой статье мы рассматриваем вопрос о представлении информации с помощью величины SdRu (нетто разницы вложений в покупку/ продажу) в виде 3D Карт условной вероятности будущих сделок. Рассматривается их связь с аналогичными 3D Картами для цены R (описанными в [1]), а также общие принципы использования Карт для анализа и прогнозирования. 9 рис.
= = = = = = = =
A.Antipinrelief-ds@mail.ru Abstract
This article is a direct continuation of the article [2].
In this article we consider the question of providing information using the SdRu value (net difference of investments purchase/ sale) in the form of 3D Maps of conditional probability of future transactions. Discusses their relation to similar 3D Maps for the prices R (described in [1]), as well as General principles of using Maps for analysis and forecasting. 9 fig.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[192] **viXra:1604.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-26 09:02:29*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We find an exact solution for the system of Navier-Stokes equations, supposing that there is some solution, following the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions, for spatial dimension n = 3. As we had seen in other previous articles, it is possible that there are infinite solutions for pressure and velocity, given only the condition of initial velocity.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[191] **viXra:1604.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-15 23:18:19*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 150 Pages. Published by Education Publishing, USA. Copyright 2016 by Marius Coman.

The definition of “concatenation” in mathematics is, according to Wikipedia, “the joining of two numbers by their numerals. That is, the concatenation of 69 and 420 is 69420”. Though the method of concatenation is widely considered as a part of so called “recreational mathematics”, in fact this method can often lead to very “serious” results, and even more than that, to really amazing results. This is the purpose of this book: to show that this method, unfairly neglected, can be a powerful tool in number theory. In particular, as revealed by the title, I used the method of concatenation in this book to obtain possible infinite sequences of primes. Part One of this book, “Primes in Smarandache concatenated sequences and Smarandache-Coman sequences”, contains 12 papers on various sequences of primes that are distinguished among the terms of the well known Smarandache concatenated sequences (S sequences) but also on “Smarandache-Coman sequences of primes” (SC sequences), defined by the author as “all sequences of primes obtained from the terms of Smarandache sequences using any arithmetical operation”: the SC sequences presented in this book are related, of course, to concatenation, but in three different ways: the S sequence is obtained by the method of concatenation but the operation applied on its terms is some other arithmetical operation; the S sequence is not obtained by the method of concatenation but the operation applied on its terms is concatenation, or both S sequence and SC sequence are using the method of concatenation. Part Two of this book, “Sequences of primes obtained by the method of concatenation”, brings together 51 articles which aim, using the mentioned method, to highlight sequences of numbers that are rich in primes or are liable to lead to large primes. The method of concatenation is applied to different classes of numbers, e.g. squares of primes, Poulet numbers, triangular numbers, reversible primes, twin primes, repdigits, factorials, primorials, in order to obtain sequences, possible infinite, of primes. Part Two of this book also contains a paper which lists a number of 33 sequences of primes obtained by the method of concatenation, sequences presented and analyzed in more detail in my previous papers, gathered together in five books of collected papers: “Two hundred conjectures and one hundred and fifty open problems on Fermat pseudoprimes”, “Two hundred and thirteen conjectures on primes”, “Conjectures on primes and Fermat pseudoprimes, many based on Smarandache function”, “Sequences of integers, conjectures and new arithmetical tools”, “Formulas and polynomials which generate primes and Fermat pseudoprimes”.

**Category:** Number Theory

[190] **viXra:1604.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-18 01:29:58*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. From From QSCP-XX Colloquium, Varna, Septembre 2015, traducted in French.

A simple graphic representation, called Topologica Axis, of the main physical parameters shows the string main series n = 2 + 4p. Most of the induced holographic-type relations are shown to be already well-known. The main string theory values n = 26 and n = 10 correspond respectively to the Hubble radius and the Hydrogen atom diameter. The value n = 6 seems to imply a massive gluon. The value n = 30 would correspond to a Grandcosmos. Direct application of the Holographic principle relies its volume to the dramatic number 137.036^137.036.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[189] **viXra:1604.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-04 06:40:28*

**Authors:** F. Portela

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We revisit a 25 years old approach of the twin primes conjecture, and after a simple adjustment, push it forward by means of simple sieves to an important conclusion.

**Category:** Number Theory

[188] **viXra:1604.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-27 09:44:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

There can be many scenarios to explain the deviation of the measured cross sections by HERA from the predicted cross sections within the Standard Model (SM) for the deep inelastic electron-proton scattering especially at higher energy transfer. Here we present new-physics scenario that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons, structure of bare electrons and electroweak theory described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The ratio of cross sections for momentum transfer 100 GeV obtained within SST and SM is 0.977 - this result obtained within SST is consistent with the HERA data (the SM result is inconsistent with the HERA data). For momentum transfer about 265 GeV such ratio is 0.843 +- 0.002 - this result obtained within SST is inconsistent with theoretical result (about 0.9) that follows from the beyond the Standard Model (BSM) contributions to electron-quark scattering with the non-zero effective quark radius. It means that future more precise measurements for momentum transfer about 265 GeV should determine which theory (SST or BSM-theory) is correct. Applying the Kasner solution to the Einstein’s field equations, we answered as well the question why many results obtained within the SST and Quantum Chromodynamics (they are the very different theories) are the same and why many SST results are the best ones.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[187] **viXra:1604.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-15 07:51:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

EPFL scientists have built a single-atom magnet that is the most stable to-date. The breakthrough paves the way for the scalable production of miniature magnetic storage devices. [11] Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10] Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[186] **viXra:1604.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-15 09:20:45*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with: Number Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[185] **viXra:1604.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-15 03:58:17*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The time dependent analysis of the normal mode 2S3 near 1244 µHz allows a precise determination of phase and frequency and reveals a phase modulation with a strong geographical dependence. All measurements are performed by a phase-locked loop.

**Category:** Geophysics

[184] **viXra:1604.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-12 04:36:26*

**Authors:** Danil Krotkov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We derive some new formulas, connecting some series with Möbius function with Sine Integral and Cosine Integral functions, give the formal proof for full version of Stirling's formula with remainder term in form of definite integral of elementary function; investigate the values of new Dirichlet series function at natural numbers >1 and its behavior at the pole at s=1, connecting it with elementary constants.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[183] **viXra:1604.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-14 19:32:47*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal

Science has become a religion of its own. Universities and colleges all around the world are its temples where people come to worship the "gods" of science. For example, the "gods" in physics include Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Schrodinger, Dirac, Heisenberg etc. There were many people who refused to worship these gods, and they were expelled or dismissed as "rebels" or "dissidents". The worst kind of those rebels are called "heretics." Here allow me to tell you a story of a dissident.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[182] **viXra:1604.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-14 15:14:17*

**Authors:** Victor Solovyev

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 3 figures

A two-step authentication system and method are provided for secure authentication that implements highly secure access to secure areas or resources with disabling the access when the main passcode is compromised. A user, after successfully passing through the passcode of the first-step verification stage, is asked to input an additional secret and presumably easy memorezible code (a pin, second password), or recognize an image for authentication (from a generated set). If during this second-step the user entered information fails to match the correct secret code, then the system sends signal message on intrusion to the user or other designated authorities through a communication device (e.g., email or telephone message) and the access is disabled immediately or after a few permitted attempts. Such authentication, while providing better security and user experience, does not require the usual practice of disabling the access, when the first-step access required information (such as complex alphanumeric password) is entered with errors in repeated access attempts.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[181] **viXra:1604.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-14 06:59:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Advances in quantum communication will come from investment in hybrid technologies, explain Stefano Pirandola and Samuel L. Braunstein. [9] A University of Oklahoma-led team of physicists believes chip-based atomic physics holds promise to make the second quantum revolution-the engineering of quantum matter with arbitrary precision-a reality. With recent technological advances in fabrication and trapping, hybrid quantum systems are emerging as ideal platforms for a diverse range of studies in quantum control, quantum simulation and computing. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[180] **viXra:1604.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-25 08:04:27*

**Authors:** W.Berckmans

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

This article presents a methodology to express the Physical Reality of our cosmos, its content and its evolution, as the outcome of a deductive axiomatic process starting from nihil and taking into consideration a limited set of presuppositions, a single creation event and 6 simple base laws.
The recurrent application of these laws on the subsequent states of the cosmos must lead to a version with a content and a behavior which is, at least at detailed level and in qualitative terms, reconcilable with any observation or confirmed law of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[179] **viXra:1604.0229 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-26 06:18:06*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In Quantum FFF Theory, it is postulated that the Einstein Rosen (ER) “bridging wormholes”
between entangled particles are the guiding channels .for Einstein Podolski and Rosen (EPR)
non local entanglement even at universal distances.
So; ER=EPR in the Multiverse and in the lab
My Supersymmetric Multiverse interpretation of quantum mechanics is based on the idea that
NOT ALL POSSIBLE ALTERNATE HISTORIES of OUR UNIVERSE need to exist if
there is instant mirror symmetrical wavefunction collapse in at least two distant (Charge and
Parity) mirror symmetric universes.
So I postulate that ALL POSSIBLE ALTERNATE HISTORIES of OUR MULTIVERSE
exist because there is instant mirror symmetrical wavefunction collapse in at least two distant
(Charge and Parity) mirror symmetric universes.
So, then all alternate histories exist but have the same anti-copy result (inside different
Charged anti-material- anti Parity-( CP symmetric) copy universes).
Dual entangled Cats and anti-Cats in both universes, die or live instantly (superpositioned)
without looking at them: they (the nuclear decay trigger) look to each other by long distant
instant Quantum entanglement.
The Super symmetric Multiverse interpretation of quantum mechanics is also reason to
introduce a different electric charged dark matter based black hole, spewed by the trillions out
of the big bang and able to pair and split into Herbig Haro systems as the accelerator of star
and galaxy formation.
However there are indications that small supernova black holes tend to gather in the center of
galaxies not able to form Herbig Haro systems but to feed the newly formed supermassive
black hole as the start of the big crunch.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[178] **viXra:1604.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-05 15:20:33*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we show that the Larmor formula at the Planck scale is simply the Planck power multiplied by $\frac{1}{2\pi}$. The Larmor formula is used to describe the total power radiated by charged particles that are accelerating or decelerating. \citet{Hau16h} has recently shown that the Coulomb's electrostatic force is the same (at least mathematically) as the gravitational force at the Planck scale. The findings in this paper strengthen the argument that electricity is not so special and that at the Planck scale, we likely only have one force and thereby only one power as well.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[177] **viXra:1604.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 19:31:28*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating two consecutive primorial numbers and adding 1 to the resulted number; example: concatenating the tenth and eleventh primorials then adding 1 is obtained the prime 6469693230200560490131; (II) There exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating two consecutive primorial numbers and subtracting 1 from the resulted number; example: concatenating the ninth and tenth primorials then subtracting 1 is obtained the prime 2230928706469693229.

**Category:** Number Theory

[176] **viXra:1604.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 19:32:50*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following three conjectures: let [p, q] be a pair of sexy primes (q = p + 6); then: (I) there exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating 30*p with 30*q and adding 1 to the resulted number; example: for [p, q] = [23, 29], the number 690871 is prime; (II) there exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating 30*p with 30*q and subtracting 1 from the resulted number; example: for [p, q] = [23, 29], the number 690869 is prime; (III) there exist an infinity of pairs of twin primes obtained concatenating 30*p with 30*q and adding/subtracting 1 from the resulted number; example: for [p, q] = [101, 107], the numbers 30303209 and 30303211 are primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[175] **viXra:1604.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 13:26:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cornell University, and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[174] **viXra:1604.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 14:30:14*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2016. >I am very grateful for the possiblity to be able to boykot arXiv.org<

Both from the points of view of recognition and understanding, the knowledge of fallacies can arm us against many kinds of mistakes and can help us to overcome serious scientific disagreements in a reasonable way. Being able to avoid or to detect fallacies can been viewed as a supplement to criteria of good scientific reasoning. Fallacies can be identified in several different ways. One way is to derive a logical contradiction such as +0 = +1. Still, a unified theory of fallacies giving us a systematic framework for demarcating fallacies and other kinds of mistakes is to be achieved. The present inquiry focuses on the logical and mathematical content of Bell's theorem. As we shall see, Bell's theorem itself is a false but popular belief, a deceptively bad argument. Bell's theorem is the most profound logical fallacy of physics and of science as such.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[173] **viXra:1604.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 10:37:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Iron selenide films peppered with potassium atoms exhibit a high-temperature superconducting phase that emerges separately from a low-temperature superconducting phase. [31] A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[172] **viXra:1604.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 11:03:33*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The purposes of the Standard Solar Model are compared to the purposes of Stellar Metamorphosis. An explanation is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[171] **viXra:1604.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 11:18:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A new paper shows that one of the most popular types of dark matter – the axion – could make wormholes possible if strong electromagnetic fields, like those found around supermassive black holes, are present. Unclear remains how such wormholes would be formed and whether they would be stable. [18] Streams of dark matter interacting with rivers of stars could provide astrophysicists with important information about the distribution and make-up of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way. That's the conclusion of Jo Bovy of the University of Toronto, who has calculated that it should be possible to observe the effects of dark matter on the stellar streams that are known to encircle our galaxy. [17] Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy (shown above) are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. [16] Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[170] **viXra:1604.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 11:31:50*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following three conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of primes q obtained deconcatenating to the right with 1 the Poulet numbers of the form 30*k + 1 then subtracting 1 (example: from P = 997465414921 is obtained q = 99746541491); (II) There exist an infinity of primes q obtained deconcatenating to the right with 1 the Poulet numbers of the form 30*k + 1 then adding 1 (example: from P = 996881835961 is obtained q = 99688183597); (III) There exist an infinity of primes q obtained deconcatenating to the right with 01 the Poulet numbers of the form 300*k + 1 then subtracting 1 (example: from P = 999666754801 is obtained q = 9996667547).

**Category:** Number Theory

[169] **viXra:1604.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 11:33:58*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following two conjectures: (I) For any k non-null positive integer there exist a sequence having an infinity of prime terms obtained deconcatenating to the right with a group with k digits of 0 the factorial numbers and adding 1 to the resulted number; (II) for any k non-null positive integer there exist a sequence having an infinity of prime terms obtained deconcatenating to the right with a group with k digits of 0 the factorial numbers and subtracting 1 from the resulted number. It is worth noting the pair of twin primes having 49 digits each obtained for k = 9: (5502622159812088949850305428800254892961651752959,
5502622159812088949850305428800254892961651752961).

**Category:** Number Theory

[168] **viXra:1604.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 11:35:15*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following two conjectures: (I) For any k positive integer there exist a sequence having an infinity of prime terms obtained deconcatenating to the right with a group with k digits of 0 the fibonorial numbers and adding 1 to the resulted number; (II) for any k non-null positive integer there exist a sequence having an infinity of prime terms obtained deconcatenating to the right with a group with k digits of 0 the fibonorial numbers and subtracting 1 from the resulted number. It is known that fibonorial numbers are defined as the products of nonzero Fibonacci numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[167] **viXra:1604.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 08:42:42*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we show some solutions of the equation 4xz=4+y*y , and a relation with the constant pi

**Category:** Number Theory

[166] **viXra:1604.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 08:49:54*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[165] **viXra:1604.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 09:44:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[164] **viXra:1604.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 07:13:21*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This publication says about new phenomena of Modern Physics – Neutrinics – particles called neutrinos. In introduction author says about his personal experience with this elusive and mysterious, subatomic particles, where he for the first time registered about this “phantom” of physics. He summarizes publications of authors or scientists, which influenced him to his interests in particle and nuclear physics. Author describes briefly principles of detection of neutrinos in underwater neutrino detectors, like AMANDA / ICE CUBE, ANTARES, Baikal, NESTOR, DUMAND and NEMO. Author of this article fills this text by his own pictures or figures of neutrino detection, transmission and oscillation. He lays the
question like for example: “is neutrino unstable subatomic particle?” It's very difficult to integrate to the Standard Model. Author further put on description of neutrino transmission under leading physicist Daniel Stancil and the scientific group of physicists from State University of Northern Carolina, which in
Fermilab successfully realized teleporting of onefold message – word “neutrino” with help of particles neutrinos on the distance 1 kilometer. Next mention is about neutrino cross efficient section, mixing angles and mixing matrix (nut) of neutrinos. Neutrino cross section according author of this text fluctuates. Oscillations are here described with help of Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawi and Sakata matrix (nut). Extraordinary attention is devoted to Exciton theory. In the end could be said, that physicists are sure, that communication by intermediary neutrinos is
principly possible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[163] **viXra:1604.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-02 12:33:36*

**Authors:** James R Johnson

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Version 2

Space is something. Space inherently contains laws of nature: universal rules (mathematics, space dimensions, types of forces, types of fields, and particle species), laws (relativity, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism) and symmetries (Lorentz, Gauge, and symmetry breaking). We have significant knowledge about these laws of nature because all our scientific theories assume their presence. Their existence is critical for developing either a unique theory of our universe or more speculative multiverse theories. Scientists generally ignore the laws of nature because they “are what they are” and because visualizing different laws of nature challenges the imagination. This article defines a conceptual model separating space (laws of nature) from the universe’s energy source (initial conditions) and expansion (big bang). By considering the ramifications of changing the laws of nature, initial condition parameters, and two variables in the big bang theory, the model demonstrates that traditional fine tuning is not the whole story when creating a universe. Supporting the model, space and “nothing” are related to the laws of nature, mathematics and multiverse possibilities. Speculation on the beginning of time completes the model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[162] **viXra:1604.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 07:13:57*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ever since the celebrated 1964 paper of John Bell, the statement that "Quantum systems violate the Bell inequalities", [1,2], has a very large support among quantum physicists as well as others claiming some knowledge about quanta. Amusingly, it has so far escaped the general notice that, if indeed, quanta do violate that Bell inequalities, then - due to elementary facts of Logic - they must also violate {\it all} other valid mathematical relations, thus among them, the equation 0 = 0. Here the respective elementary facts of Logic are presented.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[161] **viXra:1604.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 04:51:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A team of astronomers at the Friedrich Alexander University led by Péter Németh has discovered a binary star moving nearly at the escape velocity of our galaxy. There are about two dozen so-called hypervelocity stars known to be escaping the galaxy. [18] Streams of dark matter interacting with rivers of stars could provide astrophysicists with important information about the distribution and make-up of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way. That's the conclusion of Jo Bovy of the University of Toronto, who has calculated that it should be possible to observe the effects of dark matter on the stellar streams that are known to encircle our galaxy. [17] Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy (shown above) are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. [16] Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[160] **viXra:1604.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 07:28:22*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

n a recent series of papers [1, 2, 3] of this author, we generalized
quantum field theory to any curved spacetime. More in particular, in
[1] we derived the spin statistics theorem without appealing to anything
isomorphic to the vanishing of the field (anti-)commutatation relations
at spacelike distances. The correct propagators were derived by means
of other principles and no reference towards an operational approach has
ever been made; this casts into doubt the operational principle of quantum
causality since up till now it is widely believed to constitute a necessity
rather than just an axiom added to the theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[159] **viXra:1604.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-01 05:49:19*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper I will first show that Coulomb's electrostatic force formula is mathematically exactly the same as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole --- that is for two Planck masses. Still, the electrostatic force is much stronger than the gravity force when we are working with any non-Planck masses. We show that the difference in strength between the gravity and the electromagnetism is likely due to the fact that electromagnetism can be seen as aligned matter (``superimposed" gravity), and standard gravity is related to non-aligned matter (waves). Mathematically the difference between gravity and electromagnetism is simply linked to a joint probability factor; this is probably one for aligned matter (electromagnetism) and is close to zero for gravity. Actually, the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant is directly related to this gravitational probability factor. Based on this new view, we claim to have unified electromagnetism and gravity. This paper could have major implications for our entire view on physics from the largest to the smallest scales. For example, we show that electron voltage and ionization can basically be calculated from the Newtonian gravitational escape velocity when it is adjusted to take aligned matter (electromagnetism) into account. Up until now, we have had electromagnetism and gravity; from now on there is GravityElectroMagnetism!

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[158] **viXra:1604.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 12:59:33*

**Authors:** Kutlumuratov A.B., Kutlumuratov S.B.

**Comments:** The misprints, grammatical mistakes and stylistic discrepancies are eliminated from the text. The numbering of the pages is inserted .

The importance of physician intuition in epistemology of medicine is discussing from positions of philosophical pragmatism and E. Husserl's phenomenology in this article. Pragmatism reduces essence of scientific knowledge to adequate understanding of person interests, and asserts applicability of knowledge for achievement of practical goals as criterion of truth. Phenomenology reduces essence of scientific knowledge to intuitions of subject essences of thing: consciousness seizes subject relation with thing with meanings helping. Our consciousness uses meanings to control subjects. Husserl's intuitivism implies, that primate of signification in modern scientific thinking determines distinctions between empirical and theoretical sciences. Empirical sciences are theorizing objects of material world; theoretical sciences are theorizing ideal objects.
Regions' essences are researching in theoretical and empirical sciences, and each subject is considered example of carrier of these essences. Essence of separate subject is not goal of such sciences. Usually we represent knowledge as result only of signification conscious activity: we have meanings of theoretical objects in theoretical sciences and theoretical meanings of real objects - in empirical sciences. Intuition does not take into consideration. However, when management by single object becomes goal of scientific cognition, role of intuitions in constitution of subject's singularity becomes obvious. Disciplines, which are investigating essences of unique objects, and controllability of them we can define as "practical sciences". This distinguishes them from theoretical and empirical sciences. Humanitarian sciences are practical disciplines. Thus, we can consider combined effect of acts of signification and discretion of essences as important epistemological principle for the modern pragmatism.
Perception by physician of person's individual nature in direct contact with patient is basic subject of medicine. Physician perceives health nature of each person across all regions of realities. To help to patient a physician uses knowledge of various sciences, and the individual nature of patient, and he researches self-applicability of patient. Physician controls identical semantic perception of individual nature of patient by unceasing intuiting during all process doctoring of patient.
Doctoring is adequately ending, when intuiting of painful essences of individual patient's nature depletes. Nevertheless, intuition as cognition method works in modern medicine spontaneously. Intuition as facility of control of rational applying by physician of empiric and theoretic methods has not investigates. It is necessary serious scientific comprehension of this fact by philosophizing physicians together with medical and philosophical community.
Key words: pragmatism, phenomenology, intuition, signification, empirical sciences, theoretical sciences, practical sciences, doctoring.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[157] **viXra:1604.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 01:39:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5]
To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[156] **viXra:1604.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 02:17:14*

**Authors:** Bing He

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Let \begin{equation*}
A_{q}^{(\alpha)}(a;z)=\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac{(a;q)_{k}q^{\alpha k^2} z^k}{(q;q)_{k}},
\end{equation*}
where $\alpha >0,~0<q<1.$ In a paper of Ruiming Zhang, he asked under what conditions the zeros of the entire
function $A_{q}^{(\alpha)}(a;z)$ are all real and established some results on the zeros of $A_{q}^{(\alpha)}(a;z)$ which present a partial answer to that question. In the present paper, we will set up some results on certain entire functions which includes that $A_{q}^{(\alpha)}(q^l;z),~l\geq 2$ has only infinitely many negative zeros that gives a partial answer to Zhang's question. In addition, we establish some results on zeros of certain entire functions involving the Rogers-Szeg\H{o} polynomials and the Stieltjes-Wigert polynomials.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[155] **viXra:1604.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 12:51:08*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The prime number is connected to the quantum-mechanical basic equation.
Mathematician Euler discovered a prime number and a connection with π (Japanese yen) for the first time. The left side of a go board of the following equation that I had only with a prime number is equal to π2/6. I transformed the following equation and had the equation of the area of Japanese yen. Then it became the equation that the prime number equation (zeta function) of the oiler assumed a prime number a radius. Here, a prime number and the correlation with what I set were provided on the top of the pulsation wave pattern of the figure of prime number, physics fusion as if I showed it to a figure of of the Lehman expectation proof that I contributed from an association between Schrodinger equation and circular motion of the elementary particle pulsation principle correlation chart in the online posting before last time. The prime number has a quantum-mechanical basic equation, the connection that are close to Schrodinger equation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[154] **viXra:1604.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 07:24:12*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper, we diagnose the critical line.

**Category:** Number Theory

[153] **viXra:1604.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 08:04:48*

**Authors:** Yakov A. Iosilevskii

**Comments:** 350 Pages.

Psychologistics is a new field of study, described in my treatise on trial logic, which is available at http://vixra.org/abs/1604.0118. The current work presents ten relatively independent essays on Psychologistics, which form supplementary material to the treatise. The subject matters of these essays can be recapitulated as follows. Essay 1 addresses various trends of psychology in historical prospect; Essay 2 addresses the complete taxonomy of the senses of a man; Essay 3 is a discussion of native languages and their codes, and also of artificial (contrived) languages; Essay 4 treats special quotations and some relevant topics in greater detail as compared to their treatment in Preface of the trial logic treatise; Essay 5 addresses my solution of the problem of universals; Essay 6 addresses taxonomies of bionts, i.e. instances of hierarchal systems of irregular, or proper, classes of bionts as opposed to regular, or small, classes of objects, called also sets; Essay 7 deals with basic biochemistry including basic principles of genetic theory (theory of DNA macromolecules); Essay 8 comprises historical remarks on philosophy, logic, and psychology; Essay 9 presents formulation and proof of generalized associative and commutative laws for an abstract binary composition operator; Essay 10 comprises some general remarks on the trial logic and Psychologistics.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[152] **viXra:1604.0198 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-21 04:45:28*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we are rewriting the gravitational coupling constant in a slightly different form than has been shown before (without changing its value). This makes it simpler to understand what is meant and what is not meant by a “dimensionless gravitational coupling constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[151] **viXra:1604.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 09:10:54*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with: Number Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[150] **viXra:1604.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 09:13:29*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with: Number Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[149] **viXra:1604.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 16:03:51*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 pages, 10 references

Non-linear Klein-Gordon-Yukawa equations, jointly with time-energy uncertainty relations, are used as a means to estimate the extinction time of a black hole. In a first step we produce the expression originally obtained by Hawking. In a second step we found a massive boson mediating the black hole decay. This boson can also be associated to the size of a vanishingly interacting string. Finally a modification is done in the treatment performed in the first step, going in the direction of Page’s results for the black hole decay time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[148] **viXra:1604.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 18:15:07*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A mathematical relationship between the rest-mass energies of sub-atomic particles has been discovered. As a consequence, simple formulas for the rest- mass energies of 74 subatomic particles and even some heavy quarks are being proposed. The reciprocal of the fine constant occupies a major role in these formulas.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[147] **viXra:1604.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 19:44:20*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Andrușa R. Vătuiu

**Comments:** 176 Pages.

Paradoxismul este o mișcare internațională de avangardă în literatură, artă, filozofie, chiar și în știință, bazată pe folosirea excesivă de antiteze, antinomii, contradicții, oximorone, parabole, inversări sau devieri de sensuri, interpretări de la figurativ la propriu, paradoxuri etc. în creație.
A fost înființat de către scriitorul, artistul și omul de știință Florentin Smarandache, în anii 1980, în România, dorind lărgirea sferei artistice prin elemente neartistice și prin experimente contradictorii; în special creație în contra-timp, contra-sens.
Primul manifest paradoxist a fost publicat în limba franceză, în anul 1983, în prima carte paradoxistă, Le Sens du Nonsens / Sensul Nonsensului, apărută în Maroc.
Inițiatorul paradoxismului împreună cu Andrușa R. Vătuiu propun acum publicului exprimarea paradoxismului în sociologie.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[146] **viXra:1604.0189 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-11 03:42:47*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Added "folklore", replaced Cremona with Witten, and Cambria Math font.

We prove the integrality and modularity of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture with ERG Theory. Inspection of the conjecture shows that it is a phenomenological model. Thus, a solution could be found through regression analysis. Numerical verification is possible through nominative determinism/visibility theory. By adding adaptive learning (AL) to the model, the model admits an important time variation in beliefs, which would be ruled out under rational expectations. Entropy can be given from a detailed molecular analysis of the system. In summary, perception consists of the selection, organization, and interpretation of stimuli. These factors affect the conduct of work. We include two inequalities on the log-volume change associated to appropriately chosen deformations.

**Category:** Number Theory

[145] **viXra:1604.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 01:22:25*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 141 Pages.

The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published in USA quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original researchpapers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[144] **viXra:1604.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 01:23:59*

**Authors:** B. Chaluvaraju, H.S. Boregowda, S. Kumbinarsaiah

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The binding number of a graph G = (V,E) is deﬁned to be the minimum of |N(X)|/|X| taken over all nonempty set X ⊆ V (G) such that N(X) 6= V (G). In this article, we explore the properties and bounds on binding number of some special classes of trees.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[143] **viXra:1604.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 01:26:19*

**Authors:** Suleyman Senyurt, Abdussamet Calıskan, Unzile Celik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, let (α,α∗) be Bertrand curve pair, when the unit Darboux vector of the α∗ curve are taken as the position vectors, the curvature and the torsion of Smarandache curve are calculated. These values are expressed depending upon the α curve. Besides, we illustrate example of our main results.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[142] **viXra:1604.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 01:27:49*

**Authors:** Nutan G. Nayak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we obtained the characterization of net-regular signed graphs and also established the spectrum for one class of heterogeneous unbalanced net-regular signed complete graphs.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[141] **viXra:1604.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 01:29:16*

**Authors:** R. Ponraj, M. Maria Adaickalam, R. Kala

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A graph with a quotient cordial labeling is called a quotient cordial graph. We investigate the quotient cordial labeling behavior of path, cycle, complete graph, star, bistar etc.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[140] **viXra:1604.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 01:30:56*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 141 Pages.

The Mathematical Combinatorics (International Book Series) is a fully refereed international book series with ISBN number on each issue, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published in USA quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[139] **viXra:1604.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 02:23:01*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following conjecture: for any positive integer n > 1 there exist a sequence having an infinity of prime terms p, obtained concatenating to the right with 1 the terms of the sequence of concatenated n-th powers. For n = 2 the primes p are obtained concatenating with 1 to the right the terms of the Smarandache concatenated squares sequence; for n = 3 the primes p are obtained concatenating with 1 to the right the terms of the Smarandache concatenated cubic sequence.

**Category:** Number Theory

[138] **viXra:1604.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 02:24:28*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I state the following two conjectures: (I) If p is a prime which admits deconcatenation in two primes p1 and p2, both of the form 6*k – 1, then there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating q1 with q2, where q1 = 30*n – p1, q2 = 30*n – p2 and n positive integer; (II) If p is a prime which admits deconcatenation in two primes p1 and p2, both of the form 6*k + 1, then there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating q1 with q2, where q1 = 30*n + p1, q2 = 30*n + p2 and n positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[137] **viXra:1604.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 02:25:49*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following four conjectures. Let q be the number obtained concatenating to the right with 1 the numbers p – 1, where p primes of the form 30*k + 11; then: (I) there exist an infinity of primes q; (II) there exist an infinity of semiprimes q = q1*q2, such that q2 + q1 - 1 is prime. Let q be the number obtained concatenating to the right with 1 the numbers p + 1, where p primes of the form 30*k + 11; then: (III) there exist an infinity of primes q; (IV) there exist an infinity of semiprimes q = q1*q2, such that q2 – q1 + 1 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[136] **viXra:1604.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 03:06:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Magnetoresistance Insights from pure mathematics are lending new insights to material physics, which could aid in development of new devices and sensors. Now an international team of physicists has discovered that applying a magnetic field to a non-magnetic metal made it conduct 70% more electricity, even though basic physics principles would have predicted the opposite. [9] Scientists at the U.S Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University have discovered a new way to generate very low-resistance electric current in a new class of materials. The discovery, which relies on the separation of right-and left-"handed" particles, points to a range of potential applications in energy, quantum computing, and medical imaging, and possibly even a new mechanism for inducing superconductivity—the ability of some materials to carry current with no energy loss. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[135] **viXra:1604.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 13:24:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In phase transitions, for instance between water and water vapor, the motional energy competes with the attractive energy between neighboring molecules. Physicists at ETH Zurich have now studied quantum phase transitions in which distant particles also influence one another. [14] A bright laser beam was used to draw energy out of waves on the surface of the superfluid. Dr Christopher Baker and Professor Warwick Bowen Australian researchers from the University of Queensland have, for the first time, used laser light to cool a special form of quantum liquid, called a superfluid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[134] **viXra:1604.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 07:09:48*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In a recent paper [1] of this author, we generalized quantum ﬁeld theory to any curved spacetime. The key idea of the construction was to deﬁne a “universal” Fourier transform; we expand more on this theory here and use it to give an intrinsic deﬁnition of gravitational waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[133] **viXra:1604.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 07:29:51*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

As is well known, the standard Kolmogorov deﬁnition of probability may not be adequate for describing the physical world. In this work, we weaken the Kolmogorovian axioms and depart slightly from its measure theoretical context enabling one to describe systems with an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. The resulting framework is more broad and physical than Kolmogorov’s and constitutes the basis for the understanding of Quantum Theory as envisioned by this author.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[132] **viXra:1604.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 01:50:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[131] **viXra:1604.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 16:17:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We use a quantum tunnelling equation as given by V. Balck in the proceedings “Relativity and Gravitation, 100 years after Einstein in Prague” to delineate a relationship between spatial dimensions, and energy. Afterwards, we then scale the energy as related to formation of primordial black holes, in the onset of the big bang, and how they decay, to evaluate graviton production, and by extension graviton ‘particle’ induced entropy. The first section affirms that in principle we may have far fewer dimensions than was deemed necessary in string theory. In doing so, we compare the results with earlier work done where we used an argument by Haggard and Rovelli as far as the introduction of quantum effects, in the early universe. Note that Haggard and Rovelli delineated an outer radius as to the range of quantum effects, which extends past the Schwartzshield radius This is defined as 7/3 times the mass of the initial cosmological system. We also have a range of perturbative effects as delineated by Turok’s article which gives a range of values

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[130] **viXra:1604.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-06 11:39:38*

**Authors:** Pal Sahota

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

The hypothesis re-introduces the concept of the Aether through tiny spinning negatively charged particles called alpha-negatrons with large spaces in between. This compressed medium forms a three dimensional crystalline structure in the shape of "The flower of life" and as a result the speed of propagation is fixed. Electromagnetic and gravity waves propagate through this medium utilizing compression / rarefaction and through the spinning action of these particles, causing sinusoidal oscillations resulting in magnetic and electric vectors perpendicular to each other. The negatively charged electron spins around the nucleus and also on its own axis, perpendicular to its rotation around the nucleus. The nucleus spins on its own axis and the phenomenon of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is proof of that fact. The movement of the alpha-negatron particles in different directions as a result of the spins of electron and the spinning action of the nucleus is responsible for the phenomenon of magnetism, gravitism, electromagnetic and gravity waves. Time is caused by the vibration energy inherent in these particles which links time with the velocity of light. Consciousness is a separate dimension like time. Consciousness is a manifestation of the alpha-positron particle, the positive counterpart of the alpha-negatron. Consciousness and time move in opposite directions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[129] **viXra:1604.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 18:40:43*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this article, the author gave a specific example to negate the ABC conjecture once and for all.

**Category:** Number Theory

[128] **viXra:1604.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 13:18:17*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following conjecture: For any positive integer n, n > 1, there exist a sequence having an infinity of prime terms obtained concatenating n consecutive numbers and then the resulting number, to the right, with 1. Examples: for n = 2, the sequence obtained this way contains the primes 10111, 15161, 18191, 21221 (...); for n = 9, the sequence obtained this way contains the primes 1234567891, 910111213141516171, 2021222324252627281, 2930313233343536371 (...).

**Category:** Number Theory

[127] **viXra:1604.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 15:29:15*

**Authors:** Fernando Arthur Tollendal Pacheco, Fernando Antônio Tollendal Pacheco

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In Nature there are no corpuscles, only waves

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[126] **viXra:1604.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-31 03:46:15*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 62 Pages. Last update on: 31.07.2016

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system [3,4]; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [5]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [6,7]. In this BIDUM version 1.1[5,6,7][8]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE (Theory of Everything), together with the concept of biological information (BI) in a unified concept of biophysical information (BPI) [9].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[125] **viXra:1604.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 10:30:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In a recent study, a researcher at Princeton and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have come up with a formula that describes the maximum heat transfer in such tight scenarios. Surprisingly— and encouragingly—the formula suggests that a million times more heat transfer is possible between close objects than previously thought. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[124] **viXra:1604.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 10:36:33*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following conjecture: there exist an infinity of numbers q = (30*k + 7)*(60*k + 13) which admit a deconcatenation in two primes p1 and p2. Examples: for k = 2, q = 67*133 = 8911 which can be deconcatenated in p1 = 89 and p2 = 11; for k = 5, q = 157*313 = 49141 which can be deconcatenated in p1 = 491 and p2 = 41.

**Category:** Number Theory

[123] **viXra:1604.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 10:38:56*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following conjecture: For any digit from 1 to 9 there exist a sequence with an infinity of prime terms obtained concatenating to the right with 1 the partial sums of the repdigits. Examples: for repunit numbers 1, 11, 111 (...), concatenating the sum S(3) = 1 + 11 + 111 = 123 to the right with 1 is obtained 1231, prime; for repdigit numbers 3, 33, 333, 3333 (...), concatenating the sum S(4) = 3 + 33 + 333 + 3333 = 3702 to the right with 1 is obtained 37021, prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[122] **viXra:1604.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 06:06:04*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following two conjectures: (I) there exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating to the left with 1 the terms of back concatenated “multiples of 3” sequence (defined as the sequence obtained through the concatenation of multiples of 3, in reverse order); such prime is, for example, 13330272421181512963; (II) there exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating to the left with 1 the terms of back concatenated “odd multiples of 3” sequence (defined as the sequence obtained through the concatenation of odd multiples of 3, in reverse order); such prime is, for example, 145393327211593.

**Category:** Number Theory

[121] **viXra:1604.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 06:07:45*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following conjecture three conjectures: (I) there exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating to the left with 1 the terms of back concatenated “powers of 3” sequence (defined as the sequence obtained through the concatenation of powers of 3, in reverse order); such prime is, for example, 1243812793; (II) there exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating to the left with 1 the terms of back concatenated “odd powers of 3” sequence (defined as the sequence obtained through the concatenation of odd powers of 3, in reverse order); such prime is, for example, 1243273; (III) there exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating to the left with 1 the terms of back concatenated “even powers of 3” sequence (defined as the sequence obtained through the concatenation of even powers of 3, in reverse order); such prime is, for example, 14782969531441590496561729819.

**Category:** Number Theory

[120] **viXra:1604.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 02:14:06*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Infrared divergences are prominent in the process toward grand unification. Where do we see infrared divergences in the grand unification scheme?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[119] **viXra:1604.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 02:09:11*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I was studying the sequences of primes obtained applying concatenation to some well known classes of numbers, when I discovered that the second Poulet number, 561 (also the first Carmichael number, also a very interesting number – I wrote a paper dedicated to some of its properties), is also a triangular number. Continuing to look, I found, up to the triangular number T(817), if we note T(n) = n*(n + 1)/2 = 1 + 2 +...+ n, fifteen Poulet numbers. In this paper I state the conjecture that there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers which are also triangular numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[118] **viXra:1604.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 05:36:01*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Recently in [3] it was shown that the so called Bell Inequalities are {\it irrelevant} in physics, to the extent that they are in fact {\it not} violated either by classical, or by quantum systems. This, as well known, is contrary to the claim of John Bell that the mentioned inequalities {\it would be} violated in certain quantum contexts. The relevant point to note in [3] in this regard is that Bell's mentioned claim, quite of a wider acceptance among quantum physicists, is due to a most simple, elementary and trivial {\it mistake} in handling some of the involved statistical data. A brief presentation, simplified perhaps to the maximum that still presents the essence of that mistake, can be found in [10], see also [9]. The present paper tries to help in finding a way to the understanding of the above by quantum physicists, an understanding which, typically, is obstructed by an instant and immense amount and variety of ``physical intuitions" with their mix of ``physics + philosophy" considerations which - as an unstoppable avalanche - ends up making a hopeless situation from one which, on occasion, may in fact be quite simple and clear, as shown in [3] to actually happen also with the Bell Inequalities story. The timeliness of such an attempt here, needless to say not the first regarding the Bell Inequalities story, is again brought to the fore due to the no less than {\it three} most freshly claimed to be fundamental contributions to the Bell Inequalities story, [4,5,13], described and commented upon in some detail in [6].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[117] **viXra:1604.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 03:43:04*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 16 pages, 50 equations, 7 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to a scalar model with nonlinear interactions governed by a dimensional coupling constant. This gives an example of the applicability of our divergence-free methods, and
the viability of theories that are often disregarded due to the outstanding problem of nonrenormalizable divergences. Our results
demonstrate that the (Goldstone) scalar would remain massless in the effective quantum action, while the original vertices, governed by
nonlinear invariance, would preserve their form.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[116] **viXra:1604.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 19:31:26*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is explained that establishment astrophysical dogma has a gap in understanding concerning the sizes of accreting bodies. A simple correction is provided utilizing the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[115] **viXra:1604.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 21:28:11*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A device of power amplifier is invented by coupling a pair of short dipoles or a relay series of short dipoles. The short dipole refers to electric dipole with length less than half wavelength. The short dipole has characteristics of stronger interaction and lower self-resistance. The short dipoles also present complex mutual impedance due to near-field effects. The reflected impedance from the receiver to the transmitter is tuned to pure reactive impedance, which is cancelled out by adding opposite reactive impedance so that the reflected impedance to the transmitter is zero. The induced current in the receiver is larger than the initial current in the transmitter due to the higher mutual impedance and lower self-resistance so that the power is amplified sequentially in relay mode.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[114] **viXra:1604.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 10:33:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[113] **viXra:1604.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 08:09:16*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with:Legendre Polynomials Pn(x),Chebyshev Polynomials Tn(x), Polynomials Cn(x), and Number Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[112] **viXra:1604.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 04:32:48*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A solution to the Maxwell equations for dielectric and magnetic circuit of alternating current is presented. The structure of currents and energy flow is examined.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[111] **viXra:1604.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 06:25:57*

**Authors:** Chandra Raju Chintalapat

**Comments:** 10 Pages. (C) 2016, Chandra Raju Chintalapati, All rights resererved. Osamania Universtiy, Hyderabad, India.

Einstein’s tensor equation for a homogeneous, isotropic constant curvature universe is simplified to a scalar equation. It is a mass dominated universe. This equation is related to the Hubble’s constant and to a nucleus through the uncertainty principle and morphed gravitational interaction. The sizes of some nuclei are obtained and all nuclei have radii of the order of a femtometer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[110] **viXra:1604.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 23:48:30*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a novel Universal Forecasting Model

**Category:** General Mathematics

[109] **viXra:1604.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 00:13:17*

**Authors:** Christopher Goddard

**Comments:** Presentation / Slidedeck, 41 pages

This slide-deck was used as a vehicle for delivery of a talk received at the Mathematics of Planet Earth conference 2013 in Melbourne. In the contents provided herein, I sketch an approach to understand and control dynamical systems that may be subject to tipping points, vis a vis catastrophe theory.

**Category:** Geometry

[108] **viXra:1604.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 01:41:21*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following conjecture: There exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating to the right with 1 the triangular numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[107] **viXra:1604.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 01:43:13*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following three conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating to the left with 1 the terms of the Smarandache reverse sequence; (II) There exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating to the left with 1 the terms of the Smarandache back concatenated odd sequence; (III) There exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating to the left with 1 the terms of the Smarandache back concatenated square sequence.

**Category:** Number Theory

[106] **viXra:1604.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 02:06:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In a paper, published in Science Advances today, the researchers demonstrate that for light from a source such as the Sun, random fluctuations of intensity give rise to correlations of twisted light beams. They showed the presence of these correlations by modifying a now classical experiment called Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry to focus on the angular information contained in light, the "twist" in the light. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[105] **viXra:1604.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 03:07:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Protons can tunnel in solutions and at temperatures above the boiling point of water, found scientists from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[104] **viXra:1604.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 14:19:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[103] **viXra:1604.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 10:10:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[102] **viXra:1604.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 10:44:07*

**Authors:** B.T.N. Sijpthjes, G.R.M. Moeyers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Email: testkannontest@gmail.com

An overabundance of transiting exoplanets in the Keppler data is observed based on simple estimations from average properties of known exoplanets and stars. This implies that there is larger amount of variable stars than stars with exoplanets. An anomaly which can be elegantly resolved the need for navigational beacons by galactic extraterrestrial civilizations.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[101] **viXra:1604.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 07:32:18*

**Authors:** Youbang Zhan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The distinction of quantum measurements is one of the fundamentally important problems in quantum information science. In this paper we present a novel protocol for distinguishing local quantum measurement (DLQM) with multi-particle entanglement systems. It is shown that, for two spacelike separated parties, the local discrimination of two different kinds of measurement can be completed via numerous eight-particle GHZ entangled states and selective projective measurements without help of classical information. This means that no-signaling constraint can be violated by the DLQM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[100] **viXra:1604.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 08:13:11*

**Authors:** Cvavb.chandra Raju

**Comments:** 14 Pages. (C) 2016, CVAVB.CHANDRA RAJU, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS OSMANIA UNIVERSITY, HYDERABAD, INDIA

One pion exchange mass dependent Yukawa Potential Energy is used to estimate neutron-nucleus total elastic scattering cross-
section. When this total cross-section is extrapolated to zero-energy for neutron- Triton case it agrees pretty well with the
known experimental value. Estimations for 5.54 MeV P-3H and P-3He differential scattering cross-section are carried out. It is shown that for 15 degree center of mass angle of scattering the P-3He differential scattering is about 300times that of P-3H ,and this needs experimental confirmation to fix the mass dependence of the Yukawa Potential Energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[99] **viXra:1604.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 09:21:17*

**Authors:** Méhdi Pascal

**Comments:** 35 Pages. document en langue français

Ce papier contient deux petits résultats, le premier est sur une toute petite liaison qui lie les nombres parfaits avec les nombres de Carmichael. Le second résultat, est un simple exemple de traduction d’une méthode en fonction. A la fin de ce papier, je donne une introduction à la prochaine lettre qui montre que l’infinité des nombres premiers sous forme de n²+1 est lié à l’infinité des nombres premiers dans les deux progressions arithmétiques 4n+1 & n, par une simple identité asymptotique.

**Category:** Number Theory

[98] **viXra:1604.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 09:21:46*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[97] **viXra:1604.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 09:25:30*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the somos constant

**Category:** General Mathematics

[96] **viXra:1604.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-15 15:41:20*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrected Typos

When a particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from –pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[95] **viXra:1604.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-07 20:47:45*

**Authors:** Jack Martinelli

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Keywords: relativity, speed of light, cosmic inﬂation, big bang, objective relativity, abstract rulers

We define a level of abstraction beyond typical units of measurement allowing abstract measurements to be incorporated within the context of a model. The approach is applied to the concept of time resulting in a radically different perspective of what time is and what it does. The results show consistency with modern views of time via derivations of Lorentz's time dilation, length contraction and coordinate transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[94] **viXra:1604.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-07 22:36:08*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** Four pages

One of the enigmas in astronomy is the cause for stars having varying brightness, and that includes our Sun. The current theory for stars energy does not support fast variations nor the
proliferation of different types of variable stars. Variations of the energy output of our Sun have been noted for many centuries and current instruments can record the periodic magnetic field reversal. There is an energy source that can account for many of the variable star actions, but the wavelengths of this energy
are not easily measured directly. Sir Arthur Eddington mentioned a suggestion, but dismissed it.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[93] **viXra:1604.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-23 19:46:36*

**Authors:** Pankaj Mani

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, I try to look at Riemann Hypothesis from the Game Theoretical Perspective. As David Hilbert had visualized that advanced math is actually a game of symbols satisfying certain fixed rules. Indeed, here number theoretical system plays the Non-Cooperative game and more precisely the Game of Perfect Information. Applying the technical Game Theoretic concepts, I have tried to show that Riemann Hypothesis is definitely true ! In case of any typos, please avoid them or else feel free to write to me. I shall correct them. Author : Pankaj Mani,FRM,CQF New Delhi, India Email: manipankaj9@gmail.com (Twitter id : @mathstud1)

**Category:** Number Theory

[92] **viXra:1604.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-26 19:57:18*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Twelve pages

The 9th edition, 2011, of Resnick and Halliday PHYSICS, states on page 1043 “..In 1905, (Dr.) Einstein showed that as a consequence of his theory of Special Relativity, mass can be considered to be another form of energy…An object’s mass m and the equivalent energy Eo are related by Eo = mc^2 which, without the subscript o, is the best known science equation of all time….If you continue your study of physics beyond this book, you will see more refined discussions of the relation between mass and energy. You might even encounter disagreements about just what that relation is and what it means…” The book’s current “author,” Dr. Jearl Walker, had been sent my paper disagreeing with E = mc^2 in 2008, three years before the 9th edition’s first 2011 publication. See www.k1man.com/b This current paper discusses that disagreement and shows newly organized experimental proof that E = mc^2 and mass – energy equivalence, the corner stone of 21st century Main Stream physics dogma, is wrong.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[91] **viXra:1604.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-07 14:04:53*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper innovates the way we comprehend time and its relationship with space by proposing a new concept within General relativity and, to some extent, Quantum Mechanics in order to explain some of the natural aspects that still puzzle scientists that study the very nature of the Universe. Gravitation, the arrow of time, cosmic inflation and many more subjects that are crucial to modern day physics shall be debated within the most accurate theory, General relativity, but also with some concepts developed in terms of Quantum Mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[90] **viXra:1604.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-07 04:48:26*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 157 Pages.

The neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics etc. were introduced by Florentin Smarandache in 1995.
1. Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.
This theory considers every notion or idea together with its opposite or negation

**Category:**

[89] **viXra:1604.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-07 04:51:56*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 84 Pages.

A șaptea plachetă din seria smarandacheană de cititoriri (lecturi instante) abordează universul decepției din două perspective: o dată, prin ochii unor scriitori ilustrativi (Virginia Woolf, Franz Kafka, René Char, Emil Cioran, Constantin Țoiu, Ileana Vulpescu, Mihai Sin – așezați în ordine cronologică), iar apoi, prin surprinderea introspectivă, autobiografică a unei perioade deceptive (anul 1980 în România comunistă, cu gânduri împărtășite doar hârtiei, cu revolte și resemnări, cu zbateri nesfârșite pentru a publica).

**Category:** Social Science

[88] **viXra:1604.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-07 06:56:08*

**Authors:** Michael Spears

**Comments:** 25 Pages. A new theory of time, gravity and the infinite Universe. This is the first real challenge to Einstein in a century.

This paper forms the foundations of a new theory of time, gravity and the infinite Universe. In Part 1 I expose a mistake in the theory of General Relativity and then proceed to develop
new field equations for gravitational time dilation. The idea is that Einstein achieved the correct results with incorrect working. In Part 2 I propose a physical model of gravity based
on a network of strings. In Part 3 I propose an explanation for the big bang and probably the only working model of the infinite Universe. This is the first real challenge to Einstein in a
century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[87] **viXra:1604.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 12:37:51*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Atom size, the superstring theory by the elementary particle pulsation principle.
Size of "the strings" in the current superstring theory is 10-33cm Planck size.
The expanse of the cloud of measurable probability, "the string" of atom size, the superstring theory are 10-8cm size.
The figure of elementary particle pulsation principle energy wave pattern assumes the average energy density of dark energy the horizon and supposes the horizon to be energy zero.
I assume a place of the dark energy a general place, and the energy of the negative wave offsets it plus every pulsation 1 cycle, and the energy grand total of a place pulsating by the supersymmetry that it is offers zero and the supersymmetry that it is to zero.
I explain nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism by the physics of the material wave to express by Schrodinger equation and explain a film (three-dimensional space) equivalent to D brainy person as four dimensions space and the section and explain gravity as minus number energy space (equivalent to the ring of the super string) of a pulsating wave.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[86] **viXra:1604.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-02 05:47:55*

**Authors:** Yakov A. Iosilevskii

**Comments:** 68 Pages.

A concise rigorous axiomatic algebraico-functional theory of a real affine Euclidean space of any given dimension n>=1 (nDRAfES), which is an underlying discipline of differential and integral calculus and particularly of my recent theory of nD wave fields, presented in arXiv:1510.00328, is developed from an algebraic system, called an affine additive group (AAG). The latter consists of a certain underlying set of points, called an affine additive group manifold (AAGM), and of a certain commutative [abstract] additive group (CAG), called the adjoint group of the AAG, whose elements, called vectors, are related to pairs of points of AAGM by a binary surjection, satisfying the appropriate version of the Chasle, or triangle, law. An AAG is illustrated by an nD primitive (Bravais) affine lattice. When the CAG is successively supplemented by the appropriate additional attributes to become ultimately an nD real abstract vector Euclidean space (nDRAbVES), the AAG is automatically self-adjusted to all current metamorphoses of its adjoint CAG to become ultimately an nDRAfES, of which the above nDRAbVES is adjoint. Relative to its any orthonormal basis, the nDRAbVES, adjoint of the nDRAfES, is isomorphic to the nD real arithmetical vector Euclidean space (nDRArVES), whose underlying set consists of ordered n-tuples of real numbers, being coordinates of the respective abstract vectors of the underlying vector set of the nDRAbVES. A time continuum (TC) is a special interpretation of 1DRAfES. A real-valued functional form (FF) that is initially defined on a certain region of the direct product (DP) of a 1DRAfES and a nDRAfES can rigorously be mapped onto a certain real-valued FF defined on a certain region of the DP of the TC and nDRArVES and vice versa.

**Category:** Algebra

[85] **viXra:1604.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 07:41:19*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Global Dynamic Efficiency is explained in terms of geo-and thermo-economics.

**Category:** Social Science

[84] **viXra:1604.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 08:10:17*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Work in progress.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[83] **viXra:1604.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 08:30:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A team led by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has achieved a major breakthrough in magnetic interaction. By adding a special insulator, they make electrons "twirl" their neighbouring "dance partners" to transfer magnetic information over a longer range between two thin layers of magnetic materials. This novel technique enables magnetic information to make their way from one magnetic layer to another, synonymous to the encoding and transmission of data. [11] Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10] Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[82] **viXra:1604.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 09:21:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Earth is constantly jostled by low-frequency gravitational waves from supermassive black hole binaries in distant galaxies. Astrophysicists are using pulsars as a galaxy-sized detector to measure the Earth's motion from these waves. [7] Last week's announcement that Gravitational Waves (GW) have been detected for the first time—as a result of the merger of two black holes—is huge news. But now a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) originating from the same place, and that arrived at Earth 0.4 seconds after the GW, is making news. Isolated black holes aren't supposed to create GRB's; they need to be near a large amount of matter to do that. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[81] **viXra:1604.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 05:03:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A bright laser beam was used to draw energy out of waves on the surface of the superfluid. Dr Christopher Baker and Professor Warwick Bowen Australian researchers from the University of Queensland have, for the first time, used laser light to cool a special form of quantum liquid, called a superfluid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[80] **viXra:1604.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 06:46:52*

**Authors:** Yakov A. Iosilevskii

**Comments:** 1134 Pages.

In contrast to Church, who proved in 1936, based on papers by Gödel, that a dual decision problem for the conventional axiomatic first-order predicate calculus is unsolvable, I have solved a trial decision problem algebraically (and hence analytically, not tabularily) for a properly designed axiomatic first-order algebraico-predicate calculus, called briefly the trial logic (TL), and have successfully applied the pertinent algebraic decision procedures to all conceivable logical relations of academic or practical interest, including the 19 categorical syllogisms. The structure of the TL is a synthesis of the structure of a conventional axiomatic first-order predicate calculus (briefly CAPC) and of the structure of an abstract integral domain. Accordingly, the TL contains as its autonomous parts the so-called Predicate-Free Relational Trial Logic (PFRTL), which is parallel to a conventional axiomatic sentential calculus (CASC), and the so-called Binder-Free Predicate Trial Logic (BFPTL), which is parallel to the predicate-free part of a pure CAPC. This treatise, presenting some of my findings, is alternatively called “the Theory of Trial Logic” (“the TTL”) or “the Trial Logic Theory” (“the TLT”). The treatise reopens the entire topic of symbolic logic that is called “decision problem” and that Church actually closed by the fact of synecdochically calling the specific dual decision problem, the insolvability of which he had proved, by the generic name “decision problem”, without the qualifier “dual”. Any additional axiom that is incompatible with the algebraic decision method of the trial logic and that is therefore detrimental for that method is regarded as one belonging to either to another logistic system or to mathematics.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[79] **viXra:1604.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 07:00:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[78] **viXra:1604.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 07:10:04*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In a previous paper of this author [1], I introduced a novel way of
looking at and extending at quantum field theory to a general curved
spacetime satisfying mild geodesic conditions. The aim of this paper is
to further extend the theory and clarify the construction from a physical
point of view; in particular, we will study the example of a single particle
propagating in a general external potential from two different points of
view. The reason why we do this is mainly historical given that the
interacting theory is after all well defined by means of interaction vertices
and the Feynman propagator and therefore also applicable to this range
of circumstances. However, it is always a pleasure to study the same
question from different points of view and that is the aim of this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[77] **viXra:1604.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 07:12:45*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 17 pages, 55 equations, 6 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to a scalar model with gravity-like, non-polynomial interactions characterized by a dimensional coupling constant. This treatment would give a clear perspective regarding the viability of applying the divergence-free approach to quantum gravity. Issues regarding the masslessness of the effective graviton, while the virtual counterpart is massive, as well as, regarding the invariance of the basic Lagrangian, are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[76] **viXra:1604.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 20:26:57*

**Authors:** KAMANA Pouwisawè, Roger Tamasse DANIOUẺ, Kouami KOKOU

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

In recent years, the entrance on the scene of sociopolitical climate issues has opened the debate on a new type of migrants including that of environmental migrants. Today, even if the relationship between the environment and migration make gradually its way in international circles, it remains largely unknown to the general public and arouses a little of scientific researchers. If scientists know the phenomenon since the 1970s, it is only in recent years that it has truly become a social issue, political, environmental and a subject of public debate. The objective of this article is to make a place of state of knowledge of the phenomenon through an etiology of debates of different actors.
The results reveal that there are a multitude of terms and definitions customary in the different actors who addressed the topic. Different work on environmental migration is subject suffering from a terminological point of view. The classificatory issue addressed by the authors, is multiple and sometimes complementary. Faced with the growing status of the phenomenon and its victims throughout the world in varying degrees, it is urgent to put an end to unnecessary and unfruitful definitional misunderstanding because an action is worth a thousand intentions.

**Category:** Social Science

[75] **viXra:1604.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 20:32:57*

**Authors:** Alexandra DEACONU

**Comments:** 09 Pages.

Migration or territorial mobility of the population is not limited to travel in space, but is a more complex process that brings into the equation multiple items and irrespective of the mechanisms that set in motion or influencing their manifestation, generates a broad spectrum of effects. The changes are visible in the economic life political, social, cultural, religious. They manifest both in the place of origin, from where potential migrants will go, and in the destination.

**Category:** Social Science

[74] **viXra:1604.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 20:37:28*

**Authors:** Vanessa A. Casanova

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

The oil city of Cabimas, in western Venezuela, is the heterogeneous and complex space where various groups worship San Benito de Palermo, one of the most widespread, plural and multiethnic Catholic expressions of the region. The devotion to this deity, as a mestizo expression of local identities, gets away from the conceptions and rites of the Church, for whom the relationship with the saint should be limited to the spaces and times that it has defined, particularly during the cycle of fiesta. Cabimas is a place of concurrence and tension between believers and institutions, which are united by a common element: the saint, but which sometimes also get into conflict. How can this worship lead to this ambivalence? How can it represent, at the same time, an expression of power and counterpower? In this work we propose to discuss the relationship between the sacred, collective identities and power in the cult of Saint Benedict, with the help of the ethnographic method and the interpretative analysis of significances of the anthropology of religion. In their relationship with the saint, people, the Church, leaders and public forces altogether overwhelm the system of doctrines and rituals, to participate in a phenomenon that no longer seems "religious" nor "political" or "family", but becomes instead –using Maussian terms– a total social fact.

**Category:** Social Science

[73] **viXra:1604.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-07 19:06:06*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong. Reference: P vs NP:Solutions of NP Problems,viXra:1408.0204 by A. A. Frempong

This paper covers the principles and procedures for producing the solution of a problem given the procedure for checking the solution of the problem and vice versa. If a problem can be checked in polynomial time, it can be solved in polynomial time, provided a complete checking procedure is available. From a point A, if one uses one's feet to measure a certain distance by counting steps forwards to a point B, and one wants to check the correctness of the measurement, one would count backwards from the point B using one's feet to see if one returns to exactly the point A. If one returns to A, the forward counting is correct, otherwise it is incorrect. If one counted backwards first from the point B to the point A, one could also count forwards from A to B. Before computers were used in filing taxes in the United States, when one prepared a tax return and wanted to check for arithmetic errors, one would reverse the arithmetic steps from the last arithmetic statement backwards all the way to the first entry on the tax form; and if one obtains a zero after reversing the steps, one was sure that there were no arithmetic errors on the tax form (That is, one began with zero entry going forward and one returned with a zero entry). So also, if one is able to check quickly and completely, the correctness of the solution to a problem, one should also be able to produce the solution of the problem by reversing the steps of the checking process while using opposite operations in each step. If a complete checking process is available, the solution process can be obtained by reversing the steps of the checking while using opposite operations in each step. In checking the correctness of the solution to a problem, one should produce the complete checking process which includes the end of the problem and the beginning of the problem. Checking only the final answer or statement is incomplete checking. Since the solution process and the checking process are inverses of each other, knowing one of them, one can obtain the other by reversing the steps while using opposite operations. To facilitate complete checking, the question should always be posed such that one is compelled to show a checking procedure from which the solution procedure can be deduced. Therefore P is always equal to NP.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[72] **viXra:1604.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 01:14:55*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following conjecture: Let p be a prime of the form 30*k + 17; then there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating p – 1 with 3; example: 677, 797, 827, 857, 887, 947 are primes (successive primes of the form 30*k + 17) and the numbers 6763, 7963, 8263, 8563, 8863, 9463 are also primes. As an incidental observation, many of the semiprimes x*y obtained in the way defined have one of the following two properties: (i) y – x + 1 is a prime of the form 13 + 30*k; (ii) y – x + 1 is a prime of the form 19 + 30*k.

**Category:** Number Theory

[71] **viXra:1604.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 03:38:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Spin-waves are promising candidates for future information processing schemes as there is almost no frictional heating in magnetic transport. Information encoding, however, is only possible in spin-wave packets. A group of CUI researchers has succeeded in creating and capturing such defined wave-packets in slow-motion videos. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[70] **viXra:1604.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 03:53:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Almost all electronic devices operate by using an electron charge controlled by electrical means. In addition to a charge, an electron has a spin as a magnetic property. A groundbreaking concept for information processing based on electron spins is proposed using electron spins in semiconductors. Quantum computing enables us to exceed the speed of conventional computing and a spin transistor reduces energy consumption. [14] Spin-waves are promising candidates for future information processing schemes as there is almost no frictional heating in magnetic transport. Information encoding, however, is only possible in spin-wave packets. A group of CUI researchers has succeeded in creating and capturing such defined wave-packets in slow-motion videos. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[69] **viXra:1604.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-18 06:21:50*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We seek some attempt solutions for the system of Navier-Stokes equations for spatial dimensions n = 2 and n = 3. These solutions have the principal objective to provide a better numerical evaluation of the exact analytical solution, thus contributing to the solution not only from a theoretical mathematical problem, but from a practical problem worldwide.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[68] **viXra:1604.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 07:47:32*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

This article would appeal to people interested in new ideas in sciences like physics, astronomy and mathematics that are not presented in a formal manner.
Biologists would also find the paragraphs about evolution interesting. I was afraid they'd think my ideas were a bit "out there". But I sent a short email about them last year to a London biologist who wrote an article for the journal Nature. She replied that it was "very interesting".
The world is fascinated by electronics. Computer scientists, as well as computer buyers, would be intrigued by the fundamental role given to human electronics in creation of the universe. This obviously can only be done if time travel to the past is possible. I explain in scientific terms how it could be done (the world is also fascinated by the prospect of time travel).
My ideas on trips through time grew from the related topic of interstellar, and even intergalactic, travel (and those ideas are inspired by an electrical-engineering experiment at Yale University in 2009). After the ideas on time travel came the realization that this technology could be used to totally eliminate the problems of muscle and bone weakness, radiation exposure etc associated with a lengthy journey to Mars.
The exquisitely ordered cosmos proposed would have great appeal to religion and philosophy. Dealing as it does with time that does not exclusively operate in a straight line, the book could not only present a new view of evolution (present theory assumes time is always a straight line from past to future). Nonlinear time might also give religionists a new concept of who God is. This could possibly be that of humans from the remote future who are quantum entangled with all past, present and future states of the whole - infinite and eternal - universe; and thus have all God's powers. Such infinite power could be pantheistic but would naturally include the ability to manifest as an individual. (I know this article is very far removed from what is traditionally considered scientific. Just remember: science is the search for knowledge of how this universe works, and that search must be pursued wherever it leads - even if it leads into traditionally nonscientific areas such as religion.)
Finally - if we're entangled with the whole universe, we'd have to be entangled with each other. On a mundane level, this gives us extrasensory and telekinetic abilities. On a higher level, it eliminates crime and war and domestic violence since people don't normally desire to harm themselves in any way.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[67] **viXra:1604.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 08:25:12*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: For any term S(n) of the Smarandache consecutive numbers sequence (1, 12, 123, 1234, 12345, 123456, 1234567...) there exist an infinity of primes p such that the number q obtained concatenating S(n) both to the left and to the right with p is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[66] **viXra:1604.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-10 18:42:42*

**Authors:** Allen D Allen

**Comments:** Abstract contains 200 words, ms runs 6 pages

By proving that his “last theorem” (FLT) is true for the integral exponent n = 3, Fermat took the first step in a standard method of proving there exists no greatest lower bound on n for which FLT is true, thus proving the theorem. Unfortunately, there are two reasons why the standard method of proof is not available for FLT. First, transitive inequality lies at the heart of that method. Secondly, FLT admits to a change from > to < rendering their transitive natures unavailable. A related, self evident symmetry illustrates another problem that would have plagued Fermat and centuries of successors. FLT asserts such a narrow proposition, it is difficult to find an antecedent while easy to find a non equivalent consequence. For example, if FLT asserted that the exponent n is even, then FLT would be equivalent to the proposition that Fermat’s equation has two solutions, one for positive bases and one for their negative counterparts. This could be addressed with conservative transformations. The example provided by FLT motivates the use of an early paper by the author to prove a theorem on theorems. The theorem on theorems demonstrates there are infinitely many theorems as difficult to prove as FLT.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[65] **viXra:1604.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 04:39:52*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following four conjectures: (I) let n be a number obtained concatenating the positive integers from 1 to p, where p prime of the form 6*k – 1; there exist an infinity of primes q of the form 6*h + 1 such that the number r obtained concatenating q with n then with q + 6 is prime; (II) let n be defined as in Conjecture 1; there exist an infinity of primes q of the form 6*h + 1 such that the number r obtained concatenating q + 6 with n then with q is prime; (III) let n be a number obtained concatenating the positive integers from 1 to p, where p prime of the form 6*k + 1; there exist an infinity of primes q of the form 6*h - 1 such that the number r obtained concatenating q with n then with q + 6 is prime; (IV) let n be defined as in Conjecture 3; there exist an infinity of primes q of the form 6*h - 1 such that the number r obtained concatenating q + 6 with n then with q is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[64] **viXra:1604.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 04:40:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[63] **viXra:1604.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 16:43:39*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) let n be a number obtained concatenating the positive integers from 1 to p, where p prime of the form 6*k – 1 (e.g. n = 12345 for p = 5); there exist an infinity of primes q of the form 6*h + 1 such that the number r obtained concatenating q + 2 with n then with q is prime (e.g. for n = 12345 there exist q = 19 such that r = 211234519 is prime); (II) let n be a number obtained concatenating the positive integers from 1 to p, where p prime of the form 6*k – 1; there exist an infinity of primes q of the form 6*h + 1 such that the number r obtained concatenating q - 4 with n then with q is prime (e.g. for n = 12345 there exist q = 37 such that r = 331234537 is prime). I use the operator “]c[“ with the meaning “concatenated to”.

**Category:** Number Theory

[62] **viXra:1604.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 02:39:56*

**Authors:** MOGA Monika, CALEFARIU Gavrilă, SMARANDACHE Florentin, SÂRBU Flavius Aurelian, BOGDAN Laura

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The research and development (R&D) processes influence the economic development of a company, because in an industry that is changing fast, firms must continually revise their projects
and range of products. Therefore in order to determine the specific costs of research and
development activity we have to highlight the efforts and effects of these activities and to calculate some indicators of economic efficiency.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[61] **viXra:1604.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 02:42:01*

**Authors:** CALEFARIU Emilia, BOȘCOIANU Mircea, Smarandache Florentin, BUDA Traian Alexandru

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Despite numerous attempts to refocus traditional bivalent logic, usually, logic is tributary by keeping fixed limits for truth or false. An alternative answer to this need is the system of Neutrosophy, and its connected logic, Neutrosophic Logic, presented in the work of the authors W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy and Florentin Smarandache. Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[60] **viXra:1604.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 02:44:04*

**Authors:** Xingsen Li, Yingjie Tian, Florentin Smarandache, Rajan Alex

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The processes of generating innovative solutions mostly rely on skilled experts who are usually unavailable and their outcomes have uncertainty. Computer science and information technology are changing the innovation environment and accumulating Big Data from which a lot of knowledge is to be discovered. However, it is a rather nebulous area and there still remain several challenging problems to integrate the multi-information and rough knowledge effectively to support the process of innovation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[59] **viXra:1604.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 02:47:09*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The management and combination of uncertain, imprecise, fuzzy and even paradoxical or highly
con°icting sources of information has always been, and still remains today, of primal importance for the development of reliable modern information systems involving arti¯cial and approximate reasoning. In this short paper, we present an introduction of our recent theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning, known as Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT), developed to deal with imprecise, uncertain and con°icting sources of information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[58] **viXra:1604.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 02:53:38*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a modification of PCR5 and PCR6 fusion rules with degrees of intersections for taking into account the cardinality of focal elements of each source
of evidence to combine. We show in very simple examples the interest of these new fusion rules w.r.t. classical Dempster-Shafer,PCR6, Zhang’s and Jaccard’s Center rules of combination.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[57] **viXra:1604.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:02:47*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We introduce the mapping on intuitionistic fuzzy soft expert set and its operations are studied. The basic operations of mapping on intuitionistic fuzzy soft expert set theory are defined.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[56] **viXra:1604.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:05:08*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Ali Mumtaz, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this paper we introduced mapping on neutrosophic soft expert sets through which we can study the images and inverse images of neutrosophic soft expert sets. Further, we investigated the basic operations and other related properties of mapping on neutrosophic soft expert sets in this paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[55] **viXra:1604.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:07:39*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, we present some definitions of neutrosophic re¯ned sets such as; union,
intersection, convex and strongly convex in a new way to handle the indeterminate information and inconsistent information. Also we have examined some desired properties of neutrosophic refined sets based on these definitions. Then, we give distance measures of neutrosophic refined sets with properties. Finally, an application of neutrosophic re¯ned set is given in medical diagnosis problem
(heart disease diagnosis problem) to illustrate the advantage of the proposed approach.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[54] **viXra:1604.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:09:07*

**Authors:** Young Bae Jun, Florentin Smarandache, Chang Su Kim

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to extend the concept of cubic sets to the neutrosophic sets.
The notions of truth-internal (indeterminacy-internal, falsity-internal) neutrosophic cu-
bic sets and truth-external (indeterminacy-external, falsity-external) neutrosophic cubic
sets are introduced, and related properties are investigated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[53] **viXra:1604.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:22:40*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and its some operations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[52] **viXra:1604.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:26:58*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we first define the concept of bipolar single neutrosophic graphs as the
generalization of bipolar fuzzy graphs, N-graphs, intuitionistic fuzzy graph, single valued
neutrosophic graphs and bipolar intuitionistic fuzzy graphs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[51] **viXra:1604.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:31:13*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this paper, we first introduce the concept of single valued neutrosophic soft expert sets (SVNSESs for short) which combines single valued neutrosophic sets and soft expert sets.We also defineits basic operations, namely complement, union, intersection, AND and OR, and study some related properties supporting proofs.This concept is a generalization of fuzzy soft expert sets (FSESs) and intuitionistic fuzzy soft expert sets (IFSESs). Finally, an approach for solving MCDM problems is explored by applying the single valued neutrosophic soft expert sets, and an example is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[50] **viXra:1604.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:32:49*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Multi-attribute decision making (MADM) play an important role in many applications, due to the efficiency to handle indeterminate and inconsistent information, interval neutrosophic sets is widely used to model indeterminate information. In this paper, a new MADM method based on interval neutrosophic trapezoid linguistic weighted arithmetic averaging aggregation (INTrLWAA) operator and interval
neutrosophic trapezoid linguistic weighted geometric aggregation (INTrLWGA) operatoris presented. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the application and efficiency of the proposed method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[49] **viXra:1604.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:38:44*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this study, we presented concept of neutrosophic cubic set by extending the concept of cubic set to neutrosophic set.We also defined internal neutrosophic cubic set (INCS) and external neutrosophic cubic set (ENCS).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[48] **viXra:1604.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:40:27*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Fuzzy sets are the most significant tools to handle uncertain data while neutrosophic
sets are the generalizations of fuzzy sets in the sense to handle uncertain, incomplete,
inconsistent, indeterminate, false data. In this paper, we introduced fuzzy subspaces and neutrosophic subspaces (generalization of fuzzy subspaces) by applying group actions.Further,
we define fuzzy transitivity and neutrosophic transitivty in this paper. Fuzzy orbits and
neutrosophic orbits are introduced as well. We also studied some basic properties of fuzzy
subspaces as well as neutrosophic subspaces.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[47] **viXra:1604.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:42:11*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper we present a new distance measure between neutrosophic refined sets on the basis of extended Hausdorff distance of neutrosophic set and we study some of their basic properties. Finally, using the extended Hausdorff distance and/or similarity measures, an application to medical diagnosis is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[46] **viXra:1604.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 06:34:22*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It is shown that in a chargeable capacitor spreads an electromagnetic wave, and the mathematical description of the wave is the solution of Maxwell's equations. It is shown that there in charged capacitor stationary flux of electromagnetic energy exist. The energy contained in the capacitor, which is considered to be the electric potential energy, it is electromagnetic energy, which in the capacitor as a stationary flow is stored. \\ Показывается, что в заряжаемом конденсаторе распространяется электромагнитная волна, а математическое описание этой волны является решение уравнений Максвелла. Показывается, что в заряженном конденсаторе существует стационарный поток электромагнитной энергии, а та энергия, которая содержится в конденсаторе и которую принято считать электрической потенциальной энергией, является электромагнитной энергией, хранящейся в конденсаторе в виде стационарного потока.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[45] **viXra:1604.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:43:27*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The notion of single valued neutrosophic sets is a generalization of fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets. We apply the concept of single valued neutrosophic sets, an instance of neutrosophic sets, to graphs. We introduce certain types of single valued neutrosophic graphs (SVNG) and investigate some of their properties with proofs and examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[44] **viXra:1604.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:44:33*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Complex fuzzy sets and complex intuitionistic
fuzzy sets cannot handle imprecise, indeterminate, inconsistent, and incomplete information of periodic nature. To overcome this difficulty, we introduce complex neutrosophic set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[43] **viXra:1604.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:45:37*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In this paper, we first introduced the concept of possibility single valued neutrosophic soft expert sets (PSVNSESs for short) which is a generalization of single valued neutrosophic soft expert sets (SVNSESs for short), possibility fuzzy soft expert sets ( PFSESs) and possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft expert sets (PIFSESs).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[42] **viXra:1604.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:59:19*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Muhammad Shabir, Munazza Nazz, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly dened objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic semigroup,soft neutosophic bisemigroup, soft neutrosophic N-semigroup with the discuissionf of some of their characteristics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[41] **viXra:1604.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 04:03:05*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Daniela Gîfu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Discourse analysis is a synergy of social science disciplines, including linguistics,education, sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology,area studies, cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication studies, and translation studies, subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis,and methodologies.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[40] **viXra:1604.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 04:09:47*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The study starts from evidence that several communication acts fail, but nobody is called to intervene and nobody thinks of intervening. Examining different branches (specialties) of the communication discipline and focusing on four possible practices, by comparison, differentiation, collating and corroboration,
the current study brings arguments for a branch of the communication discipline that has as unique practical aim the communicational intervention, the practical, direct and strict application of communication research.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[39] **viXra:1604.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 04:12:17*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Besides matter and antimatter, there must exist an intermediate form of matter, called unmatter.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[38] **viXra:1604.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-07 07:37:54*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Version 2 in English.

In special relativity, this article presents a new dynamics which can be applied in any inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1604.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 13:45:20*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[36] **viXra:1604.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-08 07:49:40*

**Authors:** Ioannis Xydous

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The Author presents an alternative interpretation to quantum phenomena based on a non-constant speed of light concept. Besides its enormous significance about the interaction between charged particles, it leads to a new Mass-Energy equivalence that supplements Einstein’s original one. The technological implications of this discovery may actually open the “doors” for real inertia control through electromagnetic means.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[35] **viXra:1604.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 14:49:25*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[34] **viXra:1604.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-05 13:32:47*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with: Legendre Integral and Number Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[33] **viXra:1604.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 10:16:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A proposed interferometry experiment could test nonrelativistic quantum gravity theories by entangling two mirrors weighing as much as apples. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[32] **viXra:1604.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 10:46:45*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper I correct a minor error in Einstein's theory of Special Relativity, and suggest a new approach to tackle problems in this area of physics. Propose of this paper is to understand what is mass. I suggest, to read this paper carefully because the minor error is in the foundation of physics. And a little part of the big structure that was built on those foundations is going to crash.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1604.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 10:54:35*

**Authors:** Sudhanva Joshi

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

In this paper, I have studied the properties of atomic and molecular world along with General and special theories of relativity. This is an attempt to merge Gravity into the standard model in order to complete the Grand Unification Theory. The merger of gravity into the other forces i.e. electromagnetic, strong and weak nuclear forces should be well defined and in the boundaries of Gauge Group theory. The Lorentz transformations used in the theory too are invariant under SU(2) type of space. The relative force exerted on two separate quantum systems is also discussed along with Dark matter and Dark energy at a quantum level. I have also tried to solve the Banach-Tarski theorem by applications of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty principle in the later part of the paper. Detailed particle Chirality in standard model is redefined to fit in the criterion of operators used in the same process. Possible existence of a new quasi particle is also included in the paper along with its properties.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[30] **viXra:1604.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-07 07:34:35*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Version 2 in English.

In special relativity, this article shows that Newton's second law can be applied in any inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1604.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 12:03:24*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The triplets of primes [p, p + 2, p + 6] and [p, p + 4, p + 6] have already been studied: Hardy and Wright conjectured that there exist an infinity of such triplets. In this paper I make the following two conjectures on the triplets [p, p + 2, p + 6] and [p, p + 4, p + 6], but only p is required to be prime: (I) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating a prime p with p + 2 then with p + 6; example: for p = 11, the number q = 111317 is prime; (II) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating a prime p with p + 4 then with p + 6; example: for p = 241, the number q = 241245247 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[28] **viXra:1604.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 12:05:48*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following four conjectures on the triplets [p, p + 2, p + 8] and [p, p + 6, p + 8]: (I) there exist an infinity of triplets of primes of the form [p, p + 2, p + 8]; (II) there exist an infinity of triplets of primes of the form [p, p + 6, p + 8]; (III) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating a prime p with p + 2 then with p + 8 (only p is necessary prime); (IV) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating a prime p with p + 6 then with p + 8 (only p is necessary prime).

**Category:** Number Theory

[27] **viXra:1604.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 12:07:15*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following four conjectures on the triplets [p, p + 4, p + 10] and [p, p + 6, p + 10]: (I) there exist an infinity of triplets of primes of the form [p, p + 4, p + 10]; (II) there exist an infinity of triplets of primes of the form [p, p + 6, p + 10]; (III) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating a prime p with p + 4 then with p + 10 (only p is necessary prime); (IV) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating a prime p with p + 6 then with p + 10 (only p is necessary prime).

**Category:** Number Theory

[26] **viXra:1604.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 12:14:19*

**Authors:** Jonathan Crabb

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We propose a new theory of subatomic particles that replaces the existing theory of "quarks" and "string theory". Instead, we consider a new approach: what if the atoms were actually made of light?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[25] **viXra:1604.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 04:06:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The distillation and dilution process allows measuring the strength of coherence of the initial state of superposition with experiments tailored to each particular case. [10] University of Vienna physicists have, for the first time, evaluated the almost 100-year long history of quantum delayed-choice experiments—from the theoretical beginnings with Albert Einstein to the latest research works in the present. The extensive study now appeared in the renowned journal Reviews of Modern Physics. [9] Two of the most important ideas that distinguish the quantum world from the classical one are nonlocality and contextuality. Previously, physicists have theoretically shown that both of these phenomena cannot simultaneously exist in a quantum system, as they are both just different manifestations of a more fundamental concept, the assumption of realism. Now in a new paper, physicists have for the first time experimentally confirmed that these two defining features of quantum mechanics never appear together. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[24] **viXra:1604.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-06 12:23:49*

**Authors:** Mark R. Brenneman

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The K13M mutations involvement in the human triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene family...P60174

**Category:** Biochemistry

[23] **viXra:1604.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-01 13:37:02*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Wave Structure of Matter is used to describe the operation of the EM drive, with the thrust differential shown to be proportional to the square of the group velocity in the cavity, which is in turn found to be inversely-proportional to cos(phi), where phi is the taper angle of the cone-shaped cavity. Comparisons of calculated thrusts with measured results shows agreement with Shawyer and Tajmar’s results. Improvements in thrust are found by adding a gain medium to the cavity that will increase the number of photons through stimulated emissions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] **viXra:1604.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 14:07:45*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: for any arithmetic progression a + b*k, where at least one of a and b is different than 1, that also satisfies the conditions imposed by the Dirichlet’s Theorem (a and b are positive coprime integers) is true that the sequence obtained by the consecutive concatenation of the terms a + b*k has an infinity of prime terms. Example: for [a, b] = [7, 11], the sequence obtained by consecutive concatenation of 7, 18, 29, 40, 51, 62, 73 (...) has the prime terms 718294051, 7182940516273 (...). If this conjecture were true, the fact that the Smarandache consecutive numbers sequence 1, 12, 123, 1234, 12345 (...) could have not any prime term (thus far there is no prime number known in this sequence, though there have been checked the first about 40 thousand terms) would be even more amazing.

**Category:** Number Theory

[21] **viXra:1604.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 15:21:20*

**Authors:** Fernando Arthur Tollendal Pacheco, Fernando Antônio Tollendal Pacheco

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There is no wave front collapse

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20] **viXra:1604.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 15:39:27*

**Authors:** M.E. Hassani

**Comments:** 18 Pages; 2 Tables; 13 References.

The causality principle is physically investigated in the framework of special relativity theory (SRT) and it is proven to be absolutely valid for subluminal, luminal and superluminal signals under any natural and/or artificial circumstances; also Einstein's thought experiment (1907), Tolman's paradox (1917), tachyonic antitelephone (1970) and Moller's thought experiment (1952) are re-examined in order to show more conclusively that the so-called causality paradoxes are in fact a pure mental construction resulted from some too-common misconceptions which mainly spring from the confusion between the concepts of (relative) velocity and (relative) speed. Thus, in light of the present work, the old and semi-persistent concern about causality violation by superluminal signals and its consequences at micro and macrophysical levels may be conceptually ruled out if one approaches the physico-mathematical formalism of SRT in an open-minded way.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[19] **viXra:1604.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 11:54:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

University of Vienna physicists have, for the first time, evaluated the almost 100-year long history of quantum delayed-choice experiments—from the theoretical beginnings with Albert Einstein to the latest research works in the present. The extensive study now appeared in the renowned journal Reviews of Modern Physics. [9] Two of the most important ideas that distinguish the quantum world from the classical one are nonlocality and contextuality. Previously, physicists have theoretically shown that both of these phenomena cannot simultaneously exist in a quantum system, as they are both just different manifestations of a more fundamental concept, the assumption of realism. Now in a new paper, physicists have for the first time experimentally confirmed that these two defining features of quantum mechanics never appear together. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1604.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 08:35:10*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 13 Pages. in Russian

A solution of Maxwell equations for dielectric and magnetic circuit of alternating current is presented. The structure of currents and energy flows is reviewed. \\ Предлагается решение уравнений Максвелла для диэлектрической и магнитной цепи переменного тока. Рассматривается структура токов и потоков энергии.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17] **viXra:1604.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-26 04:04:09*

**Authors:** Ian von Hegner

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

ABSTRACT: Democracy is usually contrasted with the concept of dictatorship, and is defined as a type of government in which power flows from the citizens to the leaders of government, who are selected through free elections. This article argues, that if the concept of democracy is generalized to be universally applicable, then the concept of hypothetical gods’ right to rule results in dictatorship. Whereas the concepts of dictator and tyrant originally had a more positive meaning, those meanings have changed. However, the concept of the gods in the philosophical debate has avoided a similar redefinition in light of democracy, despite the fact, that it involves the same negation of modern fundamental rights. The basic democratic idea posits that all of its members have a full and equal status. If this status is generalized to be universally applicable, then it follows that humankind likewise are not second and first class among hypothetical gods. The existence or nonexistence of the gods is here defined as the secondary question, whereas the principal acceptance of hypothetical gods’ right to rule in a democratic context with respect to concepts of freedom is defined as the primary question. The position of heroical apatheism is argued as an alternative to positions such as theism, atheism, and agnosticism. These positions only concern themselves with the ontological or epistemological question of whether the gods exist, whereas heroical apatheism concerns itself with the primary component missing so far, namely democratic rights and dignity. This is a discussion that I consider as having been overlooked in modern philosophical discussions.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[16] **viXra:1604.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 05:21:46*

**Authors:** Shruti Sharma, A.S.Bhattacharyya

**Comments:** 04 Pages. Working Paper

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) was prepared from egg shells by various routes using hexane and acetic acid followed by heat treatment. Hap has a wide application in water treatment by removal of metal ions. XRD of the samples showed use of acetic acid followed by high temperature sintering leads to formation crystalline phases of HAp. Strong evidence of CaCO3 in calcite phase was obtained in other samples.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[15] **viXra:1604.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 05:35:40*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: for any k multiple of 3, the sequence obtained by the consecutive concatenation of the numbers n*k + 1, where n positive integer, has an infinity of prime terms. Examples: for k = 3, the sequence 1, 14, 147, 14710 (...) has the prime terms 14710131619, 14710131619222528313437 (...); for k = 6, the sequence 1, 7, 13, 19 (...) has the prime terms 17, 17131925313743495561 (...).

**Category:** Number Theory

[14] **viXra:1604.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 05:43:07*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The question of fundamental interactions in nature, of their interpretation and of their interrelations isn't defined well yet and it regards whether interactions in the microscopic elementary universe or interactions in the macroscopic universe. It is very important then to can relate interactions to symmetries because these allow a simplification of the mathematical description of the physical reality and consequently a simplification of models. In this paper let us consider two group symmetries that regard respectively interactions that happen into the elementary universe and into the macroscopic universe, that aren't considered adequately in mainstream physics. The question in particular refers to the group symmetry relating to interactions between light and mass in the macroscopic and cosmological universe and to the group symmetry of interactions between charge and energy quantum in the microscopic and nanoscopic universe. The theoretical study of these interactions, connected with the existence of first experimental confirmations, allows then to define new physical effects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1604.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 01:53:31*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: there exist an infinity of pairs of primes (p, q), where q – p = k, for any even number k, such that the number obtained concatenating p with k then with q is prime. Note that is not necessary, as is stipulated in the Polignac’s Conjecture, for the primes p and q to be consecutive (though, for the particular cases k = 2 and k = 4, of course that p and q are consecutive, which means that the conjecture above can be regarded as well as a stronger statement than the Twin primes Conjecture).

**Category:** Number Theory

[12] **viXra:1604.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-02 01:31:57*

**Authors:** Ton Kloks, Jan van Leeuwen, Fu-Hong Liu, Hsiang-Hsuan Liu, Richard B. Tan, Yue-Li Wang

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We show that the geodetic game is decidable in polynomial time for various classes of AT-free graphs.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[11] **viXra:1604.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 10:57:18*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) there exist an infinity of triplets of consecutive primes [p, q, r] such that the number obtained concatenating p with x then with q then with y then with r, where x is the gap between p and q and y the gap between q and r, is prime. In other words, if we use the operator “]c[“ with the meaning “concatenating to”, p]c[x]c[q]c[y]c[r is prime for an infinity of triplets [p, q, r]. Example: for [p, q, r, x, y] = [11, 13, 17, 2, 4] the number 11213417 is prime; (II) for any pair of consecutive primes [p, q], p ≥ 7, there exist an infinity of primes r such that the number n = p]c[x]c[q]c[y]c[r is prime, where x is the gap between p and q and y the gap between q and r. Example: for [p, q] = [13, 17] there exist r = 61 such that n = 134174461 is prime (x = 4 and y = 44).

**Category:** Number Theory

[10] **viXra:1604.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 11:42:51*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is not an April fool's joke

Abstract: The 68.3%/26.8%% dark energy/fermion ratio matches cyclic universe, E8 symmetry theory within 2% if experimental dark matter annihilation gamma radiation energy of 36 GEV is included. This finding determines the correct theory of the origin of the universe in the author's opinion: At present this very plausible theory is completely ignored.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1604.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-25 01:17:19*

**Authors:** Ioannis Koukoutsidis

**Comments:** 31 Pages. A short version of this article was published in Proceedings of SENSORNETS 2017 (February 2017). The final corrected version was published in ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN), Vol. 14, Issue 1, Art. 2, December 2017

Mobile crowdsensing can facilitate environmental surveys by leveraging sensor-equipped mobile devices that carry out measurements covering a wide area in a short time, without bearing the costs of traditional field work. In this paper, we examine statistical methods to perform an accurate estimate of the mean value of an environmental parameter in a region, based on such measurements. The main focus is on estimates produced by considering the mobile device readings at a random instant in time. We compare stratified sampling with different stratification weights to sampling without stratification, as well as an appropriately modified version of systematic sampling. Our main result is that stratification with weights proportional to stratum areas can produce significantly smaller bias, and gets arbitrarily close to the true area average as the number of mobiles increases, for a moderate number of strata. The performance of the methods is evaluated for an application scenario where we estimate the mean area temperature in a linear region that exhibits the so-called *Urban Heat Island* effect, with mobile users moving in the region according to the Random Waypoint Model.

**Category:** Statistics

[8] **viXra:1604.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 12:43:20*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

1) An elementary particle is the quantum which assumed darkness energy to meet outer space a place and repeats a particle trip, a wave trip, the pulsation of the minus number particle trip.
2)The pulsation is expressed in the wave function of the Schrodinger equation, and the real number axis of the equation is equivalent to horizon (mc²=0) of the pulsation model.
3)The wave packet representing the particle which an equation shows is elementary particle pulsation, and the natural collapse of the wave packet does not occur. It is not a pilot wave leading a particle.
4)The elementary particle has minus number mass by original mass, a minus number particle trip by a particle trip, and it is a particle having size intermittently, and it is by the wave trip with the point that there is not of the size.
5)All mass of the elementary particle converts it into energy by a pulsatile wave trip and are released in the horizon (three-dimensional space) and it is absorbed again and becomes the particle.
6)Negative energy is offset plus every pulsation 1 cycle, and the energy grand total of the place of the dark energy to pulsate becomes zero. (supersymmetry).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1604.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 08:11:47*

**Authors:** Carles R Paul, Albert Serra, Ramon Serra

**Comments:** 9pages

Easy experiments carried out in the dawn of electromagnetism are still being a reason for scientific
articles, because its functioning contradicts some laws and rules of electromagnetic theory. Although
these experiments led Einstein to discover the relativistic electrodynamics and explained its working, the
scientific community had not understood this. They see in these experiments a proof against relativity and
prefer to look for the solution in the electromagnetics’ theory or accept that their are an exception.
By means of a long and detailed experimental study with a new design in electromagnetic engines and
improvements of these experiments that we call relativistic electrodynamics turbine, we managed to
explain its working using relativistic electrodynamics. The revision of these experiments had taken us to
discover the real law of induction, which does not have any exceptions.
The explanation of the relativistic electrodynamics turbine led us to discard the Faraday induction law
and argue that the true law of induction is a consequence of the conservation of the angular momentum of
the charges as the conservation of the angular momentum of the mass. Thus Einstein’s idea to unify
electromagnetism and mechanics is now clear and also opens the way for new research in science

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1604.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 08:34:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A University of Oklahoma-led team of physicists believes chip-based atomic physics holds promise to make the second quantum revolution-the engineering of quantum matter with arbitrary precision-a reality. With recent technological advances in fabrication and trapping, hybrid quantum systems are emerging as ideal platforms for a diverse range of studies in quantum control, quantum simulation and computing. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1604.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 09:52:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A new study reveals how two populations of neurons in the brain contribute to the brain's inability to correctly assign emotional associations to events. Learning how this information is routed and misrouted could shed light on mental illnesses including depression, addiction, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. [11] In dynamic neuronal networks, pervasive oscillatory activity is usually explained by pointing to pacemaking elements that synchronize and drive the network. Recently, however, scientists at The Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel studied synchronized periodic bursting that emerged spontaneously in a network of in vitro rat hippocampus and cortex neurons, finding that roughly 60% of all active neurons were self-sustained oscillators when disconnected from the network – and that each neuron oscillated at its own frequency, which is controlled by the neuron's excitability. [10] Most biology students will be able to tell you that neural signals are sent via mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, and diffusion processes, but a new study suggests there's another way that our brains transmit information from one place to another. [9] Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From two-photon microscopy to magneto-encephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[4] **viXra:1604.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 05:08:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Streams of dark matter interacting with rivers of stars could provide astrophysicists with important information about the distribution and make-up of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way. That's the conclusion of Jo Bovy of the University of Toronto, who has calculated that it should be possible to observe the effects of dark matter on the stellar streams that are known to encircle our galaxy. [17] Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy (shown above) are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. [16] Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[3] **viXra:1604.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 05:42:08*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: for any k non-null positive integer there exist an infinity of pairs of sexy primes (p, q = p + 6) such that the number r formed concatenating p, repeatedly k times, with the digit 6 then with q is prime. Examples: for k = 1 there exist (p, q) = (11, 17) such that the number r = 11617 is prime; for k = 2 there exist the pair (p, q) = (31, 37) such that the number r = 316637 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[2] **viXra:1604.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 02:05:48*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: for any k positive integer there exist an infinity of primes p such that the number q, obtained concatenating (p – k) with p then, repeatedly k times, with the digit 1, is prime. Examples: for k = 1, there exist p = 19 such that q = 18191 is prime; for k = 2, there exist p = 5 such that q = 3511 is prime; for k = 3, there exist p = 7 such that q = 47111 is prime; for k = 4, there exist p = 37 such that q = 33371111 is prime; for k = 5, there exist p = 11 such that q = 61111111 is prime; for k = 6, there exist p = 17 such that q = 1117111111 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[1] **viXra:1604.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 02:42:01*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 16 Pages. 1 figure

In this paper we use the general steerable one-sided Clifford Fourier transform (CFT), and relate the classical convolution of Clifford algebra-valued signals over $\R^{p,q}$ with the (equally steerable) Mustard convolution. A Mustard convolution can be expressed in the spectral domain as the point wise product of the CFTs of the factor functions. In full generality do we express the classical convolution of Clifford algebra signals in terms of a linear combination of Mustard convolutions, and vice versa the Mustard convolution of Clifford algebra signals in terms of a linear combination of classical convolutions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis