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1606 Submissions

[305] viXra:1606.0348 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-06 16:57:41

Kalman Folding 2: Tracking and System Dynamics

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 7 Pages.

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments. The examples in that paper are all static, meaning that the states of the model do not depend on the independent variable, often physical time. Here, we present a dynamic Kalman filter in the same, functional form. This filter can handle many dynamic, time-evolving applications including some tracking and navigation problems, and is easilly extended to nonlinear and non-Gaussian forms, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) respectively. Those are subjects of other papers in this Kalman-folding series. Here, we reproduce a tracking example from a well known reference, but in functional form, highlighting the advantages of that form.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[304] viXra:1606.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 23:09:29

Characterization of Physical and Structural Properties of Brass Powder After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Brass, a copper-zinc (Cu-Zn) alloy has gained extensive attention in industries due to its high corrosion resistance, machinability and strength to weight ratio. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on structural and physical properties of brass powder. The brass powder sample was divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to Mr.Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated brass powder were characterized using particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The result showed that the average particle size, d50 and d99 (size below which 99% particles were present) were reduced up to 44.3% and 56.4%, respectively as compared to control. XRD result revealed that the unit cell volume in treated brass powder was increased up to 0.19% as compared to control. Besides, the crystallite size of brass powder was significantly increased up to 100.5% as compared to control, after biofield treatment. Furthermore, SEM microscopy showed welded particles in control powder, however fractured surfaces were observed in treated sample. In FT-IR spectra, new peak at 685 cm-1 was observed after biofield treatment as compared to control that might be due to alteration in bonding properties in treated brass sample. These findings suggest that the biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and structural properties of brass powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[303] viXra:1606.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 23:12:37

Biofield Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modification of Physical and Thermal Properties of Indole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 8 Pages.

Indole compounds are important class of therapeutic molecules, which have excellent pharmaceutical applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of indole. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD study demonstrated the increase in crystalline nature of treated indole as compared to control. Additionally, the treated indole showed increase in crystallite size by 2.53% as compared to control. DSC analysis of treated indole (54.45ºC) showed no significant change in melting temperature (Tm) in comparison with control sample (54.76ºC). A significant increase in latent heat of fusion (ΔH) by 30.86% was observed in treated indole with respect to control. Derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) of treated indole showed elevation in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) 166.49ºC as compared to control (163.37ºC). This was due to increase in thermal stability of indole after biofield treatment. FT-IR analysis of treated indole showed increase in frequency of N-H stretching vibrational peak by 6 cm-1 as compared to control sample. UV spectroscopy analysis showed no alteration in absorption wavelength (λmax) of treated indole with respect to control. The present study showed that biofield has substantially affected the physical and thermal nature of indole.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[302] viXra:1606.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 11:00:58

A Polynomial Recursion for Prime Constellations

Authors: Scott B. Guthery
Comments: 8 Pages.

An algorithm for recursively generating the sequence of solutions of a prime constellation is described. The algorithm is based on an polynomial equation formed from the first n elements of the constellation. A root of this equation is the next element of the sequence.
Category: Number Theory

[301] viXra:1606.0344 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-07 12:56:55

Notes on Uniqueness Solutions of Navier-Stokes Equations

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 7 Pages.

§ 1: remembering the need of imposed the boundary condition u(x,t)=0 at infinity to ensure uniqueness solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. This section is historical only. § 2: verifying that for potential and incompressible flows there is no uniqueness solutions when the velocity is equal to zero at infinity. More than this, when the velocity is equal to zero at infinity for all t≥0 there is no uniqueness solutions, in general case. Exceptions when u^0=0. § 3: non-uniqueness in time for incompressible and potential flows, if u≠0. § 4: a more general solution of Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and irrotational (potential) flows, given the initial velocity. § 5: Solution for Euler and Navier-Stokes equations using Taylor’s series of powers of t around t=0.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[300] viXra:1606.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 08:36:33

Neutrosophic Overset, Neutrosophic Underset, and Neutrosophic Offset. Similarly for Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off- Logic, Probability, and Statistics

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 168 Pages.

Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off-Set and -Logic were defined for the first time by Smarandache in 1995 and published in 2007. They are totally different from other sets/logics/probabilities. He extended the neutrosophic set respectively to Neutrosophic Overset {when some neutrosophic component is > 1}, Neutrosophic Underset {when some neutrosophic component is < 0}, and to Neutrosophic Offset {when some neutrosophic components are off the interval [0, 1], i.e. some neutrosophic component > 1 and other neutrosophic component < 0}. This is no surprise with respect to the classical fuzzy set/logic, intuitionistic fuzzy set/logic, or classical/imprecise probability, where the values are not allowed outside the interval [0, 1], since our real-world has numerous examples and applications of over-/under-/off-neutrosophic components. Example of Neutrosophic Offset. In a given company a full-time employer works 40 hours per week. Let’s consider the last week period. Helen worked part-time, only 30 hours, and the other 10 hours she was absent without payment; hence, her membership degree was 30/40 = 0.75 < 1. John worked full-time, 40 hours, so he had the membership degree 40/40 = 1, with respect to this company. But George worked overtime 5 hours, so his membership degree was (40+5)/40 = 45/40 = 1.125 > 1. Thus, we need to make distinction between employees who work overtime, and those who work full-time or part-time. That’s why we need to associate a degree of membership strictly greater than 1 to the overtime workers. Now, another employee, Jane, was absent without pay for the whole week, so her degree of membership was 0/40 = 0. Yet, Richard, who was also hired as a full-time, not only didn’t come to work last week at all (0 worked hours), but he produced, by accidentally starting a devastating fire, much damage to the company, which was estimated at a value half of his salary (i.e. as he would have gotten for working 20 hours that week). Therefore, his membership degree has to be less that Jane’s (since Jane produced no damage). Whence, Richard’s degree of membership, with respect to this company, was - 20/40 = - 0.50 < 0. Consequently, we need to make distinction between employees who produce damage, and those who produce profit, or produce neither damage no profit to the company. Therefore, the membership degrees > 1 and < 0 are real in our world, so we have to take them into consideration. Then, similarly, the Neutrosophic Logic/Measure/Probability/Statistics etc. were extended to respectively Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off-Logic, -Measure, -Probability, -Statistics etc. [Smarandache, 2007].
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[299] viXra:1606.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 08:39:43

Functia Smarandache

Authors: Gheorghe Tomozei
Comments: 5 Pages.

Prodigiosul poet și matematician Florentin Smarandache e, încă, un necunoscut – efectiv ilustru – pentru cititorul român. Fiindcă totul, în ce-l privește pe autor, stă sub semnul mirabilităţii (studiile, debutul literar, dar mai ales... biografia copleșitor de bogată în evenimente), totul consună întru insolitul (programat) și implacabila "soartă".
Category: Education and Didactics

[298] viXra:1606.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 08:42:46

Operators on Single-Valued Neutrosophic Oversets, Neutrosophic Undersets, and Neutrosophic Offsets

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

We have defined Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off-Set and Logic for the first time in 1995 and published in 2007. During 1995-2016 we presented them to various national and international conferences and seminars. These new notions are totally different from other sets/logics/probabilities. We extended the neutrosophic set respectively to Neutrosophic Overset {when some neutrosophic component is > 1}, to Neutrosophic Underset {when some neutrosophic component is < 0}, and to Neutrosophic Offset {when some neutrosophic components are off the interval [0, 1], i.e. some neutrosophic component > 1 and other neutrosophic component < 0}. This is no surprise since our real-world has numerous examples and applications of over-/under-/off-neutrosophic components.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[297] viXra:1606.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 09:26:08

Is Electric Field Vector Field or Covector Field?

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 3 Pages. nobody wants to know the difference between vector and covector.

There are different fields in electrodynamics: vector fields and covector fields.
Category: Classical Physics

[296] viXra:1606.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 09:47:35

The Principle of Multiple Nebulas in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that the solar system formed from multiple nebulas, not a singular one. Explanation is given.
Category: Astrophysics

[295] viXra:1606.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 09:48:56

The Solar System Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

According to the Principle of Multiple nebulas inside of stellar metamorphosis theory, a new principle of solar systems is presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[294] viXra:1606.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 23:18:35

Thermal and Physical Properties of Biofield Treated Bile Salt and Proteose Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 6 Pages.

Bile salt (BS) and proteose peptone (PP) are important biomacromolecules being produced inside the human body. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physicochemical properties of BS and PP. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated BS and PP samples were characterized by particle size analyzer (PSA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PSA results showed increase in particle size (d50 and d99) of both treated BS and PP as compared to control. Surface area analysis showed minimal decrease by 1.59%, in surface area of treated BS as compared to control. However, the treated PP showed increase (8%) in surface area as compared to control. DSC characterization showed increase in melting temperature of treated BS as compared to control. Whereas, DSC thermogram of treated PP showed decrease in melting temperature with respect to control. Moreover, the DSC of control and treated PP showed presence of exothermic peaks which were possibly due to protein aggregation. The treated PP showed higher exothermic transition temperature as compared to control. XRD analysis revealed slight reduction in crystalline nature of BS as compared to control. On the other hand, XRD data of control and treated PP showed an amorphous nature. TGA analysis of treated BS showed maximum thermal decomposition temperature at 22°C which was higher as compared to control sample (106°C). This could be due to biofield treatment which may enhance the thermal stability of treated BS with respect to control. However, the TGA thermogram of treated PP showed decrease in maximum thermal stability as compared to control. The overall results showed that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of BS and PP.
Category: Quantum Physics

[293] viXra:1606.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 23:22:10

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Structural Properties of Chromium (VI) Oxide Powder: Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 4 Pages.

Chromium (VI) oxide (CrO3 ) has gained extensive attention due to its versatile physical and chemical properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and structural properties of CrO3 powder. In this study, CrO3 powder was divided into two parts i.e. control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treated part received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated CrO3 samples were characterized using Thermo gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). DTA showed that the melting point of treated CrO3 was increased upto 212.65°C (T3) as compared to 201.43°C in control. In addition, the latent heat of fusion was reduced upto 51.70% in treated CrO3 as compared to control. TGA showed the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) around 330°C, was increased upto 340.12°C in treated CrO3 sample. XRD data revealed that lattice parameter and unit cell volume of treated CrO3 samples were reduced by 0.25 and 0.92% respectively, whereas density was increased by 0.93% in treated CrO3 sample as compared to control. The crystallite size of treated CrO3 was increased from 46.77 nm (control) to 60.13 nm after biofield treatment. FT-IR spectra showed the absorption peaks corresponding to Cr=O at 906 and 944 cm-1 in control, which were increased to 919 and 949 cm¬1 in treated CrO3 after biofield treatment. Overall, these results suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the physical, thermal and structural properties of CrO3 powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[292] viXra:1606.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 01:29:30

Can Football Fans Win the Home Match Sitting in the Stadium? (1)

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 3 Pages. The Football European Championship 2016 is here. Fans Think. The Paper Is Real.

According to chaos theory, the single flap of a butterfly’s wings can lead to unexpectedly great consequences. This sentence allows us to picture the phenomenon, but we may understand it in a more concrete form. We can measure the energy of the flap of a butterfly’s wing. This energy is about as great as the measurable energy of thought. Using chaos theory, thought is able to change the environment. The butterfly effect can manifest itself as a thought effect.
Category: Mind Science

[291] viXra:1606.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 03:37:04

Kinematic Solutions to the Twin Paradox in Special Relativity

Authors: Vadim N. Matvejev
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper deals with the twin paradox within special relativity. The paper reveals the cause of paradoxical time dilation for an inertial stay-at-home twin, occurring, as believed by a non-inertial travelling twin, throughout his motion except for a short-time turn, though by the return of the travelling twin it is the stay-at-home twin who has aged more. This cause is the unconditional approach to the individual observer’s inherent state of rest. Certain kinematic solutions to the paradox are given without resorting to a non-inertial reference frame. The existence of such solutions is shown both in special relativity and in Lorentz ether theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[290] viXra:1606.0331 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-03 07:07:15

Specific Features of Time Dilation During Circular Movement

Authors: Vadim N. Matvejev, Oleg V. Matvejev
Comments: 9 Pages.

The paper considers observations of the transverse Doppler effect by an observer located in the center of a circle with a large diameter and observers, who are in motion at relativistic velocity around a circle. Keywords: special relativity, transverse Doppler effect, aberration of light, blueshift, redshift
Category: Classical Physics

[289] viXra:1606.0330 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-03 03:06:42

Задача о недогадливых пришельцах, или популярное изложение поперечного эффекта Доплера.

Authors: Vadim N. Matvejev, Oleg V. Matvejev
Comments: 11 Pages. In Russian

В статье рассматривается зависимость результатов наблюдения поперечного эффекта Доплера от приписанной себе наблюдателем относительной скорости. The article discusses the dependence of the results of observation of the transverse Doppler effect from attributed to an observer relative velocity .
Category: Classical Physics

[288] viXra:1606.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 04:21:06

Low Dose Rate Imaging

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages.

Heerbaan 6The quality of low dose rate imaging strongly depends on the number of quanta that take part in the detected image. If quantum multiplication is applied, then the detective quantum efficiency of the imaging chain is an important imaging quality characteristic. Also the blur caused by the chain of imaging components that take part in the imaging process affects the imaging quality. For linear operating imaging devices this translates in the optical transfer function of the participating components. The fact that these qualifiers play a decisive role is based on the assumption that human perception is in a special way optimized for perceiving low dose rate images.
Category: Quantum Physics

[287] viXra:1606.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 14:21:33

Kalman Folding, Part 1 (Review Draft)

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 19 Pages.

Kalman filtering is commonplace in engineering, but less familiar to software developers. It is the central tool for estimating states of a model, one observation at a time. It runs fast in constant memory. It is the mainstay of tracking and navigation, but it is equally applicable to econometrics, recommendations, control: any application where we update models over time. By writing a Kalman filter as a functional fold, we can test code in friendly environments and then deploy identical code with confidence in unfriendly environments. In friendly environments, data are deterministic, static, and present in memory. In unfriendly, real-world environments, data are unpredictable, dynamic, and arrive asynchronously. The flexibility to deploy exactly the code that was tested is especially important for numerical code like filters. Detecting, diagnosing and correcting numerical issues without repeatable data sequences is impractical. Once code is hardened, it can be critical to deploy exactly the same code, to the binary level, in production, because of numerical brittleness. Functional form makes it easy to test and deploy exactly the same code because it minimizes the coupling between code and environment.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[286] viXra:1606.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 07:46:25

The Logic of the Prime Numbers

Authors: Mohamed Ouiter
Comments: 7 Pages.

From the definition that a number is Prime if he admits that two dividers and any number not prime can it write as a product of prime factors, I was able to identify a simple law that governs the distribution of prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[285] viXra:1606.0326 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-02 20:26:19

On the New Quark and Neutrino Model Based on Virtual Space-Time

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, I try to reconstruct the quark model based on virtual space-time. It seems that the new quark model is able to get the same results with standard model. So I continue to analysis the virtual photon wave equation, and obtain the new neutrino model. It points out that the neutrino is the mass wave that step crossing the real and virtual space-time.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[284] viXra:1606.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 10:15:43

A Pulsation Hypothesis Elucidates a Mystery of the Dark Energy.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 11 Pages.

A pulsation hypothesis elucidates a mystery of the dark energy. A mystery of the dark energy.  It is the mystery of the astrophysics maximum. The existing physics cannot elucidate the mystery. The elementary particle pulsation hypothesis discovered 4-dimensional space. In four-dimensional space, dark energy pulsates. A pulsation hypothesis elucidates a mystery of the dark energy. Pulsating Big Bang universe model. From the beginning, was filled with dark energy throughout the universe. Dark energy ripples formed cosmic large-scale structure. Over time, in the early universe. Void (bubble) group in each microcosm. Galaxy was born in each microcosm. The Galaxy by the pulsating bubble moved the boundary. The moved to the borders and bubbles. The hundred billion galaxies distributed to the boundary of the bubble (lattice). As a result, became no longer bubbles in Galaxy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[283] viXra:1606.0324 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-20 16:47:57

The Theory of N-Scales

Authors: Furkan Semih Dundar
Comments: 6 Pages. v3. Clarifications have been made.

We provide a theory of $n$-scales previously called as $n$ dimensional time scales. In previous approaches to the theory of time scales, multi-dimensional scales were taken as product space of two time scales \cite{bohner2005multiple,bohner2010surface}. $n$-scales make the mathematical structure more flexible and appropriate to real world applications in physics and related fields. Here we define an $n$-scale as an arbitrary closed subset of $\mathbb R^n$. Modified forward and backward jump operators, $\Delta$-derivatives and multiple integrals on $n$-scales are defined.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[282] viXra:1606.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 18:58:57

The Higgs Boson vs the Spacetime Metric: Postscript

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 Pages. part two of the original paper

The "Higgs metric" is proposed as the particle analog of the spacetime metric. The Higgs metric of the early, high temperature cosmos "cascades" through several unified-field symmetric energy states (with distinct Higgs Bosons and corresponding IVBs) before it reaches our ground state or Biological Era.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[281] viXra:1606.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 22:14:25

Anxiety Emotion Affects Health in View of System Science

Authors: Feng Lin
Comments: 8 Pages. Study the bio-system in view of system science and physics

In this paper we discussed the affect of anxiety emotion in view of system science. With the help of limit cycle model and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, it shows that the affect caused by anxiety emotion is different from person to person. Using synthesis and metabolism frequency as the basis to category the affects, we found that the affect will cause some kind of population over weighted while some kind of population will become thinner and thinner. This depends on whether synthesis and metabolism frequency decreases or increases. We gave some suggestion about getting rid of the affect caused by such kind of emotion according to different kind of population.
Category: Physics of Biology

[280] viXra:1606.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 23:24:20

In Vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Cancer Biomarkers Involved in Endometrial and Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 5 Pages.

Increasing cancer rates particularly in the developed world are associated with related lifestyle and environmental exposures. Combined immunotherapy and targeted therapies are the main treatment approaches in advanced and recurrent cancer. An alternate approach, energy medicine is increasingly used in life threatening problems to promote human wellness. This study aimed to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on cancer biomarkers involved in human endometrium and prostate cancer cell lines. Each cancer cell lines were taken in two sealed tubes i.e. one tube was considered as control and another tube was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment, referred as treated. Control and treated samples were studied for the determination of cancer biomarkers such as multifunctional cytokines viz. interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), prostate specific antigen (PSA), and free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) concentrations using ELISA assay on day 10. Experimental results showed a significant reduction of IL-6 level in endometrium (12%) and prostate (98.8%) cancer cell lines while a significant increase was observed in TNF-α level in endometrium (385%) and prostate (89.8%) cancer cell lines as compared to control. No alteration of PSA level was observed in biofield treated endometrium and prostate cell line. Similarly, no alterations were evident in IL-2R and FPSA levels in endometrium and prostate cell lines after biofield treatment as compared to control. In conclusion, results suggest that biofield treatment has shown significant alterations in the level of cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in both endometrium and prostate cancer cell lines.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[279] viXra:1606.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 23:26:41

An Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Thermal, Physical and Structural Properties of Cadmium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 5 Pages.

Cadmium is widely utilized in nickel-cadmium batteries, stabilizers, and coating applications due to its versatile physico-chemical properties. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on atomic, thermal, and physical properties of cadmium powder. The cadmium powder was divided into two groups, one group as control and another group as treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results showed significant alteration in lattice parameter, unit cell volume, densities, nuclear charge per unit volume, and atomic weight in treated cadmium powder as compared to control. Furthermore, crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 66.69% in treated cadmium as compared to control. DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion of the treated cadmium powder was considerably reduced by 16.45% as compared to control. Particle size data revealed that average particle size (d50) of treated cadmium powder was significantly reduced by 47.79 % as compared to the control. In addition, the surface area of treated cadmium powder was substantially enhanced by 156.36% as compared to control. Surface morphology observed by SEM showed the more facets and fractured surface with satellite boundaries in treated cadmium powder as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the atomic, thermal and physical properties of cadmium.
Category: Biochemistry

[278] viXra:1606.0319 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-24 16:03:32

Modified Alcubierre Warp Drive III

Authors: Gianluca Perniciano
Comments: 8 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre propulsion system in which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while reducing the energy density and energy by an arbitrary value, and eliminating the event horizon, for superluminal motions,which would have otherwise led to to explosion of the spaceship (instability of the warp bubble).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[277] viXra:1606.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 00:55:17

Is the Cosmological Constant, a ‘vacuum’ Field? We Explore This by Squeezing Early Universe ‘coherent-Semi Classical States. and Compares This to Energy from the Early Universe Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 17 Pages. Mistake in initial title corrected

Our question delves into the nature of early universe vacuum fields, and if this initial vacuum field corresponds to a configuration of early universe space-time at the start of inflation.. The answer as to this came out due to wanting to know if a cosmological constant, as given in the Einstein field equations is commensurate with the by product of squeezed states, We compare our answer, with the influx of energy as given by a modified Heinsenberg Uncertainty principle, at the start of the inflationary era. The so called influx of energy is tied into the squeezed state phenomena as written up in the onset of this article. The impetus to writing this document came from Dr. Karim, in an e mail which the author relates to, in the introduction. Our claim is that the smallness of gtt << 1 is what is driving the existence of the Squeezed states
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[276] viXra:1606.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 01:14:45

An Adventure from Wave Mechanics to Christocentric Cosmology Model

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 9 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Asian Journal of Theology

This is a short reflection of my adventure over the last 20 years as an independent researcher, including the discovery process of a new Cosmology model based on interpretation of Cosmic Christology. While these ideas aer in early phase, I wish that this article may stimulate further thinking and discussion in the dialogue between science and theology.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[275] viXra:1606.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 01:43:16

Considerations on Accelerated Systems, with Particular Application to Weak Gravitational Fields

Authors: David L Berkahn
Comments: 3 Pages.

Starting with acceleration, the Equivalence Principle is used to argue that the known law of decreasing acceleration for high speed motion in the domain of low acceleration, produces the same result in a weak gravitational field with subsequent implications for stronger fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[274] viXra:1606.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 04:26:56

Proof that π-e is Irrational

Authors: Isaac Mor
Comments: 11 Pages.

The specific proof for e is not by me!!! Only the proof for π and π-e are both mine!
Category: General Mathematics

[273] viXra:1606.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 12:41:38

The Pressure and Time Principle of Rock/Mineral Formation in Outer Space

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of rock and mineral formation in outer space is presented according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[272] viXra:1606.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 08:16:06

Bose-Einstein Condensates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are macroscopic systems that have quantum behaviour, and are useful for exploring fundamental physics. Now researchers at the Gakushuin University and the University of Electro-Communications have studied how the miscibility of multicomponent BECs affects their behaviour, with surprising results. [8] Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic antisocial behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7] Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[271] viXra:1606.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 08:54:37

On the Concepts Which Lie at the Foundation of Field Flow Mechanics

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 12 Pages.

Fluid Flow Mechanics deals with flows which move due to internal particle pressure and pressure gradients. This paper attempts to derive a roughly parallel although an entirely different concept of a relatively unknown mathematical and yet potential physical process which the author refers to simply as Field Flow Mechanics and which deals with pressure gradients of a field created by a macroscopic and as yet unknown ‘generator’. The development of Field Flow Mechanics finds a natural exposition in transportation of the ‘generator’ across, for example, interstellar distances, i.e. space travel. These fields are obviously not yet in existence, but if they were, they and their gradients would be presumed to be macroscopic variables. This paper tries to anticipate their existence by predicting what would happen if they were in existence and even to use dimensional analysis in order to get some kind of grip on the possible reality of such fields. The approach is to try and derive from a set of geometric assumptions a Lagrangian structure such that the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion can be invoked. In the course of attempting to derive a geometric Lagrangian structure, several surprising results occur such as the derivation of an antisymmetric tensor which finds a convenient interpretation as a new type of ‘electromagnetic’ field which yields a ‘magnetic’ monopole feature in addition to a rotational feature. This paper also attempts to show how Field Flow Mechanics admits a non-linear partial differential equation of the Hamilton-Jacobi type which allows velocities in excess of the speed of light while allowing a parametric time interval on the ‘generator’ to equate with the coordinate time interval of the source planet in order to make interstellar travel a viable process.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[270] viXra:1606.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 09:02:43

Is Intrinsic Spin Really a Quantum Mechanical Concept?

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 18 Pages.

The prevalent view today is that electron spin, for example, must be considered to be a quantum concept without detailed classical analogy. The author simply did not know if this proposition was true or false, and, subsequently, embarked upon a program (irregardless of whether the spin is quantized or not) to determine if the concept of ‘intrinsic spin’ (i.e. spin which is independent of a coordinate system) could be derived from ideas not considered Quantum Mechanical in nature. This paper is an inquiry into the origin of ‘intrinsic spin’, recognizing that ‘intrinsic spin’ is part of a much larger philosophical problem. This paper attempts to bridge an intellectual gap between two major philosophical issues. The first issue concerns the two major equations used in differential geometry to define a hypersurface, namely, the Gauss and Weingarten equations. Issue two concerns the two monolithic theories discovered in the twentieth century, namely, quantum mechanics and relativity, both of which are the embodiment of description of the hypersurface of the real physical universe. The question is whether or not there is a relationship between these issues from a geometrical point of view which bears on the origin of ‘intrinsic spin’. The answer is in the affirmative, but this answer opens the door to a whole range of other interesting concepts.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[269] viXra:1606.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 09:09:00

Do Prime Numbers Obey a Three Dimensional Double Helix?

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 14 Pages.

When a subset of sequential integers is arranged in a specific way, there appears a paired set of slanted straight lines along which prime numbers seem to naturally arrange themselves in a repeated fashion. This arrangement can further be observed to be a two dimensional surface applicable to the cylinder. If this arrangement is on a piece of paper, then one can fold the paper in the form of a cylinder, and the paired set of slanted straight lines unite at the page edges to form a double helix winding down the cylinder. Paired primes are thus seen to be an association between primes residing on these two paired helixes, and further analysis shows that there appears to be two types of paired primes. Is the prime number double helix nature’s secret for jump starting life (DNA) and thereby defeating entropy (at least in the initial stage) by creating order from order instead of order from disorder? The prime number trends examined exhibit right handed chirality; left handed chirality is obtained by symmetry considerations.
Category: Number Theory

[268] viXra:1606.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 09:06:44

Mathematical Formulas : Part 5

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 25 Pages.

Some formulas related with the constant pi
Category: General Mathematics

[267] viXra:1606.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 09:10:35

The Function Gamma(z) :The Generalized-Euler-Constant Function

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 8 Pages.

Some results related with the Generalized-Euler-Constant Function
Category: General Mathematics

[266] viXra:1606.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 09:16:12

On a Hypothesis Regarding the Physical Nature of the Weak Interaction

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper attempts, in a non-quantum mechanical way, to determine a plausible scenario for the true physical nature of the weak interaction. Examination of dimensions and calculated values for seemingly unrelated numbers results in values which are surprisingly close and seemingly beyond the confines of coincidence. Equating these numbers and inserting the results into a simplistic model for the weak interaction results in a value close to the experimental Fermi weak interaction constant. The question is asked if there really is a relationship between the weak interaction and the gravitational ‘constant’. It is noted that energy levels, whether nuclear or orbital, are inherent to the atom as a whole and not necessarily to its separate parts. Subsequently, nuclear energy levels can affect orbital electrons, but, alternatively and more specifically, does there exist a reverse process of electron energy levels sending information to the weak interaction for the purpose of exposing a macroscopic variable gravitational constant?
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[265] viXra:1606.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 09:30:16

An Investigation into Reducing a Prime Product From Two Seemingly Independent Variables to Only One Independent Variable

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 2 Pages. This is a Russian journal named "Almanac of Modern Science and Education" and can be found at the following link: http://www.gramota.net/eng/editions/5.html

This very short paper illustrates a mathematical method which illustrates the possibility of reducing a prime product (N = PQ) from two independent variables, namely the two original prime numbers P and Q, to only one independent variable which determines both prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[264] viXra:1606.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 09:36:38

A New Perspective on Advanced Space Travel

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper attempts to delve into the mystery of space travel. Consequently, it will be necessary to re-examine concepts which scientists hold dear. In addition, it is the author’s contention that the so-called weak force is the seat of a powerful new energy source which can be used to propel spacecraft to be unheard of velocities utilizing a variable scalar gravitational “constant”. One of the major obstacles faced is that normally the so-called “arc length” ds will be equal to zero at the speed of light (because of its dependence upon relative velocity), and since ds is used in the denominator of equations of motion, such equations will become meaningless. This paper will continue to use the arc length ds, along with its implied proper time; however, this paper will use a different method of approach to this problem which will involve divorcing ds from its dependence upon relative velocity as a result of the aforementioned generalization. The approach will be to use a complex mass-velocity vector (not momentum vector) over the usual four dimensional space-time manifold domain. The mass-velocity vector is introduced, because it is assumed that a gradient in φ or φ/μ (to be controlled from within the spacecraft) will cause not only a change in the velocity of the spacecraft, but also a change in the apparent inertial/gravitational mass mo of the spacecraft in a coordinated way. This is the guiding principle of this paper!
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[263] viXra:1606.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 09:39:48

Superconductor's Asymmetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), together with researchers from the Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba (Japan), have discovered an exceptional new quantum state within a superconducting material. This exceptional quantum state is characterised by a broken rotational symmetry – in other words, if you turn the material in a magnetic field, the superconductivity isn't the same everywhere in the material. [27] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cornell University, and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[262] viXra:1606.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 20:55:05

The Mass of a Proton and the Neutron.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

The mass of a proton and the neutron. The difference is a difference of the electronic rest mass. When mass vibrates at high speed, mass occurs. When vibration gets closer to velocity of light, it becomes the infinite mass. The electronic mass is rest mass and the sum with the exercise mass. Most of the electronic mass are formed of exercise mass. Rest mass is only several percent. The electric charge of a proton and the neutron. An electron of the inside does the action of the electric charge. The electron in the proton acts as a positive electric charge. + As for the electric charge, a pulsatile timing acts as a plus electric charge same as a reverse positron. The neutron which released an electron loses an electric charge.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[261] viXra:1606.0302 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-21 20:07:29

The Reration of Recurring Decimal and Primitive Root

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 2 Pages.

reration of recurring decimal and primitive root
Category: Number Theory

[260] viXra:1606.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 23:14:01

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Structural and Morphological Properties of Silicon Carbide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

Silicon carbide (SiC) is a well-known ceramic due to its excellent spectral absorbance and thermo-mechanical properties. The wide band gap, high melting point and thermal conductivity of SiC is used in high temperature applications. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on physical, atomic, and structural characteristics of SiC powder. The control and biofield treated SiC powder was analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques with respect to control. The XRD pattern revealed that crystallite size was significantly increased by 40% in treated SiC as compared to control. The biofield treatment has induced changes in lattice parameter, density and molecular weight of atoms in the SiC powder. Particle size was increased upto 2.4% and the surface area was significantly reduced by 71.16% in treated SiC as compared to control. The FT-IR results indicated that the stretching vibrations frequency of silicon-carbon bond in treated SiC (925 cm-1) was shifted towards lower frequency as compared to control (947 cm-1). These findings suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the physical and structural properties of SiC powder.
Category: Quantum Physics

[259] viXra:1606.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 23:16:55

Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Structural and Spectral Properties of Boron Nitride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Boron nitride (BN) is known for high hardness, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and catalytic action. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on physical, structural and spectral properties of BN powder. The control and treated sample of BN powder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD results indicated that biofield treatment had substantially changed the crystallinity of BN powder as compared to control. Apart from the crystallinity, significant changes were also observed in lattice parameter, density and molecular weight of the treated BN powder as compared to control sample. The XRD data confirmed 33.30% increase crystallite size in treated BN powder as compared to control. The surface area data showed 10.33% increment in surface area of treated BN as compared to control. Furthermore, FT-IR spectra revealed that some part of BN may be transformed from hexagonal BN (h-BN) to rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN), which was corroborated by emergence of new prominent peaks at 1388 cm -1 in treated BN as compared to control sample. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the structural properties and surface area of treated BN powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[258] viXra:1606.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 03:45:03

3-D Pattern of Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The era of quantum computers is one step closer as a result of research published in the current issue of the journal Science. The research team has devised and demonstrated a new way to pack a lot more quantum computing power into a much smaller space and with much greater control than ever before. The research advance, using a 3-dimensional array of atoms in quantum states called quantum bits—or qubits—was made by David S. Weiss, professor of physics at Penn State University, and three students on his lab team. He said "Our result is one of the many important developments that still are needed on the way to achieving quantum computers that will be useful for doing computations that are impossible to do today, with applications in cryptography for electronic data security and other computing-intensive fields." [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[257] viXra:1606.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-12 11:05:30

Addendum to General GSR Methodological Profile: Sexual Health, Pathology and Response Analysis Via Primary GSR with Secondary and Tertiary Variables.

Authors: Rich Norman, Cengiz Mordeniz, Leonardo Mendolicchio, Enrico Pierangeli, Paolo Pannarale, Franco Orsucci, Elio Conte
Comments: 7 Pages.

Please recall the foregoing conclusions and analyses which have detailed the specific neuroanatomical activations and emergent sympathetic and parasympathetic connectivities including the inter-connective limbic and Orbito-Frontal Cortex (OFC) circuit pathways spanning the deepest psychological foundations and encoding on both conscious and unconscious levels, which may be revealed in GSR (Norman and Conte et al. 2016). The very deepest psychological factors springing from fundamental neuro-affective regulatory agencies may be assessed and measured. This vital work will be performed so as to aid and assess both individuals and couples who are dealing with sexual dysfunction using measurement of response to salient libidinal stimulus and resultant signal analysis. The quality of emotional content and symptom specific affective distributional signal components will be measured. Such work is no simple matter, and may well be substantially aided and sharpened through the addition of secondary variables such as Heart Rate (HR) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV), which just as GSR, demonstrate nonlinear characteristics. Tertiary variables are also discussed as they will aid the process of informational distillation. To gain access to the embedded information, a full and substantial knowledge across the disciplines of neuroscience, psychology, psychiatry, linear and nonlinear mathematical physics is required. Non linear and linear analysis of component interactive dynamics in the GSR signal must be interpreted in accordance with the previously specified methodological framework. In Conclusion : 1) THE MONITORING OF THE GSR AND ITS SUBSEQUENT ANALYSIS BY LINEAR AND NON LINEAR METHODS IN SUBJECTS EXPOSED TO SEXUAL STIMULI IS OF BASIC IMPORTANCE TO CHARACTERIZE HIS/HER SEXUAL AROUSAL AS INTERPRETED WITHIN THEIR COMPLETE ORGANIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE. 2) THE SIMULTANEOUS USE OF HR (HRV) RECORDING WITH GSR WILL YIELD RESULTS OF BASIC IMPORTANCE AS DURING EXPERIMENTALLY CONTROLLED STIMULUS, COUPLED AND SYNCHRONIZED ANALYSIS OF THE PEAK PHASE OF THE GSR AND DECREASING (RESPECTIVELY INCREASING) HR, ENABLES US TO CHARACTERIZE THE EMOTIONAL/AFFECTIVE TYPE AND STATE OF THE SUBJECT.
Category: Mind Science

[256] viXra:1606.0297 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-29 13:39:36

Thought Force Communication, Space-Matter, Gravity

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 27 Pages.

The entire world is in your every thought, and your every thought is in the entire world. To understand this paradox we have to understand how thought works. Experiments prove thought force is an existing force that can leave our heads. Thought force is a new fundamental interaction which is not in our physics books. In order to understand this new fundamental interaction, we need a new theory that describes it. This is the space-matter model. In this model, the space waves caused by matter. The space-matter model allows us to find the common root of space, matter and time. Solely through the use of space waves, we can express spatial distance, time and energy. It is possible to express all these phenomena in eVolt, so meters can be converted into seconds or into kgs and vice versa. Thought is force that appears as change of the wavelengths of space waves. Gravity works the same way. Thought force and gravity have a common character. Gravity is the difference of wavelengths of space waves. This definition of gravity uncovers a new characteristic of it; gravity is able to accelerate the Universe. Thought as a space wave is more than just a standalone, lonely act. According to our brains, forces that appear in a given spectrum of wavelengths of space waves are thoughts, regardless of who or what created theses forces: we ourselves, other humans or inanimate (non-living) things. We send and receive thoughts as forces. Thought is a kind of communication.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[255] viXra:1606.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 10:37:41

Soliton in Ultracold Gases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[254] viXra:1606.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 10:40:05

Elektrostatische Entsalzung Von Meerwasser

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 7 Pages. available also in English language

Durch elektrostatische Kraft werden Ionen an die Oberfläche von Elektroden gebunden, wodurch der Salzgehalt der Elektrolytflüssigkeit sinkt. Eine mehrstufige Entsalzungskaskade kann das Salz vollständig entfernen. Das Verfahren verwendet keine chemischen Umwandlungen und kann mit handelsüblichen Bauelementen gebaut werden.
Category: Classical Physics

[253] viXra:1606.0294 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-18 11:58:23

A Note About A Solution of Navier-Stokes Equations

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 14 Pages. Submitted to the Journal of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics.

This note represents an attempt to give a solution of Navier-Stokes equations under the assumptions $(A)$ of the problem as described by the Clay Institute \cite{bib1}. We give a proof of the condition of bounded energy when the velocity vector $u$ and vorticity vector $\Omega=curl(u)$ are collinear.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[252] viXra:1606.0293 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-27 23:21:34

Integrating Imagination with Reality Because Science Needs a Reboot

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 70 Pages. CITE: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): INTEGRATING IMAGINATION WITH REALITY.pdf. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3486755.v2 Retrieved: 04 11, Aug 28, 2016 (GMT)

I have the most intense desire to understand how everything works (my main interest is cosmology). My feeling as I typed these hypotheses (ideas) has always been that they already exist (though, since physics' Unification appears to connect every point and time in the Cosmos, not on early 21st-century Earth in every case). And I'm just a student, learning about them. Albert Einstein is quoted as saying, "For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand." Experiments and mathematics have done a superb job of integrating the human mind's reasoning abilities with the universe. I believe we have now reached the point where the separateness maths and experiments rely on must be surpassed. The trend of discoveries in physics is towards unification of the whole universe, and all time, into one thing ... one event. Start with 19th century scientist James Clerk Maxwell uniting electricity and magnetism into electromagnetism. Then consider Albert Einstein's attempt in the 20th century to unite electromagnetism with gravitation and produce a Unified Field Theory. Lastly, think of modern physics' dream to unite everything into the TOE (Theory of Everything). One day, the Unified Field or TOE will be successfully achieved and it might extend far beyond the wildest hopes of today's science. In 1911 Vladimir Varićak asserted that length contraction is “real” according to Lorentz, while it is “apparent or subjective” according to Einstein. Einstein replied: “The author unjustifiably stated a difference of Lorentz’s view and that of mine concerning the physical facts. The question as to whether length contraction really exists or not is misleading. It doesn’t “really” exist, in so far as it doesn’t exist for a comoving observer; though it “really” exists, i.e. in such a way that it could be demonstrated in principle by physical means by a non-comoving observer.” (a non-comoving observer is eg an experimenter in a scientific facility or medical lab) Since "non-comoving" maths/experiments have done an excellent job of integrating our reasoning with the cosmos, my ideas relating to them will be referenced frequently and occupy the greatest portion of this article. However, "co-moving" with Unification now opens the door for other aspects of the mind, such as imagination and intuition, to become an essential part of our comprehension of the universe we live in. Albert Einstein once said, “The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift.” Some readers will view this article as too far fetched. But that doesn't mean it can't be true. I'm fascinated by the distant future - so I started with known science and let my imagination see what that science could develop into. Someone from 200 years ago could have combined known science with imagination, and developed a picture of possibilities for today. In the early 1800's, it would have sounded impossibly far fetched ... but it might have come true. Maybe the imaginations of the few give other people goals to approach with baby steps – and goals that eventually come true. “We need a very different view of basic physics. This is the time for radical, new ideas” (theoretical physicist Neil) Turok concluded in early October, 2015. He believes that this is a great time in human history for the revolution to occur. This article also extends the quantum scale and the wave-function to computer science and the cosmic scale - commenting on gravitational superconductivity, dark energy, dark matter, antimatter, the Big Bang and cosmological Inflation, Unification, Artificial Intelligence, black holes and many other topics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[251] viXra:1606.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 10:14:57

Electrostatic Desalination of Seawater

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 6 Pages.

By electrostatic force, ions are bound to the surface of electrodes, whereby the salt content of the electrolyte liquid decreases. A multistage cascade desalination can remove the ions completely. The process uses no chemical transformations and requires only conventional components.
Category: Classical Physics

[250] viXra:1606.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 04:51:39

Molecular Photoswitch

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from institutions in China and the U.S. has successfully created a photoswitch from a single photosensitive molecule. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the changes they made to earlier versions of the switch that allowed it to operate successfully for an entire year. [13] University of Milan have experimentally confirmed a model to detect electron delocalization in molecules and crystals. [12] A unique rapid-fire electron source—originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers—is helping scientists at the) study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale. This could provide new insight in how to make materials with custom, controllable properties and improve the efficiency and output of chemical reactions. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[249] viXra:1606.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 23:18:38

Biofield Treatment: an Alternative Approach to Combat Multidrug-Resistant Susceptibility Pattern of Raoultella Ornithinolytica

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 6 Pages.

Raoultella ornithinolytica is belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae, a Gram-negative encapsulated aerobic bacillus associated with bacteremia and urinary tract infections. As biofield therapy is increasingly popular in biomedical heath care, so present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study, and biotype number of multidrug resistant strain of R. ornithinolytica. Clinical sample of R. ornithinolytica was divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated which were analyzed for the above parameters using MicroScan Walk-Away® system on day 10 after treatment. Antimicrobial sensitivity assay results showed a significant increase (60.71%) in sensitivity pattern of antimicrobials i.e. changed from resistant to susceptible while 10.71% of tested antimicrobials changed from intermediate to susceptible as compared to control. MIC results showed a significant decrease in MIC values of 71.88% tested antimicrobials as compared to control. Biochemical reaction study showed 15.15% alteration in different biochemical such as cetrimide, cephalothin, kanamycin, and ornithine after biofield treatment as compared to control. A significant change in biotype number (7775 4370) was also observed with organism identified as Klebsiella oxytoca after biofield treatment as compared to control (7775 5372). Overall results conclude that biofield treatment could be used as complementary and alternative treatment strategy against multidrug resistant strain of R. ornithinolytica with respect to improve the sensitivity and reduce the MIC values of antimicrobials. Hence, it is assumed that biofield treatment might be a suitable cost effective treatment strategy in near future, which could have therapeutic value in patients suffering from multidrug resistant pathogens.
Category: Quantum Physics

[248] viXra:1606.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 23:21:09

An Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Susceptibility Pattern of Multidrug Resistant Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia: an Emerging Global Opportunistic Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 5 Pages.

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a Gram-negative bacillus, an opportunistic pathogen, particularly among nosocomial infections. Multi-drug resistant strains are associated with very high rate of morbidity and mortality in severely immunocompromised patients. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment against multidrug resistant S. maltophilia. Clinical sample of S. maltophilia was collected and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated which were analyzed after 10 days with respect to control. The following parameters viz. susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical studies and biotype number of both control and treated samples were measured by MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The results showed an overall change of 37.5% in susceptibility pattern and 39.4% in biochemical study while 33.3% changes in MIC values of tested antimicrobials after biofield treatment. Further, the treated group of S. maltophilia has also shown a significant change in biochemical reactions followed by its biotype number as compared to control group. Biochemical reactions of treated group showed negative reaction to acetamide and positive reactions to colistin, glucose, adonitol, melibiose, arabinose, nitrate, oxidation-fermentation, raffinose, rhaminose, sorbitol, sucrose, and Voges-Proskauer as compared with control. The biofield treatment showed an alteration in MIC values of amikacin, amoxicillin/K-clavulanate, chloramphenicol, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ceftazidime, cefotetan, ticarcillin/K-clavulanate, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Altogether, data suggest that biofield treatment has significant effect to alter the sensitivity pattern of antimicrobials and biotype number against multidrug resistant strain of S. maltophilia.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[247] viXra:1606.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 23:23:26

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Spectral Properties of Paracetamol and Piroxicam

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 6 Pages.

Paracetamol and piroxicam are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), widely used in pain and inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam. The study was performed in two groups (control and treatment) of each drug. The control groups remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment groups. Subsequently, spectral properties of both drugs before and after biofield treatment were characterized using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR data of paracetamol showed N-H amide II bending peak in biofield treated paracetamol, which was shifted to lower wavenumber (1565 to 1555 cm-1) as compared to control. Further, the intensity of vibrational peaks in the range of 1171-965 cm-1 (C-O and C-N stretching) were increased in treated sample of paracetamol as compared to control. Similarly, the FT-IR data of piroxicam (treated) showed increased intensity of vibrational peaks at 1628 (amide C=O stretching), 1576-1560 cm-1 (C=C stretching) with respect to control peaks. Furthermore, vibrational peak of C=N stretching (1467 cm-1) was observed in biofield treated piroxicam. This peak was not observed in control sample, possibly due to its low intensity. Based on FT-IR data, it is speculated that bond length and dipole moment of some bonds like N-H (amide), C-O, and C-N in paracetamol and C=O (amide), C=N, and C=C in piroxicam might be changed due to biofield treatment. The UV spectrum of biofield treated paracetamol showed the shifting in wavelength of UV absorption as 243→248.2 nm and 200→203.4 nm as compared to control. Likely, the lambda max (λmax) of treated piroxicam was also shifted as 328 →345.6 nm, 241→252.2 nm, and 205.2→203.2 nm as compared to control. Overall results showed an impact of biofield treatment on the spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam.
Category: Chemistry

[246] viXra:1606.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 23:25:47

An Impact of Biofield Treatment on Spectroscopic Characterization of Pharmaceutical Compounds

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 6 Pages.

The stability of any pharmaceutical compound is most desired quality that determines its shelf life and effectiveness. The stability can be correlated to structural and bonding properties of compound and any variation arise in these properties can be easily determined by spectroscopic analysis. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on these properties of four pharmaceutical compounds such as urea, thiourea, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulphate, using spectroscopic analysis. Each compound was divided into two groups, referred as control and treatment. The control groups remained as untreated and treatment group of each compound received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of each compound were characterized using FourierTransform Infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated urea showed the shifting of C=O stretching peak towards lower frequency (1684→1669 cm-1) and N-H stretching peak towards higher frequency (3428→3435 cm-1) with respect to control. A shift in frequency of C-N-H bending peak was also observed in treated sample as compared to control i.e. (1624→1647 cm-1). FT-IR spectra of thiourea showed upstream shifting of NH2 stretching peak (3363→3387 cm-1) as compared to control, which may be due to decrease in N-H bond length. Also, the change in frequency of N-C-S bending peak (621→660 cm-1) was observed in treated thiourea that could be due to some changes in bond angle after biofield treatment. Similarly, treated sample of sodium carbonate showed decrease in frequency of C-O bending peak (701→690 cm-1) and magnesium sulphate showed increase in frequency of S-O bending peak (621→647 cm-1) as compared to control, which indicated that bond angle might be altered after biofield treatment on respective samples. UV-Vis spectra of biofield treated urea showed shift in lambda max (λmax) towards higher wavelength (201→220 nm) as compared to control sample, whereas other compounds i.e. thiourea, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulphate showed the similar λmax to their respective control. These findings conclude that biofield treatment has significant impact on spectral properties of tested pharmaceutical compounds which might be due to some changes happening at atomic level of compounds, and leading to affect the bonding and structural properties of compounds.
Category: Chemistry

[245] viXra:1606.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 00:30:11

More on Logic Being the Fundamental Components of String Theory

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 24 Pages. Hypothetical fundamental building blocks of the universes.

After a basic introduction to Anti - information theory in the last paper (See Anti- info, other universes and the connection between logic and matter) I now go into some mathematical details of how the Axes are constituted. This involves the branches being signal receivers, decoders and transmitters, and, also involves the hypothesis that strings are actually composed of singularities connected by the constituent branches.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[244] viXra:1606.0284 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-07 01:57:17

Examination of Conditions for Inflation, e Folds, Density Fluctuations, Via Hup, to Obtain HFGW Quantum Gravity Traces from Early Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages. Excellent question by Dr. Li on if HFGW would be able to have traces of quantum gravity,as of July 3rd, lead to inquiry as reflected in this version of the initial e fold document. Many thanks to Dr. Li for his adroit question and his geometrical insight

First, referring to an article by K. Freeze on “Natural Inflation”, we review e folds data, and also the role of a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle as to what to expect from initial conditions as to satisfying the onset of inflation.. .. This leads to , combined with the authors work in delineating a ‘perfect bounce’ a minimum HFGW which may exist due to the early universe, possibly from the influence of a minimum nonsingular universe starting point forming the template of a minimum wave length for starting GW, which may lead to an initial quantum gravity influenced frequency which is subsequently e shifted down by inflation. The initial conditions for the generation of HFGW, may correspond to early universe quantum gravity . I.e. this last part is due to a question asked the author, Dr. Li Fangyu, in the first week of July 2016
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[243] viXra:1606.0283 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-17 21:21:44

Can GR Lack "Dark Energy" or Abide a "Big Bang"?

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

In 1922 Alexandre Friedmann obtained, in the context of an unusual spherically-symmetric metric form, formal solutions of the Einstein equation for dust of uniform energy density which as well apply within spherically symmetric dynamic dust balls of uniform energy density. The resulting Friedmann equation for the dynamical behavior of these ostensibly general-relativistic dust-ball solutions exclusively reflects, however, completely non-relativistic Newtonian gravitational dynamics, with no trace at all of the purely relativistic phenomenon of gravitational time dilation, notwithstanding that gravitational time dilation inescapably accompanies gravitation's presence in GR. That paradox wasn't noticed by Friedmann, nor has it since been consciously addressed. As a consequence, accepted dust-ball behavior is Newtonian gravitational in every respect, notably including compulsory deceleration of dust-ball expansion, as well as compulsory assumption by every expanding dust ball of a singular, zero-radius "Big Bang" configuration at a finite earlier time -- despite both behaviors being incompatible with the implications of gravitational time dilation. The source of these inconsistencies is the GR-incompatible nature of Friedmann's unusual metric form, which extinguishes relativistic gravitational and speed time dilation by implicitly utilizing the GR-inaccessible set of clock readings of an infinite number of different observers. However in 1939 Oppenheimer and Snyder carried out a tour-de-force analytic space-time transformation of a Friedmann GR-unphysical dust-ball solution which satisfies a particular initial condition to fully GR-physical "standard" metric form. That Oppenheimer-Snyder transformation was recently extended to arbitrary dust-ball initial conditions, yielding the equation of motion in fully GR-physical "standard" coordinates of any dust ball's radius. This non-Newtonian GR-physical dust-ball radius equation of motion fully conforms to the implications of gravitational time dilation: it in no way forbids acceleration of dust-ball expansion, but it prevents, at any finite "standard" time whatsoever, any dust ball's radius from being smaller than or equal to its Schwarzschild radius-value. Full GR conformity thus needs no "dark energy", but can't support a "Big Bang".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[242] viXra:1606.0282 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-07 10:05:36

On the Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Mesut Kavak
Comments: 37 Pages.

Authors: Mesut Kavak Analysis of the laws which form, direct universe and of the interacting elements in the interactions emerging by these laws. Forming the theoretical, philosophical infrastructure of the some physical concepts and phenomena such as kinetic energy, uncertainty, length contraction, relative energy transformations, gravity, time and light speed to understand universe better manner as well as possible. Some informations about re-derivation of Planck constants, faster than Light, interstellar Jump and instant communication, length contraction, imaginary time, time travel, real black hole radiuses, free energy, new type of closed system thrust engine for classic space travels without external energy, terraforming of Mars, asteroid mining, superiour processors. Also some proofs about Goldbach conjecture, twin primes, Mersenne and Fermat primes, palindromic primes, p=np problem, Collatz problem.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[241] viXra:1606.0281 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-26 23:47:42

The Cause and Mechanism of Superconductivity

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Re-explanation the causes and mechanism of Superconductivity in a new perspective and according to a new atomic theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[240] viXra:1606.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 06:04:18

Quantum Entanglement Swapping

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

There is a phenomenon called entanglement swapping. Suppose that Alice and Bob have an entangled state. If I then take one part of Alice's entangled state, and another part from Bob, and I do a joint measurement on them, the remaining parts of Alice's and Bob's states will also become entangled, even though they never interacted. [16] RMIT quantum computing researchers have developed and demonstrated a method capable of efficiently detecting high-dimensional entanglement. [15] More than 200 beryllium ions have been entangled in a record-breaking experiment done by researchers at NIST in the US. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[239] viXra:1606.0279 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-13 17:45:51

Dark Matter Density on Big Galaxies Depend on Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 29 Pages. V2 contain calculus of Coma Cluster mass trhough DM density as power of E law

This paper contain results from six previous paper I have published for different galaxies about dark matter density depending on gravitational field. Galaxies studied are NGC 2841, NGC 7331, NGC 3992, M31. All of them are big galaxies bigger than Milky Way. In addition Milky Way was studied with data coming from two authors. Also were studied two intermediate galaxies M33 (Triangulum galaxy) and NGC 3198 Each paper studied dark matter density depending on gravitational field on each galaxy. Rotation curve and dark matter density function depending on radius were taken from paper published by prestigious astrophysics and I got dark matter density depending on gravitational field through a mathematical method. I found that Dark matter density depend on gravitational field according a power function DM density = A•E^B, where A and B are parameters which depend on each galaxy. In this paper are gathered eight different functions belonging to eight different galactic data set and they are tabulated and plotted in order to compare all of them. Conclusion got is that dark matter density depending on gravitational field is very similar on big galaxies whereas DM density is a great deal bigger on intermediate galaxies. The less massive galaxy is the higher DM density is. Results got for big and intermediate galaxies are consistent with author hypothesis which state that dark matter is generated by the own gravitational field. This second version paper include an estimation of total mass in Coma Cluster got through DM density as power of E which is very close to mass calculated by cosmological standard model CDM and NFW profile in a paper published in 2015 by prestigious researchers. This calculus is a test overcome to consider DM density as power of gravitational field as Universal law because that law was got for big galaxies and it has been used to calculated total dark matter inside a galaxy cluster which is 100 times bigger and it contains thousand of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[238] viXra:1606.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 03:39:14

Chemistry Studies

Authors: Giuseppe Rauti
Comments: 1 Page.

Studies in Chemistry.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[237] viXra:1606.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 17:00:22

The Principles of Volume and Surface Area in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that stars’ volume and surface area increase during stellar birthing then decrease during stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis, so two principles are provided to further clarify stellar evolution/planet formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[236] viXra:1606.0273 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-26 01:06:42

Examination of a Multiple Universe Version of the Partition Function of the Universe, Based Upon Penrose’s Cyclic Conformal Cosmology. Leading to Uniform Values of (Planck’s Constant) , Invariant Physics

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 11 Pages. The word document had many errors which were subsequently fixed. My apologies for the mess

We look at, starting with Shankar’s treatment of the partition function, inserting in the data of the modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle as to give a role of the inflaton in the formation of a partition of the universe. The end result will be, even with the existence of a multiverse, i.e. simultaneous universes, uniform physical laws throughout the Multiple universes. Comments: 11 Pages.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[235] viXra:1606.0272 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-24 16:47:04

Self-Controlled Dynamics

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 26 Pages.

A new class of dynamical system described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation has been introduced and discussed. These systems called self-controlled, or self-supervised since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non- Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of livings as well as to models of AI. The central point of this paper is the application of the self-controlled systems to NP-complete problems known as being unsolvable neither by classical nor by quantum algorithms. The approach is illustrated by solving a search in unsorted database in polynomial time by resonance between external force representing the address of a required item and the response representing location of this item.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[234] viXra:1606.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 06:51:28

Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese (II, III) Oxide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

In Mn3 O4 , the crystal structure, dislocation density, particle size and spin of the electrons plays crucial role in modulating its magnetic properties. Present study investigates impact of Biofield treatment on physical and atomic properties of Mn3 O4 . X-ray diffraction revealed the significant effect of biofield on lattice parameter, unit cell volume, molecular weight, crystallite sizes and densities of treated Mn3 O4 . XRD analysis confirmed that crystallinity was enhanced and dislocation density was effectively reduced by 80%. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Mn-O bond strength was significantly altered by biofield treatment. Electronic spin resonance analysis showed higher g-factor of electron in treated Mn3 O4 as compared to control, along with altered spin-spin atomic interaction of Mn with other mixed valance states. Additionally, ESR study affirmed higher magnetization behaviour of the treated Mn3 O4 . The results demonstrated that treated Mn3O4 ceramic could be used as an excellent material for fabrication of novel magnetic data storage devices.
Category: Chemistry

[233] viXra:1606.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 09:25:20

Measuring Polarization of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new tool for detecting and measuring the polarization of light based on a single spatial sampling of the light, rather than the multiple samples required by previous technologies. The new device makes use of the unique properties of organic polymers, rather than traditional silicon, for polarization detection and measurement. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape,
Category: Quantum Physics

[232] viXra:1606.0265 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-25 11:16:34

Physics Studies

Authors: Giuseppe Rauti
Comments: 2 Pages.

Studies in Physics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[231] viXra:1606.0263 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-22 17:36:46

The Flatness Problem

Authors: Gene H Barbee
Comments: 30 Pages. Please contact Gene at genebarbee@msn.com

Data from projects that measure and interpret the Cosmic Background Radiation [4][PLANCK] indicate that nature is “fine-tuned” to expand the universe in a way that it does not collapse or catastrophically expand. The currently popular Lambda CDM cosmology model [4] is strongly supported, meaning that critical density is very near 1. There is discussion regarding the components that make up critical density. Besides normal matter there is cold dark matter (CDM) and a Lambda term that stands for Einstein’s cosmological constant. Many appear to believe that we exist in the bottom shape shown above. Is space time really flat? This concept is associated with the hyperbolic nature of a four dimensional universe [18][19]. To understand what flat means, one must study the Robertson-Walker metric and the Friedmann and Einstein-de Sitter models [3]. I have noticed reluctance by authors to state clearly the shape of the universe. They know that curvature is at the heart of gravitation and can calculate a “Hubble length” describing how far expansion has progressed but leave the shape unstated. If it is a four dimensional sphere, its volume is infinite [19]. This document shows a way to side step the above issues. I believe we live in a spherical finite universe and the key is how we measure time. Quantum mechanics measures time and distance around a quantum circle. For light the ratio between distance and time is C, the speed of light. If space time originates in a quantum circle, the shape of the universe could be similar to the composite of many quantum circles (spheres considering the probabilistic nature of position around a circle). The Robertson-Walker metric [18] satisfies the global condition that space time is homogeneous and isotropic (no preferred position) but the surface of a sphere also has these properties. The author developed a model called cellular cosmology and a model of the neutron mass that leads to the source of the gravitational constant [5][6][7][8][12][13][23]. A cell is one neutron (that decays to a proton) and its associated space attracted to a central neutron. Each proton contains kinetic energy that expands the cell against the gravitational field and is converted to potential energy. Breaking a large surface we will call the universe into many small cell surfaces introduces an important degree of freedom. A cell is initially the quantum circle for gravity. The circle expands and defines space. As it expands it becomes non-quantum and protons are allowed inside the sphere. Protons appear to be around us and able to move relative to one another obeying special relativity. The space we exist in incorporates the Lorentz transformation and many call this space time. The general theory of relativity states roughly that “space time is curved by mass and mass follows curvature”, approaching Newtonian gravity. But the other three forces (interactions) of nature are also based on the curvature of quantum circles. The author’s unification theory [12] is reviewed for comparison in Appendix 3.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[230] viXra:1606.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 06:11:54

Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Hydroxyethyl Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cellulose based polymers have shown tremendous potential as drug delivery carrier for oral drug delivery system (DDS). Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) are widely explored as excipients to improve the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs and to improve self-life of dosage form. This work is an attempt to modulate the physicochemical properties of these cellulose derivatives using biofield treatment. The treated HEC and HPC polymer were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD studies revealed a semi-crystalline nature of both the polymers. Crystallite size was computed using Scherrer’s formula, and treated HEC polymer showed a significant increase in percentage crystallite size (835%) as compared to the control polymer. This higher increase in crystallite size might be associated with greater crystallite indices causing a reduction in amorphous regions in the polymer. However treated HPC polymer showed decrease in crystallite size by -64.05% as compared to control HPC. DSC analysis on HEC polymer revealed the presence of glass transition temperature in control and treated HEC polymer. We observed an increase in glass transition temperature in treated HEC, which might be associated with restricted segmental motion induced by biofield. Nonetheless, HPC has not showed any glass transition. And no change in melting temperature peak was observed in treated HPC (T2) however melting temperature was decreased in T1 as compared to control HPC. TGA analysis established the higher thermal stability of treated HEC and HPC. CHNSO results showed significant increase in percentage oxygen and hydrogen in HEC and HPC polymers as compared to control samples. This confirmed that biofield had induced changes in chemical nature and elemental composition of the treated polymers (HEC and HPC).
Category: Chemistry

[229] viXra:1606.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 13:58:55

Magnetic Anisotropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

There is a big effort in industry to produce electrical devices with more and faster memory and logic. Magnetic memory elements, such as in a hard drive, and in the future in what is called MRAM (magnetic random access memory), use electrical currents to encode information. However, the heat which is generated is a significant problem, since it limits the density of devices and hence the performance of computer chips. [11] The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[228] viXra:1606.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 15:44:14

The Plasma to Rock and Metal Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A principle of matter evolution is presented to further explain the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[227] viXra:1606.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 10:04:44

Relativity and Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Jean-Luc Paillet, Andrew Meulenberg
Comments: Pages. Presented to 1st Symp. on RNBE (LENR), March 18-20 2016, Avignon, France

This work continues our previous works on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain, and gives some general considerations on the Electron Deep Orbits (EDOs). In a first part we quickly recall the known criticism against the EDO and how we face it. In particular, a solution to fix all problems is to consider a modified Coulomb potential with finite value inside the nucleus. For this reason, we deeply analyzed the specific work of Maly and Va’vra on deep orbits as solutions of the Dirac equation, with such a modified Coulomb potential without singular point. Then, by using a more complete ansatz, we made numerous computations on the wavefunctions of these EDOs, allowing to confirm the approximate size of the mean radii of orbits and to find further properties. Moreover, we observed that the essential element for obtaining deep orbits solutions is special relativity. At a first glance, this fact results from an obvious algebraic property of the expression of energy levels obtained by the relativistic equations. Now, a comparative analysis of the relativistic and of the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation allows us to affirm that Special Relativity leads to the existence of EDOs because of the non-linear form of the relativistic expression for the total energy, which implies a relativistic non-linear correction to the Coulomb potential
Category: Mathematical Physics

[226] viXra:1606.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 11:44:11

The Holochronous Universe: Time to Shed Some Light on the Dark Sector?

Authors: Robin Booth
Comments: 20 Pages. 10 figures, 1 table, 1 appendix

We describe a novel interpretation of the time dimension in General Relativity: the Holochronous Principle, and show that the application of this principle in standard cosmological situations is able fully to account for the effects currently attributed to Dark Matter in observational phenomena such as galactic rotation curves and gravitational lensing. We re-evaluate the role of the Friedman equations in defining a time varying spacetime metric, and in their place postulate a model that is based on the `shrinkage' of baryons in a gravitational field to account for the dynamical behaviour of the cosmic scale factor. We show that integrating the Holochronous Principle into this model gives rise to a solution that takes the form of a resonant universe, in which the resultant damped oscillations can account for the observed accelerating expansion rate of the universe, to a greater level of precision than the standard ΛCDM model. The Holochronous model obviates the need for Dark Energy in the form of a cosmological constant, Λ, and also resolves other issues associated with the ΛCDM model, including the Ω=1 flatness problem.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[225] viXra:1606.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 11:47:16

Stoe Model of the Electron Spin 1/2 Observation

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model posits the bizarre features of the quantum mechanics model of the small scale should have analogies in the classical scale. One such feature of the quantum model is the model of ``spin 1/2'' observation of the Stern-Gerlach experiment. The STOE model of the structure of electron using disc magnets as an analogy of hods suggests multiple North--South poles produce the ``spin'' observation. The electron analogy is placed in an inhomogeneous magnetic field and the change of orientation is photographed. Noting that the re-orientating always occurs implies no electron will travel straight through the magnetic field. Thus, the STOE models another quantum feature, the spin 1/2 effect.
Category: Quantum Physics

[224] viXra:1606.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 07:46:15

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Barium Titanate Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Barium titanate, perovskite structure is known for its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric properties, which makes it interesting material for fabricating capacitors, transducer, actuator, and sensors. The perovskite crystal structure and lattice vibrations play a crucial role in its piezoelectric and ferroelectric behavior. In the present study, the barium titanate powder was subjected to biofield treatment. Further, the control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and Electron spin resonance (ESR). The XRD analysis showed the permanent compressive strain of 0.45% in treated barium titanate powder as compared to control. Furthermore, the biofield treatment has enhanced the density upto 1.38% in barium titanate as compared to control. The FT-IR spectra showed that the stretching and bending vibrations of Ti-O bond in treated BaTiO3 were shifted towards lower frequency as compared to control. The bond length was substantially increased by 0.72 % in treated BaTiO3 as compared to control. The ESR spectra of control and treated BaTiO3 sample showed the g-factor of 2.0; and biofield treatment has substantially changed the width and height of ESR signal in treated BaTiO3 as compared to control. These observations revealed that biofield treatment has significantly altered the crystal structure, lattice strain, and bond vibration of barium titanate.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[223] viXra:1606.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 08:02:02

Spectroscopic Characterization of Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Objective: Chloramphenicol and tetracycline are broad-spectrum antibiotics and widely used against variety of microbial infections. Nowadays, several microbes have acquired resistance to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment for spectroscopic characterization of chloramphenicol and tetracycline using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Methods: The study was performed in two groups (control and treatment) of each antibiotic. The control groups remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment groups. Results: FT-IR spectrum of treated chloramphenicol exhibited the decrease in wavenumber of NO2 from 1521 cm-1 to 1512 cm-1 and increase in wavenumber of C=O from 1681 cm-1 to 1694 cm-1 in acylamino group. It may be due to increase of conjugation effect in NO2 group, and increased force constant of C=O bond. As a result, stability of both NO2 and C=O groups might be increased in treated sample as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated tetracycline showed the downstream shifting of aromatic C-H stretching from 3085-3024 cm-1 to 3064-3003 cm-1 and C=C stretching from 1648-1582 cm-1 to 1622-1569 cm-1 and up shifting of C-N stretching from 965 cm-1 to 995 cm-1. It may be due to enhanced conjugation effect in tetracycline, and increased force constant of C-N (CH3 ) bond of tetracycline as compared to control. The results indicated the enhanced stability of treated tetracycline as compared to control. UV-Vis spectra of biofield treated chloramphenicol and tetracycline showed the similar lambda max (λmax) to their respective control. It revealed that the chromophore groups of both antibiotics remained same as control after the biofield treatment. Conclusion: Based on FT-IR spectroscopic data, it is speculated that due to increase in bond strength and conjugation effect after biofield treatment, the chemical stability of both the drugs might be increased as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[222] viXra:1606.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 08:11:38

Supercomputers on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A research team from Cyprus, Germany and Italy led by Constantia Alexandrou of the Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center of the Cyprus Institute and the Physics Department of the University of Cyprus in Nicosia, has now for the first time calculated the scalar quark content of the proton. [16] Researchers propose that dark matter is a kind of invisible, intangible version of a pion, or a type of meson — a category of particles made up of quarks and antiquarks. [15] A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[221] viXra:1606.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 06:43:12

A Very Brief Introduction to Reflections in 2D Geometric Algebra, and their Use in Solving ``Construction" Problems

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 8 Pages.

This document is intended to be a convenient collection of explanations and techniques given elsewhere in the course of solving tangency problems via Geometric Algebra.
Category: Geometry

[220] viXra:1606.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 02:44:29

General Field Equations Around a Blackhole

Authors: Sadegh Mousavi
Comments: 7 Pages.

After proposition of General Relativity theory by Albert Einstein, at 1914, some scientists tried to solve the field equations of this theory. The first one was Schwarzschild, which his solution leads to the discovery of blackholes. In this research a general compound field construction around a blackhole will be considered using tensor calculations. For this purpose at first some mathematical concepts will be introduced.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[219] viXra:1606.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 13:08:18

Particle Zoo in a Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers simulated the creation of elementary particle pairs out of the vacuum by using a quantum computer. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[218] viXra:1606.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 12:22:10

A Pulsation Super String Theory.(1)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

A pulsation super string theory. To current super string theory size ~ hadron size. (10¯8cm~10¯³³cm) The elementary particle pulsation principle covers current super string theory size - atomic nucleus size. The pulsation super string theory explains a nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism power as a place of the dark energy. The energy grand total of a place pulsating by super symmetry is zero. The infinity does not emerge in an equation. The infinity does not emerge in an equation. Filing is unnecessary.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[217] viXra:1606.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 07:32:34

Genetic Quantum Algorithms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In the new study, the researchers demonstrated that genetic algorithms can identify gate designs for digital quantum simulations that outperform designs identified by standard optimization techniques, resulting in the lowest levels of digital quantum errors achieved so far. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[216] viXra:1606.0246 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-23 09:27:15

Electrodynamics in Riemannian Space with Torsion

Authors: A.H.A.Alfedeel, A. I. Arbab
Comments: 9 Pages.

Based on the fact that electromagnetic radiation has energy and momentum, and it creates curvature in the space time, we have used the covariant derivative of second rank tensor , thus we show that its possible to derive an explicit expression for Maxwell's equations in curved space time with and without torsion as well as---This is a coupling between gravity to electromagnetism. We show that the coupling introduced an extra amount of charge and current density--the electromagnetic and gravitoelectric--which resulting in non vanishing divergence of the magnetic filed tensor, this is equivalent to a magnetic monopole density. This is similar to the result that found by Piplowski, which states that such a coupling breaks the symmetry of $U(1)$ group, and has only significant at early time of the universe or inside black holes where the energy is very high.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[215] viXra:1606.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 05:53:27

On Super Computing.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 2 Pages.

We present some of the theoretical underpinnings of a super computer which is superior to the classical and quantum computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[214] viXra:1606.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 05:54:52

On the Emergence of Scientific Consensus.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 4 Pages.

The emergence of consensus is of vital importance to science; yet, I am unaware of any theory which has been developed along those lines. This paper consists out of an attempt to erect such theory.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[213] viXra:1606.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 13:21:14

The Phase Transition Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of thermodynamic phases is presented to explain stellar evolution/planet formation in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[212] viXra:1606.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 13:30:22

Quantum Cache in Diamonds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Quantum devices can team up to perform a task collectively, but only if they share that most " spooky " of all quantum phenomena: entanglement. Remote devices have been successfully entangled in order to investigate entanglement itself, but the entanglement's quality is too low for practical applications. The solution, known as entanglement purification, has seemed daunting to implement in a real device. Now new research shows that even quite simple quantum components—nanostructures in diamond—have the potential to store and upgrade entanglement. The result relies on hiding information in almost-inaccessible nuclear memories, and may be a key step toward the era of practical quantum networks. [8] In quantum entanglement, two particles are correlated in such a way that any action on one of them affects the other even when they are far apart. The traditional methods of measuring the degree of quantum entanglement were originally developed for nonidentical particles, such as between an electron and a proton, or two atoms of different types. [7] For the first time, scientists have entangled four photons in their orbital angular momentum. Leiden physicists sent a laser through a crystal, thereby creating four photons with coupled 'rotation'. So far this has only been achieved with two photons. The discovery makes uncrackable secret communication of complex information possible between multiple parties. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[211] viXra:1606.0241 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-22 22:45:30

On the Misguided "Citation Culture"

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 1 Page.

The “citation culture” persists as systemic problem for the academic research, in general, and scientific publishing in particular. Contrary to popular beliefs, the number of citations, while useful as tracking tool, is often irrelevant in assessing the long-term viability of scientific publications or lines of inquiry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[210] viXra:1606.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 23:22:59

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Structural and Spectral Properties of Antimony Sulfide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) has gained extensive attention in solar cells due to their potential as a low-cost and earth abundant absorber material. In solar cell absorber, the optoelectrical properties such as energy band gap and absorption coefficient of Sb2S3play an important role, which have strong relationships with their crystal structure, lattice parameter and crystallite size. Hence in the present investigation, Sb2S3 powder samples were exposed to biofield treatment, and further its physical, structural and spectral properties are investigated. The particle size analysis showed larger particle size and surface area after treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed polycrystalline orthorhombic structure with superior crystallinity in treated Sb2S3along with significant changes in the lattice parameters, which led to changes in unit cell volume and density. XRD data analysis indicates that crystallite size was increased by around 150% in treated sample. In FT-IR spectra, strong absorption band was observed at 400-700cm-1, which confirms the presence of Sb2S3. Further, the absorption peak intensity in IR spectra was significantly reduced after treatment that was probably due to change in metal sulphur dipolar interaction.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[209] viXra:1606.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 23:26:12

Life, Sense and the Role of Information in Evolution

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 12 Pages.

The present work purports to the design, implementation, discussion and implications of a Sense Enhanced Game of Life (SEGoL), which is essentially the original GoL, the most popular cellular automaton discovered. To achieve this, two grids, namely the Life Grid L and the Sense Grid S are defined, with L taking one of two values (alive or dead) and S taking one of three values (touch, sight and sound), and the value in a particular grid affecting neighborhood perceptibility as well as survival in the corresponding grid. Evolutionary patterns are studied for various rules, coupled with the entropy values and survival rates. It is seen that the proposed Sense Enhanced Game of Life (SEGoL), essentially adapting Conway’s original Game of Life Rules, scaled for larger neighborhoods, and for enhanced perceptibility, displays a diverse range of interesting evolutionary dynamics, while also retaining the original features of the original Game of Life including the still-life and oscillating elements for the pure touch case. It is seen that if the conditions and neighborhood rules are conducive to retention of certain senses, the system is capable of effectively organizing its sense distributions and enhancing its perception, resulting in higher survival rates and sustaining life, and this gives an insight into higher evolved organisms of the planet, such as human beings.
Category: Physics of Biology

[208] viXra:1606.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 02:35:12

Superconductive Charge Density Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Physicists at BESSY II of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin studied an artificial structure composed of alternating layers of ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. Charge density waves induced by the interfaces were found to extend deeply into the superconducting regions, indicating new ways to manipulate superconductivity. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[207] viXra:1606.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 14:25:52

The Hadron Super String Theory.(1)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory. Atom size, a superstring theory. The size of "the string" in the super string theory is 10-33cm now. "The string" of the hadron super string theory is an atom, 10-8cm size. A current super string theory.   It is theory of String and the D brainy. The film is an image of the iron plate. The super string is an image of the magnets. As for the theory, an opened string and a closed annular string exist. The ring of the string is equivalent to gravity. The supersymmetry particle of the boson is fermion. The supersymmetry particle of the boson is fermion. The boundary condition is equivalent to the panel point of a vibrating string. The D brainy person vibrates, too. The outbreak of the = elementary particle that a string protrudes from D brainy person. A super string connects two pieces of D brainy people. ・・ ・ this is a current superstring theory. As for the current superstring theory, the inspection by the experiment is impossible because of super tininess. As for the current superstring theory, the inspection by the experiment is impossible because of super tininess.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[206] viXra:1606.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 09:52:57

.dynamic Universe Model Explains the Variations of Gravitational Deflection Observations of Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 11 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This paper explains Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)observations

A new type of tensor mathematical formation, using 21000 linear equations for 133 bodies, Dynamic Universe Model is a singularity free N-body problem solution, based on Newtonian physics. It is different from Newtonian physics, as well as general relativity as they use differential and integral equations. It uses linear tensors without differential and integral equations, hence it gives unique solution. This approach saves many unsolved problems in present day physics. Its prediction in 2005 that there is no dark matter came true experimentally in in Nov, 2013. Here, using the same math setup but with different initial set of numerical values, (viz., 3d xyz initial positions, velocities of all the solar system, nearby stars, Galaxy center, nearby Galaxies etc.,), this paper explains the wide range of values of gravitational deflection (bending) results of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. The observed VLBI results are in much higher range even after accounting the standard errors. These higher ranges in VLBI results are beyond explainable values of general relativistic predictions as well as with parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. Dynamic Universe model’s built in potential of considering simultaneous and dynamic gravitational effect of Sun, planets, local stars etc., makes these discrepancies comprehendible. For doing so, the capabilities of Dynamic Universe Model are extended into micro world i.e., the world of masses of light photons and radio wavelength photons, Neutrinos electrons and protons etc., (This definition is some thing like a subset of quantum physics, we will use this name further inthis paper) for the extended by extending the original mathematical formulation for macro world viz., planets, stars, Galaxies etc. Here it is shown that, Dynamic Universe Model explains reasons for the variations in real world VLBI deflection (bending) observations. Keywords: Dynamic universe Model; SITA programming; Micro particle world; VLBI Very Long Baseline Interferometry; Gravitational deflection (bending): PPN formalism, Tensors, singularity-free cosmology, Dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[205] viXra:1606.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 10:01:03

An Introduction to Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 24 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This paper gives the introduction to Dynamic Universe Model

This is solution for N-body problem without singularities and collisions using only Newtonian Physics. Here all bodies move and keep themselves in dynamic equilibrium with all other bodies depending on their present positions, velocities and masses. This model provides solution to problems, like Missing mass in Galaxies, Blue & red shifted Galaxies co-existence, Pioneer anomaly, New-horizons satellite trajectory calculations etc. Non collapsing large-scale mass structures formed when non-uniform density distributions of masses were used. This model explains the force behind expansion of universe and explains the large voids and non-uniform matter densities in universe. There are no Blackholes and Bigbang in this mathematical Model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[204] viXra:1606.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 10:10:46

Explaining Near Light Velocities Observed in Astronomical Jets Using Sita Simulations

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 21 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This explains very highvelocities in astronomical jets astro jets

Abstract: Very high velocities like velocity of light are observed in astronomical jets from the centres of many Galaxies including our own Milkyway. The formation of such high velocity jet is explained using SITA simulations in this paper. For this purpose the velocity attained by a test neutron in the path traced by it is calculated and depicted using a setup of 133 bodies. This setup consisting of one densemass of the mass equivalent to Galaxy center, 90 stars with similar masses of stars near Galaxy center, mass equivalents of 23 Globular Cluster groups, 16 Milkyway parts, Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies at appropriate distances. The velocity of particle attained in the path by this test neutron was found to be very high as observed in an astronomical jet emerging from Galaxy center. Dynamic Universe model can be used for such an application. Keywords: Dynamic Universe Model, Astronomical Jets, SITA simulations
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[203] viXra:1606.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 10:18:18

Mathematics of Dynamic Universe Model Explain Pioneer Anomaly

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 53 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This paper explains Pioneer Anomaly

A new type of tensor mathematics used in Dynamic universe model can be used to solve the Pioneer Anomaly. “The Pioneer anomaly or Pioneer effect is the observed deviation from expectations of the trajectories of various unmanned spacecraft visiting the outer solar system, notably Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11. Both spacecraft are escaping from the solar system, and are slowing down under the influence of the Sun's gravity.” as described by Wikipedia. Dynamic universe model of cosmology explains Pioneer anomaly. It shows effectively the acceleration due to gravity of SUN increases towards SUN, approximately beyond Mercury -4.44202E-07 m /sec^2 ; beyond MOON -2.11409E-08 m /sec^2 ; beyond Mars -2.11E-08 m /sec^2 ; beyond Jupiter -2.30844E-05 m /sec^2 ; beyond Saturn -2.44565E-06 m /sec^2 ; beyond Uranus -8.91522E-08 m /sec^2 and beyond Neptune -4.3E-09 m /sec^2. The negative sign indicates that the force is acting towards SUN in the same direction as SUN’s acceleration due to gravity. These values are approximate and depend not only on distance from SUN to the test particle, but also overall effect of gravitation of near by stars, Milkyway and its center, globular clusters and Local system.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[202] viXra:1606.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 10:31:49

Dynamic Universe Model Predicts the Trajectory of New Horizons Satellite up to Start of 2017 and Predictions Are Compared with NH Official Web Results.

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 25 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This paper predicts New Horizons satillite trajectory

In this paper, Dynamic Universe Model is used for prediction of trajectory of New Horizons (NH) satellite from 3rd Jan 2009 to 1st Jan 2017, taking trajectory ephemerides data of Jan 1&2, 2009 from official web of NH as basis. The New Horizons official web gives data up to 1st Sept 2015 as on 20 Jul 2014. The present calculated data from Dynamic Universe Model is given up to 1st Jan 2017, which is 16 months more than available data. And further data also can be calculated. It may please be noted the error percentage in predictions went to a maximum of 0.239356 %, -0.00086751 %, -0.0493872 % of NH NASA's web in XYZ coordinates, where as error percentages started from -0.00225 %, 0.000159 %, -0.00029 % for XYZ coordinates respectively.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[201] viXra:1606.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 12:16:59

Atomic Clocks and Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[200] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-19 21:39:15

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 8 Pages. Two references added and typos corrected.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[199] viXra:1606.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 07:49:01

Studies of the Atomic and Crystalline Characteristics of Ceramic Oxide Nano Powders after Bio field Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Transition metal oxides (TMOs) have been known for their extraordinary electrical and magnetic properties. In the present study, some transition metal oxides (Zinc oxide, iron oxide and copper oxide) which are widely used in the fabrication of electronic devices were selected and subjected to biofield treatment. The atomic and crystal structures of TMOs were carefully studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. XRD analysis reveals that biofield treatment significantly changed the lattice strain in unit cells, crystallite sizes and densities in ceramics oxide powders. The computed molecular weight of the treated samples exhibited significant variation. FT-IR spectra indicated that biofield treatment has altered the metal-oxygen bond strength. Since biofield treatment significantly altered the crystallite size, lattice strain and bond strength, we postulate that electrical and magnetic properties in TMOs (transition metal oxides) can be modulated by biofield treatment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[198] viXra:1606.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 08:33:12

Uniformity of CMB in our Dynamic Universe

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 10 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This is for CMB.

In this paper the experimentally verified Stephan Boltzmann Law and Planks law are used to calculate the Cosmic Microwave Background or CMB radiation received on earth in all directions from the sky. This radiation from SUN, planets, asteroids, stars, interstellar dust and Galaxies is in Microwave range covering all the frequencies including the K, Ka, Q, V and W bands as measured in WMAP mission. This method explains theoretically about the origin, propagation uniformity of CMB in our universe. The reasons for this amazing theoretical uniformity are many. One of the reasons is the uniformity of stars and Galaxies in all most all directions in the sky. Another reason is the averaging done by main lobe of dish antenna for few degrees around the main direction, which is a measuring instrument sensor of WMAP satellite. In addition, the side lobe pickup of bright sources in the sky also adds to the problem, which depends on the three-dimensional gain pattern of the dish. Additional analysis is done, which results into large angle multipole-l systematic errors. It is found that NO additional Bigbang generated Microwave background radiation was there after excluding radiation from Stars and Galaxies in these WMAP CMB measurements.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[197] viXra:1606.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 08:52:52

Information, Reality and Relics of Cosmic Microwave Background

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 9 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This is CMB uniformity.

“Material objects are more fundamental” is being proposed in this paper; or in other words “IT from Bit” is true. It is well known that there is no mental experiment, which produced material. There were double slit experiments by John Wheeler which show some mental dependencies on electron behaviour, but still he did not produce material from information. Information describes material properties. But a mere description of material properties does not produce material. Similarly creation of matter from empty space as required in Steady State theory or in Bigbang is another such problem in the Cosmological counterpart. As evidence the Bigbang based Cosmologies show the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), as relics of Bigbang. In this paper we will see about CMB, how it is generated from stars and Galaxies around us. And here we show that NO Microwave background radiation was detected till now after excluding radiation from Stars and Galaxies. Pictures by COBE and WMAP satellites show variation in CMB intensities in 10-4 scales. In Bigbang based Cosmology, these pictures were discussed as though they are the starting information for the formation of future Galaxies. This information is the counter part of “IT from Bit or Bit from IT” in Cosmology. This paper shows a way that we can exclude Cosmology from this concept.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[196] viXra:1606.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 08:47:15

Continued Radicals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 11 Pages.

We give some formulas related with the continued radicals
Category: General Mathematics

[195] viXra:1606.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 08:50:32

Mathematical Formulas : Part 4

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper we give some formulas related with the constant pi
Category: General Mathematics

[194] viXra:1606.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 08:58:53

'no Dark Matter' Prediction from Dynamic Universe Model Came True!

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 18 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This is is onNO-Dark matter Prediction

This paper discusses about the theoretical "non-requirement" of Dark matter, or in other words, there is no missing mass in Galaxies. A Singularity free and collision free N-body problem solution called Dynamic Universe Model was used to find out the theoretical star circular velocity curves in a Galaxy. Here five cases are presented. In the first case a HUGE mass at the center of galaxy, Sun like stars and external Galaxies are assumed, when plotted, the graph of last iteration shows disk formation and velocities achieved. This circular velocities verses radius graph looks exactly similar to observations by astronomers. In all the other cases, either the central mass is missing or external Galaxies are missing or both are missing where resulting graphs look different. It can be inferred that the theoretical requirement of dark matter is calculation error, that No dark matter (Missing mass) is required according to Dynamic Universe Model. This prediction was first presented in Tokyo University in 2005. Later the findings from LUX in 2013 the (Large Underground Xenon) experiment confirmed this prediction. This new Tensor math in Dynamic Universe Model were used for solving a large variety of physical problems which are otherwise not possible with present day Physics. This method solved many unsolved problems earlier like Existence of blue shifted Galaxies Galaxy Disk formations, Missing mass in Galaxies, Pioneer anomaly, Non-collapsing Large scale mass structures, New horizons trajectory predictions etc. AMS Subject Classifications: 70F10 (n- Body problems) , 70F15 (Celestial Mechanics), 70E55 ( Dynamics of Multi body systems) 70-05 (Experimental work) 70-08 (Computational methods)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[193] viXra:1606.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 09:19:15

Prediction of Large Number of Blue Shifted Galaxies by Dynamic Universe Model Came True

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 25 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This is on Prediction and finding BLUE shifted Galaxies.

There are many blue shifted Galaxies in our universe. Here in this paper we will see different simulations to make such predictions from the output pictures formed from the Dynamic Universe model. There are some old and a few new simulations where different point masses are placed in different distances in a 3D Cartesian coordinate grid; and are allowed to move on universal gravitation force (UGF) acting on each mass at that instant of time at its position. The output pictures depict the three dimensional orbit formations of point masses after some iterations. In an orbit so formed, some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are going away (Red shifted). In this paper the simulations predicted the existence of a large number of Blue shifted Galaxies, in an expanding universe, in 2004 itself. Over 8,000 blue shifted galaxies have been discovered extending beyond the Local Group, was confirmed by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations in the year 2009. Thus Dynamic Universe model predictions came true.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[192] viXra:1606.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 09:38:24

Explaining Formation of Astronomical Jets Using Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 8 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This explains astro jets

Astronomical jets are observed from the centres of many Galaxies including our own Milkyway. The formation of such jet is explained using SITA simulations of dynamic universe model. For this purpose the path traced by a test neutron is calculated and depicted using a set up of one densemass of the mass equivalent to mass of Galaxy center, 90 stars with similar masses of stars near Galaxy center, mass equivalents of 23 Globular Cluster groups, 16 Milkyway parts, Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies at appropriate distances. Five different kinds of theoretical simulations gave positive results. The path travelled by this test neutron was found to be an astronomical jet emerging from Galaxy center.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[191] viXra:1606.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-22 19:36:07

An Explanation for Galaxy Rotation Rates Without Requiring Dark Matter

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 4 Pages.

The rotation rates of stars in observed Galaxies are almost the same regardless of the distance from the galactic center and can currently only be explained by invoking a huge halo of invisible dark matter filling the space occupied by the galaxy. By realizing that space-time itself is an energy field that can flow, the rotation of galaxies can be explained by space-time also being consumed by the black hole at the center of a galaxy.
Category: Astrophysics

[190] viXra:1606.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 05:56:15

Universal Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Bringing together the best of two types of quantum computer for the first time, researchers at Google have created a prototype that combines the architecture of both a universal quantum computer and an analogue quantum computer. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[189] viXra:1606.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 06:32:06

Room Temperature Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A research group in Japan found a new compound H5S2 that shows a new superconductivity phase on computer simulation. Further theoretical and experimental research based on H5S2 predicted by this group will lead to the clarification of the mechanism behind high-temperature superconductivity, which takes place in hydrogen sulfide. [29] A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[188] viXra:1606.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 22:15:17

A Technical Study on 3D Effect on Denim Jeans

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 9 Pages.

Washing is considered as the final process in denim jeans production and is the core of denim finishing. It is the key to create the style in denim garments which is now becoming an art of creating fashion trends. The three dimensional (3D) effect is one of the most demandable finishing techniques for producing vintage denim jeans. Various types of 3D making equipments and methods are applied to jeans after resin application for producing such 3D effects. Denim jeans are then dried and finally cured in an oven for specific time at right temperature for getting final product
Category: Chemistry

[187] viXra:1606.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 15:20:55

The Grand Transformation Equation

Authors: Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show the derivation of the grand transformation equation from the Galilean transformation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[186] viXra:1606.0210 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-01 17:40:51

New Ligo Data Applied to Polarizable Vacuum Theory

Authors: Jerry L. Decker
Comments: 12 Pages. LIGO data is shown with mass loss continuing during ring down

New data from LIGO for event GW151226 was used to improve the modifications to Polarizable Vacuum Theory, and choose among the many possible solutions of energy and momentum at high speed for deep space transport. Heisenberg Uncertainty Limit provided the best known Modification to Polarizable Vacuum Theory. A constant coefficient was varied over the possible range and also changed to a variable, but provided no improvement over the Heisenberg Limit. Warp and frame dragging resulted from modifications of Polarizable Vacuum, but with more than one possible solution. A choice of solutions was made eliminating invariant Planck constant and previous cases derived from conservation of energy in blue shifted microwaves near a black hole. It was found that velocity terms could not be brought into PV theory without formalism for exchange of kinetic energy with the vacuum space. Energy changes in the local vacuum provide the driving force for relativistic frame dragging. Accumulating kinetic energy in space was found to polarize the vacuum in a way equivalent to the polarizing parameter K of Harold Puthoff. Frame dragging results from the continual increase of vacuum stress energy trailing longitudinally and propagating transversely from an accelerating deep space vehicle. Results predict that in the LIGO observations part of the mass loss and speed increase occur during the ring down phase.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[185] viXra:1606.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 10:16:01

The Complex Form of the Law of Cosines

Authors: Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show the mathematical derivation of the complex form of the law of cosines and show how it can help in the vector algebra.
Category: Algebra

[184] viXra:1606.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 10:21:36

Science in Crisis

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 228 Pages.

Abstract: General public regards science as a beautiful truth and a true scientific inquiry which has been construed in such a way as to explain the complexities of cosmological world with an engaging combination of clarity and wit. It seems most appropriate, but, it is absolutely-absolutely false. Science has fatal limitations – filled with uncertainty, skepticism and deliberation participate in a powerfully deductive dialectic that enables us to rework our present understanding of nature — to step back from what we think we know, re-assess our preconceived notions, and bring forth newer, more fully formed views of our Universe. However, the scientific community as a whole is ignorant about it. While the modern science is surely incomplete – it is largely based on heuristic arguments and oversimplified models. It is strange that most brilliant and eloquent scientists are not raising the issues and the majority of the current scientific community is imbued with the dogmas of the academic club and the voice of dissent conveniently ignored or ridiculed, contrary to the true spirit of scientific inquiry. Science means truth (what we now think the world is made of and how it got that way), and scientists (persons engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world) are proponents of the truth. But they are teaching incorrect ideas to children (upcoming scientists) in schools /colleges etc. -- largely with flair and in a highly approachable fashion. One who will raise the issue will face unprecedented initial criticism. Anyone can read the book and encompass a rapid trip in a more gentle fashion from Newton through relativity to the expanding universe, the big bang, black holes, wormholes and all the traditional menagerie of the modern cosmologist and find out the truth. It is open to everyone.
Category: Astrophysics

[183] viXra:1606.0207 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-30 02:26:36

Gravitational Field

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Giving the composition of the gravitational field
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[182] viXra:1606.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 08:18:46

The Enigma that is Light

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Richard Lawrence Norman
Comments: 11 Pages.

The presently accepted notion of wave/particle duality, especially when applied to light, is undoubtedly a cause of great unease for many. Here the issue is examined afresh in the light of ideas put forward in recent years, especially by Mayants, while not forgetting the contributions of those great scientists of the past. Explanations and interpretations are then offered to account for seemingly paradoxical effects.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[181] viXra:1606.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 05:02:29

Anti Info , Other Universes and the Connection Between Logic and Matter

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 25 Pages. May be an important basic idea.

The basic building blocks of the universe/multi - verses has been a matter of debate for millennia. It seems progress has been made recently in string theory. This paper is certainly not meant to challenge string theory, but rather, provide a mechanism as to how strings are formed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[180] viXra:1606.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 06:32:42

Mixed Matter and Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

In a lovely demonstration of light's quantum effects, physicists in the UK have just mixed a molecule with light at room temperature for the first time ever. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[179] viXra:1606.0203 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-21 14:31:02

Detected Gravitational Waves Were not Generated by Colliding Black Holes

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 5 Pages. none

The detail analysis of Gravitational Waves waveforms detected by LIGO observatory shows that the waves could not have been generated by colliding Black Holes. Most likely they were generated by colliding collapsed stars (“gravistars’ or “collapstars”, G-stars for short), which do not have Event Horizons. This is shown by using a simple model of a Sun mass G-star orbiting a G-star with a mass of 100 Suns. The evaluation is based on the comparison of two different metrics, the Schwarzschild metric, and the new metric derived by the author earlier, which provide the orbital frequencies as functions of a distance from the main G-star center.
Category: Astrophysics

[178] viXra:1606.0202 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-28 17:14:12

Gravitational Waves

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

A gravitational wave cannot exist, that is why the discoveries of those gravitational waves are only based on data. Physicists claim that they have proof but in fact there is not, they forgot to prove that a gravitational wave can exist.
Category: Quantum Physics

[177] viXra:1606.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 20:00:21

Energy-Scale of the Grand Unification Scheme

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Why exactly should energy rise as we head further into the grand unification scheme [GRS]?
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[176] viXra:1606.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 01:46:35

Supermassive Black Holes Jets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A simulation of the powerful jets generated by supermassive black holes at the centers of the largest galaxies explains why some burst forth as bright beacons visible across the universe, while others fall apart and never pierce the halo of the galaxy. [15] Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the " brightest beacons " in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar's center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[175] viXra:1606.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 13:03:11

The Wave Pattern is a String of the Super String Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

Hadron superstring theory.(5) The wave pattern is a string of the super string theory. The mass is zero. It vibrates at velocity of light. It is a resident of the four-dimensional space. It has supersymmetry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[174] viXra:1606.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 14:41:19

LIGO find Dark Matter?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

When an astronomical observatory detected two black holes colliding in deep space, scientists celebrated confirmation of Einstein's prediction of gravitational waves. A team of astrophysicists wondered something else: Had the experiment found the "dark matter" that makes up most of the mass of the universe? [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[173] viXra:1606.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 15:42:27

The Stellar Foundation Structure Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

As stars evolve into stable rocky life hosting structures it is required to define the process of foundation structure formation with a simple principle according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[172] viXra:1606.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 12:03:18

Gravitational Waves of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[171] viXra:1606.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 08:52:45

Detecting Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

RMIT quantum computing researchers have developed and demonstrated a method capable of efficiently detecting high-dimensional entanglement. [15] More than 200 beryllium ions have been entangled in a record-breaking experiment done by researchers at NIST in the US. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[170] viXra:1606.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 06:03:53

Formation of Cooper Pairs as a Consequence of Exchange Interaction

Authors: Stanislav Dolgopolov
Comments: 10 Pages.

The singlet state of two conduction electrons and the full overlap of their wave functions in the real space may minimize the energy of the electrons. This can be shown analyzing the energy of each conduction electron in the field of every particle of a crystal by use of exchange terms. It is possible that the exchange energy of two conduction electrons in the crystal is negative and, thus, the singlet state is favorable. Thus the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the exchange interaction cause a bond between two conduction electrons. The superconductivity in a metallic crystal occurs only if conduction electrons before the pairing are put closely on the Fermi surface in the momentum space. The motion of conduction electrons in the crystal may prevent the formation of Cooper pairs, because the kinetic energy of the motion is usually much larger than the binding energy in the pair. The conduction electrons as standing waves have a zero momentum, hence their momenta are synchronous; therefore the formation of Cooper pairs is more probable than in case of nonzero momenta. The approach of standing waves explains the inverse isotope effect, behavior at high pressures and many other facts about superconductors.
Category: Condensed Matter

[169] viXra:1606.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 07:03:42

Found the Tetraneutron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Recently, scientists in Japan uncovered the most convincing evidence to date of a tetraneutron, which is a particle with four neutrons but no proton—something that we shouldn’t see in physics. This evidence increases the possibility of the existence of this hypothetical particle. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[168] viXra:1606.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 22:01:39

Methods and Instruments to Increase a Signal-to-Noise Ratio in the Image-Addressing-Based Torsion Field Communication

Authors: Mark Krinker
Comments: 5 Pages.

To increase a signal to noise ratio in Torsion Field Communication Sessions, the emitted spinning signal proposed to form directly from video signals of images of transmitter and receiver. The receiver contains a mixer/multiplier fed with an identical reference video signal and the signal of the sensor.
Category: Classical Physics

[167] viXra:1606.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-25 14:39:24

Interactions of the Dark-Matter Loops with Baryonic Matter Once More

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 16 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Precise maximum mass for DM loop corresponds to the upper limit for frequency 3338 Hz. Intensity for the frequency about 3.34 kHz should be highest. But emphasize that the DM loops are the perfectly elastic structures. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature. The correct big bang, i.e. the inflation and the “soft” big bang of the Universe, is described within SST.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[166] viXra:1606.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 12:45:26

The Hadron is a Wave of the Darkness Energy to Pulsate.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

De Broglie wave discovered a De Broglie wave . De Broglie wave is a wave to lead a particle. He interpreted it like that. The wave to lead was called a pilot wave. The pilot wave has phase velocity and group of series of waves speed. I regarded group speed as the movement speed of the free particle. The wave packet collapses immediately. The pilot waves exceed velocity of light. The material wave was finally interpreted as a wave of the probability to discover a particle. The people who had quantum mechanics such as de Broglie, Einstein, Schrodinger did not accept probability interpretation for life. It is super-high-speed, and the elementary particle pulsation principle interprets the wave packet of the material wave as one pulsating wave. I deny probability interpretation and correct quantum mechanics in the existence. The material wave pulsates in existing four-dimensional space. A material wave is a wave of the dark energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[165] viXra:1606.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 14:49:26

Controlling Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[164] viXra:1606.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 15:00:41

Quantum Materials in Curved Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Physicists observe behavior of quantum materials in curved space. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[163] viXra:1606.0187 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-02 21:05:09

Internal Paradox of Special Relativity Theory and its Resolution

Authors: Tsuneaki Takahashi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Regarding to special relativity theory, there are some paradoxes. Almost these are derived from the theory. Then these should be resolved with the accurate deduction if possible. On the other hand, there may also be a paradox inside the theory. To solve it, more basic definition should be required.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[162] viXra:1606.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:27:04

The Laws of Hot Jupiters

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Five laws of hot Jupiters are given definition so that the reader can properly examine the validity and accuracy of establishment sciences’ claims according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[161] viXra:1606.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:38:08

1. Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Some Number Of Distinct Relative Metrics 2. Universal Function Generation (MP)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[160] viXra:1606.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:38:57

1. Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Some Number Of Distinct Relative Metrics 2. Universal Function Generation (NT)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: Number Theory

[159] viXra:1606.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:39:41

1. Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Some Number Of Distinct Relative Metrics 2. Universal Function Generation (GM)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: General Mathematics

[158] viXra:1606.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:40:41

Universal Natural Memory Embedding -3 (DSAA)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[157] viXra:1606.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:41:17

Universal Natural Memory Embedding -3 (AI)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[156] viXra:1606.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:42:03

1. Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Some Number Of Distinct Relative Metrics 2. Universal Function Generation (FAA)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[155] viXra:1606.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 00:30:48

The Effect of Normalisation on Partition Function – a Brief Review

Authors: S. Saha, J. Datta
Comments: 02 Pages.

In this review we wish to report a most probale approach of normalisation on partition function. And also the nature of thermal wave function as a normalised parameter.
Category: Chemistry

[154] viXra:1606.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 05:13:18

Superconductors, Lasers, and Bose-Einstein Condensates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

However, as superconductors, lasers, and Bose-Einstein condensates all share a common feature, it has been expected that it should be able to see these features at the same time. A recent experiment in a global collaborative effort with teams from Japan, the United States, and Germany have observed for the first time experimental indication that this expectation is true. [30] The quantum behaviour of hydrogen affects the structural properties of hydrogen-rich compounds, which are possible candidates for the elusive room temperature superconductor, according to new research co-authored at the University of Cambridge. [29] A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[153] viXra:1606.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 11:54:44

200 Beryllium Ions Entangled

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

More than 200 beryllium ions have been entangled in a record-breaking experiment done by researchers at NIST in the US. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[152] viXra:1606.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 08:48:45

1. Universal Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set 2. Universal Growth Of Any Given Set (GM)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set, Universal Growth Of Any Given Set’.
Category: General Mathematics

[151] viXra:1606.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 08:49:58

1. Universal Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set 2. Universal Growth Of Any Given Set (MP)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set, Universal Growth Of Any Given Set’.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[150] viXra:1606.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 08:50:55

1. Universal Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set 2. Universal Growth Of Any Given Set (NT)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set, Universal Growth Of Any Given Set’.
Category: Number Theory

[149] viXra:1606.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-23 09:55:12

General Relativity and Dark Energy Are Hidden in the Quantum Equation of Curved Spacetime

Authors: Gary Nash
Comments: 18 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the quantum equation (QE) in curved (3+1) spacetime $\nabla_{\alpha}\nabla^{\alpha}\Psi=k^{2}\Psi$, it can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors with the wave function $\Psi$ having spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$. Using a decomposition of symmetric tensors and two guiding principles, a new tensor describing dynamic dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor to form a modified equation of general relativity (GR). GR and dark energy are hidden in the symmetric part of the QE for each spin. As quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime is built from an infinite superposition of mixed frequency single particle solutions of the QE, GR and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of QFT. The metric as a field variable does not appear in the spin 2 QE for a massless graviton. Massless spin 2 particles do not couple to a non-zero energy momentum tensor as force mediators for gravity. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity. By preserving the structure of the Einstein-Hilbert action, it is shown that the cosmological constant must be zero. The dark energy tensor effectively replaces the cosmological constant and describes a cyclic universe which developed after the Big Bang. The dark energy density describes the violent expansion immediately after the Big Bang; and then tends to the present value of the vacuum energy density of the universe. Dark energy provides a natural explanation of why the vacuum energy density is so small, and why it dominates the present epoch of the universe. The Proca equation for a massive vector boson of spin 1 could describe neutral dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[148] viXra:1606.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-16 18:07:43

A Phenomenon of Driving the Field Gyroscope up to Speed by a Light

Authors: Mark Krinker
Comments: 8 Pages.

The experiments with the Spinning Electric Vector Analyzer, SEVA, have revealed an integration-like process of gradual driving a localized spinning electromagnetic field up to speed. The spinning process was induced both incandescent and gas-discharge lamps in vicinity of the SEVA sensor. The experiments can be explained as manifestation of G.I. Shipov’s field of inertia associated with the Physical Vacuum. An original electromagnetic spinning field drives its vacuum partner up to speed, having a characteristic time constant which depends on the conditions of experiments. The similar driving-up-to-speed processes were noted for a wide class of other phenomena. The quantum nature of FG is obviously seen on the images from a screen of the oscilloscope as a manifestation of discrete orbits.
Category: Classical Physics

[147] viXra:1606.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-16 23:47:53

Berry Phase for Initial “Pre Planckian” Space-Time?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time which is characterized by a transition from Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time. In doing so, we look at, using Crowell’s book, a Berry phase, which in our case is proportional to the area integration of 1 over the square of variation of change in energy. Our variation of the change in energy in this case is due to the Pre Planckian space-time HUP (Heisenberg uncertainty principle). The change in the energy, times change in time, is in this case, is in minimization of the HUP, equal to Planck’s constant divided by the square of the minimum scale factor, times 1 over the initial inflaton value. Our result as derived, gives substance to the supposition that a change in pre Planckian space-time is, indeed a phase transition, in line with work the author has done earlier. And does it in line with the inflaton, as given by Padmanabhan.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[146] viXra:1606.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-16 11:55:45

Newton's Shell Theorem and the Deformation of Interacting Galaxies

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 3 Pages.

SUMMARY: On behalf of gravitational effects galaxies are usually considered as spheres. Is it correct to apply Newton's Shell Theorem to galaxies? Will interacting galaxies act like Newtonian spheres? There are exact astronomical observations to be compared with theoretic considerations. Newton's gravitation law is confirmed by a lot of observations of interacting galaxies, but there are severe objections against the validity of the Shell Theorem on behalf of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[145] viXra:1606.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 18:59:08

On Causality, Readyness Potential (RP) & Freewill

Authors: Basudeba Mishra
Comments: 9 Pages. Based on ancient knowledge.

In their 2012 article: An accumulator model for spontaneous neural activity prior to self-initiated movement, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, August, 2012, (www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1210467109), Aaron Schurger, Cohen and Joshua Greene challenged the concept of conscious will (freewill), with evidence based on Benjamin Libet’s experiments. We will explain their findings in a different way to establish freewill.
Category: Mind Science

[144] viXra:1606.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 19:11:51

New Coordinate Solution in Cosmology

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 3 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover new solution in cosmology by Einstein’s gravity field equation. We investigate a light by the new coordinate observer’s time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[143] viXra:1606.0164 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-18 19:23:59

Sphere Theory and the Hubble Constant, Hubble Sphere, and a Stable Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 5 Pages. Added types of universes.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse spheres and perhaps larger spheres. This however does mean that everything is made of one sphere. Part of what we call the universe would be a sphere made of tightly packed spheres, mostly packed in a cuboctahedron structure. Some small groups of these spheres could be held together by a large scale universe type force similar to electromagnetic force, but obvious a much grander scale and too uniform at our level to perceive. One of these shapes maybe be a toroid. Perhaps similar to proposed radiationless structure as shown by Dr Miroshnichenko in “New theory to lead to radiationless revolution”(1) Dr. Miroshnichenko shows that there may be radiationless structures that are made of radiating materials, that are toroid shape. First we review the Hubble Constant values. We will review the values of the Hubble constant from WMAP, Planck Mission, Hubble Telescope, other measurements and compares it to Sphere Theory Hubble Constant. Reviewing the observable universe we see a universe that we can see back 13.8 billion light years, but because of expansion must be about 91 billion light years in diameter. This paper shows that our universe may be a combination of spheres in a toroid shape. Each sphere would be the size of the Hubble Sphere, as calculated by Sphere Theory. The toroid shape as acknowledged, as a possibility, by other physicists, like Max Tegmark The toroid, which in this paper, is a 6 sphere structure organized as a hexagon that may explain the size of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[142] viXra:1606.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-16 02:35:19

An Extended SU(2) Electrodynamics based on Lehnert’s Revised Quantum Electrodynamics: A Preliminary Report

Authors: Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 8 Pages. This file has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

Historically, electromagnetic theory was developed for situations described by the U(1) group. The dynamics equations describing the transformations and interrelationships of the force field are the well known Maxwell equations, and the group algebra underlying these equations are U(1). There was a need to extend these equations to describe SU(2) situations and to derive equations whose underlying algebra is SU(2). In this paper, we will start with Terence W. Barrett’s SU(2) symmetric form of electrodynamics based on topological considerations. Meanwhile, in a series of papers Bo Lehnert proposed a novel and revised version of Quantum Electrodynamics (RQED) based on Proca equations. Therefore, we will write down a combination between Barrett’s SU(2) electrodynamics with Lehnert’s RQED. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for finding physics beyond Standard Model. This is a preliminary report, so it is far from being a complete description of SU(2) electrodynamics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[141] viXra:1606.0161 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-26 09:31:14

The ‘Ponderable’ Aether

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 11 Pages.

Despite the long-accepted claims by mainstream physicists that the 1887 Michelson-Morley interferometer experiment ‘proved’ that an aether did not exist, based on its alleged ‘null result,’ ‘dissident’ physicists have long contended that it proved the opposite, some citing the ‘null result’ as evidence of its existence due to ‘aether drag,’ others lending credence to the relevance of the alleged ‘noise’ that was dismissed when arriving at the ‘null’ conclusion. The latter group attest that the alleged null result was anything but, with an ‘aether wind’ on the order of 10 km/s detected but dismissed as ‘noise,’ thereby opening the door to Einstein’s special relativity. Repeated interferometer experiments even more sensitive were performed by Dayton Miller, including several with Edward Morley, in the first part of the 20th century, allegedly confirming an ‘aether wind,’ again summarily dismissed as anomalous ‘noise’ to preserve Einstein’s relativity. Now there may be as many aether theories as there are dissident physicists who postulate an aether, some believing it to be fixed against absolute space, others that it can be ‘dragged’ by massive bodies such as Earth (and hence the alleged ‘null result’), and some that believe it flows between ‘sources’ and ‘sinks’ throughout the universe. Some believe it comprises all matter and energy, with light just being one of its various manifestations. I know not whether there is an aether. All evidence appears to be circumstantial, as nothing material has ever been detected (if that is even possible), and I do not begin to claim to even know how such would be possible. My goal here is to examine some phenomena for which an aether, if it exists, could offer an alternate explanation, neither confirming nor denying its existence.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[140] viXra:1606.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 08:59:21

The Theory of Ultralogics - Part I of III

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 52 Pages.

This part contains the Contents and Chapters 1, 2, 3 and 4, which include Alphabets, Words, Deduction, The Nonstandard Structure, as well as Adjective, Propositional, Predicate Reasoning, Reasoning from the Prefect and Order.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[139] viXra:1606.0159 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-01 08:07:04

The Theory of Ultralogics - Part II of III

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 48 Pages.

This part contains Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, which include Consequence Operators (Operations), Perception, An Alternate Approach, Developmental Paradigms, Ultrawords, A Neutron Altering Process, The Extended Structure and General Paradigms.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[138] viXra:1606.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 09:00:00

The Theory of Ultralogics - Part III of III

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 38 Pages.

This part contains Chapters 10, 11, Symbols and the Index, which include Laws and Rules, Propertons (subparticles) and the MA-model.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[137] viXra:1606.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:29:20

Universal Natural Memory Embedding - 2

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[136] viXra:1606.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:30:06

Universal Natural Memory Embedding - Two

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[135] viXra:1606.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:30:51

Universal Natural Memory Embedding - Part Two

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[134] viXra:1606.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:31:44

Universal Natural Memory Embedding - 2 (New)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’.
Category: Number Theory

[133] viXra:1606.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:32:26

Universal Natural Memory Embedding - 2 MP

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[132] viXra:1606.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:35:06

Structure of the Benzene Molecule on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 34 Pages. This work is published (as part) in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017, Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

Using the concept of three-electron bond one can represent the actual electron structure of benzene, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond on bond distance. In this article carbon-to-carbon bonds are reviewed. Using these dependences it is possible to calculate chemical bound energy by different bond distance or different multiplicity of chemical bond, that makes possible to calculate delocalization energy of benzene molecule.
Category: Chemistry

[131] viXra:1606.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-06 19:21:12

Experimental Confirmation of the Existence of the Three-Electron Bond and Theoretical Basis of Its Existence.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 8 Pages. This work is published (as part) in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017, Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

Analysis of images made in techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of high resolution in pentacene and other aromatic systems shows that according to predictions, aromatic three-electron bond is deflected to the centre of aromatic nuclei, which clearly confirms the fact of existence of three-electron bond in benzene, pentacene and other aromatic systems. It also confirms the existence of this bond in carboxylate anions and other similar ions and molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[130] viXra:1606.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-17 08:56:55

Supplement to the Theoretical Justification of Existence of the Three-Electron Bond.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 9 Pages. This work is published (as part) in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017, Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

The existence of large aromatic monocycles has been proved impossible based on interaction of three-electron bonds through the cycle at distances between the bonds (through the cycle) greater than 3.5 Å due to the lack of energy interaction (the length of chemical bonds is in the range of distances 0.74 Å – 3.5 Å). The chemical bond (two-electron and three-electron) is considered on the assumption that the electrons in a chemical bond can be regarded as being in an entangled quantum state, that is, the chemical bond is seen as a new "indivisible" particle. There has been provided an algorithm for calculating the two-electron chemical bond "on the tip of the pen". An attempt was made to explain the mechanism of interaction of particles in an entangled quantum state on the basis of a new model of the Interfering Universe.
Category: Chemistry

[129] viXra:1606.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-20 18:25:47

A Short Analysis of Chemical Bonds.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 18 Pages. This work is published (as part) in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017, Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

Nothing prohibits to give a definition of the multiplicity of bond: the multiplicity of bond is the energy of bond expressed in dimensionless units. It is easy to show, that relation multiplicity = f(L) and Е = f(L), where multiplicity is multiplicity of bond, L – length of bond in Å, Е – energy of bond in kj/mole will be described by function y = a + b/x + c/x² for any types of bond (C-N, C-O, C-S, N-N, N-O, O-O, C-P).
Category: Chemistry

[128] viXra:1606.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-14 17:55:46

"Rethinking the Atom" Book Now Released as 22MB Pdf

Authors: Joel M WIlliams
Comments: 1 Page.

"Rethinking the Atom" was published in Oct, 2014. Abstract info was presented in viXra:1511.0008. The author is now making the book available as a 22MB pdf
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[127] viXra:1606.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 00:16:12

Universal Natural Memory Embedding

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Natural Memory Embedding’.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[126] viXra:1606.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 00:17:24

Universal Natural Memory Embedding - I

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Natural Memory Embedding’.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[125] viXra:1606.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 00:18:49

Universal Natural Memory Embedding (New)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Natural Memory Embedding’.
Category: General Mathematics

[124] viXra:1606.0144 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-24 21:17:25

On The Exponential Mangoldt Function

Authors: Anthony J. Browne
Comments: 5 Pages.

A form of the exponential Mangoldt function is derived using indicator functions. The function's relationship to other important number theoretic functions are derived and discussed.
Category: Number Theory

[123] viXra:1606.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 04:08:23

El Magnetismo Rotatório de Aragó

Authors: Carles R Paul, Albert Serra
Comments: 36 Pages. In Spanish

El conocido astrofísico Carl Sagan comentaba: “Vivimos en una sociedad profundamente dependiente de la ciencia y la tecnología en la que nadie sabe nada de estos temas. Ello constituye una fórmula segura para el desastre”. Sobretodo cuando este conocimiento científico y tecnológico proviene del electromagnetismo. Es conocido que los orígenes del electromagnetismo se remontan a los experimentos de Oersted, pero casi nadie conoce la gran contribución que efectuo Francesc Aragó al desarrollo del electromagnetismo. En este articulo demostramos que los experimentos de Aragó contribuyeron de forma decisiva al pensamiento teórico de André Marie Ampere. Culminando en el experimento decisivo del disco de Aragó, donde se muestra el magnetismo de rotación, precursor del disco de Faraday y origen de la tecnología electromagnética.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[122] viXra:1606.0141 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-21 11:42:55

Some Definite Integrals Over a Power Multiplied by Four Modified Bessel Functions

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 24 Pages. Added Section 4 in version 2.

The definite integrals int_0^oo x^j I_0^s(x) I_1^t(x) K_0^u(x)K_1^v(x) dx are considered for non-negative integer j and four integer exponents s+t+u+v=4, where I and K are Modified Bessel Functions. There are essentially 15 types of the 4-fold product. Partial integration of each of these types leads correlations between these integrals. The main result are (forward) recurrences of the integrals with respect to the exponent j of the power.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[121] viXra:1606.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-27 15:07:09

Re-examining Velikovsky

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 8 Pages. Presented at/Published in 1st Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference - Florida Atlantic University, August 5-8, 2015

Immanuel Velikovsky’s Worlds in Collision and other books inspired founders of the Electric Universe Theory with its implication of plasma-based electrical interactions between planets, as recorded in historical records such as the Bible. While his theories sparked great controversy by implying close encounters between some of the inner planets (Venus, Earth and Mars) within recorded human history, but were summarily dismissed as fiction by mainstream scientists and continue to be dismissed today. Nonetheless, Electric Universe theorists contend that there may be truth in Velikovsky’s conclusions when these “interactions” are considered in light of a “plasma/electric universe.” Having also read Velikovsky’s works, and Electric Universe Theory, I endeavored to perform a simple set of calculations to ascertain if any of Velikovsky’s interactions could have been possible.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[120] viXra:1606.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-14 04:22:21

Zinc Deficiency Induces Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial P53 and Caspase-Dependent Pathways in Human Neuronal Precursor Cells

Authors: Rohit seth
Comments: 5 Pages.

Previous studies have shown that zinc deficiency leads to apoptosis of neuronal precursor cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition to the role of p53 as a nuclear transcription factor in zinc deficient cultured human neuronal precursors (NT-2), we have now identified the translocation of phosphorylated p53 to the mitochondria and p53-dependent increases in the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein BAX leading to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as demonstrated by a 25% decrease in JC-1 red:green fluorescence ratio. Disruption of mitochondrial membrane integrity was accompanied by efflux of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria and translocation to the nucleus with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 24 h of zinc deficiency. Measurement of caspase cleavage, mRNA, and treatment with caspase inhibitors revealed the involvement of caspases 2, 3, 6, and 7 in zinc deficiency-mediated apoptosis. Down-stream targets of caspase activation, including the nuclear structure protein lamin and polyADP ribose polymerase (PARP), which participates in DNA repair, were also cleaved. Transfection with a dominant-negative p53 construct and use of the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin- ␮, established that these alterations were largely dependent on p53. Together these data identify a cascade of events involving mitochondrial p53 as well as p53-dependent caspase-mediated mechanisms leading to apoptosis during zinc deficiency.
Category: Biochemistry

[119] viXra:1606.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-14 04:51:17

A Look Into the Future of Biofield Applications

Authors: Rai Sachindra Prasad
Comments: 9 Pages.

Biofield concept is not new. It first started in 19th century but attracted little attention for several decades. However, with passage of time, new evidences were produced for its existence and its clinical benefits in various ailments. Since then the importance of this exciting field has emerged on the world scene: the latest application being in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for human beings. Ironically, no measurement techniques for assessing impact of Biofield in diagnostics and therapy have been forthcoming so far. The basic reason for this, as investigated by experts, has been the nature of biofield as highly nonlinear, dynamic with rapid changes in pattern, and chaotic for which no mathematical analyses/instrumentation are present. This paper reviews briefly the studies made so far in the biofield concepts and imaging with particular applications in relation to human body and mind, and then projects the possible future trend of biofield applications based on scientific approach. In particular this paper highlights the future trend of biofield applications using color pattern in the aura (biofield) of human beings. It would be possible to identify a individual’s nature, i.e. useful or non useful for society, by digitizing the color patterns for taking corrective measures.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[118] viXra:1606.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 21:25:00

Gedankenexperiment for Looking at 5th Force Arguments for Contribution for a Pre Planckian Inflaton. with Consequences.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 12 Pages.

Using work by Fishbach and Talmadge, we use 5th force arguments and the common Virial theorem, plus a modified Wheeler De Witt wave function to set up an energy fluctuation equation. From there, we also use a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle to isolate the role of an inflaton in Pre Planckian space – rime. Its consequences are remarked upon with the range of a purported 5th force and scaled as between 10^-1 to 10^-3.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[117] viXra:1606.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-14 00:55:44

The Universal Any Field Generating Irreducible Metric

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’.
Category: Number Theory

[116] viXra:1606.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-14 00:58:08

The Universal Any Field Generating Metric

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’.
Category: Number Theory

[115] viXra:1606.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-14 00:59:43

The Universal Any Field Generating Metric - I

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[114] viXra:1606.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 13:00:19

Hadron Superstring Theory (3)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 19 Pages.

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory. Atom size, a superstring theory. The size of "the string" in the super string theory is 10-33cm now. "The string" of the hadron super string theory is an atom, 10-8cm size. I assume the average energy density of dark energy the horizon and do it. I supposed the horizon to be energy zero. A place of the dark energy is a general place. The energy of the negative wave offsets it plus every pulsation 1 cycle, and it becomes zero. (supersymmetry) The energy grand total of a pulsating place becomes zero. The physics of the material wave to express by Schrodinger equation explains a nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism power.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[113] viXra:1606.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 13:58:44

SG Gravimeters Measure Toroidal Modes of the Earth

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

In contrast to previous assumptions, gravimeters can measure not only radial movements of the earth's surface, but also horizontal movements. This is first shown on the mode 0T4.
Category: Geophysics

[112] viXra:1606.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 14:12:28

Interactions of the Dark-Matter Loops with Stars via Leptons Solve the Rotation Braking

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of the two intervals of the rotation braking and two plateaus in the curve describing rotation velocity of the main-sequence normal stars as a function of the spectral classes. We did it involving the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with the electron and proton vortices in stars. Calculated here the advection velocity of the proton vortex is about 414 km/s, of the electron vortex is about 10 km/s whereas the mean value is about 212 km/s. The threshold rotational velocities follow from the fact that in hottest stars, near equator, there dominate the light ions, next in colder stars there dominate the neutral light atoms, and next in coldest stars there are created heavier neutral atoms so gravity transfers the angular momentum to the cores of stars. We showed as well that the DM structures are perfectly elastic so it is very difficult to detect them. We answered following question: How should we plan an experiment to detect dark matter?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[111] viXra:1606.0130 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-28 07:53:06

Experiments to Test Whether or Not Light Acquires the Velocity of Its Source Using Current Technology

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, Richard O Calkins
Comments: 11 Pages. Presented at/Published in 2nd Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference - College Park, MD, July 20-23, 2016

A friendly debate between the authors characterizes one that is prevalent among the community of ‘dissident’ physicists who do not accept Einstein’s relativity as the final explanation for the behavior of light. They wonder whether or not light acquires the velocity of its source. Maxwell’s equations strongly suggest a fixed speed for light upon its emission from a source. Is the emission point fixed in space? Would motion of the emitter alter the trajectory (and speed?) of the emitted light? Light’s immense speed makes determining this extremely difficult to answer on a scale less than astronomical. For example, despite supposed ‘definitive’ proof that there is no aether and light speed is universally constant alleged by proponents of a ‘null’ result from the 1887 Michelson-Morley Interferometer Experiment, debate continues over both of these subjects. The authors propose experiments using current technology that might be able to offer a definitive resolution to this debate, or possibly open up even more speculation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[110] viXra:1606.0129 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-27 15:31:45

Tidal Asymmetry

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 25 Pages. Presented at/Published in 2nd Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference - College Park, MD, July 20-23, 2016

The Earth’s diametrically opposed, presumably symmetric, tides are due to the Moon’s differential gravitational force varying across the Earth. This is not intuitively obvious, but becomes clear when the physics is examined mathematically. The presumed symmetry is due to an approximation that holds when the radius of the affected body (e.g., the Earth) is much less than its center-to-center distance from the affecting body (e.g., the Moon). The exact solution indicates an asymmetry, which becomes more pronounced as the assumption loses its applicability.
Category: Astrophysics

[109] viXra:1606.0128 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-27 15:22:44

The Speed of Light: Constant and Non-Constant

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 17 Pages. Presented at/Published in 2nd Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference - College Park, MD, July 20-23, 2016

This article examines the relativistic assumption of a constant speed of light without Einstein’s postulates, building on two dissident physicists’ unique theories as a possible explanation for the phenomena by which light can travel with the speed of its source and, therefore, at variable speeds. Renshaw and Calkins have proposed rather unique theories regarding the propagation of light. First I consider two similar situations for non-light phenomena to extrapolate to a subsequent analogy for light to contend that the speed of light need not be constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[108] viXra:1606.0127 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-27 15:16:39

Does Light Travel with the Velocity of a Moving Source?

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 18 Pages. Presented at/Published in 2nd Annual John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference - College Park, MD, July 20-23, 2016

Einstein resolves the issue of whether or not light travels with the velocity of a moving source by assuming time dilates (and length contracts) in a moving inertial reference frame. Based more on belief than empirical evidence, this resolution enables the theory of special relativity to claim validity, even though there are other explanations and interpretations that are simpler and more consistent with Occam’s Razor. Some dissident physicists counter Einstein both by assuming the constant velocity of light is preserved, albeit without time dilation, as well as assuming light travels with the velocity of its source. While I am in the latter camp, I attempt to examine both sides of the argument from a non-relativistic perspective.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[107] viXra:1606.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 08:45:34

Pi , Geometry Approach

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 8 Pages.

We remember a geometric method to estimate the constant pi
Category: General Mathematics

[106] viXra:1606.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 08:50:09

Mathematical Formulas : Part 3

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 26 Pages.

In this paper we give some formulas related with the constant pi
Category: General Mathematics

[105] viXra:1606.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 17:15:14

The Brightness Principle in Galaxy Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of science is presented to connect stellar metamorphosis to galaxy growth and evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[104] viXra:1606.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 21:09:32

Magneton Theory Commentary Universe Mysteries -- 10. Photon Trajectory Bend Experiment

Authors: Huang Weixiong
Comments: 4 Pages.

Photon、dark matter、electromagnet wave conduction medium、cosmic dust, between them inner link is a urgent research major issues. Photon characteristics research is bear brunt. In 1919, British scientist Eddington organized a total solar eclipse big observation. Observed data confirm that photon trajectory is arc. From then on, opened the relativity era. Magneton Theory think, photon trajectory bend is photon spin and environmental magnet field combined action result. According to Magneton Theory, conceived a new experiment. This experimental results exact simple proved following conclusions: 1. In most cases, photon trajectory is arc. 2. Photon trajectory curvature radius inversely proportional to beam frequency. 3. Under special conditions, photon trajectory is straight line. 4. Photon trajectory bend has nothing to do with gravity. This experiment would prompt world to re-examine the relativity. This experiment will also open physical theory new era.
Category: Astrophysics

[103] viXra:1606.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 01:46:33

Newton, Einstein and Hawking Explain Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Cosmic Mysteries

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 25 Pages. This grew out of a discussion I started on the vixra forums (Ramanujan/Einstein are lucky they lived b4 modern "science" - http://vixra.freeforums.org/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=755).

The idea of gravitational-electromagnetic coupling producing mass, first hinted at by Albert Einstein, allows Isaac Newton's laws of motion and gravitation to be looked at differently. In turn, this gives a new perspective on dark energy, dark matter and expansion of the universe. The work of Stephen Hawking also proved essential to writing this article, which grew out of a discussion I started on the vixra forums (Ramanujan/Einstein are lucky they lived b4 modern "science" - http://vixra.freeforums.org/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=755). As I wrote there, "I've been thinking about John's comments on motion and gravity, as well as Harry's on expansion of the Universe. I started writing a reply and during the last week, I've found it getting combined with other thoughts of mine. In an attempt to explain everything that's relevant, it's been combining with other ideas I've previously written as well as new ideas that come to me while I'm typing, or sleeping. It surprises me, but all the ideas seem to fit together and they seem plausible (if somewhat speculative sometimes) when I check scientific references. So far, I've written 6,000 words and there's a lot more to cover in the rough draft I wrote. That's too much to post in the forum, so it'll have to be an article on vixra.org". By the way, this article reminds me of a "Star Trek" movie I saw in which Spock was writing something but was tempted to stop because it was so hard and seemingly beyond his abilities. Captain Kirk visited him from a year in the future and told Spock he would succeed. I've often felt tempted to give up on my typing. There have been no time-travelling visitors but the ideas that came to me were so satisfying - they encouraged me to somehow reach the end.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[102] viXra:1606.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-13 05:09:24

The Invariant Identity and Proof of the FLT and Beal Conjecture. (Elementary Aspect)

Authors: Reuven Tint
Comments: 12 Pages. Original written Russian

Let us prove that invariant identity is used for the proof of the FLT and Beal conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[101] viXra:1606.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 10:10:59

A.A.A.S. Conference Slides: “2nd Law Challenges” University of San Diego 2016, Maxwell Demons by Phase Transitions Severing the Link Between Physics and Information Theory

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 25 Pages. Nearly last draft for 25 minute talk.

The search for new power sources has increasingly challenged the second law of thermodynamics; one such cycle is presented herein with both experimental and rigorous theoretical underpinnings. These analyses, both kinetic and thermodynamic inevitably lead to the Maxwell Demon problem. It is clear that, against the Szilard-Brillouin-Landauer argument, that phase transition processes in conjunction with the cycle and apparatus requires no molecular information to be kept, negating the argument and need that the demon’s entropy change by 1/2kTln 2 per molecule processed. The Demon was thought to bring Information into the fold of Physics. We ask the question, if all computing can be made reversible by heat recovery and furthermore, if the speed of information appears not to be limited by Relativity, due to the author’s protocol to send classical data over an entangled Bell Channel, if the Landauer maxim, “Information is Physical”, is entirely true?
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[100] viXra:1606.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-11 16:50:03

Religious Naturalism

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 6 Pages.

Thoughts on religious thought and new naturalism.
Category: Social Science

[99] viXra:1606.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-16 20:42:42

Warp and Frame Dragging at High Speed

Authors: Jerry L. Decker
Comments: 11 Pages. Parameter derived from blue shifted microwaves

Warp and frame dragging resulted from modifications of Polarizable Vacuum, but with more than one possible solution. A choice of solutions was made based on previous work about conservation of energy in blue shifted microwaves near a black hole. It was found that velocity terms could not be brought into PV theory without formalism for exchange of kinetic energy with the vacuum space. Energy changes in the local vacuum provide the driving force for relativistic frame dragging. Accumulating kinetic energy in space was found to polarize the vacuum in a way equivalent to the polarizing parameter K of Harold Puthoff. Frame dragging results from the continual increase of vacuum stress energy trailing longitudinally and propagating transversely from an accelerating deep space vehicle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[98] viXra:1606.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 18:42:56

Fundamental Physical Constants: Explained and Derived by Wave Equations

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 53 pages

Twenty of the fundamental physical constants, including the Planck constant, Coulomb constant and the gravitational constant (G), are derived by wave equations based on four, new fundamental constants: wave speed, wavelength, amplitude and density. All calculations match CODATA values of the existing constants with a high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, the wave equations from which they are derived also accurately calculate particle mass, ionization energies and forces.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[97] viXra:1606.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 09:58:49

Forces: Explained and Derived by Wave Equations

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 60 pages

Three of the four known forces in physics are unified into one equation with a clear explanation for the different properties of each force. The strong, electromagnetic and gravitational forces are governed by the same force equation, yet they have different characteristics of wave amplitude that modify a particle’s wave and motion. Although it is intentionally not unified into the general equation for force, an explanation is provided for the weak force. All calculations with the newly proposed Force Equation match experimental results and can derive Newton’s laws for gravity and Coulomb’s law for electromagnetism.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[96] viXra:1606.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 03:44:39

Energy Conversion Mechanics for Photon Emission Per Non-Local Hidden-Variable Theory

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 27 Pages. Published as: Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2016). Energy conversion mechanics for photon emission per non-local hidden-variable theory. Journal of Modern Physics, 7(10), 1049-1067. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2016.710094

Problem- Energy conversion processes in optical phenomena are incompletely explained by wave theory or quantum mechanics. There is a need for ontologically rich explanations at the level of individual particles. Purpose- This paper reports on the application of a non-local hidden-variable solution called the Cordus theory to this problem. The method is directed to the systematic development of a conceptual framework of proposed causal mechanisms. Findings- It has long been known that the bonding commitments of the electron affect its energy behaviour but the mechanisms for this have been elusive. We show how the degree of bonding constraint on the electron determines how it processes excess energy. A key concept is that the span and frequency of the electron are inversely proportional. This explains why energy changes cause positional distress for the electron. Natural explanations are given for multiple emission phenomena: Absorbance; Saturation; Beer-Lambert law; Colour; Quantum energy states; Directional emission; Photoelectric effect; Emission of polarised photons from crystals; Refraction effects; Reflection; Transparency; Birefringence; Cherenkov radiation; Bremsstrahlung and Synchrotron radiation; Phase change at reflection; Force impulse at reflection and radiation pressure; Simulated emission (Laser). Originality- The paper elucidates a mechanism for how the electron responds to combinations of bonding constraint and pumped energy. The crucial insight is that the electron size and position(s) are coupled attributes of its frequency and energy, where the coupling is achieved via physical substructures. The theory is able to provide a logically coherent explanation for a wide variety of energy conversion phenomena.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[95] viXra:1606.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-11 13:34:35

Hadron Superstring Theory (2)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory. Three dimensions of lines expressing a wave pattern belong to a part (four-dimensional space) above the horizon of the space. However, the line itself of the wave pattern expresses mass zero. The energy that a wave pattern surrounds is equivalent to a quark.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[94] viXra:1606.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-11 15:07:52

Using Waves To Determine Primes

Authors: William R. Blickos
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper provides a method using periodic functions to check for primality, count factors, list factors, calculate the exact prime distribution, and determine the Nth prime. It describes this method in a straightforward manner, from one equation to the next, using graphs between each key step to help quickly visualize the reasoning and result of each maneuver. It concludes with brief afterthoughts and ongoing questions about the technique.
Category: Number Theory

[93] viXra:1606.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-11 15:09:58

A Series of Questions About Some Series: Primes, Waves, and Factors

Authors: William R. Blickos
Comments: 4 Pages.

A Trigonometric Series is crafted that gives the number of factors of x for all x. It is then manipulated to list all those factors. It is then used to give the exact distribution of the primes. It is then changed into a recursive sequence that generates the nth prime. Finally, a Product Polynomial Series is suggested as an improved alternative to the original. There is a series of questions in the second section regarding the functions.
Category: Number Theory

[92] viXra:1606.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-11 08:28:27

Primality Tree Of Any Given Set (New)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the theory of ‘Primality Tree Of Any Set’.
Category: General Mathematics

[91] viXra:1606.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-11 08:32:04

Universal Primality Tree Of Any Given Set (New)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the theory of ‘Primality Tree Of Any Set’.
Category: General Mathematics

[90] viXra:1606.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-16 20:19:42

Temperature Of A Black Hole

Authors: Jerry L. Decker
Comments: 5 Pages. Properties of space from blue shifted microwaves

A calculation is given for equilibrium temperature of a black hole revised for blue shifted cosmic background microwaves. A high temperature limit is imposed at the Planck energy level The result leads to a function of variant Planck constant for use in polarizable vacuum theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[89] viXra:1606.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-11 03:11:52

Gedankenexperiment for Looking at Fluctuations in the Time Component of the Metric Tensor Gtt for Initial Expansion of the Universe and Influence on Hup Via Inflaton

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 14 Pages.

We examine through the lens of dynamical systems a ‘one dimensional’ time mapping of emergent VEV from Pre Planckian space time conditions. We use Licata’s and Fiscaletti’s Bolmian Quanuum mechanics to obtain an energy E as minus the time derivative of a phase transition, as given by Bohmian Q.M. for curved space time, in the Pre Planckian state, where we then use a modified version of the HUP , to then isolate the inflaton. The emergence of the inflaton scalar field, in time evolution is tied into physics of the first order phase transition to QM, and the regular HUP, used by Heisenberg. I.e. a first order generation of initial entropy via Bohmian QM applied in Pre Planckian space-time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[88] viXra:1606.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-11 03:29:04

Proposal for Measurement of Impurities in Any Liquid Media Inside the Flow Vessel Using Piezoelectric Sensing

Authors: Pragyaditya Das
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this proposal, I extend my idea on how do we sense and accurately measure the amount of impurities in any liquid media. I am planning on using the principles of Piezoelectric Sensing to do it. The basic idea is to use the voltage output from a piezoelectric strip (say S) to sense the amount of impurities (Say ImL) in the Liquid Media (say L). What I intend to do is, I would use an adhesive layer (say Ah) which would be reactive to the impurity we are trying to measure. I want to fix a layer of Ah on S. Then I would fix on end of S to the wall of the container in which the liquid is flowing. S will now act as a Cantilever Beam. Now, L flows through the pipe. The impurities present in L will settle and adhere on S, due to the adhesive property of Ah. The settling of impurities of some mass , will bend S and generate an output voltage (say V). Here the strip is acting like a cantilever beam.
Category: Classical Physics

[87] viXra:1606.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-11 04:59:18

Differential Activation of ER Stress Signal Pathways Contributes to Palmitate-Induced Hepatocyte Lipoapoptosis

Authors: Xiaofang Zhao
Comments: 9 Pages.

Saturated free fatty acids-induced hepatocyte lipoapoptosis plays a pivotal role in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in hepatocyte lipoapoptosis induced by the saturated free fatty acid palmitate (PA). However, the underlying mechanisms of the role of ER stress in hepatocyte lipoapoptosis remain largely unclear. In this study, we showed that PA and tunicamycin (Tun), a classic ER stress inducer, resulted in differential activation of ER stress pathways. Our data revealed that PA induced chronic and persistent ER stress response, but Tun induced acute and transient ER stress response. Compared with Tun treatment, PA induced much lower glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a central regulator of ER homeostasis, accumulation. It is noteworthy that GRP78 over-expression not only inhibited PA-induced ER stress but also decreased PA-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that the differential activation of ER stress signal plays an important role in PA-induced hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. More detailed studies on the mechanisms of PA in repressing the accumulation of GRP78 will contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of lipoapoptosis. Article Tools Abstract PDF (1841KB) HTML Follow on us AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Google+Share to LinkedInMore AddThis Share options
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[86] viXra:1606.0100 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-10 22:57:43

The Gravitational Constant May not be Constant: Correlation of Gravitational Constant Measurements with Ambient Gravitation

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments: 7 Pages. The scatter in the Gravitational Constant measurements may not be random

There is a long history of measuring the gravitational constant starting with Henry Cavendish in the 1700’s,[1], and in the last 15 years there has been a focused on refining the value with more modern technology, and precision instrumentation. Unfortunately the value is hard to pin down, and as the error bars of the various experiments at labs around the world get smaller the values are not the same and even the error bars are not overlapping. This paper evaluates the relation between the most precision measurements over the last 15 years, and the ambient gravitation at the location of the measurement. Although there may be some errors in the exact value of the ambient gravitation due to the exact location of the lab making the measurement, the errors are not significant enough to make a difference in the conclusion. There is a definite relationship between the measured gravitational constant and the ambient value of the background gravitation. This paper presents the data illustrating the correlation.
Category: Classical Physics

[85] viXra:1606.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-10 13:42:12

Elementary Pulsation Principle Omnibus.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 12 Pages.

Naming and is the subject of this book, the author, is trying to resolve the challenges facing modern physics or mathematics depending on the hypothesis, and announced in the real sense of the 1980 Super grand unified theories of particle physics pulsating principles.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[84] viXra:1606.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-10 15:14:00

The Cornell Effect

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new cognitive bias/fallacy is given definition so that it can be spotted in the future based on the author’s experience with sharing a new understanding of nature.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[83] viXra:1606.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-10 11:59:39

Illusory Signaling under Local Realism with Forecasts

Authors: John R. Dixon
Comments: 5 Pages.

G. Adenier and A.Y. Khrennikov (2016) show that a recent ``loophole free'' CHSH Bell experiment violates no-signaling equalities, contrary to the expected impossibility of signaling in that experiment. We show that a local realism setup, in which nature sets hidden variables based on forecasts, and which can violate a Bell Inequality, can also give the illusion of signaling where there is none. This suggests that the violation of the CHSH Bell inequality, and the puzzling no-signaling violation in the CHSH Bell experiment may be explained by hidden variables based on forecasts as well.
Category: Quantum Physics

[82] viXra:1606.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-10 12:42:00

A Light, Neutral Boson with a Mass of 18.4 MeV as the Binder of the Second Composite Higgs Boson with a Mass of 742 GeV or/and 750 GeV and the Tetraneutron

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), which describes the phase transitions of the inflation/Higgs field, we show that a light, neutral boson with a mass of 18.4 MeV that consists of four entangled parts (theory of neutrinos described within SST shows that there is valid the four-object symmetry), is the binder/precursor of the second Higgs boson with a mass of 742 GeV or/and 750 GeV. The ATOMKI group has adequate equipment to detect the light, neutral boson with a mass of about 18.4 MeV whereas the LHC experiments can show which one of the two possible mass states of the second composite Higgs boson dominates. The four-object symmetry and the atom-like structure of baryons lead to the resonant tetraneutron state and to the internal structure of the neutron stars/black-holes.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[81] viXra:1606.0095 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-12 10:53:26

On The Methodological Profile of GSR Studies in the light of the Recent Advances Obtained in the Knowledge of Its Neurological Correlates

Authors: Rich Norman, Cengiz Mordeniz, Leonardo Mendolicchio, Enrico Pierangeli, Paolo Pannarale, Franco Orsucci, Elio Conte
Comments: 19 Pages.

The primary focus of this report is to advance in depth study of the neurological correlates of GSR with the intention, on one hand, to clarify the neurological patterns produced during recording, monitoring and analysis of GSR, and on the other hand, to delineate the methodological profile that absolutely must be followed during the recording of this GSR signal. In this context, the present relation formulates the methodological criteria that the operator must follow during the recording, monitoring, and analysis of the GSR signal. The relation defines and prioritizes GSR signal evaluation under these different conditions: the GSR should be recorded at rest and affected by different stimuli, specifically: visual stimuli such as sudden bursts of light as well as images modified to create multi-level energetic allocations, that is, soft images but also more potent images able to induce strong visual perturbation, linguistic stimuli including words and phrases across a spectrum of energetic/affective presentation (neutral, soft, strong and shocking), tactile stimuli (again soft, sudden, and of short duration as well as strong, shocking and continued [of consistent duration]), addressing different parts of the body throughout the session. Auditory stimulus and olfactory stimulus will be included in the test procedures. All the stimuli may be repeated several times in order to evaluate habituation, memory, recall and other important neurological functions. Other stimuli may be used to foster memory load and stress, as well as conflicting semantic stimuli, respectively, to be represented in resultant numerical calculations reflecting mental performance, evidenced through Stroop effects, and every other cognitive demonstration. It is important to keep in mind that the most difficult step in maintaining accurate GSR monitoring and analysis, is to insure proper subjective evaluation of the manner in which a subject responds to different levels of visual input, sounds, words, language strings (phrases) and tactile stimuli, in the context of habituation, meaning, the performance of subject response to repeated identical subsequent stimuli, or mnemic recall of previous stimuli. For proper evaluation of subjective parameters, that is calibration, it is necessary the explore a great variety of stimuli differentiated as previously described. The term calibration here refers to the fact that each subject has a subjective behavioral component in their GSR. Therefore, it becomes of fundamental importance to identify and estimate the basic parameters in his/her personal context in absolute values as well as in relation to standards, eventually established, tabulated and recorded from normal subjects constituting a large GSR database obtained by monitoring a suitable population of subjects. Consequently, the various responses to a defined stimuli have a particular, fundamental role in GSR monitoring that relates to the methodological profile since, under different conditions of stimulus, the operator may calibrate the recorded GSR subjective profile in terms of the basic parameters derived across population that characterize the phase of the GSR signal, such as Habituation, Latency Time under stimuli, Reaction Times, Peak Values subsequent to stimuli, Half Recovery Time following the peak amplitude of the phase, yielding a baseline value resultant of different stimuli, within the neurological correlates identified across a sampled population, allowing a correct, relative subjective analysis of the tone and of the phase of the GSR signal by Linear and Non Linear methodologies. Toward this end it is important to recall that GSR is an intrinsically non linear electrophysiological signal. Therefore its recording enables subsequent analysis based from one side on the fixation and estimation of basic established parameters such as latency, reaction times, peak amplitude, half recovery time, baseline compared at rest and after various stimuli as specified, and from the other, relating that baseline to aspects of the time series for the tone and phase of each subject subjected to analysis by non linear methodologies. In this way we may ascertain the real inner structure of the complex electrophysiological signal.
Category: Mind Science

[80] viXra:1606.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-10 07:42:21

Kings’ Dirty Operation: Concise Memos of My Cooperation with the CIA and Illuminati's Hell

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi, Barack Obama
Comments: 134 Pages.

It’s a concise part of my cooperation with the White House and the Central Intelligence Agency and Human Rights Watch. I have been all around the Globe. I have stayed in Russia; places so cold that your very bones inside of you shriek. Deep down inside the underground city, where you ask yourself “How is it possible for satellites with their warheads to track me here?” I remember that it was many months ago when I informed the US President, I would like to write a book. It's a great pleasure that I received a note by Bill Gates and I included the note here in this work. What follows is a concise part of some private communications and what we did behind the closed doors to change the course of the world! Kings’ Dirty Operation is introduced with a foreword by President Barack Obama.
Category: Social Science

[79] viXra:1606.0093 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-10 15:00:46

On the Unification of the Constants of Nature

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 4 Pages.

A short essay that unifies electromagnetism and gravity with a 5−D system of natural units.
Category: Quantum Physics

[78] viXra:1606.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 20:19:58

The Power of DaYan—The Application of Dayan Matrix《威哉,大衍!》

Authors: Shi-YuangDong
Comments: 134 Pages.

The Power of DaYan—The Application of DaYan Matrix《威哉,大衍!》 Author:Shi-YuangDong/ The article on the 《Outline of Algorithm in Mathematics数术大略》./ 我于2015 年 5月就已经完成了对秦九韶《数术大略》的解读,写了一些文章,集合成论文集《威哉,大衍!》,在此基础上又进一步完成了对秦九韶《数术大略》的全面的校勘工作。 这本论文集也联系过几个出版社,无果。现决定发表于此,免得埋没。
Category: General Mathematics

[77] viXra:1606.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 20:43:28

On the Method of Regulating the Day-Ratio“调日法”分析-石远东

Authors: Shi-YuangDong
Comments: 61 Pages.

On The Method of Regulating the Day-ratio“调日法”分析-石远东 Comments: 60 Pages. Category: General Mathematics Abstract: The method for regulating the day-ratio(调日法)is a fraction approximation one applied in astronomy in ancient China. We have study the original article by He-ChengTian, Li-Rui, Qin-JiuShao, and Chen-JiuJin, and got the essence of the method for regulating the day-ratio. 摘要:调日法是中国古代长期用于天文历算的一种分数近似法,本文分析了何承天,李锐,秦九韶,陈久金关于调日法的论述,以揭示调日法的本质。
Category: General Mathematics

[76] viXra:1606.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 23:29:20

1.Complete Recursive Sub-Sets Found To Exhaustion Of A Set 2.The Example Of The Same Explaining The Quantization Scheme Of Any Universal Natural Manifestation In Holisticness (New)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the theory of ‘Complete Recursive Sub-Sets Found To Exhaustion Of A Set’ with ‘The Example Of The Same Explaining The Quantization Scheme Of Any Universal Natural Manifestation In Holisticness’.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[75] viXra:1606.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 13:43:39

Necessary Conditions for Any Number to be Expressed as Difference of 4th Powers of 2 Natural Numbers

Authors: Hitesh Jain
Comments: 4 Pages.

To find out necessary conditions for any number to be expressed as difference of 4th powers of 2 natural numbers and maximum number of ways.
Category: Number Theory

[74] viXra:1606.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 06:33:15

Generation Of The Entire Elements Of A Field Given Three Elements Of It

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a ‘Scheme to Generate The Entire Elements Of A Field Given Three Elements Of It’.
Category: General Mathematics

[73] viXra:1606.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 06:42:55

1. Complete Recursive Sub-Sets Found To Exhaustion Of A Set 2.The Example Of The Same Explaining The Quantization Scheme Of Any Universal Natural Manifestation In Holisticness

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the theory of ‘Complete Recursive Sub-Sets Found To Exhaustion Of A Set’ with ‘The Example Of The Same Explaining The Quantization Scheme Of Any Universal Natural Manifestation In Holisticness’.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[72] viXra:1606.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 12:31:59

New Method to Get the Kochen-Specker Theorem

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 17 pages

We derive new type of no-hidden-variables theorem based on the assumptions proposed by Kochen and Specker. We consider $N$ spin-1/2 systems. The hidden results of measurement are either $+1$ or $-1$ (in $\hbar/2$ unit). We derive some proposition concerning a quantum expected value under an assumption about the existence of the Bloch sphere in $N$ spin-1/2 systems. However, the hidden variables theory violates the proposition with a magnitude that grows exponentially with the number of particles. Therefore, we have to give up either the existence of the Bloch sphere or the hidden variables theory. Also we discuss two-dimensional no-hidden-variables theorem of the KS type. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data in a thoughtful experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[71] viXra:1606.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 13:20:38

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 9 Pages.

The defect of the early string theory. A hadron of mass zero. The quark which came close. The theory was not able to explain the state. Quark A and quark B. The vibration of the same thing. Both are not separate existence. A matter wave holds a quark. A matter wave lets a quark vibrate. A matter wave is elastic body. One quark turns into quark A, quark B, quark C. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is three-dimensional space. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is film space. The mass of the hadron is zero in that. All the mass becomes the light in that.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[70] viXra:1606.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-08 16:13:33

The Origin of the X-Boson with a Mass of 16.70(85) MeV Discovered by the ATOMKI Group

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The ATOMKI group discovered the X-vector-boson with a mass of 16.70(85) MeV in the decays of highly excited nuclei. Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of such light, neutral boson. We show that the sum of the nuclear weak mass of a pair of Einstein-spacetime condensates produced by nucleons and the mass of electron-positron pair is 16.904 MeV (these two pairs can interact due to the confinement or quantum entanglement described within SST) - this value is consistent with ATOMKI data. We should modify the Standard Model by incorporating the SST.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[69] viXra:1606.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 02:07:11

Entropy Function for the Teleparallel Kaluza-Klein Reduction

Authors: Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu
Comments: 7 Pages. Int. J. Therm. 19(2), 102-108, (2016).

This work is devoted to examine the galactic behavior of entropy by checking the validity of thermodynamics laws for the teleparallel reduction of Kaluza-Klein theory in thermal equilibrium state. We assume a flat Friedmann- Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker type space-time model in which dark matter is interacting with dark energy. With this scenario, calculating the variation of galactic entropy function for each dark component and for the dynamical apparent horizon itself, we prove that the laws of thermodynamics are independent of the specific interaction term and dependent of the selected Kaluza-Klein model. Finally, some limiting conditions and their implications have been presented.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[68] viXra:1606.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 03:22:49

A Figure of Atomic Nucleus Structure and the Nuclear Force

Authors: Terubumi Honjo
Comments: 9 Pages.

The proton releases an electron and turns into a neutron. The neutron absorbs an electron and turns into a proton. Both are the same elementary particles varying in a pulsatile timing. * A neutron is combined with a pulsating proton by nuclear force. * A proton and the neutron pulsate.  The crest and the valley of wave.  The valley and the valley. * When both came into contact, nuclear force acts. * The nuclear force is a compression power from dark energy. * A proton and the neutron look different in a pulsatile timing in the same elementary particle. * When both the proton and the neutron are even number units, it is boson. * When both the proton and the neutron are an odd number unit, it is fermion. * A proton and neutrons pulsate in 4-dimensions space. The mass is zero. By a wave trip. * The valley of the ripple due to the pulsation of the nucleon is an orbit, and the electron goes around the orbit. A proton and a neutron, the electron are existing particles. * The elementary particle pulsation principle describes a nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism power integrally.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[67] viXra:1606.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 04:02:07

Information and Conditional Probability to go Beyond Hidden Variables

Authors: Koji Nagata, Germano Resconi, Tadao Nakamura, Han Geurdes
Comments: 6 pages

We study the relation between the possibility of describing quantum correlation with hidden variables and the existence of the Bloch sphere. We derive some proposition concerning a quantum expected value under an assumption about the existence of the Bloch sphere in $N$ spin-1/2 systems. However, the hidden variables theory violates the proposition with a magnitude that grows exponentially with the number of particles. Therefore, we have to give up either the existence of the Bloch sphere or the hidden variables theory. We show that the introduction of curved information and the continuity equation of probability is in agreement with classical quantum mechanics. So we give up the hidden variable theory as local theory and we accept the Bloch sphere as global theory connected with the information space.
Category: Quantum Physics

[66] viXra:1606.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-08 13:21:34

The Forces of Matter are Memories of Symmetry

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 2 Pages.

The charges and forces of matter are characterized as "memories" of a former primordial state of energetic symmetry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] viXra:1606.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-08 09:27:43

A.A.A.S. Conference: “2nd Law Challenges” University of San Diego 2016, Maxwell Demons by Phase Transitions Severing the Link Between Physics and Information Theory

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 33 Pages. 1st draft

The search for new power sources has increasingly challenged the second law of thermodynamics; one such cycle is presented herein with both experimental and rigorous theoretical underpinnings. These analyses, both kinetic and thermodynamic inevitably lead to the Maxwell Demon problem. It is clear that, against the Szilard-Brillouin-Landauer argument, that phase transition processes in conjunction with the cycle and apparatus requires no molecular information to be kept, negating the argument and need that the demon’s entropy change by 1/2kTln 2 per molecule processed. The Demon was thought to bring Information into the fold of Physics. We ask the question, if all computing can be made reversible by heat recovery and furthermore, if the speed of information appears not to be limited by Relativity, due to the author’s protocol to send classical data over an entangled Bell Channel, if the Landauer maxim, “Information is Physical”, is entirely true?
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[64] viXra:1606.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-06 12:48:02

Sixty Years of Gas Flaring in Nigeria: Science and Policy

Authors: Uyiosa Omoregie
Comments: 7 Pages.

Pollution from gas flaring is an urgent problem in some parts of the world. This is especially the case in Nigeria where associated gas has been flared for 60 years. Nigeria contains the largest natural gas reserves in Africa and produces more oil than any other country in Africa. Nigeria also ranks as the fourth-largest gas-flaring nation in the world. The petroleum sector in Nigeria contributes a large portion of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, in Nigeria. Several studies have discovered deleterious impact of gas flaring on ecosystems of host communities. By now, gas flaring should be considered as vestige from the past, because the technology exist to control it. However, gas utilization projects have become more common in Nigeria, they provide hope for the cessation of gas flaring. Gas flaring is continually getting more attention in intergovernmental organizations. The World Bank aims to end routine gas flaring at oil production sites in the world by 2030. Governments, oil companies, and development institutions around the world are encouraged by the World Bank to endorse the “Zero Routine Flaring by 2030” Initiative.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[63] viXra:1606.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 17:38:15

The Principle of Heat Evolution in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle is presented to explain stellar evolution/planet formation in reference to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[62] viXra:1606.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 19:53:07

An Algorithm for Solving the Graph Isomorphism Problem

Authors: Lucas Allen
Comments: English, 9 pages, matrix equations and examples

This article presents an algorithm for solving the graph isomorphism problem. Under certain circumstances the algorithm is definitely polynomial time, and it could possibly always be polynomial time, but that hasn't been verified. The algorithm also hasn't been tested on graphs with more than three nodes, nor has it been reviewed by anyone so far.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[61] viXra:1606.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-08 03:09:51

Grazing Protons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[60] viXra:1606.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 11:02:32

A Method to Show there Are Infintely Many Twin Primes

Authors: William R. Blickos
Comments: 7 Pages.

Surfaces representing the primes and composites, the upper twin prime, the difference between squares, and the relations among them, are used to select input for a quadratic in such a way as to always generate a Twin Prime. Because each input generates a unique Twin, and because the input set is infinite, there are infinitely many twin primes.
Category: Number Theory

[59] viXra:1606.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 11:41:33

Optical Quantum Technologies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[58] viXra:1606.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 12:43:20

[tlnomiva] : Transmission Line Nominal Values without Tolerance - from Cable Specifications and Technical Data Sheets : FLOSS for MS Windows

Authors: N. I. Yannopoulou, P. E. Zimourtopoulos
Comments: 30 Pages. FunkTechnikPlus # Journal, Issue 10 - Year 3, 31 May 2016, v1, 7-36, otoiser ftp#j

[[tlnomiva] is a visual software application developed by the authors for a transmission line characterization from the user's point of view. The numerical computations are based on the precise formulation within the distributed circuit coefficients model of a transmission line, which was theoretically developed by the authors and published in a previous paper. The use of [tlnomiva] is fully demonstrated by an example for the popular RG 214 coaxial cable. This application is Free Libre Open Source Software and provides an option for more detailed figures by calling the executable of the freely distributed source [wgnuplot].
Category: Classical Physics

[57] viXra:1606.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 05:55:41

Convection Magnetic Currents? \\ Конвекционные магнитные токи?

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

It proposed an experiment that could prove the existence of convection magnetic currents \\ Предлагается эксперимент, который мог бы доказать существование конвекционных магнитных токов
Category: Classical Physics

[56] viXra:1606.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-06 18:20:22

Why Crossing Speed of Light is not Possible, Vacuum, Energy, Mass Equivalence Theory

Authors: Misam Abidi
Comments: 2 Pages.

This Theory sheds light on a fundamental misunderstanding of the "states of the universe" what they are and what factors define them. This correction not only fixes the mathematical misunderstandings of infinities, it also signals toward splendid implications of these findings that I will be expressing in more detail in the next postings.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[55] viXra:1606.0065 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-23 16:36:01

The Real Parts of the Nontrivial Riemann Zeta Function Zeros

Authors: Igor Turkanov
Comments: 19 Pages.

This theorem is based on holomorphy of studied functions and the fact that nearby of a singularity point the imaginary part of the specific function can accept zero value.
Category: Number Theory

[54] viXra:1606.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 00:48:21

Outline of Algorithm in Mathematics《数术大略》

Authors: Shi-YuanDong
Comments: 284 Pages.

Outline of Algorithm in Mathematics《数术大略》 Author:[Song]Qin-JiuShao(1247) 秦九韶[Emendator:Shi-YuanDong石远东] Comments: 284 Pages. Category: General Mathematics 目录Contents 石远东序Preface by Shi-YuanDong 秦九韶序Preface by Qin-JiuShao Chapter 1. 大衍类DaYanShu(Indeterminate Analysis) Chapter 2. 天时类Astronomic, Calendar, Weather Chapter 3. 田域类Area of Cropland Chapter 4. 测望类Survey Chapter 5. 赋役类Taxation and Levies of Labor Chapter 6. 钱谷类Money and Rice Chapter 7. 营建类Buildings and Fortifications Chapter 8. 军旅类Military Affairs Chapter 9. 市易类Price and Accrual Qin-JiuShao Qin-JiuShao (秦九韶, 1208–1268), courtesy name: DaoGu (道古). Qin-JiuShao was born in AnYue, SiChuan province(普州,四川省安岳), his family came from ShanDong province(鲁郡). His work is the ShùShùDàLüè《数术大略》(Outline of Algorithm in Mathematics,1247); It’s called ShùXuéJiǔZhānɡ《数学九章》in SìKùQuánShū《四库全书》; and now, everyone know It’s called ShùShūJiǔZhānɡ《数书九章》. This treatise covered a variety of topics including indeterminate equations and the numerical solution of certain polynomial equations up to 10th order, as well as discussions on military matters and surveying. In the treatise Qin-JiuShao included a general form of the Chinese remainder theorem that used DaYanShu (大衍术) or algorithms to solve it. In geometry, he discovered “Qin-JiuShao's formula” for finding the area of a triangle from the given lengths of three sides. This formula is the same as Heron’s formula, proved by Heron of Alexandria about 60 BC, though knowledge of the formula may go back to Archimedes.
Category: General Mathematics

[53] viXra:1606.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 02:16:39

Quantum Enigma Machine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[52] viXra:1606.0062 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-07 10:22:20

Does a Classical Probability Space for Two-Dimensional Quantum Measurement Theory Exist?

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 4 pages

Recently, a new measurement theory based on the truth values is proposed \cite{NN1}. The results of measurements are either 0 or 1. The measurement theory accepts a hidden variables model for a single Pauli observable. Therefore we can introduce a classical probability space for the measurement theory in this case. On the other hand, we discuss the fact that the projective measurement theory (the results of measurements are either $+1$ or $-1$) does not meet a hidden variables model for a single Pauli observable. Hence we cannot introduce a classical probability space for the projective measurement theory in this case. Our discussion provides new insight to formulate quantum measurement theory, by using the measurement theory based on the truth values.
Category: Quantum Physics

[51] viXra:1606.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-06 15:38:04

Relevance of Infrared Divergences to D-energy

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Is infrared divergence irrelevent to D-energy?
Category: Mathematical Physics

[50] viXra:1606.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-06 08:42:44

Mathematical Formulas : Part 2

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 13 Pages.

Some formulas related with the constant pi
Category: General Mathematics

[49] viXra:1606.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-06 10:25:07

Annihilating -H Dark Matter: Spiral Galaxies Holes. Doubling -Z Dark Matter: Spiral Galaxies "Bars"

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: We have associated central spiral galaxies as galactic locations where -H dark matter annihilates and -Z dark matter doubles, producing a net energy change of H-Z plus -H-Z. This is normal annihilating action and produces 2 gamma rays of 34 GEV each. We identify the central black hole with annihilation and the bar with double -Z production.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[48] viXra:1606.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-06 06:37:02

Relative Metric And Field Generation Based On The Same With An Example Of The Universal Field {Version Two}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the notion of ‘Relative Metric And Field Generation Based On The Same’.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[47] viXra:1606.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-06 07:25:18

A Wake-up Call for Politicians: Regulate the Sciences.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 4 Pages.

This is a short manifest aimed towards politicians to properly regulate the sciences in the interest of society.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[46] viXra:1606.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-05 18:58:56

On the Truly Marvellous Proof of Fermat

Authors: Clive Jones
Comments: 2 Pages.

An attempt to recreate the missing margin proof of Pierre de Fermat
Category: General Mathematics

[45] viXra:1606.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-05 19:54:10

A Pulsation Hypothesis Leads a Standard Model Including the Gravity.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 19 Pages.

A pulsation hypothesis leads a standard model including the gravity. (unified field theory) (A string theory of the elementary particle size.) The standard model (unified field theory) of the elementary particle is considered to be the best terminus ad quem of the theoretical physics now. However, it is not an ultimate theory. (1) Gravitational action is not included in this model. Gravity have a deep connection with structure of time, the space. Gravity must be included in an ultimate theory. (2) I cannot extrapolate a theory to a micro-limit as far as I use the prescription of filing. When I am going to raise the resolution of a monitor projecting a physical phenomenon endlessly, a theory fails somewhere. (3) A supposition without some grounds is included in a standard model. It is said that an electron and the electric charge of the quark make the close integer ratio. It is totally unknown why it becomes the integer ratio. (4) The superstring theory hides the possibility that I can solve all these three problems. However, the conclusive evidence that a theory is fair is not yet obtained, and the inspection by the experiment is considered to be impossibility. The hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle. The pulsation principle includes all of concepts of the standard theory. I cancel all of above problems. (1) I discovered four-dimensional space. I discovered dark energy and dark matter of mystery in the 4-dimensional space. (2)I express mean density of the dark energy as the horizon of energy zero and describe the horizon as unification ground to include all places. The standard model describes quark ground, lepton ground, Higgs place, a gauge field separately. I express it at one place. (3)The dark energy is thin energy to meet vacuum space of the space. The energy triggers repulsion each other and lets you maintain energy density uniformly. It is equivalent with the concept of the standard model saying that it is the aggregate of a minute spring endlessly. (4)I catch a wave of the dark energy as a material wave described by Schrodinger equation and describe nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism as action of the material wave. I explain the gravity that a standard model was not able to include naturally and include it. I describe differences between gravity and vast po4) (5)The Cal czar Kleine theory standardized gravity and electromagnetic willpower mathematically. Four dimensions of unified field theory of Einstein needs space. However, it was not found. The pulsation principle discovers the four-dimensional space and aims at the unified field theory of Einstein. (6)"The prescription of filing" is unnecessary on the pulsation principle. When "the infinity" calculates an equation of the standard theory, it appears by all means. "The prescription of filing" replaces infinite numerical value with the mass of the particle to handle infinity. It is said that it is a result to treat an elementary particle as a point without the size. (7)"The microdomain theory of Dr. Yukawa" is one case. Means to keep size in an elementary particle, and to evade infinity. It is a longtime problem. (8)The elementary particle pulsation principle solves the problem. (9)The pulsating elementary particle has size intermittently. The elementary particle has mass in "a particle trip and a minus number particle trip". All of mass of the elementary particle converts it into energy (light). "A wave trip." The elementary particle becomes the point that does not have size in the three-dimensional space. It evades infinite contradiction. (10)The pulsating elementary particle continues emitting a material wave as a pulsatile ripple in the neighborhood. The standard theory calculates "modulus" squared of the material wave. It is the existence probability of the particle. It calculates only equilateral energy. The numerical value becomes infinite. The elementary particle pulsation principle, In pulsation of 1 cycle, the total of the energy of the positive and negative becomes zero. The energy grand total includes a symmetry to become zero. Therefore infinity does not occur and does not need prescription of filing.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] viXra:1606.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-06 02:45:43

Produce-Consumer

Authors: Mjgat.Jatj
Comments: 1 Page.

produce-consumer is much more
Category: Social Science

[43] viXra:1606.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-05 13:16:17

Bellman’s Escape Problem for Convex Polygons

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28270.61767

Bellman’s challenge to find the shortest path to escape from a forest of known shape is notoriously difficult. Apart from a few of the simplest cases, there are not even many conjectures for likely solutions let alone proofs. In this work it is shown that when the forest is a convex polygon then at least one shortest escape path is a piecewise curve made from segments taking the form of either straight lines or circular arcs. The circular arcs are formed from the envelope of three sides of the polygon touching the escape path at three points. It is hoped that in future work these results could lead to a practical computational algorithm for finding the shortest escape path for any convex polygon.
Category: Geometry

[42] viXra:1606.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-05 13:45:33

A Spin and Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 12 Pages.

A spin and elementary particle pulsation principle. * The particle process is equal with a half-integer spin. The minus number particle process is equal with a half-integer spin. The wave process is equal with an integer spin. * An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.  Pulsatile particle trip and a half-integer spin 1/2 are equal to the fermion such as an electron, a proton, a neutron, a positron, the quark. The mass is m>0. * Wave trip and spin 2/2 are the same as BOSE particle. The mass is m=0. The speed is light C. * Difference in pulsatile trip is a difference of the spins (an integer and half-integer). Both are differences of the timings. The action is a large difference.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[41] viXra:1606.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-05 04:19:38

Oppenheimer's Transformation Law

Authors: StephenJehucal@web.de
Comments: 4 Pages.

The future of communal settlements is discussed, in terms of economic calculation models.
Category: Social Science

[40] viXra:1606.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-05 05:38:02

Divergence-Free Vector Gauge Field Theory

Authors: N.S. Baaklini
Comments: 9 pages, 21 equations, 10 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques, with powerful implementation of the principle of gauge covariance, to the theory of non-Abelian (Yang-Mills) gauge field theory. This describes the self interactions of a massless vector field. Results of two-loop computations are given demonstrating the simplicity and the viability of the underlying framework.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[39] viXra:1606.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 13:11:40

The Accretion Principle of Planet Formation and Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle is provided to explain accretion in astrophysics according to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[38] viXra:1606.0045 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-04 11:14:06

Kochen-Specker Theorem in Almost All the Two-Dimensional States

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 3 pages

We present the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem in almost all the two-dimensional states. We consider whether we can simulate the double-slit experiment in a state by a realistic theory of the KS type. It turns out that we cannot simulate the double-slit experiment in almost all the states by a realistic theory of the KS type. An exception is an eigenvector of a measured Pauli observable.
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:1606.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 08:26:50

Data Storage with Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[36] viXra:1606.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 09:36:13

Electron Model in Complex Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

University of Milan have experimentally confirmed a model to detect electron delocalization in molecules and crystals. [12] A unique rapid-fire electron source—originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers—is helping scientists at the) study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale. This could provide new insight in how to make materials with custom, controllable properties and improve the efficiency and output of chemical reactions. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[35] viXra:1606.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 04:13:53

Plasma Tube at SLAC

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team led by scientists from the University of California, Los Angeles and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has reached another milestone in developing a promising technology for accelerating particles to high energies in short distances: They created a tiny tube of hot, ionized gas, or plasma, in which the particles remain tightly focused as they fly through it. [15] Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[34] viXra:1606.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 05:04:39

Surface Plasmons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Leiden physicists describe a new method to measure so-called surface plasmons, which could lead to new light-based technologies, including faster internet. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[33] viXra:1606.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 07:00:01

Relative Metric And Field Generation Based On The Same With An Example Of The Universal Field

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the notion of ‘Relative Metric And Field Generation Based On The Same’.
Category: General Mathematics

[32] viXra:1606.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 15:33:43

The Michelson Fallacy

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new cognitive bias/fallacy is given definition so that it can be spotted in the future based on the author’s experience with sharing a new understanding of nature.
Category: Social Science

[31] viXra:1606.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 23:03:41

Relative Metric And Field Generation Based On The Same. An Example Of The Universal Field

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the notion of ‘Relative Metric And Field Generation Based On The Same’.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[30] viXra:1606.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 03:19:34

Skyrmions for IT

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Magnetic vortices-so-called skyrmions-were predicted theoretically more than 25 years ago, but it has only been possible to observe them experimentally in magnetic materials in recent years. Skyrmions are stable, can have a diameter of just a few nanometers, and can be moved efficiently by electrical currents. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[29] viXra:1606.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 11:14:27

Is There An Abstract Wave Function?

Authors: Nguyen Dinh Dung
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper gives a hypothesis about state and a formulation about quantum system. This formulation has no inside conflict, needn’t any abstract boundary and can connect state with reality. Its calculation consists with orthodox theory (OQM). It is used to explain double slits experiment and Stern-Gerlach experiment. Paper also shows a case, in which, this formulation and OQM give different result.
Category: Quantum Physics

[28] viXra:1606.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 12:29:14

Logical Treatment for the Oscillatory Sequence 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, 1, 2,.. to Find Any Term and a Computer Program to Assist the Operation

Authors: Damodar Rajbhandari
Comments: 5 Pages. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

This paper's aim is to tackle any oscillatory sequence in a new way. I introduced a new method to find any term of the specific sequence given on a title. This method not only focus for that problem, but also can apply in such a sequence whose terms are repeated after some period.
Category: General Mathematics

[27] viXra:1606.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 12:55:59

A Binomial Theorem to Derive the Taylor Expansion in One Variable

Authors: Damodar Rajbhandari
Comments: 7 Pages. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

In this article, I presented the proved of Taylor expansion in one variable by the concept of binomial theorem, Taylor series concepts in curves and an expository piece on the asymptote of an algebraic curves as an example of this expansion.
Category: General Mathematics

[26] viXra:1606.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 13:15:34

Unidentified End of Universe

Authors: Damodar Rajbhandari
Comments: 2 Pages. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

In this article, I want to elaborate my own ideas and views, that was electrify my trillion of neurons and popped up into my mind.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[25] viXra:1606.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 09:12:14

Quantum Speed Limits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In order to determine how fast quantum technologies can ultimately operate, physicists have established the concept of "quantum speed limits." Quantum speed limits impose limitations on how fast a quantum system can transition from one state to another, so that such a transition requires a minimum amount of time (typically on the order of nanoseconds). This means, for example, that a future quantum computer will not be able to perform computations faster than a certain time determined by these limits. [15] Quantum photonic researchers start new company, Sparrow Quantum. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:1606.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 04:03:44

Spinon Control Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[23] viXra:1606.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-01 07:21:50

Mechanisms that Keep Reality Coherent

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 6 Pages.

Quantum physics applies Hilbert spaces as the realm in which quantum physical research is done. However, the Hilbert spaces contain nothing that prevents universe from turning into complete chaos. Quantum physics requires extra mechanisms that ensure sufficient coherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1606.0027 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-04 15:06:45

De Mechanismen Die de Realiteit Coherent Houden

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages.

De kwantumnatuurkunde gebruikt Hilbertruimten als het kader waarin kwantum fysisch onderzoek gedaan wordt. De Hilbertruimte bevat echter niets wat er voor zorgt dat niet alles snel in een chaos belandt. Kwantumfysica heeft extra mechanismen nodig die ervoor zorgen dat het universum zijn samenhang behoudt.
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1606.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-02 18:08:01

About EEG-Features in Cases with Brain Tumors in the Area of the 3-rd Ventricle and a Clinical Picture Characterized by Pronounced Somnolence. Об изменениях ЭЭГ при опухолях в области 3-го желудочка, сопровождающихся гиперсомническим синдромом.

Authors: D.G. Shmelekin. R.D. Shmelekina.
Comments: 2 Pages. 1

: In the majority of patients with brain tumors in the area of the third ventricle and a clinical picture characterized by pronounced somnolence, the background EEG showed, along with typical delta-waves, the spindle-shaped theta-activity in the form of bilaterally synchronized bursts. It was most prominent on the parietal leads. This activity increased sharply during sleep and in the state of sopor. This data may be of interest in relation to the problem of sleep pathophysiology. It is suggested that the presence of such activity in combination with delta-waves may be a bad prognostic sign for the patients with tumors in the area of the third ventricle. : In the majority of patients with brain tumors in the area of the third ventricle and a clinical picture characterized by pronounced somnolence, the background EEG showed, along with typical delta-waves, the spindle-shaped theta-activity in the form of bilaterally synchronized bursts. It was most prominent on the parietal leads. This activity increased sharply during sleep and in the state of sopor. This data may be of interest in relation to the problem of sleep pathophysiology and pathology. It is suggested that the presence of such activity in combination with delta-waves may be a bad prognostic sign for the patients with tumors in the area of the third ventricle. : In the majority of patients with brain tumors in the area of the third ventricle and a clinical picture characterized by pronounced somnolence, the background EEG showed, along with typical delta-waves, the spindle-shaped theta-activity in the form of bilaterally synchronized bursts. It was most prominent on the parietal leads. This activity increased sharply during sleep and in the state of sopor. This data may be of interest in relation to the problem of sleep pathophysiology. It is suggested that the presence of such activity in combination with delta-waves may be a bad prognostic sign for the patients with tumors in the area of the third ventricle.
Category: Mind Science

[20] viXra:1606.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 00:26:00

Direct Detection of Cosmic Neutrino Background is Impossible, Because there is no Such Thing as Cosmic Singularity

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 4 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal

According to standard cosmology, neutrinos should be the most abundant particles in the Universe, after CMB photons. The CMB neutrino is the oldest relic, present since BBN era. However, in the past 5 decades or so, attempts to directly detect Cosmic Neutrino Background have never been succeeded. Taking into considerations two other findings in recent years: (a) Earth Microwave Background by P-M. Robitaille, and (b) theories which suggest that cosmic singularity can be removed; then I submit the following hypothesis: Direct detection of Cosmic Neutrino Background is impossible because there is no such thing as Cosmic Singularity. In other words, we come to conclusion that Big Bang Standard Cosmology fails completely.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1606.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 03:45:30

Global Quantum Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

You can't sign up for the quantum internet just yet, but researchers have reported a major experimental milestone towards building a global quantum network-and it's happening in space. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1606.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-02 10:44:58

Philosophical Libellus on Matching Descriptions

Authors: Tozzi A, Peters JF
Comments: 9 Pages.

This is about beings and principles. Topology, the mathematical branch that assesses objects and their properties preserved through deformations, stretching and twisting, allows the investigation of the most general systems features. In particular, the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT) states that, if a single point projects to a higher spatial dimension, it gives rise to two antipodal points with matching description. Physical and biological counterparts of BUT and its variants allow a philosophical inquiry of world and events. The opportunity to treat systems as topological structures makes BUT a universal principle underlying natural and artificial phenomena. Here we focus on Universe development and brain function.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[17] viXra:1606.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-17 05:49:27

Extended Call to Repel the Physical Theories of the 20th Century

Authors: Peter Sujak
Comments: 30 Pages. Extended author's paper published at Journal of Physical Mathematics 2016, Vol 7 Iss 4

In this paper, which is author’s extended published paper [32], the substance of gravity and inertial forces is debunked. The substance of mass is recovered. The nature of time in physics is revealed. The reality of the double-slit experiment is revealed. This paper shows that Quarks and Higgs boson hardly exist. This paper documents that, for past four hundred years, there is no distinguished physicist who would not have recognized the existence of the ether. It shows that filling the space of the Universe with swirl-ing ether is all that is needed for the self-evolution of the Universe. It further provides an overview of the opposition of the physicists against the mainstream physical image of the world for the past hundred years. And finally, it documents the basic historical, philosophical and physical reasons for denial of the main physical theories of the 20th century.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1606.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-02 08:36:05

Polarized Positron Beams

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15] viXra:1606.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-02 04:39:37

Nuclear Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14] viXra:1606.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-02 06:14:07

Universal Sequence Of Primes Of Any Positive Integral Order Space

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a ‘‘Universal Sequence Of Primes Of Rth Order Space’ Finding Algorithm’.
Category: General Mathematics

[13] viXra:1606.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-02 07:14:33

A Proof of the Existence of God from the Existence of Rational Thought About Nature.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 2 Pages.

We show the existence of God from the possibility of rational thought about nature.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[12] viXra:1606.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 13:34:29

Lattice Quantum Geometry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

The geometry and topology of electronic states in solids plays a central role in a wide range of modern condensed-matter systems including graphene or topological insulators. However, experimentally accessing this information has proven to be challenging, especially when the bands are not well-isolated from one another. As reported in last week's issue of Science, an international team of researchers has devised a straightforward method to probe the band geometry using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1606.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 13:55:31

The Death of the Nebular Hypothesis and Replacement with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is referenced that the nebular hypothesis was never actually invented to explain planet formation. It was used to try and place entire galaxies as local phenomenon (birthing solar systems) and keep the Milky Way as the entire universe. In this paper it is shown that not only is that hypothesis incorrect, but that it is effectively replaced as a means of planet formation and stellar evolution by the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1606.0013 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-02 09:01:48

A Comment on "Family Ruptures, Stress, and the Mental Health of the Next Generation"

Authors: Nicolas Bearbaki
Comments: 5 Pages.

Persson and Rossin-Slater (2016b) claim to be the first to credibly estimate causal effects of fetal stress exposure on mental health in later life. They emphasize that their analysis is the first to control for non-random exposure to a relative’s death and non-random gestation length. In light of discoveries regarding prior literature, we find these claims to be exaggerated and misleading.
Category: Social Science

[9] viXra:1606.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 09:57:13

On the Relationship Between Proton-Mass and Electron-Mass

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, I analysis the relationship between proton-mass and electron-mass. I point out that the mass difference is origin from the energy-mass relationship among difference spaces. I give the comprehensive formula to show this.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8] viXra:1606.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 10:30:59

Generalization of Equivalence Principle (Gep) ,einstein Looked with Half Closed Eyes to Reality

Authors: Mahgoub Salih
Comments: 14 Pages.

We generalized equivalence principle to connect between the field and its conjugate to find one single equation governed many equations in physics like Maxwell equations, Newton law, special and general relativity, schrodinger equation Klien Gordan equation, Dirac equation, mass energy equivalence,De Brogly relation and photo electric effect. It can be tested in many fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1606.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 11:54:19

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for Milky Way Which Depends on Gravitational Field

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 19 Pages. 19 pgs.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated it that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. Also were proposed several experimental test to check that theory. In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for Milky Way. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with NFW dark matter density profile below 15%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to NFW DM density profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. [4] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field. [5] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M31 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field and finally [7] Abarca, M.2016 A new Dark Matter Density Profile for Milky Way. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about rotational velocity depending on radius inside Milky Way galaxy. These data come from [8] Huang,Y.2016. In fourth chapter, it has been calculated and tabulated gravitational field through Virial theorem, which is a direct calculus having velocity data depending on radius. In this paper, dominion of gravitational E extends from 26 kpc to 100 kpc. In fifth epigraphs it has been tabulated data of NFW DM density profile published by [8] Huang, Y.2016. for Milky Way. In sixth epigraph has been fitted data of NFW DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is DM density = A• E^B .Where A= 5.1085837 •10^-7 and B= 1.568156686 being regression coefficient r= 0.9886366654 into I.S. of units. In seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and NFW profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are below 16% inside main part of dominion. In eighth epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region (26 to 100 kpc) where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r ^2•D.M Density and considering that Density of D.M = A•E^B then. M´(r) = 4Pi • r ^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula of D.M = A•E^B. In ninth epigraph Bernoulli and NFW DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 18% for radius lower than 70 kpc. This is a superb result, especially if it is considered that NFW profile come from calculus got through experimental data with important errors. In tenth epigraph are introduced a study of ancient and recent measures of local dark matter also it is calculated local dark matter through power of E formula. Finally it is concluded that the new one value of local dark matter is similar to local dark matter values published currently.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1606.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 07:43:26

A Higher Language for Mathematics.

Authors: johan Noldus
Comments: 4 Pages.

We extend the language of mathematics by generalizing the logical implication and negation. As such, our framework serves as an extension of intuitionistic logic.
Category: General Mathematics

[5] viXra:1606.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-16 09:20:24

Improvements to The Theory of Ultralogics - I.

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 8 Pages.

The major purpose for this article is to reestablish Theorem 9.3.1, for the EGS, with the modified Robinson approach and make other improvements in Section 9 of The Theory of Ultralogics (Herrmann, (1978-93, 1999)). Additionally, what constitutes a saturated enlargement is now fixed as of this date.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[4] viXra:1606.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 05:36:20

Universal Sequence Of Primes

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a ‘ Universal Sequence Of Primes Finding Algorithm’
Category: General Mathematics

[3] viXra:1606.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 01:36:43

Quantum Thermal Transistor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researchers have designed a quantum thermal transistor that can control heat currents, in analogy to the way in which an electronic transistor controls electric current. The thermal transistor could be used in applications that recycle waste heat that has been harvested from power stations and other energy systems. Currently, there are methods for transporting and guiding this heat, but not for controlling, amplifying, and switching the heat on and off, as the quantum thermal transistor can do. [15] Quantum photonic researchers start new company, Sparrow Quantum. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1606.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 03:00:17

Holographic Tachyon in Fractal Geometry

Authors: Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu
Comments: 11 Pages. Math. Comput. Appl. 21 (2016) 21; doi:10.3390/mca21020021

The search of a logical quantum gravity theory is one of the noteworthy issues in modern theoretical physics. It is known that most of the quantum gravity theories describe our universe as a dimensional flow. From this point of view, one can investigate whether and how these attractive properties are related with the ultraviolet-divergence problem. These important points motivated us to discuss the reconstruction of a scalar field problem in the fractal theory which is a well-known quantum theory of gravity. Making use of time-like fractal model and considering the holographic description of galactic dark energy, we implement a correspondence between the tachyon model of galactic dark energy effect and holographic energy. Such a connection gives us an opportunity to redefine the fractal dynamics of selected scalar field representation by considering the time-evolution of holographic energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1606.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-01 06:26:30

Halting Problem for Turing Machine

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I write some ideas on the halting problem that I have not verified experimentally (it seem right theorically). It may be interesting so that I share with you.
Category: General Science and Philosophy