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1607 Submissions

[474] viXra:1607.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 17:30:32

An Elementary Proof that Beta(3)=pi^3/32

Authors: Hervé G.
Comments: 19 Pages.

It is presented an elementary proof that Beta(3)=Pi^3/32. Beta is the Dirichlet Beta function.
Category: Number Theory

[473] viXra:1607.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 23:18:09

Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Energy Treated 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Study background: 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone (DHBP) is an organic compound used for the synthesis of pharmaceutical agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of DHBP. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Methods: The control and treated DHBP samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser particle size analyser, surface area analyser, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. Results: The XRD study indicated a slight decrease in the volume of the unit cell and molecular weight of treated DHBP as compared to the control sample. However, XRD study revealed an increase in average crystallite size of the treated DHBP by 32.73% as compared to the control sample. The DSC characterization showed no significant change in the melting temperature of treated sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated DHBP was substantially increased by 11.67% as compared to the control. However, TGA analysis showed a decrease in the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated DHBP (257.66º C) as compared to the control sample (260.93º C). The particle size analysis showed a substantial increase in particle size (d50 and d99) of the treated DHBP by 41% and 15.8% as compared to the control sample. Additionally, the surface area analysis showed a decrease in surface area by 9.5% in the treated DHBP, which was supported by the particle size results. Nevertheless, FT-IR analysis showed a downward shift of methyl group stretch (2885→2835 cm-1) in the treated sample as compared to the control. The UV analysis showed a blue shift of absorption peak 323→318 nm in the treated sample (T1) as compared to the control. Conclusion: Altogether, the results showed significant changes in the physical, thermal and spectral properties of treated DHBP as compared to the control.
Category: Chemistry

[472] viXra:1607.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 23:23:57

Investigation of Biofield Treatment on Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Biochemical Reaction Pattern and Biotyping of Enteropathogenic Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia Coli Isolates

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Study background: Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli) has become a major health concern, and failure of treatment leads to huge health burden. Aim of the present study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on E. coli. Methods: Four MDR clinical lab isolates (LSs) of E. coli (LS 8, LS 9, LS 10, and LS 11) were taken and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. Control and treated samples were identified with respect to its antimicrobial sensitivity assay, biochemical study and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment and compared with its respective control group. Results: Antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 50% alteration in sensitivity of total tested antimicrobials in treated group of MDR E. coli isolates. MIC results showed the alteration in MIC of about 40.63% antimicrobials out of thirty two tested antimicrobials, after biofield treatment in clinical isolates of E. coli. Ticarcillin/k-clavulanate showed improved sensitivity (R → I) with decreased MIC value in LS 9 as compared to control. A fourfold and twofold decreased in MIC values were reported in case of piperacillin/tazobactam (in LS 9) and chloramphenicol (in LS 8), respectively as compared to respective control. Biochemical study showed a 39.39% alteration in biochemical reactions after treatment among four isolates of E. coli as compared to control. A significant change in biotype numbers were reported in three clinical isolates (i.e. LS 8, LS 9, and LS 11) of MDR E. coli as compared to control. On the basis of changed biotype number (7774 5272) after biofield treatment, organism with maximum probability was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes in LS 8 as compared to control, (E. coli, 7711 5012). Conclusion: Overall results suggest that Mr Trivedi’s biofield treatment has a significant effect on altering the antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and biotype number of MDR isolates of E. coli.
Category: Chemistry

[471] viXra:1607.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 23:26:05

Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of 1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene (TMB) After Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect® ) Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene (TMB) is one of the most versatile chemical used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has increased attention day-by-days in several fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, medical research, etc. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in TMB using Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. TMB was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was received through Mr. Trivediꞌs unique biofield energy (The Trivedi Effect® ). The GC-MS of the biofield treated TMB was characterized at different time intervals considered as T1, T2, T3, and T4 to examine the impact of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated TMB exhibited the presence of molecular ion peak [M+ ] at m/z 168 (calculated 168.08 for C9H12O3) along with similar pattern of fragmentation. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated TMB, particularly at T2 and T3 was altered from the control sample. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis in the biofield treated TMB exhibited that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield treated TMB at T2 and T3 was significantly enhanced by 128.13 and 117.99%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Consequently, the percentage change in isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was significantly increased in the biofield treated TMB at T2 and T3 by 125.93 and 116.67%, respectively as compared with the control TMB. The isotopic abundance ratios (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) in the biofield treated TMB at T1 and T4 was altered with respect to the control TMB. In summary, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C9H12O3) + to m/z 169 and 18O contribution from (C9H12O3) + to m/z 170 for the biofield treated TMB, particularly at T2 and T3 were significantly improved and biofield treated TMB might exhibit changed isotope effects as compared to the control sample. The biofield treated TMB might assist to develop new chemicals and pharmaceuticals through using its kinetic isotope effects like understanding the reaction mechanism, the enzymatic transition state and all aspects of enzyme mechanisms.
Category: Chemistry

[470] viXra:1607.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 11:57:29

Physical Sense of the Formula E=mc2.

Authors: Vladislav Mirkin
Comments: 8 Pages.

There is very clear physical interpretation of this formula if we imagine that the space contains the ether moving between the particles of the matter. The ether fills the space between particles like water fills the any hole.
Category: Classical Physics

[469] viXra:1607.0564 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-01 16:02:01

Neutrino Oscillatins Hint at a New Fundamental Interaction

Authors: Mario Everaldo de Souza
Comments: 08 Pages. Replacement just for correcting a reference

It is suggested that neutrino oscillations do not exist and, in the light of the latest results of July 2016 of the Daya Bay Collaboration and the recent discovery of a new fundamental interaction, it is proposed that the neutrino production at the Sun’s core in the pp and CNO cycles are much larger than what is predicted by the Standard Solar Model, exactly because of this new interaction. Therefore, the claimed neutrino deficits on Earth are completely misleading.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[468] viXra:1607.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 09:57:42

Strongly Interacting Bose Polarons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have used impurities within a Bose-Einstein condensate to simulate polarons—electron-phonon combinations in solid-state systems. [15] A team of engineering researchers from the University of Victoria (UVic) and the University of Rochester (UR) has developed a way to detect single molecules using a light-based technology inspired by the "whispering gallery" effect, first discovered in London's iconic St. Paul's Cathedral. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[467] viXra:1607.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 17:17:54

The Mass Versus the Electric Charge of the Elctron

Authors: Hoa Van Nguyen
Comments: 08 Pages. 01 Figure

The mass of the electron is an invariant , i.e., it does not change with its velocity . We introduce the concept of variability of the electric charge to replace the old-fashioned concept of changing mass . We propose a thought experiment to prove this variability of the electric charge of the electron in a changing magnetic field .
Category: Classical Physics

[466] viXra:1607.0561 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-03 10:32:16

About The Geometry Of Cosmos and Beyond

Authors: D.Mastoridis, K.Kalogirou
Comments: 20 Pages.

The current paper presents an attempt to express the mass problem in a more con- crete mathematical scheme where all the Physical quantities could come naturally. The Standard Model and its extensions where investigated where SU(4) has appeared as a conclusion of this attempt.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[465] viXra:1607.0560 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-10 13:53:26

Conservation Laws and Energy Budget in a Static Universe

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 7 Pages.

The universe is characterized by large concentrations of energy contained in small, dense areas such as galaxies, which radiate energy towards the surrounding space. However, no current theory balances the loss of energy of galaxies, a requirement for a conservative universe. This study is an investigation of the physics nature might use to maintain the energy differential between its dense parts and the vacuum. We propose time contraction as a principle to maintain this energy differential. Time contraction has the following effects: photons lose energy, while masses gain potential energy and lose kinetic energy. From the virial theorem, which applies to a system of bodies, we find that the net energy resulting from the gain in potential energy and the loss in kinetic energy remains unchanged, meaning that the orbitals of stars in galaxies remain unaffected by time contraction. However, each object in a galaxy has an internal potential energy leading to a surplus of energy within the object. This internal energy surplus should balance with the energy radiated at the level of a galaxy. We illustrate this principle with a calculation of the energy balance of the Milky Way.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[464] viXra:1607.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 04:56:55

(Variant: 31.07.2016) (Extract Parts 6 and 7) (27 Pages) Bidum Version 1.1 – on a Teller's Large Number Derived-Hypothesis Overlooked by Tipler and Barrow

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 27 Pages. (Variant: 31.07.2016)

„Edward Teller appears to have been the first who speculate that there may exist a logarithmic relation between the fine structure constant (α) and the parameter G∙mN^2/(h∙c)~10^(-39) of the form α~ln[G∙mN^2/(h∙c)] [equation 4.23] (in fact α^(-1)=ln(3.17 x 10^60) and the formula is too insensitive to be of very much use in predicting exact relations)“[Barrow&Tipler, 1986 ]. (mN stands for the neutron/nucleon rest mass). In this BIDUM, I will try to demonstrate that Barrow and Tipler overlooked the possibility that Teller’s “speculation” may be much more inspired than the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (DLNH) and may the basis of a new class of informational (bio-info-digital [BIDUM]) toy-models of the universe (info-universe), a class that can offer important physical explanations and predictions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[463] viXra:1607.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 05:55:05

(Bidum 1.1 Extract) (Variant: 31.07.2016) (10 Pages) a Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (Bidum Version 1.1) – a Short Summary of the Essential Equations (Each Briefly Explained)

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: (BIDUM 1.1 Extract) (Variant: 31.07.2016) (10 pages) A Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (BIDUM version 1.1) – a short summary of the essential equations (each briefly explained)

(BIDUM 1.1 Extract) (Variant: 31.07.2016) (10 pages) A Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (BIDUM version 1.1) – a short summary of the essential equations (each briefly explained)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[462] viXra:1607.0557 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 15:05:24

Primes as Sums of Irrational Numbers

Authors: Simon Plouffe
Comments: 3 Pages.

An extension of a known result of Ramanujan is used to produce sums with exponential terms that gives a representation of many prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[461] viXra:1607.0556 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-03 08:11:01

A Subatomic Replica of Our Solar System. Macrocosmos and Microcosmos. As Above! So Below!

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we show that each planet and sun (star) has a mathematical subatomic twin. Each planetary twin particle has exactly the same mathematical properties as its substantially larger twin planet or Sun. From a planet's twin particle we get the planet's escape velocity, its solar deflection, and its red shift. If we arrange these solar system twin particles with their relative distances as our real solar system then they will, based on Newton's law of gravitation, have the same orbital velocities as the true solar system. In other words, we have created a subatomic world that in many respects is a replica of the Macrocosmos.
Category: Astrophysics

[460] viXra:1607.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 15:44:54

The Vortex Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that a star/planet or star system in a disk configuration cannot be formed in a vortex according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[459] viXra:1607.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 08:57:24

Combining Physics Techniques

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Among the intriguing issues in plasma physics are those surrounding X-ray pulsars—collapsed stars that orbit around a cosmic companion and beam light at regular intervals, like lighthouses in the sky. Physicists want to know the strength of the magnetic field and density of the plasma that surrounds these pulsars, which can be millions of times greater than the density of plasma in stars like the sun. [12] In a lovely demonstration of light's quantum effects, physicists in the UK have just mixed a molecule with light at room temperature for the first time ever. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[458] viXra:1607.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 04:27:11

新时间和空间理论

Authors: 蒋春暄
Comments: 10 Pages. it is a very important paper

用时空环建立新时空理论
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[457] viXra:1607.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 01:44:34

Star Forming Magnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

The scientists analyze the magnetic field strengths and show that, even in the least massive fragment the field is not strong enough to inhibit gravitational collapse. In fact, they find indications that gravity, as it pulls material inward, drags the magnetic field lines along. [7] Astronomers have shed new light on the rarest and brightest exploding stars ever discovered in the universe. Their research proposes that the brightest exploding stars, called super-luminous supernovae, are powered by magnetars -- small and incredibly dense neutron stars, with gigantic magnetic fields, that spin hundreds of times a second. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[456] viXra:1607.0551 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 12:19:22

Proof of Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Richard Broxley Omeston
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I show how the equivalence of the summation of the Móbius function with the Zeta function allows for proof of the Riemann Hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory

[455] viXra:1607.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 08:47:27

Spin-Thermoelectric Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Thermally excited spin waves carry a spin current from the ferromagnet (YIG in this case) into the metal layer. Depending on the YIG thickness and the interface condition the amplitude of the spin current as well as transmission properties change. [13] Publishing in Nature Physics April 25, the scientists, led by Professor of Physics Mingzhong Wu in CSU's College of Natural Sciences, are the first to demonstrate using non-polarized light to produce in a metal what's called a spin voltage-a unit of power produced from the quantum spinning of an individual electron. Controlling electron spins for use in memory and logic applications is a relatively new field called spin electronics, or spintronics, and the subject of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[454] viXra:1607.0549 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-30 02:54:14

The Principles and Mechanisms of Protons Beam Tumor Therapy

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a new explanation of the essence of protons beam tumor therapy
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[453] viXra:1607.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:02:23

Brain Disorders – Indian and Global Trends

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Gomathi Balasubramanian
Comments: 6 Pages.

In light of the information explosion and prominence of search engines in current scenario, the present article investigates and reports on the search trends of five brain disorders, namely meningitis, schizophrenia, epilepsy, autism and coma, using the Google Trends tool. Setting the time duration between the mid-2000’s and the present (July, 2016), the analyses of trends are performed both chronologically and location-wise on global and Indian geographies. Overall, it is interesting to see certain regional patterns in global and Indian trends and forms the impetus for studying correlations and impacts of a lot of factors such as workaholism, HDI, percentage of white and Caucasian races and climatic conditions in Europe and America. Also, as seen from the Indian trends, south Indian states and cities dominate trends of all the analyzed brain disorders, and it is imperative to investigate into the correlations of such disorders with tropical and coastal climates as well as socio-economic and academic performances.
Category: Social Science

[452] viXra:1607.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:12:06

Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Study background: 1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene is an important compound used for the synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceutical agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene. Methods: The study was performed by dividing the sample into two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, while the treated group received Mr Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violetvisible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) analysis. Results: XRD studies revealed the significant increase in crystallite size of treated sample by 45.96% as compared to the control sample. DSC analysis showed a decrease in melting temperature of the treated sample (45.93ºC) with respect to control (46.58ºC). Additionally, the substantial change was evidenced in latent heat of fusion of treated sample by 64.18% as compared to the control. TGA analysis indicated a decrease in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated sample (151.92ºC) as compared to the control sample (154.43ºC). This indicated the decrease in thermal stability of the treated sample as compared to the control. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis showed an increase in the frequency of C-O bond in treated sample (1105→1174 cm-1) as compared to the control sample. However, UV analysis showed no changes in absorption peaks in treated sample as compared to the untreated sample. Conclusion: Overall, the result indicated that biofield energy treatment has altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of the treated sample as compared to control. Hence, the treated sample could be used as an intermediate in the synthesis of organic compounds.
Category: Chemistry

[451] viXra:1607.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:14:10

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Studies of Biofield Treated P-Chlorobenzonitrile

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Para-chlorobenzonitrile (p-CBN) is widely used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacturing of dyes, medicines, and pesticides, however; sometimes it may cause runaway reactions at high temperatures. The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of p-CBN. The analysis was done by dividing the p-CBN samples into two groups that served as control and treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD results showed an increase in the crystallite size (66.18 nm) of the treated sample as compared to the control sample (53.63 nm). The surface area analysis of the treated sample also showed 14.19% decrease in the surface area as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion of the treated p-CBN increased considerably by 5.94% as compared to control. However, the melting temperature of the treated sample did not show any considerable change from the control sample. Besides, TGA/DTG studies showed that Tmax (the temperature at which the sample lost its maximum weight) was increased by 5.22% along with an increase in its onset of thermal decomposition temperature i.e. 96.80°C in the biofield treated p-CBN as compared to the control sample (84.65°C). This indicates that the thermal stability of treated p-CBN sample might increase as compared to the control sample. However, no change was found in the FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic character of the treated p-CBN as compared to the control. These findings suggest that the biofield treatment significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of p-CBN, which could make it more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Category: Chemistry

[450] viXra:1607.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:15:32

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 2, 6-Diaminopyridine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

2, 6-Diaminopyridine (2, 6-DAP) has extensive use in synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of 2, 6-DAP. The study was performed in two groups, control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment group. The control and treated 2, 6-DAP samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Laser particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed decrease in intensity of the peaks of treated 2, 6-DAP with respect to control. Unit cell volume and molecular weight were decreased by 2.97% and 2.98% respectively in treated 2, 6-DAP as compared to control. Crystallite size was decreased by 24.70% in treated 2, 6-DAP with respect to control. DSC analysis showed no significant change in melting temperature of treated 2, 6-DAP with respect to control. Nevertheless, the treated 2, 6-DAP showed significant increase in latent heat of fusion by 35.52% as compared to control 2, 6-DAP. TGA analysis showed decrease in percent weight loss of the treated 2, 6-DAP in comparison with control. Additionally, substantial increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) was observed in treated 2, 6-DAP (203.52°C) as compared with control 2, 6-DAP (186.84°C). Particle size analysis results showed a substantial decrease in d50 (average particle size) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of the particles) of the treated 2, 6-DAP by 20.5 and 57.4%, respectively as compared to control. Additionally, the BET analysis showed substantial increase in surface area of treated 2, 6-DAP by 75.58% as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated 2, 6-DAP showed alteration in O-H stretching (3390→3370 cm-1), C-H stretching (3132→3138 cm-1) and N-H bending (1637→1604 cm-1) vibration peaks with respect to control. However, UV-visible analysis of treated 2, 6-DAP showed no significant changes in absorption peaks (λ max) with respect to control. Overall, the results demonstrated that biofield has significant impact on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of the treated 2, 6-DAP.
Category: Chemistry

[449] viXra:1607.0544 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 01:16:14

Cycle and Armed Cap Cordial Graphs

Authors: A.Nellai Murugan, P.Iyadurai Selvaraj
Comments: 9 Pages.

A graph G is a finite non-empty set of objects called vertices together with a set of unordered pairs of distinct vertices of G which is called edges.
Category: General Mathematics

[448] viXra:1607.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 01:17:42

Entire Equitable Dominating Graph

Authors: B.Basavanagoud, V.R.Kulli, Vijay V. Teli
Comments: 8 Pages.

All graphs considered here are finite, undirected with no loops and multiple edges. We denote by p the order(i.e number of vertices) and by q the size (i.e number of edges) of such a graph G. Any undefined term and notation in this paper may be found in Harary [5].
Category: General Mathematics

[447] viXra:1607.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 01:19:10

K-Difference Cordial Labeling of Graphs

Authors: R.Ponraj, M.Maria Adaickalam, R.Kala
Comments: 11 Pages.

A graph with a k-difference cordial labeling is called a k-difference cordial graph. In this paper we investigate k-difference cordial labeling behavior of star, m copies of star and we prove that every graph is a subgraph of a connected k-difference cordial graph. Also we investigate 3-difference cordial labeling behavior of some graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[446] viXra:1607.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 01:20:14

Nonsplit Geodetic Number of a Graph

Authors: Tejaswini K M, Venkanagouda M Goudar
Comments: 12 Pages.

We investigate the relationship between nonsplit geodetic number and geodetic number. We also obtain the nonsplit geodetic number in the cartesian product of graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[445] viXra:1607.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 01:21:59

Smarandache Curves and Applications According to Type-2 Bishop Frame in Euclidean 3-Space

Authors: Suha Yılmaz, Umit Ziya Savcı
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, we investigate Smarandache curves according to type-2 Bishop frame in Euclidean 3- space and we give some differential geometric properties of Smarandache curves. Also, some characterizations of Smarandache breadth curves in Euclidean 3-space are presented. Besides, we illustrate examples of our results.
Category: General Mathematics

[444] viXra:1607.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 02:03:09

Microworld_28. Electron ‒ Window to the Universe

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 14 Pages. English and russian texts

The electron structure contains the key to understanding of the whole material World structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[443] viXra:1607.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 06:14:35

New Space-Time Theory

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 10 Pages. it is a very important paper

using space-time ring we establish the new space-time theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[442] viXra:1607.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 15:35:29

Formula for Twin Primes

Authors: José de Jesús Camacho Medina
Comments: 1 Page.

The present article shows an unpublished formula to evaluate twin primes, the formula is based on the theorem of Wilson and contains mathematical functions such that greatest common divisor, factorial and floor function.
Category: Number Theory

[441] viXra:1607.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 09:55:35

A Relativistic Variant of Mach's Principle

Authors: A. Jaster
Comments: 2 Pages.

We take an idea of Mach and postulate an absolute frame of reference, i.e. there is a state of absolute rest and motions of inertial frames of reference relative to the absolute frame can be measured.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[440] viXra:1607.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 10:04:59

Whispering Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of engineering researchers from the University of Victoria (UVic) and the University of Rochester (UR) has developed a way to detect single molecules using a light-based technology inspired by the "whispering gallery" effect, first discovered in London's iconic St. Paul's Cathedral. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[439] viXra:1607.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 21:03:02

Stellar Age Delineation of Host and Companions

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that a companion star can not have its age determined simply by determining the age of its host.
Category: Astrophysics

[438] viXra:1607.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:21:15

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Spectroscopic and Physicochemical Properties of P-Nitroaniline

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Para nitroaniline (p-Nitroaniline) is an organic compound, used as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals drugs, gasoline and dyes. The present study was attempted to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on p-nitroaniline. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated samples of p-nitroaniline were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FT-IR spectral analysis result suggested the alteration in wavenumber of some groups with respect to control. For instance, the C=C and C-C stretching were observed at 1570 cm-1 and 1430 cm-1, respectively in control sample that were shifted to 1585 cm-1 and 1445 cm-1, respectively after biofield treatment. UV spectral analysis revealed the similar pattern of absorbance maxima (λmax) in both control and treated samples. HPLC data showed an alteration in the retention time of p-nitroaniline peak in treated sample (3.25 min) with respect to control (2.75 min). GC-MS results showed a significant change in the isotopic abundance (δ) of 13C and 18O in treated sample as compared to control. DSC data showed that latent heat of fusion (∆H) of treated p-nitroaniline was substantially decreased by 10.66% as compared to control. However, the melting point remained same in both control and treated sample of p-nitroaniline. Overall, results obtained from different analytical techniques such as FT-IR, HPLC, GC-MS, and DSC suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on spectral, physical and thermal properties of p-nitroaniline with respect to control sample.
Category: Biochemistry

[437] viXra:1607.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:23:29

Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-Naphthyl Ether

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Methyl-2-naphthyl ether (MNE) is an organic compound and used as the primary moiety for the synthesis of several antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. This study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of MNE. The study was carried out in two groups i.e., control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Afterward, the control and treated samples of MNE were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD study exhibited the decrease in average crystallite size by 30.70%. The surface area analysis showed 5.32% decrease in surface area of the treated sample with respect to the control. The DSC thermogram of treated MNE exhibited no significant change in the melting temperature; however, the latent heat of fusion was slightly increased (0.83%) after biofield treatment as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 158℃ in the control sample that was reduced to 124℃ after biofield treatment. The result showed about 21.52% decrease in onset temperature of thermal degradation of treated MNE as compared to the control. Similarly, the end-set temperature of thermal degradation was also reduced by 13.51% after biofield treatment with respect to the control. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic studies did not show any changes in the wavenumber and wavelength, respectively in treated MNE with respect to the control. Overall, the XRD, surface area and thermal analysis suggest that biofield treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of the treated MNE as compared to the control.
Category: Chemistry

[436] viXra:1607.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:26:21

Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 3-Nitroacetophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

3-Nitroacetophenone (3-NAP) is an organic compound used as an intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 3-NAP. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated 3-NAP samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD analysis showed decrease in crystallite size of treated 3-NAP by 20.27% as compared to the control sample. However, the XRD peaks of treated sample showed an increase in intensity as compared to the control. The DSC result showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 3-NAP (80.75ºC) with respect to the control (79.39ºC). The latent heat of fusion of treated 3-NAP was changed by 16.28% as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset temperature of treated sample (192ºC) as compared to the control sample (182ºC). Further, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 3-NAP was increased as compared to the control. This showed the increase in thermal stability of treated 3-NAP with respect to control. The treated 3-NAP showed an increase in average particle size (d50) by 27.6% along with an increase in size exhibited by 99% of particles (d99) by 4.9% as compared to the control. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis showed a substantial decrease in surface area by 24.6% with respect to the control. The FT-IR analysis showed an emergence of peak at 1558 cm-1 in treated 3-NAP sample as compared to the control. Nevertheless, the UV spectral analysis of treated 3-NAP showed no alterations in absorption peaks as compared to the control. Altogether, the result showed that biofield energy treatment has altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of treated 3-NAP as compared to the control.
Category: Chemistry

[435] viXra:1607.0528 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 05:30:18

Is it Possible to Write Down SU(2) Electrodynamics?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper is summary of questions and answers in RG forum. Your comments are welcome

It is known that Yang-Mills theory is part of classical field theory. Therefore it seems possible to write down SU(2) electrodynamics. What do you think?
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[434] viXra:1607.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 13:39:14

Chaos and Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[433] viXra:1607.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 14:23:22

Missing Value Imputation in Multi-Environment Trials: Reconsidering the Krzanowski Method

Authors: Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón, Marisol García-Peña, Wojtek Krzanowski
Comments: 9 Pages.

We propose a new methodology for multiple imputation when faced with missing data in multi-environmental trials with genotype-by-environment interaction, based on the imputation system developed by Krzanowski that uses the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a matrix. Several different iterative variants are described; differential weights can also be included in each variant to represent the influence of different components of SVD in the imputation process. The methods are compared through a simulation study based on three real data matrices that have values deleted randomly at different percentages, using as measure of overall accuracy a combination of the variance between imputations and their mean square deviations relative to the deleted values. The best results are shown by two of the iterative schemes that use weights belonging to the interval [0.75, 1]. These schemes provide imputations that have higher quality when compared with other multiple imputation methods based on the Krzanowski method.
Category: Statistics

[432] viXra:1607.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 14:24:30

What are Partons?

Authors: S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Williams
Comments: 6 Pages.

We discuss and critique some of the evidence that is often invoked to support the idea that partons are quarks. We present an alternative model in which the charged partons are electrons and positrons. This new model explains many experimental observations that the quark model is unable to explain. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the subject.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[431] viXra:1607.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 14:27:33

The Neutron Lifetime

Authors: S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Williams
Comments: 6 pages, 2 figures

We have developed an alternative to the standard model of particle physics. In our model, the mass of an elementary particle, like its charge, is an intrinsic property of the particle determined by its internal structure and internal kinematics. There is no Higgs mechanism. In this paper we briefly review the current status of our model including the main results of calculations that we have reported previously. We then turn our attention to particle stability. We note a possible reason for the stability of the proton and the electron and, as a further application of our approach, we present a calculation of the neutron lifetime.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[430] viXra:1607.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 10:23:52

Beyond Dirac and Weyl Fermions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

An international team of researchers has predicted the existence of several previously unknown types of quantum particles in materials. The particles— which belong to the class of particles known as fermions—can be distinguished by several intrinsic properties, such as their responses to applied magnetic and electric fields. In several cases, fermions in the interior of the material show their presence on the surface via the appearance of electron states called Fermi arcs, which link the different types of fermion states in the material's bulk. [8] An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Condensed Matter

[429] viXra:1607.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 10:29:42

On Finding All Solutions to the Lemoine - Levy Problem

Authors: Matilda Walter
Comments: 3 Pages.

Lemoine - Levy Conjecture, probably the least known of the 'Goldbach Conjectures', states that every positive odd integer > 5 is a sum of a prime and double of a prime. We present a simple sieve procedure for finding all existing solutions to the problem for any given odd number > 5.
Category: Number Theory

[428] viXra:1607.0521 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-28 05:27:17

The General Intelligent Design (GID) Model

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this article, a history as to the discovery and publications of the General Intelligent Design (GID) properties is given. The major GID conclusions are stated and a brief glossary is given.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[427] viXra:1607.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 05:07:54

Effective Field Theories

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Until now, theoretical physicists have used models based on a simple, abstract description of the interaction between dark matter and ordinary particles, such as the Effective Field Theories (EFTs). [14] For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] “Call it the sound of dark matter,” says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it’s not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter’s deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron’s army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[426] viXra:1607.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 05:23:14

Realizing Electron Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[425] viXra:1607.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:40:47

Degrees of Membership > 1 and < 0 of the Elements With Respect to a Neutrosophic OffSet

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

We have defined the Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off-Set and -Logic for the first time in 1995 and published in 2007. During 1995-2016 we presented them to various national and international conferences and seminars ([16]-[37]) and did more publishing during 2007-2016 ([1]-[15]). These new notions are totally different from other sets/logics/probabilities
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[424] viXra:1607.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:42:32

A DSmT Based System for Writer-Independent Handwritten Signature Verification

Authors: Nassim Abbas, Youcef Chibani, Bilal Hadjadji, Zayen Azzouz Omar, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages.

We propose in this paper a new writer-independent off-line handwritten signature verification (HSV) system using only genuine signatures. This system is based on a combination of two off-line individual HSV systems through the plausible and paradoxical reasoning theory of Dezert-Smarandache (DSmT).
Category: General Mathematics

[423] viXra:1607.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:44:24

International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics

Authors: Linfan MAO, Guohua Song
Comments: 168 Pages.

The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published in USA quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandachemulti-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences.
Category: General Mathematics

[422] viXra:1607.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:49:30

Multi-Criteria Decision Making Method for N-Wise Criteria Comparisons and Inconsistent Problems

Authors: A. Elhassouny, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 32 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative of a hybrid method based on Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process and on the Technique for Order Preference by using the Similarity to Ideal Solution method (AHP-TOPSIS) and, based on the AHP and its use of pairwise comparisons, to extend it to a new method called α-D MCDMTOPSIS (α-Discounting Method for multi-criteria decision making-TOPSIS).
Category: General Mathematics

[421] viXra:1607.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:50:59

Neutrosophic Quantum Computer

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper is a theoretical approach for a potential neutrosophic quantum computer to be built in the future, which is an extension of the classical theoretical quantum computer, into which the indeterminacy is inserted.
Category: General Mathematics

[420] viXra:1607.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:52:18

Neutrosophic Crisp Probability Theory & Decision Making Process

Authors: A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 Pages.

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. In neutrosophic set, indeterminacy is quantified explicitly and truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership are independent.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[419] viXra:1607.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:55:43

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Book Series

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali
Comments: 144 Pages.

This volume is a collection of seventeen papers, written by different authors and co-authors (listed in the order of the papers): F. Smarandache, K. Bhutani, M. Kumar, G. Garg, S. Aggarwal, P. Biswas, S. Pramanik, B.C. Giri, J. Ye, A. Mukherjee, M. Datta, S. Sarkar, N. Shah, M. K. EL Gayyar, S. K. Patro, B. C. Cuong, P. H.Phong, A. A. Salama, I. M. Hanafy, H. Elghawalby and M. S. Dabash, R. Roy, P. Das, D. Mandal, Santhi R.,Udhayarani N., F. Yuhua, S. A. Akinleye, A.A.A. Agboola, and J. Chen.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[418] viXra:1607.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:56:49

On Neutrosophic Quadruple Algebraic Structures

Authors: S.A. Akinleye, F. Smarandache, A.A.A. Agboola
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we present the concept of neutrosophic quadruple algebraic structures. Specially, we study neutrosophic quadruple rings and we present their elementary properties.
Category: Algebra

[417] viXra:1607.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 02:00:16

PCR5 and Neutrosophic Probability in Target Identification

Authors: F.Smarandache, N.Abbas, Y.Chibani, B.Hadjadji, Z.A.Omar
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we use PCR5 in order to fusion the information of two sourcesproviding subjective probabilities of an event A to occur in the following form: chance that A occurs, indeterminate chance of occurrence of A, chance that A does not occur.
Category: General Mathematics

[416] viXra:1607.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 02:01:36

Similarity Measure of Refined Single-Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Its Multicriteria Decision Making Method

Authors: Jun Ye, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper introduces a refined single-valued neutrosophic set (RSVNS) and presents a similarity measure of RSVNSs. Then a multicriteria decisionmaking method with RSVNS information is developed based on the similarity measure of RSVNSs. By the similarity measure between each alternative and the ideal solution (ideal alternative), all the alternatives can be ranked and the best one can be selected as well. Finally, an actual example on the selecting problems of construction projects demonstrates the application and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Category: General Mathematics

[415] viXra:1607.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 02:03:14

Standard Neutrosophic Soft Theory: Some First Results

Authors: Bui Cong Cuong, Pham Hong Phong, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 12 Pages.

The traditional soft set is a mapping from a parameter set to family of all crisp subsets of a universe.Molodtsov introduced the soft set as a generalized tool for modelling complex systems involving uncertain or not clearly defined objects. In this paper, the notion of neutrosophic soft set is reanalysed. The novel theory is a combination of neutrosophic set theory and soft set theory. The complement, “and”, “or”, intersection and union operations are defined on the neutrosophic soft sets. The neutrosophic soft relations accompanied with their compositions are also defined. The basic properties of the neutrosophic soft sets, neutrosophic soft relations and neutrosophic soft compositions are also discussed.
Category: General Mathematics

[414] viXra:1607.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 02:04:43

The Concept of Neutrosophic Less Than or Equal To: A New Insight in Unconstrained Geometric Programming

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Huda E. Khalid, Ahmed K. Essa, Mumtaz Ali
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the concept of neutrosophic less than or equal to. The neutrosophy considers every idea < A > together with its opposite or negation < antiA > and with their spectrum of neutralities < neutA > in between them (i.e. notions or ideas supporting neither < A > nor < antiA >).
Category: General Mathematics

[413] viXra:1607.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 02:05:55

The Neutrosophic Statistical Distribution, More Problems, More Solutions

Authors: S. K. Patro, F. Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper , the authors explore neutrosophic statistics, that was initiated by Florentin Smarandache in 1998 and developed in 2014, by presenting various examples of several statistical distributions, from the work [1]. The paper is presented with more case studies, by means of which this neutrosophic version of statistical distribution becomes more pronounced.
Category: General Mathematics

[412] viXra:1607.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 02:07:19

Vietnam Regaining the Smile

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 144 Pages.

This album is a photolog of a three-weeks-long scientific & touristic trip in Vietnam; a country that - in the last century - surpassed wars and uncertainty and unrest, being nowadays in the midst of a new battle: that of regaining the smile. The brave nation of Vietnam proves it again and again, more and more: this battle is won every day.
Category: Social Science

[411] viXra:1607.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 02:09:18

Vietnam Veteran ÎN ȘTIINȚE Neutrosofice

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 134 Pages.

Aceată carte este rezultatul unui minunat turneu științific despre mulțimea / logica / măsura / probabilitatea / statistica neutrosofică la diverse universități din Hà Nội și Hồ Chí Minh, precum și vizitarea unor locuri și obiective culturale și istorice.
Category: Social Science

[410] viXra:1607.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 03:00:47

Affirmative Resolve of Kothe Conjecture

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 1 Page.

Affirmative resolve of Kothe conjecture
Category: Algebra

[409] viXra:1607.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 03:02:03

The Counter Example of Jacobson Conjecture

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 1 Page.

The counter example of Jacobson conjecture
Category: Algebra

[408] viXra:1607.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 16:13:09

The Reliability of Intrinsic Batted Ball Statistics: Appendix

Authors: Glenn Healey
Comments: 7 Pages.

Given information about batted balls for a set of players, we review techniques for estimating the reliability of a statistic as a function of the sample size. We also review methods for using the estimated reliability to compute the variance of true talent and to generate forecasts.
Category: Statistics

[407] viXra:1607.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-13 18:03:35

The Planck Mass Particle Finally Discovered! The True God Particle! Good bye to the Point Particle Hypothesis!

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 24 Pages. Version 7 has fixed a minor type and has a new section (10) explaining why the Planck mass remarkably is at rest as observed from any reference frame.

In this paper we suggest that one single fundamental particle exists behind all matter and energy. We claim that this particle has a spatial dimension and diameter equal to the Planck length and a mass equal to half of the Planck mass. Further, we will claim this particle is indivisible, that is it was never created and can never be destroyed. All other subatomic particles, in spite of having much lower masses than the Planck mass, are easily explained by the existence of such an indivisible particle. Isaac Newton stated that there had to be a fundamental particle, completely hard, that could not be broken down. He also claimed that light consisted of a stream of such particles. Newton’s particle theory was very similar to that of the ancient atomists Democritus and Leucippus. However, the atomist view of an indivisible particle with spatial dimensions has generally been pushed aside by modern physics and replaced with hypothetical point particles and the mysterious wave-particle duality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[406] viXra:1607.0495 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-27 16:47:30

Time Dilation, Time and Gravity

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 5 Pages.

Time speeds up when gravity decreases, and time slows down when gravity increases. If time wasn't affected in another situation, then Einstein could have been right when he concluded that time is affected by gravity. But Einstein failed to see what it meant that time is also affected in another situation, time also slows down when an object speeds up. So if time slows down when an object speeds up in a situation where there is no gravity and in a situation where there is gravity, why would anyone conclude that time is affected by gravity? Einstein assumed that time also slows down by an increase in gravity but that was a mistake (a fallacy) because time can also slow down where there is no gravity, and there is no proof that time is affected by gravity. There is proof that time is affected by a speed, so we need to focus on that. Time slows down in 2 situations and the reason why it slows down must be the same, and that tells us that time and gravity are simultaneously affected by a speed. And because time is not affected by gravity, we can conclude that spacetime doesn't exist. And time dilation tells us something else, it tells us what the origin of time and gravity is.
Category: Quantum Physics

[405] viXra:1607.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 23:08:17

Consideration of a Possible Self-Regulating Algorithm for Fiscal Appraisal of Private Property

Authors: Nikolay Kazak
Comments: 4 Pages.

With the advent of significant property taxation in Russia a need for accurate and timely property appraisal was realized. The paper attempts to propose a self-regulating market algorithm that would leave the freedom of assessment in the hands of the owner. Possible abuses of the algorithm and remedies are discussed at the end of the paper.
Category: Economics and Finance

[404] viXra:1607.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 23:12:33

Phenotyping and 16S Rdna Analysis After Biofield Treatment on Citrobacter Braakii: a Urinary Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Citrobacter braakii (C. braakii) is widespread in nature, mainly found in human urinary tract. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on C. braakii in lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, and biotype number. Lyophilized vial of ATCC strain of C. braakii was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analysed on day 10 while Gr. IIB was stored and analysed on day 159 (Study I). After retreatment on day 159, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tube was analysed on day 5, 10 and 15, respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of C. braakii with other bacterial species. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed 39.29% and 15.63% alteration respectively in treated cells of C. braakii as compared to control. Tetracycline showed improved sensitivity pattern, i.e., from resistant to susceptible after biofield treatment, with support of decreased MIC value (>8 to ≤ 4 µg/mL) by two-fold in all the treated samples as compared to the control. Biochemical reactions also showed significant (42.42%) alteration in the treated samples with respect to the control. Biotype numbers with species were substantially changed in Gr. IIA (53131052, Citrobacter freundii complex) on day 10 and in Gr. IIB, Study I (53111052; Citrobacter amalonaticus) on day 159 as compared to the control (77365776; Citrobacter braakii). Moreover, biotype numbers with species were substantially changed in Gr. IIB, Study II after retreatment on day 5 (53111042, Citrobacter amalonaticus) and (53131052; Citrobacter freundii complex) on day 10 and 15 as compared to the control. 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified microbe as Citrobacter freundii (GenBank Accession Number: DQ517285) with 95% identity. The nearest homolog genus-species of C. braakii was found to be Citrobacter werkmanii (Accession No. AF025373). The results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on C. braakii in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[403] viXra:1607.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 23:29:29

Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Nitrophenols are the synthetic organic chemicals used for the preparation of synthetic intermediates, organophosphorus pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, and PM+2/PM in o- and m-nitrophenol using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The o- and m-nitrophenol were divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect® ). The biofield energy treated nitrophenols having analyzed at different time intervals were designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The GCMS analysis of both the control and biofield treated samples indicated the presence of the parent molecular ion peak of o- and mnitrophenol (C6H5NO3 + ) at m/z 139 along with major fragmentation peaks at m/z 122, 109, 93, 81, 65, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol were notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol at T2 and T3 was significantly increased by 14.48 and 86.49%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T2 and T3 was increased by 11.36, and 82.95%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, in m-nitrophenol, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T1, T3, and T4 was increased by 5.82, 5.09, and 6.40%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Subsequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, T3 and T4 in the biofield energy treated m-nitrophenol was increased by 6.33, 3.80, 16.46, and 16.46%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 17O/16O), and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) were altered in the biofield energy treated o- and m-nitrophenol as compared to the control increased in most of the cases. The biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol that have improved isotopic abundance ratios might have altered the physicochemical properties and could be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as an intermediate in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and other useful chemicals for the industrial application.
Category: Chemistry

[402] viXra:1607.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 07:40:52

Qudits for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[401] viXra:1607.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 07:42:34

On Space Power

Authors: S.Kalimuthu
Comments: 07 Pages. NA

To generate power from water , coal , wind and nuclear energies we require basic raw materials and the costs are high .Due to the scarcity of the above mentioned items , the developing countries like India are facing a number of challenges and problems. In order to avoid this, the author proposes to generate power directly from gravitons. The accepted physics says that the gravitons are the mediators of gravity. Albert Einstein told that we cannot separate gravity from space .Gravity is a part of space. Einstein’s variance of mass with velocity equation says that as the velocity of an object increases, its mass also increases .The author postulates that this mass is gained by the moving object directly from SPACE whenever its velocity increases. Pauli’s exclusive principle , Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle , Einstein’s equivalence principle and his two postulates of special relativity theory created ground breaking results in physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[400] viXra:1607.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 09:35:30

A Survey on Complex Networks

Authors: Aritra Sinha
Comments: 42 Pages.

The report aims to provide an introductory review on network science and a few particular networks. We emphasize on percolation through small world network where we look into the case of disease spreading through small world network.
Category: Classical Physics

[399] viXra:1607.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 15:03:09

Observation of a Quantum Spin Liquid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A novel and rare state of matter known as a quantum spin liquid has been empirically demonstrated in a monocrystal of the compound calcium-chromium oxide by team at HZB. According to conventional understanding, a quantum spin liquid should not be possible in this material. A theoretical explanation for these observations has now also been developed. The results have just been published in Nature Physics. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[398] viXra:1607.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 02:06:40

New Physics and Gravity Mechanism at Classical and Quantum Level.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 5 Pages. FOR PUBLICATION PLEASE

New physics and gravity due to FERMION GRAVITON with mass and BOSON GRAVITON WITH ZERO MASS.
Category: Classical Physics

[397] viXra:1607.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 21:28:15

Active Appearance Model Construction: Implementation notes

Authors: Nikzad Babaii Rizvandi, Wilfried Philips, Aleksandra Pizurica
Comments: 7 Pages.

Active Appearance Model (AAM) is a powerful object modeling technique and one of the best available ones in computer vision and computer graphics. This approach is however quite complex and various parts of its implementation were addressed separately by different researchers in several recent works. In this paper, we present systematically a full implementation of the AAM model with pseudo codes for the crucial steps in the construction of this model.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[396] viXra:1607.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 21:29:15

Active Appearance Model (Aam) from Theory to Implementation

Authors: Nikzad Babaii Rizvandi, Aleksandra Pizˇurica, Wilfried Philips
Comments: 4 Pages.

Active Appearance Model (AAM) is a kind of deformable shape descriptors which is widely used in computer vision and computer graphics. This approach utilizes statistical model obtained from some images in training set and gray-value information of the texture to fit on the boundaries of a new image. In this paper, we describe a brief implementation, apply the method on hand object and finally discuss its performance in compare to Active Shape Model(ASM). Our experiments shows this method is more sensitive to the initialization and slower than ASM.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[395] viXra:1607.0482 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-07 20:58:36

A Unified Phenomenological Description for the Magnetodynamic Origin of Mass for Leptons and for the Complete Baryon Octet and Decuplet.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 10 pages, 2 tables, 1 figure

The masses of the leptons and baryons are shown to be quantitatively described in terms of magnetodynamic energies considering as a fundamental feature the quantization of magnetic flux inside a zitterbewegung motion “ orbit” performed by each particle in consequence of its interaction with the vacuum background( as proposed decades ago by Barut, Jehle, and Post). As a further proof of the soundness of the method, we present a plot of mass against magnetic moment in which the data for the spin-3/2 decuplet particles are shifted from the data for the spin-1/2 octet by the exact numerical factor predicted from the square root of the ratio between their spin angular momenta.
Category: Quantum Physics

[394] viXra:1607.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 00:00:55

Evaluation of Antibiogram, Genotype and Phylogenetic Analysis of Biofield Treated Nocardia Otitidis

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Nocardiosis is a soil-borne aerobic infection caused by Nocardia species commonly affects the respiratory tract. Nocardia otitidis (N. otitidis) is the key organism for non-mycobacterial tuberculosis. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on N. otitidis and analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing. The strain of N. otitidis (ATCC 14630) was divided into two parts, control and treated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was studied using the broth microdilution technique. Overall, the MIC values of 16.67% antimicrobials were changed in the treated group of N. otitidis as compared to the control. Moreover, MIC value of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was reduced by two-fold (0.5/9.5 to 0.25/4.75 µg/mL) in the biofield energy treated sample as compared to the control without alteration in the sensitivity spectrum. The 16S rDNA analysis showed that the treated sample was detected as Enterobacter aerogenes strain NCTC10006T (GenBank Accession No: AJ251468) with 98% identity of gene sequencing data. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found as Kluyvera cryocrescens (GenBank Accession No: AM184245). Using RAPD biomarkers, the sample showed an average range of 34 to 53% of polymorphism among treated samples as compared to the control. The 16S rDNA sequencing of treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of N. otitidis with other bacterial species. These results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on N. otitidis.
Category: Biochemistry

[393] viXra:1607.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 00:05:56

Antibiogram, Biochemical Reactions and Genotyping Characterization of Biofield Treated Staphylococcus Aureus

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on S. aureus. S. aureus (ATCC 25923) was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treatment. After biofield treatment, Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 159 after revival (Study I). The revived sample (Gr. IIB) were retreated on day 159 (Study II), and divided into three separate tubes. Tube 1 was analyzed on day 5, likewise, tube 2 and 3 were analyzed on day 10 and 15, respectively. All the experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out in Gr. IIA sample to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of S. aureus with other bacterial species. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed significant alteration i.e. 92.86% and 90.00% respectively in treated cells of S. aureus as compared to control. The biochemical reactions also showed the significant (35.71%) alteration in treated sample with respect to control. The biotype number and microbial species were substantially changed in Gr. IIA (767177; Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum) on day 10, while only the biotype numbers were changed in rest of the treated samples as compared to control (307016; S. aureus). The 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified strain in this experiment was S. aureus (GenBank Accession No.: L37597) after biofield treatment. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found as Staphylococcus simiae (GenBank Accession No.: DQ127902). These results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on S. aureus in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[392] viXra:1607.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 13:35:35

Complex Frequencies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[391] viXra:1607.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 11:57:07

Leptonic CP Violation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Over the past few years, multiple neutrino experiments have detected hints for leptonic charge parity (CP) violation—a finding that could help explain why the universe is made of matter and not antimatter. So far, matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained by any physics theory and is one of the biggest unsolved problems in cosmology. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[390] viXra:1607.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 07:39:40

Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Thymol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Thymol is a natural monoterpenoid phenol possessing various pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. An investigation of the effect of the biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect® ) on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in thymol using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was attempted in this study. The sample, thymol was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was given Mr. Trivediꞌs unique biofield energy. T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated thymol. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated thymol indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+ ] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with the similar pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated thymol were enhanced as compared to the control thymol. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 was increased by 3.25, 6.31, 96.75, and 140.25%, respectively as compared to the control thymol. In addition, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 5.33, 8.00, 101.33, and 140.00%, respectively with respect to the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 152 in the biofield treated thymol were significantly increased gradually with respect to the time and was found that biofield energy treatment has time dependent effect on it. Hence, the biofield energy treated thymol might display altered isotope effects such as physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy and the reaction kinetics with respect to the control sample. So, biofield energy treated thymol could be advantageous for designing the synthetic scheme for the preparation of pharmaceuticals through its kinetic isotope effects. Besides, biofield treated thymol might be useful to overcome the problems associated with thymol for e.g. pungent flavor, high dose requirement for the activity through understanding its isotope effects and the determination of its pharmacokinetic profile, bioavailability.
Category: Chemistry

[389] viXra:1607.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 09:00:09

Some Series Associated with Catalan's Constant

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this note show series for the Catalan's constant: G=0.915965594177...
Category: General Mathematics

[388] viXra:1607.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 05:29:46

Searching for Anti-Info, Some Elementary Mathematics

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 28 Pages. An extension of previous papers by this author.

There is a correction to be made, the last few articles describe branches/ strings as planck length/ c squared. They are more likely to be planck length in numeration. ( See previous articles by author). In this paper, due to the large amount of literature to be processed, I have developed a few mathematical arrangements of my own. They relate to conservation of information, the relationship between size of various unsymmetric matrices and the relationship of negative numbers in a concept called reflectional equivalence. Discussed also it the hypothesis (sic) of whether the branches ( loosely meaning strings) can be macroscopic in size. i.e varying from planck length to essentially the size of any known object
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[387] viXra:1607.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 05:57:48

Spaceship's Engine on the Effect of Self-Acceleration of Gravitation
Двигатель космолёта на эффекте гравитационного самоускорения

Authors: Putenikhin P.V.
Comments: 11 Pages. rus

The limited speed of propagation of gravitation leads to a relativistic effect of self-acceleration. The long object increases the speed of its movement without the application of external force to it, so-called, unsupported motion.
Считается, что для разгона космического корабля до больших, вплоть до субсветовых скоростей, необходимы значительные запасы топлива. Однако ограниченность скорости распространения гравитации приводит к возникновению релятивистского эффекта гравитационного самоускорения, когда протяженный объект увеличивает скорость своего движения без приложения к нему внешней силы, так называемое, безопорное движение. И напротив, гравитационное ускорение становится невозможным, если скорость распространения гравитации бесконечна.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[386] viXra:1607.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 06:16:20

The Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Refutes the Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Everett (Everettics, the Oxford’s Interpretation)
Интерферометр Маха-Цандера опровергает многомировую интерпретацию квантовой механики Эверетта

Authors: Putenikhin P.V.
Comments: 14 Pages. rus

The EVIFM – experiment (Elitzur-Vaidman Interaction-Free Measurement) refute the Everett's many-worlds interpretation
Эксперимент БИЭВ (бесконтактные измерения Элицура – Вайдмана) опровергает многомировую интерпретацию Эверетта
Category: Quantum Physics

[385] viXra:1607.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 06:15:20

Nonlinear Scaling Corrections of the BaTiO3-Ceramics Microstructures

Authors: Z. B. Vosika
Comments: 9 Pages.

A new approach, based on nonlinear scaling corrections fractal geometry and dimension for doped BaTiO3-ceramics, is applied. The main conclusion was that intergranular capacities have various positive values then expected which is induced by contact surfaces sizes augmentation as a consequence of their new nonlinear fractal based nature, which includes the box size dependence of scaling. Also, introduced new model for intergaranular non-ideal capacitor, generalized Cole impedance element in conection with the parallel parasite capacity, resistivity and inductivity
Category: Condensed Matter

[384] viXra:1607.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 06:41:23

From Unbiased Numerical Estimates to Unbiased Interval Estimates

Authors: Baokun Li, Gang Xiang, Vladik Kreinovich, Panagios Moscopoulos
Comments: 12 Pages.

One of the main objectives of statistics is to estimate the parameters of a probability distribution based on a sample taken from this distribution.
Category: Statistics

[383] viXra:1607.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 06:43:40

Ultracold Atoms Collision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

University of Otago physicist Niels Kjaergaard and his team have used extremely precisely controlled laser beams to confine, accelerate and gently collide ultracold atomic clouds of fermionic potassium. This allowed them to directly observe a key principle of quantum theory, the Pauli Exclusion Principle. [16] First completely scalable quantum simulation of a molecule. [15] Quantum photonic researchers start new company, Sparrow Quantum. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[382] viXra:1607.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 01:00:22

Design of Carry Select Adder using Binary to Excess-3 Converter in VHDL

Authors: Brijesh Kumar, Mamta Kulkarni
Comments: 4 Pages. International Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Vol. 1 (2016) p. 114 - 117

This paper presents a modified design of Area-Efficient Low power Carry Select Adder (CSLA) Circuit. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to transmit a carry through the adder. Carry select adder processors and systems. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to propagate a carry through the adder. The sum for each bit position in an elementary adder is generated sequentially only after the previous bit position has been summed and a carry propagated into the next position. The major speed limitation in any adder is in the production of carries.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[381] viXra:1607.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 01:02:22

On a Possible Generalization of Fermat’s Last Theorem

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 3 Pages

This paper proposes a generalised ABC conjecture and assuming its validity settles a generalised version of Fermat’s last theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[380] viXra:1607.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 17:43:54

The Chemical Complexity Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper a simple principle is presented to connect the principle of biostellar evolution with the astrochemical principle in the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[379] viXra:1607.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 19:03:05

Variation of the Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Anton A. Lipovka, Ivan A. Cardenas
Comments: 9 Pages.

In present paper we evaluate the fine structure constant variation which should take place as the Universe is expanded and its curvature is changed adiabatically. This changing of the fine structure constant is attributed to the energy lost by physical system (consist of baryonic component and electromagnetic field) due to expansion of our Universe. Obtained ratio (d alpha)/alpha = 1. 10{-18} (per second) is only five times smaller than actually reported experimental limit on this value. For this reason this variation can probably be measured within a couple of years. To argue the correctness of our approach we calculate the Planck constant as adiabatic invariant of electromagnetic field, from geometry of our Universe in the framework of the pseudo- Riemannian geometry. Finally we discuss the double clock experiment based on Al+ and Hg+ clocks carried out by T. Rosenband et al. (Science 2008). We show that in this particular case there is an error in method and this way the fine structure constant variation can not be measured if the fine structure constant is changed adiabatically.
Category: Quantum Physics

[378] viXra:1607.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 19:11:03

Topological Condensation and Conversion of "Vapour Phase" Photons into Kinetic Energy

Authors: Martin Dudziak, Matti Pitkanen
Comments: 12 Pages.

A quantum topological network model that might allow for the production of energy through the employment of vacuum electromagnetic currents form is based upon foundational principles of topological geometrodynamics (TGD) [Pitkanen, 1995a, b]. Such a production photon-factory would have the capability of drawing upon a seemingly inexhaustible supply of what in TGD formalism is a "vapour phase" of photons. Particularly in the presence of Bose-Einstein condensate photons, it is theoretically possible to convert these "vapour phase" photons into condensed photons that can then be harnessed and transformed into useful kinetic energy by more traditional means. The problem of how to control the dynamics of transferring this energy into a useful and regulatable kinetic form, such as may be employed within an ion drive or any number of alternative propulsion methods, is significant and involves issues of developing coherence and resonance among locally chaotic and asynchronous systems. This difficulty may be solvable through the adaptation of algorithms and models developed for synchronizing heterogeneous nonequilibrium oscillator networks.
Category: Quantum Physics

[377] viXra:1607.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 20:50:45

How Quantum Events Can Play A Role in Coherent Biomolecular Systems

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 48 Pages. Early work, 1990s-2001

Foundational theory and models relating quantum physics and biomolecular communications (intracellular and intercellular) - solitons, biosolitons, quantum entanglement and coherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[376] viXra:1607.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 20:58:32

Quantum Dynamic Networks, Chaotic Solitons and Emergent Structures in Subcellular Processes: Possible Implications for Learning, Memory, and Cognition

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 11 Pages. Early work, @ 1994-1997

Molecular dynamics across large neural membrane and dispersed cytoskeletal structures are conjectured to provide the matrix of actions required for the emergence of coherent self- organized behavior. These patterns may be representable as non-stationary yet stable solitons, chaoitons, occurring as topological deformations at the scale of protein subchains, capable of stability over time for the storage of information, providing the basis for learning, memory, and consciousness. The problem of scalability may be addressed by examining self-similar soliton-like behavior among complexes of neurons operating within the matrix of synapto-dendritic field activity. Atomic force microscopic observation is seen as the most promising avenue toward experimental confirmation of such theoretical models.
Category: Quantum Physics

[375] viXra:1607.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:02:46

Hydrodynamics and the Simultaneity of Local Chaos and Global Particle-Like Behavior

Authors: Martin Dudziak, Matti Pitkanen
Comments: 12 Pages.

complex system moving toward a systemic stage of chaotic behavior often returns to some near-equilibrium through a set of stabilizing processes that are themselves locally chaotic. At different systemic levels this may be perceived in meteorological phenomena (hurricanes, typhoons, and tornadoes being classic examples), certain aspects of cell division and embryonic morphogenesis, thermal inversions, and in biological populations and societies. We concentrate on one aspect of this problem and address a formulation of hydrodynamics from the perspective of topological geometrodynamics (TGD) and a many-sheeted spacetime with characteristic p-adic length scales. We apply the TGD model as a method for understanding the question of how an apparent global and finite-bounded state of a system that is inherently also open and unbounded can operate to generate a massively parallel sequence of events without some disturbing form of nonlocality. Interaction of discrete 3-spaces through a network of “wormhole-like” connection or transfer points can provide an explanation of the convergence process by which events that are on the scale of the far-from-equilibrium system chaotic and disruptive do occur in specific spacetime locales relative to the scale of the overall system. The same multiple-space, wormhole-type transfer processes may also help to predict movement of such chaotic “release” engines once initiated until they have exhausted their supply of energy, via the excess energies of the embedding system in which they exist, and thereby introduced a new level of stabilization to that embedding system. Hydrodynamic and also aerodynamic vortices such as are characteristic of hurricanes and typhoons are approached through a particle description involving increasingly larger p-adic length scales. Topologically condensed ‘fluids’ of smaller p-adic length scale particles fuse and the kinetic energy of the particle motion in this length scale would be dissipated as turbulent fluid motion in shorter length scales by the formation of vortices.
Category: Quantum Physics

[374] viXra:1607.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:05:49

Topological Process Dynamics and Applications to Biosystems

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 61 Pages.

Development of theoretical foundations linking topological quantum space-time models to biological systems and evolution of macromolecular complex structures.
Category: Quantum Physics

[373] viXra:1607.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:10:55

Stimulated Topological Condensation of "Vapour Phase" Photons and Possible Implications for Space Power Technology

Authors: Martin Dudziak, Matti Pitkanen
Comments: 8 Pages.

A quantum topological model is offered for the potential of producing energy through vacuum electromagnetic current generation, and its possible use for exoplanetary space travel propulsion systems.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[372] viXra:1607.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:30:52

Pattern Recognition and Learning in Bistable Cam Networks

Authors: Vladimir Chinarov, Martin Dudziak, Yuri Kyrpach
Comments: 12 Pages.

The present study concerns the problem of learning, pattern recognition and computational abilities of a homogeneous network composed from coupled bistable units. New possibilities for pattern recognition may be realized due to the developed technique that permits a reconstruction of a dynamical system using the distributions of its attractors. In both cases the updating procedure for the coupling matrix uses the minimization of least-mean-square errors between the applied and desired patterns.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[371] viXra:1607.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:37:48

Design and Prototyping of Life Support and Agriculture for Extended Space Habitation and Travel

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 16 Pages.

An experimental design is presented for a modular, reconfigurable multi-function platform that can be constructed in near-orbit or deep-space, for use in life support and emergency repair/reconstruction tasks within extended long-distance and long-duration space missions. This design is based upon a series of predecessor designs and deployments originating in applications ranging from emergency services to environmental monitoring and testing labs. The novelty in this “PodAtrium” architecture is the emphasis upon multi-functionality for structural components as well as internal apparatus including furnishings that are composed of basic elements that can be disassembled and reassembled as necessary and as demanded by the needs of a crew operating in isolation from any support craft or stationary habitation such as an exoplanetary base. Attention in the present phase of research and development has been upon the use of structural elements within a PodAtrium complex that can serve alternatively for a hydroponics-based greenhouse, a fuel-cell based power plant, and an asteroid mining operation, each of which could conceivably fulfill important roles at different times in the lifespan operations for a long-distance interstellar space vehicle with human crew onboard.
Category: Astrophysics

[370] viXra:1607.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:42:26

Technologies to Support, Enhance and Protect Social Networking Freedoms During Periods of Social Unrest and Political Disruption

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 22 Pages.

We address the topic of internet and communications integrity and continuity during times of social unrest and disturbance where a variety of actions can lead to short-term or long-term disruption of conventional, public and private internet and wireless networks. The internet disruptions connected with WikiLeaks in 2010, those in Egypt and Libya during protests and revolution commencing in January of 2011, and long-standing controls upon internet access and content imposed within China and other nations, are considered as specific and contemporary examples. We examine alternatives that have been proposed by which large numbers of individuals can maintain “connectivity without borders.” We review the strengths and weaknesses of such alternatives, the countermeasures that can be employed against such connectivity, and a number of innovative measures that can be used to overcome such countermeasures.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[369] viXra:1607.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:58:38

Innovative and Increased Risks from CBR Disasters and Effective, Economical, Adaptive Countermeasures

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Ten years after 9-11 we are at a crucial junction point in our preparedness and defenses for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) events initiated by terrorists, accidents or natural causes. Despite a decade of intensified work and significant expenditure aimed at providing more effective prevention as well as response to a variety of WMD-type incidents, society (USA and worldwide) is facing a higher probability for disruptive events, particularly “CBR” (chem.-bio-rad) that can cripple nations and their economies. This statement is in contradiction to common public opinions expressed on the subject. Why are CBRN risks in fact higher than before, and why are some of the types of countermeasures, particular those focused strongly upon terrorist-origin CBR threats, insufficient for preparing and responding in ways required for maintaining social resilience and sustainability? Included in our assessment are non-terrorist events that can be potentially of greater damage and consequence than terrorist acts. We also examine the diversity and unpredictability by which principally CBR threats can be brought into a large and mobile population and how such events can be amplified and made more destructive, not only by physical measures, but by psychological impact and caused by mass-panic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[368] viXra:1607.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 23:18:06

Assessment of Antibiogram of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Enterobacter Aerogenes After Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) has been reported as the versatile opportunistic pathogen associated with the hospital infections worldwide. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on multidrug resistant clinical lab isolates (LSs) of E. aerogenes. The MDR isolates of E. aerogenes (i.e., LS 45 and LS 54) were divided into two groups, i.e., control and treated. Samples were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study, and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system, on day 10 after the biofield treatment. The antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 14.28% alteration out of twenty eight tested antimicrobials with respect to the control. The cefotetan sensitivity changed from intermediate (I) to inducible β-lactamase (IB), while piperacillin/tazobactam changed from resistant to IB in the treated LS 45. Improved sensitivity was reported in tetracycline, i.e., from I to susceptible (S) in LS 45, while chloramphenicol and tetracycline sensitivity changed from R to I in treated LS 54. Four-fold decrease in MIC value was reported in piperacillin/tazobactam, and two-fold decrease in cefotetan and tetracycline in the biofield treated LS 45 as compared to the control. MIC results showed an overall decreased MIC values in 12.50% tested antimicrobials such as chloramphenicol (16 µg/mL) and tetracycline (8 µg/mL) in LS 54. The biochemical study showed an overall 45.45% negative reaction in the tested biochemical in both the treated isolates as compared to the control. A change in biotype number was reported in MDR isolates (LS 45 and LS 54), while in LS 54, altered biotype number, i.e., 0406 0374 as compared to the control (7770 4376), with identification of the new species as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with brown color as special characteristic. The study findings suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on clinical MDR isolates of E. aerogenes has the significant effect on altering the sensitivity of antimicrobials, decreasing the MIC values, changed biochemical reactions, and biotype number.
Category: Biochemistry

[367] viXra:1607.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 23:20:53

Antibiogram Typing of Biofield Treated Multidrug Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus Species

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Antimicrobial resistance is a global health issue in the developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical lab isolates (LSs) of Staphylococcus species viz. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (LS 18), Staphylococcus epidermidis (LS 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (LS 30). Each strain was divided into the two groups i.e. control and treated. The control and treated groups were analyzed for the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical analysis and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment and compared with the control group. The sensitivity of erythromycin was improved from resistant to susceptible, while levofloxacin sensitivity was also improved from intermediate to susceptible in LS 21 isolate. The MIC results showed a decrease in the concentrations of ceftriaxone, erythromycin, imipenem, and levofloxacin antimicrobials in LS 21 as compared to the control. Linezolid and vancomycin also showed decrease in MIC as compared to the control in LS 30. Overall, 20.69% antimicrobials showed decrease in MIC value out of the tested twenty-nine after biofield treatment in Staphylococcus species. The biochemical study showed a 25% alteration in biochemical reactions as compared to the control. A significant change was reported in biotype numbers for all the three strains of MDR Staphylococcus species after biofield treatment as compared to the respective control group. On the basis of changed biotype number (306366) after biofield treatment in LS 18, the new organism was identified as Staphylococcus simulans with respect to the control species i.e. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (302302). The control group of S. epidermidis and S. aureus showed biotype number as 303064 and 757153 respectively. After biofield treatment, LS 21 and LS 30 isolates showed altered biotype number as 307064 and 317153 respectively. Overall, results conclude that biofield treatment could be used as complementary and alternative treatment strategy against multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus species with improved sensitivity and reduced MIC values of antimicrobial.
Category: Biochemistry

[366] viXra:1607.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 13:57:58

Storing Digital Information in DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[365] viXra:1607.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 10:23:11

DNA Information Layers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[364] viXra:1607.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 11:50:38

An Elementary Particle Pulsation Hypothesis Elucidates Real Nature of the Dark Energy.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis elucidates real nature of the dark energy. The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle.  The complete table of contents. From the beginning, was filled with dark energy throughout the universe. Dark energy ripples formed cosmic large-scale structure.
Category: Astrophysics

[363] viXra:1607.0449 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-02 10:30:02

Christology Reloaded: Selected Papers 2010-2016

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 166 Pages. This book is published in free pdf version only.

I am a fan of The Matrix Trilogy movies. And this book is inspired in part by that movie. But not only that, I am also inspired by a book written by Chris Seay, with title: The Gospel Reloaded. It is full of new thought provoking ideas based on The Matrix. The basic idea of this book is that it is possible to develop a new cosmology model inspired by Cosmic Christology. In other words, Christology is not a separate matter from science. From Christology as starting point, I began to develop various approaches based on wave physics, which I call: “fractal vibrating string.” Through this new cosmology model, I wish to offer a new path for dialogue between science and theology. Moreover, it offers a new and fresh approach to understand the bible in this modern age. I sincerely hope that you will like this new path, as I like it very much.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[362] viXra:1607.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 08:52:52

Charge Density Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Newly discovered material property may lead to high temp superconductivity. [32] Superconductivity (SC) and ferromagnetism (FM) are mutually antagonistic collective phenomena in solids. Macroscopically, a superconductor expels magnetic fluxes from its interior below the superconducting critical temperature TSC. By contrast, a ferromagnet magnetizes itself (for a single magnetic domain) spontaneously below the ferromagnetic transition temperature TFM. [31] A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[361] viXra:1607.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 01:13:03

Note on the Free Fall Experiment of the Bremen Tower

Authors: Paris S. Miles-Brenden
Comments: 5 Pages. philosophy of physics, free fall, freefall, superconductivity, inertia, gravitation, gravity

A seemingly empty relation of physical law implicates a testable hypothesis of physics by contradiction in relation to the test of WEP.
Category: Classical Physics

[360] viXra:1607.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 03:13:10

The Current Status of the Physicalist Program [PHPR]

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

Status of PHPR.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[359] viXra:1607.0445 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-21 11:29:06

The Axioms of Quantum Field Theory, Quantum Variational Calculus, Quantum Logic Theory, Quantum Computability, Quantum Computational Complexity and Quantum Geometric Algebra

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I set down the Axioms of Quantum Field Theory, Quantum Variational Calculus, Quantum Logic Theory, Quantum Computability, Quantum Computational Complexity and Quantum Geometric Algebra
Category: Quantum Physics

[358] viXra:1607.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 18:52:40

Continuous Atoms and The Propagation of Light

Authors: Roger Munday
Comments: 10 Pages.

Currently accepted theories of the structure of macroscopic matter fail to explain the transmission of gravity and of electro-magnetic radiation. These theories are therefore, in some fundamental aspects, false. Technologies available today demonstrate that the structure of solid matter is not one of discontinuous atoms. This paper suggests that they are not, as postulated, composed of almost entirely a "perfect vacuum" and are not separated by large volumes of 'empty space'.
Category: Classical Physics

[357] viXra:1607.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 13:21:22

Titius-Bode Law as a Direct Manifestation of Gravitational Waves

Authors: J.R. Croca, P. Castro, M. Gatta, A. Cardoso, R. Moreira
Comments: 10 pages, 4 figures

Since its initial proposal in 1766, Titius-Bode empirical law remains a puzzling source of discomfort as it predicts the average distances from the planets to the Sun for no apparent reason. Using a framework analogous to de Broglie’s pilot wave theory and the self-organizing Principle of Eurhythmy, we claim that several main physical quantities describing the Solar System are quantified. Hence Titius-Bode Law is a direct manifestation of gravitational waves in the Solar System.
Category: Quantum Physics

[356] viXra:1607.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 11:22:58

The Gravichemical Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A fundamental principle of nature is as follows concerning stars ability to provide activation energy requirements for chemical reactions to take place during stellar evolution according to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[355] viXra:1607.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 11:25:11

The Principle of Star Water Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A fundamental principle of nature is as follows concerning water formation on evolving stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[354] viXra:1607.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 11:37:32

Nuclear Forces, Gravity, Electromagnetic Force of Unity.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

Chapter 8: Nuclear forces, gravity,electromagnetic force of unity. [1]... to the goal of modern physics and the Super grand unified theory hypothesis. [2]. elementary pulsation principle announced in 1980, with the physical society of Japan. [3]... article published in 1980, has been kept on the cinii National Institute of Informatics, Japan physical society. [4]... on the Internet Encyclopaedia Wikipedia articles. [5]... Nuclear forces, gravity, electromagnetic force of unity. [6]... unity based on elementary pulsation principle forces, gravity, electromagnetic force. [7]. structure of pulsating principle model for finite nuclei. [8]. it front and back of the same photon-photon and quantum gravity.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[353] viXra:1607.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:03:37

Exact Diagonalization of the D-Dimensional Spatially Confined Quantum Harmonic Oscillator

Authors: Kunle Adegoke, Adenike Olatinwo, Henry Otobrise, Funmi Akintujoye, Afees Tiamiyu
Comments: 18 Pages.

In the existing literature various numerical techniques have been developed to quantize the confined harmonic oscillator in higher dimensions. In obtaining the energy eigenvalues, such methods often involve indirect approaches such as searching for the roots of hypergeometric functions or numerically solving a differential equation. In this paper, however, we derive an explicit matrix representation for the Hamiltonian of a confined quantum harmonic oscillator in higher dimensions, thus facilitating direct diagonalization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[352] viXra:1607.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:06:52

Infinite Arctangent Sums Involving Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

Authors: Kunle Adegoke
Comments: 15 Pages.

Using a straightforward elementary approach, we derive numerous infinite arctangent summation formulas involving Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. While most of the results obtained are new, a couple of celebrated results appear as particular cases of the more general formulas derived here.
Category: Number Theory

[351] viXra:1607.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:10:47

Gravitational Collapse Versus Plate Tectonics to Explain Earthquakes

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is presented sound reasoning that earthquakes are caused by buildup and release of huge amounts of pressure in rocks due to gravitational collapse of the Earth, and not moving plates.
Category: Geophysics

[350] viXra:1607.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:21:26

On Approximating the Free Harmonic Oscillator by a Particle in a Box

Authors: Kunle Adegoke, Adenike Olatinwo, Henry Otobrise, Funmi Akintujoye, Afees Tiamiyu
Comments: 11 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate and illustrate, once again, the potency of the variational technique as an approximation procedure for the quantization of quantum mechanical systems. By choosing particle-in-a-box wavefunctions as trial wavefunctions, with the size of the box as the variation parameter, approximate eigenenergies and the corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained for the one dimensional free harmonic oscillator.
Category: Quantum Physics

[349] viXra:1607.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:24:01

Challenge "Proof of the Lehman Expectation".

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

Chapter12. Challenge "proof of the Lehman expectation". A mathematics difficult problem biggest in history. [1] With the mathematics difficult problem "proof of the Lehman expectation" biggest in history. [2] I challenge the difficult problem Lehman expectation that rejected the geniuses challenge for 150 years. [3] It is challenged the mystery of the prime number, a mathematics difficult problem biggest in history, proof of the Lehman expectation. [4] Neology of the Lehman expectation. A point of intersection that all 0 points are straight. [5] An elementary particle pulsation principle founds a door of the Lehman expected proof.
Category: Number Theory

[348] viXra:1607.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 08:41:31

Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Scientists have discovered an anomaly in the properties of ice at very cold temperatures near 20 K, which they believe can be explained by the quantum tunneling of multiple protons simultaneously. The finding is a rare instance of quantum phenomena emerging on the macroscopic scale, and is even more unusual because it is only the second time—the first being superconductivity— that macroscopic quantum phenomena have been observed in a system that is based on fermions, which include protons, electrons, and all other matter particles. Other systems exhibiting macroscopic quantum phenomena have been based on photons, a type of boson, which mediate the forces between matter. [11] Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[347] viXra:1607.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 09:09:27

P vs NP ... Are They Same ?

Authors: Hemant Pandey
Comments: 13 Pages. With drawl paper due to technical reasons.

P vs NP is possibly one of the most crucial problems’s of our era owing to the fact that it directly affects one of the most 8 basic things of our modern day survival, the Internet security. The proof will be surely a big blow to the RSA ciphering– 9 deciphering technology but it the way it is! Genuine apologies for P = NP. As for as mathematical gain is concern it is a 10 result that opens a search for solution of those 300 plus NP complete problems and much more. The present proof resolves 11 P = NP by the solution of NP complete Hamiltonians path problem in polynomial time. The proof is using topology and 12 simple geometry. Hence P = NP; solved for the Hamiltonians path problem or Traveling salesman problem as it is called 13 so. NP complete Hamiltonian’s path problem has a polynomial time solution, i.e. P =CN 4 for HPP. 14 2006 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[346] viXra:1607.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 06:46:26

A Hypothesis Reforms a Super String Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

A hypothesis reforms a super string theory. Chapter6. No. 3: revolution in superstring theory. [1]. Advanced "superstring theory" [2]... most likely candidate for the ultimate theory and superstring theory. [3]... continued looking for Einstein 4-dimensional space. [4]. elementary pulsation principle is the new geometric model of superstring theory. [5] Waveform pulse Ultra is a string.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[345] viXra:1607.0430 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-10 01:41:23

A 34 me Neutral Boson, Predicted by a Particles Cold Genesis Theory and Experimentally Evidenced, as Argument for a Preonic Quark Model

Authors: Marius Arghirescu
Comments: 8 Pages. partially published to IJHEP

The new neutral boson of 34 me , experimentally evidenced and supposed to be an X-boson of a fifth basic force, was predicted as being a basic z0 preon of cold formed quarks by a pre-quantum model of elementary particle resulted from an etherono-quantonic theory of the author, and can be a strong argument for a Bose-Einstein condensate model of particle, resulted by magnetically confined gammons formed as pairs of quasielectrons. A strong argument in the favour of the preonic structure of quarks and for the Cold Genesis of the elementary particles is proposed a new, pre-quantum model of quark resulted in theory with quasi-crystallin preonic structure, given by a quasi-crystallin form of the basic preon z0 , resulted as cluster of quasi-electrons. The brought arguments sustain also the conclusion that the z0 boson can be a „dark matter” constituent.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[344] viXra:1607.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 03:36:35

Gravity Waves and Mercury Revise Geodynamo

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 8 Pages.

Most people have a rough idea of the cause of Earth's magnetic field, don't they? It's the geodynamo, also called the magnetic dynamo theory. The heat from the solid inner core puts the liquid outer core in motion, and the movements of the outer core's electrically conducting fluids (such as molten iron) generate the planet's magnetic field. Electrically conducting fluids occur in the Sun, other stars and most planets – and are the scientifically accepted mechanism for magnetic fields. However, the planet Mercury suggests this process is wrong. Is it possible to propose a plausible alternative? The proposal here has both Earthly and Space components - it is still linked to the nature of, and motions in, the core plus it refers to the phenomenon of zero electrical resistance known as superconductivity as well as the recent discovery of gravitational waves. It also refers to the Moon's attraction on Earth's oceans, binary stars, the Sun's coronal heating and mass ejections, sunspots and mini ice ages, and black holes. A proposal that has support from only one or two sources may indeed prove to be correct. But surely support from several additional sources must greatly improve that proposal's chances of success. It's the goal of this article to be comprehensive in presenting its approach to the geodynamo. It's important to properly understand our planet's magnetic field because it protects us from the charged particles of the solar wind and cosmic rays. Without this protection from the magnetosphere, Earth would be stripped of its ozone layer that keeps excess ultraviolet radiation from harming life. And no magnetic field also means no atmospheric light displays called auroras, as well as no direction-finding compasses.
Category: Geophysics

[343] viXra:1607.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 04:23:12

Simultaneous Photon Absorption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Theorists show that two atoms in an optical cavity can absorb the same photon. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[342] viXra:1607.0427 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-25 11:50:59

A New Dark Matter Density Profile as Power of Gravitational Field for Coma Cluster

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 18 Pages. In V2 DM has been got by analitical integration instead numerical. Calculus and observation differ 6% instead 8 %.

For last two years I have published eight papers about DM on galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original profile called Bernoulli profile and check its results with other standard DM profiles such as NFW, Burket or Pseudo-Isothemal. Results on every galaxy checked have been successful. The importance these works is that Bernoulli profile is supported by an original hypothesis about Dark matter nature. This hypothesis stated that dark matter is generated locally by gravitational field, E, according an unknown quantum mechanism. Formula which relates DM density and gravitational field is DM density = A•E^B. Where A & B are parameters. Now , in this paper Dark matter density in Coma cluster will be studied with the same method. Briefly is going to be explained the structure of this paper. Firstly are presented data Coma Cluster, which come from recent papers published in 2016. They are two couples of radius and mass enclosed by its sphere. Radius considered are R500 = 1.314 Mpc and Virial radius = 3.1 Mpc With only two couple of data is fitted NFW profile for Dark matter density in Coma cluster within an interval radius 1.314 Mpc to 3.1 Mpc. NFW profile is an intermediate processes to get A & B parameters of formula DM density = A•E^B. Finally it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for E whose solution gives DM density Bernoulli profile and whose dominion extend up to 14 Mpc. As it is known DM through NFW profile gives an excessive amount of DM within halo up to 14 Mpc. This is the reason why I have tried with Bernoulli profile. According Chernin,A. 2013. At cluster scale is needed to consider dark energy, gravitating mass and matter mass. This formula relates three masses. MG (R) = MM (R) + MDE (R) .Dark energy is a negative quantity. So gravitating mass, which is the mass measured by observation is lower than mass matter which is baryonic mass plus dark matter. Result got as gravitating mass within cluster halo up to 14 Mpc through DM calculated with Bernoulli profile is 2.25• 10 ^15 Solar masses and differ only 6% regarding gravitating mass got by Geller M.J. & Diaferio A. 1999 whereas gravitating mass got with NFW differ more than 600%.
Category: Astrophysics

[341] viXra:1607.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 23:25:10

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated P-Anisidine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The p-anisidine is widely used as chemical intermediate in the production of various dyes, pigments, and pharmaceuticals. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-anisidine. The study was performed after dividing the sample in two groups; one was remained as untreated and another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Afterward, both the control and treated samples of p-anisidine were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetry (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis showed the increase in unit cell volume from 683.81 → 690.18 × 10-24 cm3 and crystallite size from 83.84→84.62 nm in the treated sample with respect to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited the significant increase (25.44%) in the surface area of treated sample as compared to control. The DSC thermogram of control p-anisidine showed the latent heat of fusion and melting temperature and 146.78 J/g and 59.41°C, respectively, which were slightly increased to 148.89 J/g and 59.49°C, respectively after biofield treatment. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 134.68°C in the control sample that was increased to 150.02°C after biofield treatment. The result showed about 11.39% increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation of treated p-anisidine as compared to the control. Moreover, the Tmax (temperature at which maximum thermal degradation occurs) was also increased slightly from 165.99°C (control) to 168.10°C (treated). This indicated the high thermal stability of treated p-anisidine as compared to the control. However, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopic studies did not show any significant changes in the spectral properties of treated p-anisidine with respect to the control. All together, the XRD, surface area and thermal analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of the treated p-anisidine.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[340] viXra:1607.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 23:30:02

Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Biochemical Characterization and Molecular Typing of Biofield Treated Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Pathogenic isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), particularly the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains, are mostly associated with the failure of antibiotic therapy in nosocomial infections. The present work was designed to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of K. pneumoniae. The strain of K. pneumoniae bearing ATCC 15380 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from the Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and analyzed for the antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotyping using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Further, the effect of biofield treatment was also evaluated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics of biofield treated K. pneumoniae samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility results showed an improve sensitivity (i.e. from intermediate to susceptible) of ampicillin/sulbactam and chloramphenicol, while altered sensitivity of cephalothin (i.e. from susceptible to intermediate) was also reported as compared to the control sample. The MIC value showed two-fold decrease in MIC value of ampicillin/sulbactam (i.e. 16/8 to ≤8/4 µg/mL) and chloramphenicol (i.e. 16 to ≤ 8 µg/mL) as compared to the control. The cephalothin showed two-folds change (i.e. ≤ 8 to 16 µg/mL) in the MIC value as compared with the control. Biofield treatment showed 9.09% alterations in biochemical reactions followed by a change in biotype number (7774 4272) in the treated group with respect to the control (7774 4274). Genetic fingerprinting was performed on control and treated samples using RAPD-PCR biomarkers, which showed an average range of 11 to 15% of polymorphism among the treated samples with respect to the control. These results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on K. pneumoniae.
Category: Chemistry

[339] viXra:1607.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 15:26:31

A Comment on the Dimensionless Gravitational Coupling Constant

Authors: Randy Sorokowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Gravitational Coupling Constant maybe a universal scaling factor.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[338] viXra:1607.0423 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-18 09:26:16

Inconsistency Solution of Maxwell's Equations

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 180 Pages.

A new solution of Maxwell equations for a vacuum, for wire with constant and alternating current, for the capacitor, for the sphere, etc. is presented. First it must be noted that the proof of the solution's uniqueness is based on the Law of energy conservation which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in the known solution. The solution offered: •Describes wave in vacuum and wave in wire; •Complies with the energy conservation law in each moment of time, i.e. sets constant density of electromagnetic energy flux; •Reveals phase shifting between electrical and magnetic intensities; •Explains existence of energy flux along the wire that is equal to the power consumed. The work offers some technical applications of the solution obtained. A detailed proof is given for interested readers.
Category: Classical Physics

[337] viXra:1607.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 13:12:18

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle. the Complete Table of Contents.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

Chapter1.Elementary particle pulsation principle.[1] Basic concept of the elementary particle pulsation principle. [2] The concepts of elementary particle pulsation principle. and the existing facts. [3] The grounds that came up with the idea of the hypothesis of the pulsation principle.Its history. [4] The first step to elementary particle pulsation principle birth. [5] I built the geometric model of the elementary particle pulsation principle. [6] Summary of the elementary particle pulsation principle. [7] The hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle. (The original of the 1980 announcement) [8] An elementary particle is a lump of the energy. It is super-high-speed and pulsates. The reason. [9] The application of the elementary particle pulsation principle. The grounds of the idea. [10] The characteristic list of the elementary particle pulsation principle. (Timing distinction). [11] Figure of the quantum-mechanical uncertainty principle. [12] The idea of elementary pulsation principle apply the concepts. [13] Elementary pulsation principle concepts of theoretical physics puzzler. (1-33)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[336] viXra:1607.0421 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-07 08:10:32

The Theory of Ultralogics, the Modified Robinson Approach, and GID

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 8 Pages.

The basic mathematical aspects of the GGU and GID models are discussed. As an illustration, the modified Robinson approach is used to give a more direct prediction as to the composition of ultra-propertons. Relative to logic-systems, the refined developmental paradigm is applied to the General Intelligent Design (GID) model and the basic GID statements are given.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[335] viXra:1607.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 10:03:40

Quantum Error Correction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[334] viXra:1607.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:45:37

Aggregation of Triangular Fuzzy Neutrosophic Set Information and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper is devoted to propose triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic sets by combining triangular fuzzy numbers with single valued neutrosophic set and define some of its operational rules. Then, triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic weighted arithmetic averaging operator and triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic weighted geometric averaging operator are defined to aggregate triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic sets.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[333] viXra:1607.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:47:22

A Projection Model of Neutrosophic Numbers for Multiple Attribute Decision Making of Clay-Brick Selection

Authors: Jiqian Chen, Jun Ye
Comments: 4 Pages.

Brick plays a significant role in building construction.So we should use the effective mathematical decision making tool to select quality clay-bricks for building construction. The purpose of this paper is to present a projection model of neutrosophic numbers and its decision-making method for the selecting problems of clay-bricks with neutrosophic number information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[332] viXra:1607.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:49:28

Assessing it Projects Success with Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps in Comparison to Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Kanika Bhutani, Megha Kumar, Gaurav Garg, Swati Aggarwal
Comments: 11 Pages.

IT projects hold a huge importance to economic growth. Today, half of the capital investments are in IT technology. IT systems and projects are extensive and time consuming; thus implying that its failure is not affordable, so proper feasibility study of assessing project success factors is required. A current methodology like Fuzzy Cognitive Maps has been experimented for identifying and evaluating the success factors in IT projects, but this technique has certain limitations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[331] viXra:1607.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:52:13

Critical Review, Vol. Xii, 2016

Authors: Paul P. Wang, John N. Mordeson, Mark J. Wierman
Comments: 114 Pages.

We have proposed two multi-criteria decision making methods, Extended α-D MCDM and α-D MCDM-TOPSIS models that allow to work for consistent and inconsistent MCDM problems. In addition, three examples have demonstrated that the α-D MCDM-TOPSIS model is efficient and robust.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[330] viXra:1607.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:56:11

Nω –CLOSED Sets in Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Santhi R., Udhayarani N.
Comments: 4 Pages.

Neutrosophic set and Neutrosophic Topological spaces has been introduced by Salama. Neutrosophic Closed set and Neutrosophic Continuous Functions were introduced by Salama et. al.. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Nω- closed sets and their properties in Neutrosophic topological spaces.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[329] viXra:1607.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:57:38

Neutrosophic Crisp α-Topological Spaces

Authors: A.A.Salama, I.M.Hanafy, Hewayda Elghawalby, M.S.Dabash
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, a generalization of the neutrosophic topological space is presented. The basic definitions of the neutrosophic crisp α-topological space and the neutrosophic crisp α-compact space with some of their characterizations are deduced. Furthermore, we aim to construct a netrosophic crisp α-continuous function, with a study of a number its properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[328] viXra:1607.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:59:12

Neutrosophic Goal Programming Applied to Bank: Three Investment Problem

Authors: Rittik Roy, Pintu Das
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper represents a new multiobjective Neutrosophic goal programming and Lexicographic goal programming to solve a multiobjective linear programming problem. Here we describe some basic properties of Neutrosophic sets. We have considered a multi-objective Bank Three Investment model to get optimal solution for different weights.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[327] viXra:1607.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:00:21

Neutrosophic Hyperideals of Semihyperrings

Authors: Debabrata Mandal
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we have introduced neutrosophic hyperideals of a semihyperring and considered some operations on them to study its basic notions and properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[326] viXra:1607.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:03:25

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 12, 2016

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Said Broumi, A.A.Salama
Comments: 144 Pages.

“Neutrosophic Sets and Systems” has been created for publications on advanced studies in neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics that started in 1995 and their applications in any field, such as the neutrosophic structures developed in algebra, geometry, topology, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[325] viXra:1607.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:05:15

Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Anjan Mukherjee, Mithun Datta, Sadhan Sarkar
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short). Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[324] viXra:1607.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:06:30

Smooth Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: M. K. EL Gayyar
Comments: 8 Pages.

As a new branch of philosophy, the neutrosophy was presented by Smarandache in 1980. It was presented as the study of origin, nature, and scope of neutralities; as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. The aim in this paper is to introduce the concepts of smooth neutrosophic topological space, smooth neutrosophic cotopological space, smooth neutrosophic closure, and smooth neutrosophic interior. Furthermore, some properties of these concepts will be investigated.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[323] viXra:1607.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:07:36

Some Studies in Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: Nasir Shah
Comments: 11 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the notion of neutrosophic graphs, weak isomorphisms, co-weak isomorphisms and isomorphisms between two neutrosophic graphs. It is proved that the isomorphism between the two neutrosophic graphs is an equivalence relation. Some other properties of morphisms are also discussed in this paper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[322] viXra:1607.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:09:08

Value and Ambiguity Index Based Ranking Method of Single-Valued Trapezoidal Neutrosophic Numbers and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 12 Pages.

The objective of the paper ARE to introduce single-valued trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers(SVTrNNs), which is a special case of single-valued neutrosophic numbers and to develop a ranking method for ranking SVTrNNs. Some operational rules as well as cut sets of SVTrNNs have been introduced.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[321] viXra:1607.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 07:10:20

Quantum Tomography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A breakthrough into the full characterisation of quantum states has been published today as a prestigious Editors' Suggestion in the journal Physical Review Letters. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[320] viXra:1607.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 01:15:16

Eternal Living Conceived by Saint Ramalingar

Authors: Thaa Swamiji
Comments: 13 Pages. na

The human being is unique and is highly evolved species from all animate entities. Its greatness is not only its creative thinking as well as its constant inclination towards the original source from which it has emanated. The other animals act and react by its inbuilt genetically programmed instinct; they just exist by survival of the fittest. Their operations are limited to eating, mating, sleeping and self defending. Since the capabilities of the brain are under developed. They were not able to withstand the vagaries of nature and so they enslaved by nature. .....
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[319] viXra:1607.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 01:18:42

Om Sri Gurubyo Namaha

Authors: Thaa Swamiji
Comments: 164 Pages. na

The author His Holiness Seshadri Sivanar is an erudite and well informed of the treatises in Sanskrit and Tamil which are akin to the vast expansed ocean. He was very much delighted and interested to present to the world, his self knowledge of the “identity of the Soul and the Reality” attained by his self experience. ....
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[318] viXra:1607.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 01:20:56

The Spiritual Wisdom of Sasi Vannan

Authors: Thaa Swamiji
Comments: 22 Pages. na

As moon, sun, fire, water, air, ether, earth and Individual self, in an octal form (Attamoortham); As substratum (Athipathi) for all and in existence and in non- existence is That Pure Consciousness in my heart; meditate it I *By the utterance of the learned and by the acumen of the intellect The humans distinguish as the path I follow is good The path the other follows is bad; Yet, for all the Reality reveals as they thinketh; So shall I be as the Absoluteness and abide in it ...
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[317] viXra:1607.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 01:22:47

On the Creation of Our Universe

Authors: Thaa Swamiji
Comments: 37 Pages. NA

The ancient Indian seers are not much concerned about creation theory. Though they have formulated a more reasonable theory in Thaitriya Upanishad. The A agamas (meaning journey to the Divinity/Aa divinity, Gama). In India, there is a famous cupid festival which is based on the puranic mythological episode of Lord Siva burning to ashes the Cupid, the deity of sex and vitality. So, an image of the deity cupid has to be created to burn him in the celebration of the festival. The purpose is transcendence from the haunting thought of desire to divinity as well as a inner transformation from sex to super consciousness. So, the celebrities are not concerned in making and beautifying the image of the cupid and a just ordinary simple image is created .So also, the purpose of the seers is to regain the paradise lost. So to say, to establish an identity for the individual self with the divinity. So, a creation basis from divinity to the element earth is needed to retreat the path that is from projection to dissolution. However, the well informed say that there are more than 62 theories of creation each speaking differently. The main texts are mythology, Upanishads, Saiva and sakta agamas and the scientific theories like big bang and so on extending to quantum theory. Abi initio, there are two basic theories about creation. The first negates the creation and says that everything is one only , whatever you see is the Absolute alone; there is none a second what it is said ass second is unreal including Maya. This is known as non creation doctrine.(Ajada Vaatham) The other is doctrine of creation in which are seen including Maya are real and so doer. However, if there is an effect, the cause must be included in the effect and the effect cannot be without a cause (sad Kariya Vaatham) The eternal existence as cause produces different effects and for each one there is a cause. If at all any other thing is to be introduced certain special significance are to be attached to the non real. In this work the author attempts to make a brief review of various creation theories and tries to give a theory acceptable to the prudence logic, good conscience and equity of the common man.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[316] viXra:1607.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 22:44:27

Is Dirichlet's Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem for N = 5 Flawed

Authors: Quang Nguyen Van
Comments: 3 Pages.

We give an illogical point in Dirichlet's proof, therefore the used infininite descent is not powered in his proof
Category: Number Theory

[315] viXra:1607.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 23:29:51

Evaluation of Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Treated P-Hydroxyacetophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

P-Hydroxyacetophenone (pHAP) is an aromatic ketone derivative that is mainly used in the manufacturing of various pharmaceuticals, flavours, fragrances, etc. In the present study, the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment was analysed on various properties of pHAP viz. crystallite size, surface area, melting temperature, thermal decomposition, and spectral properties. The pHAP sample was divided into two parts; one was kept as control sample while another part was named as treated sample. The treated sample was given the biofield energy treatment and various parameters were analysed as compared to the control sample by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ultravioletvisible (UV-VIS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD studies showed the decrease in crystallite size of the treated sample (61.25 nm) as compared to the control (84.18 nm); however the intensity of peaks in diffractogram was increased in treated sample. Besides, the surface area of treated sample was decreased by 41.17% as compared to the control. The TGA analysis revealed that onset temperature as well as Tmax (maximum thermal decomposition temperature) was increased in the treated sample. However, the latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was decreased from 124.56 J/g (control) to 103.24 J/g in the treated sample. The treated and control samples were also evaluated by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy and did not show any significant alteration in spectra of treated sample as compared to the respective control. Hence, the overall results suggest that there was an impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of pHAP sample.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[314] viXra:1607.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 23:32:54

Isotopic Abundance Analysis of Biofield Treated Benzene, Toluene and P-Xylene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Benzene, toluene and p-xylene are derivatives of benzene, generally produced from crude petroleum and have numerous applications in industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on isotopic abundance of these benzene derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Benzene, toluene and p-xylene samples were divided into two parts: control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2 H/1 H (PM+1/PM) of treated samples were significantly increased from un-substituted to substituted benzene rings (where, PM- primary molecule, PM+1- isotopic molecule either for 13C/12C and/or 2 H/1 H). The isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2 H/1 H (PM+1/PM) in benzene was decreased significantly by 42.14% as compared to control. However, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1/PM) in treated toluene and p-xylene was significantly increased up to 531.61% and 134.34% respectively as compared to their respective control. Thus, overall data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1/PM) in a different way for un-substituted and substituted benzenes.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[313] viXra:1607.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 00:51:49

Misconception of Kundalini

Authors: Thaa Samiji
Comments: 17 Pages. NA

A worldwide awareness is being created for more than five decades beginning from the visit of Swami Vivekananda to the United States of America and a historical famous lecture made by him in the world religious conference at Chicago in the year ----------. Thenceforth several spiritual dignitaries propagated both by introducing yogic practice based on the eight limbed aphorisms of mystic union. (Patanjali Astaanga yoga sutras) Ghernda Samhita, Siva Samhita and Hatha yoga Deepika and from the texts of Thantra spiritual science. ...
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[312] viXra:1607.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 00:58:37

A Surprising Phenomenon in Vedic Philosophy

Authors: Thaa Swamiji
Comments: 53 Pages. na

Maslow has classified the human needs in to five parts. They are physiological, sex, safety, esteem and higher self actualization. Many persons live in this world un aware of the purposes of life. The aim of the life shall be un tainted absolute bliss. Bliss which is the result of the fulfillment of the self actualizing. Swami Vivekananda famous statement is “every soul is potentially Divine”. So, the purpose of life is to re-discover the Divinity in every entity not only in us and make it known to the intellect. A process of self enquiry is essential to know our real Nature as to” who am I”
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[311] viXra:1607.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 13:35:03

Arbitrary Dimensional User Interfaces

Authors: Frank Edughom Ekpar
Comments: 91 Pages. International Application Number: PCT/US2012/066159; International Publication Number: WO 2014/081420 A1

The present invention discloses an arbitrary dimensional graphical user interface permitting the display or presentation of one or more instances of the user interface on one or more arbitrarily-sized and arbitrarily-shaped surfaces with each instance comprising one or more arbitrary dimensional background elements each of which is divided into one or more arbitrarily-sized and arbitrarily-shaped arbitrary dimensional partitions, wherein each partition may contain one or more user interface elements and is associated with one or more sets of rules that define rendering, positioning, element placement and other relevant attributes and behaviors, wherein said rules can be specified in such a way as to enable said arbitrary dimensional background to assume any desired arbitrary shape and to facilitate expansion to any desired arbitrary size without distortion or loss in quality. In this context, an instance of a graphical user interface is any display or presentation of any representation of any aspect of the user interface. Furthermore, the present invention discloses automatic, semi-automatic or manual processing systems for arbitrary dimensional graphical user interfaces based on the principles of the present invention.
Category: Classical Physics

[310] viXra:1607.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 14:54:41

Analysis of Sunflower Data from a Multi-Attribute Genotype ×environment Trial in Brazil

Authors: Marisol García-Peña, Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón, Kaye Basford, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias
Comments: 13 Pages.

In multi-environment trials it is common to measure several response variables or attributes to determine the genotypes with the best characteristics. Thus it is important to have techniques to analyse multivariate multi-environment trial data. The main objective is to complement the literature on two multivariate techniques, the mixture maximum likelihood method of clustering and three-mode principal component analysis, used to analyse genotypes, environments and attributes simultaneously. In this way, both global and detailed statements about the performance of the genotypes can be made, highlighting the benefit of using three-way data in a direct way and providing an alternative analysis for researchers. We illustrate using sunflower data with twenty genotypes, eight environments and three attributes. The procedures provide an analytical procedure which is relatively easy to apply and interpret in order to describe the patterns of performance and associations in multivariate multi-environment trials.
Category: Statistics

[309] viXra:1607.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 07:21:58

LUX Dark Matter Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The LUX Dark Matter Experiment operates a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. It's location helps shield the detector from background radiation that could confound a dark matter signal. [18] To address this problem, physicists are working on developing ever more sensitive dark matter detectors. In a new paper, researchers have proposed a new type of dark matter detector made of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with zero resistance at ultracold temperatures—that may offer the highest sensitivity yet for detecting "superlight" dark matter. Superlight dark matter has a mass at the low end of the range of 1 keV (1000 electron volts) to 10 GeV, or in other words, up to a million times lighter than the proton. [17] Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [16] A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15] Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[308] viXra:1607.0390 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-19 18:36:02

The Evolution of the System of Gravitating Bodies

Authors: Kiryan D.G., Kiryan G.V.
Comments: 19 Pages. 9 Figures, 3 Tables, English

A natural physical approach to the analysis of the structure of closed gravitating systems has been formulated in the scope of classical mechanics. The approach relies on the interrelation between densities of nested spheres inscribed in the circular orbits of the system bodies. An empirical law has been defined for the evolution of closed gravitating systems differing in mass, time scale and distance from the ground-based Observer. The gravitating systems undergo modifications and evolve from their initial state, namely, a gas-and-dust formation of almost constant density over the entire volume, to a certain terminal phase of the process when the system structure becomes similar to the planetary system (like the Solar system) where almost all the gravitating mass is concentrated in the vicinity of the system center of gravity. Using the proposed method of nested spheres, it is possible to reveal for the gravitating system the character of radial distribution of matter density in the system symmetry plane, quantitatively evaluate the density of medium containing the gravitating system under consideration, and assess the current phase of the system evolution. The research results have led us to a conclusion that introduction into the scientific practice of such an entity as "dark matter" has no physical background since it is based on a wrong interpretation of an "unordinary" distribution of star orbital velocities in galaxies.
Category: Classical Physics

[307] viXra:1607.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 04:30:38

Quantized Spin Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In a new study, University of Iowa theoretical physicist Michael Flatté proposes that a magnetic current flowing through a magnetic iron sheet will cause a current in a second, nearby magnetic iron sheet, even though the sheets aren't connected. The movement is created, Flatté and his team say, when electrons whose magnetic spin is disturbed by the current on the first sheet exert a force, through electromagnetic radiation, to create magnetic spin in the second sheet. [13] In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[306] viXra:1607.0388 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-20 18:31:37

Why do We Live in a Quantum World?

Authors: Craig Alan Feinstein
Comments: Physics Essays, Volume 30: Pages 57-59, 2017.

Anybody who has ever studied quantum mechanics knows that it is a very counterintuitive theory, even though it has been an incredibly successful theory. This paper aims to remove this counterintuitiveness by showing that the laws of quantum mechanics are a natural consequence of classical Newtonian mechanics combined with the digital universe hypothesis of Konrad Zuse and Edward Fredkin. We also present a possible way to test the digital universe hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Physics

[305] viXra:1607.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 23:18:00

Bio-field Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

The present research work investigated the influence of bio-field treatment on two common flavoring agents used in food industries namely beef extract powder (BEP) and meat infusion powder (MIP). The treated powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FT-IR results showed disappearance of triglycerides peaks in both the treated powders as compared to control. XRD results corroborated the amorphous nature of both control and treated samples. The BEP showed enhanced average particle size (d50) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 5.7% and 16.1%, respectively as compared to control. Contrarily, the MIP showed a decreased particle size (d50; 0.4% and d99; 18.1%) as compared to control. It was assumed that enormous energy was stored in MIP after bio-field treatment that led to fracture into smaller particles. The surface area was increased in both the treated powders. DSC result showed significant increase in melting temperature, in BEP and MIP, which indicated the higher thermal stability of the samples. However, the specific heat capacity (∆H) was decreased in both samples, which was probably due to high energy state of the powders.
Category: Chemistry

[304] viXra:1607.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 23:20:06

Evaluation of the Impact of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Thermal Properties of Casein Enzyme Hydrolysate and Casein Yeast Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the present study, the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of Casein Enzyme Hydrolysate (CEH) and Casein Yeast Peptone (CYP) were investigated. The control and treated samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), particle size and surface area analysis. The FTIR results revealed that biofield treatment has caused reduction of amide group (amide-I and amide-II) stretching vibration peak that is associated with strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in treated CEH as compared to control. However, no significant changes were observed in FTIR spectrum of treated CYP. The TGA analysis of treated CEH showed a substantial improvement in thermal stability which was confirmed by increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (217° C) as compared to control (209° C). Similarly, the treated CYP also showed enhanced thermal stability as compared to control. DSC showed increase in melting temperature of treated CYP as compared to control. However the melting peak was absent in DSC of treated CEH which was probably due to rigid chain of the protein. The surface area of treated CEH was increased by 83% as compared to control. However, a decrease (7.3%) in surface area was observed in treated CYP. The particle size analysis of treated CEH showed a significant increase in average particle size (d50) and d99 value (maximum particle size below which 99% of particles are present) as compared to control sample. Similarly, the treated CYP also showed a substantial increase in d50 and d99 values which was probably due to the agglomeration of the particles which led to formation of bigger microparticles. The result showed that the biofield treated CEH and CYP could be used as a matrix for pharmaceutical applications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[303] viXra:1607.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 01:08:44

Using a Multiverse Version of Penrose Cyclic Conformal Cosmology to Obtain Ergodic Mixing Averaging of Cosmological Information Transfer to Fix H Bar (PLANCK’S Constant) in Each New Universe Created During Recycling of Universes Due to CCC , Multivers

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages.

What we are doing is to use a generalization of the Penrose Cyclic conformal cosmology in order to argue for ergodic mixing of cosmological “information”, from cycle to cycle. While there would be a causal discontinuity, as is by example explained, in terms of breaking down of individual “particles” from cycle to cycle, there would be (analogous to a seed setting of pseudo-randomization of Fortran) informational ‘bits’ transferred, as far as mixing of ‘information’ collected from cycle to cycle, from N number of contributing universes via modified CCC, so as to create a uniform value of H bar (Planck’s constant) from cycle to cycle. Moreover this would do away with the “baby universes” Darwinian hypothesis, set up by String theorists whom postulate that up to 10^1000 or so universes would be created, with only say 10^10 or so surviving(most dying off because of “improperly” set variance in the values of H bar ( Planck’s constant). I.e. the laws of physics would not be different from universe to universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[302] viXra:1607.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 15:09:39

Coordinate Systems Larger Than Four Dimensions

Authors: Jerry L. Decker
Comments: 5 Pages. Eliminating transformations space like and time like at high speed

A method was found for constructing coordinate systems larger than four dimensions. Velocity vectors and base units were used to define a reference frame by attaching a clock to each of the velocity components. Additional meters were also attached to velocity components. All of the resulting systems can be physically constructed and tested.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[301] viXra:1607.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 11:05:30

Molecule Quantum Simulation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

First completely scalable quantum simulation of a molecule. [15] Quantum photonic researchers start new company, Sparrow Quantum. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[300] viXra:1607.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 11:30:27

Magnetized Target Fusion Using High Speed Pellets

Authors: Colin Bruce Jack
Comments: 12 Pages.

There is a way to perform inertial confinement fusion which avoids the usual need for either a sacrificial assembly of significant cost, or control of complex plasma behaviour.

Ultraspeed charged pellets have been fired at 100 km/s from modified particle accelerators for decades, and Winterberg suggested their use for inertial confinement fusion, also decades ago. The show-stopper has been the impossibility of bringing charged pellets to a true focus using predetermined electric or magnetic fields, a consequence of Earnshaw’s theorem. I have invented a technique for achieving such focusing, by measuring and adjusting the trajectories of individual pellets. Precise focus can then be achieved at any range. A series of pellets fired at successively increasing speeds from a linear accelerator some distance from a target can catch up en route to arrive together. Thus an accelerator of relatively modest power can deliver an intense input to a compact volume.

Slutz et al. have shown that high gain magneto-inertial fusion can be performed using implosion speed as low as 130 km/s. They propose Z-pinch with a magnetized liner, plus a laser pulse to preheat a central portion of the fuel. However disadvantages of this method include:

•Peak input power ~1 PW: high capital cost

•Sacrificial capsule with low impedance wires for ~60 MA input current pulse is difficult and costly to recycle: high ‘kopeck’ cost

Identical fusion conditions can be created using instead pellets fired in at high speed. This method has the advantages:

•Peak input power ~20 GW at a few MHz, provided by commercially available RF MOSFETs

•No central sacrificial capsule or wires needed; the pellets are cheap to make

This paper describes an appropriate design. The detonation can take place completely surrounded by lithium. Most of the energy produced can be directly converted to electricity by MHD.


Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[299] viXra:1607.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 11:59:45

Interesting Facts Concerning Prime Products and Their Relationship to Lorentz-Like Transformations

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 10 Pages.

Prime products are analyzed from various points of view, with an emphasis on graphical representation and analysis. A prime product N is determined to have two integer coordinates D and m. These coordinates are related to the solutions of a parabola, as well as to right triangles, in what the author calls a ‘backbone - rib’ representation. A prime number or a prime product fall on three dimensional helices, which can be represented in two dimensions as sets of parallel lines. If a prime or a prime product can be represented by 6s - 1, then helix 1 or H1 is designated; if a prime or a prime product can be represented by 6s + 1, then helix 2 or H2 is designated. The integer s is really a composite number, which can be represented as s = r + n, where r is the row number and n is the grouping number called the complex number, both determined from the two dimensional representation of the double helices. It is also discovered that, due to the mathematical form relating N to D and m, that there must be Lorentz - like transformations between N, D, and m and a new set Nʹ, Dʹ and mʹ; however, the concept of velocity and the speed of light seem out of place in this instance. Nevertheless, the question is asked as to whether or not prime products can be considered to be away to unite relativity and quantum mechanics, which also depends upon integers in a large measure.
Category: Number Theory

[298] viXra:1607.0380 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-28 14:23:34

Plant-Microbial Fuel cell

Authors: Taha Abdelsalam Ashraf Taha, Ayman Sayed Abdulrahman
Comments: 5 Pages.

Once an exporter of oil and gas, the whole world is now struggling to meet its own needs. The growth in energy consumption is a response to the the countries’ economic expansion, industrialization, and change in people’s life style. Although all energy forms have been subjected to high growth, electricity consumption has increased substantially causing serious concerns over the power sector’s fuel mix, heavier reliance on fuel oil, and an unaffordable burden on the government budget in each country especially those in Africa. As a result, the world is determined to diversify the energy mix and to improve the efficiency of electricity consumption. It has also recognized that energy diversification and efficiency can impart other benefits such as cleaner environment, transfer of advanced technologies, and possible new areas of manufacturing and services. So the solution for this problem must be efficient, economic, sustainable and eco-friendly to overcome most of the troubles facing the world in this field. “Plant-microbial fuel cell” is believed to be the ideal solution for the energy issue that can fit the previously mentioned requirements so we develop the anode and the cathode in the MFC and we found new material for making the proton exchange membrane which is “Nylon” so we made prototype for this idea and to make test plan on it to know its efficiency and its cost. And we get better results than we expected.
Category: Biochemistry

[297] viXra:1607.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 07:59:33

The Dual Nature of Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 8 Pages.

If the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a black hole is expressed as Bekenstein’s area quantum 8pi multiplied by a power of 2, then exponents of 2 that are multiples of precisely 50 are found for particular black holes of well-defined mass, and for the Hubble sphere. Motivated by T-duality, the analysis is extended to particles. Exponents calculated for the particles of the Standard Model lie in symmetric arrangement about the number 125, which is the exponent found for the lightest tensor mesons. Exponents that are multiples or simple binary (improper) fractions of 25 are favoured.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[296] viXra:1607.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 09:32:40

Topology and Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[295] viXra:1607.0377 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-31 07:23:38

Gravitational Wave Miracles?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages. Text expanded for clarity; comments welcome.

The hypothesis of gravitational wave, suggested by Albert Einstein in 1916, still poses outstanding challenges, which have to be resolved by the theoretical physics community as soon as possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[294] viXra:1607.0376 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-21 02:31:35

Axion-Higgs 3-Dimensional Rigid Transformable Strings and the Compound 650 GeV Z-Z Decay into Quarks/Leptoquarks.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 28 Pages. 28

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after some sort of mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles. Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless transformer string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z particles and even ball lightning black hole nuclei.. Introduction,
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[293] viXra:1607.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 03:04:23

Quantum Neutrino Oscillation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[292] viXra:1607.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 18:32:01

Explanatory Theory of Physics: The Grand Unification Scheme

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Why did unification work better with the Super-Yang Mills Gauge Analog than any other unification attempts?
Category: Mathematical Physics

[291] viXra:1607.0373 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-11 22:58:14

Dark Matter, the Correction to Newton's Law in a Disk

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 8 Pages. Accepted for publication in Progress in Physics

The dark matter problem in the context of spiral galaxies refers to the discrepancy between the galactic mass estimated from luminosity measurements of galaxies with a given mass-to-luminosity ratio and the galactic mass measured from the rotational speed of stars using the Newton’s law. Newton’s law fails when applied to a star in a spiral galaxy. The problem stems from the fact that Newton’s law is applicable to masses represented as points by their barycenter. As spiral galaxies have shapes similar to a disk, we shall correct Newton’s law accordingly. We found that the Newton’s force exerted by the interior mass of a disk on an adjacent mass shall be multiplied by the coefficient ηdisk estimated to be 7.44±0.83 at a 99% confidence level. The corrective coefficient for the gravitational force exerted by a homogeneous sphere at it’s surface is 1.00±0.01 at a 99% confidence level, meaning that Newton’s law is not modified for a spherical geometry. This result was proven a long time ago by Newton in the shell theorem.
Category: Astrophysics

[290] viXra:1607.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:09:36

Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulfiram and Nicotinic Acid After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Disulfiram is being used clinically as an aid in chronic alcoholism, while nicotinic acid is one of a B-complex vitamin that has cholesterol lowering activity. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of disulfiram and nicotinic acid. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment of each drug. The treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, spectral properties of control and treated groups of both drugs were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR spectrum of biofield treated disulfiram showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 1496 to 1506 cm-1 and C-N stretching from 1062 to 1056 cm-1. The intensity of S-S dihedral bending peaks (665 and 553 cm-1) was also increased in biofield treated disulfiram sample, as compared to control. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated nicotinic acid showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 3071 to 3081 cm-1 and 2808 to 2818 cm-1. Likewise, C=C stretching peak was shifted to higher frequency region from 1696 cm-1 to 1703 cm-1 and C-O (COO- ) stretching peak was shifted to lower frequency region from 1186 to 1180 cm-1 in treated nicotinic acid. UV spectrum of control and biofield treated disulfiram showed similar pattern of UV spectra. Whereas, the UV spectrum of biofield treated nicotinic acid exhibited the shifting of absorption maxima (λmax) with respect of control i.e., from 268.4 to 262.0 nm, 262.5 to 256.4, 257.5 to 245.6, and 212.0 to 222.4 nm. Over all, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopy results suggest an impact of biofield treatment on the force constant, bond strength, and dipole moments of treated drugs such as disulfiram and nicotinic acid that could led to change in their chemical stability as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[289] viXra:1607.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:11:05

Characterization of Physical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Neopentyl Glycol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been extensively used as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of NPG. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated NPG were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD study revealed the decrease in crystallite size of treated NPG by 21.97% as compared to control sample. DSC studies showed slight change in melting temperature of treated NPG as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed 55.66% weight loss in control NPG however, the treated sample showed reduction in weight loss (44.81%). Additionally, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated NPG (160.40°C) was minimally increased with respect to control sample (159.72°C). This can be inferred as good thermal stability of biofield treated NPG with respect to control. FT-IR spectroscopy showed no structural changes in treated NPG with respect to control sample. The overall results showed that biofield treatment has affected the physical and thermal properties of treated NPG. Moreover, good thermal stability of treated NPG showed that it could be used as phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications.
Category: Chemistry

[288] viXra:1607.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 13:33:34

Quantum Holography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[287] viXra:1607.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 15:02:18

Using Geometry to Make Stellar Discovery

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 3 illustrations

It is shown that simple geometry could have been used to make the discovery that planet formation is stellar evolution.
Category: Geometry

[286] viXra:1607.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 10:40:13

The Rydberg Formula and Rydberg Series

Authors: Norman Graves
Comments: 7 Pages.

Consideration of the Rydberg Series leads to a model for the hydrogen atom in which the variable of quantisation is the Lorentz factor, Gamma, and not angular momentum as postulated by Niels Bohr and integral to current theories. This is consistent with an atom in which the electron is seen as an objectively real particle having deterministic position and velocity. The electron is seen to orbit at a constant radius irrespective of the energy state of the atom and so there is no change in potential energy between energy states. All of the energy changes are therefore kinetic in nature. The model also provides a simple physical explanation of the hitherto mysterious Fine Structure Constant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[285] viXra:1607.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 09:13:05

The Number Phi and the Numbers Pi, ln 2 , G , Zeta(k),k=1,2,3,...

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this note we show series for the numbers: pi,ln 2,G,zeta(k),k=1,2,3,..., In this series appears the number phi.
Category: General Mathematics

[284] viXra:1607.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 09:16:00

Some Results on pi Formulas

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas for the number pi
Category: General Mathematics

[283] viXra:1607.0365 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-21 04:20:06

Visualizing the Event Horizon of a Black Hole

Authors: Stefano Sello
Comments: 5 Pages.

The “Event Horizon Telescope”, EHT, is a radio-telescope planetary network, and its goal is to reach a sufficiently high spatial resolution to obtain real images of Sgr A*, a supermassive black hole located at the core of our galaxy. Waiting for real observational data, now we can analyze predicted EHT data obtained from a simulations to "see" the event horizon and the neighborhood of Sgr A*. In this brief research note we suggest a method to improve the capabilities of our current image analyses, using a proper isometric pesudo-3D projection analysis. In fact, the details obtained are impressive and this first result suggests that the pseudo-3D isometric projection analysis could be a useful tool to better study the main properties of the surroundings of the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[282] viXra:1607.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 16:48:12

Deducing Special Relativity from Newtonian Physics

Authors: G.N.N Martin
Comments: 6 Pages.

Explanations of the special theory of relativity usually start from an assumption that the speed of light is a constant for all observers, and use that to work out the Lorentz transform. I show that it is not necessary to make any assumption about the speed of light. This is useful because that assumption sometimes misleads people. If they have difficulty accepting the predictions of the special theory, they are tempted to doubt that the speed of light is always constant, and to conclude that we just haven’t tried hard enough to find the exceptions. And if we assume that the theory of relativity depends on the constancy of the speed of light, then it invites speculation about what would happen if the speed of light changed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[281] viXra:1607.0363 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-22 08:38:16

A Unified Phenomenological Description for the Origin of Mass for Leptons and for the Complete Baryon Octet and Decuplet, Including the Reported Inverse Dependence Upon the Alpha Constant.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 8 pages, one figure and one table.

Several authors have reported the dependence of the rest masses of particles upon the inverse of the alpha constant. Barut was able to associate such behavior with magnetic self-energy effects in the case of leptons. The present author has taken account of magnetic energy effects phenomenologically, in a way similar to the adopted by E. Post many years ago. This paper presents the extension of the approach to the full baryon octet and decuplet, and the inverse dependence with alpha is obtained. The masses of all these particles are shown to be described in terms of magnetodynamic energies considering as a fundamental feature the quantization of magnetic flux inside a zitterbewegung motion “ orbit” performed by each particle in consequence of its interaction with the vacuum background.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[280] viXra:1607.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 23:20:09

Evaluation of Phenotyping and Genotyping Characteristic of Shigella Sonnei After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shigella sonnei (S. sonnei) is a non-motile, rod shape, clinically significant, Gram-negative bacterium. It is commonly associated with dysentery (shigellosis). Recently, resistance to third and fourth generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones has been reported in S. sonnei. In the present study, we assessed the effect of biofield treatment on phenotyping and genotyping characteristic of S. sonnei (ATCC 9290). The lyophilized samples of S. sonnei were divided in three groups (G): G-I (control, revived), G-II (treatment, revived), and G-III (treatment, lyophilized). All these groups (control and biofield treated) were analyzed against antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions, and biotype number. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to establish the phylogenetic relationship of S. sonnei with different bacterial species. The treated cells of S. sonnei exhibited an alteration of 3.33%, 10%, and 23.33% of total 30 tested antimicrobials in susceptibility assay for G-II on day 5 and 10 and G-III on day 10, respectively as compared to control. The treated cells of S. sonnei showed a significant change of about 12.12%, 12.12%, and 57.58% biochemical reactions out of 33 tests in treated groups of G-II on day 5 and 10 and G-III on day 10, respectively. The biotype number was also changed in treated samples of S. sonnei. Based on nucleotide homology sequences and phylogenetic analysis, the nearest homolog species of S. sonnei (GenBank Accession Number: EU009190) was identified as Shigella flexneri (EF643608). These results revealed that biofield treatment can prevent the absolute resistance in microbe against the existing antimicrobials.
Category: Mind Science

[279] viXra:1607.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 23:22:15

Bio-field Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modification of Physical and Thermal Properties of Gluten Hydrolysate and Ipomoea Macroelements

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

The objective of present study was to study the effect of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of gluten hydrolysate (GH) and ipomoea macroelements (IM). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated GH and IM were characterized by particle size analysis, surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Particle size results of treated GH showed that d50 (average particle size) was decreased by 3.15% and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 18.40% as compared to control GH sample. The treated IM also showed substantial reduction in average particle size d50 by 4.70% and d99 by 44.40% as compared to control sample. BET analysis showed significant increase in surface area of treated GH by 374.40 % as compared to control sample. However, the treated IM showed reduction in surface area by 14.30% as compared to control sample. XRD data suggested that both control and treated GH samples were amorphous in nature. Contrarily, the treated IM sample showed intense crystalline nature; though minimal decrease was observed in crystallinity as compared to control. DSC data showed increase in melting temperature of the treated GH as compared to control which can be correlated to alteration in kinetic energy of sample. Additionally, the DSC of treated IM also showed increase in melting temperature as compared to control IM. A significant increase in latent heat of fusion (∆H) was observed in treated GH by 302.55% with respect to control. Similarly, the treated IM showed 24.87% increase in latent heat of fusion as compared to control. TGA data showed higher thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated GH as compared to control. However, treated IM showed that Tmax was decreased as compared to control sample. These results suggested that biofield treatment has substantially changed the physical and thermal properties of the treated organic products (GH and IM).
Category: Mind Science

[278] viXra:1607.0360 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-25 13:27:33

Proof Bill Hypothesis a Consequence of the Properties of Invariant Identity of a Certain Type (Elementary Aspect).

Authors: Reuven Tint
Comments: 7 Pages.

A variant of the solution with the help of Bill hypothesis direct evidence "Great" Fermat's theorem elementary methods rows. New are "invariant identity" (keyword) and obtained by us in the text, the identity of the work, which allowed directly to solve the FLT, and several others.
Category: Number Theory

[277] viXra:1607.0359 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-20 07:41:06

On Finding All Solutions to the Goldbach Problem for 2N

Authors: Matilda Walter
Comments: 2 Pages.

We present a simple sieve algorithm for finding all existing solutions to the binary Goldbach problem for a given even number 2N > 4.
Category: Number Theory

[276] viXra:1607.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:10:10

Lucas’s Inner Circles

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this article, we define the Lucas’s inner circles and we highlight some of their properties.
Category: Geometry

[275] viXra:1607.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:11:14

Magic Squares

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

We present here the magic square of order n.
Category: Geometry

[274] viXra:1607.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:14:14

Mathematics and Alcohol and God

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Imaginary. God. Transcendentality. What's the probability for God to be in Number Theory?
Category: General Mathematics

[273] viXra:1607.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:16:53

Multi-Structure and Multi-Space

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

I consider that life and practice do not deal with pure spaces, but with a group of many spaces, with a mixture of structures, a 'mongrel', a heterogeneity - the ardently preoccupation is to reunite them! to constitute a multi-structure.
Category: Algebra

[272] viXra:1607.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:18:12

Negari ale Postulatului V al lui Euclid

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

Postulatul V al lui Euclid se enunta sub forma: daca o dreapta, care intersecteaza doua drepte, formeaza unghiuri interioare de aceeasi parte mai mici decat doua unghiuri drepte, aceste drepte, prelungite la infinit, se intalnesc in parte a unde unghiurile interioare sunt mai mici decal doua unghiuri drepte.
Category: Geometry

[271] viXra:1607.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:18:58

Neuberg’s Orthogonal Circles

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article, we highlight some metric properties in connection with Neuberg's circles and triangle. We recall some results that are necessary.
Category: Geometry

[270] viXra:1607.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:19:49

Neutrosophic Probability, Set, and Logic (First Version)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 Pages.

This project is a part of a National Science Foundation interdisciplinary project proposal
Category: General Mathematics

[269] viXra:1607.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:21:25

Non-Geometry

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is a lot easier to deny the Euclid`s five postulates, than Hilbert`s twenty thorough axiom.
Category: Geometry

[268] viXra:1607.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:22:25

Notes On Using T.I.-82 Calculators To Find Sums

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

A sequence is the range of a function whose domain is a subset of Z.
Category: Algebra

[267] viXra:1607.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:23:49

Numeralogy (I) or Properties of Numbers

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article is on Numeralogy or Properties of Numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[266] viXra:1607.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:24:47

Numeralogy (II) or Properties of Numbers

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article is on Numeralogy or Properties of Numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[265] viXra:1607.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:25:39

Numeralogy (III) or Properties of Numbers

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article is on Numeralogy or Properties of Numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[264] viXra:1607.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:27:33

O Geometrie Paradoxistă

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

In 1969, fascinat de geometrie, am construit un spatiu partial eueliadian si partial neeuclidian in acelasi timp, inlocuind postulatul V al lui Euclid (axioma paralelelor) prin urmatoarea propozitie stranie continand cinci asertiuni.
Category: Geometry

[263] viXra:1607.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:28:27

On an Erdös’ Open Problems

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

In one of his books (“Analysis…”) Mr. Paul Erdös proposed the following problem.
Category: Algebra

[262] viXra:1607.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:29:13

On Another Erdös’ Open Problem

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Paul Erdös has proposed the following problem.
Category: Algebra

[261] viXra:1607.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:31:31

On Carmichaël’s Conjecture

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this article we prove that the equation ϕ (x) = n admits a finite number of solutions, we find the general form of these solutions
Category: Algebra

[260] viXra:1607.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:32:21

On A Diophantine Equation

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this note we present a method of solving this Diophantine equation, method which is different from Ljunggren’s, Mordell’s, and R.K.Guy’s.
Category: Algebra

[259] viXra:1607.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:33:54

One Application of Wallis Theorem

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

By multiplication we obtain the statement. We prove in the same way for cos x.
Category: Algebra

[258] viXra:1607.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:37:01

Où se Trouve la Faute ? (Equations Diophantiennes)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Où se trouve la faute ? (equations diophantiennes).
Category: Algebra

[257] viXra:1607.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:38:11

Paradoxe Mathématique ?

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Les axes radicals de n cercles d'un même plan, pris deux à deux, dont les centres ne sont pas alignes, sont concourants.
Category: Geometry

[256] viXra:1607.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:40:58

Paradoxist Geometry

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

In 1969, intrigued by geometry I constructed a partially euclidean and partially non-Euclidean space.
Category: Geometry

[255] viXra:1607.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:46:54

Paradoxist Mathematics

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to experiment new math concepts and theories, especially if they run counter to the classical ones.
Category: General Mathematics

[254] viXra:1607.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:49:06

P-Q Relationships and Sequences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article is on P-Q Relationships and Sequences.
Category: Algebra

[253] viXra:1607.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:50:34

Prime Conjecture

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Any odd number can be expressed as a sum of two primes.
Category: Algebra

[252] viXra:1607.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:51:57

Quelques Propriétés Des Medianes

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Cet article généralise cerrtains résultats sur les nédiannes.
Category: Algebra

[251] viXra:1607.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:53:17

Radical Axis of Lemoine’s Circles

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this article, we emphasize the radical axis of the Lemoine’s circles.
Category: Geometry

[250] viXra:1607.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:54:25

Recreational Mathematics

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Acest articol va prezinta un aritmograf.
Category: General Mathematics

[249] viXra:1607.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:55:17

Regarding the First Droz- Farny’s Circle

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article, we define the first Droz-Farny’s circle, we establish a connection between it and a concyclicity theorem, then we generalize this theorem, leading to the generalization of Droz-Farny’s circle.
Category: Geometry

[248] viXra:1607.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:56:54

Regarding the Second Droz- Farny’s Circle

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article, we prove the theorem relative to the second Droz-Farny’s circle, and a sentence that generalizes it.
Category: Geometry

[247] viXra:1607.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:57:53

Sequences of Sub-Sequences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article is on Sequences of Sub-Sequences.
Category: Algebra

[246] viXra:1607.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:59:18

C. Dumirescu, N. VÎRLAN, ȘT. Zamfir, e. RĂDESCU, N. RĂDESCU, Florentin Smarandache

Authors: Smarandache Type Function Obtained by Duality
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper we extended the Smarandache function from the set N' of positive integers to the set Q of rationals.
Category: Algebra

[245] viXra:1607.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:00:58

Solving Problems by Using a Function in The Number Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

liVe have constructed a function n which associates to each non-null integer m the smallest positive n such that n! is a multiple of m.
Category: Algebra

[244] viXra:1607.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:01:42

Some Periodical Sequences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Let N be a positive integer with not all digits the same, and N' its digital reverse.
Category: Algebra

[243] viXra:1607.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:06:10

Subjective Questions and Anwers for A Math Instructor of Higher Education

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 16 Pages.

What are the instructor's general responsabilities ?
Category: Algebra

[242] viXra:1607.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:07:19

Sur la Resolution Dans L’ensemble Des Naturels Des Equationes Linéaires

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

L'utilité du cet article est qu'il établit si le nombre des solutions naturelles d'une équation linéaire est limité ou non.
Category: Algebra

[241] viXra:1607.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:08:59

Sur la Resolution D’équations du Second Degré a Deux Inconnues Dans Z

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Cet article nous presente la resolution l’équations du second degré a deux inconnues dans Z.
Category: Algebra

[240] viXra:1607.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:10:57

Sur Quelques Progressions

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Dans cet article on construit des ensembles qui ont la proprieté suivente: quel que soit leur partage en (Leux sous-ensembles, au moins l'un de ces sous-ensembles contient au moins trois éléments en progression arithmétique (ou bien géométrique).
Category: Algebra

[239] viXra:1607.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:11:45

The A.m.a.t.y.c. Competition

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

The American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges organizes each year a mathematical competition.
Category: Algebra

[238] viXra:1607.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:20:25

The Function that you Bear its Name!

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

This quatation is from a Letter of September 24, 1993, by Constantin M. Popa., an essayist of the Paradoxist Literary Movement [a movement stating that <the sense has a non-sense and, reciprocally, the non-eense has a sense too>], referring to the Function!
Category: General Mathematics

[237] viXra:1607.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:22:08

Letters’ Frequency (by Equal Groups) in The Romanian Juridical Texts

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Analyzing the deterioration’s degree of the keys of a typing machine which functioned for more than 40 years at the clerk's office of a court of a Rumanian district (Vâlcea), one partitions them in the following groups.
Category: General Mathematics

[236] viXra:1607.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:23:01

Theorems with Parallels Taken Through a Triangle’s Vertices and Constructions Performed Only with the Ruler

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this article, we solve problems of geometric constructions only with the ruler, using known theorems.
Category: Geometry

[235] viXra:1607.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:23:58

The Polars of a Radical Center

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

The late mathematician Cezar Cosnita, using the barycenter coordinates, proves two theorems which are the subject of this article.
Category: Geometry

[234] viXra:1607.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:24:44

The Radical Circle of Ex- Inscribed Circles of a Triangle

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article, we prove several theorems about the radical center and the radical circle of ex-inscribed circles of a triangle and calculate the radius of the circle from vectorial considerations.
Category: Geometry

[233] viXra:1607.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:25:34

There Is No Speed Barrier in The Universe

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this short paper one promotes the hypothesis that: There is no speed barrier in the universe, and one asks if it's possible to have an infinite speed?
Category: General Mathematics

[232] viXra:1607.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:27:24

The Solution of Oq.i02 in

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florin Popovici, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the "Octogon" Vo1.5, No.2, Zoltan Blazik, in the open problem OQ.102, asked if there exists a polynomial P(x,y) of at most second degree.
Category: General Mathematics

[231] viXra:1607.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:28:30

Une Application de la Generalisation du Théorème du Ceva

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Cet article presente une application de la generalisation du théorème du Ceva.
Category: Algebra

[230] viXra:1607.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:29:56

Une Classe D’ensembles Recursifs

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages.

Dans cet article on construit une classe d' ensembles récursifs, on établit des propriétés de ces ensembles et on propose des applications.
Category: Algebra

[229] viXra:1607.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:30:57

Une Généralisation de L’inegalité Cauchy Bouniakovski-Schwartz

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Cet article presente une généralisation de l’inegalité Cauchy-Bouniakovski-Schwartz.
Category: Algebra

[228] viXra:1607.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:32:37

Une Generalisation du Theoreme D’Euler

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

Dans les paragraphes qui suivent nous alions démontrer un resultat qui remplace le teorème d' Euler.
Category: Algebra

[227] viXra:1607.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:33:58

Une Généralisation de L’inegalité de Hölder

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

On géneralise l'inégalité de Holder grâce à un raisonement par récurrence.
Category: Algebra

[226] viXra:1607.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:34:54

Une Généralisation de L’inégalité de Minkowski

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Cet article presente une généralisation de l’inégalité de Minkowski.
Category: Algebra

[225] viXra:1607.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:35:50

Une Généralisation de L’inegalité de Tcebychev

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Cet article presente une généralisation de l’inegalité de Tcebychev.
Category: Algebra

[224] viXra:1607.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 08:36:49

Une Généralisation D’une Théorème de Carnot

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Cet article presente une généralisation d’une théorème de Carnot.
Category: Algebra

[223] viXra:1607.0289 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-03 10:26:58

Time Dilated Light

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 5 Pages.

While it seems clear that nothing can exceed the speed of light as it would be measured at a stationary point in an imaginary empty universe devoid of gravitational influences, it also seems clear that there are mathematical versus logic problems with a constant speed of light in our real universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[222] viXra:1607.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 10:07:50

A Proposal for an Improved Solar Still

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 4 Pages.

The yield from solar stills depends upon meteorological parameters and design. Below improvement opportunities are presented using heat pipes. The changes may increase the yield of potable water without the need for external energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[221] viXra:1607.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 04:49:33

About Bernoulli's Numbers

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Many methods to compute the sum ofthe same powers of the first n natural numbers are well-known. In this paper we present a simple proof of the method.
Category: Algebra

[220] viXra:1607.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 04:52:25

About the Characteristic Function of the Set

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 12 Pages.

In our paper we give a method, based on characteristic function of the set, of resolving some difficult problem of set theory found in high school study.
Category: Algebra

[219] viXra:1607.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 04:55:44

About Very Perfect Numbers

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florin Popovici, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

the square of an odd prime number can't be very perfect number.
Category: Algebra

[218] viXra:1607.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 04:58:02

A Function in the Number Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper I shall construct a function n having the following properties.
Category: Algebra

[217] viXra:1607.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:10:32

A Generalization of Euler’s Theorem

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the paragraphs which follow we will prove a result which replaces the theorem of Euler.
Category: Algebra

[216] viXra:1607.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:11:16

A Generalization of the Inequality of Hölder

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

One generalizes the inequality of Hödler thanks to a reasoning by recurrence. As particular cases, one obtains a generalization of the inequality of Cauchy-Buniakovski-Scwartz, and some interesting applications.
Category: Algebra

[215] viXra:1607.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:12:13

A Generalization of the Leibniz Theorem

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florin Popovici, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we show a generalization of Leibniz's theorem and an application of this.
Category: Algebra

[214] viXra:1607.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:23:46

Amusing Problems

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 Pages.

Ten birds are on a fence. A hunter shoots three of them.How many birds remain? (Answer: none, because the three dead birds fell down from the fence and the other seven flew way!)
Category: General Mathematics

[213] viXra:1607.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:28:21

An Infinity Of Unsolved Problems Concerning A Function In The Number Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 23 Pages.

W.Sierpinski has asserted to an international conference that if mankind lasted for ever and numbered the unsolved problems, then in the long run all these unsolved problems would be solved.
Category: Algebra

[212] viXra:1607.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:29:13

An Integer Number Algorithm To Solve Linear Equations

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

An algorithm is given that ascertains whether a linear equation has integer number solutions or not; if it does, the general integer solution is determined.
Category: Algebra

[211] viXra:1607.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:30:26

Another Integer Algorithm To Solve Linear Equations (Using Congruences)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this section is presented a new integer number algorithm for linear equation.This algorithm is more “rapid” than W. Sierpinski’s presented in the sense that it reaches the general solution after a smaller number of iterations. Its correctness will be thoroughly demonstrated.
Category: Algebra

[210] viXra:1607.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:32:50

Anti-Geometry

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 14 Pages.

It is possible to de-formatize entirely Hilbert`s group of axioms of the Euclidean Geometry, and to construct a model such that none of this fixed axiom holds.
Category: Geometry

[209] viXra:1607.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:33:51

A Numerical Function in Congruence Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this article we define a function L which will allow us to generalize (separately or simultaneously) some theorems from Numbers Theory obtained by Wilson, Fermat, Euler, Gauss, Lagrange, Leibnitz, Moser, Sierpinski.
Category: Algebra

[208] viXra:1607.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:34:44

Apollonius’s Circle of Second Rank

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

This article highlights some properties of Apollonius’s circle of second rank in connection with the adjoint circles and the second Brocard’s triangle.
Category: Geometry

[207] viXra:1607.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:36:52

A Program (An In-Out Machine) On T.I.-83 Calculators

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

This program takes an input number, performs some rule on it, and shows the output number that results.
Category: General Mathematics

[206] viXra:1607.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:37:55

A Property For A Counterexample To Carmichaël’s Conjec

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

There are many papers on this subject, but the author cites the papers which have influenced him, especially Klee’s papers.
Category: Algebra

[205] viXra:1607.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:39:39

A Solution of Oq. 128

Authors: Marian Dinca, Bencze MihÁly, SzilÁrd AndrÁs, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

In Octogon, April, 1998, Mihaly Bencze proposed the following open question.
Category: General Mathematics

[204] viXra:1607.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:40:32

A Sufficient Condition for the Circle of the 6 Points to Become Euler’s Circle

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article, we prove the theorem relative to the circle of the 6 points and, requiring on this circle to have three other remarkable triangle’s points, we obtain the circle of 9 points (the Euler’s Circle).
Category: Geometry

[203] viXra:1607.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:41:53

Asupra Unei Metode a Lui W. Sierpinski de Rezolvare în Numere întregi a Ecuațiilor Liniare

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

In nota urmatoare se fac cateva remarci privind metoda expusa de Sierpinski, remarci ce au ca scop sirnplificarea si extinderea acestei metode.
Category: Algebra

[202] viXra:1607.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:43:32

Asupra Unor Conjecturi si Probleme Nerezolvate Referitoare la O Functie in Teoria Numerelor

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 Pages.

Am construit o functie care asociaza fiecarui intreg nenul n cel mai mic intreg pozitiv m astfel incat m! este multiplu de n.
Category: Algebra

[201] viXra:1607.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:45:15

A Unifying Field in Logics: Neutrosophic Logic. Neutrosophic Probability, Neutrosophic Statistics, Neutrosophic Set. (Second Version)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 55 Pages.

The subsets T, I, F are not necessarily intervals, but may be any real subsets: discrete or continuous; single-element, finite, or (either countably or uncountably) infinite; union or intersection of various subsets; etc.
Category: General Mathematics

[200] viXra:1607.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:56:49

Caietul de Informare Matematica la 20 de Ani

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Si iata cii timpul trece ... Mi-amintesc zilele cand luam intaia data contact cu revista Liceului "N. Grigorescu" din Campina, pc cand eram in tara, student la Facultatea din Craiova, in 1979.
Category: General Mathematics

[199] viXra:1607.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 05:58:29

Coefficients K-Nomiaux

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Dans cet article on élargit les notions de "coefficients binomiaux" et de "coefficients trinomiaux" à la notion de"coefficients k-nomiaux~ et on obtient quelques propriétés générales de ceux-ci. Comme application, on généralisera le "triangle de Pascal".
Category: Algebra

[198] viXra:1607.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:00:10

Conjectures On Primes' Summation

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Any odd integer n can be expressed as a combination of three primes.
Category: Algebra

[197] viXra:1607.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:01:23

Conjectures Which Generalize Andrica's Conjecture

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

Five conjectures on paires of consecutive primes are listed below with examples in each case.
Category: Algebra

[196] viXra:1607.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:02:32

Considerations Regarding The Scientific Language and “Literary Language”

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

As in nature nothing is absolute, evidently there will not exist a precise border between the scientific language and “the literary” one (the language used in literature): thus there will be zones where these two languages intersect.
Category: Statistics

[195] viXra:1607.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:03:33

Contributii la Studiul Unor Functii si Conjecturi in Teoria Numerelor

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 28 Pages.

Teoria Numerelor reprezinta pentru mine o pasiune. Rezultatele expuse mai departe constituie rodul catorva ani buni de cercetari si cautari.
Category: Algebra

[194] viXra:1607.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:04:48

Convergence D’une Famille de Series in

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Dans cet article, on construit une famille d'expressions E (n).
Category: Algebra

[193] viXra:1607.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:07:02

Counter-Projective Geometry

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

Let P, L be two sets, and r a relation included in PxL.
Category: Geometry

[192] viXra:1607.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:12:59

Des Fantaisies Mathématiques

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Ces fantaisies mathematiques sont des divertissements, des problèmes amusants : elles font abstraction de la logique communne, mais elles ont quand meme leur "logique", une logique fantaisiste.
Category: Algebra

[191] viXra:1607.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:14:14

Digital Subsequences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

We screen this sequence, selecting only the terms whose digits also satisfy the property or relationship.
Category: Algebra

[190] viXra:1607.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:24:48

Enseignement et Recherche Scientifique (Dans Les Mathematiques

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

De nos jours on met un accent puissant sur la correlation de l'enseignement avec la recherche et la production.
Category: Algebra

[189] viXra:1607.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:27:47

Functii Aritmetice

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

Este bine cunoscuta importanta functiilor aritmetice in teoria numerelor, importanta datorata pe de-a parte bogatiei rezultatelor ce se obtin cu ajutorul acestor functii, si pe de alta parte frumusetii acestor rezultate.
Category: Algebra

[188] viXra:1607.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:28:46

Functii Prime si Coprime

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Vom construi urmatoare1e functii pe care le numim prime.
Category: Algebra

[187] viXra:1607.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:29:29

Funny Problems

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we present original or collected recreational mathematical problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[186] viXra:1607.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:36:40

Generalisations du Théorème de Ceva

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Dans ces paragraphss on présente "trois généralisations du célèbre théorème de Ceva.
Category: Geometry

[185] viXra:1607.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:39:23

Generalizations of Desargues Theorem

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let’s consider the points A1,...,An situated on the same plane, and B1,...,Bn situated on another plane, such that the lines A1B1 are concurrent. Let’s prove that if the lines AiAj and BiBj are concurrent, then their intersecting points are collinear.
Category: Geometry

[184] viXra:1607.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:41:46

Geometric Conjecture

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

What happens in 3-space when the poiygon is replaced by a polyhedron?
Category: Geometry

[183] viXra:1607.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:43:25

Happy New Mathematical Years!

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Due to professor Gane Policarp’s kindness, I have several issues of “Caietul de informare matematică” (“The Notebook of Mathematical Information”), which has beenput together with attention to detail and skill, and which attracted and persuaded me, fromthe very beginning, to collaborate with small materials.
Category: Algebra

[182] viXra:1607.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:45:04

How To Create A Program On T.I.-92 Calculators

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here it is a program created on T.I.-92 Graphing Calculator to simplify a given fraction.
Category: General Mathematics

[181] viXra:1607.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:47:17

Hypothesis Sur la Determination D’une Regle Pour Les Jeux de Mots Croisés

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

Les problèmes de mots croisés sont composés, on le sait, de grilles et de d3finitions.
Category: General Mathematics

[180] viXra:1607.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:48:58

Inconsistent Systems of Axioms and Contradictory Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

We construct the system of n+2 axioms.
Category: Algebra

[179] viXra:1607.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:49:51

Inequalities for The Integer Part Function In

Authors: Bencze MihÁly, Florin Popovici, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we prove some inequalities for the integer part function and we give some applications in the number theory.
Category: Algebra

[178] viXra:1607.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:51:02

In Legatura cu O Problema de la Concursul de Matematica, Faza Locala, Ramnicu Valcea

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Se prezinta in aceasta nota o extindere a unei probleme data la Olimpiada de matematica, faza locala, la Ramnicul VaIcea, clasa a VI-a, 1980.
Category: Algebra

[177] viXra:1607.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:53:18

Integer Solutions of Linear Equations

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article are presented Definitions and properties of the integer solutions of linear equations.
Category: Algebra

[176] viXra:1607.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:58:28

Où se Trouve la Faute Dans ce Raisonnement Par Reccurence?

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

A un concours d'entré en faculté on pose le problème suivant.
Category: Algebra

[175] viXra:1607.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 06:59:23

Où se Trouve la Faute Sur Les Integrales?

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Où se trouve la faute sur les integrales?
Category: Algebra

[174] viXra:1607.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:03:49

La Frequence Des Lettres (Par Groupes Egaux) Dans Les Textes Juridiques Roumains

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Analysant le degré de deterioration des touches d'une machine à écrire qui fonctionné,plus de 40 ans au greffe d'un tribunal d'un district roumain (Valcea) on les a réparties dans les groupes suivants.
Category: General Mathematics

[173] viXra:1607.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:05:18

Lemoine’s Circles

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this article, we get to Lemoine's circles in a different manner than the known one.
Category: Geometry

[172] viXra:1607.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:06:38

Lemoine’s Circles Radius Calculus

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages.

For the calculus of the first Lemoine’s circle, we will first prove.
Category: Geometry

[171] viXra:1607.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:09:23

Logica sau Logica Matematica

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Cate propozitii sunt adevarate si care anume dintre urmatoarele?
Category: General Mathematics

[170] viXra:1607.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 01:06:11

Photon as a Particle

Authors: Yevgeniy Kutanov
Comments: 8 pages in English and 8 pages in Russian

Proposed structures of photon, electron and positron are the result of logical development of the alternative to GR theory of gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[169] viXra:1607.0202 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-18 08:06:02

Релятивистская механика в модели 4D-среды

Authors: Valeriy Skorobogatov
Comments: 4 Pages. Устранена ошибка

В модели четырехмерной среды определена функция Лагранжа для вихря, которая имеет тот же вид, что и функция Лагранжа свободной частицы в теории относительности. В дополнении приведена формула для общего выражения силы.
Category: Classical Physics

[168] viXra:1607.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 23:13:56

Antibiogram Pattern of Shigella Flexneri: Effect of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shigellosis is a major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries due to infection of Shigella species. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9199) strain of S. flexneri was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. flexneri. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. flexneri were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while Gr. III on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. flexneri showed 35% alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of biofield treated S. flexneri also showed significant (46.88%) alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. It was observed that overall 24.24% biochemical reactions were altered in which 21.21% alteration was found in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in Gr. II on day 10 with identification of new organism i.e. Edwardsiella tarda (40015042) as compared to untreated strain of Shigella species (40010000). The result suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. flexneri in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping.
Category: Biochemistry

[167] viXra:1607.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 23:16:47

Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Streptococcus group B: A Postpartum Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Streptococcus agalactiae group B (S. agalactiae gr. B) is widespread in nature mainly causes bacterial septicemia and neonatal meningitis. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on S. agalactiae gr. B with respect of antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and bio typing. S. agalactiae gr. B strain was used in this experiment bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 12386) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol. The revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. agalactiae gr. B were selected for the study. Gr. I was considered as control. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strains of S. agalactiae gr. B were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10 while Gr. III on day 10 with respect to the control (Gr. I) using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Although biofield treatment did not show any change with respect to susceptibility pattern. However the minimum inhibitory concentration of S. agalactiae gr. B showed significant (70.37%) alteration, out of twenty-seven tested antimicrobials, among which in Gr. II i.e. 62.96% on day 5 and 66.67% on day 10 while no alteration was found in lyophilized group (Gr. III) as compared to the control. Moreover, the improvement of MIC value of norfloxacin was observed by two-fold (8 to ≤4 µg/mL) in Gr. II on day 10 after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. It was observed that overall 48.28% biochemical reactions, out of twenty-nine were altered in Gr. II with respect to the control. Moreover, biotype numbers were changed in Gr. II on day 5 (777777615) and on day 10 (757677405) as compared to the control (237147047). The results suggest that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. agalactiae gr. B in revived treated cells (Gr. II) with respect to MIC values, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number.
Category: Biochemistry

[166] viXra:1607.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 15:09:37

A Theory of Exactly Integrable Quadratic Liénard type Equations

Authors: M. D. Monsia, J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou
Comments: 10 pages

The dynamics of quadratic Liénard type equations is usually investigated in the only context of periodic solutions. The problem of interest in this work is then to demonstrate the existence of a simple variable transformation generating a class of exactly integrable quadratic Liénard type equations that preserves the three distinct damped dynamical operating regimes of nonlinear oscillators. Specific examples of equation belonging to this class and their exact solutions in terms of the periodic solution to linear harmonic oscillator are provided for illustrating the developed theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[165] viXra:1607.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 15:40:52

The Principle of Young Galaxy Radiance

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 pictures

In stellar metamorphosis young galaxies can be spotted by observing bi-polar outflows in the radio frequencies. Galaxies are born all over the universe at any given time, the radio image on the second page provided by the MeerKAT shows a picture of them growing, many hundreds of them in one image.
Category: Astrophysics

[164] viXra:1607.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 18:47:40

Buenaventura Suarez the First American Astronomer in South America

Authors: Ramon Isasi
Comments: 11 Pages. Replacement of Version 2 and Version 1

In this short essay, we consider some details of the life of Father Buenaventura Suarez, his astronomical research and activities as a craftsman in the complete manufacture of his scientific instruments by using only the means that nature offered in those places where the Jesuit Missions were located. Also, we include a brief biography, a short description of his scientific productions and communications. Some comments regarding his book Lunario de un Siglo of 217 pages published the fourth Ed. in 1752 is given
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[163] viXra:1607.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 21:43:35

Quantum Mechanics In 5-dimensional Space-time And Special Relativity Theory

Authors: XiaoLin li
Comments: 14 Pages.

Results of Special Relativity Theory can be derived out from Quantum Mechanics. Quantum Mechanics is independent integrated theory. There exist a new physics view. Real physical world is 5-dimensional space-time. Human world is 4-dimensional space-time,it’s only the projection of real physics world. Quantum Mechanical particle-wave is present in 5-dimensional space-time. So we can derive out Mass-energy equation. So we can derive out all results of Special Relativity Theory. In 5-dimensional space-time,all the particles speed is the light speed c. That is reason that the light speed c is very special. Coordinates transformation in 5-dimensional space-time,can derive out Lorentz transformation. In 5-dimensional space-time,space is relative,but time is absolute. In 5-dimensional space-time,there only exist space expansion or space contraction,not exist time expansion or time contraction. The new 5-dimensional space-time theory,not only is consistent with space-time system of Special Relativity Theory,but also can transition to space-time system in Lorentz symmetry breaking smoonthly. The new 5-dimensional space-time theory has more wide range adaptation than Special Relativity Theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[162] viXra:1607.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 23:01:22

Parallel Universes and Causal Anomalies: Links Between Science and Religion

Authors: Roman Sverdlov
Comments: 34 Pages. Original article was written in 2010, when I was in Raman Research Institute, but I am posting it in 2016 when I am at University of Mississippi (Spring) and University of New Mexico (Fall)

In [6] it was proposed to define "god" as a region of a universe that is subject to circular causality. While we do not adapt the exact definition of "god" that is being introduced in that paper, we do accept the concept that "god" has something to do with causal anomalies: either circular causality or else two competing causal structures. We will show that the presence of a causal anomaly (whatever it happens to be) might allow us to define trinity in non-contradictory way. That is, we will show how the members of trinity can be separate entities and, yet, have the same identity.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[161] viXra:1607.0194 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-04 19:57:27

Beautiful Universe Simulation Part 1: Proof of Concept of Energy Transport in a Simple 2-D Array of Nodes

Authors: Vladimir F. Tamari
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Beautiful Universe (BU) model is a universal cellular automata (CA) of rotating dielectric dipolar nodes exchanging angular momentum with neighboring nodes to make radiation, matter, and space itself. In this paper a simplified simulation of non-rotating nodes that nevertheless obey the momentum-exchange 'rules' of (BU) provide a qualitative picture of energy transport in the model and can be considered a preliminary proof of concept on which to build further work
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[160] viXra:1607.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 13:58:58

Host and Companion Delineation in Celestial Systems

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In the majority of transiting astrons such as KELT 17b around KELT-17, documentation accepted in online archives such as ArXiv still references the incorrect concepts concerning the perceived separation of planet and star. A reasonable correction for semantic purposes is provided, utilizing stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[159] viXra:1607.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 14:37:29

The Mass Independence and Dependence Principles of Stellar Formation and Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In the recent paper, “KELT-17b: A Hot-Jupiter Transiting an A-Star in a Misaligned Orbit Detected with Doppler Tomography”, it is referenced that, “a sample of well characterized planets around massive stars is necessary to understand the mass-dependence of planet properties.” Two principles are provided to explain that mass-dependence attributed to formation processes is moot. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[158] viXra:1607.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 03:02:02

Magnetic Field of Nervous System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

The human body is controlled by electrical impulses in, for example, the brain, the heart and nervous system. These electrical signals create tiny magnetic fields, which doctors could use to diagnose various diseases, for example diseases of the brain or heart problems in young foetuses. Researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute have now succeeded in developing a method for extremely precise measurements of such ultra-small magnetic fields with an optical magnetic field sensor. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[157] viXra:1607.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 23:09:35

In Vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Enterobacter Cloacae: Impact on Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biotype

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

This research work investigated the influence of biofield treatment on Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 13047) against antimicrobial susceptibility. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC A sample was revived and divided into two parts Gr. I (control) and Gr. II (revived); likewise, ATCC B was labeled as Gr. III (lyophilized). Group II and III were given with biofield treatment. The control and treatment groups of E. cloacae cells were tested with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number. The result showed significant decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of aztreonam and ceftazidime (≤ 8 µg/mL), as compared to control group (≥ 16 µg/mL). It was observed that 9% reaction was altered in the treated groups with respect to control out of the 33 biochemical reactions. Moreover, biotype number of this organism was substantially changed in group II (7731 7376) and group III (7710 3176) on day 10 as compared to control (7710 3376). The result suggested that biofield treatment had an impact on E. cloacae with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, alteration of biochemical reactions pattern and biotype.
Category: Biochemistry

[156] viXra:1607.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 23:11:49

The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. nonGBM control and non-GBM treatment. The GBM and non-GBM treatment groups were given Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment for the assessment of its potential. Two time-lapse (10 hours prior; 10 hours after) video microscopy experiment was performed on tumor and non-tumor brain cells in six replicate (n=6). For each microscopic field, the total cell number was counted and each cell was tracked over the 20 hours period. The potential impact of biofield treatment was assessed by comparing cell death rate in both GBM and non-GBM cells before and after biofield treatment. Results: GBM control cells showed a basal level of cell death 10 hours prior and 10 hours after the biofield treatment, and the rate remained unchanged over the 20 hours period, while in treatment group of GBM, cell death rate was exponentially increased (41%) after biofield treatment as compared to control. The treated non-GBM cultured cells showed a significant reduction (64%) of cell death rate i.e. protective effects as compared to non-GBM control. Conclusion: Altogether, data suggests that biofield treatment has significantly increased the cell death rate of treated GBM cells and simultaneously boost the viability of normal brain cells. Therefore, biofield treatment could be a suitable alternate treatment strategy for cancer patients in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[155] viXra:1607.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 13:59:58

Art Definition

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

An attempt of definition of art
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[154] viXra:1607.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 10:12:33

The Pulsation Principle Solves Infinite Difficulty.(1)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

The pulsation principle solves infinite difficulty.(1) All elementary particles convert it in sync. The pulsation model of the elementary particle pulsation principle、 * All elementary particles convert it in sync with a particle trip, a wave trip, a minus number particle trip. * The electromagnetic force works in a wave trip. The electromagnetic force does not work in a particle trip. . The electromagnetic force does not work in a minus number particle trip. * All particles and minus number particles disappear in a wave trip. The conversion synchronizes. The electromagnetic force of All the photons not work in particle processes and negative particles process. The electromagnetic force works in a wave trip. * The concept of the vacuum of quantum mechanics. Virtual particles (generation, annihilation) model. * The random (generation, annihilation). By it Particles and antiparticles are always infinite pieces exist. * Particles of Infinite number are involved in electromagnetism force. Negative particles of Infinite number are involved in electromagnetism force. By it Renormalization prescriptions are needed. * Photons mediate the electromagnetic force.   And Photons are always infinite pieces exist. Equation would be endless.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[153] viXra:1607.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 11:28:57

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory. (Amendments)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

The elementary particle pulsation principle leads a hadron super string theory. (Amendments) A string theory of the elementary particle size. A proton and the neutron are the same elementary particles. The defect of the early string theory. A hadron of mass zero. The quark which came close. The theory was not able to explain the state. Quark A and quark B. The vibration of the same thing. Both are not separate existence. A matter wave holds a quark. A matter wave lets a quark vibrate. A matter wave is elastic body. One quark turns into quark A, quark B, quark C. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is three-dimensional space. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is film space. The mass of the hadron is zero in that. All the mass becomes the light in that.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[152] viXra:1607.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 08:38:47

Abiotic Polymerization of Nucleotides

Authors: Alexey I. Balabin
Comments: 407 Pages. Russian

The book concerns itself with a novel process of mononucleotide assembly into double-stranded polymers. This process, which I call stamping, can be organized either as synthesis of a random double-stranded polynucleotide from mononucleotides or as a reaction of copying a polynucleotide (replication of the DNA or RNA, transcription or reverse transcription). Stamping proceeds in five stages; its crucial step takes place on certain prism faces of apatite crystals. Nucleotides insert their phosphate groups into the positions of PO4 tetrahedra of the crystal lattice, and thereupon condensation of adjacent nucleotides takes place. Inherent in stamping is the constraint that certain bond lengths in the synthesized polymer be equal to certain interatomic distances P–P in the crystal, so that the width and length of each nucleotide pair are fixed. Geometric regularity of the synthesized polymer imparts a regularity to its bond structure—all nucleotides are joined with 3’,5’ phosphodiester linkages (and none with 2’,5’), and all base pairs are the same Watson-Crick type. Because of the geometric constraints, double-stranded RNA molecules could emerge via stamping from a primordial soup circumventing the combinatorial explosion issue (the multitude of nucleotide-type molecules present in the soup had different geometries hence could not join into the polymer). Furthermore, involvement of the crystal surface imparts stereoselectivity to stamping. Synthesis of a polynucleotide from a racemic mixture of the four possible types of nucleotides (L- and D- enantiomers, α- and β-anomers) will result in formation of four types of macromolecules, each consisting predominantly of similar nucleotides (α-L, α-D, β-L or β-D). Though stamping is a hypothetical process, its different stages have been carried out in practice separately. Outlining conditions, at which stamping can be implemented as a whole, constitutes the subject of the main part of the monograph. Remarkably, such conditions have been found, and ways to carry out polynucleotide copying (without enzymes) have been outlined, based upon the data available on apatite surface chemistry, apatite crystal chemistry, physical chemistry of nucleic acids along with certain results from enzymology. In a separate chapter a scenario is proposed for the early history of life, built on the assumption that life originated via stamping and that inheritance relied on stamping apatite crystals, first non-biogenic, supplied by hydrothermal vents, then biogenic ones, until the emergence of bona fide polymerases. This hypothesis clarifies the roles played by group I introns in the ancient world, explains how modern polymerases could emerge in the course of miniaturization of the apatite crystals, the ribozymes involved being replaced with enzymes one by one. (The catalytic center of the modern polymerase in its active state, the phosphate group positioned between two metal atoms, is nothing else then a fragment of the apatite structure.) Combining the idea of stamping with the available phylogenetic data, the Archaea come out as descendants of the organisms whose life cycle was based upon RNA replication, whereas the ancestors of Bacteria appear to be the “inventors” of DNA, whose life cycle was based on transcription alternated with reverse transcription. Drawing an analogy between introns and transposons, the latter appear to be likely descendents of single-stranded catalytically active forms of mobile DNA. The origin of translation can be explained next as a spin-off from stamping performed at elevated hydrostatic pressures. A model for the origin of Eukaryotes can also be proposed as further development of these ideas, accounting for their phylogenetic traits, meiosis, spliceosomal introns and inteins, mechanisms of intron mobility (the homing endonuclease, retrohoming), acidocalciosomes, links between transposons and regulatory sequences of genes, domesticated transposases (including convergent domestication), the nuclear membrane, emergence of the double-stranded DNA, mobilization of double-stranded transposons, gene migration from mitochondria, plastids and nucleomorphs into the nucleus, epigenetic regulation of gene expression, multicellularity. Also explained are nuclear dimorphism in the ciliates, genome rearrangements in their macronuclei and some other phenomena.
Category: Biochemistry

[151] viXra:1607.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 09:06:41

Number pi , Formulas , Curves , Surfaces

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this note we give formulas, curves and surfaces,related with the constant pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[150] viXra:1607.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 09:13:19

Pi , G , Zeta(n) , Gamma

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this paper we give some formulas related with the numbers: pi,G(catalán),zeta(n),gamma(Euler-Mascheroni)
Category: General Mathematics

[149] viXra:1607.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 09:17:51

Extreme Light-Matter Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A new MIT study could open up new areas of technology based on types of light emission that had been thought to be "forbidden," or at least so unlikely as to be practically unattainable. The new approach, the researchers say, could cause certain kinds of interactions between light and matter, which would normally take billions of years to happen, to take place instead within billionths of a second, under certain special conditions. [18] Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new tool for detecting and measuring the polarization of light based on a single spatial sampling of the light, rather than the multiple samples required by previous technologies. The new device makes use of the unique properties of organic polymers, rather than traditional silicon, for polarization detection and measurement. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[148] viXra:1607.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 04:39:47

Neutrino Decoherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[147] viXra:1607.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 06:08:08

Divide Beal’s Conjecture into Several Parts Gradually to Prove the Beal’s Conjecture

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this article, we first classify A, B and C according to their respective odevity, and thereby get rid of two kinds from AX+BY=CZ. Then, affirmed AX+BY=CZ in which case A, B and C have at least a common prime factor by several concrete equalities. After that, proved AX+BY≠CZ in which case A, B and C have not any common prime factor by mathematical induction with the aid of the symmetric relations of positive odd numbers concerned after divide the inequality in four. Finally, reached a conclusion that the Beal’s conjecture holds water via the comparison between AX+BY=CZ and AX+BY≠CZ under the given requirements.
Category: Number Theory

[146] viXra:1607.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 03:43:11

Nature-Inspired Signal Processing

Authors: Frank Edughom Ekpar
Comments: 30 Pages. United States Patent Application Number 13/ 674,035: Publication Number US 2014/0135642 A1

The present invention establishes the foundational principles and practice for a unified theory of arbitrary information management by disclosing systems, devices and methods for the management of substrates or biological substrates. In this context, a substrate or biological substrate is any aspect of any entity that is capable of responding to or emitting or transmitting stimuli irrespective of Whether the stimuli actually emanate or originate from any aspect of the entity or not. Management of substrates or biological substrates could be achieved through the management of stimuli that modulate or moderate or influence any aspect of the substrate or biological substrate as well as through the management of any stimuli emanating from the substrate or biological substrate.
Category: Classical Physics

[145] viXra:1607.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 23:09:48

Bacterial Identification Using 16S Rdna Gene Sequencing and Antibiogram Analysis on Biofield Treated Pseudomonas Fluorescens

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Biofield therapies have been reported to improve the quality of life as compared to other energy medicine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) for antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype number. P. fluorescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 49838) number and divided in control and treated group. The effect was evaluated on day 10, and 159 after biofield treatment in lyophilized state. Further study was performed on day 5, 10, and 15 after retreatment on day 159 in revived state as per study design. All experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. fluorescens with other bacterial species after treatment. The results showed improved sensitivities and decreased MIC value of aztreonam, cefepime, moxifloxacin, and tetracycline in revived and lyophilized treated sample with respect to the control. Arginine, cetrimide, kanamycin, and glucose showed altered biochemical reactions after biofield treatment with respect to control. Biotype numbers were altered along with species in lyophilized as well as in revived group. Based on nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, treated sample was detected to be Pseudomonas entomophila (GenBank Accession Number: AY907566) with 96% identity of gene sequencing data, which was nearest homolog species to P. fluorescens (Accession No. EF672049). These findings suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment has the capability to alter changes in pathogenic P. fluorescens even in the lyophilized storage condition and can be used to modify the sensitivity of microbes against antimicrobials.
Category: Chemistry

[144] viXra:1607.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 23:12:01

Characterization of Phenotype and Genotype of Biofield Treated Enterobacter Aerogenes

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) has been commonly described as a versatile opportunistic pathogen in hospital infections. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on E. aerogenes for its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. E. aerogenes bearing ATCC 13048 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment and analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. In addition, treated group of E. aerogenes was evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing to establish the phylogenetic relationship of E. aerogenes with different closely related bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed an alteration of 14.28% among twenty-eight tested antimicrobials. Similarly, 15.65% tested antimicrobials showed an alteration in MIC values. Chloramphenicol showed improved sensitivity i.e. resistant to susceptible after biofield treatment, with the support of decreased MIC by two folds (i.e. >16 to ≤8 µg/mL). Norfloxacin also showed decrease MIC by two folds (i.e. 8 to ≤4 µg/mL) as compared to control. Biofield treatment showed an impact on biochemical reactions (9.09%) followed by a change in biotype number (7770 5272) in treated group with respect to control (7770 5372). Using RAPD analysis, sample showed an average range of 4 to 42% of polymorphism, while 16S rDNA study showed that treated sample was detected as Kluyvera cryocrescens (GenBank Accession Number: AM184245) with 97% identity of gene sequencing data, which was nearest homolog species to Enterobacter aerogenes strain: C1111 (Accession No. AB244467). These results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment can alter the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern, thus it can be used as alternate energy medicine in future.
Category: Biochemistry

[143] viXra:1607.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 10:44:28

The 13/12 Schematic of Thirteen Fundamental Constants and Their Twelve Respective Ratios, that Give Rise to All Constants

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 49 Pages. If the math works, an investigation is warranted.

It is proposed, that fundamental particle physics is inherently comprised of a fundamental scheme (13/12) that gives rise to the constants. The approach taken has been to extrapolate from the known constants of the standard model to a proposed fundamental (Democritean) unit. A hierarchal relationship between the constants and their respective ratios is shown. Every constant with an inherent ratio, e.g., the 2pi ratio of the Planck constant h and the reduced Planck constant h-bar. The 13/12 scheme theoretically calculates constants such as the Rydberg constant, Bohr magneton, Compton wavelength, Planck mass, etc., solely by dimensionless ratios.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[142] viXra:1607.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 11:40:51

The David Bohm Pilot-Wave Interpretation is the Best Approach to Reality of Quantum Physics

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 1 Page.

The problem with introducing the particle trajectories into Quantum Physics is the need of the violation of the Energy Conservation law. The latter law must hold, because the Noether's theorem requires it for the case of homogeneous time. Therefore, the wonder is happening, provided, that the David Bohm's theory is proved. But latter proof is there, in [M. Ringbauer et al.: Nature Physics, 2015] together with my explanation in the present manuscript. Enjoy! All rights Reserved!
Category: Quantum Physics

[141] viXra:1607.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 12:49:26

Dark Energy Map

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

An international team of astronomers has created the largest ever three-dimensional map of distant galaxies in a bid to help them understand one of the most mysterious forces in the universe. [6] For years, physicists have attempted to explain dark energy - a mysterious influence that pushes space apart faster than gravity can pull the things in it together. But physics isn’t always about figuring out what things are. A lot of it is figuring out what things cause. And in a recent paper, a group of physicists asked this very question about dark energy, and found that in some cases, it might cause time to go forward. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[140] viXra:1607.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 13:05:42

Who Fired Prometheus? the Historical Genesis and Ontology of Super-Ego and the Castration Complex: the Destructuralization and Repair of Modern Personality. an Essay in Five Parts.

Authors: Rich Norman
Comments: 26 Pages.

As an author for this most inclusive and eclectic forum, it is my privilege to write a series of contributions which will look upon the mystery of our human condition. There is a particular psychological element that is available to observe in myth, dream and art, which once analyzed, will disclose both the nexus around which our elevated cultural achievements and human cooperative conglomeration have been cast, as well as, the single most destructive source of modern psychopathology. This barbaric unconscious relic can be traced in its formative genesis through the developmental progression of ancient law and myth, its archetypal imprint now a certain and sure part of the human phylogenetic inheritance, a masochistic degradation of all healthy potential around which the very heart of collective achievement has been centered. First I will offer up a Rubens, Prometheus Bound, which I encourage you to examine quite closely for the striking and horrific demonstration of this archetypal image which is embedded within. Can you un-riddle the distortions and find our complex, the barbarism around which all of our society has gathered? Then, I will offer up a new and different version of the Prometheus myth I have written, which also demonstrates this archetype. How amazing to have written it at a single pass, and then, to analyze it later, and discover that although different and distorted from the original myth, the meaning, the archetypal pattern, remained unchanged! Such a beautiful piece of writing to express such an ugly wish! So dear reader, first I will offer you the mystery. Please examine the following image and text quite closely, look into the images, both written and visual, look deeply and see if you can guess the answer. Then I will reveal the correct analysis, then the history, followed by specific examples detailing the exact way this structure is created in development, and how it influences, for the worse, our ethics and our intellect. Perhaps there is an alternative which will free both mind and morality from this curse, an atavism and a new creation, our highest human hope, both new and aged, might ask and answer the question: "Who fired Prometheus?"
Category: Mind Science

[139] viXra:1607.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 18:50:41

Inside the Cosmic Dispersive Prism

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 6 Pages.

The universe has the characteristics of a dispersive prism with areas having different indexes of refraction. A material with a varying index of refraction can have areas that produce magnification, reflection, refraction and alter other characteristics of electromagnetic waves over distance. Radio astronomers have identified that electromagnetic waves have to travel through extensive regions of plasma. The interaction of electromagnetic waves in a plasma can produce heterodyne products. These products can mimic redshift, blueshift and produce a prodigious amount of radio noise which can be referred to as cosmic static.
Category: Astrophysics

[138] viXra:1607.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-26 09:29:46

Three Solutions of the LLP Limiting Case of the Problem of Apollonius via Geometric Algebra, Using Reflections and Rotations

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: Pages.

This document adds to the collection of solved problems presented in References 1-4. After reviewing, briefly, how reflections and rotations can be expressed and manipulated via GA, it solves the LLP limiting case of the Problem of Apollonius in three ways.
Category: Geometry

[137] viXra:1607.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 23:15:55

The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Structural and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Stainless steel (SS) has gained extensive attention due to its high corrosion resistance, low maintenance, familiar lustre, and superior mechanical properties. In SS, the mechanical properties are closely related with crystal structure, crystallite size, and lattice strain. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on structural, physical and mechanical properties of SS powder. SS (Grade-SUS316L) powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treatment. The treatment part was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated SS samples were characterized using particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Result showed that biofield treatment has significantly reduced the particle size d10, d50, d90, and d99 (size, below which 10, 50, 90, and 99% particles were present, respectively) of SS powder up to 7.42, 12.93, 30.23, and 41.38% respectively, as compared to control. XRD result showed that the unit cell volume of SS was altered after biofield treatment. Moreover, crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 70% in treated SS as compared to control. The yield strength calculated using Hall-Petch equation, was significantly increased upto 216.5% in treated SS, as compared to control. This could be due to significant reduction of crystallite size in treated SS after biofield treatment. In FT-IR spectra, intensity of the absorption peak at wavenumber 1107 cm-1 (control) attributing to Fe-O-H bond was diminished in case of treated SS. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the structural, physical and mechanical properties of treated SS powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[136] viXra:1607.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 23:17:52

Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Salicylic Acid and Sparfloxacin

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Salicylic acid is a naturally occurring derivative of benzoic acid, and widely used in organic synthesis and as a plant hormone. Sparfloxacin is fluorinated quinolone antibiotic having broad spectrum antimicrobial property. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of salicylic acid and sparfloxacin using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another was subjected to biofield treatment. FT-IR spectrum of treated salicylic acid showed the upstream shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 2999 to 3004 cm-1 and 2831 to 2837 cm-1 and C=O asymmetric stretching vibration from 1670 to 1683 cm-1 and 1652 to 1662 cm-1. The peak intensity in treated salicylic acid at 1558 cm-1 (aromatic C=C stretching) and 1501 cm-1 (C-C stretching) was increased as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated sparfloxacin showed a downstream shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 2961 to 2955 cm-1 and 2848 to 2818 cm-1, and upstream shifting in wavenumber of C=O (pyridone) stretching from 1641 to 1648 cm-1. Besides, increased intensity of peaks in treated sparfloxacin was found at 1628 cm-1 [C=C stretching (pyridone)] and 1507 cm-1 (N-H bending) as compared to control. UV spectrum of biofield treated salicylic acid exhibited a shifting of wavelength (λmax) from 295.8 to 302.4 nm and 231.2 to 234.4 nm, with respect to control. Likewise, biofield treated sparfloxacin showed the shifting in UV wavelength (λmax) from 373.8 to 380.6 nm and 224.2 to 209.2 nm. Over all, the results suggest that alteration in wavenumber of IR peaks in treated samples might be occurred due to biofield induced alteration in force constant and dipole moment of some bonds. The changes in UV wavelength (λmax) of treated sample also support the FT-IR results. Due to alteration in force constant and bond strength, the chemical stability of structure of treated drugs might also be increased, which could be beneficial for self-life of biofield treated drugs.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[135] viXra:1607.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 01:49:51

Physical Bases of Divine Creation of the Universe Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v., Nikitina N. N. the Description of Process of Creation of the First Day of the World and the List of Exclusive Hypotheses in the Field of the Cosmology and Astrophysics Concerni

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V., Nikitina N. N.
Comments: 1 Page.

The description of process of creation of the first day of the world and the list of exclusive hypotheses in the field of the cosmology and astrophysics concerning the Divine Universe
Category: Astrophysics

[134] viXra:1607.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 02:40:05

Universal Quantum Gate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Scientists have now developed a universal quantum gate, which could become the key component in a quantum computer. [14] Using a small quantum system consisting of three superconducting qubits, researchers at UC Santa Barbara and Google have uncovered a link between aspects of classical and quantum physics thought to be unrelated: classical chaos and quantum entanglement. Their findings suggest that it would be possible to use controllable quantum systems to investigate certain fundamental aspects of nature. [13] Bowtie-shaped nanoparticles made of silver may help bring the dream of quantum computing and quantum information processing closer to reality. These nanostructures, created at the Weizmann Institute of Science and described recently in Nature Communications, greatly simplify the experimental conditions for studying quantum phenomena and may one day be developed into crucial components of quantum devices. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[133] viXra:1607.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 11:02:35

General Integration Theory Defined from Extended Cohomology.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

We engage in an approach towards integration theory divorced from measure theory concentrating on the dierentiable functions instead of the measurable ones. In a sense, we do for \measure theory" what dierential geometry does for topology; the nal goal of this paper being the rigorous denition of a generalization of the Feynman path integral. The approach taken is an axiomatic one in which it is more important to understand relationships between certain quantities rather than to calculate them exactly. In a sense, this is how the eld of algebraic geometry is developed in opposition to the study of partial dierential equations where in the latter case, the stress is unfortunately still too much on the construction of explicit solutions rather than on structural properties of and between solutions.
Category: Algebra

[132] viXra:1607.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 11:11:18

Checking if a Number is Prime

Authors: Maaninou Youssef
Comments: 1 Page.

by this theory you can chek any number if it is a prime or not also you can generat a new prime number
Category: Number Theory

[131] viXra:1607.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 01:18:25

Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Characteristics of Barium Oxide and Zinc Sulfide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Barium oxide (BaO) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) are well known for their applications in electrical, optical and chemical industries. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powder. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of BaO and ZnS were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and surface area analyzer. XRD data showed that lattice parameter and unit cell volume of BaO powder were reduced upto 0.42% and 1.26%, respectively as compared to control. Whereas, density of treated BaO was increased upto 1.27% as compared to control. Besides, the unit cell volume was changed in treated ZnS from -0.55 to 0.24% as compared to control that led to change in density from -0.24 to 0.55% after biofield treatment. However, the crystallite size was substantially increased upto 40.5% and 71.4% in treated BaO and ZnS, respectively as compared to control. FT-IR data exhibited that absorption peaks at wavenumber 862/cm (control) was shifted to 858/cm in treated BaO. Upward shifting of absorption peaks corresponding to Zn-S stretching bond was observed in treated (617/cm) as compared to control (592/cm). Furthermore, surface area result showed that it was reduced by 4.32% and 2.1% in treated BaO and ZnS powder, respectively as compared to control. Hence, these, findings suggest that biofield treatment has altered the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powders.
Category: Chemistry

[130] viXra:1607.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 01:23:34

Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Bronze Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Bronze, a copper-tin alloy, widely utilizing in manufacturing of gears, bearing, and packing technologies due to its versatile physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on physical and structural properties of bronze powder. Bronze powder was divided into two samples, one served as control and the other sample was received biofield treatment. Control and treated bronze samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD result showed that the unit cell volume was reduced upto 0.78% on day 78 in treated bronze as compared to control. Further, the crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 49.96% in treated bronze sample on day 106 as compared to control. In addition, the biofield treatment has significantly reduced the average particle size upto 18.22% in treated bronze powder as compared to control. SEM data showed agglomerated and welded particles in control bronze powder, whereas fractured morphology at satellites boundaries were observed in treated bronze. The yield strength of bronze powder calculated using HallPetch equation, was significantly changed after biofield treatment. The FT-IR analysis showed that there were three new peaks at 464 cm-1, 736 cm-1, and 835 cm-1 observed in treated bronze as compared to control; indicated that the biofield treatment may alter the bond properties in bronze. Therefore, the biofield treatment has substantially altered the characteristics of bronze at physical and structural level.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[129] viXra:1607.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 02:40:15

Einstein\s Relativity Theory is not Science

Authors: Omar Shabsigh
Comments: 31 Pages.

This article discusses the validity of Einstein’s relativity theory. All assumptions of Einstein and his mathematics (where it exists) will be reviewed. Experiments done to show the validity will be restudied then we shall show that special relativity is only theoretically correct under the constraints and conditions made by Einstein but has no practical or scientific value. We shall also show that general relativity is basically wrong and has no scientific foundation and no proof. Therefore, all relativity theory of Einstein’s, can be righteously considered as a science fiction.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[128] viXra:1607.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 04:47:14

Qubit Entanglement Entropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Using a small quantum system consisting of three superconducting qubits, researchers at UC Santa Barbara and Google have uncovered a link between aspects of classical and quantum physics thought to be unrelated: classical chaos and quantum entanglement. Their findings suggest that it would be possible to use controllable quantum systems to investigate certain fundamental aspects of nature. [13] Bowtie-shaped nanoparticles made of silver may help bring the dream of quantum computing and quantum information processing closer to reality. These nanostructures, created at the Weizmann Institute of Science and described recently in Nature Communications, greatly simplify the experimental conditions for studying quantum phenomena and may one day be developed into crucial components of quantum devices. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[127] viXra:1607.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 04:47:18

A Phenomenon in Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems

Authors: S.Kalimuthu
Comments: 06 Pages. NA

According to James R. Meyer, In mathematics, a theorem is intended to be a term for a very precise and definite concept - a theorem is a statement that is proved, using rigorous mathematical reasoning, to follow according to a set of logical rules, from a set of initial statements. These initial statements are usually called axioms, and these are statements that are accepted without being proven. The set of logical rules which determine how one statement can follow from another are usually called the rules of inference . And basically, Gödel's incompleteness theorem is any statement that says that for every formal mathematical system, there are sentences that cannot be proved to be true or false in that system.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[126] viXra:1607.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-12 13:43:28

Metaspace

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

What is metaspace?
Category: Mathematical Physics

[125] viXra:1607.0147 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-14 12:19:24

Gij Zult Modulair Construeren

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Kijk om je heen en je raakt er snel van overtuigd dat alle losse objecten ofwel modules of modulaire systemen zijn. Het lijkt erop dat de schepper modulair bouwen tot zijn devies gemaakt heeft. Er bestaan echter ook continuüms en die continuüms lijken in verband te staan met de losse objecten. Als waarnemers van deze feiten proberen we deze verbanden te begrijpen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[124] viXra:1607.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-26 09:04:26

Thou Shalt Construct in a Modular Way

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 19 Pages.

Look around and you become easily convinced from the fact that all discrete objects are either modules or modular systems. With other words, the creator of this universe must be a modular designer. His motto is “Construct in a modular way”. However, also non-discrete items exist. Universe contains continuums and these continuums appear to relate to the discrete objects. Further, we as observers of these facts, want to place everything into an appropriate model, such that we can comprehend our environment. The paper applies a quaternionic Hilbert space in order to construct a simple dynamic model of a mathematical universe. The Hilbert space stores all historic, current and future dynamic geometric data that describe this mathematical universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[123] viXra:1607.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-12 11:47:17

Complex-Dynamical Nanobiotechnology Paradigm and Intrinsically Creative Evolution

Authors: Andrei P. Kirilyuk
Comments: 26 pages, 19 refs, 40 eqs; Journal-ref: Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies 14 (1) (2016) 1-26

Complex nanosystem dynamics is analysed by the unreduced solution of arbitrary many-body interaction problem, leading to the fundamental dynamic multivaluedness and universal definition of dynamic complexity in terms of the number of system realisations. We show that genuine quantum and classical chaos can only be strong for a free-interaction nanoscale system providing exponentially huge, “magic” efficiency of such unreduced interaction dynamics, which underlies the properties of life, intelligence and consciousness. Various more or less chaotic regimes of irreducibly complex nanosystem dynamics are reviewed, as well as the rigorously specified transitions between them. The obtained unified formalism for description of the unreduced complex nanosystem dynamics is based on the universal symmetry (conservation and transformation) of complexity unifying the extended versions of all usual laws and principles. We summarise the main principles of thus obtained new, complex-dynamical nanobiotechnology paradigm and show that it is the only viable way of further sustainable nanotechnology and society development in the spirit of coevolution of natural and artificial system complexity.
Category: Condensed Matter

[122] viXra:1607.0144 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-12 09:53:15

A New Model of Physics

Authors: Ratikanta Das
Comments: 13 pages

Abstract: Our new model supports an alternate cosmology quite different from the hypothesis of expanding universe with big bang origin. Everyone will be surprised to know that theories and equations obtained from this new cosmology are able to give simple explanations of many puzzles of physics such as: internal structure of fundamental particle, origin of mass, origin of charge, origin of strong force, wave- particle duality of matter and radiation and some others. Our new model stands on classical mechanics, but it supports quantum mechanics by deriving Schrödinger equation and de Broglie hypothesis. The model also describes a 4D classical technique (named as spiral transformation) for conversion of radiation into matter and vice versa. According to this model, particle-antiparticle pair are created when our flat three dimensional (3D) universe; which is supposed to be a grand 3D hyper spherical surface separating two super grand 4D worlds on either side; is deformed locally into two sides forming two 4D structures. The model also gives an expression for unified Coulomb and strong force.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[121] viXra:1607.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-12 08:54:11

Ultracold Pauli Exclusion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

University of Otago physicist Niels Kjaergaard and his team have used extremely precisely controlled laser beams to confine, accelerate and gently collide ultracold atomic clouds of fermionic potassium. [15] Scientists obtain evidence of many-body localization in a closed quantum system. [14] Experiments using inelastic neutron scattering at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have found indications of a possible new quantum spin state in a novel antiferromagnetic material barium ytterbium zinc oxide (Ba3Yb2Zn5O11) which provides both a challenge and validation of the third law of thermodynamics. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[120] viXra:1607.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-12 09:42:09

New Spherical Static Solution in Gravity Field

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover new solution in gravity field by Einstein’s gravity field equation with cosmological constant term. We treats curvature tensor in new solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[119] viXra:1607.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 15:52:42

Kalman Folding 4: Streams and Observables

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 11 Pages.

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments. In that paper, all examples folded over arrays in memory for convenience and repeatability. That is an example of developing filters in a friendly environment. Here, we prototype a couple of less friendly environments and demonstrate exactly the same Kalman accumulator function at work. These less friendly environments are - lazy streams, where new observations are computed on demand but never fully realized in memory, thus not available for inspection in a debugger - asynchronous observables, where new observations are delivered at arbitrary times from an external source, thus not available for replay once consumed by the filter
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[118] viXra:1607.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-12 11:11:41

A Basic Biofeedback Primer

Authors: Rich Norman, Cengiz Mordeniz, Leonardo Mendolicchio, Enrico Pierangeli, Paolo Pannarale, Franco Orsucci, Elio Conte
Comments: 13 Pages.

Biofeedback is a longstanding technique whereby voluntary control may be asserted over many seemingly unconscious physiologic and autonomic processes. Neurofeedback is a particular branch of biofeedback using real time information derived through the active monitoring of brain states to allow development of therapeutically efficacious informationally rich results. Our facility and staff are expert in the use of biofeedback as both a direct therapeutic aid, and assessment tool. This document will briefly detail the historical development and underlying principles of bio- and neuro-feedback techniques and their substantial theoretical and experimental basis.
Category: Mind Science

[117] viXra:1607.0139 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-14 06:04:38

On a New Reaction-less Mechanism for Thrust Production and the Explanation of the Working of the EmDrive

Authors: Mutasim A. Ahmed
Comments: 8 Pages.

We propose here a totally new mechanism for thrust production, to explain the working of the two reaction-less drives. Namely the EmDrive invented by Roger Shawyer, and the Cannae drive invented by Guido Fetta. The explanation based on a hypothesized directional change of center of mass of the drive, due to the increase in the mass of the dielectric resonator attached to one of the two ends of the drive. This increase in mass is due to the increase in energy in the form of concentrated resonating microwave photons. This energy is in principle and according to special theory of relativity is equivalent to a certain mass, using the famous mass energy relation. This energy is contained inside the dielectric and can be absorbed by the dielectric atoms, and can be added to the rest energy of the dielectric and manifest as a kinetic energy. This conversion of microwaves energy to kinetic energy will restore the original position of center of mass, in a new inertial frame of reference. We assumed that the combined effect of the change of center of mass, and the conversion of the microwave energy to kinetic energy, is equivalent to the effect of a genuine pull exerted by an external force in the direction of center of mass change. And by a continuous addition of microwaves to the dielectric resonator the process will be repeated again and again. And according to the equivalence of inertial frames dictated by special relativity, the system will be accelerating. And a true reaction-less thrust will ensue. This thrust as we will show is in perfect agreement with the special theory of relativity. We showed that the Serrano Field Effect Thruster works on the same mechanism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[116] viXra:1607.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-11 12:50:34

On New Quantum Search Algorithms and Complexity of NP-Complete Problems

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 14 pages

We develop three new quantum algorithms for searching the desired target state in the unstructured database of size N. The first algorithm requires Log N iterative steps. It constructs two quantum bags of equal size in terms of two quantum states, out of which exactly one quantum state will have nonzero overlap with the target state. This determination of overlap is done by taking the inner product, in Log N time [2], of the implicitly known target state with any one of these two quantum states. The second algorithm requires just one single step which uses a new suitable operator and the choice of this operator is problem dependent, i.e. it depends upon the number of qubits required to be used to represent an element in the index set. The third algorithm again requires only a single step and this algorithm makes use of a fixed (same) operator. It is known that algorithm for unstructured database search can be easily adaptable for solving NP-Complete problems. However, the computational complexity of NP-Complete problems after the adaptations of both the classical as well as quantum [1] search algorithms remains of the exponential order as the exponent for quantum [1] algorithm changes only to one-half times the exponent for classical algorithm. But for our quantum algorithms the exponent falls substantially so that our new quantum algorithms for unstructured search are capable if reducing the computational complexity of NP-Complete problems to polynomial order!
Category: Quantum Physics

[115] viXra:1607.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-11 12:53:35

Distant Nuclear Spins Couple

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

For the first time, researchers at the University of Basel in Switzerland have coupled the nuclear spins of distant atoms using just a single electron. [14] Experiments using inelastic neutron scattering at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have found indications of a possible new quantum spin state in a novel antiferromagnetic material barium ytterbium zinc oxide (Ba3Yb2Zn5O11) which provides both a challenge and validation of the third law of thermodynamics. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[114] viXra:1607.0136 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-16 14:54:34

The Relativistic Length Contraction Rebutted

Authors: Radwan M. Kassir
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, it is established that Einstein’s interpretation of the Lorentz transformation in predicting the length contraction is based on invalid assumption with respect to the reference frame in which the simultaneity of events needs to be considered. It is shown that the correct assumption would lead, within the special relativity framework, to contradictory length expansion through the same Lorentz transformation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[113] viXra:1607.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-11 09:14:07

An Integral with One Parameter

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this note we exhibit an integral with one parameter. the integrand is of the form: A(t)cos(f(x,t))senh(g(x,t))+B(t)sen(f(x,t))cosh(g(x,t)),0<x<1,0<t<pi/2.
Category: General Mathematics

[112] viXra:1607.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-11 09:18:10

Number pi , Numbers H(n,m) , G(n,m) , F(n,m)

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

we give some formulas related with the numbers pi,h(n,m),g(n,m),f(n,m).
Category: General Mathematics

[111] viXra:1607.0132 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-21 00:02:16

Constructing a Four-Colorable Map

Authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, we solve the four-color problem by a new algorithm.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[110] viXra:1607.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 22:03:41

Attempts to Detect the Torsion Field Nature of Scalar Wave Generated by Dual Tesla Coil System

Authors: Gao Peng
Comments: 7 Pages.

Scalar wave was found and used at first by Nikola Tesla in his wireless energy transmission experiment. Prof.K.Meyl extended the Maxwell equation and found the lost scalar wave part. The scalar wave theory proposed by Prof.K.Meyl indicates that the torsion field is the nature of scalar wave. This work attempts to detect the torsion field nature of scalar wave generated by the dual Tesla coil system, using the torsion balance consisting of a wooden frame. The result is positive and two kinds of torsion field including left-handed and right-handed are detected in dual Tesla coil system.
Category: Classical Physics

[109] viXra:1607.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 23:29:49

Antibiogram and Genotypic Analysis Using 16S Rdna After Biofield Treatment on Morganella Morganii

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Morganella morganii (M. morganii) is one of the important nosocomial pathogen associated with the urinary tract infections and bacteremia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on M. morganii in the lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, biotype number and genotype. M. morganii cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25829) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. M. morganii strain was divided into two groups, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two groups, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 142 (Study I). After retreatment on day 142, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tube was further analyzed on day 5, 10 and 15 respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using the automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of M. morganii with other bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed 32.14% alterations, while minimum inhibitory concentration results showed 18.75% alterations of the tested antimicrobials. Biochemical study also showed altered positive reactions in nitrofurantoin and indole with respect to control. Biotype study showed alteration in Gr. IIB, study II, on day 15 (4005 1446) as compared to the control (4004 1446). 16S rDNA sequencing analysis showed similar results with the identified microbe as M. morganii (GenBank accession number: AB210972) having 80% identity of the gene sequencing data. Total 1507 base nucleotide of 16S rDNA gene sequences were analyzed by multiple alignments, while nearest homolog genus-species of M. morganii was found as Providencia rettgeri (accession number: AM040492). These results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on M. morganii in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[108] viXra:1607.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 23:34:28

Physical and Structural Characterization of Biofield Treated Imidazole Derivatives

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Imidazole derivatives have attracted significant interests in recent time for their usefulness in synthetic heterocyclic chemistry, analytical chemistry and pharmacology. Aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on two imidazole derivatives (i.e., imidazole and 2-methylimidazole) by various analytical methods. The biofield treatment was done by Mr. Trivedi on both the compounds and both control and treated samples of imidazole and 2-methylimidazole were characterized with respect to physical, and structural properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). X-ray diffraction study revealed that crystallite size varied in a different way for imidazole and 2-methylimidazole due to the presence of methyl group in 2-c position although their core was same. Treated sample of imidazole showed a slight increase in crystallite size (6.5%); however, treated 2-methylimidazole showed a significant increase (166.68%) in crystallite size along with decrease in peak intensity as compared to control. The latent heat of fusion (ΔH) of imidazole was increased up to 0.62% in treated sample as compared to control; whereas in treated 2-methylimidazole, the ΔH was decreased by 22% as compared to control. Maximum degradation temperature (Tmax) from TGA of imidazole was remained same but 2-methylimidazole was increased by 1.5% as compared to control. FT-IR spectra showed slight change in stretching frequencies of treated imidazole and 2-methylimidazole as compared to control. Both the imidazole and 2-methylimidazole showed similar UV absorbance maxima as compared to respective control sample. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of either 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2 H/1 H (PM+1/PM) of treated imidazole was significantly increased up to 232.51% as compared to control, however, isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2 H/1 H (PM+1/PM) of treated 2-methylimidazole showed a minor change from -1.68 upto 1.68% as compared to control. Overall, the experimental results suggest that biofield treatment has significant effect on structural and thermal properties of imidazole and 2-methylimidazole.
Category: Mind Science

[107] viXra:1607.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-11 02:16:50

Yes there Will be Light! Nikitina N. N., Nikitin V. N. the Description of Process of Creation of the First Day of the World and the List of Exclusive Hypotheses in the Field of the Cosmology and Astrophysics Concerning the Divine Universe.

Authors: Nikitina N. N., Nikitin V. N.
Comments: 1 Page.

The description of process of creation of the first day of the world and the list of exclusive hypotheses in the field of the cosmology and astrophysics concerning the Divine Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[106] viXra:1607.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-11 02:37:20

Neutrosophic Overset, Neutrosophic Underset, and Neutrosophic Offset

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 170 Pages.

Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off-Set and -Logic were defined for the first time by Smarandache in 1995 and published in 2007. They are totally different from other sets/logics/probabilities. He extended the neutrosophic set respectively to Neutrosophic Overset {when some neutrosophic component is > 1}, Neutrosophic Underset {when some neutrosophic component is < 0}, and to Neutrosophic Offset {when some neutrosophic components are off the interval [0, 1], i.e. some neutrosophic component > 1 and other neutrosophic component < 0}. This is no surprise with respect to the classical fuzzy set/logic, intuitionistic fuzzy set/logic, or classical/imprecise probability, where the values are not allowed outside the interval [0, 1], since our real-world has numerous examples and applications of over-/under-/off-neutrosophic components.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[105] viXra:1607.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 14:02:38

Massive Scalar Field Theory on Discrete N-Scales

Authors: Furkan Semih Dundar
Comments: 4 Pages.

$N$-scales are a generalization of time-scales that has been put forward to unify continuous and discrete analyses to higher dimensions. In this paper we investigate massive scalar field theory on $n$-scales. In a specific case of a regular 2-scale, we find that the IR energy spectrum is almost unmodified when there are enough spatial points. This is regarded as a good sign because the model reproduces the known results in the continuum approximation. Then we give field equation on a general $n$-scale. It has been seen that the field equation can only be solved via computer simulations. Lastly, we propose that $n$-scales might be a good way to model singularities encountered in the general theory of relativity.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[104] viXra:1607.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 14:27:38

Protons and Neutrons.

Authors: Terubumi Honjo
Comments: 5 Pages.

Protons and neutrons. By Elementary pulsation principle to explain it. When an electron is in the orbit of the proton, a proton turns into a neutron. When an electron goes out of the orbit of the neutron, a neutron becomes the proton. The interpretation of the pulsation hypothesis, Of the atomic nucleus, A proton and the neutron are the same elementary particles. The valley of the ripple of the material wave due to the neutron pulsation, The electron goes around the valley. Proton (+ electric charge), an electron (- electric charge). The proton (+ electric charge )+ electron (- electric charge) = neutrality. Valley of the ripples of the nuclei to form electron orbitals. The electron goes around an orbit. When an electron is released from the orbit, the atom becomes the positive electric charge. As for both the atomic nucleus and the atom, the change of the electric charge depends on electronic movement. An electric charge will undergo a change. It is discontinuous (at the unit of electronic electric charge).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[103] viXra:1607.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-11 01:43:26

A Speculative Note on How to Modify Einstein's Field Equation to Hold at the Quantum Scale. Gravity at the Quantum Scale = Strong Force?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this short note, first we will show a few ways to rewrite Einstein's field equation without basically changing it. Then we speculate a bit more broadly on how to change the equation to make it hold at the quantum scale. More precisely, we modify it for bodies with masses less than the Planck mass.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[102] viXra:1607.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 08:44:11

Topological Plexcitons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

New types of particles called 'topological plexcitons' have been engineered by researchers in the US, and they could help pave the way for more efficient energy transfers in solar cells and other forms of photonic circuits. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[101] viXra:1607.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 08:52:39

Kinetic Theory of Dark Energy

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper will present a new theory for what we call “Dark Energy” by explaining it as a form of kinetic energy. It will be presented within General Relativity where we will use new terms and explain them in detail. Some of the new terms that will be presented also fall under Quantum Mechanics. It will be explained in detail how and why dark energy comes to be and why it is now dominant in the Universe which will explain the observational evidence that has been attained on this subject and has so far been rather puzzling to scientists when it comes to the very nature of “Dark Energy”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[100] viXra:1607.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 09:29:40

New Therapeutic Intervention and Assessment Tools: GSR, Sexual Dysfunction and the Peptide Assisted Therapy Method––an Applied Therapy and Mathematical Metric of Healing.

Authors: Richard Lawrence Norman
Comments: 16 Pages.

This adjunct to our previous work (Norman and Conte et al. 2016, 2016a) will apply the proposed methodology within a specific clinical paradigm in order to aid the ever increasing population afflicted with sexual dysfunction and more subtle relationship issues. As has been previously supported, GSR is a noninvasive alternative to other measures which is capable of reaching into the deepest unconscious layers of the human mind. We will propose a specific series of tests and treatments which may allow risk-free aid to be disseminated to needful populations and treatment efficacy evaluated in precise mathematical terms supported by known trustworthy psychological measures. We may thereby develop and substantiate from several fronts at once, both a new therapeutic approach specifically aimed at a large target population in present need of care, and also, the methods of mathematical evaluation applied. The Peptide Assisted Therapy (PAT) method utilizes the known fact of oxytocin induced hippocampal mnemic plasticity within a neuropsychoanalytic context, to reshape basic attachment structure dynamics in order to ameliorate active pathology. A detailed protocol is presented relating the previously articulated methodology to the current theoretic construct and its applicability. In this way we will suggest new avenues of approach, analysis, theoretic substantiation and treatment which may directly help those afflicted with a common condition. Qualification and importance: It must be qualified that the proposed treatment is new, safe, non-toxic and remains to be assessed. Although it is unlikely that those patients and couples with deeply entrenched libidinal imbalance will benefit from this therapeutic approach outside of a greater and more extensive therapeutic context, those whose condition is less severe may well receive substantial benefit. With ~30% of all men and ~40% of all women displaying some level of sexually dysfunctional symptomatology, (ASRM fact sheets 2008, 2015) over a complex distribution (Simons and Carey 2001), we may rightly conclude that this safe and inexpensive treatment could help millions, and so, should be closely investigated and quantitatively assessed.
Category: Mind Science

[99] viXra:1607.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 10:20:53

The Pseudo-Tensor Gives Positive, Mistaken Value for Gravitational Energy

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 8 Pages. History of the submissions is presented

The well known calculation of the total mass-energy for the gravitation field of a liquid sphere plus the matter of this sphere, which uses the pseudo-tensor of gravitational energy and momentum, is mistaken. The correct calculation shows that the pseudo-tensor provides a positive contribution to the total mass-energy. So, the pseudo-tensor is pointless
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[98] viXra:1607.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-11 08:01:55

Candidates for the Slichter Triplet

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

During the last 55 years, there have been many unsuccessful attempts to measure the three frequencies of the 1S1 self-resonance, the vibration of the Earth's core. One reason for this failure could be the insufficient reduction of the background noise, caused by the earthquakes. This is just another attempt to solve the ancient mystery. This time, perhaps with more success ;-)
Category: Geophysics

[97] viXra:1607.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 16:24:14

The Astrophysical Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of human knowledge is presented to explain the structures that create life.
Category: Astrophysics

[96] viXra:1607.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 18:13:28

Core Before Crust Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of stellar metamorphosis is presented to reposition the timeline of large solid structure formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[95] viXra:1607.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 13:22:58

A Proton and the Neutron in the Atomic Nucleus.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 4 Pages.

A proton and the neutron in the atomic nucleus. The interpretation of the pulsation hypothesis, Of the atomic nucleus, A proton and the neutron are the same elementary particles. The valley of the ripple of the material wave due to the neutron pulsation, The electron goes around the valley. When an electron is in the orbit of the proton, a proton turns into a neutron. When an electron goes out of the orbit of the neutron, a neutron becomes the proton. Proton (+ electric charge), an electron (- electric charge). The proton (+ electric charge )+ electron (- electric charge) = neutrality. Valley of the ripples of the nuclei to form electron orbitals. The electron goes around an orbit. When an electron is released from the orbit, the atom becomes the positive electric charge. As for both the atomic nucleus and the atom, the change of the electric charge depends on electronic movement. An electric charge will undergo a change. It is discontinuous (at the unit of electronic electric charge).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[94] viXra:1607.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 10:43:41

Examination of Sufficient Conditions for Forming Mass of “massive Graviton”, from Early Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 Pages.

We start with a formulation of a modified ‘Poisson’ equation from Poissons and Will from 2014, and then use the Padmanabhan inter relationship between an inflaton and a an early universe potential system. Then from there, we come up with a quadratic equation for a minimum radius, for producing a “massive graviton’ value. We then close with observations as to what this implies as to gravitational physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[93] viXra:1607.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 11:03:56

Use of Drama and Songs in Science Education.educational Play on Chemistry "Mendeleyev's Revelation.

Authors: R.D. Shmelkina.
Comments: Pages.

Use of Drama and Songs in Science Education. Educational Play on Chemistry “ Mendeleyev’s Revelation”. R.D. Shmelkina.(NYC. USA) Abstract. In order to increase productivity, motivation and effectiveness of science education we created the Program with use of drama and music (songs). It is a play “Mendeleyev’s Revelation” about discovery of the Periodic Law of chemical elements. This play starts a series of plays which contains school curriculum material in chemistry, biology and physics and was called “Interactive Science Discovery Theater –TM”. The presentation of the play was made in the NYC Public Library and implemented in the Brooklyn After School program with the students’ participation (elementary school, middle school and High School students). Also, it was published in the “Big Open World Magazine”. After analyzing the results of this new teaching method according to the students’ answers to the teachers’ questions it was turned out to be very successful. Many positive references were received from students, teachers and parents that confirmed the necessity of implementation of the “Interactive Science Discovery Theater” to science education. The article was published in the XV International Conference “Tends in the Development of Science and Education” L.Journal.ru (June, 2016).
Category: Education and Didactics

[92] viXra:1607.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 08:03:25

Multistep Transformation Method for Discrete and Continuous Time Enzyme Kinetics

Authors: Z. Vosika, G. Lazović
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we develop the new physicalmathematical time scale kinetic approach-model applied on organic and non-organic particles motion. Concretely, here, at first, this new research approach is based on enzyme particles dynamics results. At the beginning, a time scale is defined to be an arbitrary closed subset of the real numbers R, with the standard inherited topology. Mathematical examples of time scales include real numbers R, natural numbers N, integers Z, the Cantor set (i.e. fractals), and any finite union of closed intervals of R. Calculus on time scales (TSC) was established in 1988 by Stefan Hilger. TSC, by construction, is used to describe the complex process. This method may utilized for description of physical (classical mechanics), material (crystal growth kinetics, physical chemistry kinetics - for example, kinetics of barium-titanate synthesis), (bio)chemical or similar systems and represents major challenge for contemporary scientists. In this sense, the MichaelisMenten (MM) mechanism is the one of the best known and simplest nonlinear biochemical network which deserves appropriate attention. Generally speaking, such processes may be described of discrete time scale. Reasonably it could be assumed that such a scenario is possible for MM mechanism. In this work, discrete time MM kinetics (dtMM) with time various step h, is investigated. Instead of the first derivative by time used first backward difference h. Physical basics for new time scale approach is a new statistical thermodynamics, natural generalization of Tsallis non-extensive or similar thermodynamics. A reliable new algorithm of novel difference transformation method, namely multi-step difference transformation method (MSDETM) for solving system of nonlinear ordinary difference equations is proposed. If h tends to zero, MSDETM transformed into multi-step differential transformation method (MSDTM). In the spirit of TSC, MSDETM describes analogously MSDTM.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[91] viXra:1607.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 05:22:19

New Ferromagnetic Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Superconductivity (SC) and ferromagnetism (FM) are mutually antagonistic collective phenomena in solids. Macroscopically, a superconductor expels magnetic fluxes from its interior below the superconducting critical temperature TSC. By contrast, a ferromagnet magnetizes itself (for a single magnetic domain) spontaneously below the ferromagnetic transition temperature TFM. [31] A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[90] viXra:1607.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 17:30:42

Analog Computer Understanding of Hamiltonian Paths, and a Possible Digitization

Authors: Bryce Kim
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper explores finding existence of undirected hamiltonian paths in a graph using lumped/ideal circuits, specifically low-pass filters. While other alternatives are possible, a first-order RC low-pass filter is chosen to describe the process. The paper proposes a way of obtaining time complexity for counting the number of hamiltonian paths in a graph, and then shows that the time complexity of the circuits is around $O(n \log n)$ where $n$ is the number of vertices in a graph. Because analog computation is often undesirable due to several aspects, a possible digitization scheme is proposed in this paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[89] viXra:1607.0106 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-10 12:41:16

The Prediction And The Discovery Of The X(4500) Particle

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 5 Pages.

In September 2015 I wrote a paper where I predicted the existence of a new particle with a rest mass of 4500 MeV/c2 . The particle which was discovered by CERN's scientists in 2016 seems to be a tetraquark. The particle which is known as X(4500) is a member of a family of possible tetraquarks.
Category: Quantum Physics

[88] viXra:1607.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 20:43:00

Proposed Experiments to Test the Foundations of Quantum Computing

Authors: Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan
Comments: 8 Pages. Submitted to International Conference on Rebooting Computing June 2016, to be held in San Diego CA, Oct. 2016

Quantum computing promises computational performance that is exponentially faster than any conceivable classical computer. This is due to the theoretically expected scaling of N entangled qubits, with parallel evolution of 2^N quantum states. This is in sharp contrast to classical computing, where N bits may have 2^N classical states, but only one at a time. It is widely believed that quantum superposition and entanglement have been demonstrated in several experimental systems, and that practical quantum computing can be achieved once sufficiently long quantum relaxation times are obtained. On the contrary, we suggest that there may be serious problems with quantum computing on both the macroscopic and microscopic levels, and that the experiments thus far have not proven the existence of non-classical superposition states, which are necessary for the proper functioning of qubits. In order to investigate this further, we propose new experiments in three physical systems: electron spins, single photons, and superconducting loops. We further suggest that certain more limited classes of quantum computing, such as quantum annealing, do not require quantum entanglement, and can achieve significant performance enhancements even if universal quantum computing proves to be impossible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[87] viXra:1607.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 21:36:52

The Human Connection: Part II

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 9 Pages. original paper revised and split into two parts due to length

As Carl Sagan famously said, we are "star stuff" exploring the stars. Life is the information pathway by which the universe achieves consciousness and self-awareness, and begins to explore itself, including evolving new modes of experience, creativity, and beauty. In terms of creativity, humans represent a fractal iteration of the creative energy of the Cosmos, as well as of its evolutionary powers. Because the entire material universe devolves from light, matter and life are a conserved form of the information content latent in the energy of light, expressed primordially through the broken symmetry of light - leading to our "matter-only" cosmos, charge conservation, atoms, the Periodic Table, chemistry, biology, and humanity. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem), and through these charges the energy of light is transformed into the information content of the world. Hence it is ultimately through the connection between light and matter (atoms), charge conservation and symmetry conservation, that humans retain their connection to the primordial creative energies and information content of the universe (and the multiverse). "We come trailing clouds of glory..." (Wordsworth)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[86] viXra:1607.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 23:30:48

Evaluation of Phenotyping and Genotyping Characterization of Serratia Marcescens After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) is Gram-negative bacterium, associated with hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), especially urinary tract and wound infections. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on phenotyping and genotyping characteristics such as antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions, biotype, DNA polymorphism, and phylogenetic relationship of S. marcescens (ATCC 13880). The lyophilized cells of S. marcescens were divided into three groups (G1, G2, and G3). Control group (G1) and treated groups (G2 and G3) of S. marcescens cells assessed with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, and biochemical reactions. In addition to that, samples from different groups of S. marcescens were evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and 16S rDNA sequencing in order to establish the phylogenetic relationship of S. marcescens with different bacterial species. The treated cells of S. marcescens showed an alteration of 10.34% and 34.48% antimicrobials in G2 and G3 on 10th day, respectively as compared to control. The significant changes of biochemical reactions were also observed in treated groups of S. marcescens. The RAPD data showed an average range of 16-49.2% of polymorphism in treated samples as compared to control. Based on nucleotide homology sequences and phylogenetic analysis, the nearest homolog genus-species was found to be Pseudomonas fluorescence. These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance to the useful antimicrobials against S. marcescens.
Category: Biochemistry

[85] viXra:1607.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 23:32:40

Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated 1,2,4-Triazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Triazoles are an important class of compounds used as core molecule for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical drugs. The objective of the present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of 1,2,4-triazole. The study was performed in two groups, control and treatment. The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment group. The control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA), Surface area analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed a decrease in unit cell volume of treated 1,2,4-triazole (662.08 10-24 cm3 ) as compared to control sample (666.34 10-24 cm3 ). Similarly, a decrease in molecular weight of treated 1,2,4-triazole (69.78 g/mol) with respect to control (70.23 g/mol) was observed. Additionally, a substantial decrease in crystallite size (G) was observed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 16.34% with respect to control. DSC analysis showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 1,2,4-triazole (124.22°C) as compared to control (123.76°C). Moreover, a significant increase in latent heat of fusion was noticed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 21.16% as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed a significant increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 1,2,4-triazole (213.40°C) as compared to control (199.68°C). Surface area analysis using BET showed a substantial increase in surface area of the treated compound by 13.52% with respect to control. However, FT-IR analysis showed no structural changes in treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control. Overall, the result showed significant alteration of physical and thermal properties of the treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control.
Category: Biochemistry

[84] viXra:1607.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 00:32:53

The Superluminal Signal in Quantum Billiard and in the Casimir Configuration

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 6 Pages. ----

The quantum energy levels of electron inside of the box with the infinite barriers at point 0 and l is considered. The situation is then extended to the thee dimensions. Quantum mechanics of such so called quantum billiard does not involve the retarded wave functions (the retarded Green functions) and it means that the quantum pressure is instantaneous at the walls of the box. The instantaneous process is equal to the action at a distance, or to the existence of the superluminal signals inside of the quantum box. The similar situation is in case of the Casimir effect between two capacitor plates.
Category: Quantum Physics

[83] viXra:1607.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 11:19:50

Many-body Localization in a Closed Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists obtain evidence of many-body localization in a closed quantum system. [14] Experiments using inelastic neutron scattering at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have found indications of a possible new quantum spin state in a novel antiferromagnetic material barium ytterbium zinc oxide (Ba3Yb2Zn5O11) which provides both a challenge and validation of the third law of thermodynamics. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[82] viXra:1607.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 10:50:04

Liquid-like Spin Quantum State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Experiments using inelastic neutron scattering at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have found indications of a possible new quantum spin state in a novel antiferromagnetic material barium ytterbium zinc oxide (Ba3Yb2Zn5O11) which provides both a challenge and validation of the third law of thermodynamics. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[81] viXra:1607.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 05:33:10

Some Observations on Dynamical Modeling of Electrical Impedance Implemented to Human Skin

Authors: Z. Vosika A. Vasić, G. Lazović, L. Matija
Comments: 14 Pages.

Bio-electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) electrical signals of low power of human tissue, relatively low frequencies (up to 1 MHz), as well as non-invasive method is important to distinguish the physiological state of organisms. Modelling of electrical properties of human skin in the standard laboratory conditions is an open theoretical, practical and clinical problem. The purpose of this study is twofold: 1) The analysis and decision on possible options under the new biophysical models of its electric characteristics, based on discrete-continuous model of frequency scaling; 2) From the literature known concept of frequency dependent negative dynamic electrical resistanceas used in the case of high frequency , bringing the total mpproach to modeling material.To measure bioimpendanse of the human skin was used instrument 1255 Frequency Response Analyser in combination with Solartron 1286 Pstat/Gstat, wodel considerably improves. Both objectives have in common that they stem from a dynamic aith suitable additional equipment. Due to the inadequacy of the software package ZView® for Windows in this case, for fitting data was used Levmar. Both packages are based on the Levenberg-Marquardt's nonlinear least squares algorithm. Mathematical and biophysical model presented as a unified continuous-discrete Cole - equation for impedance of the material. Measurements were done on human skin of the forearm, as the test system. The applied voltage is, inerval of the source fequency is and electrode diameters are 0.25 cm and 2 cm. In the paper shows that the standard continuous two- and three-component model of Cole bioimendanse human skin is fitted better than their discretized version, in all scales, for all the selected frequency steps. Assuming a negative value of active high-frequency electrical resistance, we have improved fit of the continuum model as compared to the previous continuous model about 10%.For here introduced the dynamic properties of the model, it is necessary to carry out as many new bio-medical and clinical analysis of different tissues.
Category: Physics of Biology

[80] viXra:1607.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-11 11:23:09

Not Disproved Solutions to Millennium Prize Problems

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 15 Pages.

Solved all Millennium Problems. Each Problem deserves 1 000 000 USD from Clay University. Please help to get it. All rights reserved.
Category: General Mathematics

[79] viXra:1607.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 06:09:08

Consideration of Some Generalizations of Riemann-Liouville Integral in Physics

Authors: Zoran B. Vosika
Comments: 17 Pages.

Generalization of fractal density on a fractals for spaces with positive and negative fractal dimensions. Fractal-fractional generalized physics (i.e. classical or quantum physics). Generalized Hausdorff measures. Numbers and generalized functions as generalized logical values. Beyond logics and numbers. Generalized concept of physical field, i.e generalized universes and multiverses. Fractional generalization of path integrals.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[78] viXra:1607.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 16:22:11

Mathworld, Entry to ”Finite Difference” Powered by Wolfram

Authors: Kolosov Petro
Comments: 2 Pages.

The basic and short description of proposed entry to Wolfram MathWorld, Finite Difference, starting from line ”An n-th power has a constant nth finite difference. For example, take n=3 and make a difference table”. The entry appears to to wide the properties of high order difference of n-th power.
Category: Number Theory

[77] viXra:1607.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 16:24:21

Wolfram Mathworld, Entry to ”Power”

Authors: Kolosov Petro
Comments: 2 Pages.

The basic and short description of proposed entry to Wolfram MathWorld, ”Power”, properties section. The entry appears to connect the high order finite difference and derivative of Power function.
Category: Number Theory

[76] viXra:1607.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 23:33:08

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of Provindencia Rettgeri

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Providencia rettgeri (P. rettgeri) is a clinically significant Gram-negative bacterium of genus Providencia, and commonly associated with hospital-acquired infection like urinary tract infection (UTI), gastroenteritis, and ocular infections. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on P. rettgeri against antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reaction pattern, biotype number, and 16S rDNA sequence. The samples of P. rettgeri (ATCC 9250) were divided into three groups: Gr.I (control), Gr.II (treatment, revived), and Gr.III (treatment, lyophilized). The Gr.II and III were treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield, and then subsequently characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype numbering. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. rettgeri with other bacterial species. The treated cells of P. rettgeri showed an alteration in susceptibility of about 50% and 53.3% tested antimicrobials of Gr.II on day 5 and 10, respectively; and 53.3% of tested antimicrobials of Gr.III on day 10. MIC results showed a significant decrease in MIC values of 53.1, 56.3, and 56.3% antimicrobials in Gr.II on day 5, Gr.II on day 10, and Gr.III on day 10, respectively, as compared to control. The significant changes in biochemical reactions and biotype numbers were also observed in all the treated groups of P. rettgeri. Based on nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis the P. rettgeri was found to be Proteus mirabilis (GenBank Accession Number: AY820623) and nearest homolog species was found to be Proteus vulgaris (Accession No. DQ499636). These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance of existing antimicrobials to P. rettgeri.
Category: Chemistry

[75] viXra:1607.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 23:34:54

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern, Biochemical Characteristics and Biotyping of Salmonella Paratyphi a: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Enteric fever is a major global problem. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens to render current treatments ineffective. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A) in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. S. paratyphi A strain were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9150). The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. paratyphi A. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. paratyphi A were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Revived treated cells was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while lyophilized treated cells assessed on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. paratyphi A showed significant (60%) alteration in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 as compared to control. The MIC values of S. paratyphi A also showed significant (53.12%) alteration in Gr. II and on day 10 while, no alteration was found in Gr. on day 5 as compared to control. It was observed that overall 18.18% biochemical reactions were altered in the treated groups with respect to control. Moreover, biotype numbers were substantially changed in Gr. II, on day 5 (53001040, S. paratyphi A), on day 10 (57101050, Citrobacter freundii complex) as compared to control (53001000, S. paratyphi A). Besides, biotype number was also changed in Gr. III (53001040, S. paratyphi A) as compared to control. The overall result suggested that biofield treatment had significant impact on S. paratyphi A in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC values and biotype number.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[74] viXra:1607.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 02:20:37

Photodissociation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Photodissociation A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape,
Category: Quantum Physics

[73] viXra:1607.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-25 10:05:25

Induction and Analogy in a Problem of Finite Sums

Authors: Ryan Zielinski
Comments: 84 Pages. This work is licensed under the CC BY 4.0, a Creative Commons Attribution License.

What is a general expression for the sum of the first n integers, each raised to the mth power, where m is a positive integer? Answering this question will be the aim of the paper....We will take the unorthodox approach of presenting the material from the point of view of someone who is trying to solve the problem himself. Keywords: analogy, Johann Faulhaber, finite sums, heuristics, inductive reasoning, number theory, George Polya, problem solving, teaching of mathematics.
Category: Number Theory

[72] viXra:1607.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 07:28:29

On Riemannian Model Theory

Authors: Kermit Ohlrabi
Comments: 14 pages

Let ${j_{\mathscr{{Y}}}}$ be a M\"obius homomorphism. Every student is aware that there exists a freely Gaussian meager, globally tangential polytope. We show that every continuous triangle is finitely Desargues. The work in \cite{cite:0} did not consider the almost Torricelli, co-locally $\varphi$-standard case. Now this leaves open the question of convergence.
Category: Geometry

[71] viXra:1607.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 07:44:21

Photons Quantum Processor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[70] viXra:1607.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 09:50:50

Kalman Folding 5: Non-Linear Models and the EKF

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 11 Pages.

We exhibit a foldable Extended Kalman Filter that internally integrates non-linear equations of motion with a nested fold of generic integrators over lazy streams in constant memory. Functional form allows us to switch integrators easily and to diagnose filter divergence accurately, achieving orders of magnitude better speed than the source example from the literature. As with all Kalman folds, we can move the vetted code verbatim, without even recompilation, from the lab to the field.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[69] viXra:1607.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 09:52:55

Kalman Folding 7: A Small Streams Library

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 9 Pages.

In Kalman Folding 5: Non-Linear Models and the EKF, we present an Extended Kalman Filter as a fold over a lazy stream of observations that uses a nested fold over a lazy stream of states to integrate non-linear equations of motion. In Kalman Folding 4: Streams and Observables, we present a handful of stream operators, just enough to demonstrate Kalman folding over observables. In this paper, we enrich the collection of operators, adding takeUntil, last, and map. We then show how to use them to integrate differential equations in state-space form in two different ways and to generate test cases for the non-linear EKF from paper 5.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[68] viXra:1607.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 05:01:32

Transforming a Quantum Controller of Gravity Into a Gravitational Spacecraft

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

A Quantum Controller of Gravity is transformed into a Gravitational Spacecraft
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[67] viXra:1607.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 05:35:33

Quantum Web Graphs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Physicists have shown that, by describing a quantum network as a mathematical graph, they can determine the best way to use quantum repeaters to achieve long-distance entanglement. [13] Bowtie-shaped nanoparticles made of silver may help bring the dream of quantum computing and quantum information processing closer to reality. These nanostructures, created at the Weizmann Institute of Science and described recently in Nature Communications, greatly simplify the experimental conditions for studying quantum phenomena and may one day be developed into crucial components of quantum devices. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[66] viXra:1607.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 05:56:16

The Mathematical Foundations of Psychology and Sociology as a Generalization of (Quantum) Gravity.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 6 Pages.

In a long paper of this author [1], I explained that the ''spiritual'' interaction between living beings would require a gravitational theory on an appropriate space. In this paper, we further develop this idea and construct different types of idealized limits.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] viXra:1607.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 20:39:15

The Principle of Planet Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A fundamental principle of nature is as follows concerning planet formation and evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[64] viXra:1607.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 23:29:51

Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

The stable isotope ratio analysis is widely used in several scientific fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. Resorcinol is one of the most versatile chemicals used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The current research work was designed to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in resorcinol using Gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Resorcinol was divided into two parts - one part was control and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample. The biofield energy treatment was accomplished through unique biofield energy transmission by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also called as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were denoted by different time interval analysis of the biofield treated resorcinol in order to understand the influence of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated resorcinol exhibited the presence of molecular ion peak [M+ ] at m/z 110 (calculated 110.04 for C6H6O2) along with major fragmented peaks at m/z 82, 81, 69, 53, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in biofield treated resorcinol (particularly T2) was significantly changed with respect to the control sample. The stable isotope ratio analysis in resorcinol using GC-MS revealed that the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased in the biofield treated resorcinol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 by 1.77%, 165.73%, 0.74%, and 6.79%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated resorcinol at T2, T3, and T4 were enhanced by 170.77%, 3.08%, and 12.31%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O contributions from (C6H6O2) + to m/z 111 and 18O contribution from (C6H6O2) + to m/z 112 for the biofield treated resorcinol at T2 and T4 were significantly altered as compared to the control sample. For this reasons, biofield treated resorcinol might exhibit altered physicochemical properties like diffusion velocity, mobility and evaporation rate, reaction rate, binding energy, and stability. Biofield treated resorcinol could be valuable in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as intermediates during the preparation of pharmaceuticals and chemical compounds by altering its physicochemical properties, the reaction rate and selectivity, the study of the reaction mechanism and facilitating in designing extremely effective and specific enzyme inhibitors.
Category: Chemistry

[63] viXra:1607.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 23:34:34

Physical, Spectroscopic and Thermal Characterization of Biofield Treated Myristic Acid

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Myristic acid has been extensively used for fabrication of phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of myristic acid. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated myristic acid were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Laser particle size analyzer. XRD results revealed alteration in intensity of peaks as well as significant increase in crystallite size (27.07%) of treated myristic acid with respect to control. DSC study showed increase in melting temperature of treated myristic acid as compared to control. Nevertheless, significant change (10.16%) in latent heat of fusion (∆H) was observed in treated myristic acid with respect to control. TGA analysis of treated myristic acid showed less weight loss (31.33%) as compared to control sample (60.49%). This may be due to increase in thermal stability of treated myristic acid in comparison with control. FT-IR results showed increase in frequency of –CH2 and C=O stretching vibrations, probably associated with enhanced bond strength and force constant of the respective bonds. The particle size analyzer showed significant decrease in average particle size (d50 and d99) of treated myristic acid with respect to control. Overall, the results showed significant alteration in physical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of myristic acid. The enhanced crystallite size, and thermal stability of treated myristic acid showed that treated myristic acid could be used as phase change material for thermal energy storage applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[62] viXra:1607.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 23:39:26

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Studies on Biofield Treated P-Dichlorobenzene

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Para-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) is widely used as a chemical intermediate in manufacturing of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymers and other organic synthesis. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of p-dichlorobenzene. The p-dichlorobenzene sample was divided into two groups that served as treated and control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD result showed an increase in crystallite size (4.93%) along with alteration in peak intensity of treated sample as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion of treated p-dichlorobenzene was considerably reduced by 8.66% as compared to control. The reduction in melting point of treated sample (54.99°C) was also observed as compared to control (57.01°C) p-dichlorobenzene. Moreover, TGA/DTG studies showed that Tmax (temperature, at which sample lost maximum of its weight) was increased by 6.26% and weight loss per degree celsius (°C) was decreased by 12.77% in biofield treated p-dichlorobenzene as compared to control sample. It indicates that thermal stability of treated p-dichlorobenzene sample might increase as compared to control sample. However, no change was found in UV-Vis spectroscopic character of treated p-dichlorobenzene as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of p-dichlorobenzene, which could make it more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Category: Mind Science

[61] viXra:1607.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 23:42:10

Schanuel’s Conjecture’s Partial Resolve

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 1 Page.

Schanuel’s conjecture’s partial resolve
Category: Algebra

[60] viXra:1607.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 02:04:24

About Theoretical Determination of Values of Fundamental Physical Constants

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: Pages.

This paper presents an original method of theoretical precision determination of values of fundamental physical constants. Among them, the fine structure constant, the anomaly of the magnetic moment of the electron, the mass ratio of the electron-proton and neutron-proton, the wavelength of Compton, Rydberg constant, electron mass, Planck length, Planck mass, the speed of light in vacuum, Planck constant, gravitational constant, the life time of a neutron. The analytical insights, the end of the calculation formula and the results of theoretical calculations of precision values of these constants.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[59] viXra:1607.0073 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-08 06:55:14

Indian Buffet Process Deep Generative Models

Authors: Sotirios P. Chatzis
Comments: 16 Pages.

Deep generative models (DGMs) have brought about a major breakthrough, as well as renewed interest, in generative latent variable models. However, an issue current DGM formulations do not address concerns the data-driven inference of the number of latent features needed to represent the observed data. Traditional linear formulations allow for addressing this issue by resorting to tools from the field of nonparametric statistics: Indeed, nonparametric linear latent variable models, obtained by appropriate imposition of Indian Buffet Process (IBP) priors, have been extensively studied by the machine learning community; inference for such models can been performed either via exact sampling or via approximate variational techniques. Based on this inspiration, in this paper we examine whether similar ideas from the field of Bayesian nonparametrics can be utilized in the context of modern DGMs in order to address the latent variable dimensionality inference problem. To this end, we propose a novel DGM formulation, based on the imposition of an IBP prior. We devise an efficient Black-Box Variational inference algorithm for our model, and exhibit its efficacy in a number of semi-supervised classification experiments. In all cases, we use popular benchmark datasets, and compare to state-of-the-art DGMs.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[58] viXra:1607.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-15 07:54:41

The Disappointment of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Korn Rakpradit
Comments: 47 Pages.

The opinions of this work are revising, stalking and proving in details the derivation of Riemann Zeta Function and Riemann Hypothesis, which Riemann did roughly for more than 150 years ago without proof, and correcting all mistakes about the boundaries of the integrals that was found and those undefined (and/or multiplied by zero) functional equations which caused very big problems to this Riemann Hypothesis. Proof or disproof of Riemann Hypothesis’s derivation will be very useful for many mathematicians and physicists nowadays because the Hypothesis is widely used in many subjects and works, unaware of risks, thought it is not officially proved right or wrong.
Category: Number Theory

[57] viXra:1607.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 15:04:07

Is the Schwarzschild Radius Truly a Radius?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper questions the assumption that the Schwarzschild radius actually represents a radius. It has recently been shown by Haug (2016) that the Schwarzschild radius for any object can simply be written as N2l_p, where N is the number of Planck masses into which we can ``hypothetically" pack an object of interest and l_p is the well known Planck length. The Schwarzschild radius seems to represent the length of the number of Planck mass objects we can ``hypothetically" pack a planet or star into and then we can place them in perfect alignment along a single strand (of single particles) in a straight line.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[56] viXra:1607.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-13 17:09:40

The Existence of Quantum Computer

Authors: Petr E. Pushkarev
Comments: 8 Pages.

We extend an empirically grounded theory of the existence of quantum computer. The main question that we are considering is a question about the quantum computer’s possibility of existence and creation. As empirical evidence, we use logic, which we show in cognitive perspective. For a definition of the computer, we use a formal definition of Turing machine. By formulating many definitions abstractly and phenomenologically we go around the areas of quantum physics, quantum computing and other quantum-related fields of science which could give an unambiguous answer to our question about the essence of quantum computer and which is developed so they can’t. In many ways, it makes this theory about the existence of quantum computer universal for these areas, although less applied for them. We consider some corollary of the essences of quantum computer, including the possibility of quantum computer for the human. References to research of cognitive nature of logic suggest empirical basis which we follow in our theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[55] viXra:1607.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 08:32:37

CP Symmetry Deviation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[54] viXra:1607.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 05:17:58

Maternal Exercise During Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation But not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring

Authors: Sérgio Gomes da Silva
Comments: 15 Pages.

Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain devel- opment and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell num- bers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exer- cised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoid- ance task). Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF lev- els and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation) and associative (spatial learning) mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exer- cise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spa- tial learning) and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[53] viXra:1607.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 22:44:54

"Mono-X" Particles Appear in Nature as Spiral Galaxy "Bars"

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: My recent publication viXra 1606.0057 indicates that spiral galaxy ""Bars" signal a doubling of negative Z dark matter in the galaxy and this means the galactic occurrence of "mono-Z" particles, a dark matter type of weak material characterized by nothing to balance its momentum in the transverse plane of the detector.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[52] viXra:1607.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 23:14:58

Phenotypic and Biotypic Characterization of Klebsiella Oxytoca: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca) is a Gram-negative microbe generally associated with community and hospitalacquired infections. Due to its clinical significance, we evaluated the effect of biofield treatment on phenotype and biotype characteristics of K. oxytoca (ATCC 43165). The study was performed into three groups i.e. C (control), T1 (treatment, revived); and T2 (treatment, lyophilized). Subsequently, groups T1 and T2 were received biofield treatment and control group was remained as untreated. The antimicrobial sensitivity results showed 3.33% and 6.67% alteration in antimicrobials susceptibility in group T1 cells on day 5 and 10, respectively, and 3.33% alteration in antimicrobials susceptibility was observed in group T2 cells on day 10 as compared to control. The sensitivity patterns of cefazolin were changed from resistant (R) to intermediate (I) on day 5, and resistance (R) to susceptible (S) on day 10, in T1 cells of K. oxytoca. The MIC value of cefazolin was decreased by 2-fold in group T1 on day 10 as compared to control. The biofield treated K. oxytoca exhibited the changes in biochemical reactions about 3.03% and 15.15% of total tested biochemicals in group T1 cells on day 5 and 10, respectively as compared to control. The biotype number of K. oxytoca was altered in biofield treated group and organism identified as Raoultella ornithinolytica in T1 on day 10 as compared to control, which is the prominent finding of this study. These changes were found in treated bacteria that might be due to some alteration happened in metabolic/enzymatic pathway and/ or at genetic level of K. oxytoca. Based on these data, it is speculated that biofiled treatment could be an alternative approach that can improve the effectiveness of the existing antimicrobials against the resistant pathogens.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[51] viXra:1607.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 23:17:54

Antibiogram Typing and Biochemical Characterization of Klebsiella Pneumoniae After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is a common nosocomial pathogen causing respiratory tract (pneumoniae) and blood stream infections. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of K. pneumoniae infections are difficult to treat in patients in health care settings. Aim of the present study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on four MDR clinical lab isolates (LS) of K. pneumoniae (LS 2, LS 6, LS 7, and LS 14). Samples were divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. Control and treated groups were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment as compared with control group. Antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed that there was 46.42% alteration in sensitivity of tested antimicrobials in treated group of MDR K. pneumonia isolates. MIC results showed an alteration in 30% of tested antimicrobials out of thirty after biofield treatment in clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae. An increase in antimicrobial sensitivity and decrease in MIC value was reported (in LS 6) in case of piperacillin/tazobactam and piperacillin. Biochemical study showed a 15.15% change in biochemical reactions as compared to control. A significant change in biotype numbers were reported in all four clinical isolates of MDR K. pneumoniae after biofield treatment as compared to control group. On the basis of changed biotype number after biofield treatment, new organism was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes in LS 2 and LS 14. These results suggest that biofield treatment has a significant effect on altering the antimicrobial sensitivity, MIC values, biochemical reactions and biotype number of multidrug-resistant isolates of K. pneumoniae.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[50] viXra:1607.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 23:20:46

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of M-Toluic Acid: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

m-toluic acid (MTA) is widely used in manufacturing of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymer stabilizers, and insect repellents. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of MTA. MTA sample was divided into two groups that served as treated and control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed a decrease in crystallite size in treated samples i.e. 42.86% in MTA along with the increase in peak intensity as compared to control. However, surface area analysis showed an increase in surface area of 107.14% in treated MTA sample as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion was considerably reduced by 40.32%, whereas, the melting temperature was increased (2.23%) in treated MTA sample as compared to control. The melting point of treated MTA was found to be 116.04°C as compared to control (113.51°C) sample. Moreover, TGA/DTG studies showed that the control sample lost 56.25% of its weight, whereas, in treated MTA, it was found 58.60%. Also, Tmax (temperature, at which sample lost maximum of its weight) was decreased by 1.97% in treated MTA sample as compared to control. It indicates that the vaporisation temperature of treated MTA sample might decrease as compared to control. The FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra did not show any significant change in spectral properties of treated MTA sample as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of m-toluic acid, which could make them more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Category: Chemistry

[49] viXra:1607.0059 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-06 11:01:24

Kalman Folding 3: Derivations

Authors: Brian Beckman
Comments: 14 Pages. Minor corrections to original version

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments. The examples in that paper are all static, meaning that the states of the model do not depend on the independent variable, often physical time. Here, we present mathematical derivations of the basic, static filter. These are semi-formal sketches that leave many details to the reader, but highlight all important points that must be rigorously proved. These derivations have several novel arguments and we strive for much higher clarity and simplicity than is found in most treatments of the topic.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[48] viXra:1607.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 03:30:33

Dream of Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Bowtie-shaped nanoparticles made of silver may help bring the dream of quantum computing and quantum information processing closer to reality. These nanostructures, created at the Weizmann Institute of Science and described recently in Nature Communications, greatly simplify the experimental conditions for studying quantum phenomena and may one day be developed into crucial components of quantum devices. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[47] viXra:1607.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 10:54:13

Generalized Equations and Their Solutions in the (S,0)+(0,S) Representations of the Lorentz Group

Authors: Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov
Comments: 20 Pages. Talk ate the XXXI International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, June 19-25, 2016

In this talk I present three explicit examples of generalizations in relativistic quantum mechanics. First of all, I discuss the generalized spin-1/2 equations for neutrinos. They have been obtained by means of the Gersten-Sakurai method for derivations of arbitrary-spin relativistic equations. Possible physical consequences are discussed. Next, it is easy to check that both Dirac algebraic equation Det (\hat p - m) =0 and Det (\hat p + m) =0 for u- and v- 4-spinors have solutions with p_0= \pm E_p =\pm \sqrt{{\bf p}^2 +m^2}. The same is true for higher-spin equations. Meanwhile, every book considers the equality p_0=E_p for both $u-$ and $v-$ spinors of the (1/2,0)+(0,1/2)) representation only, thus applying the Dirac-Feynman-Stueckelberg procedure for elimination of the negative-energy solutions. The recent Ziino works (and, independently, the articles of several others) show that the Fock space can be doubled. We re-consider this possibility on the quantum field level for both S=1/2 and higher spin particles. The third example is: we postulate the non-commutativity of 4-momenta, and we derive the mass splitting in the Dirac equation. The applications are discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[46] viXra:1607.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-16 10:39:19

Time Comes Into Being if Two Different Three-Dimensional Spaces Meet

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 13 Pages.

Time comes into being if two different three-dimensional spaces meet. This is the definition of time in the space-matter theory. Two different three-dimensional spaces exist if their elements have actions at different scales. The actions have their minimum and maximum values in the given dimensions which cannot be changed without loosing the given dimension. Space can be converted into matter and matter can be converted into space, but space and matter have two different ranges of actions. Time is the meeting point of space and matter. The space-matter model allows us to find the common root of space, matter and time. In space-matter model matter causes space waves. Solely through the use of space waves, we can express spatial distance, time and energy. It is possible to express all these phenomena in eVolt, so meter can be converted into second or into kg and vice versa.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[45] viXra:1607.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 08:39:20

Extending Julian Schwinger's Interpretation of Gravitational Redshift to Galactic Redshift Implies a Contracting Universe

Authors: Todd Sicklinger
Comments: Pages.

In his book, “Einstein's Legacy”, Julian Schwinger explained that gravitational redshift is really the blue shift of the massive object that absorbs the photon. Photons do not change energy when moving in a gravity well, but massive objects do change their energy, size, speed, and mass when moving in a gravity well. Likewise velocity redshift can only be adjusted by adjusting the speed of the massive objects. If we extend this concept to galactic redshift and postulate that the apparent redshift of the photon is really a blue shift of the absorbing atom, then it implies that photon energies never change after a photon is emitted and it implies that all massive objects in the universe are getting smaller, getting a faster rate of time, and acquiring additional energy as a function of time. It is proposed that the universe can be modeled as a 4D elastic shell similar to a balloon, where the shell is comprised of energy density and where the surface forms our normal 3D coordinates. When the Universe contracts the galaxies and stars in the universe would contract in a manner similar to what they would if they were drawn on the balloon. This model indicates that the energy for contracting the objects in the Universe comes from the elasticity of space, which gets relaxed as the Universe contracts.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[44] viXra:1607.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 09:15:32

Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Now in a new study, researchers have experimentally demonstrated a quantum fingerprinting protocol and shown that it can surpass the classical limit for solving communication complexity problems. [10] Quantum superposition has been used to compare data from two different sources more efficiently than is possible, even in principle, on a conventional computer. The scheme is called "quantum fingerprinting" and has been demonstrated by physicists in China. It could ultimately lead to better large-scale integrated circuits and more energy-efficient communication. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[43] viXra:1607.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 05:20:36

The Problem of Slow-witted Aliens, or The Transverse Doppler Effect Simply Explained

Authors: Vadim N. Matvejev, Oleg V. Matvejev
Comments: 11 Pages.

The subject of this article is the dependence of observation results of the transverse Doppler effect on relative speed ascribed by an observer to himself.
Category: Classical Physics

[42] viXra:1607.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 06:16:20

Photographing Using Relativistic Camera Obscura.

Authors: Vadim N. Matvejev, Oleg V. Matvejev
Comments: 4 Pages.

The article discusses the results of photographing using a stationary or moving at relativistic speed camera - obscura.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[41] viXra:1607.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-04 16:34:41

A Radical Examination of the Equations Derived in Special Relativity Shows SR is Compatible with Quantum Gravity

Authors: Brett A Collins
Comments: 9 Pages.

Using the Time Dilation equation, Length Contraction equation and Mass Increase equation, all derived within Special Relativity. With a simple substitution I convert the time dilation equation to a Pythagorean equation showing the observed time consists of two time components and I convert the length contraction equation to a Pythagorean equation showing the total length of a moving object has two length components. These new forms of the time dilation and length contraction equations strongly indicate the presence of a new Time Dimension and a new Space Dimension. The additional Time dimension explains exactly what time dilation is and together with the Mass Increase equation I introduce the concept of a Newtonian velocity, which is an alternative velocity of a moving object. I propose the mass of the moving object does not change, because we are in fact measuring momentum with the wrong velocity. The additional Space dimension in fact means length contraction does not occur because we are seeing the object at an angle within a four dimensional space, which means it looks shorter when viewed in three space dimensions only. These changes mean Special relativity IS compatible with Quantum Gravity and Doubly-Special Relativity is not required.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[40] viXra:1607.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-04 23:22:41

An Impact of Biofield Treatment: Antimycobacterial Susceptibility Potential Using BACTEC 460/MGIT-TB System

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment modality on mycobacterial strains in relation to antimycobacterials susceptibility. Mycobacterial sensitivity was analysed using 12 B BACTEC vials on the BACTEC 460 TB machine in 39 lab isolates (sputum samples) from stored stock cultures. Two American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains were also used to assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobials (Mycobacterium smegmatis 14468 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis 25177). Rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin in treated samples showed increased susceptibility as 3.33%, 3.33% and 400.6%, respectively, as compared to control in extensive drug resistance (XDR) strains. Pyrazinamide showed 300% susceptibility as compared to control in multidrug resistance (MDR) strains. Isoniazide did not show any improvement of susceptibility pattern against treated either in XDR or MDR strains of Mycobacterium as compared to control. Besides susceptibility, the resistance pattern of treated group was reduced in case of isoniazide (26.7%), rifampicin (27.6%), pyrazinamide (31.4%), ethambutol (33.43%) and streptomycin (41.3%) as compared to the untreated group of XDR strains. The MIC values of few antimicrobials were also altered in the treated group of Mycobacterium smegmatis. There was a significant reduction observed in MIC values of linezolid (8.0 to 2.0 µg/ml) and tobramycin (2.0 to 1.0 µg/ml); however, very slight changes occurred in the remaining antimicrobials of treated samples. There was no change of MIC values in the strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after biofield treatment. Biofield treatment effect on Mycobacterium against anti-tubercular drugs might be due to altered ligand-receptor/protein interactions at either enzymatic and/or genetic level with respect to anti-mycobacterium susceptibility and MIC values of antimicrobials.
Category: Chemistry

[39] viXra:1607.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-04 23:24:38

Spectroscopic Characterization of Disodium Hydrogen Orthophosphate and Sodium Nitrate After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Disodium hydrogen orthophosphate is a water soluble white powder widely used as pH regulator and saline laxative. The sodium nitrate is a highly water soluble white solid, used in high blood pressure, dentinal hypersensitivity, and production of fertilizers. The present study was aimed to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of disodium hydrogen orthophosphate and sodium nitrate. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment of each compound. The treatment groups were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The spectral properties of control and treated groups of both compounds were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR spectrum of biofield treated disodium hydrogen orthophosphate showed the shifting in wavenumber of vibrational peaks (with respect to control) corresponding to O-H stretching from 2975 to 3357 cm-1, PO-H symmetrical stretching from 2359 to 2350 cm-1, O=P-OH deformation from 1717-1796 cm-1 to 1701-1735 cm-1, P=O asymmetric stretching from 1356 to 1260 cm-1 and P=O symmetric stretching from 1159 to 1132 cm-1, etc. Likewise, the FT-IR spectrum of sodium nitrate exhibited the shifting of vibrational frequency of N=O stretching from 1788 to 1648 cm-1 and NO3 asymmetric and symmetric stretchings from 1369 to 1381 cm-1 and 1340 to 1267 cm-1. UV spectrum of treated disodium hydrogen orthophosphate revealed a negative absorbance; it may be due to decrease in UV absorbance as compared to control. UV spectrum of control sodium nitrate exhibited two absorbance maxima (λmax) at 239.4 nm and 341.4 nm, which were altered to one absorbance maxima (λmax) at 209.2 nm after biofield treatment. Overall, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopic data of both compounds suggest an impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties with respect to force constant, bond strength, dipole moments and transition energy between two orbitals (ground state and excited state) as compared to respective control.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[38] viXra:1607.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-04 10:36:39

A "Dark Energy Pulsation Principle" Summary Version.(2)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 14 Pages.

A "dark energy pulsation principle" summary version.(2) Chapter 2 elementary particle pulsation principle. [6]The summary of the elementary particle pulsation principle. [7] The hypothesis of "the elementary particle pulsation principle." (the original of the 1980 announcement). [8]Grounds to suppose to be a lump of the energy that an elementary particle is super-high-speed, and pulsates.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[37] viXra:1607.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-04 09:05:12

Mathematical Formulas : Part 6

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 23 Pages.

In this paper we give some formulas for the number pi
Category: General Mathematics

[36] viXra:1607.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-04 09:11:12

A Definite Integral

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we give some formulas associated with an integral hidden in Gradshteyn and Ryzhik
Category: General Mathematics

[35] viXra:1607.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-04 10:05:01

The Physical Medium of the Universal

Authors: Vladislav Mirkin
Comments: 14 Pages.

The transformation mechanism of principles of classical mechanics in statistical interpretation of the quantum theory are shown. Physical interpretation of the principle of uncertainty and the dimension of Planck’s constant (J/Hz instead J∙s) is given. Inexplicable before phenomenon, taking place in experiments and supervision, are explained.
Category: Classical Physics

[34] viXra:1607.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 17:11:47

The Singular Gravitationally Collapsing Object Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, a gravitationally collapsing object remains singular, and does not spawn multiple objects. Reasoning is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[33] viXra:1607.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 17:18:20

The Actual Size of Protoplanets in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, young stars are planets in their plasmatic state, meaning they are protoplanets. Establishment science has protoplanets as being smaller than the Moon, which is incorrect. Reasoning is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[32] viXra:1607.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 22:57:05

More on the Connection Between Logic and Matter and the Winding Number of Strings

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 58 Pages. The toplogical connection between Axes and strings

The last paper (see "More on logic being the fundamental components of string theory) gave further analysis of the important concept of information producing fields which can then be configured into strings. Here we look at the topological connection between branches an centres (singularities) and some more information on branch structure and also some concepts of how angular momentum can produce calculations.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31] viXra:1607.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 23:17:48

Structural and Physical Properties of Biofield Treated Thymol and Menthol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 10 Pages.

Thymol and menthol are naturally occurring plant derived compounds, which have excellent pharmaceutical and antimicrobial applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy on physical and structural characteristics of thymol and menthol. The control and biofield treated compounds (thymol and menthol) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD study revealed increase in intensity of the XRD peaks of treated thymol, which was correlated to high crystallinity of the treated sample. The treated thymol showed significant increase in crystallite size by 50.01% as compared to control. However, the treated menthol did not show any significant change in crystallite size as compared to control. DSC of treated menthol showed minimal increase in melting temperature (45ºC) as compared to control (44ºC). The enthalpy (∆H) of both the treated compounds (thymol and menthol) was decreased as compared to control samples which could be due the high energy state of the powders. TGA analysis showed that thermal stability of treated thymol was increased as compared to control; though no change in thermal stability was noticed in treated menthol. FT-IR spectrum of treated thymol showed increase in wave number of –OH stretching vibration peak (14 cm-1) as compared to control. Whereas, the FT-IR spectrum of treated menthol showed appearance of new stretching vibration peaks in the region of 3200-3600 cm-1 which may be attributed to the presence of hydrogen bonding in the sample as compared to control. Overall, the result showed that biofield treatment has substantially changed the structural and physical properties of thymol and menthol.
Category: Chemistry

[30] viXra:1607.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 23:20:25

Characterization of Physical and Structural Properties of Aluminium Carbide Powder: Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

Aluminium carbide (Al4 C3 ) has gained extensive attention due to its abrasive and creep resistance properties. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical and structural properties of Al4 C3 powder. The Al4 C3 powder was divided into two parts i.e. control and treated. Control part was remained as untreated and treated part received biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated Al4 C3 samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD data revealed that lattice parameter and unit cell volume of treated Al4 C3 samples were increased by 0.33 and 0.66% respectively, as compared to control. The density of treated Al4 C3 samples was reduced upto 0.65% as compared to control. In addition, the molecular weight and crystallite size of treated Al4 C3 samples were increased upto 0.66 and 249.53% respectively as compared to control. Furthermore, surface area of treated Al4 C3 sample was increased by 5% as compared to control. The FT-IR spectra revealed no significant change in absorption peaks of treated Al4 C3 samples as compared to control. Thus, XRD and surface area results suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the physical and structural properties of treated Al4 C3 powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29] viXra:1607.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 23:22:28

Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Characterization of Ammonium Acetate and Ammonium Chloride: An Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride are the white crystalline solid inorganic compounds having wide application in synthesis and analytical chemistry. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of inorganic salt like ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride. The study was performed in two groups of each compound i.e., control and treatment. Treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated groups were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectrum of treated ammonium acetate showed the shifting in wavenumber of vibrational peaks with respect to control. Like, the N-H stretching was shifted from 3024-3586 cm-1 to 3033-3606 cm-1, C-H stretching from 2826-2893 cm-1 to 2817-2881 cm-1, C=O asymmetrical stretching from 1660-1702 cm-1 to 1680-1714 cm-1, N-H bending from 1533-1563 cm-1 to 1506-1556 cm-1 etc. Treated ammonium chloride showed the shifting in IR frequency of three distinct oscillation modes in NH4 ion i.e., at ν1 , 3010 cm-1 to 3029 cm-1; ν2 , 1724 cm-1 to 1741 cm-1; and ν3 , 3156 cm-1 to 3124 cm-1. The N-Cl stretching was also shifted to downstream region i.e., from 710 cm-1 to 665 cm-1 in treated ammonium chloride. UV spectrum of treated ammonium acetate showed the absorbance maxima (λmax) at 258.0 nm that was shifted to 221.4 nm in treated sample. UV spectrum of control ammonium chloride exhibited two absorbance maxima (λmax) i.e., at 234.6 and 292.6 nm, which were shifted to 224.1 and 302.8 nm, respectively in treated sample. Overall, FT-IR and UV data of both compounds suggest an impact of biofield treatment on atomic level i.e., at force constant, bond strength, dipole moments and electron transition energy between two orbitals of treated compounds as compared to respective control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[28] viXra:1607.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-04 02:36:59

Mannheim's Vault

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 5 Pages.

Karl Mannheim and the scientific integration of theology and sociology.
Category: Social Science

[27] viXra:1607.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 13:10:39

The Illustration of the Uncertainty Principle.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis comments on an uncertainty principle in a figure. An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis is physics of the dark energy. According to the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis, In a particle trip and a minus number particle trip, the elementary particle has size intermittently and can establish a position. A particle trip and the minus number particle trip are the four-dimensional space that is not recognizable, five dimensions of space-time. It is called a virtual space. The wave trip is recognizable three-dimensional space, four-dimensional space-time. In a wave trip, the mass of the elementary particle is zero. It is the point that does not have size. The position of the elementary particle is not clear. By a particle trip, the minus number particle trip, the elementary particle can establish a position. There cannot decide a value of the energy. The wave trip can observe numerical value of the energy, but cannot decide the position of the elementary particle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[26] viXra:1607.0032 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-29 04:50:21

Gravity Accelerates the Universe

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 9 Pages.

Space waves. Mass (matter) changes the wavelengths of space waves. Gravity is the difference of wavelengths of space waves caused by masses. This definition of space-matter theory uncovers a new characteristic of mass and space; masses accelerate the Universe. Note space-matter theory has been worked out to describe the force of thought. Thought force seems to be far from gravity. No, it isn't. Thought force and gravity have common roots. The working method of gravity is a multidisciplinary phenomenon. The new definition of gravity is a new and important additional result of space-matter theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[25] viXra:1607.0030 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-25 03:02:41

Gravitational Lens

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a new explanation of the essence of gravitational lens effect.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[24] viXra:1607.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 05:30:52

The Origin of the Frey Elliptic Curve in a Too Narrow Margin.

Authors: Andrea OSSICINI
Comments: 16 Pages.

It is shown that an appropriate use of so-called << double equations >> by Diophantus provides the origin of the Frey elliptic curve and from it we can deduce an elementary proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem
Category: Number Theory

[23] viXra:1607.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 16:40:42

The Coherency Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of stellar evolution is presented to clarify the idea of stars ejecting remains as they are born and evolve.
Category: Astrophysics

[22] viXra:1607.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 21:20:54

Innovation and Distribution in Modelling an Inequality Trap: Availability of Data

Authors: Piero Benazzo
Comments: 27 Pages.

Growing literature assesses inequality would drag effective demand in the economy, acting as a main causation factor of the contemporary economic recession cycle. The debate would remain open because such causation would remain hidden within the current macroeconomic representation and underneath the aggregation of the available statistical data. The aim is to investigate an alternative framework intended to contribute in disentangling such hidden dynamics. This considers total factor productivity and the level of inequality as macroeconomic factors of production and demand, rather than capital and labour. The analysis discusses an inequality trap and availability of statistical data appropriate to the modelling proposed. This would provide considerations for extracting inequality data conform to the modelling and show finding certain data for such equations is challenging.
Category: Economics and Finance

[21] viXra:1607.0025 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-03 14:49:05

Planck Dimensional Analysis of Big G

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is a short note to show how big G can be derived from dimensional analysis by assuming that the Planck length is much more fundamental than Newton's gravitational constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] viXra:1607.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 03:56:33

Quantitative Labor Theory of Value

Authors: Erman ZENG
Comments: 12 Pages.

This research attempts to place the formal Sraffian model with linear production sets into a general equilibrium framework and to derive a quantitative transformation theorem about Marxian theory of labor value and production price. Marxian reproduction solution established a dynamic general economic equilibrium, which can be characterized by input-(total) output ratio, namely, the reduced Organic Composite of Capital divided by the total productivity rate. The labor value thus the value rate of profit (ROP) can be determined from the production price by the use of the input-output matrix analysis. The increased value ROP and the decreased price ROP of USA around 2006/2007 revealed that there was an OCC reduction. Under the framework of the dynamic Marxian general equilibrium, it is possible to undergo an optimal planning about an economic system by the regulation of the government input, entrepreneur taxation, and minimal wage rate.
Category: Economics and Finance

[19] viXra:1607.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 04:25:55

Gravitational Wave of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Gravitational waves communicate information in a wholly different medium than any type of radiation. What that means is that astronomers could use them to study things that were fundamentally invisible before. Black holes and dark matter come to mind as the most prominent examples of parts of the universe that are, at least, difficult to see with light. So, it can hardly be surprising, the controversy now swirling around the idea that the gravitational waves detected earlier this year, marking a watershed confirmation of Einstein's general relativity, could turn out to contain information on both of those topics. [1] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1607.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-21 12:58:43

Theory of Three-Electrone Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 21 Pages.

Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works: 1. Bezverkhniy V. D. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf 2. Bezverkhniy V. D. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the threeelectron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v1.pdf 3. Bezverkhniy V. D. A short analysis of chemical bonds. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v1.pdf 4. Bezverkhniy V. D., Bezverkhniy V. V. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v1.pdf Nothing prohibits to give a definition of the multiplicity of bond: the multiplicity of bond is the energy of bond expressed in dimensionless units. Hückel rule (4n + 2) for aromatic systems can be written in a different form, in the form of 2n where n - unpaired number. So, we have: 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, etc. This is also true for the electron shells in the atom and aromatic systems. The principle of the interaction of fermions always one, everywhere.
Category: Chemistry

[17] viXra:1607.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 23:17:38

Potential Impact of BioField Treatment on Atomic and Physical Characteristics of Magnesium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Magnesium (Mg), present in every cell of all living organisms, is an essential nutrient and primarily responsible for catalytic reaction of over 300 enzymes. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on atomic and physical properties of magnesium powder. Magnesium powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part received biofield treatment. Both control and treated magnesium samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area and particle size analyzer. XRD data showed that biofield treatment has altered the lattice parameter, unit cell volume, density, atomic weight, and nuclear charge per unit volume of treated magnesium powder, as compared to control. In addition, the crystallite size of treated magnesium was significantly reduced up to 16.70, 16.70, and 28.59% on day 7, 41 and 63 respectively as compared to control. Besides this, the surface area of treated magnesium powder was increased by 36.5 and 10.72% on day 6 and 72 respectively, whereas it was reduced by 32.77% on day 92 as compared to control. In addition, biofield treatment has also altered the particle sizes d10, d50, and d99 (size, below which 10, 50, and 99% particles were present, respectively) as compared to control. Overall, data suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the atomic and physical properties of treated magnesium powder.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1607.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 23:20:23

Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Metronidazole and Tinidazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Metronidazole and tinidazole are widely used antimicrobial drugs against Gram-negative and Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on metronidazole and tinidazole using FT-IR and UV spectroscopy. The study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treatment. Treatment groups were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment while no treatment was given to control group. FT-IR spectrum of treated metronidazole showed the impact of biofield treatment on frequency of characteristic functional groups such as C=C (imidazole ring) stretching was appeared at lower frequency i.e. from 1600 cm-1 to 1553 cm-1. Likewise, NO2 asymmetric stretching and C-N symmetric stretching were appeared at higher wave number i.e. 1479 cm-1 to 1501 cm-1 and 1070 cm-1 to 1077 cm-1, respectively. FT-IR spectrum of tinidazole showed shifting in absorption peak of C-N stretching to higher wavenumber from 1002 cm-1 (control) to 1022 cm-1. The wavenumber of aromatic C=C bond (in imidazole) was shifted to lower frequency, which could be due to increases in conjugation effect. Further, increases in wavenumber of NO2 and C-N in treated sample suggested the increased force constant and bond strength as compared to control. Because of higher conjugation effect and increased bond strength, the molecule supposed to be more stable. The UV spectra of both metronidazole and tinidazole showed the similar patterns of lambda max (λmax) with respect to their control. The FT-IR results of both drugs suggest that there was an impact of biofield treatment on atomic level of metronidazole and tinidazole, as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[15] viXra:1607.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-02 21:48:41

Estimate as to Quantum ‘number’ N of Pre Planckian State , Prior to Inflation;w.r.t. Entropy and Graviton Physics, with Neutrinos .And Information for Gravitons

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: put in 2 pages as to referring to gravitons as information carriers, with formula delineating relationship to quantum number N derived earlier

Using the idea of a quantum ‘number’ N, which is due to , with the walls nixing the space-time import of interior dynamics of a pre Plackian state, using energy And the U ~ potential. Energy expression given by Padmanabhan for an inflaton state when the scale factor , we obtain the term, N, for quantum exited state, prior to the exiting of the Pre Planck state, to inflationary physics. From there we bridge this creation of N, in Pre Planckian space-time, to Semi classical and brane theory versions of entropy, and also its linkage to both graviton and nonstandard beyond the standard model physics. We conclude with a speculation in the conclusion for future work which is to make entropy(information) a new synthesis for Graviton physics, just before the start of cosmological expansion as a partial information based replacement for the Higgs boson hypothesis, at least for gravitons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] viXra:1607.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 02:27:24

Why the Velocities of Material Bodies Cannot Achieve the Speed of Light in a Vacuum

Authors: Vadim N. Matvejev, Oleg V. Matvejev
Comments: 11 Pages.

A possible cause of the finiteness of the velocity of tangible objects is demonstrated without reference to the provisions of the special theory of relativity. A condition is formulated on the basis of which the assumption of the movement of tangible objects at any prescribed velocities proves to be self-contradictory in instances when the prescribed velocities of the objects exceed a certain value. This condition consists of the presence of interaction signals and carrier particles in material bodies that are propagated at a velocity greater than any prescribed velocity of the material bodies.
Category: Classical Physics

[13] viXra:1607.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 02:33:06

Lost in an Isosceles Triangle

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.13171.12325

Sixty years ago Richard Bellman issued a difficult challenge to his fellow mathematicians. If a rambler is lost in a forest of known shape and size, how can she find the best path to follow in order to escape as quickly as possible? So far solutions are only known for a handful of simple cases and the general problem has therefore been described as “unapproachable.” In this work a computational “random paths” method to search for optimal escape paths inside convex polygonal forests is described. In particular likely solutions covering all cases of isosceles triangles are given. Each conjectured solution provides a potentisl upper-bound for Moser’s worm problem. Surprisingly there are two cases of triangles which would provide improvements on the best known proven upper bounds.
Category: Geometry

[12] viXra:1607.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 14:54:48

Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Oversets, Neutrosophic Undersets, and Neutrosophic Offsets

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

We have proposed since 1995 the existence of degrees of membership of an element with respect to a neutrosophic set to also be partially or totally above 1 (overmembership), and partially or totally below 0 (undermembership) in order to better describe our world problems [published in 2007].
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[11] viXra:1607.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 11:13:46

The Principle of Electromagnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that stars are electromagnetohydrodynamic structures when they are young, not hydrostatic as per nuclear models. A simple principle is given.
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1607.0011 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-03 07:52:13

Unified Field Theory.

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 77 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. PUBLISHED BY: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2016, 4, 1379-1438. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.48147.

In the Einstein field equations the geometry or the curvature of space-time defined as depended on the distribution of mass and energy principally resides on the left-hand side is set identical to a nongeometrical tensorial representation of matter on the right-hand side. In one or another form, general relativity accords a direct geometrical significance only to the gravitational field while the other physical fields are not of spacetime, they reside only in spacetime. Less well known, though of comparable importance is Einstein's dissatisfaction with the fundamental asymmetry between gravitational and non-gravitational fields and his contributions to develop a completely relativistic geometrical field theory of all fundamental interactions, a unified field theory. Of special note in this context and equally significant is Einstein’s demand to replace the symmetrical tensor field by a non-symmetrical one and to drop the condition gik = gki for the field components. Historically, many other attempts were made too, to extend the general theory of relativity's geometrization of gravitation to non-gravitational interactions, in particular, to electromagnetism. Still, progress has been very slow. It is the purpose of this publication to provide a unified field theory in which the gravitational field, the electromagnetic field and other fields are only different components or manifestations of the same unified field by mathematizing the relationship between cause and effect under conditions of general theory of relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1607.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 12:37:50

Pulse Detection Algorithms for SETI@home

Authors: Eric J. Korpela, Eric M. Heien, Dan Werthimer
Comments: 8 Pages. Korpela, E. J., Heien, E. M., and Werthimer, D., “Pulse Detection Algorithms for Use in SETI@home,” Bull. AAS 32, 1492 (Dec. 2000)

We describe the pulse detection algorithms used by the most recent versions of SETI@home. The first is a modified folding algorithm with an optimal threshold function. It is designed to efficiently search for repeating pulses over a 15+ octave period range with constant false alarm rate per period searched. This algorithm is potentially useful for other applications where detection of faint pulsed emission is desired (i.e. pulsar searches). The second is a triplet detector, which searches for sets of three evenly spaced pulses that exceed a power threshold. It is useful for detecting pulsed emission that has total duration less than the searched exposure. We describe the first results of the use of these algorithms in SETI@home and discuss the pulsed radio frequency interference (RFI) environment of the Arecibo observatory.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1607.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 12:58:35

Woodcoin: Una Moneda Electrónica Descentralizada Construida Para Ser Viable Y Estable

Authors: Funkenstein the Dwarf
Comments: 5 Pages. thanks!

Presentamos aquí las consideraciones e implementaciones de diseño del woodcoin, en concreto aquellas que la diferencias de otras cripto-monedas. El woodcoin es una cripto-moneda muy similar al Bitcoin. Sin embargo el modelo en el que se basa el bitcoin es el de un recurso no renovable como el oro. Para el Woodcoin hemos elegido un modelo más sostenible. Concretamente el woodcoin evita las asimetrías del modelo de emisión del bitcoin, maximizando el incentivo para participar y la longevidad al mismo tiempo. Además hemos añadido otros dos cambios al código del núcleo: minado con la función hash skein y la propiedad digital asegurada con la curva X9_prime256v1 usando ECDSA.
Category: Economics and Finance

[7] viXra:1607.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 07:34:18

The Principle of Thermodynamic Phase Aging

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of stellar evolution is presented to clarify the age differences between rocky and plasmatic stars according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1607.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 08:20:06

Hybrid Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The multi-qubit chip has five superconducting transmon qubits and associated readout resonators. When cooled to absolute zero, such a device can compute things like quantum simulations of advanced materials. [16] Bringing together the best of two types of quantum computer for the first time, researchers at Google have created a prototype that combines the architecture of both a universal quantum computer and an analogue quantum computer. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1607.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 09:21:55

Classical 'Quantum' Bounds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

The physicists, Diego Frustaglia et al., at the University of Sevilla in Spain, have published a paper on the emergence of quantum bounds in classical experiments in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4] viXra:1607.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-16 06:26:46

Detection of a Dim Sphere Composed of Massive Cold Galaxies (they Consist of Bare Neutron Black Holes) at Mean Redshift 0.6415 will Validate the Scale-Symmetric-Theory Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 12 Pages.

In a cosmic scale of a few hundred Mega-parsecs, according to the General Relativity (GR) cosmology, the mean number density of massive galaxies (their mass is greater than 11 powers of ten multiplied by solar mass) should be about 0.0072 massive galaxies per cubic Mpc whereas according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) should be 0.0067. We can see that both results are similar, about 0.007. On the other hand, the surveys of massive galaxies lead to number densities about 10 times lower. It leads to conclusion that there must be big number of dim/cold massive galaxies. N. Trujillo formulated following question: Where are the untouched massive “relic” galaxies in the nearby Universe? Here, applying the SST, we show that most of them should be close to the threshold redshift 0.6415 and they should be composed of the bare neutron black holes. Such dim sphere of massive galaxies forces the radial acceleration of all galaxies at redshift about 0.35 up to 0.6415, and deceleration of all galaxies above such threshold redshift. The SST cosmology shows that the distribution of redshift of massive galaxies must be balanced in such a way that the average redshift was 0.6415. We showed that the postulated within the GR cosmology an acceleration of expansion of spacetime is an illusion (for redshift 0.35 up to about 0.6, we observe an acceleration whereas for redshift higher than about 0.6, we observe a deceleration). In reality, the SST shows that there indeed are the regions of acceleration and deceleration but their existence follows from the gravitational attraction of the massive dim sphere at mean redshift 0.6415. SST leads to conclusion that we should see a weak redshift quantization for redshift lower than 0.6415. Future more precise surveys of galaxies should confirm that the SST cosmology is correct. Here we described the number density of massive galaxies as a function of redshift and, separately, as a function of the SST time distance, we compared the SST, GR and Special-Relativity relative recession velocities (RRV), we described the redshift quantization, and we solved the luminosity problem of quasars.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1607.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 03:27:48

Goldbach and Twin Prime Conjectures Implied by Strong Goldbach Number Sequence

Authors: Pingyuan Zhou
Comments: 13 Pages. If so-called strong Goldbach number sequence introduced in this paper is acceptable then the existence of strong Goldbach number sequence will imply both Goldbach and twin prime conjectures.

Abstract: In this note, we present a new and direct appraoch to prove the Goldbach conjecture that if the existence of the limit of (P) = NSGL/2P as P approaches infinity being 1/2 can be confirmed by asymptotic result arising from large-scale observation data for status of (P) then the Goldbach conjecture is true, where P is a prime greater than 3 but NSGL and 2P are separately the largest strong Goldbach number and the largest Goldbach number generated by P. Further, the existence of the limit also implies the twin prime conjecture by means of the existence of good approximate function form to 2(A) such as our introduced C2/A(1/2) as an attempt, which tends to lower order infinitesimal as 1/A approaches infinitesimal, where A = NSGL-P but 2(A) is the density of strong Goldbach numbers generated by distinct twin prime pairs (p,p+2) among all strong Goldbach numbers from P+1 to P+A and C2 is the twin prime constant in the first Hardy-Littlewood conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[2] viXra:1607.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 05:44:31

The Rationality of the Non-random Formation of our Universe

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 3 Pages.

The General Intelligent Design (GID) Model interpretation of the General Grand Unification (GGU) Model verifies the rationality of the Kaku statement that we live in a universe "governed by rules that were created, shaped by a universal intelligence."
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1607.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 06:04:15

Terahertz Waves Power-Splitting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

One of the most basic components of any communications network is a power splitter that allows a signal to be sent to multiple users and devices. Researchers from Brown University have now developed just such a device for terahertz radiation—a range of frequencies that may one day enable data transfer up to 100 times faster than current cellular and Wi-Fi networks. [11] The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors - including carbon-60 buckyballs - University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics