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1608 Submissions

[402] viXra:1608.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 15:54:41

Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator

Authors: T. Marshall Eubanks, Charles F. Radley
Comments: Pages.

The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.
Category: Astrophysics

[401] viXra:1608.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 17:53:09

The Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Joe Chizmarik
Comments: 2 Pages. This is a proof by contradiction.

We first prove a weak form of Fermat's Last Theorem; this unique lemma is key to the entire proof. A corollary and lemma follow inter-relating Pythagorean and Fermat solutions. Finally, we prove Fermat's Last Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[400] viXra:1608.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 14:59:44

Electron Camera Films Atomic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

An ultrafast "electron camera" at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has made the first direct snapshots of atomic nuclei in molecules that are vibrating within millionths of a billionth of a second after being hit by a laser pulse. The method, called ultrafast electron diffraction (UED), could help scientists better understand the role of nuclear motions in light-driven processes that naturally occur on extremely fast timescales. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[399] viXra:1608.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 13:54:32

Diamonds and Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A City College of New York led-team headed by physicist Dr. Carlos Meriles has successfully demonstrated charge transport between Nitrogen-Vacancy color centers in diamond. The team developed a novel multi-color scanning microscopy technique to visualize the charge transport. The breakthrough experiment could potentially lead to room-temperature quantum information processing in diamond and optical data storage in three dimensions. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[398] viXra:1608.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 14:10:56

Studies on the Viability of the Boundary Element Method for the Real-Time Simulation of Biological Organs

Authors: Kirana Kumara P
Comments: 216 Pages. This is a draft (preprint) version. (PhD registration Jan 2, 07; coursework Jan to Apr, 07; comprehensive exam Apr 20, 09; colloquium Aug 14, 15; submission Aug 20, 15; defense (oral exam) Aug 22, 16. The final version of the thesis is deposited at IISc.)

Realistic and real-time computational simulation of biological organs (e.g., human kidneys, human liver) is a necessity when one tries to build a quality surgical simulator that can simulate surgical procedures involving these organs. Currently deformable models, spring-mass models, or finite element models are widely used to achieve the realistic simulations and/or the real-time performance. It is widely agreed that continuum mechanics based numerical techniques are preferred over deformable models or spring-mass models, but those techniques are computationally expensive and hence the higher accuracy offered by those numerical techniques come at the expense of speed. Hence there is a need to study the speed of different numerical techniques, while keeping an eye on the accuracy offered by those numerical techniques. Such studies are available for the Finite Element Method (FEM) but rarely available for the Boundary Element Method (BEM). Hence the present work aims to conduct a study on the viability of BEM for the real-time simulation of biological organs, and the present study is justified by the fact that BEM is considered to be inherently efficient when compared to mesh based techniques like FEM. A significant portion of literature on the real-time simulation of biological organs suggests the use of BEM to achieve better simulations. When one talks about the simulation of biological organs, one needs to have the geometry of a biological organ in hand. Geometry of biological organs of interest is not readily available many a times, and hence there is a need to extract the three dimensional (3D) geometry of biological organs from a stack of two dimensional (2D) scanned images. Software packages that can readily reconstruct 3D geometry of biological organs from 2D images are expensive. Hence, a novel procedure that requires only a few free software packages to obtain the geometry of biological organs from 2D image sequences is presented. The geometry of a pig liver is extracted from CT scan images for illustration purpose. Next, the three dimensional geometry of human kidney (left and right kidneys of male, and left and right kidneys of female) is obtained from the Visible Human Dataset (VHD). The novel procedure presented in this work can be used to obtain patient specific organ geometry from patient specific images, without requiring any of the many commercial software packages that can readily do the job. To carry out studies on the speed and accuracy of BEM, a source code for BEM is needed. Since the BEM code for 3D elasticity is not readily available, a BEM code that can solve 3D linear elastostatic problems without accounting for body forces is developed from scratch. The code comes in three varieties: a MATLAB version, a Fortran version (sequential version), and a Fortran version (parallelized version). This is the first free and open source BEM code for 3D elasticity. The developed code is used to carry out studies on the viability of BEM for the real-time simulation of biological organs, and a few representative problems involving kidneys and liver are found to give accurate solutions. The present work demonstrates that it is possible to simulate linear elastostatic behaviour in real-time using BEM without resorting to any type of precomputations, on a computer cluster by fully parallelizing the simulations and by performing simulations on different number of processors and for different block sizes. Since it is possible to get a complete solution in real-time, there is no need to separately prove that every type of cutting, suturing etc. can be simulated in real-time. Future work could involve incorporating nonlinearities into the simulations. Finally, a BEM based simulator may be built, after taking into account details like rendering.
Category: Physics of Biology

[397] viXra:1608.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 14:16:24

Alternative Approach to Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researchers at Aalto University have demonstrated the suitability of microwave signals in the coding of information for quantum computing. Previous development of the field has been focusing on optical systems. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[396] viXra:1608.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 21:46:42

Cycle and the Collatz Conjecture

Authors: Watcharakiete Wongcharoenbhorn
Comments: 4 Pages. English

We study on the cycle in the Collatz conjecture and there is something surprise us. Our goal is to show that there is no Collatz cycle
Category: Number Theory

[395] viXra:1608.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 00:43:48

Morphological and Molecular Analysis Using RAPD in Biofield Treated Sponge and Bitter Gourd

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Plants are known to have sense and ca respond to touch, electric and magnetic field. The present study was designed on the sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) seeds with respect to biofield energy treatment. The seeds of each crop were divided into two groups, one was kept control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’ biofield energy treatment. The variabilities in growth contributing parameters were studied and compared with their control. To study the genetic variability after biofield energy treatment, both the seeds were analyzed for DNA fingerprinting using RAPD method. After germination, the plants of sponge gourd were reported to have uniform colored leaves and strong stem. The leaves and fruits of sponge gourd showed no infection, with anti-gravity properties during early stage of fruiting as compared with the control group. Similarly, treated bitter gourd showed uniform color of leaves, strong stem, with disease free fruits in biofield treated seeds as compared with the control. The true polymorphism (%) observed between control and treated samples of sponge and bottle gourd seed sample was an average value of 7.8% and 66% respectively. In conclusion, Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the ability to alter the plant growth rate that may by interacting with plant genome, which resulted in high yield of crops.
Category: Biochemistry

[394] viXra:1608.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 04:45:12

Time as a Gauge Field

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Clifford Chafin, Domenico De Falco
Comments: 10 Pages.

The concepts of “constraints” and “virtual displacement” from analytical mechanics shed new light on the role of time and timescales in physical systems such as the Universe. We propose a covariant version of a gauge theory, in which the required global symmetry stands for the real constrained trajectories, i.e. the energetic gradient flows dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. The virtual displacements, occurring while time is held constant, stand for the local transformations acting on the system and able to “break” the symmetry. The time stands for the gauge field able to keep the Lagrangian invariant. We also provide a theoretical framework in which a topological approach to gravitational lenses is able to elucidate aspects of our theory of “time as a gauge field”. Thus, time is no longer one of the four phase space coordinates of a 4-D Riemannan Universe: it is just a gauge field superimposed to a 3-D system.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[393] viXra:1608.0432 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-01 12:40:33

General Solution for Navier-Stokes Equations with Conservative External Force

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 10 Pages.

We present two proofs of theorems on solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible case with a conservative external force in n = 3 spatial dimensions. Without major difficulties, it can be adapted to any spatial dimension, n>=1.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[392] viXra:1608.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 08:41:46

Cool Antiproton Beam

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A new paper published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics A will help scientists provide higher quality antiproton beams to experiments at CERN and antimatter facilities across the world. "Non-Gaussian beam dynamics in low energy antiproton storage rings" (J. Resta-López et.al) presents simulation studies undertaken to investigate the effects of beam heating phenomena present in antimatter decelerators. [15] Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[391] viXra:1608.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 09:38:18

Hot Dark Matter?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[390] viXra:1608.0429 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-21 10:17:13

Expansion of the Euler Zigzag Numbers

Authors: Gyeongmin Yang
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article is based on how to look for a closed-form expression related to the odd zeta function values and explained what meaning of the expansion of the Euler zigzag numbers is.
Category: Number Theory

[389] viXra:1608.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 10:26:08

Cosmic Expansion vs. Galactic Density

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 4 Pages.

Observing galactic density as a function of increasing distance (and, correspondingly, earlier times given the travel time of light) should provide evidence as to whether a ‘steady-state’ (non-expanding) or Big-Bang-driven expanding universe is the more defensible cosmology. Working independently, but later discovering additional recent work in this area by Heymann, I attempt to address this question by simulating galactic densities for the two types of cosmological model. Results suggest that the non-expanding universe may be more consistent, or at least less inconsistent, with both observation and expectation. Further, they are consistent with conclusions drawn by Heymann from his recent studies.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[388] viXra:1608.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 12:45:39

Electromagnetic Gravity? Examination of the Electric Universe Theory

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Electric Universe (EU) theory postulates that gravity is just another manifestation of electromagnetism, albeit at an almost inconceivably lower force (~1E-39 as strong). This paper examines the EU conjecture about an electromagnetic basis for gravity based on simplified mathematical analysis for an idealized arrangement of three hydrogen atoms. Results suggest that the possibility of an electromagnetically-induced distortion of a hydrogen to create an atomic dipole is at least plausible.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[387] viXra:1608.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 12:49:58

Gravitational Cosmic Redshift with Variable Light Speed

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 3 Pages.

‘Dissident’ physicists have postulated various alternative explanations for the alleged cosmic expansion due to the Big-Bang-induced and dark-energy-sustained ever-increasing expansion of space(-time). Among these is the effect of gravity which allegedly ‘stretches’ light waves (and allegedly also bends them via gravitational lensing) as they pass large masses, such as stars, galaxies or galactic clusters. The stretching phenomenon is an increase in wavelength, and corresponding decrease in frequency, required by the assumption that light speed remains constant (within a medium). If light speed is variable, would there also be a gravitational cosmic redshift, i.e., one that alters light speed without affecting the waveform itself (i.e., no ‘stretching’)?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[386] viXra:1608.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 12:55:01

A Possible Anomaly in Galactic Recessional Speed Alleged to Increase with Universal Distance

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 4 Pages.

Hubble’s law of cosmic expansion is typically based on fitting data for relatively low (on a ‘universal’ scale) redshifts and distances. Extrapolating Hubble’s law to the entire observable universe, proponents of the Big Bang Standard Cosmological Model claim the universe is expanding (possibly faster than their sacred speed of light due to a repulsive acceleration being produced by ‘dark energy’) because galactic redshifts increase linearly with distance from the earth. To them, this ‘proves’ there was a Big Bang and the resulting universe will continue without bound to expand until all dies out in the absolute cold of space. However, a relatively simple analysis of galactic redshifts vs. distance spanning the full range of the observable universe, not just the ‘nearby’ galaxies, suggests that there is an anomaly in the reputed increasing recessional speed with distance. The nature of this anomaly is examined here, and speculation offered as to one possible explanation, albeit far from definitive.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[385] viXra:1608.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 12:59:49

Alleged Extended Lifetimes of Atmospheric Muons – Does This Really Confirm Relativity?

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 2 Pages.

One of the long-standing ‘proofs’ of Einstein’s relativity is the alleged time dilation effect that muons created during cosmic ray collisions with particles in our upper atmosphere experience as they plummet downward at nearly the speed of light. Given the assumption that all are created at one high altitude, relativists see only a ‘slowing’ of their ‘clocks’ as the means by which their decay can be sufficiently delayed so that an unexpectedly (according to classical physics) large number reach sea level. One of the earliest experiments allegedly demonstrating this was by Frisch and Smith in 1963. Dissident physicists have offered non-relativistic explanations for the relatively high numbers of atmospheric muons reaching sea level, including the possibility that they are created by cosmic ray collisions with particles throughout our atmosphere, not just at a single altitude. The plausibility of this argument is examined here as an alternative explanation to relativistic time dilation as the only acceptable answer offered by mainstream physics today.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[384] viXra:1608.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 13:04:28

We Have to Learn to Forget the Big Bang by the Rotating Hologram Universe.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 17 Pages.

Dan Visser (DAN) creates Art from a way of thinking involving another universe. He is retired and has written down his way of thinking in articles through bypassing the institutions. “I know what dark matter is, and I know the institutions still don’t know”. I calculate the percentages of dark matter, dark energy and visible matter close to the measured Planck-satellite values. I also calculated the energy for a dark matter-force (a few years ago), which now appears to fit the experimental values performed by the decay of Berilium-8 showing a value of 16,7 MeV at the atom-scale of 10^-10 meter and a time-scale of about 10^-14 seconds. I also show dark matter co-operates with quantum-gravity in a new formula. The force of dark matter is also showing-up in an experiment revealing the proton-radius becomes 4% smaller due to a muon in orbit instead of an electron. This effect can be calculated by my new dark matter-topology and dark matter–dimensions. Both the experiments (berilium-8 decay and smaller proton-radius), as well as the used dark matter-topology and dark matter–dimensions, gave me the idea to posit a principle for an UFO-motor. Such a motor can be tuned to overcome a gravitational field like earth, or any other planet. Such motor enables to move within the hologram universe, instead of in the Big Bang space-time universe.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[383] viXra:1608.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 13:03:35

Evolution of Stars into Pulsars

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 3 Pages.

Despite much obeisance paid to black holes by ‘Standard Model’ cosmologists (not to mention Hollywood, e.g., the recent film “Interstellar,” alleged to have a basis in physics, but really pure science fiction), dissident physicists, led by Stephen Crothers, have re-examined the original analysis by Karl Schwarzschild which, due to an error by David Hilbert, has provided much of the basis for the alleged existence of black holes. This substantial body of work suggests black holes cannot exist, leading me to the logical conclusion that the densest stars possible are neutron stars (or perhaps, if such are possible, ‘quark’ stars) which have relatively small but ‘non-singular’ dimensions. Both the mass and “pulse” rate of many neutron stars (also known as pulsars) have been recorded. Examination of these data opens an avenue of speculation based on their angular momenta that perhaps could aid in the understanding of how ‘heavy” (relative to our sun) rotating stars might evolve into pulsars.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[382] viXra:1608.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 13:07:23

Another Role for Corpuscles in the Double-Slit Experiment?

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 3 Pages.

The classic double-slit experiment, first performed by Young in 1801, is often cited as proving the dual wave-particle nature of light, with an emphasis on the wave aspect. In fact, when first conducted, the conclusion refuted newton’s postulate of a corpuscular nature to light in favor of light being purely a wave. Not until the discovery of the photoelectric effect did light’s potential behavior as a particle become rejuvenated. This paper examines a possibly enhanced role for light’s corpuscular nature beyond what is currently assigned as a result of the double-slit experimental results in hope of opening yet another avenue of exploration into the still mysterious nature of light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[381] viXra:1608.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 13:11:32

Can Varying Light Speed Explain Photon-Particle Interactions?

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 4 Pages.

Photon-particle interactions, both ‘classical,’ such as Compton Scattering, and ‘speculative,’ such as ones associated with ‘tired light’ theories of the cosmological red-shift, are explained with the assumption of the constancy of the speed of light. For classical interactions, reciprocal variations in light frequency and wavelength occur under the constraint that their product always equals constant speed ‘c.’ Proponents of a cosmological red-shift claim that the universe is expanding due to expansion of space (or space-time) itself as light, traveling at ‘c,’ is stretched as the distance between the source and observer increases due to this space (or space-time) expansion. Counter arguments to this interpretation often fall into the realm of ‘tired light,’ dismissed by mainstream physicists for various reasons, but still advocated by various ‘dissident’ physicists, since the term was first coined by Zwicky in 1929. In this paper, I examine a classical photon-particle interaction, Compton Scattering, and one of the more popular ‘tired light’ theories to show that the assumption of a constant speed of light is unnecessary, i.e., similar results evolve from assuming a variable light speed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[380] viXra:1608.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 13:15:50

Plausibility of Electrical Birth of Asteroid Belt

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 2 Pages.

Formation of the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter is traditionally assumed to have occurred primordially when a group of planetesimals formed protoplanets that, through gravitational perturbations from Jupiter, were imbued with too much orbital energy to accrete into a planet, until violent collisions shattered most of the protoplanets, thereby forming the asteroid belt. Electric Universe theory contends there was an electrical discharge interaction on a planetary scale when a planetesimal closely encountered Mars, causing not only Mars’ material to be ejected, but also disintegrated much, if not all, of the planetesimal. The ejected debris eventually formed the asteroid belt; and possibly Valle Marineris which scars nearly 20% of Mars’ circumference, is the ‘smoking gun.” Here I examine not the electrical discharge phenomena, but crudely estimate whether or not the total mass of the belt could have arisen from such an interaction.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[379] viXra:1608.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 13:18:57

Rado’s Aether as a Rotating Spring

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 3 Pages.

Despite the long-accepted claims by mainstream physicists that the 1887 Michelson-Morley interferometer experiment ‘proved’ that an aether did not exist, based on its alleged ‘null result,’ ‘dissident’ physicists have long contended that it proved the opposite. Now there may be as many aether theories as there are dissident physicists who postulate an aether, some believing it to be fixed against absolute space, others that it can be ‘dragged’ by massive bodies such as Earth (and hence the alleged ‘null result’), and some that believe it flows between ‘sources’ and ‘sinks’ throughout the universe. Some believe it comprises all matter and energy, with light just being one of its various manifestations. I know not whether there is an aether, but of all the theories so far encountered, one by Steven Rado appears to be quite plausible and complete. The goal here is to examine one aspect of Rado’s theory for plausibility, via a fairly simple analogy of a rotating spring.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[378] viXra:1608.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 13:22:16

Gravity – When Push Comes to Shove?

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 2 Pages.

Since first proposed by Fatio in in 1690 and allegedly enhanced by Le Sage in 1748, one possible explanation for gravity is that it is a pushing force theory that involves ‘shadowing’ of omnidirectional gravity particles that impinge on all matter so as to make gravity appear as an attractive phenomenon. At least for a special case (large distance between spheres), a mathematical model that assumes gravity to be a pushing force, with shadowing and including the possibility of acting throughout the shadowed corridor of the sphere with attenuation effects, suggests a possible alignment with one of the known effects of gravity, namely that it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the spheres’ centers. This hopefully lends some credence to the theories first proposed by Fatio and Le Sage, and since supported by many dissident physicists, including Schroeder, et al., and members of the Gravity Group of the John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society. It is offered as one small contribution to furthering examination of this possible explanation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[377] viXra:1608.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 13:25:22

Newtonian vs. ‘LeSagian’ Gravitation in Our Solar System

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 3 Pages.

Classical Newtonian gravitation is considered to be an attractive force, although the mechanism by which this is manifested remains unknown. Speculation includes graviton particles, space-time warping, etc. LeSagian gravitation is considered to be a pushing force, the net result of which appears to be attractive. It coincides with, but does not necessarily depend on, various aether theories where the universe is filled with moving ‘particles’ capable of exerting forces on whatever they contact. ‘Pushing’ gravity occurs when two objects ‘shadow’ each other by blocking the flow of these particles so as to create an area where the density of the particles is less than that ‘outside’ the shadow. The higher density outside the shadow impinges on a greater surface area than the lower density within the shadow, resulting in a net pushing force which appears to be an attraction between the two bodies toward one another (gravity). This paper examines how the results for ‘pushing’ gravity between the sun and a planet compare to those for ‘pulling’ gravity, as per Newton.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[376] viXra:1608.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 13:28:50

Quantum Magnetism Control Spin Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[375] viXra:1608.0413 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-23 09:02:31

Is Molecular Hydrogen (H2) the ‘Dark Matter’ that Explains the Galactic Rotation Anomaly?

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 4 Pages.

Molecular hydrogen (H2), virtually undetectable from space, has long been a viable candidate for the alleged ‘dark matter’ supposedly accountable for the ‘flattening’ of the galactic (tangential) rotation curves. Presented here is a simplified analysis, assuming such molecular hydrogen is uniformly distributed throughout the Milky Way Galaxy’s disk, that examines the plausibility of such ‘dark matter’ providing a definitive gravitational explanation for the observed rotational behavior.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[374] viXra:1608.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 12:27:16

The Energy Loss and Decai of Photons at Cosmological Distances

Authors: Pereverzev Vladimir
Comments: 10 Pages.

To date, accumulated a large number of observational data, which showed a loss of energy and decay photons at cosmological and intergalactic distances. This is evidenced by the folloving observational data: 1. Reduction of diameter of the elliptical galaxies with increase distance to them. The mass and age of the stellar population of galaxies with increasing distances to them do not change. In spiral galaxies with increasing distances to them are no longer observed portion of the spiral arms with low luminosity. The spiral arms seen as wispy at large distances. Spiral galaxies observed as irregular, anemic, diffuse at large distances. However, the diameter of spiral galaxies, for certain parts of the most striking, is not changed to the large distances. 2. The gradual reduction of the size structure of radio galaxies (their radio - emitting parts) at distances from z = 0 to z = 3. At distances greater then z = 3 radio-emitting structures are not observed. 3. With the increase in the distance to quasars have redused the length of jets. So, on z=1-2 jets length of about 100 kpc, and on z=4 - about 10 kpc. Although other parameters do not change or change slightly. 4. Reduced number of spiral galaxies with a bar, where increasing the distance to them. 5. The detection of very faint dwarf galaxies, in which the ratio of the mass-luminosity reaches 1000. Thet is, the stars in the shell of these galaxies are not observed. The reason for this is the loss of energy and decay of photons, because photons in the flow of a small power lose energy and decompose faster then photons in a higher power flows. 6. Powerful streams of photons from a gamma-ray bursts (GRB) raise the temperature of microwave background radiation. This fact confirms the reduction of photon energy loss in the power flovs. 8. Metallicity of galaxies decreases with increasing distances to the galaxies. However, if the flow of photons from the galaxy coincides with a stream of photons from the gamma-ray basts in this case does not decrease metallicity of galaxies. 9.Statistical analisis shows relationship thet galaxies with increasing their mass and luminosity deccreases the ratio of the mass-luminosity. This is due to a higher concentration of stars within the effective radius and visible radius of the massive (large) galaxies compared to galaxies of smaller mass. Terefore, the critical density of photons when they cease to be observed,move to the center of galaxies, if the mass of galaxies is reduced. The opening energy loss and decay of photons require an adjustment of the quantum and classical electrodinamics. Also, it would require to retarn to the model of a stationary universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[373] viXra:1608.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 11:57:55

Materials Transparent in X-rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[372] viXra:1608.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 07:51:37

Wide-Range Diode Temperature Sensor Based on DH Ingan/algan/gan

Authors: A. N. Demenskiy, V. A. Krasnov, S. V. Shutov, S. Yu. Yerochin
Comments: 1 Page.

Diode temperature sensors for applications in automatic satellites and space stations
Category: Condensed Matter

[371] viXra:1608.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 09:45:19

Quantum Dots Manipulate Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[370] viXra:1608.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 04:09:42

Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Isotopic Abundance of 13C, 2H, or 15N in Biofield Energy Treated Aminopyridine Derivatives

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

2-Aminopyridine (2-AP) and 2,6-diaminopyridine (2,6-DAP) are two derivatives of aminopyridines that act as an important organic intermediates, mostly used in medicines, dyes and organic sensors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, or 15N/14N, in aminopyridine derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2-AP and 2,6-DAP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, while the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of 2-AP and 2,6- DAP showed five and six m/z peaks respectively due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks of aminopyridine derivatives. The isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, or 15N/14N were calculated for both the derivatives and significant alteration was found in the treated samples as compared to the respective control. The isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, or 15N/14N in treated samples of 2-AP was decreased by 55.83% in T1 and significantly increased by 202.26% in T4. However, in case of 2,6-DAP, the isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, and 15N/14N, in the treated sample showed a significant increase (up to 370.54% in T3) with respect to the control. GC-MS data suggested that the biofield energy treatment on aminopyridine derivatives had significantly altered the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C, or 15N in the treated 2-AP and 2,6- DAP as compared to the control.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[369] viXra:1608.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 04:11:11

Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on Soil Fertility

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Measurement of soil components such as microbial population, minerals and obviously the content of organic carbon play the important roles for the productivity of crops and plants. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on soil for its physical (electrical conductivity), chemical (minerals) and microbial flora (bacteria and fungi). A plot of lands was assigned for this study with some already grown plants. This plot was divided into two parts. One part was considered as control, while another part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment without physically touching and referred as treated. In the treated soil the total bacterial and fungal counts were increased by 546 and 617%, respectively as compared to the untreated soil. Additionally, the conductivity of soil of the treated plot was increased by 79% as compared to the soil of control plot. Apart from microbes, the content of various minerals were also changed in the biofield energy treated soil. The calcium carbonate content showed 2909 ppm in the control, while in the treated soil it was increased to 3943 ppm i.e. 36% increased. Various other minerals such as nitrogen and potassium were increased by 12% and 7%, respectively as compared to the control. Besides, the level of some minerals such as potassium, iron, and chloride were decreased by 9%, 23%, and 41%, respectively as compared to the control. Apart from chemical constituents of soil, the content of organic carbon was also reduced by 8% in the treated soil as compared to the control soil. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on the soil showed a significant improvement in the physical, chemical, and microbial functions of soil component. Thus, improved the conductance, supportive microbes, minerals and overall productivity of crops. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used as an alternative way to increase the yield of quality crops by increasing soil fertility.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[368] viXra:1608.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 00:53:19

Color of Electrons in Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[367] viXra:1608.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 01:48:38

Electrons Mass in High Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

An international team of researchers have for the first time, discovered that in a very high magnetic field an electron with no mass can acquire a mass. [12] Electronic components have become faster and faster over the years, thus making powerful computers and other technologies possible. Researchers at ETH Zurich have now investigated how fast electrons can ultimately be controlled with electric fields. Their insights are of importance for the petahertz electronics of the future. [11] The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[366] viXra:1608.0403 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-22 08:45:38

From Jewish Verbal and General Intelligence to Jewish Achievement: A Doubly Right Wing Issue

Authors: Sascha Vongehr
Comments: 8 pages, 2 figures, 26 references

Ashkenazim Jews (AJ) comprise roughly 30% of Nobel Prize winners, ‘elite institute’ faculty, etc. Mean intelligence quotients (IQ) fail explaining this, because AJ are only 2.2% of the US population; the maximum possible would be 13% high achievement and needing IQs above 165. The growing anti-Semitic right wing supports conspiracy theories with this. However, standard deviations (SD) depend on means. An AJ-SD of 17 is still lower than the coefficient of variation suggests, but lifts the right wing of the AJ-IQ distribution sufficiently to account for high achievement. We do not assume threshold IQs or smart fractions. Alternative mechanisms such as intellectual AJ culture or ethnocentrism must be regarded as included through their IQ-dependence. Antisemitism is thus opposed in its own domain of discourse; it is an anti-intelligence position inconsistent with eugenics. We discuss the relevance for ‘social sciences’ as sciences and that human intelligence co-evolved for (self-)deception.
Category: Statistics

[365] viXra:1608.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 03:49:12

The Scientific Age: Protocol

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

Protocol
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[364] viXra:1608.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 15:36:55

Concepts Behind Aleodeology

Authors: Mark s. Cater
Comments: 132 Pages. author wishes to be remian as originator of paper

Concepts Behind Aleodeology is copyright (c) as originally titled Quantum Nanotechnogy Mark Cater 2009-2016 and re-titled here for my parent theory Primer to Aleodeolgy available at . http://vixra.org under Relativity and Cosmology at http://vixra.org/author/mark_s_cater. You are free to use and redistribute both papers as long as credit as given to the original author Mark S Cater as being the originator of the paper. NOTE: Some of the date found here may be new to you but outdated to me, many of the CONCEPTS/THEORIES were afterword debunked by myself; the more important information may be found at the links above and is freely available for use. It is provided here for educational use and free use and interactions/contributions. Not for sale or reselling. You are free to print and redistribute with the provision that no changes be made to any section in whole or part be made to this information AND/OR revised digitally or other. Revisions will be added as they come and not as a result of expectations, pressure, paid or otherwise contacted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[363] viXra:1608.0400 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-31 06:31:59

Sentiment Analysis of Twitter Data and the Efficient Market Hypothesis

Authors: Alexandre Bénétreau
Comments: -The thesis is in English, apart from the title page which contains bits of French (it is a thesis defended at a French uni).-Pages: 27. -Licence: This thesis is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License.

This thesis discusses the claim of 16 computational finance articles according to which it is possible to predict the stock market using sentiment analysis of social media data. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether this is indeed true or not. In economic theory, the efficient market hypothesis states that markets are not predictable, that they follow a random walk and that irrational behaviour cancels out in the aggregate. However, behavioural economics research shows that investors are in fact subject to predictable biases which affect the markets. This study uses data from the WeFeel project that analyses tweets in English to infer social mood on a world scale. It also uses data from the Wilshire 5000 index from June 2014 to March 2015. The hypothesis is that changes in aggregate mood arousal mediate stock market fluctuations. Yet linear regression shows that there is no relation between emotional arousal and the stock market, nor between primary emotions and the stock market. Hence, the conclusion is that global social sentiment as derived from social media has no relation with stock market fluctuations. Further research may better focus on social media specialised in the stock markets, such a finance micro-blogging data. Keywords: sentiment analysis, efficient market hypothesis, social networks, computational finance, behavioural finance, stock market, emotion recognition, stock market prediction, social sentiment, behavioural economics
Category: Economics and Finance

[362] viXra:1608.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 10:50:58

Third Eye Retina Scan–Thought Force Technology

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: Pages.

Experiments prove thought force is an existing force that can leave our heads. Thought force is a new fundamental interaction which is not in our physics books. In order to understand this new fundamental interaction, we need a new theory that describes it. This is the space-matter model. In this model, thought is a force that appears as a change of the wavelengths of space waves. Thought as a space wave is more than just a standalone, lonely act. According to our brains, forces that appear in a given spectrum of wavelengths of space waves are thoughts, regardless of who or what created these forces: we ourselves, other humans or inanimate (non-living) things. We send and receive thoughts as forces. Thought is a kind of communication. The force of thought and thought force communication can be used in the industry. They make it possible to increase safety and to find new solutions that nobody has dreamed of until now.
Category: Mind Science

[361] viXra:1608.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 08:11:19

Exact Trigonometric Periodic Solutions to Inverted Quadratic Mathews-Lakshmanan Oscillator Equations by Means of Linearizing Transformation

Authors: M. D. Monsia, J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou
Comments: 2 pages

The present letter adds to the paper ’’ A Class of Position-Dependent Mass Liénard Differential Equations via a General Nonlocal Transformation’’. The purpose is to emphasize the fact that the mathematical theory of position-dependent mass nonlinear oscillator differential equations previously developed [1] provides exact analytical trigonometric periodic solutions to inverted quadratic Mathews-Lakshmanan oscillator equations.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[360] viXra:1608.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 08:47:17

Topological Framework for Brane Cosmology

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 7 Pages.

Our Universe could either lie on a spatial three-dimensional brane embedded in a higher dimensional bulk, or could be flanked by one or more multi-dimensional branes of different possible sizes and shapes. Here we demonstrate, based on novel topological findings, that disconnected strings with matching descriptions moving on a 4-brane (or more) project to a single string on a 3-brane. This means that strings travelling on the bulk or on higher dimensional branes necessarily display a counterpart in our 3D world, and vice versa. Furthermore, based on the concept of homotopy equivalence, we show how it is possible for branes to stitch together to become condensed branes. Our framework allows a topological duality among different brane theories, because it holds for all the types of branes, independent of their hypothetical shape, curvature, size and boundaries. Furthermore, a topological approach allow branes assessment in the general terms of particle trajectories taking place on donut-like manifolds. Indeed, every high-dimensional brane, independent on the subtending cosmological model, can be described in terms of multi-dimensional toruses mapping to branes with lower spatial dimensions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[359] viXra:1608.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 09:47:01

Control a Single Quanta of Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Physicists have proposed what they believe to be the first method to control the transport of energy at the level of single energy quanta (which are mostly phonons). They show that it's theoretically possible to control the flow of single energy quanta through a quantum magnet using lasers with carefully controlled frequencies and intensities. [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[358] viXra:1608.0395 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-03 03:06:10

The Topology on a Complete Semilattice

Authors: Max Null, Sergey Belov
Comments: 23 Pages.

We define the topology atop(χ) on a complete upper semilattice χ = (M, ≤). The limit points are determined by the formula lim (X) = sup{a ∈ M | {x ∈ X| a ≤ x} ∈ D}, D where X ⊆ M is an arbitrary set, D is an arbitrary non-principal ultrafilter on X. We investigate lim (X) and topology atop(χ) properties. In particular, D we prove the compactness of the topology atop(χ).
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[357] viXra:1608.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 06:04:21

Limit Theorems for Lattice Group-Valued K-Triangular Set Functions

Authors: Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou
Comments: 2 Pages.

Using sliding hump-type techniques, we prove some Schur, Vitali-Hahn-Saks and Nikodým-type theorems for lattice group-valued k-triangular set functions.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[356] viXra:1608.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 07:22:40

A New Law of Kinematics

Authors: Joseph Palazzo
Comments: 15 Pages.

Three laws of kinematics are identified. The first two were already known, and are presented with a slightly different perspective. However, the third law of kinematics is a new law of nature. And it states: for every elastic collisions, a free body with the higher kinetic energy can only gain energy from another body with lower kinetic energy, and the lower kinetic energy body will always gain energy from the higher kinetic energy body. Moreover, under general considerations from the theory of Special Relativity, a particle can decay into other particles only if there is a source of positive energy necessary to insure that the new particles have positive kinetic energy, which is why E=mc2 provides the source of this positive energy in the form of mass conversion into energy. Also this new kinematics leads to the reformulation of the 2nd law of thermodynamics which can now explain why heat only flows from a hot body to a cold body, and never the other way around, that a system left on its own will see its disorder increase in time, and that the entropy as defined according to Boltzmann tends to increase. The insight that we gain from this deeper concept which underlies the new law of kinematics and the reformulation of the second law of thermodynamics is that vacuum energy is a necessary condition for particles to pop out of the vacuum. However, this spells trouble for Hawking radiation as it has been formulated - it would lead to a violation of this new kinematics law. Surprisingly this new law of kinematics also sheds new insights into Planck’s ad hoc hypothesis, E = ħω, and why energy must be quantized. As a general conclusion, every dynamical theory must reconcile with this new kinematics.
Category: Classical Physics

[355] viXra:1608.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 17:30:31

Primer to Aleodeology

Authors: Mark s. Cater
Comments: 21 Pages. free to read and distribute

The Idea has come up of lately that space has time only with respect to energy. Energy as it stands is manually based and it`s measurements rely primarily upon values, which differs extremely from symbols based with respect to the true source of information itself. This form of information encompasses massive amounts of data that cannot be handled with conventional means and differs from knowledge.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[354] viXra:1608.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 19:28:48

Using Binomial Coefficients to Find the Sum of Powers

Authors: Lucas Allen
Comments: English, 4 pages, ideas and examples

This paper presents a method of calculating powers and sums of powers using binomial coefficients. The method involves finding analogues of Pascal's triangle for each power and then showing that powers and sums of powers are the sums of binomial coefficients multiplied by constants. The constants are unique for each power. This paper presents a general idea and not a formal proof.
Category: Number Theory

[353] viXra:1608.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 00:35:01

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Yeast Extract Powder After the Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Yeast extract powder (YE powder) is particularly used in culture media for the cultivation of microorganisms found in milk or other dairy products. The present study was intended to explore the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectral properties of YE powder. The study was accomplished in two groups; first group was remained as control, while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and termed as the treated group. Afterward, both the samples were evaluated using several analytical techniques. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) study showed the halo patterns of XRD peaks in both the samples. This indicated the amorphous nature of the samples. The particle size study revealed the 4.77% and 26.28% increase d50 (in the average particle size) and d99 (particle size below that 99% particles are present), respectively of treated YE powder with respect to the control. The surface area analysis showed the 14.06% increase in the specific surface area of treated sample with respect to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis exhibited the 41.64% increase in the melting temperature of treated YE powder sample as compared to the control. The TGA/DTG analysis exhibited the increase in Tonset (onset temperature of thermal degradation) by 7.51% and 12.45% in first and second step of thermal degradation, respectively in the treated sample as compared to the control. Furthermore, the Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was increased by 4.16% and 24.79% in first and second step of thermal degradation, respectively in the treated sample with respect to the control. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study revealed the changes in the wavenumber of functional groups such as C-H (stretching) from 2895→2883 cm-1 and 2815→2831 cm-1, respectively; C-N from 1230→1242 cm-1; and C-O stretching from 1062-1147 cm-1→1072-1149 cm-1 of treated YE powder sample as compared to the control. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed the similar patterns of absorbance maxima (λmax) in both the control and treated samples. Therefore, the analytical results suggested the considerable impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical and spectral properties of YE powder. The increase in Tonset and Tmax after the biofield treatment suggests that the treated YE powder might be more effective in culture medium than the control YE powder.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[352] viXra:1608.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 00:37:37

Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Hi VegTM Acid Hydrolysate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The hydrolysed vegetable proteins are acidic or enzymatic hydrolytic product of proteins derived from various sources such as milk, meat or vegetables. The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the various physicochemical and spectra properties of Hi vegTM acid hydrolysate i.e. a hydrolysed vegetable protein. The Hi vegTM acid hydrolysate sample was divided into two parts that served as control and treated sample. The treated sample was subjected to the biofield energy treatment and its properties were analysed using particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, UV-visible and infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results of various parameters were compared with the control (untreated) part. The XRD data showed the decrease in crystallite size of treated sample from 110.27 nm (control) to 79.26 nm. The particle size was also reduced in treated sample as 162.13 μm as compared to the control sample (168.27 μm). Moreover, the surface area analysis revealed the 63.79% increase in the surface area of the biofield treated sample as compared to the control. The UV-Vis spectra of both samples i.e. control and treated showed the absorbance at same wavelength. However, the FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the shifting in peaks corresponding to N-H, C-H, C=O, C-N, and C-S functional groups in the treated sample with respect to the control. The thermal analysis also revealed the alteration in degradation pattern along with increase in onset temperature of degradation and maximum degradation temperature in the treated sample as compared to the control. The overall data showed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of the treated sample of Hi vegTM acid hydrolysate. The biofield treated sample might show the improved solubility, wettability and thermal stability profile as compared to the control sample.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[351] viXra:1608.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 01:39:46

The Moment of Momentum and the Proton Radius

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin, A. S. Kim
Comments: 5 pages. Russian Physics Journal. Vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 534-538 (2002). https://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021001025666

The theory of nuclear gravitation is used to calculate the moment of momentum of the gravitational field of a proton, which is compared to the corresponding moment of momentum of the electromagnetic field. As a result, the proton radius is estimated and a relation for the moment of momentum of the field is established, which coincides in form with the expression of the virial theorem for energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[350] viXra:1608.0385 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-02 20:24:38

A Calculation of Neutron’s Mass Based on Virtual Space-Time

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 4 Pages.

Based on the postulation of virtual space-time, I reconstruct a new neutron’s model. Then I calculate the neutron’s mass based on the new model. I obtain a theoretic neutron’s mass that is close to the experimental results. My calculation shows that the neutron’s theoretic mass is 939.579MeV.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[349] viXra:1608.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 13:02:33

The Origin and the Spectra of the Gamma-Ray Bursts

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin and the spectra of the gamma-ray bursts (the exploding objects/progenitors we will call the GRBs). The GRBs explode due to the inflows of the dark energy into the associations of neutron black holes that are the constituents of the black holes in centres of galaxies. The GRBs should be placed near the Schwarzschild surface in the plane of the accretion discs. The bursts should be correlated with an increase in activity of the central-black-hole jet and accretion disc because it causes more dense flows of the dark energy. Such flows cause that the neutron black holes swell so their associations can transform into iron object. The increase in gravitational energy of the iron object is compensated by the decrease of the gravitational energy of the black holes as a whole, i.e. the central black holes become the more compact objects. A half of radiation energy is absorbed by the central black hole so the escaping energy looks as an analog to the Hawking radiation. The bursts are volumetric, not directional. Calculated here the typical emitted energy is equivalent to 1.9 solar masses. Most important are the fusions of nucleons mostly into iron-56 via helium-4, the beta decays of neutrons, and emission of photons with energy about 188 MeV that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons. According to SST, the radius of the observed Universe increased 46.55 times so the spectra of most distant GRBs (SST shows that galaxies with redshift higher than 0.6 all are in time distance about 13 – 13.8 Gyr) should peak near 17 keV, 150 keV, 190 keV, and 4 MeV. The spectra of GBRs placed, for example, in distance 1.2 Gyr should peak near 190 keV, 1.7 MeV, 2.2 MeV, and 46 MeV. But there can be other lower peaks as well. Most important are two results i.e. the released typical energy 1.9 solar masses and the peak for 150 keV or 190 keV for very distant GRBs because number density of photons emitted during the iron production from nucleons via helium-4 should be highest and because abundance of the gamma-ray bursts should be highest for the distant Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[348] viXra:1608.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 14:42:26

The Failed Hypothesis

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 105 Pages.

We – LIVING IN A STRANGE AND wonderful universe (WHOSE age, size, violence, and beauty require extraordinary imagination to appreciate) still discovering the fundamental laws of nature – regards science as a beautiful truth and a true scientific inquiry which has been construed in such a way as to explain the complexities of cosmological world with an engaging combination of clarity and wit of the new picture of reality that is emerging as a result. It seems most appropriate, but, it is absolutely-absolutely false. Science has fatal limitations – filled with uncertainty, skepticism and deliberation participate in a powerfully deductive dialectic that enables us to rework our present understanding of nature — to step back from what we think we know, re-assess our preconceived notions, and bring forth newer, more fully formed views of our Universe. However, the scientific community (who can trace the roots of modern astronomy back to the ancient Greeks. Around 340 B. C) as a whole is ignorant about it. While the modern science is surely incomplete – it is largely based on heuristic arguments and oversimplified models. It is strange that most brilliant and eloquent scientists are not raising the issues and the majority of the current scientific community is imbued with the dogmas of the academic club and the voice of dissent conveniently ignored or ridiculed, contrary to the true spirit of scientific inquiry. Science means truth (what we now think the world is made of and how it got that way), and scientists (persons engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world) are proponents of the truth. But they are teaching incorrect ideas to children (upcoming scientists) in schools /colleges etc. who can work out the distances to nine different galaxies -- largely with flair and in a highly approachable fashion. One who will raise the issue will face unprecedented initial criticism. Anyone can read the book and encompass a rapid trip in a more gentle fashion from Newton through relativity to the expanding universe, the big bang, black holes, wormholes and all the traditional menagerie of the modern cosmologist and find out the truth. It is open to everyone.
Category: Astrophysics

[347] viXra:1608.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 15:05:17

The Disappearance of High Mass Photon Pairs

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain the disappearance of high mass photon pairs that are the two-stage resonances. Their creation follows from the quantum entanglement. We suggest that the observed decrease in standard deviations results from increase in integral luminosity. Due to the four-object symmetry, instead production of, for example, the Higgs-like bosons with a mass of 750 GeV, due to the increase in the integral luminosity from 3.3 [1/fb] in 2015 to 12.9 [1/fb] in 2016, there are produced the Higgs-like bosons with a mass eight times higher. But such mass (about 6 TeV) lies outside the range of the CMS experiment. Moreover, probability of creation of the two-stage resonances is very, very low.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[346] viXra:1608.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 10:36:21

Dynamic Stimulation of Superconductivity with Resonant Terahertz Ultrasonic Waves

Authors: Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan
Comments: 5 Pages. Submitted to Applied Superconductivity Conference, Denver, Colorado, USA, Sept. 2016

An experiment is proposed to stimulate a superconducting thin film with terahertz (THz) acoustic waves, which is a regime not previously tested. For a thin film on a piezoelectric substrate, this can be achieved by coupling the substrate to a tunable coherent THz electromagnetic source. Suggested materials for initial tests are a niobium film on a quartz substrate, with a BSCCO intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) stack. This will create acoustic standing waves on the nm scale in the thin film. A properly tuned standing wave will enable electron diffraction across the Fermi surface, leading to electron localization perpendicular to the substrate. This is expected to reduce the effective dimensionality, and enhance the tendency for superconducting order parallel to the substrate, even well above the superconducting critical temperature. This enhancement can be observed by measuring the in-plane critical current and the perpendicular tunneling gap. A similar experiment may be carried out for a cuprate thin film, although the conduction electrons might be more responsive to spin waves than to acoustic waves. These experiments address a novel regime of large momentum transfer to the electrons, which should be quite distinct from the more traditional regime of large energy transfer obtained from direct electromagnetic stimulation. The experiments are also motivated in part by novel theories of the superconducting state involving dynamic charge-density waves and spin-density waves. Potential device applications are discussed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[345] viXra:1608.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 11:00:45

Tiling Hexagons with Smaller Hexagons and Unit Triangles

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 10 pages are Java source code distributed under the LGPL 3.

This is a numerical study of the combinatorial problem of packing hexagons of some equal size into a larger hexagon. The problem is well defined if all hexagon edges have integer length and if their centers and vertices share the common lattice points of a triangular grid with unit distances.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[344] viXra:1608.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 11:11:45

Utilizing the Speed of Light (C) Value as the Ratio of the Reduced Planck Constant, H-Bar, Divided by the Product of the Planck Mass and the Planck Lenght

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 3 Pages.

The speed of light (exact value) equation as a mechanism to improve the lesser known values of the Planck mass and Planck length.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[343] viXra:1608.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 08:01:48

Impact of Modified Dmdheu and Copolymer Acrylic Resin Using Spraying Treatment Before and After an Enzymatic Washing on the Mechanical Properties of Denim Cotton Fabric

Authors: Nasr Litim, Ayda Baffoun, Saber Ben Abdessalem
Comments: 11 Pages. N Litim et al

In this paper, The principal purpose is to investigate the impact of modified DMDHEU and acrylic resin using spraying treatment of denim cotton fabric on mechanical properties loss (tear strength, grab strength loss and elongation loss) and others textile properties effect , such as, 3D rank evaluation and 3D thickness. All results are obtained for two of finishing process state; before and after an enzymatic washing and in warp and weft direction fabric. It has obtain that before and after washing, the modified DMDHEU resin effect more than acrylic resin the mechanical properties, (breaking strength, breaking elongation and tear strength) especially, for fabric 100% cotton compared to different fabric (weft composition contain Elasthanne 5% or Polyester). For the 3D rank of treated fabric with dissimilar resins, results clarify that enzymatic washing one of many factors cause increase of 3D rank level and more than their level before washing. It was established that the acrylic resin and resin spray application are significant factors in 3D thickness variation of treated fabrics.
Category: Chemistry

[342] viXra:1608.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 08:19:28

Investigation of Acrylic Resin Treatment and Evaluation of Cationic Additive Quality Impact on the Mechanical Properties of Finished Cotton Fabric

Authors: Nasr Litim, Ayda Baffoun
Comments: 9 Pages. N Litim et al

Statistical design of experiment (DOE) is an important tool to improve and developed of existing products or processes. This paper investigates the effect of essential finishing factors; curing temperature, curing time, resin, catalyst and cationic additive concentrations on the mechanical properties, especially on 3D ranks of cotton treated fabric with a copolymer acrylic resin. After that, it evaluates the impact of cationic additive class on 3D ranks and mechanical properties loss (breaking strength, breaking elongation and tear strength) of treated fabric with acrylic resin. The results, showed that cationic type effect; firstly (Electroprep) has the best quality on 3D rank of treated fabric and effect a little loss on mechanical properties, secondly (Easy stone super X), whereas (Easystone K) lead to a negatively loss on mechanical properties and gives undesired 3D rank. In order to investigate the causes of resin finish resumption and downgrading of garments in textile industry caused by ingredient concentration in bath resin. The main effect plot, interaction plot and contour plot method applied give to the textile engineer the possibility to predict the effect of resin treatment factors on the final quality desired of 3D rank and preserving the mechanical characteristics of treated fabric.
Category: Chemistry

[341] viXra:1608.0375 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-30 23:38:11

On the Asymptotics of Sums Related to the Stieltjes Constants

Authors: Nathan Sponder
Comments: 10 Pages.

We discuss the asymptotics of the sum $\sum_{k=1}^{m} e^{ \frac{{\ln(k)}^n}{k} }-1$ for $n \geq 0 $. Our main interest is to show the asymptotics of this sum and show expressions for the constants tied to the asymptotics of the sum as well as in particular show the properties of the constants associated with the sum.
Category: Number Theory

[340] viXra:1608.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 01:06:47

Examination of Schrodinger Equation in Pre Planckian Space-Time Early Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 9 Pages.

We look at Viutilli (1999) write up of a generalized schrodinger equation with its Ricci scalar inclusion, in curved space-time. This has a simplified version in Pre Planckian regime, which leads to comparing a resultant admissible wave function with Bohmian reformulations of quantum physics. As was done earlier, we compare this result with a formulation of a modified ‘Poisson’ equation from Poissons and Will from 2014, and then use inflaton physics . The resuting inflaton is then compared to the wavefunctional in the first part of this document. Key words, Ricci tensor, Schrodinger equation, Modified Poisson Equation , massive gravity, inflaton physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[339] viXra:1608.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 14:57:18

Astrological Darwinism

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 134 Pages.

Astrological Darwinism centers around two axioms. The first is the axiom of `chosen wave function collapse' and its subset of `chosen mutations'. It is the Bersonian `élan vital' of the soul that makes the choices by quantum looking and thus acting as a metaphysical or vital `hidden variable' causing genetic mutations. The second axiom is that the capacity of complex, multi-cellular life forms to apply the `chosen mutations' is cyclic, following the 26.000 year precession of the equinox. Astrological Darwinism's Cycle of Life can be projected upon the Zodiac of Dendera, as it can be found in the book of Schwaller de Lubicz. During the Age of Leo, the capacity to produce `chosen mutations' is at its peak and during the Age of Aquarius this capacity is at its minimum. The evolution of humanity is cyclic and can be characterized by Great Years of cyclic appearance of creative genetic boosts and subsequent expansion of the fittest. The most obvious example is the Upper Paleolithic Great Year. The present one started with the Neolithic agrarian revolution and will have its expansionist peak during the upcoming Age of Aquarius. Astrological Darwinism will be put in contrast to Neodarwinism in its twenty first century version of the Everett Many Worlds Darwinism scenario, the last being part of the Anthropic/Multiverse narrative. Astrological Darwinism needs Quantum Biology and ultimately Quantum Gravity Biology as its natural environment. Astrological Darwinism is a metaphysical narrative with implications for biology and evolution but without any implications for physics because it strictly follows Bohr's Copenhagen Interpretation in combination with his concept of complementary principles for animate and inanimate matter.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[338] viXra:1608.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 15:05:24

The Temperature Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper it is explained that stars’ surfaces cool as they evolve, therefore leading to a general principle of stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[337] viXra:1608.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 15:39:44

The Crust Solidification Principle of Life Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained another principle of foundational structure of stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[336] viXra:1608.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 08:26:58

Abismo Y Travía

Authors: Emiro Díez Saldarriaga
Comments: 9 Pages. En Español

Muchos sistemas en delicado equilibrio lo perderían ante cambios de las dimensiones de sus partes, como las que se darían para observadores con diversas velocidades relativas respecto a esos sistemas, si la relatividad fuera cierta. Tal es el caso de un tranvía que cae y no cae en un abismo, según los observadores. De ahí la paradoja. O que cae para todos los observadores, pero violando las mas elementales leyes física, si se intenta resolver desesperadamente la tal paradoja.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[335] viXra:1608.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-28 00:49:38

The Formation Mechanism of the Crab Nebula

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a new explanation regard to the formation mechanism of the Crab Nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[334] viXra:1608.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 19:09:34

Exact Analytical Periodic Solutions with Sinusoidal Form to a Class of Position-Dependent Mass Liénard-Type Oscillator Equations

Authors: M. D. Monsia, J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou
Comments: 3 pages

This letter consists of additions to the paper ’’ A Class of Position-Dependent Mass Liénard Differential Equations via a General Nonlocal Transformation’’. The objective is to highlight the fact that the general second-order nonlinear differential equation theory of position-dependent mass oscillators developed previously has the ability to provide exact analytical periodic solutions with sinusoidal form to the class of quadratic Liénard-type equations, like the motion of a particle on a rotating parabola and Morse- type oscillator equation, under question.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[333] viXra:1608.0366 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-29 10:42:47

Global Policy and the Scientific Age in the Modern Era

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 6 Pages.

Policy in the Scientific Age.
Category: Social Science

[332] viXra:1608.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 02:02:10

Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Phosphate Buffer Saline and Hanks Balanced Salt Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Phosphate buffer saline (PBS) has numerous biological and pharmaceutical applications. Hank buffer salt (HBS) has been used as a medium for tissue culture applications. This research study was aimed to investigate the influence of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical properties of the PBS and HBS. The study was executed in two group’s i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept aside as control and treated group had received the biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis indicated the increase in crystallite size by 5.20% in treated PBS as compared to the control. Similarly, the treated HBS also showed increase in crystallite size by 3.20% with respect to the control. Additionally, the treated PBS showed an increase in Bragg’s angle (2θ) as compared to the control sample. However, a decrease in Bragg’s angle of XRD peaks of the treated sample was noticed in the treated HBS. The DSC analysis of the control PBS showed melting temperature at 224.84°C; however melting temperature was not observed in the treated sample. However, DSC analysis of the treated HBS showed an increase in melting temperature (152.83°C) in comparison with the control (150.60°C). Additionally, the latent heat of fusion of the treated HBS was increased substantially by 108.83% as compared to the control. The TGA thermogram of the treated PBS showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (212°C) as compared to the control (199°C). Whereas, the treated HBS showed less weight loss comparing with the control sample. This indicated the increase in thermal stability of the both the treated PBS and HBS samples. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of treated PBS showed alterations in the frequency of the functional groups such as O-H, C-H, P=O, O=P-OH, and P-OH as compared to the control. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum of the treated HBS showed increase in frequency of calcium chloride phase (1444→1448 cm-1) as compared to the control sample. Altogether, it was observed that biofield energy treatment had caused physical, thermal and spectral changes in the treated samples as compared to the control. It is assumed that biofield energy treated PBS and HBS could be a good prospect for biological and tissue culture applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[331] viXra:1608.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 03:19:35

TRL Lustre Is The Light’s Cumulative Consecutive Higher Orders Orthogonal Primality Overgrowth (All Inclusive) Of It’s Own Primality.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

TRL Lustre Is The Light’s Cumulative Consecutive Higher Orders Orthogonal Primality Overgrowth (All Inclusive) Of It’s Own Primality.
Category: General Mathematics

[330] viXra:1608.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 03:31:49

Solving the Muon Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

It may only take scientists a few more years to solve one of the biggest puzzles in modern elementary particle physics, the so-called "muon mystery." Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) will make a significant contribution to this research. [13] A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[329] viXra:1608.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 03:46:04

Electrons Speed Limit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Electronic components have become faster and faster over the years, thus making powerful computers and other technologies possible. Researchers at ETH Zurich have now investigated how fast electrons can ultimately be controlled with electric fields. Their insights are of importance for the petahertz electronics of the future. [11] The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[328] viXra:1608.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 03:57:52

Thousand Times Bigger Diatomic Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Research pair create two-atom molecules that are more than a thousand times bigger than typical diatomic molecules. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[327] viXra:1608.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 07:40:35

Cortical Conscious Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

New research published in the New Journal of Physics tries to decompose the structural layers of the cortical network to different hierarchies enabling to identify the network's nucleus, from which our consciousness could emerge. [21] Where in your brain do you exist? Is your awareness of the world around you and of yourself as an individual the result of specific, focused changes in your brain, or does that awareness come from a broad network of neural activity? How does your brain produce awareness? [20] In the future, level-tuned neurons may help enable neuromorphic computing systems to perform tasks that traditional computers cannot, such as learning from their environment, pattern recognition, and knowledge extraction from big data sources. [19] IBM scientists have created randomly spiking neurons using phase-change materials to store and process data. This demonstration marks a significant step forward in the development of energy-efficient, ultra-dense integrated neuromorphic technologies for applications in cognitive computing. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Physics of Biology

[326] viXra:1608.0358 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-04 02:59:26

Natural Non-Godel Definitions of Incompleteness

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 7 Pages. Russian

Here are definitions of «completeness» and «incompleteness» for mathematical theories. These definitions are different from those that gave Godel. Сontradictions of the Godel's arguments have been eliminated. Found are theo-rems that put everything in its place.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[325] viXra:1608.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 07:11:36

Network Theory of Consciousness

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Where in your brain do you exist? Is your awareness of the world around you and of yourself as an individual the result of specific, focused changes in your brain, or does that awareness come from a broad network of neural activity? How does your brain produce awareness? [20] In the future, level-tuned neurons may help enable neuromorphic computing systems to perform tasks that traditional computers cannot, such as learning from their environment, pattern recognition, and knowledge extraction from big data sources. [19] IBM scientists have created randomly spiking neurons using phase-change materials to store and process data. This demonstration marks a significant step forward in the development of energy-efficient, ultra-dense integrated neuromorphic technologies for applications in cognitive computing. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Physics of Biology

[324] viXra:1608.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 20:25:15

A Proof of the Collatz Conjecture (Sixth Revised Version)

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 15 Pages.

Positive integers which can operate to 1 by the set operational rule of the conjecture and positive integers got via contrary operations of the set operational rule are one-to-one correspondence unquestionably. In this article, we classify positive integers to prove the Collatz conjecture by the mathematical induction via operations of substep according to confirmed two theorems plus a lemma in advance.
Category: Number Theory

[323] viXra:1608.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 23:29:39

Evaluation of Vegetative Growth Parameters in Biofield Treated Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria Siceraria) and Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

The objective of the study was to assess the growth contributing characters of biofield treated bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds. The seeds of both crops were divided into two groups, one was kept aside and denoted as untreated, while the other group was subjected biofield energy treatment. The variabilities in growth contributing parameters were studied and compared with their control. Further the level of glutathione (GSH) in okra leaves, along with DNA fingerprinting in bottle gourd were analyzed using RAPD method. After germination, the plants of bottle gourd were reported to be strong and erect with better canopy as compared with the control. The vegetative growth of okra plants after biofield energy treatment was found to be stout with small canopy, strong steam, and more fruits per nodes, that contributed high yield as compared with the control. However, endogenous level of GSH in the leaves of okra was increased by 47.65% as compared to the untreated group, which may suggest an improved immunity of okra crops. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data, showed polymorphism (42%) between treated and untreated samples of bottle gourd. The overall results suggest that the biofield energy treatment on bottle gourd and okra seeds, results an improved overall growth of plant and yield, which may enhance flowering and fruiting per plant. Study results conclude that the biofield energy treatment could be an alternate method to improve the crop yield in agricultural science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[322] viXra:1608.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 23:31:27

Morphological Characterization, Quality, Yield and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Alphonso Mango(mangifera Indica L.)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Alphonso is the most delicious variety of mango (Mangifera indica L.) known for its excellent texture, taste, and richness with vitamins and minerals. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on morphological characteristics, quality, yield and molecular assessment of mango. A plot of 16 acres lands used for this study with already grown mango trees. This plot was divided into two parts. One part was considered as control, while another part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment without physically touching and referred as treated. The treated mango trees showed new straight leaves, without any distortion and infection, whereas the control trees showed very few, distorted, infected, and curly leaves. Moreover, the flowering pattern of control trees did not alter; it was on average 8 to 10 inches with more male flowers. However, the flowering pattern of treated trees was completely transformed into compact one being 4 to 5 inches in length and having more female flowers. Additionally, the weight of matured ripened mango was found on an average 275 gm, medium sized with 50% lesser pulp in the control fruits, while the fruits of biofield energy treated trees showed on average weight of 400 gm, large sized and having 75% higher pulp as compared to the control. Apart from morphology, the quality and nutritional components of mango fruits such as acidity content was increased by 65.63% in the treated sample. Vitamin C content in the treated Alphonso mango pulp was 43.75% higher than the pulp obtained from the control mango farm. The spongy tissue content in pulp of the matured ripened mangoes was decreased by 100% for two consecutive years as compared to the control. Moreover, the yield of flowers and fruits in the treated trees were increased about 95.45 and 47.37%, respectively as compared to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample did not show any true polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on the mango trees showed a significant improvement in the morphology, quality and overall productivity along with 100% reduction in the spongy tissue disorder. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of quality mangoes.
Category: Biochemistry

[321] viXra:1608.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 01:17:34

Dark Matter Galaxy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Using the world's most powerful telescopes, an international team of astronomers has found a massive galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter. [16] Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[320] viXra:1608.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 13:26:18

Single-Photon Microwave Source

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A collaboration including researchers at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has developed a tuneable, high-efficiency, single-photon microwave source. The technology has great potential for applications in quantum computing and quantum information technology, as well as in studying the fundamental reactions between light and matter in quantum circuits. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[319] viXra:1608.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 13:37:23

Earthquakes

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

A possible correlation between earthquake, electric fields and ionosphere
Category: Geophysics

[318] viXra:1608.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 11:49:07

The Collapse of the Wave Function

Authors: Joseph Palazzo
Comments: 14 Pages.

In the interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, there were four major mistakes done at different levels: (1)A misinterpretation of Bell’s theorem in which the original intent did not include non-locality, but as a test to see whether or not a particle has a certain property that can be measured. (2)A misinterpretation of the disagreement between Einstein and Bohr. Einstein’s objection to the collapse of the wave function implied a spooky action at a distance, while Bohr insisted on the instantaneous collapse of the wave function which he mistook to be a real wave. (3)A misinterpretation that the wave function represents a real wave when in actuality it represents the possible states of a quantum system before a measurement. (4)When Bell’s theorem was violated by a quantum system, those violations were misinterpreted as evidence of an instantaneous collapse of the wave function and non-locality. We will argue: there is no collapse of the wave function. Bell’s theorem is not about non-locality. There is no spooky action at a distance. And Quantum Mechanics is about measuring quantities at the microscopic scales and in doing so, these quantities are altered. So what we get is partial knowledge. But in spite of that obstacle, we still get a theory of reality with considerable success.
Category: Quantum Physics

[317] viXra:1608.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 12:02:33

About a Definition in Time

Authors: Junnichi Fujii
Comments: 3 Pages.

The definition in time in the present-day physics is insufficient. Several problems which are to reconsider a definition in time and concern in time can be settled. This definition isn't inconsistent with general relativity. 4 are supposed. This isn't also inconsistent with general relativity. Mystery in the life expectancy of the neutron can be settled by this. Several dilemmas which concern at time can be settled. It's possible to deepen the understanding simpler than the one of the general relativity.
Category: Classical Physics

[316] viXra:1608.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 08:09:08

Catalan's Constant :G=0.9159...

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas for Catalan's constant G=0.915965594177...
Category: General Mathematics

[315] viXra:1608.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 08:14:20

Some Questions Related with Elementary Analysis

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related with: pi constant pi=3.1415...,Catalan's constant G=0.9159...,Euler's constant gamma=0.5772...
Category: General Mathematics

[314] viXra:1608.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 04:35:33

Fast Radio Bursts and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[313] viXra:1608.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:50:00

Analysis of DSm Belief Conditioning Rules and Extension of Their Applicability

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 22 Pages.

Analysis of belief conditioning rules (BCRs) is presented in this chapter. Some simplifications of formulas for BCRs are suggested. A comparison of BCRs with classic rules of conditioning is performed. Finally, definition domains and applicability of BCRs are extended. Full formal definition of the extended version of BCR12 is presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[312] viXra:1608.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:51:33

Attribute Information Evaluation in C&C Systems

Authors: Ksawery Krenc, Adam Kawalec
Comments: 25 Pages.

This chapter describes what particular pieces of information about a source should be taken into account in order to get a reasonable assessment of an attribute information retrieved based on the sensor data or human originated information. It has been proven that actual sensor weights and hypotheses masses do not change randomly, but they vary in time according to tracked target motion, however not directly to the target position. It is postulated that the knowledge about target position only is insufficient and at least two dynamical coordinates target state vectors are required to reflect the target orientation, which has an influence on actual hypotheses assessment formed, on the basis of the sensor data or visual sightings.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[311] viXra:1608.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:52:34

Automatic Goal Allocation for a Planetary Rover with DSmT

Authors: Massimiliano Vasile, Matteo Ceriotti
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose an approach for assigning an interest level to the goals of a planetary rover. Assigning an interest level to goals, allows the rover to autonomously transform and reallocate the goals. The interest level is defined by data-fusing payload and navigation information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[310] viXra:1608.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:53:24

Definition of Evidence Fusion Rules Based on Referee Functions

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 32 Pages.

This chapter defines a new concept and framework for constructing fusion rules for evidences. This framework is based on a referee function, which does a decisional arbitrament conditionally to basic decisions provided by the several sources of information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[309] viXra:1608.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:55:18

Fusion of Esm Allegiance Reports Using DSmT

Authors: Pascal Djiknavorian, Pierre Valin, Dominic Grenier
Comments: 17 Pages.

Electronic Support Measures consist of passive receivers which can identify emitters coming from a small bearing angle, which, in turn, can be related to platforms that belong to 3 classes: either Friend, Neutral, or Hostile.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[308] viXra:1608.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:56:33

Implementing General Belief Function Framework with a Practical Codification for Low Complexity

Authors: Arnaud Martin
Comments: 58 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose a new practical codification of the elements of the Venn diagram in order to easily manipulate the focal elements. In order to reduce the complexity, the eventual constraints must be integrated in the codification at the beginning.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[307] viXra:1608.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:57:25

Improvement of Multiple Ground Targets Tracking with Fusion of Identification Attributes

Authors: Benjamin Pannetier, Jean Dezert
Comments: 31 Pages.

Multiple ground targets (MGT) tracking is a challenging problem in real environment. Advanced algorithms include exogeneous information like road network and terrain topography.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[306] viXra:1608.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:58:42

Information Fusion for Natural Hazards in Mountains

Authors: Jean-Marc Tacnet, Mireille Batton-Hubert, Jean Dezert
Comments: 96 Pages.

From a real case application based on snow-avalanche risk management, an integrated framework mixing evidential reasoning and multi-criteria decision analysis (ER-MCDA) is proposed. This methodology considers a simplified decision sorting problem based on qualitative and quantitative criteria on which more or less reliable sources provide uncertain and imprecise evaluations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[305] viXra:1608.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:00:15

Map Regenerating Forest Stands Based on DST and DSmT Combination Rules

Authors: Brice Mora, Richard A. Fournier, Samuel Foucher
Comments: 20 Pages.

Our results demonstrated the ability of the Free Dezert-Smarandache (DSm) model to improve thematic classification of forest regeneration overthe use of Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and a classical Maximum Likelihood Algorithm (MLA).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[304] viXra:1608.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:01:45

Multimodal Information Retrieval Based on DSmT. Application to Computeraided Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Gwenole Quellec, Mathieu Lamard, Guy Cazuguel, Beatrice Cochener, Christian Roux
Comments: 33 Pages.

We propose in this chapter a content-based information retrieval framework to select documents in a database, consisting of several images with semantic information. Information in these documents is not only heterogeneous, but also often incomplete.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[303] viXra:1608.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:02:46

Multiple Cameras Fusion Based on DSmT for Tracking Objects on Ground Plane

Authors: Esteban Garcia, Leopoldo Altamirano
Comments: 15 Pages.

This chapter presents comparative results of a model for multiple cameras fusion, which is based on Dezert-Smarandache theory of evidence. Our architecture works at the decision level to track objects on a ground plane using predefined zones, producing useful information for surveillance tasks such as behavior recognition.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[302] viXra:1608.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:03:42

Non-Numeric Labels and Constrained Focal Elements

Authors: Christophe Osswald, Arnaud Martin
Comments: 24 Pages.

The theory of belief functions allows to build a large family of combination operators, based mostly on intersections and unions between the focal elements expressed by the experts, and multiplications and additions on the masses affected to these focal elements.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[301] viXra:1608.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:04:41

Performance Evaluation of a Tracking Algorithm Including Attribute Data

Authors: Jean Dezert, Albena Tchamova, Ludmil Bojilov, Pavlina Konstantinova
Comments: 14 Pages.

The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of the quality of attribute data source on the performance of a target tracking algorithm.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[300] viXra:1608.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:05:48

Satellite Image Fusion Using Dezert-Smarandache Theory

Authors: Abdenour Bouakache, Aichouche Belhadj-Aissa, Gregoire Mercier
Comments: 17 Pages.

Free and hybrid models of multisource satellite images fusion are developed using the plausible and paradoxical reasoning theory of Dezert-Smarandache. The aim of this work is to show the contribution of these fusion models for improving the thematic classification and the quantification of change.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[299] viXra:1608.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:06:53

Utilizing Classifier Conflict for Sensor Management and User Interaction

Authors: Willem L. van Norden, Catholijn M. Jonker
Comments: 17 Pages.

This chapter describes how the conflict encountered by the PCR6 rule can be utilized in sensor management. We therefore discuss the classification model that is used in the fusion problem and two different types of conflict. To enable operators to exert constraints on singletons we propose a (slightly) altered PCR6 rule, dubbed PCR6a. We show how the algorithm works and we illustrate how the amount of conflict can be used for sensor management and/or for operator feedback by using an example.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[298] viXra:1608.0329 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-25 08:42:40

God Seems to Play Dice with Dual Entangled Pinball Machines in a Supersymmetric (Susy) Multiverse

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 7 Pages. 7

In a SUSY (Supersymmetric ) multiverse, God seems to play dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us humans make decisions. Intelligent beings are lucky to became more time ( 0.5 sec.) to veto actions initiated by one of the other universes. As a result: The creation of a "democratic veto related free will" of each individual human! In Quantum FFF Theory it is assumed that each quantum is instant entangled with one or more dual Charge Parity (anti) symmetric copy particles present in opposing multiverse bubbles embedded in the so called raspberry shaped multiverse. Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. In addition, I found recently support for a multiverse related quantum experiment done by Giulia Rubino and Philip Walther of Institute for Quantum Optics Vienna as a strong indication, that not only for humans but also for “ dead” quanta a possible multiverse relation could be postulated. As a result we may say, that God seems to play dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines (universal bubbles like ours) to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us make more or less conscious decisions.
Category: Astrophysics

[297] viXra:1608.0328 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-27 23:19:26

Additional Solutions of the Limiting Case "CLP" of the Problem of Apollonius via Vector Rotations using Geometric Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 38 Pages.

This document adds to the collection of solved problems presented in References [1]-[6]. The solutions presented herein are not as efficient as those in [6], but they give additional insight into ways in which GA can be used to solve this problem. After reviewing, briefly, how reflections and rotations can be expressed and manipulated via GA, it solves the CLP limiting case of the Problem of Apollonius in three ways, some of which identify the the solution circles' points of tangency with the given circle, and others of which identify the solution circles' points of tangency with the given line. For comparison, the solutions that were developed in [1] are presented in an Appendix.
Category: Geometry

[296] viXra:1608.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 23:09:08

The Potential Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on the Atomic and Physical Properties of Antimony Tin Oxide Nanopowder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Antimony tin oxide (ATO) is known for its high thermal conductivity, optical transmittance, and wide energy band gap, which makes it a promising material for the display devices, solar cells, and chemical sensor industries. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the atomic and physical properties of ATO nanopowder. The ATO nanopowder was divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed that the crystallite size on the plane (110) was significantly reduced to 53.1 nm as compared to the control (212.6 nm). In addition, the lattice parameter, unit cell volume, density, and molecular weight were also altered as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectra showed that the stretching vibration corresponding to Sn-OH was shifted to higher wavenumber (512 cm-1) in the treated sample as compared to the control (496 cm-1). Besides, ESR spectral analysis exhibited that the g-factor was reduced in the treated ATO sample by 21.1% as compared to the control. Also, the ESR signal width and height were reduced by 70.4% and 93.7%, respectively as compared to the control. Hence, the XRD, FT-IR, and ESR data revealed that the biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on the atomic and physical properties of ATO nanopowder. Therefore, the biofield energy treatment could be more useful in display devices and solar cell industries.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[295] viXra:1608.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 23:10:12

Quantitative Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of 13C, 2H, and 18O in Biofield Energy Treated Ortho and Meta Toluic Acid Isomers

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

O-Toluic acid (OTA) and m-toluic acid (MTA) are two isomers of toluic acid that act as an important organic intermediates, mostly used in medicines and pesticides. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, (PM+1)/PM and 18O/16O, (PM+2)/PM, in toluic acid isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The OTA and MTA samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, while the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of both the isomers showed five m/z peaks due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks of toluic acid derivatives. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM were calculated for both the isomers and found significant alteration in the treated isomers. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in treated samples of OTA was decreased and then slightly increased upto 2.37% in T2, where the (PM+2)/PM in treated OTA, significantly decreased by 55.3% in T3 sample. Similarly, in case of MTA, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in the treated sample showed a slight increase the (PM+2)/PM was decreased by 11.95% in T2 as compared to their respective control. GC-MS data suggests that the biofield energy treatment on toluic acid isomers had significantly altered the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C, and 18O in OTA and MTA as compared to the control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[294] viXra:1608.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 00:10:41

Part 2 :Review of Tokamak Physics as a Way to Construct a Device Optimal for Graviton Detection and Generation Within a Confined Small Spatial Volume, as Opposed to Dyson’s “infinite Astrophysical Volume” Calculations

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 17 Pages.

Review of arguments in refutation of Dyson’s alleged prohibition against use of device physics as to determining if Gravitons can be determined to exist is followed up by use of a hot Plasma within a Tokamak in a re do of the amplitude of alleged Gravitational waves. This overlaps with gravitons, and we follow up with an analysis of the pertinent form of Gravitons, i.e. do we have massless or massive gravitons. In addition we also obtain GW of amplitude as low as five meters above the Tokamak center such low strain values are extremely close to brane world GW, and strain values in early universe cosmology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[293] viXra:1608.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 00:13:47

Part 1: Possible Graviton Detection, for Outer Space Treatment of the Gertenshehtein Effect. I.e. Dyson’s Construction/ Analysis Does not Precludes Earth Bound Generation of Gravitons.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 8 Pages.

We are reviewing Freeman Dyson’s paper which alleged that detection of gravitons via LIGO, or by outer space experiments (due to probabilistic calculations which we review in the document), an impossibility. The disagreement we have with Dr. Dyson is that his probability calculations are taking place in almost infinite spatial domains, which renders the detection protocols, using his probability scheme, impossible. After we summarize the Dyson outer space arguments, and how Dyson got them, we will refer the reader to the very strain calculation done in the referenced PRD article, so cited, as to how a nuclear weapon could generate GW, and then afterwards, refer the reader to a 2nd paper, of how Tokamaks could detect GW/ Gravitons, as detectable by the 3DSR effect. Nowhere are we suggesting DETONITION of a nuclear device to generate GW! The reader is referred to another Li et.al. PRD article, 2008, as to 3DSR, as to how detection of GW/Gravitons could occur due to something other than the Gertenshehtein effect, in this paper, i.e. they can look it up, and then in a 2nd follow up paper learn how a Tokamak could be utilized to have a finite sized geometry, for using the 3DSR effect for GW generation. The first paper highlights how if one assumes that only by use of infinite spatial geometry, and by using only the Gertenshehtein effect, that indeed one can convince oneself as to not bothering with the very real prospects of earthbound generation of Gravitons and GW, and that in doing so, GW research will be strictly limited, even with the outstanding results of LIGO, which in no way should be criticized. The entire analysis makes the case that foundational research as to the nature of GRAVITY means moving beyond the mental limitations place on GW/ Graviton research by Dyson’s 2009 paper.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[292] viXra:1608.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 03:20:39

How Atoms are Arranged in Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Researchers from North Carolina State University, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a novel approach to materials characterization, using Bayesian statistical methods to glean new insights into the structure of materials. The work should inform the development of new materials for use in a variety of applications. [20] Scientists from Russia and Australia have proposed a simple new way of counting microscopic particles in optical materials by means of a laser. [19] A new MIT study could open up new areas of technology based on types of light emission that had been thought to be "forbidden," or at least so unlikely as to be practically unattainable. The new approach, the researchers say, could cause certain kinds of interactions between light and matter, which would normally take billions of years to happen, to take place instead within billionths of a second, under certain special conditions. [18] Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new tool for detecting and measuring the polarization of light based on a single spatial sampling of the light, rather than the multiple samples required by previous technologies. The new device makes use of the unique properties of organic polymers, rather than traditional silicon, for polarization detection and measurement. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[291] viXra:1608.0317 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-25 22:30:14

Poly-Complex Clifford Algebra and Grand Unification

Authors: Robert G Wallace
Comments: 9 Pages.

An algebra for unit multivector components for a manifold of five poly-complex dimensions is presented. The algebra has many properties that suggest it may provide a basis for a grand unification theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[290] viXra:1608.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 04:01:08

About the Life Time of the Neutron

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 10 Pages.

Based on the comparison of the experimental data obtained in determining the lifetime of neutrons using two fundamentally different measurement methods offered a reasonable explanation of the reasons for the discrepancy of experimental results. Theoretical calculations determine the lifetime of the neutron and the final results of these calculations. The comparison of the results of theoretical calculations with experimental data. On the basis of experimental confirmation of the existence of the neutron from different times of life, theoretical confirmation of the existence of the neutron that is two times life and justice and the CPT theorem, proved the hypothesis of the existence in nature of stable bound States of matter – antineutron long-lived and short-lived neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[289] viXra:1608.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 13:25:16

Neutrino Horns

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[288] viXra:1608.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 10:21:25

Atomic Gyroscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

The NIST team has demonstrated a compact atomic gyroscope design that could, with further development, be portable, low power, and accurate enough to be used for navigation. Gyroscopes, traditionally based on mechanical components that spin or vibrate, are common in navigation applications and are increasingly used in consumer electronics such as smartphones. The new NIST device might find uses in applications requiring ultra-precise navigation with extreme size, weight and power limits, such as on spacecraft or submarines. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[287] viXra:1608.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 12:02:20

Dynamic Universe Model Solves “Faster Than Light Neutrinos” Riddle

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 36 Pages. Additional supplimentary files are there

There are many instances that reported Superluminal neutrinos. Dynamic Universe Model explains the how and why of “Faster than Light Neutrinos” without any modification in its theory. Various instances like Astronomical jets, Gravitational catapult, MINOS experiment and Fermilab1979 in particle experiments and supernova SN1987A and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in astronomy Neutrinos travelling faster than speed of light were recorded. There were 76 theoretical experiments conducted and their results are reported in this paper. These experiments were done between 2009 to 2011. Dynamic Universe Model theory was tested in explaining many anomalies in Physics. Dynamic Universe Model’s many predictions came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[286] viXra:1608.0312 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-28 10:47:02

Challenges in Separating of Free Electrons (Persian Language)

Authors: Hosein Majlesi
Comments: 15 Pages. Persian language,Patent:139350140003006698,Tuesday,September16,2014

This present paper studied about the challenge in separating of free electrons and history of experiment in Persian language, This present paper is only for Persian readers that want to know more information about the history of experiment and challenges in the theory and experiment by free electrons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[285] viXra:1608.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 09:37:57

Proton Quantum Tunneling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A discovery by a research team led by Northeastern's Paul Champion upends the understanding held for centuries of protons' behavior. The researchers— using an ultrafast pulsed laser system designed at Northeastern—have revealed that protons actually tunnel through thermodynamic barriers rather than travel over them. [12] Scientists have discovered an anomaly in the properties of ice at very cold temperatures near 20 K, which they believe can be explained by the quantum tunneling of multiple protons simultaneously. The finding is a rare instance of quantum phenomena emerging on the macroscopic scale, and is even more unusual because it is only the second time—the first being superconductivity— that macroscopic quantum phenomena have been observed in a system that is based on fermions, which include protons, electrons, and all other matter particles. Other systems exhibiting macroscopic quantum phenomena have been based on photons, a type of boson, which mediate the forces between matter. [11] Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[284] viXra:1608.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:15:19

A Class of Fusion Rules Based on the Belief Redistribution to Subsets or Complements

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Arnaud Martin, Jean Dezert
Comments: 24 Pages.

In this chapter we present a class of fusion rules based on the redistribution of the conflicting or even non-conflicting masses to the subsets or to the complements of the elements involved in the conflict proportionally with respect to their masses or/and cardinals. At the end, these rules are presented in a more general theoretical way including explicitly the reliability of each source of evidence. Some examples are also provided.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[283] viXra:1608.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:16:34

An Introduction to DSmT

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 72 Pages.

The management and combination of uncertain, imprecise, fuzzy and even paradoxical or highly conflicting sources of information has always been, and still remains today, of primal importance for the development of reliable modern information systems involving artificial reasoning. In this introduction, we present a survey of our recent theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning, known as Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT), developed for dealing with imprecise, uncertain and conflicting sources of information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[282] viXra:1608.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:17:36

DSm Field and Linear Algebra of Refined Labels

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert, Xinde Li
Comments: 11 Pages.

This chapter presents the DSm Field and Linear Algebra of Refined Labels (FLARL) in DSmT framework in order to work precisely with qualitative labels for information fusion. We present and justify the basic operators on qualitative labels (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, root, power, etc).
Category: Algebra

[281] viXra:1608.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:19:03

Fusion of Qualitative Information Using Imprecise 2 Tuple Labels

Authors: Xinde Li, Xinhan Huang, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Li Duan
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this chapter, Herrera-Mart´ınez’ 2-tuple linguistic representation model is extended for combining imprecise qualitative information using fusion rules drawn from Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) or from Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) frameworks.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[280] viXra:1608.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:20:08

New Fusion Rules for Solving Blackman’s Association Problem

Authors: Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages.

This chapter presents a new approach for solving the paradoxical Blackman’s association problem. It utilizes a new class of fusion rules based on fuzzy T-conorm/T-norm operators together with Dezert-Smarandache theory and the relative variations of generalized pignistic probabilities measure of correct associations defined from a partial ordering function of hyper-power set.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[279] viXra:1608.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:21:22

Object Identification Using T-Conorm/norm Fusion Rule

Authors: Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages.

This small chapter presents an approach providing fast reduction of total ignorance in the process of target identification. It utilizes the recently defined fusion rule based on fuzzy T-conorm/Tnorm operators, as well as all the available information from the adjoint sensor and additional information obtained from the a priori defined objective and subjective considerations, concerning relationships between the attribute components at different levels of abstraction. The approach performance is estimated on the base of the pignistic probabilities according to the nature of the objects considered here.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[278] viXra:1608.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:22:28

Probabilistic PCR6 Fusion Rule

Authors: Frederic Dambreville, Francis Celeste, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 25 Pages.

This chapter defines and implements a non-Bayesian fusion rule for combining densities of probabilities, derived from imprecise knowledge.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[277] viXra:1608.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:23:17

Target Type Tracking with DSmP

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Albena Tchamova, Pavlina Konstantinova
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this chapter we analyze the performances of a new probabilistic belief transformation, denoted DSmP, for the sequential estimation of target ID from classifier outputs in the Target Type Tracking problem (TTT).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[276] viXra:1608.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:27:29

Transformations of Belief Masses Into Subjective Probabilities

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 53 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose in the DSmT framework, a new probabilistic transformation, called DSmP, in order to build a subjective probability measure from any basic belief assignment defined on any model of the frame of discernment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[275] viXra:1608.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 20:38:53

Einstein's Light Clock

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 1 Page.

The light clock is wrong.
The apparatus (the clock) would just move away from the beam of light.
You would have to angle the light beam to make it hit the clock pads (mirrors) and that changes everything. i.e. the distance the light beam has to travel does NOT increase because of the moving clock -- it is because you have to angle the beam.
You might need to think about it for a couple of months to realize everything. Good luck with your endeavors.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[274] viXra:1608.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 21:34:23

Creation of Matter Waves with Water

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 8 Pages.

Abstract: Water is shown to create two-dimensional matter waves with soluble chemicals via an alternate chemical dissolution method that is extremely simple and can be done instantaneously by anyone with water and a pure soluble chemical compounds. I have included many images because I know what I am disclosing sounds too good to be true or unbelievable to the modern world of science. Through experimentation of matter waves it is realized that they form opposite motion as opposed to dissolved ions in water indicating that water can hold two distinct phases of matter at once, I am calling these vertical (which is normal dissolved ions) and horizontal (matter waves) phases of matter in water. Matter waves are visible as a quantum fluid having quantum circles made out of what looks like very thin strings. Ions, vertical phase of matter, in water can mix with matter waves generating a new type of chemical reaction.
Category: Chemistry

[273] viXra:1608.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 23:21:48

Characterization of Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Bio Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Bio peptone is a combination of enzymatic digest of animal tissues and casein; and generally used for the growth of several varieties of microbes. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of bio peptone. The present study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept without treatment, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, both the samples were assessed using numerous analytical techniques. The X-ray diffractograms (XRD) showed the halo patterns of XRD peaks in both the samples. The particle size analysis exhibited about 4.70% and 17.58% increase in the d50 (average particle size) and d99 (particle size below which 99% particles are present), respectively of treated bio peptone as compared to the control. The surface area analysis revealed the 253.95% increase in the specific surface area of treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed the 29.59% increase in the melting temperature of treated bio peptone sample as compared to the control. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the increase in onset of degradation temperature by 3.31% in the treated sample with respect to the control. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study revealed the changes in the wavenumber of functional groups such as O-H stretching from 3066 cm-1 to 3060 cm-1; C-H stretching from 2980, 2893, and 2817 cm-1 to 2970, 2881, and 2835 cm-1, respectively; N-H bending from 1589 cm-1 to 1596 cm-1; C=C stretching from 1533 cm-1 to 1525 cm-1; and P=O stretching from 1070 cm-1 to 1078 cm-1 in treated sample as compared to the control. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed the similar patterns of absorbance maxima (λmax) i.e. at 259 nm and 257 nm in both the control and treated samples, respectively. Overall, the analytical results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has substantial effect on physicochemical and spectral properties of bio peptone. Owing to this, the treated bio peptone might be more effective as culture medium than the corresponding control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[272] viXra:1608.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 23:24:14

Physical, Spectroscopic and Thermal Characterization of Biofield Treated Fish Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The by-products of industrially processed fish are enzymatically converted into fish protein isolates and hydrolysates having a wide biological activity and nutritional properties. However, the heat processing may cause their thermal denaturation thereby causing the conformational changes in them. The present study utilized the strategy of biofield energy treatment and analysed its impact on various properties of the fish peptone as compared to the untreated (control) sample. The fish peptone sample was divided into two parts; one part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment, coded as the treated sample and another part was coded as the control. The impact of biofield treatment was analysed through various analytical techniques and results were compared with the control sample. The particle size data revealed 4.61% increase in the average particle size (d50) along with 2.66% reduction in the surface area of the treated sample as compared to the control. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed the amorphous nature of the fish peptone sample; however no alteration was found in the diffractogram of the treated sample with respect to the control. The Fourier transform infrared studies showed the alterations in the frequency of peaks corresponding to N-H, C-H, C=O, C-N, and C-OH, functional groups in the treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry data revealed the increase in transition enthalpy (ΔH) from -71.14 J/g (control) to -105.32 J/g in the treated sample. The thermal gravimetric analysis data showed the increase in maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) from 213.31°C (control) to 221.38°C along with a reduction in the percent weight loss of the treated sample during the thermal degradation event. These data revealed the increase in thermal stability of the treated fish peptone and suggested that the biofield energy treatment may be used to improve the thermal stability of the heat sensitive compounds.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[271] viXra:1608.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:36:28

An In-Depth Look at Quantitative Information Fusion Rules

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 33 Pages.

This chapter may look like a glossary of the fusion rules and we also introduce new ones presenting their formulas and examples: Conjunc tive, Disjunctive, Exclusive Disjunctive, Mixed Conjunctive-Disjunctive rules, Conditional rule, Dempster’s, Yager’s, Smets’ TBM rule, Dubois-Prade’s, Dezert-Smarandache classical and hybrid rules, Murphy’s average rule, Inagaki-Lefevre-Colot-Vannoorenberghe Unified Combination rules [and, as particular cases: Iganaki’s parameterized rule, Weighted Average Operator, minC (M. Daniel), and newly Proportional Conflict Redistribution rules (Smarandache-Dezert) among which PCR5 is the most exact way of redistribution of the conflicting mass to non-empty sets following the path of the conjunctive rule], Zhang’s Center Combination rule, Consensus Operator (Jøsang), Cautious Rule (Smets), -junctions rules (Smets), etc. and three new T -norm & T -conorm rules adjusted from fuzzy and neutrosophic sets to information fusion (Tchamova-Smarandache). Introducing the degree of union and degree of inclusion with respect to the cardinal of sets not with the fuzzy set point of view, besides that of intersection, many fusion rules can be improved.
Category: General Mathematics

[270] viXra:1608.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:38:48

Fusion of Qualitative Beliefs

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert
Comments: 18 Pages.

This chapter introduces the notion of qualitative belief assignment to model beliefs of human experts expressed in natural language (with linguistic labels).We show how qualitative beliefs can be efficiently combined using an extension of Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) of plausible and paradoxical quantitative reasoning to qualitative reasoning. We propose a new arithmetic on linguistic labels which allows a direct extension of classical or hybrid DSm fusion rules. An approximate qualitative PCR5 rule is also proposed jointly with a Qualitative Average Operator. We also show how crisp or interval mappings can be used to deal indirectly with linguistic labels. A very simple example is provided to illustrate our qualitative fusion rules.
Category: General Mathematics

[269] viXra:1608.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:45:02

Target Type Tracking with Different Fusion Rules: A Comparative Analysis

Authors: J. Dezert, A. Tchamova, P. Konstantinova, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 21 Pages.

We analyze the behavior of several combinational rules for temporal/sequential attribute data fusion for target type estimation. Our comparative analysis is based on: Dempster’s fusion rule, Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule no. 5 (PCR5), Symmetric Adaptive Combination (SAC) rule and a new fusion rule, based on fuzzy T-conorm and T-norm operators (TCN).
Category: General Mathematics

[268] viXra:1608.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:48:59

A Comparison of the Generalized minC Combination and the Hybrid DSm Combination Rules

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 18 Pages.

A generalization of the minC combination to DSm hyper-power sets is presented. Both the special formulas for static fusion or dynamic fusion without non-existential constraints and the quite general formulas for dynamic fusion with non-existential constraints are included. Examples of the minC combination on several different hybrid DSm models are presented. A comparison of the generalized minC combination with the hybrid DSm rule is discussed and explained on examples.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[267] viXra:1608.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:49:56

A DSmT-based Fusion Machine for Robot’s Map Reconstruction

Authors: Xinhan Huang, Xinde Li, Min Wang
Comments: 22 Pages.

Characteristics of uncertainty and imprecision, even imperfection is presented from knowledge acquisition in map reconstruction of autonomous mobile robots. Especially in the course of building grid map using sonar, this characteristic of uncertainty is especially servere.
Category: General Mathematics

[266] viXra:1608.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:51:11

A New Generalization of the Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rule Stable in Terms of Decision

Authors: Arnaud Martin, Christophe Osswald
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this chapter, we present and discuss a new generalized proportional conflict redistribution rule. The Dezert-Smarandache extension of the Dempster- Shafer theory has relaunched the studies on the combination rules especially for the management of the conflict. Many combination rules have been proposed in the last few years. We study here different combination rules and compare them in terms of decision on didactic example and on generated data. Indeed, in real applications, we need a reliable decision and it is the final results that matter. This chapter shows that a fine proportional conflict redistribution rule must be preferred for the combination in the belief function theory.
Category: General Mathematics

[265] viXra:1608.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:55:36

A Note on the Smarandache Cyclic Geometric Determinant Sequences

Authors: A. A. K. Majumdar
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper gives an alternative approach to ¯nd the determinant of the right circular matrix with geometric sequence, using the known results of the circulant matrix.Keywords circulant matrix, right circulant matrix with geometric sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[264] viXra:1608.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:57:02

Application of DSmT for Land Cover Change Prediction

Authors: Samuel Corgne, Laurence Hubert-Moy, Gregoire Mercier, Jean Dezert
Comments: 13 Pages.

This chapter presents an environmental application of DSmT for the land cover prediction. The spatial prediction of land cover at the field scale in winter is useful to reduce the bare soils in agricultural intensive regions.
Category: General Mathematics

[263] viXra:1608.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:58:54

Classical Combination Rules Generalized to DSm Hyperpower Sets and their Comparison with the Hybrid DSm Rule

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 25 Pages.

Dempster’s rule, non-normalized conjunctive rule, Yager’s rule and Dubois-Prade’s rule for belief functions combination are generalized to be applicable to hyper-power sets according to the DSm theory. A comparison of the rules with DSm rule of combination is presented. A series of examples is included.
Category: General Mathematics

[262] viXra:1608.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:00:20

Comparison Between DSm and Minc Combination Rules

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 20 Pages.

Both DSm and minC rules of combination endeavor to process conflicts among combined beliefs better. The nature of conflicts as well as their processing during the belief combination is sketched. An presentation of the minC combination,an alternative to Dempster’s rule of combination, follows. Working domains, structures and mechanisms of the DSm and minC combination rules are compared in the body of this chapter. Finally, some comparative examples are presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[261] viXra:1608.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:01:33

Conflict Free Rule for Combining Evidences

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 29 Pages.

Recent works have investigated the problem of the conflict redistribution in the fusion rules of evidence theories. As a consequence of these works, many new rules have been proposed. Now, there is not a clear theoretical criterion for a choice of a rule instead another. The present chapter proposes a new theoretically grounded rule, based on a new concept of sensor independence. This new rule avoids the conflict redistribution, by an adaptive combination of the beliefs. Both the logical grounds and the algorithmic implementation are considered.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[260] viXra:1608.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:02:21

DSm Models and Non-Archimedean Reasoning

Authors: Andrew Schumann
Comments: 23 Pages.

The Dezert-Smarandache theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning is based on the premise that some elements i of a frame have a non-empty intersection.
Category: General Mathematics

[259] viXra:1608.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:03:23

Estimation of Target Behavior Tendencies using DSmT

Authors: Albena Tchamova, Tzvetan Semerdjiev, Jean Dezert
Comments: 12 Pages.

This chapter presents an approach for target behavior tendency estimation (Receding, Approaching). It is developed on the principles of Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) of plausible and paradoxical reasoning applied to conventional sonar amplitude measurements, which serve as an evidence for corresponding decision-making procedures.
Category: General Mathematics

[258] viXra:1608.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:04:50

Florentin Smarandache: Mă Consider om de știință, Dar în Aceeași Măsură și om de Cultură

Authors: Ion Paraianu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Să vorbești despre Florentin Smarandache, trebuie să ai curajul unui luptător,care, când intră în ring, să fie sigur de victorie, ceea ce, în cazul de față, nu se poate. Florentin Smarandache nu poate fi învins !
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[257] viXra:1608.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:06:16

General Fusion Operators from Cox’s Postulates

Authors: Denis de Brucq
Comments: 20 Pages.

This chapter presents new important links between the most important theories developed in literature for managing uncertainties (i.e. probability, fuzzy sets and evidence theories).
Category: General Mathematics

[256] viXra:1608.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:08:08

Generalized Data Association for Multitarget Tracking in Clutter

Authors: A. Tchamova, T. Semerdjiev, P. Konstantinova, Jean Dezert
Comments: 23 Pages.

The objective of this chapter is to present an approach for target tracking in cluttered environment, which incorporates the advanced concept of generalized data (kinematics and attribute) association (GDA) to improve track maintenance performance in complicated situations (closely spaced and/or crossing targets), when kinematics data are insufficient for correct decision making. It uses Global Nearest Neighbour-like approach and Munkres algorithm to resolve the generalized association matrix.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[255] viXra:1608.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:09:26

Generalized Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rule Applied to Sonar Imagery and Radar Targets Classification

Authors: Arnaud Martin, Christophe Osswald
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this chapter, we present two applications in information fusion in order to evaluate the generalized proportional conflict redistribution rule presented in chapter [7]. Most of the time the combination rules are evaluated only on simple examples. We study here different combination rules and compare them in terms of decision on real data. Indeed, in real applications, we need a reliable decision and it is the final results that matter. Two applications are presented here: a fusion of human experts opinions on the kind of underwater sediments depicted on a sonar image and a classifier fusion for radar targets recognition.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[254] viXra:1608.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:10:34

Multitarget Tracking in Clutter based on Generalized Data Association: Performance Evaluation of Fusion Rules

Authors: J. Dezert, A. Tchamova, T. Semerdjiev, P. Konstantinova
Comments: 18 Pages.

The objective of this chapter is to present and compare different fusion rules which can be used for Generalized Data Association (GDA) for multitarget tracking (MTT) in clutter.
Category: General Mathematics

[253] viXra:1608.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:11:56

Neutrosophic Frameworks for Situation Analysis

Authors: Anne-Laure Jousselme, Patrick Maupin
Comments: 34 Pages.

In situation analysis, an agent observing a scene receives information from heterogeneous sources of information including for example remote sensing devices,human reports and databases.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[252] viXra:1608.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:13:14

On Conjunctive and Disjunctive Combination Rules of Evidence

Authors: Hongyan Sun, Mohamad Farooq
Comments: 31 Pages.

In this chapter, the Dempster-Shafer (DS) combination rule is examined based on the multi-valued mapping (MVM) and the product combination rule of multiple independent sources of information. The shortcomings in DS rule are correctly interpreted via the product combination rule of MVM. Based on these results, a new justification of the disjunctive rule is proposed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[251] viXra:1608.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:14:26

On the Smarandache LCM ratio

Authors: A. A. K. Majumdar
Comments: 8 Pages.

Two types of the Smarandache LCM ratio functions have been introduced by Murthy. Recently, the second type of the Smarandache LCM ratio function has been considered by Khainar, Vyawahare and Salunke. This paper establishes the relationships between these two forms of the Smarandache LCM ratio functions, and derives some reduction formulas and interesting properties in connection with these functions.
Category: General Mathematics

[250] viXra:1608.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:15:25

Power and Resource Aware Distributed Smart Fusion

Authors: Shubha Kadambe
Comments: 28 Pages.

Large distributed sensor networks (DSN) with disparate sensors, processors and wireless communication capabilities are being developed for a variety of commercial and military applications.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[249] viXra:1608.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:16:28

Pre-Boolean Algebra, Ordered DSmT and DSm Continuous Models

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 24 Pages.

When implementing the DSmT, a difficulty may arise from the possible huge dimension of hyper-power sets, which are indeed free structures. However, it is possible to reduce the dimension of these structures by involving logical constraints. In this chapter, the logical constraints will be related to a predefined order over the logical propositions.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[248] viXra:1608.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:17:22

Probabilized Logics Related to DSmT and Bayes Inference

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 28 Pages.

This work proposes a logical interpretation of the non hybrid Dezert Smarandache Theory (DSmT). As probability is deeply related to a classical semantic, it appears that DSmT relies on an alternative semantic of decision.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[247] viXra:1608.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:18:31

Reducing DSmT Hybrid Rule Complexity Through Optimization of the Calculation Algorithm

Authors: Pascal Djiknavorian, Dominic Grenier
Comments: 67 Pages.

The work covered here had for objective to write a MatlabTM program able to execute efficiently the DSmT hybrid rule of combination. As we know the DSmT hybrid rule of combination is highly complex to execute and requires high amounts of resources. We have introduced a novel way of understanding and treating the rule of combination and thus were able to develop a MatlabTM program that would avoid the high level of complexity and resources needs.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[246] viXra:1608.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:20:33

Scientia Magna

Authors: A. A. K. Majumdar
Comments: 59 Pages.

Scientia Magna is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles in all areas of mathematics and mathematical sciences. However, papers related to Smarandache’s problems will be highly preferred.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[245] viXra:1608.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:21:52

Scientia Magna, International Book Series (Vol. 11, No. 1)

Authors: Huaning Liu
Comments: 60 Pages.

Scientia Magna international book series publish original research articles in all areas of mathematics and mathematical sciences. However, papers related to Smarandache’s problems will be highly preferred.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[244] viXra:1608.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 11:06:29

Characteristics of a One-Dimensional Universe Spanned Between a Local and a Non-Local Observer

Authors: Erik A. Cerwen
Comments: 12 Pages.

Special and general relativity theories are critically evaluated regarding their contemporary role as a foundation for a cosmological world picture. It is argued that the rest frame, where all physical processes take place, is more important in this role than the various relativistic distortions of these processes seen by different remote observers. This idea was previously formulated quantitatively with numerical examples from the Bohr atom, quantum physics and astrophysical observations. The theory identifies an observer on one local spatial dimension via Lorentz transformations connected with a space-like separated perpendicular observer who is non-local and only measures time. It was shown that this geometrical construction, where each unit local length comes with a line increment, is relevant both to the atom and to the universe. For example, the Planck length obtained from the Bohr atom could be expressed in terms of the apparent local Hubble expansion rate and the latter substituted into the Schroedinger equation to yield a circular current surrounding a magnetic pole. The distant non-local observer sees the radius Lorentz-contracted at relativistic speeds ultimately so much as to be able to contribute dynamics to the local frame, which was exemplified numerically by the CMBR. Evidence was also presented indicating that the oscillating line increment is capable of contributing mass from vacuum via the resonance particles. Elaborating on the latter idea indicates energy contributions of around 80, 90 and 125 GeV embedded in a robustly defined geometrical framework that has relevance (and even precedence) also in classical physics. The apparent transition from one to several spatial dimensions is exemplified by reinterpreting Compton scattering. The emergence of additional spatial dimensions and tangible locality are also discussed in terms of the number pi which appears by applying the Wallis product to the 1-D universe. The presence of the number pi thus indicates the presence of local particles as further exemplified by the CMBR and Compton scattering. The mass of the 1-D universe is obtained by considering local as well as non-local contributions as prescribed on the basis of the geometry. This yields corrections to the ‘classical’ geometrised mass such that the universe’s baryon particle density visible on the local axis is close to its electron density. Several unrelated numerical approaches guided by the proposed geometry indicate that the particle density of a primordial universe is roughly 1/m^3 (1/m^2).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[243] viXra:1608.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 09:05:27

Additions to A Class of Position-Dependent Mass Liénard Differential Equations via a General Nonlocal Transformation

Authors: M. D. Monsia, J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou
Comments: 3 pages

This work aims to present some specific examples of the generalized mixed Liénard differential equation and position-dependent mass Liénard equation depicted in A Class of Position-Dependent Mass Liénard Differential Equations via a General Nonlocal Transformation.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[242] viXra:1608.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 04:07:10

Counter-Examples to Dempster’s Rule of Combination

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Mohammad Khoshnevisan
Comments: 18 Pages.

This chapter presents several classes of fusion problems which cannot be directly approached by the classical mathematical theory of evidence, also known as Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST), either because Shafer’s model for the frame of discernment is impossible to obtain, or just because Dempster’s rule of combination fails to provide coherent results (or no result at all). We present and discuss the potentiality of the DSmT combined with its classical (or hybrid) rule of combination to attack these infinite classes of fusion problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[241] viXra:1608.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 04:08:39

Fusion of Imprecise Beliefs

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this chapter one studies, within the DSmT framework, the case when the sources of information provide imprecise belief functions/masses, and we generalize the DSm rules of combination (classic or hybrid rules) from scalar fusion to sub-unitary interval fusion and, more generally, to any set of sub-unitary interval fusion. This work generalizes previous works available in literature which appear limited to IBS (Interval-valued Belief Structures) in the Transferable Belief Model framework. Numerical didactic examples of these new DSm fusion rules for dealing with imprecise information are also presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[240] viXra:1608.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 04:09:58

Cercurile Apollonius de Rangul K

Authors: Ion P ATRASCU, Florentin SMARANDACHE
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, the notion of Apollonius circle of rank k is introduced and a number of results related to the classical Apollonius circles are generalized.
Category: General Mathematics

[239] viXra:1608.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 04:12:13

Mathematical Rebuses

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

This short paper presents mathematical rebuses.
Category: General Mathematics

[238] viXra:1608.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 04:14:00

On Blackman’s Data Association Problem

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Albena Tchamova
Comments: 13 Pages.

Modern multitarget-multisensor tracking systems involve the development of reliable methods for the data association and the fusion of multiple sensor information, and more specifically the partitioning of observations into tracks. This chapter discusses and compares the application of Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and the Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) methods to the fusion of multiple sensor attributes for target identification purpose. We focus our attention on the paradoxical Blackman’s association problem and propose several approaches to outperform Blackman’s solution. We clarify some preconceived ideas about the use of degree of conflict between sources as potential criterion for partitioning evidences.
Category: General Mathematics

[237] viXra:1608.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 04:17:08

Partial Ordering on Hyper-Power Sets

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this chapter, we examine several issues for ordering or partially ordering elements of hyper-power sets involved in the DSmT. We will show the benefit of some of these issues to obtain a nice and interesting structure of matrix representation of belief functions.
Category: General Mathematics

[236] viXra:1608.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 04:18:43

Presentation of DSmT

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 34 Pages.

This chapter presents a general overview and foundations of the DSmT, i.e. the recent theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning developed by the authors, specially for the static or dynamic fusion of information arising from several independent but potentially highly conflicting, uncertain and imprecise sources of evidence. We introduce and justify here the basis of the DSmT framework with respect to the Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST), a mathematical theory of evidence developed in 1976 by Glenn Shafer. We present the DSm combination rules and provide some simple illustrative examples and comparisons with other main rules of combination available in the literature for the combination of information for simple fusion problems. Detailed presentations on recent advances and applications of DSmT are presented in the next chapters of this book.
Category: General Mathematics

[235] viXra:1608.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 04:19:57

The Generation of Hyper-Power Sets

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages.

The development of DSmT is based on the notion of Dedekind’s lattice, called also hyper-power set in the DSmT framework, on which is defined the general basic belief assignments to be combined. In this chapter, we explain the structure of the hyper-power set, give some examples of hyper-power sets and show how they can be generated from isotone Boolean functions. We also show the interest to work with the hyper-power set rather than the power set of the refined frame of discernment in terms of complexity.
Category: General Mathematics

[234] viXra:1608.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 19:38:38

The Sun is a Planet

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Masses, orbits and definitions of stars change as they evolve with us.
Category: Astrophysics

[233] viXra:1608.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 23:28:57

Evaluation of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Selenium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, and its deficiency in the humans leads to increase the risk of various diseases, such as cancer and heart diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of the selenium powder. The selenium powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treated. The Control part was remained as untreated and treated part received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Both control and treated selenium samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis – differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRD data showed that biofield energy treatment has slightly altered the lattice parameter (0.07%), unit cell volume (0.15%), density (-0.14%), atomic weight (0.15%), and nuclear charge per unit volume (-0.21%) in the treated selenium powder as compared to the control. The crystallite size of the treated selenium powder was reduced considerably from 106.98 nm (control) to 47.55 nm. The thermal analysis study showed that the latent heat of fusion was 64.61 J/g in the control, which changed to 68.98, 52.70, 49.71 and 72.47 J/g in the treated T1, T2, T3, and T4 samples respectively. However, the melting temperature did not show any considerable change in the treated selenium samples as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectra showed the absorption peak at 526 and 461 cm-1, which corresponding to metal oxide bonding vibration in the control and treated selenium powder respectively. Hence, overall data suggest that, the biofield energy treatment considerably altered the physical and thermal properties of selenium powder. Therefore, biofield energy treatment could make selenium even more useful nutrient in human body.
Category: Biochemistry

[232] viXra:1608.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 23:30:28

Evaluation of Atomic, Physical, and Thermal Properties of Bismuth Oxide Powder: An Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) is known for its application in several industries such as solid oxide fuel cells, optoelectronics, gas sensors and optical coatings. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the atomic, physical, and thermal properties of Bi2O3. The Bi2O3 powder was equally divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to biofield energy treatment. After that, both control and treated samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The XRD data exhibited that the biofield treatment has altered the lattice parameter (-0.19%), unit cell volume (-0.58%), density (0.59%), and molecular weight (-0.57%) of the treated sample as compared to the control. The crystallite size was significantly increased by 25% in treated sample as compared to the control. Furthermore, TGA analysis showed that control and treated samples were thermally stable upto tested temperature of 831°C. Besides, the FT-IR analysis did not show any significant change in absorption wavenumber in the treated sample as compared to the control. The ESR study revealed that g-factor was increased by 13.86% in the treated sample as compared to the control. Thus, above data suggested that biofield energy treatment has altered the atomic and physical properties of Bi2O3. Therefore, the biofield treated Bi2O3 could be more useful in solid oxide fuel cell industries.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[231] viXra:1608.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 23:31:57

Biochemical Differentiation and Molecular Characterization of Biofield Treated Vibrio Parahaemolyticus

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The recent emergence of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a pandemic. For the safety concern of seafood, consumer monitoring of this organism in seafood is very much essential. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on [ATCC-17802] strain of V. parahaemolyticus for its biochemical characteristics, biotype and 16S rDNA analysis. The lyophilized strain of V. parahaemolyticus was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, whereas, Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 142 (Study I). After retreatment of Gr. IIB on day 142 (Study II), the sample was divided into three separate tubes. The tubes first, second and third were analyzed on day 5, 10, and 15, respectively. The biochemical reaction and biotyping were performed using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of V. parahaemolyticus with other bacterial species after the treatment. The results of biochemical reactions were altered 24.24%, out of thirty-three in the treated groups with respect to the control. Moreover, negative (-) reaction of urea was changed to positive (+) in the revived treated Gr. IIB, Study II on day 15 as compared to the control. Besides, biotype number was substantially changed in all the treated groups as compared to the control. However, change in organisms were reported in Gr. IIA on day 10 and in Gr. IIB; Study II on day 5 as Shewanella putrefaciens and Moraxella/Psychrobacter spp., respectively with respect to the control i.e. Vibrio sp. SF. 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified sample in this experiment was V. parahaemolyticus after biofield treatment, and the nearest homolog genus-species was observed as Vibrio natriegens with 98% gene identity. The results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment showed an alteration in biochemical reaction pattern and biotype number on the strain of V. parahaemolyticus.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[230] viXra:1608.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 23:33:36

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Chemical and Thermal Properties of Cellulose and Cellulose Acetate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cellulose being an excellent biopolymer has cemented its place firmly in many industries as a coating material, textile, composites, and biomaterial applications. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of biofield treatment on physicochemical properties of cellulose and cellulose acetate. The cellulose and cellulose acetate were exposed to biofield and further the chemical and thermal properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction study asserted that the biofield treatment did affect the crystalline nature of cellulose. The percentage of crystallite size was found increased significantly in treated cellulose by 159.83%, as compared to control sample. This showed that biofield treatment was changing the crystalline nature of treated cellulose. However treated cellulose acetate showed a reduction in crystallite size (-17.38%) as compared to control sample. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) of treated cellulose showed no improvement in melting temperature as compared to control sample. Contrarily cellulose acetate showed significant improvement in melting temperature peak at 351.91ºC as compared to control (344ºC) polymer. Moreover percentage change in latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was calculated from the DSC thermogram of both treated and control polymers. A significant increase in percentage ΔH of both treated cellulose (59.09%) and cellulose acetate (105.79%) polymers indicated that biofield treatment enhanced the thermal stability of the treated polymers. CHNSO analysis revealed a significant change in percentage hydrogen and oxygen of treated cellulose (%H-17.77, %O-16.89) and cellulose acetate (%H-5.67, %O-13.41). Though minimal change was observed in carbon percentage of both treated cellulose (0.29%) and cellulose acetate (0.39%) polymers as compared to their respective control samples. Thermo gravimetric analysis and Differential thermo gravimetric (TGA-DTG) analysis of treated cellulose acetate (353ºC) showed increased maximum thermal decomposition temperature as compared to control polymer (351ºC). This showed the higher thermal stability of the treated cellulose acetate polymer; although the maximum thermal decomposition temperature of treated cellulose (248ºC) was decreased as compared to control cellulose (321ºC). These outcomes confirmed that biofield treatment has changed the physicochemical properties of the cellulose polymers.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[229] viXra:1608.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 01:22:17

Quantum Merge of Light and Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A method created at Rice University closes the gap between light and matter and may help advance technologies like quantum computers and communications. [18] Constructing quantum computers and other quantum devices requires the ability to leverage quantum properties such as superposition and entanglement – but these effects are fragile and therefore hard to maintain. Recently, scientists at Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris demonstrated a novel method for controlling the quantum properties of light by probing a superconducting circuit in a cavity with microwave photons to control the energy levels that photon quanta can occupy. [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[228] viXra:1608.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-03 19:20:21

Hamiltonian Paths in Graphs

Authors: Atul Mehta
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, we explore the connections between graphs and Turing machines. A method to construct Turing machines from a general undirected graph is provided. Determining whether a Hamiltonian cycle does exist is now shown to be equivalent to solving the halting problem. A modified version of Turing machines is now developed to solve certain classes of computational problems.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[227] viXra:1608.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 04:03:04

A Generalized Pignistic Transformation

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Milan Daniel
Comments: 12 Pages.

This chapter introduces a generalized pignistic transformation (GPT)developed in the DSmT framework as a tool for decision-making at the pignistic level. The GPT allows to construct quite easily a subjective probability measure from any generalized basic belief assignment provided by any corpus of evidence. We focus our presentation on the 3D case and we provide the full result obtained by the proposed GPT and its validation drawn from the probability theory.
Category: General Mathematics

[226] viXra:1608.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 04:05:22

Combination of Beliefs on Hybrid DSm Models

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 44 Pages.

This chapter presents a general method for combining uncertain and paradoxical (i.e. highly conflicting) sources of evidence for a wide class of fusion problems. From the foundations of the DSmT we show how the DSm rule of combination can be extended to take into account all possible integrity constraints (if any) of the problem under consideration due to the true nature of elements/concepts involved into it. We show how Shafer’s model can be considered as a specific hybrid DSm model and can be easily handled by the DSmT and one presents here a new efficient alternative to Dempster’s rule of combination, following steps of previous researchers towards this quest. Several simple didactic examples are also provided to show the efficiency and the generality of the approach proposed in this work.
Category: General Mathematics

[225] viXra:1608.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-14 11:37:24

Spaces and Velocities

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 7 Pages.

Space is what matter uses as space. Space is not dependent on its texture. It can be made out of matter or non-matter. Time is one characteristic of the given space. Using this new approach, we can find substantial spaces that exist in reality, but we have never considered these as spaces. In these spaces the faster-than-light communication is reality. This paper is based on space-matter theory, but it can be understood without knowing this. Space-matter theory describes how space and matter create time. So matter that appears as space appears as time, too. This conclusion is very new, but it is an important part of the space-matter theory.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[224] viXra:1608.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 10:01:55

Weak Tensor Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

For the first time in over half a century, the search for a particular type of interaction, known as a tensor interaction, in nuclear beta decay has been advanced. [5] In fact, one of the biggest disagreements involves one of the most common particles in the Universe: the neutron. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[223] viXra:1608.0245 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-14 11:43:22

Four Mysteries Solved: Double-Slit, Spooky Action, Tunneling, and Accelerating Universe

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 25 Pages.

There are more phenomena in quantum mechanics and in cosmology that we cannot imagine how they work. The four most known phenomena are the result of the double-slit experiment, the spooky action at a distance (the working method of the non-local correlation in quantum entanglement), how the tunneling works, and why the Universe accelerates. These phenomena cannot be explained in the system of the space-time model. We need a new model with a new axiom. Space-matter theory changes the axiom of space and time. Space waves. We can express spatial distances, time units and energy with space waves. Space is what the matter senses as space. Time is one characteristic of space waves. Using this new approach, we can solve our old mysteries.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[222] viXra:1608.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 11:03:47

Generalized Solutions of the Klein-Gordon Equation and Some Relativistic Equations in a Class of Tempered Distribotions (In Polish)

Authors: M.W.Kalinowski
Comments: 178 Pages. the paper is written in polish

The Cauchy initial value problem for the Klein-Gordon equation has been considered in a class of tempered distributions using a notion of a section of a distribution with a hyperplane. We consider also different linear PDE derivable from Klein-Gordon equation as Dirac, Proca ,Weyl and all the most important wave equations of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. We consider also Maxwell equations.We consider also classical Cauchy initial value problem for those equations using obtained generalized results e.g. for Maxwell equations.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[221] viXra:1608.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 11:23:27

Artificial Atom

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[220] viXra:1608.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 08:03:48

Capturing Economic Rent as Public Revenue

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 5 Pages.

A Geo-Economic Point of View
Category: Social Science

[219] viXra:1608.0241 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-23 04:07:25

Tomorrow's Computer Science Builds Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 20 Pages. CITE: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Tomorrow's Computer Science Makes Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe.docx. figshare. - https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3544994.v2 - Retrieved: 08 36, Aug 23, 2016 (GMT)

uter Science Builds Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe Author – Rodney Bartlett Abstract - Listening to Brian Cox and Dr. Karl talking on triple j (http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/media/s4513719.htm), the thing that most interested me was the subject "the opposite of gravity". By viewing reality as entanglement with the topological extension of a computer-simulated universe, comments can be made about: 1) the nature of gravity, and so-called antigravity being a result of the Complex Number Plane; 2) how this explanation of antigravity could explain dark energy and dark matter; 3) universal expansion being replaced by the closely related, though more precise, extension into space-time of binary digits and Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles; 4) a non-supernatural, humanistic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[218] viXra:1608.0240 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-12 11:24:12

Combinatorial Preon Model for Matter and Unification

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 11 Pages. Minor changes. Published in Open Access Library Journal, 3:e3032.- http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103032

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on constituents defined by mass, spin and charge. The preons form a finite combinatorial system for the standard model fermions. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can be deduced from the preon bound states. By applying the area eigenvalues of loop quantum gravity to black hole preons one gets a preon mass spectrum starting from zero. Gravitational baryon number non-conservation mechanism is obtained. Argument is given for unified field theory be based only on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions of preons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[217] viXra:1608.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 05:05:24

Quantum Properties of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Constructing quantum computers and other quantum devices requires the ability to leverage quantum properties such as superposition and entanglement – but these effects are fragile and therefore hard to maintain. Recently, scientists at Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris demonstrated a novel method for controlling the quantum properties of light by probing a superconducting circuit in a cavity with microwave photons to control the energy levels that photon quanta can occupy. [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[216] viXra:1608.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 23:30:26

Agronomic Characteristics, Growth Analysis, and Yield Response of Biofield Treated Mustard, Cowpea, Horse Gram, and Groundnuts

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts are the seasonal pulse crops used as food and fodder in many regions of the world. In the present study, the impact of biofield energy treatment on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts were studied with respect to overall growth, yield, and its related yield attributes. Seeds of each crop was selected and divided in two groups, i.e. control and treated. The treated group of each seed crops was subjected to Mr. Trivedi biofield energy treatment, and were plotted in the separate fields. The plot with untreated seeds were provided with all the precautionary measures such as pesticides, fungicides and organic additives, while no such measures were taken in the plot with treated seeds. Both group of crops were further analyzed and compared for growth, yield, and yield attributes. Further, the effect of biofield treatment was also evaluated on horse gram using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics. The results suggest that the percentage increase in yield was maximum in mustard (500%), followed by horse gram (105%), cow pea (52%), and groundnut (44%) as compared with their control. However, improved plant height, overall growth, yield of seeds, plants were free from any diseases and pest were observed in treated group as compared with its respective control. RAPD analysis using eight primers results in polymorphism and the percentage of true polymorphism observed between control and treated samples of horse gram seed sample with an average value of 53%. The overall results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts, which might be used as a better alternative approach to increase the yield of crop as compared with the synthetic chemicals.
Category: Biochemistry

[215] viXra:1608.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 23:32:35

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Thermal, and Spectral Properties of SFRE 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

SFRE 199-1 medium (SFRE-M) is important mammalian cell culture medium, used for the culture of primary cells of mammals such as baboon kidney cells. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. The study was accomplished in two groups; one was set as control while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated group. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were analyzed using various analytical techniques. The CHNO analysis showed about 2.16, 4.87, and 5.89% decrease in percent contents of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, respectively; while 9.49% increase in nitrogen contents of treated sample as compared to the control. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed 7.23% decrease in crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis showed the increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation by 19.61% in treated sample with respect to the control. The control sample showed the 48.63% weight loss during the thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) while the treated sample showed only 13.62% weight loss during the Tmax. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed the 62.58% increase in the latent heat of fusion of treated sample with respect to the control sample. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum of treated SFRE-M showed the alteration in the wavenumber of C-O, C-N and C-H vibrations in the treated sample as compared to the control. Altogether, the XRD, TGA-DTG, DSC, and FT-IR analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical, thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. The treated SFRE-M was more thermal stable than the control SFRE-M and can be used as the better culture media for mammalian cell culture.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[214] viXra:1608.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 23:33:48

Physical, Atomic and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Lithium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Lithium has gained extensive attention in medical science due to mood stabilizing activity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, atomic, and thermal properties of lithium powder. The lithium powder was divided into two parts i.e., control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated lithium powder samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD data showed that lattice parameter, unit cell volume, density, atomic weight, and nuclear charge per unit volume of lithium were altered after biofield treatment. The crystallite size of treated lithium was increased by 75% as compared to control. DSC analysis exhibited an increase in melting temperature of treated lithium powder upto 11.2% as compared to control. TGA-DTA analysis result showed that oxidation temperature, which found after melting point, was reduced upto 285.21°C in treated lithium as compared to control (358.96°C). Besides, SEM images of control and treated lithium samples showed the agglomerated micro particles. Moreover, FT-IR analysis data showed an alteration in absorption band (416→449 cm-1) in treated lithium sample after biofield treatment as compared to control. Overall, data suggested that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical, atomic, and thermal properties of lithium powder.
Category: Biochemistry

[213] viXra:1608.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 23:36:41

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 2-Aminopyridine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

2-Aminopyridine is an important compound, which is used as intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. The present work was aimed to assess the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral characteristics of 2-AP. The work was accomplished by dividing the sample in two parts i.e. one part was remained untreated, and another part had received biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the samples were analyzed using various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, ultra violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD analysis revealed a decrease in crystallite size of the treated sample (91.80 nm) as compared to the control sample (97.99 nm). Additionally, the result showed an increase in Bragg’s angle (2θ) of the treated sample as compared to the control. The DSC and Differential thermal analysis analysis showed an increase in melting temperature of the treated 2-AP with respect to the control. Moreover, the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample was increased by 3.08%. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (Tonset), and maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated 2-AP as compared to the control sample. Additionally, the treated sample showed a reduction in weight loss as compared with the control indicating higher thermal stability of the sample. UV-visible analysis showed no changes in the absorption peak of the treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectroscopic results showed downward shifting of C-H stretching vibration 2991→2955 cm-1 in treated sample with respect to the control.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[212] viXra:1608.0234 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-06 00:13:10

Infinitudinal Complexification

Authors: Jonathan Tooker
Comments: 14 Pages. Five figure. Fixed a big error around equation (25)

To the undoubted displeasure of very many detractors, this research program has heretofore focused on aspects of physics so fundamental that many of said detractors do not even acknowledge the program as physics. This paper responds to detractors' criticisms by continuing the program in the same direction and style as earlier work. We present one new quantitative result regarding the big bang and we find a particularly nice topic from fluid dynamics for qualitative treatment. A few other topics are discussed and we present quantitative results regarding the fine structure constant and the differential operator form of $\hat{M}^3$. This paper is somewhat reiterative as it calls attention to directions for further inquiry and continues to leave the hashing out of certain details to either a later effort or the eventual publication of results by those who have already hashed it out, possibly several years ago by now.
Category: Quantum Physics

[211] viXra:1608.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 14:31:45

Produit Tensoriel de Matrices en Théorie de Dirac

Authors: Christian Rakotonirina
Comments: 94 Pages. in French

Properties of tensor product of matrices have been constructed. These properties are used to study factorization by tensor product of matrices of some real Clifford algebras of square matrices. Applying these factorizations, we have found a way to get , from the Pauli matrices, twelve systems and only twelve. Each of them is formed of four matrices coefficients of a Dirac equation. We have looked for solutions of these twelve equations for free fundamental fermions. These twelve equations can be constructed by quantification of the relativistic energy-momentum relation. We have introduced a notion that we call ‘’equivalence of particles’’. Then, the equivalence between free fundamental fermions have been studied. Finally, we have proved equivalence between the Dirac equation and the Hestenes equation.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[210] viXra:1608.0231 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-23 11:04:55

Space Time and Hilbert Space

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper combines space - time and the Hilbert space in one invariant interval
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[209] viXra:1608.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 11:20:24

Computer Information Library Clusters

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 5 Pages.

Based on creating generalized and hybrid set and library with neutrosophy and quad-stage method, this paper presents the concept of "computer information library clusters" (CILC). There are various ways and means to form CILC. For example, CILC can be considered as the "total-library", and consists of several "sub-libraries". As another example, in CILC, a "total-library" can be set up, and a number of "sub-libraries" are side by side with the "total-library". Specially, for CILC, the operation functions can be added; for example, according to "natural science computer information library clusters" (natural science CILC), and applying "variation principle of library (or sub-library)", “partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far” with different degrees can be established. Referring to the concept of “natural science CILC”, the concepts of “social science CILC”, “natural science and social science CILC”, and the like, can be presented. While, referreing to the concept of “computer information library clusters”, the concepts of “computer and non-computer information library clusters”, “earth information library clusters”, “solar system information library clusters”, “Milky Way galaxy information library clusters”, “universe information library clusters”, and the like, can be presented.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[208] viXra:1608.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 11:27:59

One Dimensional Method for Clifford Analysis

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 12 Pages.

Unlike Dirac operator method, this paper discusses one dimensional method for Clifford analysis, namely the n-dimensional problem is simplified into n problems of one dimension, even reduced to only one problem of one dimension. For example, the typhoon track is a two-dimensional problem related to latitude and longitude, but as forecasting typhoon track, it can be simplified into two problems of one dimension: forecasting longitude and forecasting latitude respectively. Again, the stock index is effected by various factors, however as forecasting stock index we may assume that it is only a function of time. In order to improve the effect of one dimensional method, we can change finding the solution suitable for whole space or a domain, into finding the solution suitable for one point only with single point method. As applying one dimensional method, the fractal model is very effective.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[207] viXra:1608.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 08:15:20

Neutrinos and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Three distinguished particle physicists have joined the lab over the past months to pursue research on two particularly mysterious forms of matter: neutrinos and dark matter. [10] New experimental results show a difference in the way neutrinos and antineutrinos behave, which could explain why matter persists over antimatter. [9] Over the past few years, multiple neutrino experiments have detected hints for leptonic charge parity (CP) violation—a finding that could help explain why the universe is made of matter and not antimatter. So far, matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained by any physics theory and is one of the biggest unsolved problems in cosmology. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Astrophysics

[206] viXra:1608.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 06:34:30

Generally Covariant Quantum Theory: Gravitons.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 9 Pages.

We nalize the project initiated in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10] by studying graviton theory in our setting. Given the results in [1, 3, 9, 10], there is not so much left to accomplish and we start by deepening our understanding of some points left open in [1, 10]. Perturbative niteness of the theory follows ad-verbatim from the analysis in [3, 9] and we do not bother here about writing it down explicitly. Rather, our aim is to provide for a couple of new physical and mathematical insights regarding the genesis of the structure of the quantal graviton theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[205] viXra:1608.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 18:47:15

A Class of Position-Dependent Mass Liénard Differential Equations Via a General Nonlocal Transformation

Authors: M. D. Monsia, J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou
Comments: 2 pages

The objective, in this paper, consists of mapping the damped linear harmonic oscillator equation onto a class of Liénard nonlinear differential equations that incorporates the well known position dependent mass Mathews-Lakshmanan oscillator equations as specific examples through a general nonlocal transformation.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[204] viXra:1608.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 10:51:22

Dynamics of Moving Bodies

Authors: Pranoy Ghosh
Comments: Pages.

How would Newtonian formulation look, if he lived in modern era? This paper introduces definition of relativistic mass and force to derive Newtonian equations for motion from Special Theory of Relativity. Although new mathematical definitions are introduced, conservation of energy and linear momentum are achieved. We now hold in our hands, equations from classical mechanics that obey Lorentz transforms. So Newtonian mechanics has overcome its limitation. Calculus of several variables is the mathematical tool.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[203] viXra:1608.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 12:45:56

Search for Dynamical Origin of Social Networks

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 33 Pages.

The challenge of this work is to re-define the concept of intelligent agent as a building block of social networks by presenting it as a physical particle with additional non-Newtonian properties. The proposed model of an intelligent agent described by a system of ODE coupled with their Liouville equation has been introduced and discussed. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as superposition, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that the proposed model can be linked to mathematical models of livings as well as to models of AI. The model is presented in two modifications. The first one is illustrated by the discovery of a stochastic attractor approached by the social network; as an application, it was demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to the corresponding system of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. It was emphasized that evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying micro- dynamics supports a “violent reputation” of the power-law statistics. The second modification of the model of social network associated with a decision-making process and applied to solution of NP-complete problems known as being unsolvable neither by classical nor by quantum algorithms. The approach is illustrated by solving a search in unsorted database in polynomial time by resonance between external force representing the address of a required item and the response representing the location of this item.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[202] viXra:1608.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 07:45:46

Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Aircraft Wing with Assorted Flap Angles at Cruising Speed

Authors: G Sai Rahul, A Dilipy, Rajeev Raushanz
Comments: 9 Pages.

An aircraft wing is actually manufactured by the composite materials with the fibre angled in every ply aligned in multi- direction. Dissimilar thickness of the airfoil and layer directions were almost taken to study the result of bending-torsion. These laminated features are usually designed using the different layers, sequence of stacking, geometrical and mechanical properties. Finite number of layers can be integrated to form many laminates, The wing loading was due to its self-weight and weight of other propulsion systems or due to acceleration due to gravity was deliberated and the deflection over here can be found, this actually studied by aero elasticity. The aircraft wing is severely affected by the loads on along wing direction or vertical direction.NACA 2412 airfoil was taken for designing wing, and it was scaled through a profile with a calculated wingspan to obtain wing model. FLUENT and CFX were used for computational fluid dynamic analysis to determine the lift and drag for wing during zero degreed flaps and angled flaps. By this we intend to show how fast retraction flaps effects the drag and lift of aircraft at cruising speed.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[201] viXra:1608.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 04:31:53

Analysis of Physical, Thermal, and Structural Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Molybdenum Dioxide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Molybdenum dioxide (MoO2) is known for its catalytic activity toward reforming hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on physical, thermal, and structural properties in MoO2. The MoO2 powder sample was divided into two parts, one part was remained as untreated, called as control, while the other part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and called as treated. Both control and treated samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD data exhibited that the biofield treatment has altered the lattice parameters, unit cell volume, density and molecular weight of the treated sample as compared to the control. The TGA study revealed that the onset temperature of thermal degradation of MoO2 was reduced from 702.87°C to 691.92°C. Besides, the FT-IR spectra exhibited that the absorption band corresponding to Mo=O stretching vibration was shifted to lower wavenumber i.e. 975 cm-1 (control) to 970 cm-1 in treated sample. Hence, above results suggested that biofield energy treatment has altered the physical, thermal, and structural properties in MoO2 powder. Therefore, the biofield treatment could be applied to modify the catalytic properties of MoO2 in pharmaceutical industries.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[200] viXra:1608.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 04:33:56

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated Date Palm Callus Initiation Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

The date palm is mainly cultivated for the production of sweet fruit. Date palm callus initiation medium (DPCIM) is used for plant tissue culture applications. The present work is intended to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of the DPCIM. The control and treated DPCIM were evaluated by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, particle size analyzer (PSA), surface area analyzer and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD analysis revealed a decrease in intensity of XRD peaks of the treated sample as compared to the control. The crystallite size of the treated DPCIM (81.02 nm) was decreased with respect to the control sample (84.99 nm). The DSC analysis showed a slight decrease in melting temperature of the treated sample. Additionally, the latent heat of fusion of treated sample was changed by 45.66% as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset degradation temperature of the treated sample (182ºC) as compared to the control sample (142ºC). This indicated the increase in thermal stability of the treated DPCIM. PSA results demonstrated an increase in average particle size (d50) and size showed by 99% of particles (d99) by 19.2 and 40.4%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The surface area analyzer showed a decrease in surface area of treated DPCIM by 13.4%, which was well supported by the particle size results. UV spectra of the treated sample showed the disappearance of absorption peak 261 nm in treated sample as compared to the control. Overall, the result showed that biofield energy treatment has a paramount influence on physical, thermal and spectral properties of DPCIM. Therefore, it is assumed that biofield treated DPCIM could be used as a better medium for plant tissue culture applications.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[199] viXra:1608.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 04:35:36

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Protose

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Protose is the enzyme digest of mixed proteins that is recommended for culture media, bulk production of enzymes, antibiotics, toxins, veterinary preparations, etc. This study was proposed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of protose. The study was achieved in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Finally, both the control and treated samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques. The X-ray diffractograms (XRD) of control and treated samples showed the halo patterns peak that suggested the amorphous nature of both the samples of protose. The particle size analysis showed about 12.68% and 90.94 increase in the average particle size (d50) and d99 (particle size below which 99% particles are present) of treated protose with respect to the control. The surface area analysis revealed the 4.96% decrease in the surface area of treated sample as compared to the control sample. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed the 22.49% increase in the latent heat of fusion of treated sample as compared to the control. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis showed increase in maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) by 5.02% in treated sample as compared to the control. The increase in Tmax might be correlated with increased thermal stability of treated sample as compared to the control. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study showed the alteration in the vibrational frequency of functional groups like N-H, C-H, and S=O of treated protose as compared to the control sample. Based on the overall analytical results, it is concluded that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on the physicochemical and spectral properties of protose. As a result, the treated protose might be more effective as a culture medium than the corresponding control.
Category: Biochemistry

[198] viXra:1608.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 04:37:07

Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Barium Calcium Tungsten Oxide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Barium calcium tungsten oxide (Ba2CaWO6) is known for its double perovskite-type crystal structure. The present study was designed to see the effect of biofield energy treatment on physical, atomic, and structural properties of Ba2CaWO6. In this study, Ba2CaWO6 powder sample was divided into two parts, one part was remained as untreated, denoted as control, while the other part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated. After that, the control and treated samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed that the crystallite size was decreased by 20% in the treated Ba2CaWO6 sample as compared to the control. The surface area of treated Ba2CaWO6 was increased by 9.68% as compared to the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis exhibited that the absorbance band corresponding to stretching vibration of W-O bond was shifted to higher wavenumber from 665 cm-1 (control) to 673 cm-1 after biofield energy treatment. The ESR spectra showed that the signal width and height were decreased by 88.9 and 90.7% in treated Ba2CaWO6 sample as compared to the control. Therefore, above result revealed that biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on the physical and structural properties of Ba2CaWO6.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[197] viXra:1608.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 04:38:52

Analysis of Genetic Diversity Using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers and Growth Regulator Response in Biofield Treated Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Cotton is the most important crop for the production of fiber that plays a key role in economic and social affairs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on cotton seeds regarding its growth, germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) concentration, indole acetic acid (IAA) content and DNA fingerprinting using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for polymorphism analysis. The seeds of cotton cv. Stoneville-2 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was obtained from DNA Land Marks Inc., Canada and divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated, while the other was subjected to Mr. Trivedi biofield energy and referred as treated sample. The growth-germination of cotton seedling data showed higher germination (82%) in biofield treated seeds as compared to the control (68%). The alterations in length of shoot and root of cotton seedling was reported in the treated sample with respect to untreated seeds. However, the endogenous level of GSH in the leaves of treated cotton was increased by 27.68% as compared to the untreated sample, which may suggest an improved immunity of cotton plant. Further, the plant growth regulatory constituent i.e. IAA concentration was increased by 7.39%, as compared with the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data, showed polymorphism (4%) between treated and untreated samples of cotton. The overall results suggest that the biofield energy treatment on cotton seeds, results in improved overall growth of plant, increase germination rate, GSH and IAA concentration were increased. The study assumed that biofield energy treatment on cotton seeds would be more useful for the production of cotton fiber.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[196] viXra:1608.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 21:41:57

Simplified Solutions of the CLP and CCP Limiting Cases of the Problem of Apollonius via Vector Rotations using Geometric Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 10 Pages.

The new solutions presented herein for the CLP and CCP limiting cases of the Problem of Apollonius are much shorter and more easily understood than those provided by the same author in References 1 and 2. These improvements result from (1) a better selection of angle relationships as a starting point for the solution process; and (2) better use of GA identities to avoid forming troublesome combinations of terms within the resulting equations.
Category: Geometry

[195] viXra:1608.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 07:19:51

Theory of Gravity: a Classical Field Approach in Curved Space-Time

Authors: Alexey N. Bulyuk
Comments: 17 Pages.

A new approach to the theory of gravity is proposed. A second-rank tensor field is chosen to be the potential of the gravitational field. The gravitational field is related to the metric tensor of space--time, and all phenomena occur in curved space--time. A variational principle is established, and the gravitational field equations are derived. The energy--momentum density tensor of the gravitational field and its conservation law are obtained. The source of the gravitational field is the energy--momentum density of all kinds of matter, including the gravitational field itself. A Lagrangian of the gravitational field is proposed that correctly describes local observable gravitational phenomena in the second-order approximation. The energy density of the gravitational field is positive. Estimates are obtained for the gravitational energy defect, the difference between the inertial and gravitational masses of a body, and the effect of the external gravitational field on the mass of a body. The new approach to the description of the gravitational field and its energy provides additional incentives search possibilities of experimental verification of the phenomena of gravitation in strong fields.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[194] viXra:1608.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 09:28:23

Quantum Network of Atomic Clocks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Physicists have proposed a method for entangling hundreds of atoms, and then entangling a dozen or so groups of these hundreds of atoms, resulting in a quantum network of thousands of entangled atoms. Since small bundles of these entangled groups can function as atomic clocks, this design is the first detailed proposal for a quantum network of atomic clocks. [16] RMIT quantum computing researchers have developed and demonstrated a method capable of efficiently detecting high-dimensional entanglement. [15] More than 200 beryllium ions have been entangled in a record-breaking experiment done by researchers at NIST in the US. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[193] viXra:1608.0213 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-20 07:24:09

Desesperación Relativista 1

Authors: Emiro Díez Saldarriaga
Comments: 7 Pages.

Nuevo enfoque de la famosa paradoja de los gemelos en el espacio tiempo de Minkowski.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[192] viXra:1608.0212 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-25 08:42:04

Desesperación Relativista 2

Authors: Emiro Díez Saldarriaga
Comments: 10 Pages.

La paradoja del tren y el túnel, explicando la imposibilidad de que exista simetría física en varios sistemas de referencia.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[191] viXra:1608.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:09:46

Quantization of Photonic Energy and Photonic Wave Length

Authors: Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Assuming that space is quantized by Planck-length, we show that Mass and Velocity of elementary particles as well as photonic energy must be also quantized. Furthermore, since the photonic energy is quantized it is a type of discrete function and might be measured from observations of energetic cosmological photonic radiations or even with the Large Hadron Collider in CERN (LHC). Such successful measurements can prove that space is quantized. Once assuming that space-time is quantized it obviously raises the question what is there between the Planck-length quanta pieces of space. We suggest a new theory claiming that between the quantum cells there are extra non local grid like dimensions that divide space and connect all the pieces together. These non-local new dimensions might explain today's Quantum Theory's non-local phenomena’s like Schrodinger’s probability wave instant collapse all over space, entanglement, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[190] viXra:1608.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:05:44

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 2,6-Dichlorophenol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

2,6-Dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) is a compound used for the synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceutical agents. The present work is intended to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of the 2,6-DCP. The control and treated 2,6-DCP were characterized by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD results showed the increase in crystallite size of treated sample by 28.94% as compared to the control sample. However, the intensity of the XRD peaks of treated 2,6-DCP were diminished as compared to the control sample. The DTA analysis showed a slight increase in melting temperature of the treated sample. Although, the latent heat of fusion of the treated 2,6-DCP was changed substantially by 28% with respect to the control sample. The maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated 2,6-DCP was decreased slightly in comparison with the control. The FT-IR analysis showed a shift in C=C stretching peak from 1464→1473 cm-1 in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. However, the UV-vis analysis showed no changes in absorption peaks of treated 2,6-DCP with respect to the control sample. Overall, the result showed a significant effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 2,6-DCP. It is assumed that increase in crystallite size and melting temperature of the biofield energy treated 2,6-DCP could alleviate its reaction rate that might be a good prospect for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds.
Category: Chemistry

[189] viXra:1608.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:08:08

Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Treated Orchid Maintenance/Replate Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Orchids are used worldwide for indoor decoration, vanilla production, and beverage preparation. They are also reported for their therapeutic efficacy in brain-related problems. The in vitro micropropagation technique was used for their propagation using the orchid maintenance/replate (OMR) medium. The current study was based on analysing the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of OMR medium. A part of the sample was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy; various physicochemical properties were analyzed and compared with the untreated (control) part. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the decrease in crystallite size of treated sample (132.80 nm) as compared to the control (147.55 nm). The particle size analysis revealed 20.78% increase in average particle size and 39.29% increase in d99 (size below which 99% particles are present) of the treated OMR medium as compared to the control. Moreover, the surface area of the treated sample was reduced by 3.9%, supporting the data of particle size analysis. The thermal analysis studies revealed an increase in the thermal stability of the treated OMR medium as compared to the control. The analysis was done by using differential scanning calorimetry that showed increase in melting point (1.23%) and latent heat of fusion (135.7%); and thermogravimetric analysis that reported increase in onset temperature and maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the CHNSO analysis revealed the increase in percentage of nitrogen (22.22%) as well as the presence of sulphur in the treated sample. The Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy also showed the differences in the spectra of the treated sample as compared to the control OMR medium. Hence, the overall data revealed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of the treated sample that might be used in better way in the in vitro culture techniques as compared to the control sample.
Category: Chemistry

[188] viXra:1608.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:10:52

Experimental Investigation on Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of 2-Chlorobenzonitrile: Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

2-chlorobenzonitrile (2-ClBN) is widely used in the manufacturing of azo dyes, pharmaceuticals, and as intermediate in various chemical reactions. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of 2-ClBN. 2-ClBN sample was divided into two groups that served as treated and control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed a decrease in crystallite size in treated samples i.e. 4.88% in 2-ClBN along with the increase in peak intensity as compared to control. However, surface area analysis showed a decrease in surface area of 64.53% in treated 2-ClBN sample as compared to the control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed a significant increase in the latent heat of fusion (28.74%) and a slight increase in melting temperature (2.05%) in treated sample as compared to the control. Moreover, TGA/DTG studies showed that the control and treated 2-ClBN samples lost 61.05% and 46.15% of their weight, respectively. The FT-IR spectra did not show any significant change in treated 2-ClBN sample as compared to control. However, UV-Vis spectra showed an increase in the intensity of peak as compared to control sample. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of 2-ClBN, which could make them more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[187] viXra:1608.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:12:28

Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulator, Immunity and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Mustard Seeds (Brassica Juncea)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Among the oilseeds grown around the world, mustard is one of the important crop worldwide due to its wide adaptability and high yielding capacity. Owing to the importance of its utilities as condiment, cooking oil and some medical aids, the demand for its seed production is too high. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) for its growth-germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) content in leaves, indole acetic acid (IAA) content in shoots and roots and DNA polymorphism by random amplified polymorphic-DNA (RAPD). The sample of B. juncea was divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and referred as the treated sample. The growth-germination of B. juncea seedling data exhibited that the biofield treated seeds were germinated faster on day 5 as compared to the control (on day between 7-10). The shoot and root length of seedling were slightly increased in the treated seeds of 10 days old with respect to untreated seedling. Moreover, the major plant antioxidant i.e. GSH content in mustard leaves was significantly increased by 206.72% (p<0.001) as compared to the untreated sample. Additionally, the plant growth regulatory constituent i.e. IAA level in root and shoot was increased by 15.81% and 12.99%, respectively with respect to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample showed an average 26% of DNA polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on mustard seeds showed a significant improvement in germination, growth of roots and shoots, GSH and IAA content in the treated sample. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment of mustard seeds could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of mustard.
Category: Chemistry

[186] viXra:1608.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:15:20

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Biofield Treated P-Chlorobenzophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

p-Chlorobenzophenone (p-CBP) is the important chemical intermediate used for the synthesis of several pharmaceutical drugs like fenofibrate, cetirizine, alprazolam, and benzodiazepine. The aim of this study was set to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-CBP. The study was accomplished in two groups i.e. control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples of p-CBP were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD study exhibited the increase in average crystallite size (25.93%) as well as the intensity of XRD peaks of treated p-CBP, as compared to the control. The particle size analysis showed the reduction in particle size of fine particles (≤51.49 μm) by 21.6% (d10), whereas, increase in particle size of large particles (≥433.59 μm) by 12.82% (d90) and 17.71% (d99), respectively after biofield treatment, as compared to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited the surface area as 0.7005 m2/g in control and 0.7020 m2/g in treated sample of p-CBP. The DSC thermogram of treated p-CBP exhibited the slight decrease in melting temperature. However, the latent heat of fusion was significantly altered (24.90%) after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. TGA analysis showed the weight loss by 57.36% in control and 58.51% in treated sample. In addition, the onset temperature of thermal degradation was also decreased by 6.32% after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control p- CBP. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic study did not show the alteration in the wavenumber and wavelength, respectively in treated p-CBP as compared to the control. Altogether, the XRD, particle size and thermal analysis suggest that biofield energy treatment has significant impact on physical and thermal properties of treated p-CBP.
Category: Biochemistry

[185] viXra:1608.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:24:57

Antimatter's Gravity Paradox

Authors: Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Assuming that during the “big bang” matter and anti-matter pair production and annihilation governed the first phase before the expansion and cool down of the universe, we would expect to find a universe consisting of both matter and anti-matter uniformly spread apart throughout space. That is obviously not the case as we can observe today and we expect to find some new kind of anti-symmetry between matter and anti-matter. In this paper we will show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that anti-matter must have "anti-gravity". Based on this conclusion we claim that matter and anti-matter preserve two new conservation laws: 1. Conservation of gravity, 2. Conservation of time. Based on these new conservation laws we predict that anti-matter is uniformly spread, as anti-atoms or anti-elementary particles, throughout space and it’s one of the main reasons for space expansion. We strongly believe that future tests on the influence of anti-matter on gravity and time will prove this theory. .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[184] viXra:1608.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:19:59

Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Biofield Treated Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella Oxytoca

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Klebsiella are opportunistic pathogens that cause a wide spectrum of severe diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on multidrug resistant strain of K. oxytoca with respect to antibiogram pattern along with biochemical study and biotype number. Clinical lab isolate of K. oxytoca was divided into two groups i.e. control and treated. Control group remain untreated and treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment and compared with control group. Control and treated groups were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® automated system. Experimental results showed the impact of biofield treatment on K. oxytoca and found alteration in both antimicrobial sensitivity and MIC values as compared with untreated group. Antimicrobial sensitivity of about 26.67% tested antimicrobials out of thirty was altered with respect to control. MIC results showed about 12.50% alterations in tested antimicrobials as compared to control. Biochemical study showed 24.24% alteration in tested biochemical reactions after biofield treatment. A significant change in biotype number (7713 5272) was identified after biofield treatment as compared to control (7775 4332). In treated group, a new species was identified as Kluyvera ascorbata, as compared to control, K. oxytoca. Study findings suggest that biofield treatment has a significant effect in altering the antimicrobial sensitivity, MIC values, biochemical reactions and biotype number of multidrug resistant strain of K. oxytoca. Biofield treatment could be applied to alter the antibiogram-resistogram pattern of antimicrobials.
Category: Biochemistry

[183] viXra:1608.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:21:11

Evaluation of Atomic, Physical and Thermal Properties of Tellurium Powder: Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Tellurium has gained significant attention due to its photoconductivity, piezoelectricity, and thermo conductivity properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on thermal, physical and atomic properties of tellurium powder. The tellurium powder was equally divided in two parts: control and treated (T). The treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment, whereas the control part was remained untreated. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The DSC data showed that latent heat of fusion was decreased by 14.13, 21.90, and 5.55% in treated samples T1, T2, and T3, respectively as compared to the control. However, the melting temperature did not show any change in treated samples as compared to the control. The TGA data showed that the peak width (difference in onset and endset) was increased from 213.67°C (control) to 234.82°C in treated tellurium sample. Besides, XRD results exhibited an alteration in lattice parameter, unit cell volume, density, atomic weight and nuclear charge volume of the treated tellurium powder as compared to the control. In addition, the crystallite sizes were significantly changed on crystalline plane (102) and (110) as 146.05→48.67 nm and 63.01→88.21 nm, respectively in the treated tellurium. The FT-IR spectra did not show any significant change in absorption frequencies in treated sample as compared to the control. Therefore, DSC, TGA and XRD data suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has significantly altered the thermal and physical properties of tellurium powder. Thus, biofield energy treatment could be applied to modulate the thermal and physical properties in semiconductor and chalcogenide glass industries.
Category: Biochemistry

[182] viXra:1608.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:22:40

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated P-Chloro-M-Cresol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

p-Chloro-m-cresol(PCMC) is widely used in pharmaceutical industries as biocide and preservative. However, it faces the problems of solubility in water and photo degradation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of PCMC. For this study, PCMC sample was divided into two groups i.e., one served as treated and other as control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment and both control and treated samples of PCMC were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS). The XRD result showed a 12.7% increase in crystallite size in treated samples along with increase in peak intensity as compared to control. Moreover, surface area analysis showed a 49.36% increase in surface area of treated PCMC sample as compared to control. The thermal analysis showed significant decrease (25.94%) in the latent heat of fusion in treated sample as compared to control. However, no change was found in other parameters like melting temperature, onset temperature of degradation, and Tmax (temperature at which maximum weight loss occur). The FT-IR spectroscopy did not show any significant change in treated PCMC sample as compared to control. Although, the UV-Vis spectra of treated samples showed characteristic absorption peaks at 206 and 280 nm, the peak at 280 nm was not found in control sample. The control sample showed another absorbance peak at 247 nm. GC-MS data revealed that carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C) was changed up to 204% while δ18O and δ37Cl isotopic ratio were significantly changed up to 142% in treated samples as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties, which can affect the solubility and stability of p-chloro-m-cresol and make it more useful as a pharmaceutical ingredient.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[181] viXra:1608.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:28:46

Studies on Physicochemical Properties of Biofield Treated 2,4-Dichlorophenol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The chlorinated phenols are widely used in chemical industries for the manufacturing of herbicides, insecticides, etc. However, due to consistent use they create hazards to the environment. This study was designed to use an alternative method i.e. biofield energy treatment and analyse its impact on the physicochemical properties of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4- DCP), which are the important factors related to its degradation. The 2,4-DCP sample was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy and analyzed as compared to the untreated 2,4-DCP sample (control) using various analytical techniques. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed up to 19.4% alteration in the lattice parameters along with approximately 1.8% alteration in the molecular weight, unit cell volume and density of the treated sample. The crystallite size of treated sample was increased and found as 215.24 nm as compared to 84.08 nm in the control sample. Besides, the thermal study results showed an alteration in the thermal stability profile of the treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed the decrease in the thermal decomposition temperature from 137.9°C (control) to 131.94°C in the treated sample along with 92.19% alteration in the quantity of heat absorbed during the process. Moreover, the thermogravimetric analysis showed that onset temperature of degradation was decreased, while the percent weight loss of the sample was increased from 59.12% to 71.74% in the treated sample as compared to the control. However, the Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopic studies did not show any significant alteration in the spectra of the treated sample as compared to the control. Hence, the overall studies revealed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of the 2,4- DCP sample.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[180] viXra:1608.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:47:14

Entanglement Between Matter and Anti-Matter

Authors: Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar
Comments: 4 Pages.

In our previous paper [1] we show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that anti- matter must have "anti-gravity". Based on this conclusion we claim that matter and anti-matter preserve two new conservation laws: 1. Conservation of gravity, 2. Conservation of time. In this article, based on these new conservation laws, we claim that the number of all matter particles in the universe must be equal exactly to the number of all antimatter particles. Moreover, each matter particle must be entangled to a "partner" antimatter particle since entanglement is the only mechanism that can synchronize between matter and antimatter particles in order to preserve the new conservation laws mentioned above. This phenomena can be examined at the LHC and if proven to be correct it is another proof that entanglement is truly a “spooky action at a distance” (EPR paradox) and has nothing to do with hidden variables. It also opens the possibility that if anti matter particles remain and exist from the "big bang" somewhere in the universe they are still entangled to the matter particles although the drastic annihilation during the big bang.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[179] viXra:1608.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:53:27

Non-Quantum Entanglement Through Time and Gravity

Authors: Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar
Comments: 7 Pages.

In our previous paper [1] we show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that anti- matter must have "anti-gravity". Based on this conclusion we claim that matter and anti-matter preserve two new conservation laws: 1. Conservation of gravity, 2. Conservation of time. In our previous paper [2] we show that based on the conservation of gravity and time, we expect that when a pair of matter and anti-matter particles is produced from pure energy (e.g. pair production from an energetic photon ), they are entangled through gravity and time. This entanglement of time and gravity is not restricted to the quantum rules, and it will be referred as "non-quantum entanglement through time". In this article, based on the non-quantum entanglement through time, we claim that we can exploit this non-quantum entanglement in order to communicate instantaneously through large distances.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[178] viXra:1608.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 02:50:31

Nuclear Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

In a new paper, University of California, Riverside theoretical physicist Flip Tanedo and his collaborators have made new progress towards unraveling a mystery in the beryllium nucleus that may be evidence for a fifth force of nature. [17] Recent findings indicating the possible discovery of a previously unknown subatomic particle may be evidence of a fifth fundamental force of nature, according to a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters by theoretical physicists at the University of California, Irvine. [16] Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[177] viXra:1608.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 04:32:18

The Extenics Norm Applied to a Two-Dimensional Robotic Workspaces

Authors: Victor VLADAREANU, Ovidiu-Ilie SANDRU, Mihnea Alexandru MOISESCU, Florentin SMARANDACHE, Hongnian YU
Comments: 6 Pages.

The paper presents an application of Extenics Engineering principles to a two-dimensional robotic workspace. This provides the mathematical basis and considerations for obtaining the trajectory tracking reference in robotic applications. A brief history and overview of the relevant theoretical concepts is provided.
Category: General Mathematics

[176] viXra:1608.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 04:33:45

Al. Florin Țene, între Realitățile și Poveștile Vieții Lui Alexandru Macedonski

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages.

Contradictoriu și controversat, răzvrătit și intolerant, turbulent și complexat, egocentrist și egoist, invidios și conflictual, pripit și tranșant, insolit și dificil, cu o operă în care platitudinile coexistă cu sclipirile geniale ca in paradoxism, Alexandru Macedonski este ― indiferent din ce parte și perspectivă ar fi abordat ― o personalitate fascinantă.
Category: Education and Didactics

[175] viXra:1608.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 04:42:48

δ Equalities of Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Jian-qiang Wang
Comments: 8 Pages.

Fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets can’t handle imprecise, indeterminate, inconsistent, and incomplete information. Neutrosophic sets play an important role to overcome this difficulty. A neutrosophic set has a truth membership function, indeterminate membership function, and a falsehood membership functions that can handle all types of ambiguous information. New type of union and intersection has been proposed in this paper.
Category: General Mathematics

[174] viXra:1608.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 04:45:46

R-Intersections and R-Unions of Neutrosophic Cubic Sets

Authors: Young Bae Jun, Florentin Smarandache, Chang Su Kim
Comments: 3 Pages.

R-unions and R-intersections of T-external (Iexternal,F-external) neutrosophic cubic sets are considered.Examples to show that the R-intersection and R-union of Texternal (I-external, F-external) neutrosophic cubic sets may not be a T-external (I-external, F-external) neutrosophic cubic setare provided. Conditions for the R-union and R-intersection of T-external (I-external, F-external) neutrosophic cubic sets to be a T-external (I-external, F-external) neutrosophic cubic set are discussed.
Category: General Mathematics

[173] viXra:1608.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 04:47:23

Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs: Degree, Order and Size

Authors: Said Broumi, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache, Assia Bakali
Comments: 8 Pages.

The single valued neutrosophic graph is a new version of graph theory presented recently as a generalization of fuzzy graph and intuitionistic fuzzy graph. The single valued neutrosophic graph (SVN-graph) is used when the relation between nodes (or vertices) in problems are indeterminate. In this paper, we examine the properties of various types of degrees, order and size of single valued neutrosophic graphs and a new definition for regular single valued neutrosophic graph is given.
Category: General Mathematics

[172] viXra:1608.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 04:48:59

Interval Valued Bipolar Fuzzy Weighted Neutrosophic Sets and Their Application

Authors: Irfan Deli, Yusuf Subas, Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali
Comments: 8 Pages.

Interval valued bipolar fuzzy weighted neutrosophic set(IVBFWN-set) is a new generalization of fuzzy set, bipolar fuzzy set, neutrosophic set and bipolar neutrosophic set so that it can handle uncertain information more flexibly in the process of decision making.
Category: General Mathematics

[171] viXra:1608.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 04:50:30

Maintenance Operating System Uncertainties Approached Through Neutrosophic Theory

Authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Daniela Gîfu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages.

This study introduces the concept of uncertainty analysis of Neutrosophic Theory in the sphere of Maintenance Operating System (MOS). The aim of this study is to underline the importance of uncertainties solving in Maintenance Operating System. In maintenance process appear ambiguous states that can’t be assimilated neither true, nor false, meaning that the threshold state is a neutral one, being defined as fault in most of cases. In this regard, this uncertaintymaking decision process can be associated as functioning according to rules of Neutrosophy, and can be evaluated using elements of Neutrosophic Structures, Pareto Charts, maintenance metrics. Identification of uncertainties and study of their impact on maintenance, making the right decision, is the main focus of this paper.
Category: General Mathematics

[170] viXra:1608.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 04:52:32

Neutrosophic-Simplified-Topsis. Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Using Combined Simplified-Topsis Method and Neutrosophics

Authors: Azeddine Elhassouny, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, (1) one simplified the standard TOPSIS to new Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) called Simplified-TOPSIS. Simplified-TOPSIS gives the same results and simplifies the calculation of the classical TOPSIS. An example is presented distinctions between Simplified-TOPSIS and classical TOPSIS are underlined. (2) extend the new Simplified-TOPSIS method to Neutrosophic-simplified-TOPSIS using single valued Neutrosophic information. An example showing the interest of Neutrosophic-simplified-TOPSIS to manipulate the uncertainty linked to information presented in Multi-Criteria Decision-Making.
Category: General Mathematics

[169] viXra:1608.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 05:03:02

Theory of Everything Once Again

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here is a brief summary of the issues relating to the formulation of Theory of Everything (ToE). To formulate ToE, we must answer following questions and calculate following quantities from some more fundamental initial conditions applying much less parameters than the tens parameters that appear in the two fundamental theories i.e. in the General Theory of Relativity (GR) and the Standard Model (SM). Are the GR and SM the complete and mathematically coherent theories? Can we unify GR and SM within the same methods? If not, then what is the cause and why gravitational constant is about 42 powers of ten times lower than electromagnetic constant for electron-positron pair (it is not the fine-structure constant)? We must calculate masses of all fundamental fermions (i.e. neutrinos, electron, muon, tauon, quarks, proton and neutron) and mixing angles that appear in the PMNS neutrino-mixing matrix and in the CKM quark-mixing matrix. We must calculate fundamental physical constants and coupling constants. We must define the dark-matter (DM) particle and the dark-energy (DE) particle. There as well should appear a formula that ties masses/energies responsible for all interactions. We must solve many other fundamental problems in particle physics and cosmology unsolved within GR and SM. For example, why hyperons are created due to the nuclear strong interactions whereas they decay due to the electroweak interactions (the answer that it is due to the properties of the strange quark does not solve the problem)? All listed problems are solved within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), therefore, we believe that SST is missing part of the ToE.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[168] viXra:1608.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-18 14:02:36

Neuromorphic Architecture

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

In the future, level-tuned neurons may help enable neuromorphic computing systems to perform tasks that traditional computers cannot, such as learning from their environment, pattern recognition, and knowledge extraction from big data sources. [19] IBM scientists have created randomly spiking neurons using phase-change materials to store and process data. This demonstration marks a significant step forward in the development of energy-efficient, ultra-dense integrated neuromorphic technologies for applications in cognitive computing. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[167] viXra:1608.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-18 08:35:23

Gravitoelectromagnetism

Authors: Branislav Pavlovic
Comments: 338 Pages.

In this article I will present the main results of my scientific work . The title of my book is Gravitoelectromagnetism. I have developed my own theory of gravity, and I called it Gravitoelectromagnetism. According to my theory, an explanation of the dynamic effects is mainly based on formal analogy with electrodynamics. I will mention just a few experiments (effects) which I have explained from the standpoint of my theory: perihelion precession of Mercury, framedragging experiments (Gravity Probe B experiment), gravitational waves (Hulse–Taylor binary, detection of gravitational waves) and so on. Increase of astronomical unit has been analyzed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[166] viXra:1608.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 21:43:43

Gravity is a Magnetic Function

Authors: John Faust
Comments: 31 Pages.

Abstract: Mass and the amp meter are equivalent. As a result of this I will demonstrate that gravity is a result of magnetism due to the magnetic fields of the particles associated with matter(protons, neutrons, and electrons). Their magnetic fields, particularly the one of the electron since it is much larger than the other two gives a value when plugged into the proper magnetic field equation that matches the acceleration of gravity at Earth's surface. Objections that magnetism is responsible for gravity are expected. Therefore, I will deal with the two main objections raised that seem to imply that magnetism couldn't be responsible for gravity immediately after the calculated result. The first objection deals with the inverse square law and the second deals with the monopole nature of gravity. After answering the objections, I will demonstrate the meaning of the gravitational constant as it relates to magnetic units and further support that mass and the amp meter are equivalent.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[165] viXra:1608.0181 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-15 07:53:55

Analytical and Classical Mechanics of Integrable Mixed and Quadratic Liénard Type Oscillator Equations

Authors: J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 4 pages

The Lagrangian description of a dynamical system from the equation of motion consists of an inverse problem in mechanics. This problem is solved for a class of exactly integrable mixed and quadratic Liénard type oscillator equations from a given first integral of motion. The dynamics of this class of equations, which contains the generalized modified Emden equation, also known as the second-order Riccati equation, and the inverted versions of the Mathews-Lakshmanan equations, is then investigated from Hamiltonian and Lagrangian points of view.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[164] viXra:1608.0180 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-18 14:28:24

Gravitational Motor using the Quantum Controller of Gravity

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Gravitational Motor is a type of motor which converts Gravitational Energy directly into Rotational Kinetic Energy. Its fuel is therefore the Gravitational Energy (no needs gasoline, oil, etc). An example of Gravitational Motor is the turbines of the hydroelectric plants. However, they are not mobile i.e., they cannot be transported from one place to another as the combustion motors or the electric motors. Mobiles Gravitational Motor can be developed starting from the devices of gravity control, such as the Quantum Controller of Gravity (QCG) [1]. The form of the QCG originally proposed is spherical. Here, it is described a Gravitational Motor which uses a QCG with spherical cylindrical form. This Gravitational Motor can have very-high power, and it can be used in order to generate electrical energy at large scale or traction to move cars, ships, tankers, aircraft carrier, trains, etc.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[163] viXra:1608.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 00:10:20

Stoe Emergence

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 5 Pages.

Emergent philosophy developed from the studies of biology, life, societies, and computer patterns. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model posits emergence theory models the universe. The STOE was developed from two basic agents and their interaction to the complexity of the cosmological scale. This model has described many mysteries of standard models including the structure of galaxy clusters, the microwave background temperature, rotation curves, asymmetric rotation curves, the relation of central mass parameters to outer galaxy parameters, galaxy redshift, periodic galaxy redshift, and the Pioneer Anomaly on the large scale. The STOE also suggests a photon model of light that describes Young's experiment, that rejected all wave models of light, and that described the results of the Hodge Experiment. It served as a base for explaining the Stern-Gerlach experiment. The STOE model made successful predictions of the Pioneer Anomaly and of the Hodge Experiment.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[162] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-10 09:17:46

Black-holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint that regard to black-holes'innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[161] viXra:1608.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 03:36:07

Candidates for the Slichter Triplet II

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 10 Pages.

The systematic search for coincident signals with a software-defined receiver in the data sets of fifteen superconducting gravimeters yields six striking signals in the frequency range 35 µHz to 100 µHz that can not be assigned to a known geophysical causes. Some might belong to the long-sought Slichter triplet.
Category: Geophysics

[160] viXra:1608.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:21:37

Thermal, Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Benzophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the thermal, spectroscopic, and chemical properties of benzophenone. The study was done using various analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The benzophenone sample was divided into two parts, one part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment, called as treated and the other part was remained as untreated, called as control. Mass spectra showed the molecular ion peak at m/z = 182 in control and all the treated benzophenone samples with different intensities (treated samples further divided in to three parts, T1, T2, and T3 for GC-MS study). The isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, 13C/12C (PM+1)/PM and in treated sample was decreased by 44.87% in T2 and slightly increased upto 5.79% in case of T1 as compared to the control [where, PM- primary molecule, (PM+1)- isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H]. Moreover, isotopic abundance ratio of 18O/16O (PM+2)/PM in the treated sample was increased up to 22.64% in T3. The retention time of treated benzophenone was slightly increased (0.88 min) as compared to the control in HPLC chromatogram. The DSC data exhibited that the heat of degradation of treated benzophenone was increased by 674.16% as compared to the control. While, C=O stretching frequency of treated sample was shifted by 6 cm-1 to low energy region in FT-IR spectroscopy. Further, the UV-Vis spectra of control sample showed characteristic absorption peaks at 210 nm and 257 nm that was blue shifted to 205 nm and 252 nm, respectively in the treated sample. These results suggested that biofield treatment has significantly altered the thermal, spectroscopic, and chemical properties of benzophenone, which could make them more useful as reaction intermediate in industrial applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[159] viXra:1608.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:26:04

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Gerbera Multiplication Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

The micropropagation technique is used for Gerbera species due to their high demand all over the world as the decorative potted plants and cut flowers. The present study was done to investigate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of gerbera multiplication medium. A part of the sample was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy, and the other part was kept as untreated and termed as the control sample. Both the parts were subsequently analysed for their physical, thermal and spectral properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD results showed 13.98% increase in crystallite size of treated sample (104.01 nm) as compared to the control (91.25 nm). The particle size data revealed an increase in d50 (average particle size) and d99 (size below which 99% particles are present) by 72.57% and 42.26%, respectively of the treated sample as compared to the control. Moreover, the surface area of the treated sample was reduced from 0.694 m2/g (control) to 0.560 m2/g in the treated sample. The TGA data showed the increase in onset temperature along with the reduction in the percent weight loss of the treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the elemental analysis revealed the significant decrease in the percentage of nitrogen (10.47%) and hydrogen (9.35%) as well as the presence of sulphur in the treated sample. The FT-IR results showed the differences in the IR frequencies corresponding to pyridine ring and N-H2 deformation of the treated sample as compared to the control. Hence, the overall data revealed that the biofield energy treatment had a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the treated sample that might help to improve its uses in the in vitro tissue culture techniques as compared to the control sample.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[158] viXra:1608.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:28:08

Antibiogram of Biofield-Treated Shigella Boydii: Global Burden of Infections

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Bacillary dysentery and acute gastroenteritis caused by infection of Shigella species are major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens to render current treatments ineffective. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella boydii (S. boydii) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9207) strain of S. boydii was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. boydii. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. boydii were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while Gr. III on day 10 with respect to control (Gr. I). Sensitivity pattern of amoxicillin/k-clavulanate was improved from intermediate (I) to susceptible (S) with correspond to MIC value was also reduced by two folds (16/8 to ≤ 8/4 μg/mL) in both the treated groups as compared to control. The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. boydii showed 15% alteration in Gr. II on day 5, while significant (40%) alteration was found on day 10 as compared to control. The MIC values of antimicrobials for S. boydii also showed 12.50% alteration in Gr. II on day 5 while, significant alteration (59.38%) of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was found in Gr. II on day 10 as compared to control. It was observed that overall 69.70% biochemical reactions were changed in which 66.67% alteration was found in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to control. Moreover, biotype numbers were changed in all the treated groups without alteration of organism as compared to control. These results suggested that biofield treatment had significant impact on S. boydii in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC and biochemical reactions pattern.
Category: Biochemistry

[157] viXra:1608.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:30:37

Phenotyping and Genotyping Characterization of Proteus Vulgaris After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) is widespread in nature, mainly found in flora of human gastrointestinal tract. The current study was attempted to investigate the effects of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on lyophilized as well as revived state of P. vulgaris for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, and biotype. P. vulgaris cells were procured from Micro BioLogics Inc., USA, in sealed pack bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 33420) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol until needed for experiments. Lyophilized vial of ATCC strain of P. vulgaris were divided in two parts, Gr. I: control and Gr. II: treatment. Group II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analysed on day 10. Gr. IIB was stored and analysed on day 143. After retreatment on day 143, the sample was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tubes were analysed on day 5, 10 and 15 respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using automated Micro Scan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. vulgaris with other bacterial species after treatment. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed 10.71% and 15.63% alteration respectively in treated cells of P. vulgaris as compared to control. It was observed that few biochemical reactions (6%) were altered in the treated groups with respect to control. Moreover, biotype number was substantially changed in treated cells, Gr. IIA (62060406, Proteus penneri) on day 10 as compared to control (62070406; Proteus vulgaris). 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified sample in this experiment was Proteus vulgaris after biofield treatment. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found to be Proteus hauseri. The results suggested that biofield treatment has impact on P. vulgaris in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[156] viXra:1608.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:33:26

Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Energy Treated 1,4-Dichlorobenzene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of P M+1/PM, PM+2/PM, PM+3/PMand PM+4/PM in p-DCB using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The p-DCB was divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as the treated sample which was subjected to biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were referred the biofield treated p-DCB having analyzed at different time intervals. The GC-MS analysis of both the control and biofield treated p-DCB indicated the presence of the parent molecular ion peak at m/z 146 along with four major fragmentation peaks at m/z 111, 75, 55 and 50. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated p-DCB were notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM at T1, T2, T3, and T4 (biofield energy treated p-DCB) was significantly increased by 10.87, 83.90, 225.16, and 241.15%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, and T3 (biofield energy treated p-DCB) was enhanced by 4.55, 9.49, and 1.80%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Beside these, another two isotopic molecular ion peaks at m/z 149 and 150 were found in the GS-MS spectra due to arise from the contributions of various combinations of 2H, 13C, and 37Cl. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+3/PM in biofield energy treated sample at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased by 15.14, 82.57, 192.43, and 218.31%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, the PM+4/PM in biofield energy treated sample at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased by 13.80, 86.66, 186.13, and 204.29%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C), PM+2/PM (37Cl/35Cl), for PM+3/PM and PM+4/PM (the probable combinations of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, and 37Cl/35Cl) were significantly enhanced in the biofield energy treated p-DCB. The biofield treated p-DCB has shown improved isotopic abundance ratios that might have altered the physicochemical properties, thermal properties and rate of reaction. Biofield treated p-DCB might be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as intermediates during the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and chemicals by monitoring the rate of chemical reaction.
Category: Chemistry

[155] viXra:1608.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:35:05

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance of 13C, 2H, and 18o in Biofield Energy Treated P-Tertiary Butylphenol (PTBP)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

p-tert-Butyphenol (PTBP) is a phenolic monomer used in the synthesis of numerous industrially useful chemicals. The current research work aimed to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in PTBP using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, PTBP was distributed into two parts - one part was designated as control PTBP and another part was considered as biofield energy treated PTBP. The biofield energy treatment was achieved through unique biofield energy transmission process by Mr. Trivedi (also known as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were indicated to the different time interval analysis of the biofield treated PTBP. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated PTBP showed the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with eight major fragmented peaks at m/z 135, 107, 95, 91, 77, 65, 41, and 39, which might be due to C10H15+, C7H7O+ or C8H11+, C6H7O+, C7H7+, C6H5+, C5H5+, C3H5+, and C3H3• •+ ions, respectively. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated PTBP were altered as compared to the control PTBP. The percentage in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated PTBP at T2, T3 and T4 by 1.60%, 3.57%, and 120.13%, respectively while it was decreased by 4.14% in the treated sample at T1 with respect to the control PTBP. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated PTBP at T1, T3, and T4 by 1.28%, 2.56%, and 123.08%, respectively with respect to the control sample. On the other hand, it was reduced in the biofield treated sample at T2 by 1.28% as compared to the control PTBP. Concisely, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 152 in the biofield treated PTBP were changed with respect to the control sample and was found to have time dependent effect. The biofield energy treated PTBP might display isotope effects such as different physicochemical and thermal properties, rate of the reaction, selectivity and binding energy due to the changed isotopic abundance ratio as compared to the control sample. Biofield treated PTBP could be valuable for the designing new chemicals and pharmaceuticals through using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[154] viXra:1608.0168 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-17 01:36:27

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Treated Ortho-Toluic Acid

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Toluic acid isomers are widely used as a chemical intermediate in manufacturing of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymer stabilizers, insect repellent and other organic synthesis. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of ortho isomer of toluic acid (OTA). The OTA sample was divided into two groups, served as control and treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis/ derivative thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed 26.66% decrease in crystallite size in treated OTA sample as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis result showed that latent heat of fusion was considerably reduced by 6.68% in treated OTA sample as compared to control. However, an increase in melting point was observed in treated sample. The melting point of treated OTA sample was found to be 107.96°C as compared to control (105.47°C) sample. Moreover, TGA/ DTG studies showed that Tmax (temperature, at which sample lost its maximum weight) was decreased by 1.21% in treated OTA sample as compared to control. It indicates that vaporisation of treated OTA sample might increase as compared to control. The FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra did not show any significant changes in spectral properties of treated OTA sample as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of OTA, which could make it more useful as chemical intermediate.
Category: Chemistry

[153] viXra:1608.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:39:19

The Potential Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Properties of Silver Oxide Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Silver oxide has gained significant attention due to its antimicrobial activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of silver oxide (Ag2O). The silver oxide powder was divided into two parts, one part was kept as control and another part was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD diffractogram showed that the crystallite size of treated sample was significantly altered on the planes (200), (311), and (220) by 100, 150 and -25% respectively, with respect to control. The DSC result exhibited that the thermal energy required to decompose the silver oxide to silver and oxygen was altered from -12.47 to 71.58% in treated samples as compared to the control. TGA showed that the onset temperature of thermal degradation was reduced from 335°C (control) to 322.4°C. In addition, the rate of weight loss in treated sample was increased by 4.14% as compared to the control. Besides, the FT-IR did not show any alteration in absorption wavenumber of treated sample as compared to the control. Hence, the XRD, DSC and TGA data revealed that the biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on the physical and thermal properties of silver oxide powder. Therefore, the biofield energy treatment might improve the dissolution rate in formulation and bioavailability of treated silver oxide as compared to control.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[152] viXra:1608.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:41:13

Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Cotton

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cotton has widespread applications in textile industries due its interesting physicochemical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the spectral, and thermal properties of the cotton. The study was executed in two groups namely control and treated. The control group persisted as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated cotton were characterized by different analytical techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and CHNSO analysis. DSC analysis showed a substantial increase in exothermic temperature peak of the treated cotton (450 ºC) as compared to the control sample (382ºC). Additionally, the enthalpy of fusion (ΔH) was significantly increased by 86.47% in treated cotton. The differential thermal analysis (DTA) analysis showed an increase in thermal decomposition temperature of treated cotton (361ºC) as compared to the control sample (358ºC). The result indicated the increase in thermal stability of the treated cotton in comparison with the control. FT-IR analysis showed an alterations in –OH stretching (3408→3430 cm-1), carbonyl stretching peak (1713-1662 cm-1), C-H bending (1460-1431 cm-1), -OH bending (580-529 cm-1) and –OH out of plane bending (580-529 cm-1) of treated cotton with respect to the control sample. CHNSO elemental analysis showed a substantial increase in the nitrogen percentage by 19.16% and 2.27% increase in oxygen in treated cotton as compared to the control. Overall, the result showed significant changes in spectral and thermal properties of biofield energy treated cotton. It is assumed that biofield energy treated cotton might be interesting for textile applications.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[151] viXra:1608.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 06:40:59

Generally Covariant Quantum Theory: Non-Abelian Gauge Theories.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

We further investigate the new project initiated in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9] by generalizing non-abelian gauge theory to our setting. Given the results in [3, 9], there is not much left to do and we shall deepen our understanding of some points left open in [1] regarding the nature and presence of ghosts. Perturbative niteness of the theory follows ad-verbatim from the analysis in [3, 9] and we shall not bother here about writing it down explicitly. Rather, our aim is to provide for a couple of new physical and mathematical insights regarding the genesis of the structure of quantal non-abelian gauge theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[150] viXra:1608.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 08:30:46

Observed Quantum Effects of Hawking Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved. New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Quantum Physics

[149] viXra:1608.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 09:29:12

Letter to Undivided Looking – Comments on Physics and Theology

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 8 Pages.

This is what you get when you Google "imaginary time" and stumble across a Christian website by a postdoctoral researcher studying quantum gravity and black hole thermodynamics. The site is called UNDIVIDED LOOKING – COMMENTS ON PHYSICS AND THEOLOGY, and the page I first found is at http://www.wall.org/~aron/blog/did-the-universe-begin-viii-the-no-boundary-proposal/. The website owner's comment policy advises readers "Do not simply copy and paste a large amount of text …" which almost made me decide not to comment. But I finally did. Even though I have copied and pasted parts inbetween parts written today, I think the choosing of the widely separated lines of pasted text makes this what he calls "an individualized response". Anyway, my comment seems to have been eaten by a black hole. Instead of letting half a day of work go to waste, I'll post my thoughts here.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[148] viXra:1608.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 04:48:50

Experiments Match Simulations in a Multiple Posts Reentrant Cavity

Authors: L. A. N. de Paula, M. Goryachev, M. E. Tobar
Comments: 7 Pages.

Microwave reentrant cavities are used for many applications in sciences and engineering. The potential for high mechanical tunability and high electric quality factors make them important tools in many areas. They are usually resonant cylindrical cavities with a central post which makes a small gap spacing with the cavity wall. By adding an arbitrary number of extra posts, they are generalized to a type of multiple posts reentrant cavity. This new approach has been theoretically studied but no experimental results have been presented. The main purpose of this work is to compare experimental modes with simulation ones from a reentrant cavity made of forty nine cylindrical posts . Each post could be moved using a screw in order to make a tunable gap spacing between the post top and the cavity cover. Eight different gap setups have been made making it possible to investigate thirty six different reentrant modes at room temperature. The lowest frequency percentage agreement between experiment and simulation was 91.31 % and the best one was 99.92 %. Taking into account all the modes, 94.44 % of them had agreement above 96 %. For the first time, an experimental check has been made. This makes the experimental procedure adopted here suitable to investigate the reentrant modes from multiple posts cavities. This new sort of cavities stands for a new technology and can have a wide range of applications once they can gather features of conventional cavities and extra ones.
Category: Classical Physics

[147] viXra:1608.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 05:37:36

Confirm Discovery of Fifth Force of Nature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Recent findings indicating the possible discovery of a previously unknown subatomic particle may be evidence of a fifth fundamental force of nature, according to a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters by theoretical physicists at the University of California, Irvine. [16] Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[146] viXra:1608.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:11:55

Antibiogram of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

In recent years, prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) has been noticed with high morbidity and mortality. Aim of the present study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on MDR clinical lab isolates (LS) of P. aeruginosa. Five MDR clinical lab isolates (LS 22, LS 23, LS 38, LS 47, and LS 58) of P. aeruginosa were taken and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. Control and treated group were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment as compared with control group. Antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 60% alteration in sensitivity of tested antimicrobials in MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa after biofield treatment. MIC results showed an alteration in 42.85% tested antimicrobials out of twenty eight after biofield treatment in five isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa. Biochemical study showed a 48.48% change in tested biochemical reactions out of thirty three as compared to control. A significant change in biotype numbers was reported in three clinical lab isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa out of five, after biofield treatment as compared to respective control. On the basis of changed biotype number (7302 0052) in biofield treated LS 23, new organism was identified as Citrobacter freundii as compared to control (0206 3336). A very rare biotype number (7400 4263) was found in biofield treated LS 38, as compared to control (0206 3736). Study results suggest that biofield treatment on lab isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa has significant effect on the antimicrobial sensitivity, MIC values, biochemical reactions and biotype number. Biofield treatment might prevent the emergence of absolute resistance pattern of useful antimicrobials against MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa.
Category: Chemistry

[145] viXra:1608.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:14:35

Improved Susceptibility Pattern of Antimicrobials Using Vital Energy Treatment on Shigella Sonnei

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular and reported for countless benefits in biomedical health care systems. The study assessed the potential impact of The Trivedi Effect® (biofield energy) on Shigella sonnei for changes in antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical study, and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The cells were obtained from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9290) number, and divided into two groups, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and further subdivided into two sub-groups, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 160 (Study I). The Gr. IIB sample was retreated on day 160 (Study II), and was divided into three separate tubes as first, second and third tube, which were analyzed on day 5, 10 and 15, respectively. Results showed that 35% (7 out of 20) antimicrobials were reported with improved sensitivity profile. Moreover, the minimum inhibitory concentration study showed that 56.25% (18 out of 32) tested antimicrobials were reported with decreased concentration by two to four-fold as compared with the control after biofield treatment. The effect was further analyzed and sustained in the biochemical study, where 57.57% (19 out of 33) tested biochemicals showed altered reaction pattern as compared with the control. The biotype study showed an alteration in the biotype number in all the experimental treated groups as compared to the control. Encouraging results suggests that bioenergy healing treatment as an integrative medicine against S. sonnei would be a better and safe treatment approach in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[144] viXra:1608.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:16:39

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-napthylether (Nerolin)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Methyl-2-napthylether (nerolin) is an organic compound and has the applications in pharmaceutical, and perfume industry. The stable isotope ratio analysis is increasing importance in various field of scientific research. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) in nerolin using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The compound nerolin was divided into two parts - one part was control sample (untreated), and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample which was received the biofield energy treatment through the unique biofield energy transmission process by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also known as The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated nerolin was analyzed at different time intervals and were represented as T1, T2, T3, and T4 in order to understand the effect of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. From the GC-MS spectral analysis, the presence of the molecular ion peak C11H10O+(m/z 158) along with major fragmented peaks C10H7O- (m/z 143), C10H8 (m/z 128), C9H7+ (m/z 115), C7H5+ (m/z 89), C5H3+ (m/z 63), C4H3+ (m/z 51), and C3H3+ (m/z 39) were observed in both control and biofield treated samples. Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated nerolin was notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis of nerolin using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated nerolin at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 2.38, 138.10, 13.10, and 32.14%, as compared to the control sample. Likewise, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 2.38, 138.10, 13.10, and 32.14%, respectively in the biofield treated nerolin as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) were significantly increased in the biofield energy treated sample as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. It is concluded that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the significant impact on alteration in isotopic abundance of nerolin as compared to the control sample. The biofield treated nerolin might display different altered physicochemical properties and rate of reaction and could be an important intermediate for the production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and perfumes in the industry.
Category: Chemistry

[143] viXra:1608.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:21:19

Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H and 18O/16O in Biofield Energy Treated 1-Chloro-3-Nitrobenzene (3-CNB) Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

1-Chloro-3-nitrobenzene (3-CNB) is an aromatic halo-amine compound used as chemical intermediate for the production of several fine chemicals like pharmaceuticals, dyes, agricultural chemicals, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, etc. The objective of the current research was to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in 3-CNB using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, 3-CNB was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was treated with biofield energy (The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated 3-CNB. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated 3-CNB indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 157 (calculated 156.99 for C6H4ClNO2) along with same pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated 3-CNB were improved as compared to the control 3-CNB. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was significantly increased in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2 and T3 by 11.62, 18.50, and 29.82%, respectively with respect to the control 3-CNB. Accordingly, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T2 and T3 was significantly improved by 15.22 and 35.09%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1 and T4 were changed as compared to the control sample. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+3/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 4.67, 18.69, 31.31 and 6.08%, respectively as compared to the control 3-CNB. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB changed with the time. So, the biofield energy treated 3-CNB might exhibit the altered isotope effects such as altered physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy, and the rate of the chemical reaction as compared to the control sample. The biofield energy treated 3-CNB might assist in designing for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyes, corrosion inhibitors and other several useful industrial chemicals.
Category: Chemistry

[142] viXra:1608.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 03:44:17

Exact Solutions for Sine-Gordon Equations and F-Expansion Method

Authors: L. A. N. de Paula
Comments: 5 Pages.

A large number of methods have been proposed for solving nonlinear differential equations. The Jacobi elliptic function method and the f-expansion methods are generalizations from a few of them. These methods produce not only single-solitons but also multi-soliton solutions. In this work we applied the f -expansion method and found novel solutions besides those known for three main equations of the kind sine-Gordon: Triple Sine-Gordon (TSG), Double Sine-Gordon (DSG) and Simple Sine-Gordon (SSG).
Category: Functions and Analysis

[141] viXra:1608.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-17 10:07:27

The CKM Quark-Mixing Matrix in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The masses and mixings of quarks have the origin in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They arise from the nuclear interactions of the source of them - it is the charge of the core of baryons (mass of the charge is 318.2955 MeV). There are the three dominating bosons: the loop with a mass of 67.54441 MeV (the neutral pions consist of two such loops), the boson that creates the Titius-Bode states for the nuclear strong-weak interactions (its mass is 750.28 MeV), and a Higgs-boson-type condensate with a mass of the bottom quark (its mass is 4190 MeV). The ratios of masses of these bosons to the mass of the source define the three mixing angles that lead to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Here we show that the SST interactions of the source of the nuclear strong interactions determine the strength of flavour-changing weak decays. Notice that contrary to SST, within the Standard Model we cannot calculate masses of quarks and the CKM-matrix mixing angles, Q(ij), from initial conditions. Within SST we obtain: Q(12) = 13.164, Q(13) = 0.212, and Q(23) = 2.357 degrees - obtained results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[140] viXra:1608.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-15 04:33:03

The Cartan Model for Equivariant Cohomology

Authors: Xu Chen
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this article, we will discuss a new operator $d_{C}$ on $W(\mathfrak{g})\otimes\Omega^{*}(M)$ and to construct a new Cartan model for equivariant cohomology. We use the new Cartan model to construct the corresponding BRST model and Weil model, and discuss the relations between them.
Category: Geometry

[139] viXra:1608.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-15 04:41:51

A Comparison of Various Electricity Tariff Price Forecasting Techniques in Turkey and Identifying the Impact of Time Series Periods

Authors: Tahsin Olgu Benli, Hatice Sengul
Comments: 10 Pages.

It is very vital for suppliers and distributors to predict the deregulated electricity prices for creating their bidding strategies in the competitive market area. Pre requirement of succeeding in this field, accurate and suitable electricity tariff price forecasting tools are needed. In the presence of effective forecasting tools, taking the decisions of production, merchandising, maintenance and investment with the aim of maximizing the profits and benefits can be successively and effectively done. According to the electricity demand, there are four various electricity tariffs pricing in Turkey; monochromic, day, peak and night. The objective is find the best suitable tool for predicting the four pricing periods of electricity and produce short term forecasts (one year ahead-monthly). Our approach based on finding the best model, which ensures the smallest forecasting error measurements of; MAPE, MAD and MSD. We conduct a comparison of various forecasting approaches in total accounts for nine teen, at least all of those have different aspects of methodology. Our beginning step was doing forecasts for the year 2015. We validated and analyzed the performance of our best model and made comparisons to see how well the historical values of 2015 and forecasted data for that specific period matched. Results show that given the time-series data, the recommended models provided good forecasts. Second part of practice, we also include the year 2015, and compute all the models with the time series of January 2011 – December 2015. Again by choosing the best appropriate forecasting model, we conducted the forecast process and also analyze the impact of enhancing of time series periods (January, 2007 to December, 2015) to model that we used for forecasting process.
Category: Statistics

[138] viXra:1608.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-14 18:16:50

Beauty

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

An attempt of a general definition of beauty
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[137] viXra:1608.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-29 15:51:20

Consciousness-Based Subquantum Information Storage and Transport Influences All Physical Events and Objects

Authors: Boyd, Klein
Comments: 31 Pages.

We discuss recent developments in Quantum cosmology which are relevant to understanding life on this planet and Consciousness. We eliminate relativity theory from all cosmological consideration, which results in a stable infinite-duration infinite-volume universe, where creation is a localized and continuous process. Creation is not originating from some physically impossible and purely fictitious ecclesiastical “dot of origination” with some sort of subsequent fantasized “bang” and an equally fictional “inflation”. Instead, we point out how the Vedic concepts of Brahma (localized physical creation), Vishnu (localized maintenance and sustenance of physical form), and Shiva (localized aging and destruction of the physical) are actually physical principles that are inherent in the physical processes of the Continuous Creation of all things by the harmonious designs of an Intelligent Universe. We support the removal of relativistic considerations from cosmology as being due to an accumulation of 70 years of negative results in the search for imaginary “gravity waves”, by increasingly sophisticated technologies. We point out that decades of accumulated experimental data prove that “gravity waves” do not exist, with a data base equivalent to the accumulations of experimental evidence which was used to prove and verify Quantum Mechanics. LIGO results prove that distance is an absolute. That means volume is absolute, which means that space cannot “bend”, as has been proven by 70 years of accumulated evidence. We discuss the experimental evidence of the Force due to Time, bringing out that time in inherent in the same SubQuantum aether fluxes that are the actual cause of gravitation. The force due to time is orders of magnitude smaller than the force due to gravitation which is orders of magnitude smaller than the force due to an Electric field. The fact that these forces originate in aether fluxes allows for control of the temporal parameters of physical processes, such as reaction rates. We discuss the action-reaction forces which are due to information, Consciousness, and personality (uniqueness), which are due to the intentions, attentions, and emotional states of various forms of Consciousness, an understanding already inherent in the Schrodinger equations. Experimental support of these understandings is included. We then begin to address the vast numbers of varieties of quasi-physical forms of Consciousness, using physical records of physical evidence produced by and regarding Devic Beings, as examples. We describe how Devas are able to cause a vast array physical results, due to their being made from coherent organizations of the SubQuantum aether, which allows them direct control of all things which are originating from the SubQuantum, a vast array of potentialities. We describe the implications of these results for an improved understanding of Consciousness in all its varieties. We then explore the significance of the Golden Spiral and the phi ratio in the context of originating physical behaviors and physical forms. We bring some evidence which suggests that the rotational principle of the universe which is the origination of subatomic particle spin, spin field, the torsion field, the wrapping-rotation of Birkeland currents about themselves, the origination of the rotational helical component of transverse E/M, the origination of some forms of turbulence in fluids and gases, the origination of several types of "instabilities" in plasmas, and so on, may be originating in space itself, in the form of a space-inherent spin inducing force which is directly evolving from the Golden Spiral as a fractal force, which obviously influences the forms of living things and the behaviors of the various forces. We address the origination of time and gravitation from the SubQuantum aether plenum. We discuss in some detail the relation between mass-resonances and aether resonances. Along similar lines, we support the proposition that the DNA is an informational pattern that is inherent in space, everywhere there is a place, and that the DNA expresses itself in harmony with the environmental considerations of the given time and place. None of this is random. We include short discussions of Topological Thermodynamics and SubQuantum Kolmogorov Turbulence and the imaging of SubQuantum entities by way of instrumentation designed by Boyd and implemented by the government of Serbia. We discuss Consciousness Information Transports and the Quantum Information Field, at length, describing the importance of these factors in the Creation processes, addressing non-local quantum information field Information-flows which are arising in matter-matter, matter-energy, energy-energy, and Being-Being interactions. Mathematical treatments of infinite velocity infinitesimals allow us to perform analysis of infinite velocity SubQuantum systems. In infinite velocity systems, there are no “light cones”, nor are there any null vectors. This approach will use the Lie algebras of infinitesimals and a graded Projective Grassman vector algebra to develop essential understandings of the media and the originations and operations of Consciousness and eidetic information flows. Quantum phase-states of Stapp’s “Quantum Matter” are explored in the context of physical manifestations of forms of Consciousness. We perform an extensive discussion of the ubiquitous “force” responsible for the universal principle of Uniqueness and address some of the important facts that are resulting from this space-inherent property. Based on this, we discuss the originations of astrophysical and geological personality cells bringing out one of the decades-long Russian studies regarding cells of “land personality”. We discuss the experimental results involving local and non-local Information Storage and Transports, and some of the physical results which have obtained from information transports. We bring out the operational mechanics of Sheldrake’s “morphogenic fields” based on the physical and Consciousness-related properties of the SubQuantum aether involving interactions with the Ambient Intelligence. Finally we discuss some of the limitations of an indoctrinated and conditioned analytical mind, when trying to understand an Intelligent Universe and a localized Ambient Intelligence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[136] viXra:1608.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-11 14:26:29

On a Global Relative Revolution of the Universe Around Earth Induced by its Spin and the Outlines for a New Mechanism for Magnetic Fields Generation

Authors: Mutasim A. Ahmed
Comments: 21 Pages.

Although relative motion in the special theory of relativity, can have true and verifiable results, at least for a particular observer. But we ignored it in the case of the rotation of Earth and other planets and cosmic objects, around their own axes. My aim is to find (Earth's Resultant Inertial Rotation) ERIR. This ERIR is resulting from the curved path due to gravity, and the circular path of an observer due to rotation, out of the whole rotation. And for this ERIR an observer can assume the state of rest, while the whole observable universe will be revolving relatively around him in the opposite direction. This (Universe's Relative Revolution) URR will be displayed in conformity with circular motion laws. I was able to find an equation to describe this type of ERIR. By using this equation and postulating that aberration of distant objects light, would allow us to see a component of the tangential velocity produced by the URR along our line of sight. We reinterpreted the Hubble phenomenon, and predicted a blue-shift on the other side of the sky, mostly behind the zone of avoidance. The dependence of Hubble's constant on aberration angle is emphasized. Therefore we concluded that, the great attractor, the Virgo infall, the CMB dipole, the dark energy, and the fingers of God theories and the likes were based on illusions. All the CMB anomalies detected by WMAP spacecraft, and Planck spacecraft, can be explained. And the pioneer effect, can also be explained, the diurnal and annual variations of the effect also accounted for. Also it is possible using this global URR to find a universal mechanism for magnetic field generation. Which can be applied for all cosmic objects, from asteroids to magnetars and even galaxies, by assuming an excess in the positive charge due to protons, in deep space. Therefore we will have a solenoid mechanism for magnetic field generation. But we will give only the outlines, so that other investigators can develop it further.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[135] viXra:1608.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-14 09:01:10

Mass Scale of Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[134] viXra:1608.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-13 23:43:48

A Generalization of the Einstein-Maxwell Equations

Authors: Fredrick W. Cotton
Comments: 16 Pages.

The proposed modifications of the Einstein-Maxwell equations include: (1) the addition of a scalar term to the electromagnetic side of the equation rather than to the gravitational side, (2) the introduction of a 4-dimensional, nonlinear electromagnetic constitutive tensor and (3) the addition of curvature terms arising from the non-metric components of a general symmetric connection. The scalar term is defined by the condition that a spherically symmetric particle be force-free and mathematically well-behaved everywhere. The constitutive tensor introduces two auxiliary fields which describe the particle structure. The additional curvature terms couple both to particle solutions and to electromagnetic and gravitational wave solutions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[133] viXra:1608.0145 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-18 09:07:13

The PMNS Neutrino-Mixing Matrix in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawa and Sakata (PMNS) neutrino-mixing matrix is in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the unitary mixing matrix which contains information on states of neutrinos when they collide with the neutrinos in the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB). Since in SST there are only 3 Dirac neutrino flavours (there are not in existence Majorana neutrinos) and because the CP phase is equal to 180 degrees, the PMNS matrix is parameterized by three mixing angles only that are calculated from three fundamental weak phenomena that took place in the nuclear plasma at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe - it fixed the abundances of different flavours in CNB. Calculated mixing angles A(ij) are A(13) = 8.2654, A(12) = 33.0616 and A(23) = 41.3250 degrees. We showed that the mixing angle A(13) follows from internal structure of pions and from the atom-like structure of baryons. The ratios of the mixing angles are as 1 : 4 : 5 and they represent respectively one stable flavour (i.e. electron- or muon-neutrino), two entangled flavours (i.e. electron- or muon- plus tau-neutrino i.e. four entangled stable neutrinos), and three entangled flavours (i.e. electron- plus muon- plus tau-neutrino i.e. five entangled stable neutrinos). We as well calculated the degenerate masses of the three different neutrinos - calculated sum is 0.287 eV (it is consistent with experimental data). We calculated mass of tauon (1777.2 MeV), which is an analog to muon. We answered following question: Why neutrinos are left-handed whereas antineutrinos are right-handed? SST shows that sterile neutrinos are not in existence. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from the left-handedness of the Higgs-field components.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[132] viXra:1608.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 21:14:51

On the Properties of Generalized Multiplicative Coupled Fibonacci Sequence of R T H Order

Authors: A. D. Godase, M. B. Dhakne
Comments: 06 Pages.

Coupled Fibonacci sequences of lower order have been generalized in number of ways.In this paper the Multiplicative Coupled Fibonacci Sequence has been generalized for r t h order with some new interesting properties.
Category: Number Theory

[131] viXra:1608.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 21:20:08

On the Properties of K Fibonacci and K Lucas Numbers

Authors: A. D. Godase, M. B. Dhakne
Comments: 07 Pages.

In this paper, some properties of k Fibonacci and k Lucas numbers are derived and proved by using matrices S and M. The identities we proved are not encountered in the k Fibonacci and k Lucasnumber literature.
Category: Number Theory

[130] viXra:1608.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 21:22:02

Summation Identities for K-Fibonacci and K-Lucas Numbers Using Matrix Methods

Authors: A. D. Godase, M. B. Dhakne
Comments: 04 Pages.

In this paper we defined general matrices Mk(n,m), Tk,n and Sk(n,m) for k-Fibonacci number. Using these matrices we find some new summation properties for k-Fibonacci and k-Lucas numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[129] viXra:1608.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 21:23:18

Fundamental Properties of Multiplicative Coupled Fibonacci Sequences of Fourth Order Under Two Specific Schemes

Authors: A. D. Godase, M. B. Dhakne
Comments: 08 Pages.

Coupled Fibonacci sequences involve two sequences of integers in which the elements of one sequence are part of the generalization of the other and vice versa. K. T. Atanassov was first introduced coupled Fibonacci sequences of second order in additive form. In this paper, I present some properties of multiplicative coupled Fibonacci sequences of fourth order under two specific schemes.
Category: Number Theory

[128] viXra:1608.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 21:24:35

Recurrent Formulas of the Generalized Fibonacci Sequences of Fifth Order

Authors: A. D. Godase, M. B. Dhakne
Comments: 07 Pages.

Coupled Fibonacci sequences involve two sequences of integers in which the elements of one sequence are part of the generalization of the other and vice versa. K. T. Atanassov was first introduced coupled Fibonacci sequences of second order in additive form. There are 32 different schemes of generalization for the Fibonacci sequences of fifth order in the case of two sequences [1]. I introduce their recurrent formulas below.
Category: Number Theory

[127] viXra:1608.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 21:45:01

Unit Graph of Some Finite Group Zn, Cn and Dn

Authors: A. D. Godase, M. B. Dhakne
Comments: 10 Pages.

We represent finite group in the form of a graph, these graphs are called unit graph. Since the main role in obtaining the graph is played by the unit element of the group, this study is innovative. Also study of different properties like the subgroups of a group, normal subgroups of a group are carried out using the unit graph of the group.
Category: Algebra

[126] viXra:1608.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 21:46:46

Determinantal Identities for K Lucas Sequence

Authors: A. D. Godase, M. B. Dhakne
Comments: 07 Pages.

In this paper, we de¯ned new relationship between k Lucas sequences and determinants of their associated matrices, this approach is di®erent and never tried in k Fibonacci sequence literature.
Category: Number Theory

[125] viXra:1608.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 21:48:49

Fibonacci and k Lucas Sequences as Series of Fractions

Authors: A. D. Godase, M. B. Dhakne
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we defined new relationship between k Fibonacci and k Lucas sequences using continued fractions and series of fractions, this approach is different and never tried in k Fibonacci sequence literature.
Category: Number Theory

[124] viXra:1608.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 21:50:43

Recurrent Formulas of the Generalized Fibonacci Sequences of Third & Fourth Order

Authors: A. D. Godase, M. B. Dhakne
Comments: 08 Pages.

Coupled Fibonacci sequences involve two sequences of integers in which the elements of one sequence are part of the generalization of the other and vice versa. K. T. Atanassov was first introduced coupled Fibonacci sequences of second order in additive form. There are 8 different schemes of generalization for the Tribonacci sequences in the case of two sequences & there are 16 different schemes of generalization for the Tetranacci sequences in the case of two sequences. I introduce their recurrent formulas below.
Category: Number Theory

[123] viXra:1608.0132 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-20 18:34:34

An Examination of Measurement Relevant to Entanglement and Ontology: Answers to Some Long Standing Questions.

Authors: Georgina Woodward
Comments: 20 Pages.

This paper is about how measurement has been misunderstood and that has led onto further misunderstanding. It has given the impression of ‘spooky action at a distance’ and made it seem that Bell’s inequalities argument supporting that must be correct. An argument is presented here, considering whether some measurements are not informing about the pre-existing properties of particles; but rather provoking responses that are providing the measurement outcomes. The mathematically impossible predictions for quantum experiments when pre-existing properties are assumed is looked at, while provocations are considered. That is, with regard to different orientations of response being of non-equivalent type and therefore not justifiably, added and subtracted; calling into question the applicability of Bell’s inequalities. Different categories of measurement are given. Entanglement is discussed in the light of the previous measurement arguments. Concluding that entanglement is due to symmetry, shown in same first measurement outcomes fitting predictions. There is refutation of faster than light communication, as a measurement is a response to the provocation supplied by the apparatus, not a preexisting property that has come into being upon first partner measurement. An ontological background for QM, relativity and perception is mentioned and reference made to the RICP explanatory framework. The Harry Beck London underground ‘Tube’ map is used in an argument that high predictive power does not necessarily equate to complete correspondence with underlying reality, only an aspect or some aspects of it.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[122] viXra:1608.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-13 01:41:21

Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Resorcinol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Resorcinol is widely used in manufacturing of several drugs and pharmaceutical products that are mainly used for topical ailments. The main objective of this study is to use an alternative strategy i.e., biofield treatment to alter the physical, spectral and thermal properties of resorcinol. The resorcinol sample was divided in two groups, which served as control and treated group. The treated group was given biofield treatment and both groups i.e., control and treated were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Visible (UVVis) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed a significant decrease in crystallite size of treated sample i.e., 104.7 nm as compared to control (139.6 nm). The FTIR and UV-Vis spectra of treated sample did not show any change with respect to control. Besides, thermal analysis data showed 42% decrease in latent heat of fusion. The onset temperature of volatilization and temperature at which maximum volatilization happened was also decreased by 16% and 12.86%, respectively. The significant decrease in crystallite size may help to improve the spreadability and hence bioavailability of resorcinol in topical formulations. Also increase in volatilization temperature might increase the rate of reaction of resorcinol when used as intermediate. Hence, biofield treatment may alter the physical and thermal properties of resorcinol and make it more suitable for use in pharmaceutical industry.
Category: Chemistry

[121] viXra:1608.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-13 02:49:32

Fermi Expands Search for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Three studies published earlier this year, using six or more years of data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, have broadened the mission's dark matter hunt using some novel approaches. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[120] viXra:1608.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 13:27:30

Quantum Interpretation of the Impedance Model as Informed by Geometric Clifford Algebra

Authors: Michaele Suisse, Peter Cameron
Comments: 7 Pages. We revisit an earlier paper (Quantum Interpretation of the Impedance Model, 2013) to include new insights available from consideration of geometric Clifford algebra.

Quantum Interpretations seek to explain observables from formal theory. Impedances govern the flow of energy, are helpful in such attempts. An earlier note documented first efforts to resolve the interpretational ambiguities and contentions from the practical perspective of our model-based approach. In the interim, discovery of the deep connections between the impedance model and geometric Clifford algebra has shed new light on the measurement problem and its manifestations, which we revisit here.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[119] viXra:1608.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 13:47:27

Constructing a Parity Truth Table for the Interval Between Perfect Squares

Authors: Michael M. Ross
Comments: Pages.

By defining a function for a linear equation (of slope-intercept form) to be a composite generator, I am able to show that a subset of odd-value slopes must always have even solutions. I apply this function to generate a parity truth table for any perfect square interval that demonstrates the unequal cardinality of the subsets of odd and even composites. Using elementary set theory I demonstrate that this inequality is deterministic, eliminating the possibility of a prime-free interval. This method successfully attacks Legendre's conjecture, providing a logical-conceptual framework for a formal proof.
Category: Number Theory

[118] viXra:1608.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 12:54:05

О взаимодействии двух масс/about Interaction of Two Masses

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 4 Pages. in Russian

Interaction of two masses has been analysed within general frame of physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[117] viXra:1608.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 07:19:18

Elusive Weyl Fermion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have discovered a new type of Weyl semimetal, a material that opens the way for further study of Weyl fermions, a type of massless elementary particle hypothesized by high-energy particle theory and potentially useful for creating high-speed electronic circuits and quantum computers. [9] An international team of researchers has predicted the existence of several previously unknown types of quantum particles in materials. The particles— which belong to the class of particles known as fermions—can be distinguished by several intrinsic properties, such as their responses to applied magnetic and electric fields. In several cases, fermions in the interior of the material show their presence on the surface via the appearance of electron states called Fermi arcs, which link the different types of fermion states in the material's bulk. [8] An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Condensed Matter

[116] viXra:1608.0125 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-13 09:55:02

Generally Covariant Quantum Theory: Quantum Electrodynamics.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 13 Pages.

We continue our investigation of the new project launched in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8] by generalizing Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of elec- trons and photons, to our setting. At first, we deal with the respective two point functions, define the correct interaction theory as a series of connected Feynman diagrams and finally, we show that for a certain class of spacetime metrics, each diagram is finite and a modified perturbation series is analytic.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[115] viXra:1608.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 08:02:59

A General Class of Exactly Solvable Inverted Quadratic Liénard Type Equations

Authors: J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 7 pages

The inverted quadratic Liénard type equation is very useful in various branches of classical and quantum theories, since it admits a position dependent mass dynamics. The objective of the present work is to show that some interesting inverted nonlinear oscillator equations like the inverted version of Mathews-Lakshmanan oscillator belong to a general class of exactly solvable inverted quadratic Liénard equations. This class of equations is generated from a first integral formulated as an integro-differential equation. The obtained results may be used for the identification and integrability of a family of dynamical systems equations.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[114] viXra:1608.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 08:10:10

Deuterium Nucleus Confirms Proton Radius Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[113] viXra:1608.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-14 22:38:02

Alternative Charge Carriers and the Higgs Boson: Part I

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 8 Pages. Original paper revised and split into two parts due to length

A functional class of particles, the "Alternative Charge Carriers" (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the Electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[112] viXra:1608.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 04:19:41

Room-Temperature Supercurrent

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A room-temperature "supercurrent" has been identified in a Bose–Einstein condensate of quasiparticles called magnons. That's the finding of an international team of researchers, which says the work opens the door to using magnons in information processing. Other researchers, however, believe the claim is premature, arguing that less-novel explanations have not been ruled out. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[111] viXra:1608.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 05:18:59

Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Atomic and Thermal Properties of Ethanol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Ethanol is a polar organic solvent, and frequently used as a fuel in automobile industries, principally as an additive with gasoline due to its higher octane rating. It is generally produced from biomass such as corn, sugar and some other agriculture products. In the present study, impact of biofield treatment on ethanol was evaluated with respect to its atomic and thermal properties. The ethanol sample was divided into two parts i.e., control and treatment. Control part was remained untreated. Treatment part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using Gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance of 13C i.e., δ13C of treated ethanol was significantly changed from -199‰ upto 155‰ as compared to control. The DSC data exhibited that the latent heat of vaporization of treated ethanol was increased by 94.24% as compared to control, while no significant change was found in boiling point. Besides, HPLC data showed that retention time was 2.65 minutes in control, was increased to 2.76 minutes in treated ethanol sample. Thus, overall data suggest that biofield treatment has altered the atomic and thermal properties of ethanol.
Category: Chemistry

[110] viXra:1608.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 05:21:24

In vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Viral Load Against Human Immunodeficiency-1 and Cytomegalo Viruses

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Viral load quantification is the amount of particular viral DNA or RNA in a blood samples. It is one of the surrogate biomarker of AIDS. High viral load indicates that the immune system is failed to fight against viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on HIV-1 and HCMV in terms of viral loads as surrogate marker. The viral load assay was performed on stored stock cultures of HIV infected human plasma samples before and after 7 days of biofield treatment using Roche COBAS® AMPLICOR analyzer. Viral load (HIV-1 RNA and HCMV DNAaemia) was considered as surrogate marker for assessment of the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment in HIV infected stored plasma samples. The viral load quantification of HIV-1 RNA in infected stored plasma samples was significantly reduced by 65% in biofield treated group as compared to control. Additionally, viral load of HCMV DNAaemia in infected stored plasma samples was also reduced by 80% in the biofield treated group as compared to control. Because, children are more prone to HCMV infection and adults are generally liable to suffer from HIV-1 infection. As the biofield treatment has reduced HCMV DNAaemia, it could be beneficial for HIV infected children populations. Altogether, data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly reduced the viral load quantification in HIV-1 and HCMV infected stored plasma samples and could be a suitable alternative treatment strategy for AIDS patients in near future.
Category: Chemistry

[109] viXra:1608.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 05:23:31

Antibiogram, Biochemical Reactions and Biotyping of Biofield Treated Providencia Rettgeri

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Providencia rettgeri (P. rettgeri) is the key organism for gastrointestinal tract infections due to its high virulence properties. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on P. rettgeri in lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, and biotype number. The lyophilized strain of P. rettgeri (ATCC 9250) was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treatment. After biofield treatment, Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 162 after revival (Study I). The revived sample of Gr. IIB was retreated on day 162 (Study II), and divided into three separate tubes. Tube 1 was analyzed on day 5, likewise, tube 2 and 3 were analyzed on day 10 and 15, respectively after their sub-culturing. All the experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration were significantly improved by 71.43%, out of twenty-eight and 56.25%, out of thirty-two, respectively in the treated cells of P. rettgeri as compared to the control. The biochemical reactions also showed the significant (60.61%) alteration in the treated sample with respect to control. The biotype numbers were substantially changed in all the treated groups as compared to the control. Moreover, the organism was changed as Proteus mirabilis in all the treated groups except in Gr. IIA, as compared to the control. These results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on P. rettgeri in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Mind Science

[108] viXra:1608.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 06:37:32

Weirder Quantum Correlations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A research team led by a Heriot-Watt scientist has shown that the universe is even weirder than had previously been thought. Quantum correlations do not imply instant causation. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[107] viXra:1608.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-11 17:19:45

Kinetic Theory of Dark Energy Within General Relativity

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper will present a new theory for what we call “Dark Energy” by explaining it as a form of kinetic energy. It will be presented within General Relativity where we will use new terms and explain them in detail. Some of the new terms that will be presented also fall under Quantum Mechanics. It will be explained in detail how and why dark energy comes to be and why it is now dominant in the Universe which will explain the observational evidence that has been attained on this subject and has so far been rather puzzling to scientists when it comes to the very nature of “Dark Energy”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[106] viXra:1608.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-11 19:49:53

The Mobility, Volume and Gravity Principles of Life Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Three Principles of life formation are presented according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[105] viXra:1608.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-13 19:13:11

Uso de Las Preferencias Politicas Para Inducir Una Topologia en un Conjunto de Votantes

Authors: Ivan Guzman
Comments: 8 Pages.

Estas breves notas exploran un metodo para inducir una topologia en un conjunto de votantes a partir de las preferencias de politicas publicas de los mismos. Asimismo, se evaluan algunas caracteristicas basicas de este espacio topologico y sus conexiones con la teoria clasica de eleccion publica.
Category: Social Science

[104] viXra:1608.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-11 08:50:17

Entropy and Stability in the Grand Unification Scheme

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Does the grand unification work when entropy is cause by too much D-energy?
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[103] viXra:1608.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-04 01:36:13

The case for Einstein’s Vision and a New Paradigm of Relativity

Authors: Robert Spoljaric
Comments: 9 Pages.

Einstein’s ultimate vision of physics was to extend general relativity by incorporating electromagnetism and unifying the large-scale world where gravity dominates with the subatomic realm of quantum physics. But he failed to find a version that would explain quantum phenomena that involved neither statistics nor measurements. In this paper we will show he was right by generalising the energy of a photon using the equations of relativistic mechanics to render relativistic dynamics consistent with the de Broglie relations, which, in principle, gives us a coherent account of individual phenomena as a ‘thing-in-itself’. Further, when we carry this line of reasoning through to its logical conclusion we realise that the introduction of the quantum was a necessary step in the evolution of physics. Einstein should have taken this approach to realise his vision of physics, which could have preceded the advent of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics in 1925. The reason Einstein missed this approach is due to the fact that he needed to go beyond de Broglie’s wave-particle duality for both light and matter by using the concept of relativistic mass. The physics used in this article has already been discussed in [1] and [2].
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[102] viXra:1608.0111 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-21 12:06:09

Quelques Conséquences de la Matière Noire Entropique Relativiste

Authors: Nicolas Poupart
Comments: 6 Pages.

L'objectif de cet article est de tirer quelques conséquences importantes de la théorie de la matière noire entropique relativiste (GEST) dont l'approximation des champs faibles (SWFA) est un modèle. Il y sera exposé la dérivation de la relation de Tully-Fisher, la dérivation d'une nouvelle forme de décalage de fréquence, le décalage intrinsèque, et la courbe de distribution de la masse (matière) noire. Ces extensions théoriques permettront peut-être de comprendre les erreurs expérimentales inexplicables dans le calcul de la constante de Hubble et le problème de la création et de la stabilisation des disques galactiques. De plus, puisque le champ de matière noire exposé est probablement le champ BEHHGK, les implications du calcul de la courbe de distribution dépasse largement le domaine de l'astrophysique.
Category: Astrophysics

[101] viXra:1608.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-11 02:02:37

A Comparative Study on Cosmic Dark Energy and Rotational Kinetic Energy

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana
Comments: 5 Pages.

Qualitatively and quantitatively, we review the basics of standard cosmology with respect to Planck scale, Mach’s principle, superluminal expansion speeds and superluminal rotation speeds. Important results to be noted are: 1) At H0=70 km/sec/Mpc, fitted current cosmic temperature is 2.721 K; 2) Estimated current cosmic radius is 90 billion light years and is 2 times the current observable cosmic radius; 3) Estimated current cosmic mass is 1.146E54 kg and is 8 times the current estimate; 4) Magnitude of the currently believed visible mass density is equal to the estimated current cosmic mass density; 5) Magnitude of the currently believed dark energy is equal to the magnitude of the estimated current cosmic rotational kinetic energy;
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[100] viXra:1608.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-10 07:24:36

Superstrong Magnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[99] viXra:1608.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-10 07:49:42

Counting Microscopic Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Scientists from Russia and Australia have proposed a simple new way of counting microscopic particles in optical materials by means of a laser. [19] A new MIT study could open up new areas of technology based on types of light emission that had been thought to be "forbidden," or at least so unlikely as to be practically unattainable. The new approach, the researchers say, could cause certain kinds of interactions between light and matter, which would normally take billions of years to happen, to take place instead within billionths of a second, under certain special conditions. [18] Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new tool for detecting and measuring the polarization of light based on a single spatial sampling of the light, rather than the multiple samples required by previous technologies. The new device makes use of the unique properties of organic polymers, rather than traditional silicon, for polarization detection and measurement. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[98] viXra:1608.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-10 04:48:21

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of P-Chlorobenzaldehyde: an Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

p-Chlorobenzaldehyde (p-CBA) is used as an important chemical intermediate for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyestuffs, optical brighteners, and metal finishing products. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-CBA. The study was accomplished in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Finally, both the samples (control and treated) were evaluated using various analytical techniques. The surface area analysis showed a substantial increase in the surface area by 23.06% after biofield treatment with respect to the control sample. The XRD analysis showed the crystalline nature of both control and treated samples. The X-ray diffractogram showed the significant alteration in the peak intensity in treated sample as compared to the control. The XRD analysis showed the slight increase (2.31%) in the crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control. The TGA analysis exhibited the decrease (10%) in onset temperature of thermal degradation form 140°C (control) to 126°C in treated sample. The Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was slightly decreased (2.14%) from 157.09°C (control) to 153.73°C in treated sample of p-CBA. This decrease in Tmax was possibly due to early phase of vaporization in treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectrum of treated p-CBA showed the increase in wavenumber of C=C stretching as compared to the control. The UV spectroscopic study showed the similar pattern of wavelength in control and treated samples.
Category: Chemistry

[97] viXra:1608.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-10 04:50:54

Use of Energy Healing Medicine Against Escherichia coli for Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Biochemical Reaction and Biotyping

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections are the major health concern, as it causes infections in human mainly in urinary tract, ear, and wound infections. The present study evaluates the impact of biofield energy treatment on E. coli regarding antimicrobial sensitivity assay, biochemical study and biotype number. Four multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical lab isolates (LSs) of E. coli (LS 12, LS 13, LS 42, and LS 51) were taken in two groups i.e. control and treated. After treatment, above mentioned parameter were evaluated on day 10 in control and treated samples using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The antimicrobial sensitivity assay was reported with 46.67% alteration (14 out of 30 tested antimicrobials) in treated group of MDR E. coli isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) study showed the alteration in MIC values of about 34.37% (11 out of 32) tested antimicrobials, after biofield treatment in clinical isolates of E. coli. Piperacillin/tazobactam was reported with improved sensitivity and four-fold decrease in the MIC value (64 to ≤16 μg/mL) in LS 42, as compared with the control. Amoxicillin/kclavulanate reported with improved sensitivity pattern from resistance to susceptible, with two-fold decrease in MIC value (>16/8 to ≤8/4 μg/mL) in biofield treated LS 51. Further, biochemical study showed 24.24% alteration (8 out of 33) in tested biochemical reactions after treatment among four isolates of E. coli as compared to the control. A change in biotype number (7774 4272) was reported as compared to the control, (7311 4012), with new organism identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae in biofield treated LS 13 with respect to the control organism, E. coli. Overall, data suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment can be applied to alter the antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and biotype number of E. coli.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[96] viXra:1608.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 15:55:41

On Quadrics and Pseudoquadrics Inversions in Hyperpseudospheres

Authors: Robert B. Easter
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note on quadrics and pseudoquadrics inversions in hyperpseudospheres shows that the inversions produce different results in a three-dimensional spacetime. Using Geometric Algebra, all quadric and pseudoquadric entities and operations are in the G(4,8) Double Conformal Space-Time Algebra (DCSTA). Quadrics at zero velocity are purely spatial entities in x y z-space that are hypercylinders in w x y z-spacetime. Pseudoquadrics represent quadrics in a three-dimensional (3D) x y w, y z w, or z x w spacetime with the pseudospatial w-axis that is associated with time w=c t. The inversion of a quadric in a hyperpseudosphere can produce a Darboux pseudocyclide in a 3D spacetime that is a quartic hyperbolic (infinite) surface, which does not include the point at infinity. The inversion of a pseudoquadric in a hyperpseudosphere can produce a Darboux pseudocyclide in a 3D spacetime that is a quartic finite surface. A quadric and pseudoquadric can represent the same quadric surface in space, and their two different inversions in a hyperpseudosphere represent the two types of reflections of the quadric surface in a hyperboloid.
Category: Geometry

[95] viXra:1608.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-11 09:38:47

Is Unmatter a Plausible Dark Matter Candidate?

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

Current observations reinforce the hypothesis that Dark Matter does not consist of particles resembling in any way the primary constituents of the Standard Model (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons or the Higgs scalar). By default, these findings point to an earlier proposal according to which Dark Matter is an elusive manifestation of “Unmatter”.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[94] viXra:1608.0101 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-18 15:48:23

Kic 8462852 Intrinsic Variability

Authors: Fernando Martinez Isla
Comments: 5 Pages.

The light curve of KIC 8462852 in dips around day 1519 and 1568 shows features matching clearly the rotational period of the star. Changes in brightness (unevenly distributed around its surface in these two cases) are shown modulated by the rotational period. Therefore the probable explication of this mysterious variability must be some phenomenon of the star itself instead of occultations by external objects.
Category: Astrophysics

[93] viXra:1608.0099 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-06 08:46:55

The Logical Structure of Philosophy Psychology, Mind and Language in Wittgenstein and Searle

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 81 Pages. newest version 11/6/16

I provide a critical survey of some of the major findings of Wittgenstein and Searle on the logical structure of intentionality (mind, language, behavior), taking as my starting point Wittgenstein’s fundamental discovery –that all truly ‘philosophical’ problems are the same—confusions about how to use language in a particular context, and so all solutions are the same—looking at how language can be used in the context at issue so that its truth conditions (Conditions of Satisfaction or COS) are clear. The basic problem is that one can say anything but one cannot mean (state clear COS for) any arbitrary utterance and meaning is only possible in a very specific context. I begin with ‘On Certainty’ and continue the analysis of recent writings by and about them from the perspective of the two systems of thought, employing a new table of intentionality and new dual systems nomenclature.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[92] viXra:1608.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-11 23:42:15

Asymmetric Quicksort

Authors: Leorge Takeuchi
Comments: 16 Pages. Two link addresses (URI) were wrong.

Quicksort, invented by Tony Hoare in 1959, is one of the fastest sorting algorithms. However, conventional implementations have some weak points, including the following: swaps to exchange two elements are redundant, deep recursive calls may encounter stack overflow, and the case of repeated many elements in input data is a well- known issue. This paper improves quicksort to make it more secure and faster using new or known ideas in C language.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[91] viXra:1608.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 07:01:39

Modified Equations of Newtonian Dynamics (MEND) vs Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND)

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 6 Pages.

Asking the question: What if the Newtonian gravitational constant G, is inherently comprised of segmented values? Modified Equations of Newtonian Dynamics (MEND) as an alternative to Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND), by postulating the Newtonian constant of gravitation G, as an aggregate of constants. A mechanism by which the galactic rotation curves could be explained by utilizing the segmented values of G. The sacrosanct doctrine of non-variability of G is preserved. The view is taken that the author of (MoND), Dr. Milgrom unwittingly stumbled upon the segmented values of the Newtonian constant of gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[90] viXra:1608.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 16:47:42

Quaternion Dynamics, Part 2 - Identities, Octonions, and Pentuples

Authors: Gary D. Simpson
Comments: 39 Pages.

This text develops various identities for Hamilton's quaternions. The results are presented in order of difficulty. Results are organized as Axioms, Vectors, Quaternions, and Matrices. There are also sections for Octonions and Pentuples. Axioms are presented first and are largely without rigorous proof. Subsequent identities are constructed from prior identities. When complex conjugates are discussed, the author's thinking is biased towards the original quaternion having a positive vector portion and the conjugate having a negative vector portion. To genuinely understand what is presented, it is recommended that the reader should visualize the concepts in addition to manipulating them algebraically. The algebra is certainly true, but the visual understanding is more elegant and intuitive. This text will likely be updated occasionally.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[89] viXra:1608.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 17:38:43

The Current Reversal Phenomenon of Brownian Particles in a Two-Dimensional Potential with L{\'{e}}vy Noise

Authors: Bing Wang
Comments: 10 Pages.

Effects of L{\'{e}}vy noise on self-propelled particles in a two-dimensional potential is investigated. The current reversal phenomenon appear in the system. $V$($x$ direction average velocity) changes from negative to positive with increasing asymmetry parameter $\beta$, and changes from positive to negative with increasing self-propelled velocity $v_0$. The $x$ direction average velocity $V$ has a maximum with increasing modulation constant $\lambda$.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[88] viXra:1608.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-28 11:35:49

Plasma, Cosmic Noise, Heterodynes and Harmonics

Authors: Frank H.Makinson
Comments: 6 Pages.

The bulk of the electromagnetic (EM) waves produced and propagating throughout the universe are created in plasmas that are within the influence of a magnetic field. Every naturally produced EM wave will have multiple frequencies impressed upon their waveform during their initial creation and interactions within a plasma. The interaction of non-aligned electromagnetic waves within a plasma is not discussed in the literature and this interaction is the probable cause for cosmic and radio noise. Cyclotron particle motion in plasma tubes will produce helical electromagnetic waveforms. These waveforms will present a variety of characteristics at a receiving site depending upon the radius of the helical waveform, distance and viewing angle relative to the center of the helix. Incorrect conclusions can be made not knowing an electromagnetic waveform is helical with a radius.
Category: Astrophysics

[87] viXra:1608.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 22:08:41

Edge Based Grid Super-Imposition for Crowd Emotion Recognition

Authors: Amol S Patwardhan
Comments: 6 Pages.

Numerous automatic continuous emotion detection system studies have examined mostly use of videos and images containing individual person expressing emotions. This study examines the detection of spontaneous emotions in a group and crowd settings. Edge detection was used with a grid of lines superimposition to extract the features. The feature movement in terms of movement from the reference point was used to track across sequences of images from the color channel. Additionally the video data capturing was done on spontaneous emotions invoked by watching sports events from group of participants. The method was view and occlusion independent and the results were not affected by presence of multiple people chaotically expressing various emotions. The edge thresholds of 0.2 and grid thresholds of 20 showed the best accuracy results. The overall accuracy of the group emotion classifier was 70.9%.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[86] viXra:1608.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 22:15:06

Human Activity Recognition Using Temporal Frame Decision Rule Extraction

Authors: Amol Patwardhan
Comments: 4 Pages.

Activities of humans and their recognition has many practical and real world applications such as safety, security, surveillance, humanoid assistive robotics and intelligent simulation systems. Numerous human action and emotion recognition systems included analysis of position and geometric features and gesture based co-ordinates to detect actions. There exits additional data and information in the movement and motion based features and temporal and time-sequential series of image and video frames which can be leveraged to detect and extract a certain actions, postures, gestures and expressions. This paper uses dynamic, temporal, time-scale dependent data to compare with decision rules and templates for activity recognition. The human shape boundaries and silhouette is extracted using geometric co-ordinate and centroid model across multiple frames. The extracted shape boundary is transformed to binary state using eigen space mapping and parameter dependent canonical transformation in 3D space dimension. The image blob data frames are down sampled using activity templates to a single candidate reference frame. This candidate frame was compared with the decision rule driven model to associate with an activity class label. The decision rule driven and activity templates method produced 64% recognition accuracy indicating that the method was feasible for recognizing human activities.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[85] viXra:1608.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 22:44:28

The Higgs Boson and the Alternative Charge Carriers

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 pages

Abstract A functional class of particles, the Alternative Charge Carriers (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[84] viXra:1608.0090 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-14 21:10:19

Superattractive Fixed-points of a Newton-like Mappping of the Hardy Z Function

Authors: Stephen Crowley
Comments: 9 Pages.

There is shown to exist a unique solutions to the LeClaire-França exact equation for the first 98,020 of the first 100,000 zeros of the Hardy Z Function via the construction of Cauchy sequences whose accumulation points are guaranteed via an application of the Newton-Kantorovich theorem applied to a Newton-like map
Category: Functions and Analysis

[83] viXra:1608.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:13:56

Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated 3-Chloronitrobenzene: Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Studies

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

The chloronitrobenzenes are widely used as the intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals, pesticides and rubber processing chemicals. However, due to their wide applications, they are frequently released into the environment thereby creating hazards. The objective of the study was to use an alternative strategy i.e. biofield energy treatment and analysed its impact on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 3-chloronitrobenzene (3-CNB). For the study, the 3-CNB sample was taken and divided into two groups, named as control and treated. The analytical techniques used were X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-Visible (UV-Vis), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The treated group was subjected to the biofield energy treatment and analysed using these techniques against the control sample. The XRD data showed an alteration in relative intensity of the peak along with 30% decrease in the crystallite size of the treated sample as compared to the control. The TGA studies revealed the decrease in onset temperature of degradation from 140ºC (control) to 120°C, while maximum thermal degradation temperature was changed from 157.61ºC (control) to 150.37ºC in the treated sample as compared to the control. Moreover, the DSC studies revealed the decrease in the melting temperature from 51°C (control) →47°C in the treated sample. Besides, the UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra of the treated sample did not show any significant alteration in terms of wavelength and frequencies of the peaks, respectively from the control sample. The overall study results showed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of 3-CNB that can further affect its use as a chemical intermediate and its fate in the environment.
Category: Chemistry

[82] viXra:1608.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:16:11

Evaluation of Thermal and Physical Properties of Magnesium Nitride Powder: Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Magnesium nitride (Mg3N2 ) has gained extensive attention due to its catalytic and optoelectronic properties. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on physical and thermal properties of Mg3N2 powder. The Mg3N2 powder was divided into two parts i.e. control and treated. The control part was remained as untreated and the treated part was subjected to the Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated Mg3N2 samples were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The DSC results showed the specific heat capacity of 2.24 Jg-1°C-1 in control, which increased upto 5.55 Jg-1°C-1 in treated Mg3N2 sample. The TGA data revealed that the onset temperature for the formation of magnesium oxide, possibly due to oxidation of Mg3N2 in the presence of air and moisture, was reduced from 421.0°C (control) to 391.33°C in treated sample. Besides, the XRD data revealed that the lattice parameter and unit cell volume of treated Mg3N2 samples were increased by 0.20 and 0.61% respectively, as compared to the control. The shifting of all peaks toward lower Bragg angle was observed in treated sample as compared to the control. The XRD diffractogram also showed that the relative intensities of all peaks were altered in treated sample as compared to control. In addition, the density of treated Mg3N2 was reduced by 0.60% as compared to control. Furthermore, the crystallite size was significantly increased from 108.05 nm (control) to 144.04 nm in treated sample as compared to the control. Altogether data suggest that biofield energy treatment has substantially altered the physical and thermal properties of Mg3N2 powder. Thus, the biofield treatment could be applied to modulate the catalytic and optoelectronic properties of Mg3N2 for chemical and semiconductor industries.
Category: Chemistry

[81] viXra:1608.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:18:18

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Butylated Hydroxytoluene

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

The antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of foods and the management of oxidative stress related diseases by acting on reactive oxygen species and free radicals. However, their use in high temperature processed food and pharmaceuticals are limited due to its low thermal stability. The objective of the study was to use the biofield energy treatment on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) i.e. antioxidant and analyse its impact on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of BHT. For the study, the sample was divided into two groups and termed as control and treated. The treated group was subjected to biofield energy treatment. The characterization of treated sample was done using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD results showed the alteration in lattice parameters, unit cell volume, and molecular weight along with 14.8% reduction in the crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control. The DSC analysis showed an increase in the latent heat of fusion from 75.94 J/g (control) to 96.23 J/g in the treated BHT sample. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset temperature of decomposition (130°C→136°C) and maximum thermal decomposition temperature (152.39°C→158.42°C) in the treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the FT-IR analysis reported the shifting of aromatic C-H stretching peak towards higher frequency (3068→3150 cm-1) and C=C stretching towards lower frequency (1603→1575 cm-1) as compared to the control sample. Moreover, the UV spectrum also revealed the shifting of the peak at λmax 247 nm (control) to 223 nm in the treated sample. The overall results showed the impact of biofield energy treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of BHT sample.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[80] viXra:1608.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:20:30

Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Potato Micropropagation Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Potato Micropropagation Medium (PMM) is the growth medium used for in vitro micropropagation of potato tubers. The present study was intended to assess the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of PMM. The study was attained in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Finally, both the samples (control and treated) were evaluated using various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis- differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), UV-Vis spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis showed the crystalline nature of both control and treated samples of PMM. The X-ray diffractogram showed the significant increase in the intensity of XRD peaks in treated sample as compared to the control. The XRD analysis revealed 6.64% increase in the average crystallite size of treated PMM with respect to the control. The DSC analysis showed about 8.66% decrease in the latent heat of fusion in treated sample with respect to the control. The TGA-DTA analysis exhibited about 4.71% increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation after biofield treatment with respect to the control, while the maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) was also increased (5.06%) in treated sample with respect to the control. This increase in Tmax might be correlated with increased thermal stability of treated sample as compared to the control. The UV spectroscopic study showed the slight blue shift in λmax of treated sample with respect to the control. FT-IR spectrum of control PMM showed the peak at 3132 cm-1 (C-H stretching) that was observed at higher wavenumber i.e. at 3161 cm-1 in the treated sample. Other vibrational peaks in the treated sample were observed in the similar region as that of the control. Altogether, the XRD, DSC, TGA-DTA, UV-Vis, and FT-IR analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physicochemical properties of PMM. This treated PMM might be more effective as a micropropagation medium as compared to the control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[79] viXra:1608.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:22:10

Chromatographic, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated N,N-Dimethylformamide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 08 Pages.

N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) is a ‘universal’ solvent and has wide variety of applications in organic synthesis, purification, crystallization, and as cross-linking agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of DMF after the biofield energy treatment using various analytical techniques. DMF sample was divided into two parts, one part (control) remained as untreated, while the other (treated) part was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The treated sample was subdivided into three parts named as T1, T2, and T3 for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Five relatively intense peaks were observed in the mass spectrum of both control and treated samples of DMF. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in DMF was slightly decreased by 5.76% in T1, and increased by 48.73%, and 30.17% in T2, and T3 samples, respectively as compared to the control [where, PM- primary molecule, (PM+1)- isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H or 15N]. Similarly, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+2)/PM was decreased by 10.34% in T1 and then increased upto 43.67% (T2) as compared to the control [where, (PM+2)- isotopic molecule for 18O]. In high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the treated DMF showed similar retention time (TR) as compared to the control with an additional small peak at 2.26 min appeared in the treated sample. In DSC thermogram the heat change in a sharp endothermic transition at around 61°C of treated DMF was increased by 152.56% as compared to the control. Further, C=O and C-N stretching frequencies of treated sample were shifted by 7 cm-1 and 3 cm-1, respectively towards low energy region in Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. These results suggested that biofield energy treatment has significantly altered the physical and spectroscopic properties of DMF, which could make them more stable solvent in organic synthesis and as a suitable formulation agent in polymer/paint industry.
Category: Biochemistry

[78] viXra:1608.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 13:39:05

Trapped Ion Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[77] viXra:1608.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 14:22:29

Is Thermodynamic Irreversibility a Consequence of the Expansion of the Universe?

Authors: Szabolcs Osváth
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper explains thermodynamic irreversibility by applying the expansion of the Universe to thermodynamic systems. The effect of metric expansion is immeasurably small on shorter scales than intergalactic distances. Multi-particle systems, however, are chaotic, and amplify any small disturbance exponentially. Metric expansion gives rise to time-asymmetric behavior in thermodynamic systems in a short time (few nanoseconds in air, few ten picoseconds in water). In contrast to existing publications, this paper explains without any additional assumptions the rise of thermodynamic irreversibility from the underlying reversible mechanics of particles. Calculations for the special case which assumes FLRW metric, slow motions (v<<c) and approximates space locally by Euclidean space show that metric expansion causes entropy increase in isolated systems. The rise of time-asymmetry, however, is not affected by these assumptions. Any influence of the expansion of the Universe on the local metric causes a coupling between local mechanics and evolution of the Universe.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[76] viXra:1608.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 11:34:13

Algorithm for Calculating Terms of a Number Sequence using an Auxiliary Sequence

Authors: Bengt Månsson
Comments: 10 Pages.

A formula giving the $n$:th number of a sequence defined by a recursion formula plus initial value is deduced using generating functions. Of particular interest is the possibility to get an exact expression for the n:th term by means a recursion formula of the same type as the original one. As for the sequence itself it is of some interest that the original recursion is non-linear and the fact that the sequence grows very fast, the number of digits increasing more or less exponentially. Other sequences with the same rekursion span can be treated similarly.
Category: Number Theory

[75] viXra:1608.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 11:37:29

In the Spirit of the Olympics

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

The present article, as a testimony to ‘The spirit of The Olympics’, explores Wikipedia Occurrence Frequency and Trend Search based analytics of different countries, pertaining to the term ‘Olympics’, in an attempt to understand the significance each of the 205 participating countries assigns to this foremost sports competition. From the results, the significant interest in the events by Europe and the Americas become apparent, followed by Asia, Oceania and finally Africa. Citius-Altius-Fortius!
Category: Social Science

[74] viXra:1608.0080 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-23 11:23:36

Cosmology, the Many Universes Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and Immortality

Authors: Nick Prince
Comments: 39 Pages.

Observational evidence suggests that the universe is infinite, geometrically flat, homogeneous and isotropic on large scales. Hence, we should expect to find large numbers of identical copies of any object consistent with the laws of physics including conscious identities like people. Under suitable notions of continuity of identity, This would imply that immortality of these conscious identities is a consequence of functionalism. I argue that the same conclusion can be drawn using an Everett Deutsch interpretation of quantum mechanics. I also argue why this is the correct interpretation. Lewis’s “terrifying corollary” is reviewed and I discuss how Bostrom’s simulation argument, if correct, might mitigate our futures.
Category: Quantum Physics

[73] viXra:1608.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 08:52:59

The Universe's Existence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

New experimental results show a difference in the way neutrinos and antineutrinos behave, which could explain why matter persists over antimatter. [9] Over the past few years, multiple neutrino experiments have detected hints for leptonic charge parity (CP) violation—a finding that could help explain why the universe is made of matter and not antimatter. So far, matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained by any physics theory and is one of the biggest unsolved problems in cosmology. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[72] viXra:1608.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 07:25:18

The Relativity Theory by A. Einstein as an Example for Questionable Mechanisms in Science

Authors: J. Schwander
Comments: 36 pages in German

This article describes questionable mechanisms and mistakes in science. The Relativity Theory (RT) which A. Einstein published will be used as an example: The SRT (Special RT) in 1905 and the GRT (General RT) in 1915. Both theories have been experimentally proven numerous times and are an essential basis of modern physics. The article shows that the constancy of light velocity does not correlate with reality. The actual movement of an object in a defined space matches its imaginary reflection we perceive in our brain only from an internal, but not from an external view. [internal = orientation on space where the object moves; external = outside of that space] With regard to light, external observers or measuring instruments do not register the distance of photons. Instead, they see the resultant movement of these light particles and the system (space) in which they are in motion. The differences between the external and internal view are therefore not caused by photons or waves, but because of observers that orientate on different spaces (coordinate systems). Comparing both views, postulates arise that completely contradict a rational logic. Therefore, diverse statements of the RT do not withstand a critical examination. Moreover, we cannot use mathematics to verify if axioms (non-proven assumptions) of a theory are correct. Therefore, the various pieces of evidence of the RT state nothing about whether their bases accord with reality or not. Hence, this theory is based on the belief of correctness of assumptions, which can be refuted. The second part of the article will describe former and current scientific mistakes. Why they occur and endure will be analyzed. The factors are the belief in science, disregard of fundamentals of scientific work, questionable development in research and teaching, as well as skepticism towards new theses when a theory has already been established. This leads to fatal problems in the environmental sector. At the end of the article, a fundamental system change is suggested, which is indispensable in order to obtain our long-term livelihood.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[71] viXra:1608.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-07 23:21:52

The Solitary Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 3 Pages.

nk 404, shriram surabhi, mallasandra, bayanapalyaThe present article demonstrates the generation of signal based chaos by generating the engineer’s chaos as a product of sinusoids and then wave-shaping them by hyperbolic secant (soliton) or tangent (taliton) functions. The frequency ratio of the input sinusoids serves as the control parameter, and the nature of chaos is studied by observing the iterative map, bifurcation plots and phase portraits. While the phase portraits show interesting and rich patterns, the spectrum shows the new frequency components generated, thanks to the nonlinear wave-shaping.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[70] viXra:1608.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 02:57:31

Watson Doctor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Watson correctly diagnoses woman after doctors were stumped. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[69] viXra:1608.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 04:18:21

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated O-Aminophenol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

O-aminophenol has extensive uses as a conducting material and in electrochemical devices. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical thermal and spectral properties of o-aminophenol. The study was performed in two groups; the control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated o-aminophenol samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Ultra violet-visible spectroscopy analysis (UV-vis). The XRD analysis showed an increase in peak intensity of the treated o-aminophenol with respect to the control. Additionally, the crystallite size of the treated o-aminophenol was increased by 34.51% with respect to the control sample. DSC analysis showed a slight increase in the melting temperature of the treated sample as compared to the control. However, a significant increase in the latent heat of fusion was observed in the treated o-aminophenol by 162.24% with respect to the control. TGA analysis showed an increase in the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) in treated o-aminophenol (178.17ºC) with respect to the control (175ºC). It may be inferred that the thermal stability of o-aminophenol increased after the biofield treatment. The surface area analysis using BET showed a substantial decrease in the surface area of the treated sample by 47.1% as compared to the control. The FT-IR analysis showed no changes in the absorption peaks of the treated sample with respect to the control. UV-visible analysis showed alteration in the absorption peaks i.e. 211→203 nm and 271→244 nm of the treated o-aminophenol as compared to the control. Overall, the results showed that the biofield treatment caused an alteration in the physical, thermal and spectral properties of the treated o-aminophenol.
Category: Chemistry

[68] viXra:1608.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 04:21:36

Biofield Energy Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modulating Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of 3-Chloro-4-fluoroaniline

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

3-Chloro-4-fluoroaniline (CFA) is used as an intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of CFA. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated CFA samples were further characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD analysis of treated CFA showed significant changes in the intensity of peaks as compared to the control. However, the average crystallite size (G) was significantly decreased by 22.08% in the treated CFA with respect to the control. The DSC analysis showed slight decrease in the melting temperature of treated CFA (47.56°C) as compared to the control (48.05°C). However, the latent heat of fusion in the treated sample was considerably changed by 4.28% with respect to the control. TGA analysis showed increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated sample (163.34°C) as compared to the control sample (159.97°C). Moreover the onset temperature of treated CFA (148 °C) was also increased as compared to the control sample (140°C). Additionally, the weight loss of the treated sample was reduced (42.22%) with respect to the control (56.04%) that may be associated with increase in thermal stability. The FT-IR spectroscopic evaluation showed emergence of one new peak at 3639 cm-1 and alteration of the N-H (stretching and bending) peak in the treated sample as compared to the control. Overall, the result demonstrated that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has paramount influence on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of CFA.
Category: Biochemistry

[67] viXra:1608.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-07 15:04:08

The Complexity Principle of Microbiology in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of microbiology is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Biochemistry

[66] viXra:1608.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-07 16:03:58

Chemical Equilibrium in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis stars are not in chemical equilibrium, because their pressures, temperatures and concentrations of their chemical components change greatly during their evolution.
Category: Chemistry

[65] viXra:1608.0071 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-10 05:17:53

"Patch" for DNA

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 5 Pages.

The article reviewed a technique of diagnosing and treating gene viral diseases by way of identification and subsequent recovery (repair) of abnormal chromosomes.
Category: Physics of Biology

[64] viXra:1608.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-07 08:30:00

Why Humans Become Old

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 5 Pages.

The article considers the telomere theory which authors were awarded the Nobel Prize in 2009. The aging process is explained from the point of view of Information-Wave Medicine (IWM). The aging program is shown to be a multi-level genetic structure controlled by the body’s internal biological clock.
Category: Physics of Biology

[63] viXra:1608.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-07 06:56:35

Generalization of the Bernstein-Vazirani Algorithm

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 3 pages

We present generalization of the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm. Suppose there are many natural numbers: $a_1,a_2,a_3,\ldots,a_N$. Here, we introduce a function: $ g:{\bf N}\rightarrow \{0,1\}. $ Our goal is to determine the following values simultaneously: $ g(a_1),g(a_2),g(a_3),\ldots, g(a_N). $ The speed to determine $N$ values improves by a factor of $N$ by comparing the classical case. We obtain the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm when $g:a_i\rightarrow a_i$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[62] viXra:1608.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 11:05:23

The Titius-Bode Law Once More

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

We do not reject the mainstream theory of the creation of the Solar System saying that its formation was due to the gravitational collapse of a region within a large molecular cloud about 4.6 Gyr ago. Indeed, the Sun and the outer shells of planets appeared due to such processes. But applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that initially there was a modified black hole composed of neutron black holes that due to the inflows of the dark energy, via a supernova (there appeared other stars as well), transformed into the large molecular cloud and next into the Sun and outer shells of planets and dwarf planets. Moreover, we showed that the initial modified black hole created the planetary rings defined by the Titius-Bode Law (TBL) for the gravitational interactions - they transformed into the seeds of planets – this happened in the a few Gyr old Universe. The TBL for the gravitational interactions cannot be discredited due to the fact that it does not predict the Neptune orbit. The complete TBL for the nuclear strong interactions described within SST (SST shows that the core of baryons is a modified black hole in respect of the strong interactions), which is an analog to the TBL for the gravitational interactions, leads to an orbit that corresponds to the orbit of the planet Neptune. Both TBLs follow from the virtual processes near modified black holes of the same strength - it is because involved masses in gravitational TBL are about 61 powers of ten times higher than in nuclear-strong TBL. Deviations from predicted semi-major axes are from -5.6% for Mercury up to +5.3% for Neptune. According to gravitational TBL derived within SST, there are following planets or (dwarf planets): Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, (Ceres), Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and (Pluto) (theory of prime numbers leads to 10 planets/dwarf-planets defined by TBL). Because of high probability of destruction of the Titius-Bode orbits during the evolution of the modified black holes, the Solar System is unique in the Universe. Here we calculated the semi-major axes of listed planets/dwarf-planets from the initial conditions (for Earth we obtain 0.971 AU).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[61] viXra:1608.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 08:07:12

Lectures on Geometrical Optics for Engineering and Medical Entrance Exam

Authors: Anuj Kumar Dubey
Comments: 196 Pages.

I have been involved from more than ten years in teaching as physics faculty for engineering and medical entrance exam such as IIT (Mains and Advanced)/AIPMT and foundation batch at +2 levels in India. During my interaction with engineering and medical aspirants I, realized that most feared topics in physics is geometrical optics especially in case of solving the numerical problems. Keeping this in mind, i have covered in general the syllabus of geometrical optics, especially for IIT (Mains and Advanced) entrance exam, in these Lecture Notes on “Geometrical Optics”. These lectures contains the topics such as; Basics of optics, laws of reflection and refraction, reflection from spherical mirrors, velocity of image in the plane and spherical mirror, refraction at plane surfaces, prism theory, refraction from curved surfaces, cut lenses, silvered lenses and combination of lenses and mirrors. I have given various numerical problems (fully solved) to discuss the concepts. Very little of these Lecture notes are wholly original. When I drew up notes, I decided from outset that I would collect together the best approaches to the material known to me. So fact is that many of approaches in these Lecture notes have been borrowed from one author or another, there is a little that I have written completely afresh. My intention has been to organize the material in such a way that it is the more readily accessible to majority of the students.
Category: Classical Physics

[60] viXra:1608.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-15 03:31:59

The Difference Between New Particle Physics and the Standard Model of Particle Physics

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the main difference between new particle physics with the Standard Model of particle physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[59] viXra:1608.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 21:34:41

Carotid-Kundalini Functions and Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article explores a case of signal based chaos generation, using the Carotid-Kundalini function, shown in literature to possess fractal artifacts. Specifically, we set the input to a two tone signal, with the frequency ratio between the sinusoids acting as the control parameter. We explore the iterative map using the time derivatives, and upon plotting the bifurcation plot, observe the chaotic nature of the generated signal. Phase portraits are plotted for different orders, and presence of rich patterns are observed. True to the nonlinear nature, the frequency spectrum shows a horde of new frequency components generated at the output. Lyapunov Exponents also quantitatively confirm the presence of generated chaos in the Carotid-Kundalini signal.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[58] viXra:1608.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 03:15:46

Quantum Gravity from the Point of View of Covariant Relativistic Quantum Theory.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the light of a recent novel definition of a relativistic quantum theory [1, 3, 4], we ask ourselves the question what it would mean to make the gravitational field itself dynamical. This could lead to a couple of different viewpoints upon quantum gravity which we shall explain carefully; this paper expands upon some ideas in [2] and again confirms ones thought that we are still far removed from a (type one) theory of quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[57] viXra:1608.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 03:48:03

Эффект Солошенко-Янчилина (гравитационное ускорение времени)

Authors: Soloshenko M.V., Yanchilin V.L., Kudryashov S.E.
Comments: 28 Pages. Russian is the basic language of this report

Доклад на международном конгрессе «Фундаментальные проблемы естествознания и техники», Санкт-Петербург, 25 июля Эффект Солошенко-Янчилина (The Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin): частота излучения атома увеличивается в поле гравитации - время ускоряется в поле гравитации в связи с уменьшением значения постоянной Планка вблизи большой массы. Эффект ускорения времени в поле гравитации (гравитационного ускорения времени) пока имеет статус гипотезы. Для его проверки учёными предложен проект эксперимента Башня Времени (www.zero-gravity-systems.com). Гипотеза о новом физическом эффекте находится в глубоком противоречии с постулатом о темпоральном процессе Общей Теории Относительности (ОТО). В то же время, эффект замедления времени в поле гравитации (гравитационного замедления времени), согласно постулату о темпоральном процессе ОТО, также не имеет прямых доказательств. За доказательство гравитационного замедления времени (согласно ОТО), в рамках официального научного конкурса, в 2014 г. объявлен приз в сто тысяч долларов. Проведение научного конкурса согласовано Российской Академией Наук. Конкурс действует до сих пор (Институт Специальных Исследований www.is-si.ru). В случае экспериментального подтверждения Эффект Солошенко-Янчилина принципиален для технологии управления гравитацией и создания теории квантовой гравитации, объединяющей квантовую механику и теорию гравитации. Источники: www.is-si.ru/timerate_eng.pdf www.is-si.ru/timerate.pdf www.is-si.ru/esy.pdf www.is-si.ru/atomic-pp.pdf International congress «Fundamental problems in natural sciences and engineering», St. Petersburg, July 25 Reporters: Soloshenko M.V., Yanchilin V.L., Kudryashov S.E. The Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin (gravitational time acceleration). Institute of Special Scientific Investigations (www.is-si.ru/atomic-pp.pdf): the official open scientific competition is declared - $ 100 000 prize will be paid to any expert if this expert proves the gravitational time dilation, according to the General Theory of Relativity. The Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin: an atomic frequency (atomic oscillation frequency) is increased in a gravitational field - time goes faster in the field of gravity and the value of Planck’s constant decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the gravitational potential. According to the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin the gravitational time acceleration means that the rate of time is higher near a large mass. Till now this is a hypothesis. The scientists proposed a physical experiment (the project Time Tower) to test this hypothesis (www.zero-gravity-systems.com). This hypothesis about the new physical effect is in a very deep contradiction with the postulate about temporal process in the General Theory of Relativity (GTR). At the same time, gravitational time dilation (according to the postulate about temporal process in the GTR) also has no the direct physical evidence. In 2014 the official open scientific competition was declared. $ 100 000 prize will be paid to any expert if this expert proves the gravitational time dilation (according to the GTR). The Russian Academy of Sciences agreed the scientific competition and it is still open (www.is-si.ru Institute of Special Scientific Investigations). In case of its experimental verification (if the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin is true) – this new physical effect is the fundamental theoretical basis for the gravitation control technology and it is principal for the theory of quantum gravity to unite the quantum mechanics and the theory of gravity. The sources: www.is-si.ru/timerate_eng.pdf www.is-si.ru/atomic-pp.pdf www.is-si.ru/timerate.pdf www.is-si.ru/esy.pdf
Category: Quantum Physics

[56] viXra:1608.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 04:06:33

A Partial Proof of the Goldbach Conjecture and the Twin Primes Conjecture

Authors: Lucas Allen
Comments: English, 6 pages, equations and examples

This paper presents a “formula” (more or less) for prime numbers in a specific interval. This formula is then used to partially prove the Goldbach conjecture and the twin primes conjecture. The proofs are incomplete however and have not been reviewed by anyone.
Category: Number Theory

[55] viXra:1608.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 04:35:50

IBM Detect Cancer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[54] viXra:1608.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 05:30:59

The Phenomenon of a Transfer of the Consciousness Structure by View and the Concept of Alive Matter

Authors: Yu. N. Bratkov
Comments: 8 pages, Russian. Consciousness and physical reality, 2004, v. 9, N 4, p. 51-56.

The event of a transference of the consciousness structure from one person to another using the sight is described. A detected side result is discussed: by some people matter is perceived as alive.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[53] viXra:1608.0059 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-27 13:33:54

Breakdown of Euler Equations – New Approach

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 11 Pages.

The solution for the problem of Breakdown of Euler Equations, like the Millenium Problem for Navier-Stokes equations.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[52] viXra:1608.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 13:14:26

Coupled Light and Electron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

New research suggests that it is possible to create a new form of light by binding light to a single electron, combining the properties of both. [14] It is called the pseudospin and it determines the probability to find electrons on neighbouring carbon atoms. The possibility to control this degree of freedom would allow for new types of experiments, but potentially also enable to use it for electronic applications. [13] In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[51] viXra:1608.0057 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-07 19:32:34

Curry's Non-Paradox and Its False Definition

Authors: Adrian Chira
Comments: 7 Pages.

Curry's paradox is generally considered to be one of the hardest paradoxes to solve. It is shown here that the paradox can be arrived in fewer steps and also for a different term of the original biconditional. Further, using different approaches, it is also shown that the conclusion of the paradox must always be false and this is not paradoxical but it is expected to be so. One of the approaches points out that the starting biconditional of the paradox amounts to a false definition or assertion which consequently leads to a false conclusion. Therefore, the solution is trivial and the paradox turns out to be no paradox at all. Despite that fact that verifying the truth value of the first biconditional of the paradox is trivial, mathematicians and logicians have failed to do so and merely assumed that it is true. Taking this into consideration that it is false, the paradox is however dismissed. This conclusion puts to rest an important paradox that preoccupies logicians and points out the importance of verifying one's assumptions.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[50] viXra:1608.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 07:50:34

Material Bodies Moving at Superluminal Speed

Authors: Bengt Månsson
Comments: 14 Pages.

As seen from a spaceship accelerating towards a star, the star approaches the ship at a speed that can exceed c, the speed of light in vacuum. For the particular case of constant acceleration with given final speed kc at the star this speed is calculated as a function of the ship's proper time and it is found that the upper bound of this speed is 1,5c. Some other cases are investigated including hyperbolic motion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[49] viXra:1608.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 08:58:33

Electron's Pseudospin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

It is called the pseudospin and it determines the probability to find electrons on neighbouring carbon atoms. The possibility to control this degree of freedom would allow for new types of experiments, but potentially also enable to use it for electronic applications. [13] In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[48] viXra:1608.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 10:06:19

The Charge Separation Principle of Stellar Birth According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The clouds that birth stars have to be completely ionized and have charge separation so that birthing can take place.
Category: Astrophysics

[47] viXra:1608.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 04:55:48

Two Atoms Absorb One Photon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[46] viXra:1608.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 05:05:31

Characterization of Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Chitosan and Sodium Alginate After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Chitosan (CS) and sodium alginate (SA) are two widely popular biopolymers which are used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications from many years. The objective of present study was to study the effect of biofield treatment on physical, chemical and thermal properties of CS and SA. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, CHNSO analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR of treated chitosan showed increase in frequency of –CH stretching (2925→2979 cm- 1) vibrations with respect to control. However, the treated SA showed increase in frequency of –OH stretching (3182→3284 cm-1) which may be correlated to increase in force constant or bond strength with respect to control. CHNSO results showed significant increase in percentage of oxygen and hydrogen of treated polymers (CS and SA) with respect to control. XRD studies revealed that crystallinity was improved in treated CS as compared to control. The percentage crystallite size was increased significantly by 69.59% in treated CS with respect to control. However, treated SA showed decrease in crystallite size by 41.04% as compared to control sample. The treated SA showed significant reduction in particle size (d50 and d99) with respect to control SA. DSC study showed changes in decomposition temperature in treated CS with respect to control. A significant change in enthalpy was observed in treated polymers (CS and CA) with respect to control. TGA results of treated CS showed decrease in Tmax with respect to control. Likewise, the treated SA also showed decrease in Tmax which could be correlated to reduction in thermal stability after biofield treatment. Overall, the results showed that biofield treatment has significantly changed the physical, chemical and thermal properties of CS and SA.
Category: Chemistry

[45] viXra:1608.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 05:07:41

Thermal, Spectroscopic and Chemical Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Anisole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the thermal, spectroscopic, and chemical properties of anisole by various analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The anisole sample was divided into two parts, control and treated. The control part was remained same while the other part was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield energy treatment. Mass spectra showed the molecular ion peak with five fragmented peaks in control and all treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, and 13C/12C [(PM+1)/PM] in treated sample was increased by 154.47% (T1) as compared to the control [where, PM- primary molecule, (PM+1)-isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H]. The HPLC chromatogram showed retention time of treated anisole was slightly decreased as compared to the control. Moreover, the heat change in the sharp endothermic transition of treated anisole was increased by 389.07% in DSC thermogram as compared to the control. Further, C-C aromatic stretching frequency of treated sample was shifted by 2 cm-1 to low energy region in FT-IR spectroscopy. The UV-Vis spectra of control sample showed characteristic absorption peaks at 325 nm, which was red shifted and appeared as shoulder in the treated sample. These results suggested that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and spectroscopic properties of anisole, which could make them stable solvent for organic synthesis and as a suitable reaction intermediate in industrial applications.
Category: Chemistry

[44] viXra:1608.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 06:29:46

Reality in the Context of Physics (Ricp): an Explanatory Framework: Bridging the Pitfalls of Category Error, Dispelling Paradox and Excluding Magic from Physics

Authors: Georgina Woodward
Comments: 42 pages including abstract and references

This work provides solutions to a number of long standing problems in physics, by identifying category error as an issue and providing an explanatory framework. Category error is indicated within Einstein’s work on relativity. Having addressed that, the associated paradoxes are dispelled. Other quandaries are considered, with the potential for category error and the explanatory framework in mind: Such as; the nature of time, the arrow(s) of time, causality, what is the future? Having proposed the need for an ontic, absolute, foundational reality there is relevant discussion of counterfactual definiteness and the law of non-contradiction. Discussion of true absolute relations in contrast to relations within ‘space-time’ images follows. A short note of caution on the risk of allowing magic into physics precedes a list giving the facts and problems in physics, demonstrating the need for an explanatory framework. The penultimate section, (before References), is the word definitions and key to abbreviations to be used in conjunction with the accompanying 5 diagrams that illustrate the explanatory framework. The framework impacts on many areas of physics. In particular relativity and QM; providing the ontic foundation necessary for both, allowing them to co-exist without contradiction. It also overlaps with other science areas in particular the biology and neuroscience of sensory perception.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[43] viXra:1608.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 16:28:21

Perhaps the Explanation of Gravitation by Electricity

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 7 Pages. -

Annotation Given the approximate form of interaction, which we consider as the gravitational interaction, but in fact it is small does the members in the formula of the electric interaction. And he showed that in addition to the square of the distance, the other depending on the distance not there (for small-scale universe of distances).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[42] viXra:1608.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 16:38:39

Free Fall Through the Earth

Authors: Bengt Månsson
Comments: 18 Pages.

Free fall through the Earth, considered as a sphere of radially symmetric mass density, along the axis of rotation, is calculated using a general differential equation in newtonian gravity theory. The passage time is calculated and, further, the shape of the tunnel required if the fall is started at an arbitrary point other than a pole, so that the rotation of the Earth comes into play, is determined. Also a general relativistic case with constant density along the axis is considered. -- In this general form the article may also be of some pedagogical value.
Category: Classical Physics

[41] viXra:1608.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 21:06:47

Addendum to Paper Entitled “A New Perspective on Advanced Space TRAVEL”

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper is prepared in order to point out to the reader, if the reader is not already so informed, of some glaring omissions and/or deficiencies in the original paper so titled. (1) the first omission lies in the fact that no clear cut indication was given of the source of the so called “mass velocity vector”. Originally, the idea was obtained from Bernoulli fluid flow theory, but, lately, the author has discovered that this idea can also be derived from a four dimensional covariant (or tensor) formulation of the Fokker-Planck equation, which describes the time development of a type of random/stochastic process called a Markoff process. (2) The second omission was a failure to give the equation for the Fermi constant in terms of the fundamental constants that were appropriate thereto. (3) The third omission involved giving only the value of the predicted mass that CERN should find as 1118 times the mass of the proton, without giving the Gev value as well. (4) The fourth omission consisted of a math error on page 20 of the original manuscript: the author failed to pick up the mathematical error. (5) The fifth omission is found on page 23 of the original manuscript, in which the author discusses the reason why photons do not travel at infinite speed. The example used there was not very enlightening, and the author realized it at the time. In order to make up for that omission, the author has devised a new example which, it is hoped, will make the inertial problem of the photon much clearer. (6) This is a grab bag of future research problems: which ones are real, imaginary, crazy, or insane?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[40] viXra:1608.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 22:35:27

A 0-1 Integer Programming Algorithm:

Authors: Sidharth Ghoshal
Comments: 10 Pages.

Documented is an algorithm, It is intimately related to a question about piecewise linear cobordisms. IF the conjecture is true then this algorithm is polynomial time. IF it is not, the this algorithm "might be" but probably won't be. Contact a local topologist for updates in this computational crisis.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[39] viXra:1608.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 02:39:59

Physics on the Adiabatically Changed Finslerian Manifold and Cosmology

Authors: Anton A. Lipovka
Comments: 13 Pages. technical report. Sent to a journal.

In present paper we confirm our previous result [4] that Planck constant is adiabatic invariant of electromagnetic field propagating on the adiabatically changed Finslerian manifold. Direct calculation from cosmological parameters gives value h=6x10(-27) (erg s). We also confirm that Planck constant (and hence other fundamental constants which depend on h) is varied on time due to changing of geometry. As an example the variation of the fine structure constant is calculated. Its relative variation ((da/dt)/a) consist 1.0x10(-18) (1/s). We show that on the Finsler manifold characterized by adiabatically changed geometry, classical free electromagnetic field is quantized geometrically, from the properties of the manifold in such manner that adiabatic invariant of field is ET=6x10(-27)=h. Electrodynamic equations on the Finslerian manifold are suggested. It is stressed that quantization naturally appears from these equations and is provoked by adiabatically changed geometry of manifold. We consider in details two direct consequences of the equations: i) cosmological redshift of photons and ii) effects of Aharonov -- Bohm that immediately follow from equations. It is shown that quantization of system consists of electromagnetic field and baryonic components (like atoms) is obvious and has clear explanation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[38] viXra:1608.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 10:59:34

Tool Deflection Error of Three-Axis Computer Numerical Control Milling Machines, Monitoring and Minimizing by a Virtual Machining System

Authors: Mohsen Soori, Behrooz Arezoo, Mohsen Habibi
Comments: 11 pages, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 138(8), 081005, 2016

Virtual manufacturing systems carry out the simulation of manufacturing processes in digital environment in order to increase accuracy as well as productivity in part production. There are different error sources in machine tools, such as tool deflection, geometrical deviations of moving axis, and thermal distortions of machine tool structures. The errors due to tool deflection are caused by cutting forces and have direct effects on dimensional accuracy, surface roughness of the parts, and efficient life of the cutting tool, holder, and spindle. This paper presents an application of virtual machining systems in order to improve the accuracy and productivity of part manufacturing by monitoring and minimizing the tool deflection error. The tool deflection error along machining paths is monitored to present a useful methodology in controlling the produced parts with regard to desired tolerances. Suitable tool and spindle can also be selected due to the ability of error monitoring. In order to minimize the error, optimization technique based on genetic algorithms is used to determine optimized machining parameters. Free-form profile of virtual and real machined parts with tool deflection error is compared in order to validate reliability as well as accuracy of the software.
Category: General Mathematics

[37] viXra:1608.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 08:00:47

Combining Infinity Number Of Neural Networks Into One

Authors: Bo Tian
Comments: 17 Pages.

One of the important aspects of a neural network is its generalization property, which is measured by its ability to make correct prediction on unseen samples. One option to improve generalization is to combine results from multiple networks, which is unfortunately a time-consuming process. In this paper, a new approach is presented to combine infinity number of neural networks in analytic way to produce a small, fast and reliable neural network.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[36] viXra:1608.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 09:33:54

The Explanation of Gravitational Interaction of Electric, Depending on Distance.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 7 Pages.

Annotation Given the approximate form of interaction, which we consider as the gravitational interaction, but in fact it is small does the members in the formula of the electric interaction. And he showed that in addition to the square of the distance, the other depending on the distance not there (for small-scale universe of distances).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[35] viXra:1608.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 18:36:06

Solving Boolean Equation

Authors: Oh Jung Uk
Comments: 19 Pages.

If ∀P:proposition, B(P) is the truth value(0 or 1) of P then we can solve a boolean equation by using these below. B(p_1∨p_2∨…∨p_n )≡1+∏_(k=1)^n▒(1+p_k ) (mod 2) { (x_1,x_2,…,x_n ) | ∏_(i=1)^n▒B(x_i ) ≡0(mod 2)}=(⋂_(i=1)^n▒{ (x_i ) | B(x_i )≡1(mod 2)} )^c={(x_1,x_2,…,x_n ) |(1,1,1,…,1)}^c
Category: Algebra

[34] viXra:1608.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 00:40:18

Dense Communications Using the Engineer’s Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 7 Pages.

With the central focus on a broadened perspective of chaos, this article introduces the concept of the engineer’s chaos, characterized by determinism, aperiodicity and sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and exhibiting a marked deviation from conventional chaotic systems by possessing a signal based control parameter. It is seen that multiplying two sinusoidal signals, the simplest possible nonlinear operation generates the engineer’s chaos with the frequency ratio of the two signals acting as the control parameter. The nature of the chaos is observed using iterative map and bifurcation plot. Following this, an application of the engineer’s chaos to dense communications is demonstrated using a proof-of-concept, where the two chaos generating signals are amplitude modulated before multiplying, and transmitted over a channel represented as a Additive White Gaussian Noise of 18dB. The ability to receive and demodulate the signals with reasonable accuracy highlights the capabilities of the engineer’s chaos. The demonstration proves how the engineer’s chaos, the result of a broadened perspective on chaos yields triple advantages of minimalist and simple design, increased information carrying capacity, and security inherent to the sensitivity of chaos.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[33] viXra:1608.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 01:36:43

Initial Mass in Pre Planckian Space-Timed Defined, and Causal Discontinuity.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 Pages.

This document reviews the Landau – Liftshifts reformulation of General relativity with a representation of the available mass of a graviton. From looking at a conservation law, using the Landau-Liftshifs formulation, we obtain conditions for initial mass, in the Pre Planckian regime of space-time. In doing so, we also indicate a metric tensor and metric pseudo tensor delineation of causal discontinuity
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32] viXra:1608.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-04 12:20:35

The Mechanism of the Two-Stage Explosions of Type I Superluminous Supernovae

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the two-stage explosions of the hydrogen-poor Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I). We calculated their quantized masses: 3.14, 6.28, 12.55 and 25.10 solar masses, maximum absolute magnitudes for the initial and main explosions and we solved the ejecta-velocity problem. The derived light curves are consistent with observational data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31] viXra:1608.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 05:06:20

Effect of Biofield Treated Energized Water on the Growth and Health Status in Chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treated energized water on chicken. The total 4200 chicks were equally divided into two groups i.e. control and treated. The biofield treated energized water was provided to the treated chicks, while the control chicks were drunk with standard drinking water. During the experiment the parameters such as mortality, body weight, food intake etc. were assessed in both control and energized water treated birds. The mortality rate was reduced in the energized water treated chicks as 54.55% in week 1, 42.11% in week 6, and 39.13% in week 4, as compared to the control chicks. Moreover, the average body weight was increased by 12.50% in week 1 as compared to the control chicks. The feed conversion ratio was gradually decreased which indicated that the energized water treated chicks took less feeds while the body weight was increased in comparison to the control chicks. Besides, the energized water treated birds showed statistically significant (p<0.007) with 15.47% increase in the edible meat weight as compared to the control chicks. Moreover, the feather, skin and internal organ weight were significantly reduced by 21.22% (p<0.001) of energized water treated chicks as compared to the untreated chicks. The protein content was increased by 10.11% and cholesterol was decreased by 4.64% in birds of the treated group as compared to the control. The European efficiency factor was also increased by 10.67% in the energized water treated birds as compared to the control chicks. The European efficiency factor was also increased by 10.67% in the energized water treated birds as compared to the control chicks. Altogether, the results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treated energized water could be a cost-effective feeding approach in chicken production.
Category: Biochemistry

[30] viXra:1608.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 05:10:42

Characterization of Physico-Chemical and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Energy Treated 4-Bromoacetophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 08 Pages.

4-Bromoacetophenone is an acetophenone derivative known for its usefulness in organic coupling reactions and various biological applications. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on 4- bromoacetophenone using various analytical methods. The material is divided into two groups for this study i.e. control and treated. The control group remained as untreated and the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Then, both the samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and UV-visible spectrometry (UV-vis). The XRD study revealed that the crystallite size of treated 4-bromoacetophenone was decreased significantly to 16.69% with decreased intensity as compared to the control. The thermal studies revealed that the slight change was observed in the melting point and latent heat of fusion (ΔH) of biofield energy treated sample as compared to the control. Maximum degradation temperature (Tmax) of treated 4-bromoacetophenone was decreased by 7.26% as compared to the control (169.89°C→157.54°C). The FT-IR spectra showed that the C=O stretching frequency at 1670 cm-1 was shifted to higher frequency region (1672 in T1 and 1685 cm-1 in T2, in two treated samples for FT-IR) after biofield energy treatment. Moreover, the GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of either 13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1)/PM was decreased up to 9.12% in T2 sample whereas increased slightly up to 3.83% in T3 sample. However, the isotopic abundance ratio of either 81Br/79Br or 18O/16O (PM+2)/PM of treated 4-bromoacetophenone was decreased from 0.10% to 1.62% (where PM-primary mass of the molecule, (PM+1) and (PM+2) are isotopic mass of the molecule). The UV spectra showed the similar electronic behavior like absorption maximum in control and treated samples. Overall, the experimental results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has significant effect on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of 4-bromoacetophenone.
Category: Mind Science

[29] viXra:1608.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 05:56:56

Computing Machinery, Intelligence and Undecidability

Authors: P. Castro
Comments: 6 Pages.

In 1950 Alan Turing proposed a decision criteria for intelligence validation in a computer. Most simply if a human judge was incapable of deciding from two witnesses which was the computer and which was the human, the machine would have acquired artificial intelligence. In this paper I will argue that the Turing test has a fundamental problem, making it impossible to provide human intelligence validation. Furthermore I will reason that all empirical tests destined to identify intelligence behavior cannot provide an answer and that consequently artificial intelligence identification is an undecidable problem. Since this must mean that there is no algorithmic procedure tolist humanely intelligent systems, it must also mean that human intelligence is not computable and therefore that there is no pragmatic theory one can write to build an humanely intelligent robot.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[28] viXra:1608.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 13:21:23

Programmable Atomic Ions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1608.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 13:38:10

Neuromorphic Cognitive Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

IBM scientists have created randomly spiking neurons using phase-change materials to store and process data. This demonstration marks a significant step forward in the development of energy-efficient, ultra-dense integrated neuromorphic technologies for applications in cognitive computing. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[26] viXra:1608.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 07:37:02

Flicker of Gluons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Scientists exploring the dynamic behavior of particles emerging from subatomic smashups at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)-a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility for nuclear physics research at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory-are increasingly interested in the role of gluons. [16] Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[25] viXra:1608.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 09:33:21

Deuterons Spin Together

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers set a new record for the in-plane spin-alignment lifetime of deuterons circulating in a magnetic storage ring. [16] Why is so much more matter than antimatter present in the universe? A clue to this mystery may be provided by a sensitive search for a separation of positive and negative charges inside the neutron, which is referred to as the neutron's "electric dipole moment" (EDM). [15] A multi-institutional team of researchers has discovered novel magnetic behavior on the surface of a specialized material that holds promise for smaller, more efficient devices and other advanced technology. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[24] viXra:1608.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 04:30:09

Potential Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on the Atomic, Physical and Thermal Properties Indium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Indium has gained significant attention in the semiconductor industries due to its unique thermal and optical properties. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of the biofield energy treatment on the atomic, physical and thermal properties of the indium. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated indium samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD diffractogram showed the shifting of peaks toward higher Bragg’s angles in the treated indium sample as compared to the control. The crystallite size of treated indium sample were substantially changed from -80% to 150.2% after biofield energy treatment, as compared to control. In addition, the biofield energy treatment has altered the lattice parameter (-0.56%), unit cell volume (-0.23%), density (0.23%), atomic weight (-0.23), and nuclear charge per unit volume (1.69%) of the treated indium sample with respect to the control. The DSC showed an increase in the latent heat of fusion up to 3.23% in the treated indium sample with respect to control. Overall, results suggest that biofield energy treatment has substantially altered the atomic, physical, and thermal properties of treated indium powder. Therefore, the treated indium could be utilized in thermal interface material in semiconductor industries.
Category: Chemistry

[23] viXra:1608.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 04:39:08

Antimicrobial Sensitivity, Biochemical Characteristics and Biotyping of Staphylococcus Saprophyticus: an Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Staphylococcus saprophyticus (S. saprophyticus) is a frequent cause of urinary tract infection in the young women. The current study was designed to analyze the effect of biofield energy treatment on S. saprophyticus for evaluation of its antibiogram profile, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping characteristics. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. Sample A was revived and divided into two parts Group (Gr.I) (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, sample B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Gr. II and III were given with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated groups of S. saprophyticus cells were tested with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 50% out of twenty-eight tested antimicrobials showed significant alteration in susceptibility and 36.67% out of thirty antimicrobials showed an alteration in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of S. saprophyticus in revived treated cells (Gr. II, day 10), while no alteration was found in lyophilized treated cells (Gr. III, day 10) as compared to the control. It was also observed that overall 14.81%, out of twenty-seven biochemical reactions were altered in the revived treated group with respect to the control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in Gr. II, on day 5 (246076) and in Gr. III, on day 10 (242066), while organism along-with biotype number was also changed in Gr. II, on day 10 (342066, Staphylococcus hominis subsp. novobiosepticus) as compared to the control (242076, S. saprophyticus). The result suggested that biofield treatment has the significant impact on S. saprophyticus in revived treated cells with respect to the antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype.
Category: Chemistry

[22] viXra:1608.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 06:33:27

Quark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1608.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-13 09:53:44

Generally Covariant Relativistic Quantum Theory :''renormalization''

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 33 Pages.

In a previous paper of this author [1] building upon insights reached in [2], we constructed the free theory on a rather general curved spacetime for spin-0, 1/2,1 particles and we wrote down the most general interaction vertices for the latter leading to the principle of local gauge invariance. In this paper, we further define the interacting theory and study the behavior of modified particle propagators, leading to a finite theory
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] viXra:1608.0023 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-08 15:14:15

Gravity is a Quantum Force

Authors: Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez
Comments: 20 Pages.

The General Relativity understands gravity like inertial movement of the free fall of the bodies in curved spacetime of Lorentz. The law of inertia of Newton would be particular case of the inertial movement of the bodies in the spacetime flat of Euclid. But, in the step, from general to particular, breaks the law of inertia of Galilei since recovers the rectilinear uniform movement but not the repose state, unless the bodies have undergone their collapse, although, the curved spacetime becomes flat and the curved geodesies becomes straight lines. For General Relativity is a natural law, within of a gravitational field, the accelerated movement of the bodies, that leads to that a geometric curvature puts out to the bodies in such geodesic movement. In this paper this error of General Relativity, like generalization of the law of inertia of Galilei, is examined and it is found that it is caused by suppression of mass and force that allows conceiving acceleration like property of spacetime. This is a mathematical and non-ontological result. Indeed, mass and force are the fundament that the gravitational acceleration is independent of the magnitude of mass of the bodies but gravity not of the mass and the gravitational force. The action of the gravity force, on inertial and gravitational masses of a body, produces mutual cancellation during its free fallen but too its weight when this cease. By means of the third law of Newton it shows that gravity is a force since weight is caused by gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1608.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-02 11:37:25

Nano Drug Delivery Systems

Authors: A.S.Bhattacharyya, P.Prabhakar
Comments: 03 Pages. Working Paper

A study of polymer erosion rate during drug delivery.
Category: Physics of Biology

[18] viXra:1608.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 17:11:12

On the Constancy of the Speed of Light

Authors: Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this monograph, digital signal processing (DSP) techniques are used together with the infophysical spacetime model (ISM) of Reality in order to find theoretical answers to the following questions: Why is the speed of light in a vacuum a constant? Why that particular speed and not any other? Is the speed of light a fundamental constant of Reality? Has it always been so? Can it change in the future? The Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem is used to determine the scales of the cosmic wavefunction in the motional and displacement domains, thus obtaining the spatial and temporal sampling relations of Reality. The results are then applied to obtain a list of theoretical implications that propose answers to the questions mentioned above and to other related questions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1608.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 19:51:24

The Crust Ossification Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that in highly evolved rocky stars such as Earth, Venus or Mars, the crust thickens and hardens as it cools down from earlier stages of evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[16] viXra:1608.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 23:14:37

Investigation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Treated Phenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) and 4-methoxyphenol (4-MP) are phenol derivatives that are generally known for their antioxidant properties and depigmenting activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance in BHT and 4-MP using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). BHT and 4-MP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control group remained untreated while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2 H/1 H (PM+1)/PM and 18O/16O (PM+2)/PM increased significantly in treated BHT and 4-MP (where PM- primary molecule, PM+1- isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2 H and PM+2 is the isotopic molecule for 18O). The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in the treated BHT and 4-MP was increased up to 181.27% and 380.73% respectively as compared to their respective control. Moreover, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+2)/PM in the treated BHT and 4-MP increased up to 185.99% and 355.33% respectively. GC-MS data suggests that the biofield treatment significantly increased the isotopic abundance of 2 H, 13C and 18O in the treated BHT and 4-MP as compared to the control.
Category: Mind Science

[15] viXra:1608.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 23:16:36

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopical Characterization of Biofield Treated Triphenylmethane: An Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Triphenylmethane is a synthetic dye used as antimicrobial agent and for the chemical visualization in thin layer chromatography of higher fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and aliphatic amines. The present study was an attempt to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopical charecteristics of triphenylmethane. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment. The treatment group subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated groups of triphenylmethane samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). XRD study revealed decreases in average crystallite size (14.22%) of treated triphenylmethane as compared to control sample. Surface area analysis showed a slight increase (0.42%) in surface area of treated sample with respect to control. DSC thermogram of treated triphenylmethane showed the slight increase in melting point and latent heat of fusion with respect to control. TGA analysis of control triphenylmethane showed weight loss by 45.99% and treated sample showed weight loss by 64.40%. The Tmax was also decreased by 7.17% in treated sample as compared to control. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic result showed the similar pattern of spectra. The GC-MS analysis suggested a significant decrease in carbon isotopic abundance (expressed in δ13C, ‰) in treated sample (about 380 to 524‰) as compared to control. Based on these results, it is found that biofield treatment has the impact on physical, thermal and carbon isotopic abundance of treated triphenylmethane with respect to control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[14] viXra:1608.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 23:19:08

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Triphenyl Phosphate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) is a triester of phosphoric acid and phenol. It is commonly used as a fire-retarding agent and plasticizer for nitrocellulose and cellulose acetate. The present study was an attempt to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of TPP. The study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated samples of TPP were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD study revealed the decrease in crystallite size (6.13%) of treated TPP that might be due to presence of strains and increase in atomic displacement from their ideal lattice positions as compared to control sample. DSC thermogram of treated TPP showed the increase in melting temperature (1.5%) and latent heat of fusion (66.34%) with respect to control. TGA analysis showed the loss in weight by 66.79% in control and 47.96% in treated sample. This reduction in percent weight loss suggests the increase of thermal stability in treated sample as compared to control. FT-IR and UV spectroscopic results did not show the alteration in the wavenumber and wavelength of FT-IR and UV spectra, respectively in treated TPP with respect to control. Altogether, the XRD and DSC/TGA results suggest that biofield treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of treated TPP.
Category: Biochemistry

[13] viXra:1608.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-02 02:04:48

Physics and Alternate Cosmology of the New Model

Authors: Ratikanta Das
Comments: 03 pages

Author’s previous article ‘A New Model of Physics’, appeared in the section ‘History and Philosophy of Physics’ of viXra.org open e-print archive, seems to be a controversial one as it opposes some established theories of traditional physics. But simultaneously it also supports some established theories and gives simple explanations for many puzzles of physics which must not be regarded as matter of coincidence or chance. Again author’s speculation is not final; some points of the model may require modification. But author strongly believes that this model, when developed into a full-fledged one, will be able to unveil the beauty of absolute truth of nature. In this article author compares the physics of this new model with that of traditional models, elaborating some points discussed in the previous article.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1608.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-02 05:28:30

Photon Fluid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1608.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-02 07:18:43

Thermodynamically Open Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that stars are thermodynamically open systems in their interface with outer space. Matter and energy can be exchanged freely.
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1608.0011 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-08 23:21:37

Theory of Periodical Bursts of the Sun and the Planets

Authors: G.-P. Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Raise the theory of periodical bursts of the Sun and the planets. Point out that the Jovian planets, main-belt asteroids, and the terrestrial planets originated from periodical bursts of the Sun from 4.8 billion to 4.4 billion years ago. A large amount of objects from the last burst of the Sun caused the Late Heavy Bombardment. Point out that planets also burst periodically and their bursts gave birth to their regular satellites, and the rings of Jovian planets. Many facts of the solar system were systematically explained with the theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1608.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-02 08:58:48

Elementary Formulas for Catalan's Constant

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas for Catalan's constant: G=0.915965594177...
Category: General Mathematics

[8] viXra:1608.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-02 09:02:04

Some Identities with Hyperbolic Functions

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this note we show some identities with hyperbolic functions
Category: General Mathematics

[7] viXra:1608.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 15:12:38

Atom Properties and Structure Researche

Authors: Verin O.G.
Comments: 3 Pages.

Striking and strange is not that electrons in atom form a Bose-condensate, but that we till now for some reason «did not guess» about it and accordingly did not consider this factor as fundamental in the atom theory conception! Where else if not in atom, there is the most suitable place for electrons «condensation»? In fact under «normal conditions» around us, energy of thermal movement is very small (about 0,03 eV) in comparison with that deep potential well (several units, tens and even hundreds of eV) in which atom electrons exist. Many tens of electrons are «squeezed» in few cubic angstroms of atom volume!
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[6] viXra:1608.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 15:23:41

Atomic Electron Shells Formation Laws

Authors: Verin O.G.
Comments: 16 Pages.

The analysis based on experimental characteristics of atoms shows, that the theory of electron "movement" in atom in its modern state is essentially erroneous. It is impossible to consider electrons in atoms as separate particles because in each electron shell they form a Bose-condensate. Therefore real electron "collectives" absolutely not resemble drawn by the theory stochastic orbital "spread" in space. In the article physical characteristics data of atoms repeatedly confirmed by experiments are used. Therefore disclosed laws, undoubtedly, have objective character and will be a reliable basis for further researches.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] viXra:1608.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 15:33:20

Nonlinear Resonant Microcosm

Authors: Verin O.G.
Comments: 9 Pages.

The quantum mechanics, as is known, was the theorists «powerful answer» to sensational results of experiments which have shown up the wave properties of smallest particles of substance. Disputes on the nature of such a strange microparticles behavior had not yet time to calm down, but the theory of phenomena in the form of «wave mechanics» was already complete. According to this theory a freely moving particle is described by «probability» wave function in the form of a monochromatic wave. Besides many other open-ended questions stipulated by so-called postulates, founders of the quantum theory have left without answer and the most crucial issue: why elementary particles of substance (as oscillatory systems) should be indispensable linear – monofrequent? Later there appeared experimental data «provoking» an idea of basic nonlinearity of oscillating microcosm, but the quantum mechanics has already turned into «a sacred cow» and any doubt about its validity actually meant «excommunication» from science.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[4] viXra:1608.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 10:22:19

Matter-Antimatter Symmetry Test in Liquid Helium

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Why is so much more matter than antimatter present in the universe? A clue to this mystery may be provided by a sensitive search for a separation of positive and negative charges inside the neutron, which is referred to as the neutron's "electric dipole moment" (EDM). [15] A multi-institutional team of researchers has discovered novel magnetic behavior on the surface of a specialized material that holds promise for smaller, more efficient devices and other advanced technology. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[3] viXra:1608.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-02 04:07:46

Ontological-Phase Topological Field Theory

Authors: Richard L
Comments: 26 Pages. Forgot authors name, also reformatted

We thank Newton for inspiring strict adherence to hypotheses non-fingo, and claim reasonable a posteriori surety in positing the need for an Ontological-Phase Topological Field Theory (OPTFT) as the final step in describing the remaining requirements for bulk UQC. Let’s surmise with little doubt that a radical new theory needs to be correlated with the looming 3rd regime of Unified Field Mechanics (UFM). If the author knows one thing for sure, it is that gravity is not quantized! The physics community is so invested in quantizing the gravitational force that it could still be years away from this inevitable conclusion. There is still a serious conundrum to be dealt with however; discovery of the complex Manifold of Uncertainty (MOU), the associated ‘semi-quantum limit’ and the fact of a duality between Newton’s and Einstein’s gravity, may allow some sort of wave-particle-like duality with a quantal-like virtual graviton in the semi-quantum limit. Why mention the gravitational field? Relativistic information processing (RIP) introduces gravitational effects in the ‘parallel transport’ aspects of topological switching in branes. There are A and B type topological string theories, and a related Topological M-Theory with mirror symmetry, that are somewhat interesting especially since they allow sufficient dimensionality with Calabi-Yau mirror symmetric dual 3-tori perceived as essential elements for developing a UFM. But a distinction between these theories and the ontology of an energyless topological switching of information (Shannon related) through topological charge in brane dynamics, perhaps defined in a manner making correspondence to a higher dimensional (HD) de-Broglie-Bohm super-quantum potential synonymous with a 'Force of coherence' of the unified field is of interest. Thus the term 'OPTFT’ has been chosen to address this issue as best as the Zeitgeist is able to conceive at the time of writing…
Category: Topology

[2] viXra:1608.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 04:32:51

Vinaa Venkatesham Nanaatho Nanaathah

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 31 Pages.

After a brief glimpse into the ‘mysteries’ and legends associated with the deity of Tirumala, this article focuses on Venkateshwara, the Lord of this sacred site, understanding Him to be the Kali Yuga Varada, or the source of solace and salvation in the present era of Kali. Looking further, one finds within the deity, aspects of the six major deities of the Shanmata tradition, as well as the Guru. This is visualized through the concept of Spiritual Altitude, depicted as the ‘spiritual hill’ of Govindaadri. This leads to the Lord being called as “Eka-Moorthy”, containing all divinity within Himself. As an extension to that thought, the article then discusses on the 108 sacred sites of Shanmata, called the Kshetra-Ashtottara, and how one can, merely contemplating upon Venkateshwara, perform a virtual ‘Kshetraadanam’ to these sites. This visualization is termed “Eka Kshetra-Ashtottara Moorthy” (EKAM). Reconciling this concept with Govindaadri using the Panchaayatana concept leads to yet another visualization, termed “Pancha-EKAM”. In summary, this article elaborates upon a series of inquiries, thoughts and revelations to the author, regarding the nature of the Lord Venkateshwara, in various levels of Spiritual Altitudes, which are essentially measures of Spiritual Inclusivity. The most important observation and value-add from these discussions is that Tirumala of Venkateshwara is indeed the most sacred Kshetra of Baalaa Tripurasundari, who is the very special form of the Universal Mother Ambika, manifest with the core intention of “Kali Yuga Varadha”. By thus contemplating upon Venkateshwara as Baalaa, Tirumala, as Govindaadri becomes the transition point from the physical level, represented by various Kshetras, to the highest spiritual level, represented by the Sri Yantra, which is the ultimate representation of the universe, leading to the supreme Sat Chit Aananda Parabrahman in the form of the Universal Mother Ambika.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[1] viXra:1608.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 06:38:55

Twin Paradox of SR: Einstein Confirmed a Bit

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 3 Pages.

Light and temperature independent biological clock has drivers (zeitgebers), which are different for the twin, which stays on the Earth, and for other one, which flies away
Category: Relativity and Cosmology