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1610 Submissions

[358] viXra:1610.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 19:12:58

A Problem with some Philosophies of History

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 13 Pages.

Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Leslie White, Allen Johnson and Timothy Earle, and Stephen Sanderson all produced linear theories of history, social change and cultural evolution but their theories have a common deficiency. None of them provide an ultimate explanation for social cultural and historical change. This failure was rectified by J. S. Mill who suggested increasing human knowledge was the ultimate cause of social, cultural and historical change. However even Mill did not ask what caused the increasing human knowledge and why the knowledge had to be acquired in a particular order and how this could affect human history.
Category: Social Science

[357] viXra:1610.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 20:48:22

History of Astronomy

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 5 Pages.

The ultimate cause of much historical, social and cultural change is the gradual accumulation of human knowledge of the environment. The human environment has a particular structure so that human knowledge of the environment is acquired in a particular order. The structure of the universe and the nature of the human sensory apparatus ensured that humans initially believed, the earth was not moving and the sun orbited the earth, a system known as the Ptolemaic system. Suggestions the earth spun on its axis and orbited the sun were counter intuitive and generally not accepted until new instruments such as the telescope provided new information which suggested the earth spun on its axis and orbited the sun in elliptical orbits which became known as the Newtonian system. Improved observations showed the Newtonian system was wrong and General Relativity which had the earth and other planets orbiting the sun in circular orbits, in curved four-dimensional space-time, became the accepted view of the universe. The naked eye explanation of the universe was accepted first, and more complex knowledge acquired later, using better instruments, led to the Newtonian system and then General Relativity. The order of these belief systems was inevitable as new methods of observing the universe became available which provided new information about the universe. This is an example of how human social and cultural history follows a particular path, a path that is determined by the structure of the human environment.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[356] viXra:1610.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 23:23:00

Line-Surface Formulation of the Electromagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory for Metal-Material Combined Objects

Authors: Renzun Lian
Comments: 12 Pages.

An ElectroMagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory (CMT) for Metal-Material combined objects (MM-EMP-CMT) was built by expressing the various electromagnetic powers as the functions of the line current on metal line, the surface current on metal surface, the surface current on the boundary of metal volume, and the total field in material volume, so it can be simply called as the Line-Surface-Volume formulation for the MM-EMP-CMT (LSV-MM-EMP-CMT). As a companion to the LSV-MM-EMP-CMT, a Line-Surface formulation for the MM-EMP-CMT (LS-MM-EMP-CMT) is established in this paper by expressing the various powers as the functions of the line and surface currents on metal part and the surface equivalent current on the boundary of material part. The physical essence of LS-MM-EMP-CMT is the same as LSV-MM-EMP-CMT, i.e., to construct the various power-based Characteristic Mode (CM) sets for metal-material combined objects, but the LS-MM-EMP-CMT is more advantageous than the LSV-MM-EMP-CMT in some aspects. For example, the former saves computational resources; the former avoids to calculate the modal scattering field in source region; the field-based definitions for the impedance and admittance of metal-material combined electromagnetic systems can be easily introduced into the former.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[355] viXra:1610.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 23:00:24

The Concept of the System in the Hawking Radiation

Authors: Go Nakano
Comments: 5 Pages.

It has created a new interpretation of the radiation theory from the black hole of Hawking.
Category: Quantum Physics

[354] viXra:1610.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 14:45:11

Wave Detected by Ligo is not Gravitational Wave

Authors: Alfonso León Guillen Gómez
Comments: 9 Pages.

General Relativity defines gravity like the metric of a Lorentzian manifold. Einstein formulated spacetime as quality structural of gravity, i.e, circular definition between gravity and spacetime, also Einstein denoted "Space and time are modes by which we think, not conditions under which we live" and “We denote everything but the gravitational field as matter”, therefore, spacetime is nothing and gravity in first approximation an effect of coordinates, and definitely a geometric effect. The mathematical model generates quantitative predictions coincident in high grade with observations without physical meaning. Philosophy intervened: in Substantivalism, spacetime exists in itself while in Relationalism as metrical relations. But, it does not know what spacetime. The outcomes of model have supported during a century, validity of the General Relativity, interpreted arbitrarily. Einstein formulated, from quadrupoles of energy, the formation of ripples in spacetime propagating as gravitational waves abandoned, in 1938, when he said that they do not exist. LIGO announced the first detection of gravitational waves from a pair of merging black holes. They truly are waves of quantum vacuum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[353] viXra:1610.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 10:52:13

The Value of the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Ru-Jiao Zhang
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper presents a derivation of the value of the cosmological constant. The approach was based on the Einstein’s gravitational field equations and the Hubble’s law. The value of the cosmological constant Λ was found to be: Λ=(Ho^2)/3 , here Ho is the Hubble constant.
Category: Astrophysics

[352] viXra:1610.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 11:45:08

Flying Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

'This would for example allow transferring information from superconducting quantum bits to the "flying qubits" in the visible light range and back', envision the creators of the theory for the device, Tero Heikkilä, Professor at the University of Jyväskylä, and Academy Research Fellow Francesco Massel. Therefore, the method has potential for data encryption based on quantum mechanics, i.e. quantum cryptography, as well as other applications. [23] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer. [22] Australian engineers have created a new quantum bit which remains in a stable superposition for 10 times longer than previously achieved, dramatically expanding the time during which calculations could be performed in a future silicon quantum computer. [21] Harnessing solid-state quantum bits, or qubits, is a key step toward the mass production of electronic devices based on quantum information science and technology. However, realizing a robust qubit with a long lifetime is challenging, particularly in semiconductors comprising multiple types of atoms. [20] Researchers from Delft, the University of Wisconsin and Ames Laboratory, led by Prof. Lieven Vandersypen of TU Delft's QuTech discovered that the stability of qubits could be maintained 100 times more effectively in silicon than in gallium arsenide. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[351] viXra:1610.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 12:53:01

FRB 150418 Confirms Predictions Made by New Tired Light

Authors: Lyndon Ashmore
Comments: 4 Pages.

For the first time, in April 2015, both the Dispersion Measure (DM) of a fast radio burst, FRB 150418, and the redshift of the host galaxy were measured. This gave the opportunity to test the New Tired Light Theory and its predictions. DM in mainstream physics is found from the time delay between the arrival of different frequencies from a short, sharp cosmological source (FRB or pulsar). DM is related to the mean free electron density along the path, n, and the distance from source to observer, d, by the formula DM=nd. New Tired Light (NTL) is an alternative cosmological theory to the Big Bang. In NTL the universe is static and redshifts are caused by photons of light interacting with the electrons in the plasma of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Energy is transferred from the photon to the recoiling electron on absorption and re-emission resulting in a reduction in frequency of the photon and an increase in the wavelength. The redshift distance relation is z=exp(Hd⁄c) -1 where c is the speed of light and H the Hubble constant. In NTL the Hubble constant is derived in terms of, n, the plank constant, h,and m and r the rest mass and classical radius of the electron giving H=(2nhr⁄m). Making, d, the subject of both equations from DM and NTL gives us the SI equation DM=(mc⁄2hr)LN(1+z). Substituting the measured redshift, z, and values for m,c,h and r as well as converting from SI units to those used in radio astronomy (pc cm^-3 ) gives a predicted DM of DM=949 pc cm^-3. This compares well with the observed DM of FRB 150418 of 776.2 pc cm -3 – a difference of just 22%. It is noted that a DM is produced for all electron number densities whilst in NTL redshifts only occur in the sparsely populated plasma of the IGM since in dense plasma, strong electromagnetic forces reduce or even prevent the electrons from recoiling. Consequently it is possible to have a DM but no redshift if the plasma density is too high. It is possible that denser plasma along the path may have resulted in the predicted DM being a little higher than the measured one - though the agreement is close and gives strong support to NTL.
Category: Astrophysics

[350] viXra:1610.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 12:58:46

Ordinalcy Calculus: Entangled Avenues Nuanced

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 7 Pages. new foundations--lativity

Ordinalcy does appear to suggest a minimalist meta-ToE, with the Ordual calculus generalizing beyond differential forms. Matter is all about relationships rather than elements.
Category: General Mathematics

[349] viXra:1610.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 13:33:03

Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

An international team of physicists has developed a pioneering approach to using Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs)—the highest energy particles in nature since the Big Bang—to study particle interactions far beyond the reach of human-made accelerators. [18] Physicists have come up with a new model that they say solves five of the biggest unanswered questions in modern physics, explaining the weirdness of dark matter, neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, cosmic inflation, and the strong CP problem all at once. [17] The universe is unbalanced. Gravity is tremendously weak. But the weak force, which allows particles to interact and transform, is enormously strong. The mass of the Higgs boson is suspiciously petite. And the catalog of the makeup of the cosmos? Ninety-six percent incomplete. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[348] viXra:1610.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 08:12:45

Detection of Aortic Graft Infection Combined with a Pelvic Abscess Using 18F-FDG PET/CT in a Patient with FUO

Authors: Mohammed Shah Alam, Auradkar Manisha, Wei Guan, Hu-bing Wu, Quan-shi Wang, Wen-lan Zhou
Comments: 3 Pages.

Aortic graft infection (AGI) is an uncommon but severe late complication of associated with vascular surgery. Early detection is important because of high mortality. Clinical findings often are nonspecific. Some of AGI patients present with FUO. A 67-year-old female received an endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm. After 2 years of surgery she suffered from recurrent fever for 8 months and sometimes body temperature peaked at 40°C. Laboratory examinations show all are increased. Multiple modalities of imagine has been performed including x-ray, USG and CT. To find out the cause of FUO he was referred to perform 18F-FDG PET/ CT for further evaluation. The PET/CT images revealed the extent of the inflammation around grafts and the pelvic abscess, which helped to confirm the cause of FUO and establish the diagnosis of AGI. That indicates 18F-FDG PET/CT is a reliable modality for the FUO patients who has undergone endovascular aneurysm repair
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[347] viXra:1610.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 08:35:48

Damnation Risk: Possibility of Eternal Torment

Authors: Anti Procreation
Comments: 5 Pages.

Roko’s Basilisk is an idea that was suggested by Roko in LessWrong.com in 2010, that an AI would be motivated to eternally torture people who have not helped to bring it into existence. The more likely possibility of eternal torment is, I think, a sadistic AI. A Reddit user TheFaggetman suggested the possibility of a sadistic AI in 2015, Brian Tomasik suggested a possibility of sadists take control of an AI. Although the major focus on AI research is an existential risk, I think human extinction only bad as much as an annihilation of the people thereby annihilated is bad. Although there's no knock-down argument to prove eternal torment is worse than annihilation, as we can see on 'Better red than dead' v. 'Better dead than red' debate, if we at least think that whereas eternal torment may be infinite times worse than annihilation, annihilation may be only finite times (e.g. 10 times) worse than eternal torment, perhaps moral priority shall be given to prevention of eternal torment caused by AI-molecular-assembler than annihilation caused by AI. (This Paper was originally published as a part of a book called 'Procreation Is a Murder: Why Procreation Is the Root of All Evils)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[346] viXra:1610.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 03:20:58

Smash Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists have come up with a new model that they say solves five of the biggest unanswered questions in modern physics, explaining the weirdness of dark matter, neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, cosmic inflation, and the strong CP problem all at once. [17] The universe is unbalanced. Gravity is tremendously weak. But the weak force, which allows particles to interact and transform, is enormously strong. The mass of the Higgs boson is suspiciously petite. And the catalog of the makeup of the cosmos? Ninety-six percent incomplete. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[345] viXra:1610.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 18:39:10

Examination of H(x) Real Field of Higgs Boson as Originating in Pre Planckian Space-Time Early Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages. highly speculative paper. I have no idea of what people will make of it.

We initiate working with Peskin and Schroder’s quantum field theory (1995) write up of the Higgs boson, which has a scalar field write up for Phi , with’lower part’ of the spinor having h(x) as a real field, with =0 in spatial averaging. Our treatment is to look at the time component of this h(x) as a real field in Pre Planckian space-time to Planckian Space-time evolution, in a unitarity gauge specified potential V= c1 h(x)^2 + C2 h(x)^3 + C3 h(x)^4, using a fluctuation evolution equation of the form (d (delta h)/dt)^2 + V(delta h)= Delta E, which is in turn using (Delta E) times (Delta t) ~ h(bar)/ g(t,t), with this being a modified form of the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle in Pre-Planckian space-time. From here, we can identify the formation of delta h(x) in the Planckian space-time regime. Furthermore, it gets a special dependence upon the change in the metric tensor g(t,t)~(a(t))^2 times (inflaton). The inflaton is based upon Padmanabhan’s treatment of early universe models, in the case that the scale factor, a(t) ~ a(initial) times t ^ (beta), with beta a numerical value, and t a time factor. The a(initial) is supposed to represent a quantum bounce, along the lines of Camara, de Garcia Maia, Carvalho, and Lima, (2004) as a non zero initial starting point for expansion of the universe, using the ideas of nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED). And from there isolating delta h(x)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[344] viXra:1610.0373 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-15 08:57:55

Thought Force Moves Real Objects—Energy Amplifier by Nature

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 15 Pages.

Space is what matter uses as space. Space is not dependent on its texture; it can be made out of matter or non-matter. Time is one characteristic of the given space. Using this new approach called space-matter theory, we can find different spaces that exist in reality, but we have never considered these as spaces. In many spaces, the faster-than-light phenomena (fast waves) are reality. In our experiments we measured the energy of thought force that didn't appear as an electromagnetic wave; its energy was as big as the micro wave's is. The brain doesn't radiate micro waves. How can our brains send such a large amount of energy? Using fast waves that are new fundamental forces. Generally: the velocity of fast waves depends on the space where the wave travels. If the matter wave changes its space, it will change its velocity and its "rest action", while its energy remains unchanged. Changing spaces is an "action amplifier of wave" made by nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[343] viXra:1610.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 15:13:47

Rotating and Gravitationally Collapsing Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned in a simple principle of stellar evolution that for a star to increase in rotational velocity, it cannot experience solar wind or significant flaring events. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[342] viXra:1610.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 15:31:25

Fusion as Thermodynamically Open System

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A thought to consider when developing a fusion reactor is mentioned. Maybe fusion is not a closed system, with internal feedback, but completely open as a result of another process.
Category: Astrophysics

[341] viXra:1610.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 15:47:16

Stellar Age Location Theory vs. Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 diagram

In the accepted sciences, the ages of stars and their companions can be determined by their location in specific areas. This is false for simple reasons. Explanation in provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[340] viXra:1610.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-07 16:34:52

Wave Dynamics of Quantum Gravity-Space

Authors: Dragan Turanyanin
Comments: 11 Pages.

Gravity-Space phenomenon is observed as unique, wavy, nonlinear and even a-temporal by its nature. A wave function describing the state of space encircling a gravitodynamic vortex is suggested. Linear vector gravity would be a realistic linear approximation. In the “strong field” limits, a quantization of orbits should be quite natural and fully observable. That phenomenon is named gravitonium. Quantum gravitomagnetic resonance with de Broglie’s wave arises most naturally from this. It could possible be the mechanism of mass creation, but of gravitation as well. Questions of Lorentz symmetry, gravyphoton mass and “relativity limits” are considered in detail. The whole concept leads to change from 20th century field-geometry paradigm towards real wave-dynamic description of Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[339] viXra:1610.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 16:27:14

Two More the Type QVRs Groups

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described a method that leads to the groups containing a quantum, vector boson, and two high-mass narrow composite resonances with low standard deviation both with J = 0 and J = 2 (the Type QVRs groups). Previously we described four such groups whereas in this paper we present two more such groups. Among the SST 12 resonances, there are three resonances with masses close to the mass of resonance with a higher width that appears in the LHC data (its mass is about 2.250 TeV). Their masses are 1.951 TeV, 2.242 TeV, and 2.566 TeV - the arithmetic mean of expected values is 2.253 TeV but signal should be broadened more than for the other narrow resonances. Moreover, 4 other resonances appear in the combined LHC data. We predict existence of 5 other resonances - masses of 3 of them are higher than the present-day range of the LHC experiments whereas 2 of them overlap with the bump around about 190 - 300 GeV. But the most important task is to search for the predicted vector bosons - two of the 6 vector bosons that appear in the six SST QVRs groups are the W and Z bosons whereas the predicted 4 vector bosons should have following masses 25.4 GeV, 30.5 GeV (it is the Heister vector boson), 40.1 GeV, and 280.2 GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[338] viXra:1610.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 14:48:27

Thurals & Inpolars

Authors: Dragan Turanyanin
Comments: 6 Pages.

The aim of this review is firstly, to present again a new family of polar curves (e.g. thurals [1]) and secondly, to introduce their so called inpolars as main objects of one original geometrical transformation [2]. Addendum is completely new with a brief analysis of s-thural.
Category: Geometry

[337] viXra:1610.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 09:23:06

Michelson's Experiment of Force Majeure?

Authors: Vladislav Mirkin
Comments: 8 Pages.

 The article shows that almost "negative" results of the Michelson-Morley-Miller and all subsequent experiments due to the fact that the selected standards of measurement of the size and time have changed almost simultaneously with the measured parameters. That means that all the "old" and modern experiments could not answer the question of the existence of the ether in principle. Furthermore, even in the first experiments the result was already present, which should be interpreted as the presence of the ether.
Category: Classical Physics

[336] viXra:1610.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 11:58:21

Fuzzy Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The idea is called "FDM", for "fuzzy dark matter". It posits that an extremely light boson, one almost exactly massless in fact, could be responsible for the scale of galaxy halos we observe in the universe. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[335] viXra:1610.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 16:39:43

The Entropy Paradox

Authors: Eran Sinbar, Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein
Comments: 8 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s general relativity theory, increase in mass causes time dilation. In this paper we introduce 2 identical closed systems A&B. Each system contains masses M&m where .Each system can be in one of 2 stable steady states modes, mode 1 in which m is far from M held in its position by a slider (Fig. 1) and mode 2 in which m has travelled towards M because of its gravitational pull, until they both collided and became a unified mass (fig. 3). At mode 1 the system is potential energy dominated and in mode 2 the system has transferred its potential energy first to kinetic energy and finally after the collision to heat (radiation) energy which was radiated immediately out of the system until reaching a stable steady state mode. Switching between the 2 modes is possible through the slider (Fig. 3) which by sliding aside enables mass m to be pulled by gravity towards mass M. A seconds. In system B the sequence is: mode 1 for seconds and mode 2 for seconds. Where , , .Although in both systems the total energy ,the total time and the surrounding conditions are the same at the end point after time T (Fig. 3) the entropy in system B is lower than the entropy in system A and we will name this “The entropy paradox”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[334] viXra:1610.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 19:32:17

An Introduction to New Foundations: The Ordual Calculus for Ultimate Search

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 5 Pages. new foundations--a glimpse at

The Ordinalcy paradigm has been illustrated and tentatively formalized. The proposed calculus appears to generalize the Poisson brackets while complying with the Jacobi identity.
Category: General Mathematics

[333] viXra:1610.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 01:11:51

The Formal Systems

Authors: Max Null, Sergey Belov
Comments: 3 Pages.

A Formal System is something created that allow you to answer some questions or to solve some problems. A Classic Formal System (Strongly Deterministic Formal Systems) is a system in which the answer to any ques- tion we can get a finite number of steps. In the article we consider some properties of the Formal Systems.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[332] viXra:1610.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 00:44:19

From Quaternionic Multiplication to Matrix Decomposition

Authors: Kohji Suzuki
Comments: 14 Pages.

We are led to certain kinds of matrix decompositions through quaternionic multiplication.
Category: General Mathematics

[331] viXra:1610.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 02:33:09

Machine-Learning Decision Rationales

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) have devised a way to train neural networks so that they provide not only predictions and classifications but rationales for their decisions. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[330] viXra:1610.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 04:02:16

Machine Learning Understand Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[329] viXra:1610.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 08:02:10

The Essence of the Universe and the World

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a viewpoint regarding to the essence of the Universe and the world
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[328] viXra:1610.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 14:05:21

The Ordinalcy & Residuality Foundations: And Now for Greater Simplicity

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 6 Pages. new foundations

The proposed distinct yet intertwined notions or programmed of Orduality and Residuality embark on how completeness begets asymmetry, duality, and simplicity while extending beyond the previous conjugation of Azimuthality and Gradiency. Higher-order relationships are deemed capable of revisiting functionality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[327] viXra:1610.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 14:52:21

A Simple Proof of the Collatz-Gormaund Theorem (Collatz Conjecture)

Authors: Caitherine Gormaund
Comments: 2 Pages.

In which the Collatz Conjecture is proven using fairly simple mathematics.
Category: Number Theory

[326] viXra:1610.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 11:32:21

Change Thermal Energy to Electricity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

It's a small change that makes a big difference. Researchers have developed a method that uses a one-degree change in temperature to alter the color of light that a semiconductor emits. The method, which uses a thin-film semiconductor layered on top of a heat-sensitive substrate material, offers a path to electronically triggering changes in the properties of semiconductor materials. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[325] viXra:1610.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 07:32:58

Electromagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory for Metal-Material Combined Objects

Authors: Renzun Lian
Comments: 8 Pages.

As a companion to the ElectroMagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory (EMP-CMT) for PEC systems (PEC-EMP-CMT) and the EMP-CMT for Material bodies (Mat-EMP-CMT), an EMP-CMT for Metal-Material combined objects (MM-EMP-CMT) is established in this paper, and then some power-based Characteristic Mode (CM) sets are constructed for depicting the inherent power characteristics of metal-material combined objects. The MM-EMP-CMT is valuable for analyzing and designing the metal-material combined electromagnetic structures, such as the microstrip antennas and the Dielectric Resonant Antennas (DRAs) mounted on metal platforms etc. In addition, a variational formulation for the scattering problem of metal-material combined objects is provided based on the conservation law of energy.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[324] viXra:1610.0353 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-12 12:40:38

Duplex Fraction Method To Compute The Determinant Of A 4 × 4 Matrix

Authors: Reza Farhadian
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we present a new method to compute the determinant of a real matrix of order 4.
Category: Algebra

[323] viXra:1610.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 08:40:56

Succinct Note About Geography and Climate of Location of Iranocyprictyphlops

Authors: Reza Farhadin
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we compilation of simple data about Iranian blind cave-fish or Iranocyprictyphlops, and present for speedy study by amateur reader or tyro biologist and tyro zoologist. In fact blind fishes from Iranian cave are one of the rare kind of blind fishes that they can was very important in relationship with Evolution theory. Hence we offer the real locality and simple characteristics of Iranocyprictyphlops , . Afterward we explain about geography and climate of location of Iranian blind fish cave.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[322] viXra:1610.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 09:23:20

Chain Programming Language

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A revolutionary and emerging class of energy-harvesting computer systems require neither a battery nor a power outlet to operate, instead operating by harvesting energy from their environment. [18] In 1959 renowned physicist Richard Feynman, in his talk "Plenty of Room at the Bottom," spoke of a future in which tiny machines could perform huge feats. Like many forward-looking concepts, his molecule and atom-sized world remained for years in the realm of science fiction. [17] The race towards quantum computing is heating up. Faster, brighter, more exacting – these are all terms that could be applied as much to the actual science as to the research effort going on in labs around the globe. [16] For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[321] viXra:1610.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 10:18:43

Atomic Switches for Electricity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

A revolutionary and emerging class of energy-harvesting computer systems require neither a battery nor a power outlet to operate, instead operating by harvesting energy from their environment. [18] In 1959 renowned physicist Richard Feynman, in his talk "Plenty of Room at the Bottom," spoke of a future in which tiny machines could perform huge feats. Like many forward-looking concepts, his molecule and atom-sized world remained for years in the realm of science fiction. [17] The race towards quantum computing is heating up. Faster, brighter, more exacting – these are all terms that could be applied as much to the actual science as to the research effort going on in labs around the globe. [16] For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[320] viXra:1610.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 14:28:36

Infinitesimal Computing Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

In 1959 renowned physicist Richard Feynman, in his talk "Plenty of Room at the Bottom," spoke of a future in which tiny machines could perform huge feats. Like many forward-looking concepts, his molecule and atom-sized world remained for years in the realm of science fiction. [17] The race towards quantum computing is heating up. Faster, brighter, more exacting – these are all terms that could be applied as much to the actual science as to the research effort going on in labs around the globe. [16] For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[319] viXra:1610.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 16:30:44

Mass Continuum Principle in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned in a simple principle of stellar evolution that the masses of stars are not stepped, but continuous. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[318] viXra:1610.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 17:26:52

Gradiency: A Two-Tier Introduction

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 5 Pages.

The present paper sketches a dichotomy of Gradiency versus Azimuthality referring to how the positivist tradeoffs can be mitigated or revisited
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[317] viXra:1610.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 22:26:32

Surface Formulations of the Electromagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory for Material Bodies

Authors: Renzun Lian
Comments: 13 Pages.

Recently, a volume formulation of the ElectroMagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory (CMT) for Material bodies (Mat-EMP-CMT) is built by expressing various electromagnetic powers as the functions of the total fields in material bodies, so it can be simply called as Vol-Mat-EMP-CMT. As a companion to the Vol-Mat-EMP-CMT, several Surface formulations of the Mat-EMP-CMT (Surf-Mat-EMP-CMT) are established in this paper by expressing various electromagnetic powers as the functions of the surface equivalent sources on the boundaries of material bodies. The physical essence of Surf-Mat-EMP-CMT is the same as the Vol-Mat-EMP-CMT, i.e., to construct the various power-based Characteristic Mode (CM) sets for material bodies, but the former is more advantageous than the latter in some aspects. For example, the former saves computational resources; the former avoids to compute the modal scattering field in source region; the field-based definitions for the impedance and admittance of material bodies can be easily introduced into the former.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[316] viXra:1610.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 07:45:42

Cosmic Microwave Background 3D Print

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers have created a 3D printed cosmic microwave background-a map of the oldest light in the universe-and provided the files for download. [10] In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[315] viXra:1610.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 08:14:06

Electronic Topological Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[314] viXra:1610.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 09:10:03

Nucleus Bubble Discovered

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[313] viXra:1610.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 04:58:35

Weak Atomic Bond

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[312] viXra:1610.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 05:21:45

Electromagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory for Material Bodies

Authors: Renzun Lian
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, an ElectroMagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory (CMT) for Material bodies (Mat-EMP-CMT) is provided. The Mat-EMP-CMT is valid for the inhomogeneous and lossy material bodies, and it is applicable to the bodies which are placed in complex electromagnetic environments. Under the Mat-EMP-CMT framework, a series of power-based Characteristic Mode (CM) sets are constructed, and they have abilities to depict the inherent power characteristics of material bodies from different aspects. All power-based CM sets are independent of the external electromagnetic environment and excitation. Among the various power-based CM sets constructed in Mat-EMP-CMT, only the Input power CM (InpCM) set has the same physical essence as the CM set constructed in Mat-VIE-CMT (the Volume Integral Equation based CMT for Material bodies), and the other CM sets are completely new. However, the power characteristic of the InpCM set is more physically reasonable than the CM set derived from Mat-VIE-CMT. In addition, not only radiative CMs and real characteristic currents but also non-radiative CMs and complex characteristic currents can be constructed under the Mat-EMP-CMT framework; the traditional characteristic quantity, Modal Significance (MS), is generalized, and some new characteristic and non-characteristic quantities are introduced to depict the modal characteristics from different aspects; a variational formulation for the scattering problem of material scatterer is established based on the conservation law of energy.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[311] viXra:1610.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 06:21:56

Two-Dimension Curvature of a Wire: a Simple Model Using Shear Modulus Concept

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Mikrajuddin Abdullah, Nadya Amalia
Comments: 7 Pages. Conference paper, 11 figures, 3 tables

In this work simple model based on definition of shear modulus to produce bending of wire is proposed. Several results are discussed only for constant shear modulus and diameter, but the model can be extened to non-constant shear modulus and diameter. For arbitrary parameters the model can show bending of wire which epends on shear modulus, wire mass, initial angle, and number of segments. Unfortunatey, it does not give fully agreement for nanowire system, which produces higher value than expected.
Category: Classical Physics

[310] viXra:1610.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 07:12:46

Photon Pairs Encryption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[309] viXra:1610.0337 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-20 13:13:40

La Matière Noire Galactique Comme Nécessité Relativiste

Authors: Nicolas Poupart
Comments: 6 Pages.

Il sera démontré dans cet article que la masse noire est une conséquence nécessaire de la mécanique relativiste. Cette démonstration fait abstraction des forces de la physique et est donc une explication purement mécanique. La relation de Tully-Fisher sera déduite naturellement, sans appel à une quelconque nouvelle physique, et il est par conséquent possible de dériver cette loi sans modifier la gravitation de Newton ou la relativité générale. De plus, une prédiction théorique sur une nouvelle forme de décalage de fréquence sera effectuée permettant de réfuter ou de confirmer cette théorie.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[308] viXra:1610.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 21:31:21

Fuzzy Evidential Influence Diagram Evaluation Algorithm

Authors: Haoyang Zheng, Yong Deng
Comments: 38 Pages.

Fuzzy influence diagrams (FIDs) are one of the graphical models that combines the qualitative and quantitative analysis to solve decision-making problems. However, FIDs use an incomprehensive evaluation criteria to score nodes in complex systems, so that many different nodes got the same score, which can not reflect their differences. Based on fuzzy set and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory, this paper changes the traditional evaluation system and modifies corresponding algorithm, in order that the influence diagram can more effectively reflect the true situation of the system, and get more practical results. Numerical examples and the real application in supply chain financial system are used to show the efficiency of the proposed influence diagram model.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[307] viXra:1610.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 23:56:49

On the Reason of Cosmological Constant Problem and Its Solution

Authors: Kapil Chandra
Comments: 5 Pages.

Quantum field theory’s energy density of vacuum corresponds to the cosmological constant. We found, calculation of its numerical value is based on Planck unit which assumes, the gravity is as strong as the strong nuclear force is. We argue, this assumption is the reason of very high predicted value of it and cosmological constant problem emerges. Here we modified this assumption and got correct value of it and apparently cosmological constant problem is vanished.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[306] viXra:1610.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 02:09:22

A Non-Particle View of DNA and Its Implication to Cancer Therapy

Authors: Yunita Umniyati, Victor Christianto
Comments: 3 Pages. This paper has been presented at International Conf. on Theoretical and Applied Physics, Sept. 5. 2016

The various eects of electromagnetic fields to DNA have been reported by Luc Montagnier and his group. It has been shown that genetic information can be transmitted to water through applications of electromagnetic fields, means that DNA has wave character. Here, non-particle view of DNA challenges standard paradigm of DNA and biology. Based on frequency, it can have implications for physics of cancer.
Category: Physics of Biology

[305] viXra:1610.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 03:43:55

The Internal Structure of Baryons as a Source of the Higgs Boson and the Heister Vector Boson with a Mass of 30 GeV

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), especially within the atom-like structure of baryons, we described a method that leads to groups of particles each composed of 4 particles. Such groups consist of the following particles: a quantum of the electromagnetic field, a vector boson, and two high-mass narrow composite resonances with low standard deviation both with J = 0 and J = 2. Here we show that the Heister vector boson with a mass of 30.4 +- 1.78 GeV is the constituent of such a group. Here as well we reasoned out why the Higgs-boson signal is relatively strong in comparison with other high-mass scalar bosons - just there are two, not one, independent phenomena that lead to the mass of Higgs boson equal to 125.0 GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[304] viXra:1610.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 04:20:20

Electromagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory for Perfect Electric Conductors

Authors: Renzun Lian
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper, an ElectroMagnetic-Power-based Characteristic Mode Theory (CMT) for PEC systems (PEC-EMP-CMT) is built. The PEC-EMP-CMT is valid for the PEC systems which are surrounded by any electromagnetic environment, and it can construct the complex characteristic currents and non-radiative Characteristic Modes (CMs). In this paper, some traditional concepts, such as the system input impedance and modal input impedance etc., are redefined; the traditional characteristic quantity, Modal Significance (MS), is generalized; a series of new power-based CM sets are introduced. It is proven in this paper that various power-based CM sets of a certain objective PEC structure are independent of the external environment and excitation; the non-radiative space constituted by all non-radiative modes is identical to the interior resonance space constituted by all interior resonant modes of closed PEC structures, and the non-radiative CMs constitute a basis of the space. Based on above these, the normal Eigen-Mode Theory (EMT) for closed PEC structures is classified into the PEC-EMP-CMT framework. In addition, a variational formulation for the external scattering problem of PEC structures is provided in this paper, based on the conservation law of energy.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[303] viXra:1610.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 14:15:40

Future of Dark Matter Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[302] viXra:1610.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 10:47:50

Method for Organizing Wireless Computer Network in Chemical System

Authors: Andrey I. Bodrenko
Comments: 7 Pages.

Method for organizing wireless computer network in chemical system. This invention relates to physical chemistry and computer technology. The nodes of this network are computers with connected chemical feed systems set up to feed substances into the chemical system and online chemical analyzers set up to conduct the chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system and register the results of chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system. The invention is method for organizing wireless computer network in chemical system, comprising the fact that the transmission of electronic messages from one node to another node of this network is produced through communication channel of this wireless network, created in the chemical system which is organized by connecting a source computer to the chemical feed system, feeding substances into the chemical system by means of the operation of the chemical feed system in accordance with the finite sequence of settings modes of chemical feed system representing electronic message transmitted from the source computer and which is received from the source computer, and by connecting to the receiving computer an online chemical analyzer by which the chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system is conducted and the results of chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system are registered, and through which, on the receiving computer, the results of registration of the results of chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system are received, and the electronic message is restored from the results of registration of the results of chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system. In addition, each node of this wireless computer network confer capabilities to receive electronic messages through the connected online chemical analyzer from another node of this wireless network, and transmit electronic messages through the connected chemical feed system to another node of this wireless computer network through communication channels of this wireless computer network, in chemical system. The technical result of this invention is that the radio systems are not used in each wireless communication channel of this wireless computer network in the chemical system. This article is identical to the patent application ”Method for organizing wireless computer network in chemical system” with number: 2015113357, which was published in Russian and filed at Russian Patent Office: Federal Institute For Intellectual Property, Federal Service For Intellectual Property (Rospatent), Russian Federation.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[301] viXra:1610.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 11:16:25

Unknown Medicine

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: Pages.

The article reviews the concept of information-wave medicine created by the author. The author also suggests several methods of remote diagnosis and therapy which allow for elimination even of "incurable" diseases beyond the reach of conventional medicine.
Category: Physics of Biology

[300] viXra:1610.0328 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-30 15:16:11

Newton and Einstein's Gravity in a New Perspective for Planck Masses and Smaller Sized Objects

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 12 Pages.

In a recent paper, Haug [1] has rewritten many of Newton's and Einstein's gravitational results, without changing their output, into a quantized Planck form. However, his results only hold down to the scale of Planck mass size objects. Here we derive similar results for any mass less than or equal to a Planck mass. All of the new formulas presented in this paper give the same numerical output as the traditional formulas. However, they have been rewritten in a way that gives a new perspective on the formulas when working with gravity at the level of the subatomic world. To rewrite the well-known formulas in this way could make it easier to understand strength and weakness in Newton and Einstein gravitation formulas at the subatomic scale, potentially opening them up for new interpretations.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[299] viXra:1610.0327 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-31 12:06:05

Correlation of – Cos θ Between Measurements in a Bell’s Inequality Experiment Simulation Calculated Using Local Hidden Variables

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 20 pages.

This paper shows in Simulation 2 that aggregates of elementary particles’ hidden variable unit vector spin axes e, when projected onto appropriate detector angle vectors, give values which are in exact accordance with values given by quantum mechanics calculations. However, it is found that no method of calculation breaks the Bell Inequality AB’ + BC’ ≥ AC’: not the method in Simulation 2 and not the quantum mechanics calculation using projection operators.
Category: Quantum Physics

[298] viXra:1610.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 07:48:22

Note of Matrix Multiplication

Authors: Miaomiaomiao
Comments: 47 Pages. I AM NOT THE AUTHOR

Note of matrix multiplication
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[297] viXra:1610.0325 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-28 13:49:59

Quantum Natural Selection as a Factor of Formation of the Order Described by the Standard Model in Elementary Particle Physics. Квантовый естественный отбор как фактор формирования порядка, описываемого стандартной моделью физики элементарных частиц.

Authors: Sergey V. Vasiliev
Comments: 7 Pages. in Russian

Amid all the new negative results of experiments designed to confirm the role of gauge transformations in the creation of a hierarchy of elementary particles and interactions that appear frequently alternate assumptions and hypotheses, trying to find a solution to this problem. This hypothesis describes the evolution of the Universe from the primordial chaos to the order described by the standard model, and describes a possible mechanism for the order of chaos based on nonlocal quantum correlations. На фоне всё новых и новых отрицательных результатов экспериментов, предназначенных подтвердить роль калибровочных преобразований в создании иерархии элементарных частиц и взаимодействий, всё чаще появляются альтернативные предположения и гипотезы, пытающиеся найти иной путь решения этой проблемы. В данной гипотезе рассматривается эволюция Вселенной от начального "хаоса" к порядку, описываемому стандартной моделью, и предлагается возможный механизм упорядочивания "хаоса", основанный на нелокальных квантовых корреляциях.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[296] viXra:1610.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 04:32:29

Topological Phase Transitions as the Cause of Creation of High-Mass Narrow Resonances with Low Standard Deviation

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Topology is the branch of mathematics that attempts to describe the properties changing stepwise as, for example, number of holes in objects or conductivity of thin layers. Topological phase transitions play an important role in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They describe the successive phase transitions of the Higgs field - there appear the spin-1 binary systems of closed strings responsible for the quantum entanglement and loops and tori composed of the spin-1 bosons built of fermions. The single loops or tori are the objects with one global hole whereas their components are the bi-holes. Surfaces of the tori are built of smaller binary systems of tori i.e. one-global-hole objects are built of bi-holes. But in SST, the topological phase transitions concern as well the transition from electromagnetic interactions (there is one Type of photons) to nuclear interactions (there are 8 Types of gluons). Such transition causes that there can appear composite resonances built of 8 or 8x8=64 vector bosons with total angular momentum equal to 0 or 2. The strictly defined numbers of the high-standard-deviation vector bosons (8 or 64) in the composite resonances cause that they must be the high-mass narrow resonances with low standard deviation! It leads to conclusion that we must change the statistical methods applied to the topological composite resonances. Here we described 3 groups of such resonances – the groups are associated with the mass distances between neutral and charged lightest baryons (i.e. nucleons), lightest strange mesons (i.e. kaons) and lightest mesons (i.e. pions). Obtained results are consistent with the LHC data. We predict existence of two low-standard-deviation neutral resonances (5.01 +- 0.13 TeV and 5.78 +- 0.15 TeV). There can be in existence a high-standard-deviation vector boson with a mass of 25.4 +- 0.7 GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[295] viXra:1610.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 05:09:20

Celestial Mechanics Tornado in the Bowl?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 5 Pages. In Russian

After introduction of vortical repulsion in celestial mechanics it turned out, that gravity should act non-linear. Some points for Einstein. Real weight of gravity theory of Nordstrom should be determined.
Category: Classical Physics

[294] viXra:1610.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 05:15:30

Time to Dismantle the Megaliths?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 3 Pages.

Part of ~ 11 500 year old megaliths can be built with purpose- to influence astrogeophysics.
Category: Geophysics

[293] viXra:1610.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 06:22:29

Cystic Fibrosis: Computing the World's First Cure for a Genetic Disease

Authors: James Bonnar
Comments: 80 Pages.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects millions of people worldwide. In this book we discuss both the technical and non-technical reasons science has been unable to find cures for inherited diseases such as CF, despite the exponential increase in knowledge of disease mechanisms we currently witness. New directions in scientific research and protocols are suggested that may help bring about actual cures for genetic diseases through medicinal gene therapy. A new computational approach, called the omega algorithm, is developed, implemented and applied to find compounds that could potentially correct the delta F508 mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis. Links to downloadable files, including an extensive chemical reaction database, are given in an appendix to assist the reader with their own further studies. All computer code in the book is written in the Mathematica language.
Category: Biochemistry

[292] viXra:1610.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 19:38:45

There Exists no Algorithm for Solving the Quadratic Equation with Real Coefficients Neither in ℝ Nor in ℂ

Authors: Giorgos Bougioukas
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper proves that the problem of the equality of two real constants is undecidable and as a consequence there exists no algorithm for solving the (univariate) quadratic equation with real coefficients neither in ℝ nor in ℂ.
Category: General Mathematics

[291] viXra:1610.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 19:48:18

Introduction to The Natural Force Of The Universe

Authors: Luo Zhengda
Comments: 3 Pages.

There is one truth only, it is not existed in the concept of the single "gravity", also not in the single "repulsion", and certainly not in the "gravity and repulsion" taking the same mass substance as the carrier, but in the external force and the repulsive force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[290] viXra:1610.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-17 05:34:56

LHC 2016 Sees 3 Higgs Mass States

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 19 Pages. Version 2 (v2) corrects the viXra number of the paper.

The first 13 /fb or so of the 2016 p-p LHC run indicates 3 Higgs Mass States: 125, 200, and 240 GeV. If confirmed by all 40 /fb of 2016 data, 3 Tquark Mass States 130, 174, and 220 GeV of a composite Higgs-Tquark system would also be supported as would be an unconventional analysis of Fermilab Tquark data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[289] viXra:1610.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 07:40:42

Latest Dark Matter Searches

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[288] viXra:1610.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 08:26:38

New 'God Particle'

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

As part of one of the most ambitious quests in science a senior physicist at The University of Manchester has helped to narrow the search to find a ghost-like neutrino particle – its discovery promising to be even bigger than locating the Higgs boson. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[287] viXra:1610.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 08:43:06

Scrutiny of Schwarzschild’s Original Solution (1916)

Authors: M.E.Hassani
Comments: 6 Pages; 4 References.

In the present paper, the Schwarzschild’s original solution (1916) is scrutinized and proven to be logically, mathematically and physically not only wrong but basically meaningless because the ʻeasy trickʼ used by Schwarzschild violated the fundamental concepts of analytic geometry (rectangular coordinates), trigonometry (triangles) and dimensional analysis (consistency and homogeneity). It seems that Schwarzschild had systematically and deliberately violated these fundamental concepts in order to avoid/break an unavoidable/unbreakable impasse (the determinant ≠ 1). Then he had mathematically cheated to have the determinant =1 in an anti-mathematical manner since he was not attached to his initial claim, viz., ‒ x1, x2, x3 and x, y, z are rectangular coordinates ‒ Thus, as scientists we should not forget one very important thing, namely, mathematics is not only an exact science, but it is the language of Science itself.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[286] viXra:1610.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 05:16:26

Artificial Intelligence Replaces Judges and Lawyers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

An artificial intelligence method developed by University College London computer scientists and associates has predicted the judicial decisions of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) with 79% accuracy, according to a paper published Monday, Oct. 24 in PeerJ Computer Science. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[285] viXra:1610.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 05:42:56

There Really Are an Infinite Number of Twin Primes, and Other Thoughts on the Distribution of Primes.

Authors: Jared Beal
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper describes an algorithm for finding all the prime numbers. It also describes how this pattern among primes can be used to show the ratio of primes to not primes in an infinite set of X integers. It can also be used to show that the ratio of twin primes to not twin primes in an infinite set of X integers is always going to be greater than zero.
Category: Number Theory

[284] viXra:1610.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 06:02:05

Quantum Cloning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Queensland (UQ) have produced near-perfect clones of quantum information using a new method to surpass previous cloning limits. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[283] viXra:1610.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 01:14:49

Space, Time and Information: Toys in the hands of Lord Venkatesha

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 9 Pages.

Building on some of the most phenomenal theories and observations of science, this article probes deep into the nature of the three fundamental entities of the universe: space, time and information. Through a series of implications and inferences involving Indian Spirituality, one sees these entities in the three Shaktis of Iccha, Jnana and Kriya, as well as in the Avataras of Varaha, Narasimha and Rama-Krishna-Kalki. Importantly, one sees these three entities as the three ‘toys’ – Shankha, Chakra and Thirunaamam of the Lord Venkatesha, who is the Universal Mother Herself as the Kali-Yuga salvation yielding form of Baalaa.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[282] viXra:1610.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 02:38:49

Dark Energy Supernova Analysis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[281] viXra:1610.0309 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-28 08:41:47

An Estimation of Muons that are Produced on the Ground

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 12 Pages. Include Chinese Version

I find that some experiments can be used to estimate numbers of the muons that produced on the earth’s surface except of that come from cosmic ray particles in the atmosphere. However, calculation showed that the high energy muons on the ground mainly come from cosmic rays. The ground should lack of mechanisms to produce high-energy muons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[280] viXra:1610.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 04:20:07

Proca-Maxwell Equations for Dyons with Quaternion

Authors: B. C. Chanyal, S. K. Chanyal, Virendra Singh, A. S. Rawat
Comments: 07 Pages. Published By: Applied Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2016, pp 9-15. doi: 10.12691/amp-4-1-2

The quaternions are first hyper-complex numbers, having four-dimensional structure, which may be useful to express the 4 dimensional theory of dyons carrying both electric and magnetic charges. Keeping in mind t’Hooft’s monopole solutions and the fact that despite the potential importance of massive monopole, we discuss a connection between quaternionic complex field, to the generalized electromagnetic field equations of massive dyons. Starting with the Euclidean space-time structure and two four-components theory of dyons, we represent the generalized charge, potential, field and current source in quaternion form with real and imaginary part of electric and magnetic constituents of dyons. We have established the quaternionic formulation of generalized complex-electromagnetic fields equations, generalized Proca-Maxwell’s (GPM) equations and potential wave equations for massive dyons. Thus, the quaternion formulation be adopted in a better way to understand the explanation of complex-field equations as the candidate for the existence of massive monopoles and dyons where the complex parameters be described as the constituents of quaternion.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[279] viXra:1610.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 10:24:00

Quantum Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[278] viXra:1610.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 12:04:59

Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[277] viXra:1610.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 13:11:26

Fiber Optics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Glass fibres do everything from connecting us to the internet to enabling keyhole surgery by delivering light through medical devices such as endoscopes. But as versatile as today's fiber optics are, scientists around the world have been working to expand their capabilities by adding semiconductor core materials to the glass fibers. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[276] viXra:1610.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 13:46:05

3-D Printed Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[275] viXra:1610.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 07:35:10

The Dark Side of the EM Drive

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 4 Pages.

The EM Drive, if validated, offers the possibility of interstellar travel by obtaining higher speeds in much shorter times than current propulsion techniques. The same energy acquired by an EM Drive can also be a significant concern at a global level.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[274] viXra:1610.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 08:07:37

Majorana Zero Modes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

In condensed matter physics, scientists found that a particlular kind of quasiparticle—Majorana zero modes (MZMs)—have characteristics similar to Majorana fermions. Recently, a research team from the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information of the Chinese Academy of Sciences achieved the fabrication and manipulation of MZMs in an optical simulator. [9] On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[273] viXra:1610.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 04:02:21

Economic Cycles of Social Hatred

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 2 Pages.

On the Conjuncture of Antisemitism
Category: Social Science

[272] viXra:1610.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 04:13:35

Hertugen Anekdoter Fra Venskabets Rejse

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 183 Pages.

Hertugen bevægede sig i et hurtigt og elegant tempo alene ned langs gaden og tog ingen videre notits af de folk, der var på vej hjem efter dagens gøremål. Han standsede et øjeblik op og stod i en ganske kort stund i positur, mens han med halen stående ret op i en stolt og selvsikker position hurtigt lod de klare brune øjne glide spejdende ud over gaden, intelligent indprentende sig alle vigtige detaljer uden at lade sig mærke med noget. Hunden var ganske flot bygget, og stående på den måde mindede hans attitude påfaldende meget om en grå ulv, således som han værdigt og kontrolleret snusede op i luften. Til trods for de få hvide hår i hans underansigt, der skilte sig ud fra den ellers korte, glatte og kulsorte pels, så var det sikkert de færreste, der kunne have gættet eller overhovedet troet på, at denne adrætte hund faktisk var over 10 år gammel. Bølle gik sekunder efter videre igen på sin strejftur, og skønt han ikke på nogen måde så ud til at løbe, så var han alligevel forbløffende hurtigt ude af syne igen. Dette er beretningen om dachsterrieren Bølle, en farverig og bemærkelsesværdig hund, samt om hans til tider lige så farverige familie og bekendtskaber og om talrige af de oplevelser, som han mødte på sin vej gennem livet. Fortællingen er skrevet som en lang række anekdoter, som er vidt forskellige og repræsenterer et bredt uddrag fra et langt liv, nogle er sjove, andre er dramatiske, hverdagsagtige, irriterende, sørgmodige eller bare spændende. Så kort og godt, de repræsenter en tilværelse.
Category: Education and Didactics

[271] viXra:1610.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 17:45:21

A Theory of the Gravitational Co-Field and its Application to the Spacecraft Flyby Anomaly

Authors: J.F. Cuderman
Comments: 8 Pages.

A co-field to Newton's gravitational field is derived and its properties defined. It is applied to explain "Spacecraft-Earth Flyby Anomalies" discovered during deep space missions launched between 1990 and 2006. The Flyby anomaly has been considered a major unresolved problem in astrophysics. Keywords: Gravitational Co-Field, Spacecraft-Earth Flyby Anomalies, Space Physics, Classical Physics
Category: Classical Physics

[270] viXra:1610.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-30 07:37:33

Emergence of Standard Model Symmetries from Multifractal Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 21 Pages.

Despite being supported by overwhelming evidence, the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is challenged by many foundational questions. The root cause of its gauge structure and of discrete symmetry breaking continues to be unknown. Here we show how these questions may be approached using the multifractal geometry of the SM near the electroweak scale.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[269] viXra:1610.0297 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-10 10:43:48

The Discovery of the Periodic Table

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper was written to investigate the order of discoveries made in chemistry leading up to the discovery of the periodic table. New experimental techniques, such as the pneumatic trough, voltaic pile, spectroscopy, and potassium analysis led to the discovery of many new elements and their properties which enabled the discovery of the periodic table. The discoveries led to the demise of the classical theory of the elements, to the end of the phlogiston theory and to the creation of the modern ideas of the elements and of the atomic theory. The paper shows the discoveries were made in a necessary and inevitable order with new experimental techniques leading to the discovery of new elements which eventually led to the discovery of the periodic table.
Category: Social Science

[268] viXra:1610.0296 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-10 11:44:49

The Invention of Stone Tools

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper was written to study the development of stone tools technology throughout the Paleolithic. It finds the technology developed with the simplest discoveries being made first and more complex discoveries being made later. The chemical structure and the properties of the raw materials determined that stone tools could be useful to humans and over time people learnt to make better and better stone tools. The improvements occurred in an order that was necessary and inevitable, with later improvements building upon earlier improvements, and is an illustration of how increasing human knowledge changes technology and human social and cultural history.
Category: Social Science

[267] viXra:1610.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 23:37:21

Bell's Theorem Refuted; Commonsense Local Realism Defined

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 14 Pages.

An open letter to Bellians and the Annals of Physics' Editors re -- it's a proven scientific fact: a violation of local realism has been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally -- after AoP (2016:67). EPR (1935) famously argue that additional variables will bring locality and causality to QM's completion; we show that they are right. Even more famously, Bell (1964) cried ‘impossible' against such variables; we give the shortest possible refutation of his claims. With EPR-based variables (and without QM), an old thought-experiment delivers a commonsensical locally-causal account of EPRB and GHZ in 3-space. We then name the flaw in Bell's theorem – Bell's error -- Bell's 1964:(14a) ≠ Bell's 1964:(14b) under EPRB. Thus, given Bell's (1988:88) gloss on a snippet of von Neumann's work, ‘There's nothing to Bell's theorem -- nor variants like CHSH (1969), Mermin (1990), Peres (1995) -- it's not just flawed, it's silly; not merely false but foolish.' In short, we show that the whole Bellian canon -- with its no-name brand of local realism -- is all of those, and misleading too. Under EPR, mixing common-sense with undergrad math/physics in the classical way so favored by Einstein, we interpret QM locally and realistically. We thus define a new brand of local realism -- CLR, commonsense local realism -- the union of local-causality (no causal influence propagates superluminally) and physical-realism (some physical properties change interactively). Long may EPR rule OK we say.
Category: Quantum Physics

[266] viXra:1610.0294 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-29 01:03:05

Hard-core’s Physical Origin and Action Mechanism

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: giving a new explanation for the physical origin and action mechanism of the nuclear force’s ‘hard-core’ repulsive.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[265] viXra:1610.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 02:30:20

Microworld_33. Electromagnetic Engines Without Moving Parts

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages. English and russian texts.

There can be two kinds of electromagnetic engines developed that would be free of moving macroscopic parts. One of them is EmDrive wherein magnetron launches a vortex-like whirl that generates ethereal jet thrust. Another is a capacitor-type photon engine that utilizes “motive force” of photon.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[264] viXra:1610.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 13:06:55

Logical Stochastic Resonance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Mankind has long been peering into the depths of the sea. From finding fish to avoiding rocks, the ability to see as far as possible through turbid water has been important for thousands of years. More recently, scientists are using sophisticated cameras to study sea floor geology and deep-sea animal behaviors but are continually challenged to get a clear picture of the remote fathoms of the ocean. [16] Entangled photon pairs, termed as biphotons, have been the benchmark tool for experimental quantum optics. The quantum-network protocols based on photon-atom interfaces have stimulated a great demand for single photons with bandwidth comparable to or narrower than the atomic natural linewidth. [15] Measurement of the twisting force, or torque, generated by light on a silicon chip holds promise for applications such as miniaturized gyroscopes and sensors to measure magnetic field, which can have significant industrial and consumer impact. [14] A new technique detects spatial coherence in light at smaller scales than had been possible. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[263] viXra:1610.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 11:10:39

Nonlinear Phononics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how the ultrafast light-induced modulation of the atomic positions in a material can control its magnetization. An international research team led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter at CFEL in Hamburg used terahertz light pulses to excite pairs of lattice vibrations in a magnetic crystal. [22] Professor Park Je-Geun of the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) and colleagues have created a new theoretical model of the coupling of two forms of collective atomic excitation, known as magnons and phonons in crystals of the antiferromagnet manganite (Y,Lu)MnO3, a mineral made of manganese oxide and the rare-earth elements yttrium (Y) and lutetium (Lu). [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[262] viXra:1610.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 11:44:28

Unbalanced Winternitz Signatures (Draft)

Authors: Santi J. Vives Maccallini
Comments: 8 Pages.

We introduce 'uwots' (unbalanced Winternitz one-time signatures): an optimized, tweakable generalization of the Winternitz signature scheme.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[261] viXra:1610.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 12:20:06

The Mystery of Dark Energy

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 5 Pages.

An eccentric mystery in the modern cosmology. There is big energy to bring the acceleration expansion of the space in the vacuum space. It has a smaller 120 columns than a calculated energy level. I cannot explain the fact. An idea unlike the existing fruit which can explain existence of the dark energy is demanded eagerly.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[260] viXra:1610.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 12:28:31

Quantum Cascade Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

"The lasers that we produce are a far cry from ordinary laser pointers ," explains Rolf Szedlak from the Institute of Solid State Electronics at TU Wien. "We make what are known as quantum cascade lasers. They are made up of a sophisticated layered system of different materials and emit light in the infrared range." [21] Researchers at ETH Zurich have discovered a peculiar feature in oscillations similar to that of a child's swing. As a result, they have succeeded in outlining a novel principle for small, high-resolution sensors, and have submitted a patent application for it. [20] A collaboration including researchers at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has developed a tuneable, high-efficiency, single-photon microwave source. The technology has great potential for applications in quantum computing and quantum information technology, as well as in studying the fundamental reactions between light and matter in quantum circuits. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[259] viXra:1610.0287 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-29 12:04:47

Integer Compositions Signatures

Authors: Santi J. Vives Maccallini
Comments: First Publication: 2016-Oct-24. Current Version: 2. Pages: 6. Language: English.

We introduce integer compositions signatures (ic): a post-quantum, hash-based family of one-time signatures. The proposed scheme explores a connection between hash-based signatures and combinatorics: the authentication path taken from the signature to the public key is determined by a restricted composition of an 9. The family shows improvements over previous schemes like Winternitz: reduced cost, verification in constant time, and the possibility to tweak the signature for either faster signing or faster verification. Keywords: one-time signatures, ots, hash, authentication, post-quantum cryptography, composition, combinatorics.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[258] viXra:1610.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 08:29:26

The Speed of a Black Hole to Attract a Celestial Body

Authors: Luca Nascimbene
Comments: 6 Pages.

The speed of a black hole to attract a celestial body thanks to its universal gravity and many other parameters described in article
Category: Astrophysics

[257] viXra:1610.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 10:09:27

The Michelson-Morley Experiment with the Relative Motion to Earth and the Corrected Ether Theory

Authors: Jixueshi
Comments: 5 Pages. This experiment can prove that the etheric by earth traction

Michelson morley experiment denies the existence of ether wind, rocky (Oliver w. f. Lodge, 1851-1940) in 1892, made of steel plate rotation experiment rejected ether by steel plate of traction, also indirectly negative ether by earth traction, the two experimental rejected ether.This experiment can prove that the etheric by earth traction,the Michelson-Morley Experiment on the relative motion to the earth: The light source is the green laser, with its wavelength 532nm. Compared to the original Michelson-Morley Experiment, the installation of this experiment is improved in two ways (as is seen in figure 1): Firstly, a parallel plane optical resonant cavity is added to the optical path in order to improve its sensitivity. As the times of the reflex in the resonant cavity is unknown, the sensitivity cannot be measured; Secondly, the stationary relative to the earth is changed to the rectilinear motion. The installation is placed horizontally on the high-speed train carriage with the shock cushion installed, which is made of multiple layers of sponges and slates. When the installation works in uniform linear motion, relatively to the earth surface at a speed of over 260km per hour, rotate it horizontally, and the move of optical interference fringe can be observed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[256] viXra:1610.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 03:05:49

Доказательство гипотезы Била – следствие свойств инвариантного тождества определенного типа (элементарный аспект)

Authors: Reuven Tint
Comments: Updates: 4.3.2 - 4.3.5.. page 7

Аннотация. Предложен вариант решения гипотезы Била с помощью прямого доказательства» Великой» теоремы Ферма элементарными методами. Новыми являются «инвариантное тождество « (ключевое слово) и полученные нами приведенные в тексте работы тождества, позволившие напрямую решить ВТФ и гипотезу Била,и ряд других. Предложены также новая формулировка теорем ( п.2.1.4.), ,доказательства для n= 1,2,3,..n>2 и x,y,z>2.
Category: Number Theory

[255] viXra:1610.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 04:06:12

Invisible Surfaces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems took a page out of the design book for moth cornea. The corneas of these mostly nocturnal insects reflect almost no incoming light. There is no glow of light bouncing off the moth's eyes to betray their presence to potential predators. Less reflected light also means that moths are able to use practically all the scarce night-time light to see. [25] For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[254] viXra:1610.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 04:05:52

An Information Volume Measure

Authors: Yong Deng
Comments: 8 Pages.

How to measure the volume of uncertainty information is an open issue. Shannon entropy is used to represent the uncertainty degree of a probability distribution. Given a generalized probability distribution which means that the probability is not only assigned to the basis event space but also the power set of event space. At this time, a so called meta probability space is constructed. A new measure, named as Deng entropy, is presented. The results show that, compared with existing method, Deng entropy is not only better from the aspect of mathematic form, but also has the significant physical meaning.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[253] viXra:1610.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 07:13:14

Polymer Photodetectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Photodetectors, which are used in a wide range of systems and devices from smartphones to space stations, are typically only sensitive to light within a certain narrow bandwidth. This presents numerous challenges to product developers. Together with their colleagues from China and Saudi Arabia, scientists at MIPT have found a way to address this. According to their study, published in Advanced Functional Materials, treating an ordinary photodetector with UV light can turn it into a high-bandwidth device. [20] By using a clever approach to increase the sensitivity of the optical fibers to small index changes within the surrounding environment, small concentrations of molecules on or near the fiber's surface can be detected. While the general idea is well known, this particular approach solves an existing sensitivity problem. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[252] viXra:1610.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 16:35:25

Applying the Second Order Two-Scale Approximation to a Dispersive Wave Equation

Authors: Yigal Gurevich
Comments: 8 Pages.

The method of multiple scales is applied and the second order two-scale approximation is calculated for a linear dispersive wave equation with a small perturbation proportional to the amplitude cubed.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[251] viXra:1610.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 19:08:57

A New Formalism of Arbitrary Spin Particle Equations

Authors: S.R. Shi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, a new formalism of arbitrary spin particle equations is constructed. The physical meaning of the new equation is very clear. It's completely expressed by the amounts about spin. It's proved to describe correctly neutrino, photon and electron etc. Then a scalar field is introduced into the new equation. The new equation with the scalar field has an unique characteristic. The scalar field is like a switch. It can control generation and annihilation of particles. This provides a new dynamics mechanism about generation and annihilation of particles. This can also explain why the inflation period universe can be completely described by scalar fields.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[250] viXra:1610.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 00:02:00

On a Question Concerning the Littlewood Violations

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 19 Pages.

Riemann's prime-counting function R(x) looks good for every value of x we can compute, but in the light of Littlewood's result its superiority over li(x) is illusory: Ingram (1938) pointed out that 'for special values of x (as large as we please), the one approximation will deviate as widely as the other from the true value'. This note introduces a type of prime-counting function that is always better than li(x)...
Category: Number Theory

[249] viXra:1610.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 13:15:42

К вопросу о связи эллиптической кривой Фрея с «Великой» теоремой Ферма (элементарный аспект)

Authors: Reuven Tint
Comments: 2 Pages.

Аннотация. Интерес к названной в заглавии проблеме вызван следующими соображениями: 1) Возьмем, к примеру, «пифагорово» уравнение, все взаимно простые решения которого опре- деляются формулами A= a^2- b^2 и B=2ab. Но если мы выберем A≠a^2- b^2 и B≠2ab как гипо- тетически «верные» решения этого уравнения, то, наверное, можно будет доказать, что, в этом случае, «пифагорово» уравнение не существует. Но оно действительно не существует для гипотетически выбранных «верных» решений. 2) Уравнение A^N+B^N = C^N и уравнение эллиптической кривой Фрея (как будет показано ниже для предложенного варианта их решения) не совместны. 3) Поэтому, как представляется, выглядит не совсем убедительной связь между уравнением эллиптической кривой Фрея и соответствующим уравнением Ферма. 4) Приведено приложение.
Category: Number Theory

[248] viXra:1610.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 13:19:39

On the Question of the Relationship of the Elliptic Curve Frey with "Great" Fermat's Theorem (Elementary Aspect).

Authors: Reuven Tint
Comments: 2 Pages.

Annotation. Interest in the title problem is caused by the following considerations: 1) Take, for example, "Pythagoras' equation, all of which are relatively prime solutions determined Delyan formulas A= a^2- b^2 and B=2ab. But if we choose A≠a^2- b^2 and B≠2ab both hypo- Tethyan "correct" solutions of this equation, then perhaps it will be possible to prove that, in this case, "Pythagoras" equation exists. But it really does not exist for the selected hypothetically "true" solutions. 2) The equation A^N+B^N = C^N and the equation of the elliptic curve Frey (as will be shown below for the proposed options to solve them) are not compatible. 3) Therefore, it seems, it does not look quite convincing relationship between the equation elliptic curve Frey Farm and the corresponding equation. 4) Supplement.
Category: Number Theory

[247] viXra:1610.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 13:58:45

Proposal Demonstration of Hypothesis Riemann

Authors: Luca Nascimbene
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper the author continue the works [6] [11] [12] and present a proposal for a demonstration on the Riemann Hypothesis and the conjecture on the multiplicity of non-trivial zeros of the Riemann s zeta.
Category: Number Theory

[246] viXra:1610.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 14:53:34

Computational Genetic Chemistry Ver. 2.0

Authors: James Bonnar
Comments: 79 Pages.

In this book we discuss the technical and non-technical reasons science has been unable to find cures for heritable diseases, despite the exponential increase in knowledge of disease mechanisms we currently witness. New directions in scientific research and protocols are suggested that may help bring about actual cures for genetic diseases through pharmacological gene therapy. A computational paradigm, called the omega algorithm, is developed, implemented and applied to find compounds that could potentially correct the delta F508 mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis. Links to downloadable files, including an extensive chemical reaction database, are given in an appendix to assist the reader with further studies.
Category: Chemistry

[245] viXra:1610.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 10:53:36

Permanent Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Classical Physics

[244] viXra:1610.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 08:33:39

Computer Breaks Virus Apart

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[243] viXra:1610.0268 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 08:53:10

The Physical Nature of Linear Momentum

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 8 Pages.

The principles of the conservation of 'linear momentum' and the conservation of 'energy' are the corner stones of the present theory of physics. The true nature of these concepts and the underlying physical mechanisms of their conservation have, however, never been properly cleared out. Even the great European physicists, Descartes, Leibniz and D'Alembert had lengthy discussions on whether 'kinetic energy' or 'linear momentum' were the true property considered by the conservation laws. In the present physics the linear momentum of a body is mathematically defined as the product of its mass and its velocity and its conservation is explained as a consequence of Newton’s first law of motion. In this paper the author reveals the physical nature of the linear momentum of a moving particle system and the physical reason for its conservation in the absence of external interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[242] viXra:1610.0267 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 08:56:34

The Physical Nature of Force

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 11 Pages.

The concept of 'force', which finds its origin in Newton's laws of motion, is one of the fundamental concepts of classical physics, as it is the basis of the fundamental notions of 'work' and 'energy'. The problem is that the present concept of 'force', as the momentum transfer per unit time, covers a wide variety of phenomena, which blurs the disclosure of its true nature. On the basis of the conclusion of my paper part 1, in which I have demonstrated that the 'linear momentum' of a mass particle system is a mathematical expression of its physical amount of congruent translational motion, I will in this paper reveal the physical meaning of the 'force' exerted between colliding bodies.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[241] viXra:1610.0266 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 08:59:25

The Physical Nature of Work and Kinetic Energy

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 11 Pages.

The principle of conservation of 'energy' is the ultimate building stone of physics. The problem is that we don’t have a tight description of what 'energy' really is and how and where it is physically stored. On the basis of the conclusion of my paper Part 2: 'The true physical nature of force' in which I have demonstrated that 'force' is a mathematical expression of the rate at which congruent translational motion is transferred, I will in this paper give a real physical definition of the true nature of 'work', which is in the present textbooks mathematically defined as the product of a force and its displacement and of the true physical nature of 'kinetic energy' of a moving body, which is in the present textbooks mathematically defined as the product of its mass times half the square of its velocity. My clarification of the physical nature of kinetic energy will thereby allow me to unveil the true physical nature of Planck’s constant and of the energy of photons.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[240] viXra:1610.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 09:49:43

Proton Escaping the Molecule

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Imagine what it would be like to watch how the individual atoms of molecules rearrange during a chemical reaction to form a new substance, or to see the compounds of DNA move, rearrange and replicate. Such capability would give unprecedented insight to understand and potentially control the processes. [8] In order to explain the intricacies of hydrogen activation above and beyond experimental findings, quantum chemical calculations were carried out in cooperation with Professor Max Holthausen (Goethe University Frankfurt). [7] In a combination of experiments and theory the diffusion of individual atoms in periodic systems was understood for the first time. The interaction of individual atoms with light at ultralow temperatures close to the absolute zero temperature point provides new insights into ergodicity, the basic assumption of thermodynamics. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Condensed Matter

[239] viXra:1610.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 01:59:12

Microworld_32. Nature of the “Impossible” EmDrive Jet Thrust

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 13 Pages. English and russian texts. Вас устраивает качество перевода на English?

Jet thrust of the “impossible” electromagnetic engine called ЕmDrive is created by the magnetic whirl that is constantly pumping through flows of ambient ether which in their turn are keeping the magnetic whirl stable.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[238] viXra:1610.0263 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-01 06:59:01

Quanta, Physicists and Probabilities ... ?

Authors: Elemer E Rosinger
Comments: 43 Pages.

There seems to be nothing short of a {\it double whammy} hitting the users of probability, and among them physicists, especially those involved in the foundations of quanta. First is the instant instinctual reaction that phenomena which interest one do sharply and clearly divide into the {\it dichotomy} of {\it two and only two} alternatives of being {\it either} ``deterministic", {\it or} on the contrary, being ``probabilistic". However, there is also a second, prior and yet deeper trouble, namely, the ``probabilistic" case is strongly believed to be equally clear and well-founded as is the ``deterministic" one. And the only difference seen between the two is that the latter can talk also about ``individual" phenomena, while the former can only do so about large enough ``ensembles" for which, however, it is believed to be equally clear, precise and rigorous with the ``deterministic" approach. Or briefly, ``probabilistic'' is seen as nothing else but the ``deterministic'' on the level of ``ensembles" ... \\ The fact, however, is that there is a {\it deep gap} between the empirical world of ``random" phenomena, and on the other hand, theories of ``probability". Furthermore, any attempt to bridge that gap does inevitably involve {\it infinity}, thus aggravating the situation to the extent that even today, and even if not quite realized by many, theories of ``probabilities" have a {\it shaky} foundation. \\ This paper tries to bring to the awareness of various users of ``probabilities", and among them, to physicists involved in quanta, the fact that - seemingly unknown to them - they are self-inflicted victims of the mentioned double whammy.
Category: Quantum Physics

[237] viXra:1610.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 19:35:06

The Cooling Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 picture

According to the 1st Law of Thermodynamics stars will cool indefinitely. Explanation is provided below.
Category: Astrophysics

[236] viXra:1610.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 13:31:00

Real and Imaginary Time and Evolutions of Thermodynamic Time in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

The modern conception of time is based on the General Theory of Relativity (GR). The GR gravitational time is associated with the escape velocity i.e. concerns the radial motions of masses/energies in gravitational fields. The two-component grainy spacetime described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), i.e. the non-gravitating superluminal Higgs field (HF) concerning the gravitational fields and the gravitating Einstein spacetime (ES) composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs moving with the speed of light in “vacuum” (which leads to the Standard Model interactions), causes that the SST time for the ES components in ground state (the gravitational interactions only) and for baryonic plasma`(BP) near black holes is neither Einsteinian nor Newtonian. Here we described the SST time in the absence and in the presence of BP. The SST time does not concern the GR time associated with not granular spacetime. But it does not mean that the GR time, which concerns objects that can change their speed, is incorrect. Just GR is the incomplete theory (the speed of the ES components is invariant) so it incorrectly describes dynamics of black holes (BHs). The SST time is characteristic for flows of the ES forced by gravitational fields and for flows of BP forced by flows of the dark-matter (DM) structures, especially near and inside the SST BHs. Here we derived the formulae for the ES and BP gravitational time dilation, we explained what is imaginary time, we described the difference between the HF and ES thermodynamic time, and we present how have changed the thermodynamic units of time during the evolution of the Cosmos. Contrary to the GR BHs, due to the DM structures produced by BP on surfaces of the SST BHs and the invariance of speed of the ES components, particles can escape from the SST BHs via the jets.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[235] viXra:1610.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 10:34:19

Quantum Chemical Calculations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

In order to explain the intricacies of hydrogen activation above and beyond experimental findings, quantum chemical calculations were carried out in cooperation with Professor Max Holthausen (Goethe University Frankfurt). [7] In a combination of experiments and theory the diffusion of individual atoms in periodic systems was understood for the first time. The interaction of individual atoms with light at ultralow temperatures close to the absolute zero temperature point provides new insights into ergodicity, the basic assumption of thermodynamics. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[234] viXra:1610.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 11:23:07

Equation Empty Wave Function

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, it is the equation for the wave function of an empty Bohm considering the gravitational field equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[233] viXra:1610.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 12:51:40

Quantum Resonant Tunneling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Efficient control of electron motion can be used to reduce the power requirements of computers. “Quantum wells” (QW) are regions that allow electron motion in only two dimensions. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[232] viXra:1610.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 04:41:37

Microworld 31. Arrow of Time

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages. English and russian texts

Refusal of the “arrow of time” in physics is a result of the academic insufficiency of the quantum physics and relativity theory
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[231] viXra:1610.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 07:06:02

Quantum Liquid on Crystal Surface

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Uppsala University, Sweden. The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[230] viXra:1610.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 01:44:44

Quantum Monte Carlo

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In a recent paper, physicists have for the first time used an exact numerical technique: the quantum Monte Carlo technique, which was designed to explain the photon absorption and emission phenomenon. [15] New research suggests that it is possible to create a new form of light by binding light to a single electron, combining the properties of both. [14] It is called the pseudospin and it determines the probability to find electrons on neighbouring carbon atoms. The possibility to control this degree of freedom would allow for new types of experiments, but potentially also enable to use it for electronic applications. [13] In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[229] viXra:1610.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 04:12:10

(Bidum 3.0 Beta Version 21 Pages) a Toy Model of the Universe Based on a Large Numbers Hypothesis Inspired by Edward Teller – Towards a Toe Centered on Life Phenomenon

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 21 Pages.

In the last century, a small minority of physicists considered a hypothetical binary logarithmic connection between the large and the small constants of physics, which also implies a base-2 power law In this article, I propose a toy model of the universe (TMU) that can offer a couple of potential valid updates for the Standard model (SM) of particle physics: the main binary logarithm Teller hypothesis (mbl-TH) on the large numbers in physics, which is an alternative interpretation of the Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (DLNH); the dimensional relativity hypothesis (DRH); the electrograviton model (EGM) of the hypothetical graviton based on mbl-TH and DRH; a multiple (quantum) G hypothesis (mGH) based on a quantum G series (Gs_q); a unified scalar function (F_N) for all the (running) coupling constants of the four fundamental fields/forces based on a unifying strong-electroweak-gravitational scaling factor (N_a); a cyclic closed universe hypothesis (CCUH); life as a fundamental (biophysical) field hypothesis (LFFH) based on a new generalized concept of fundamental biophysical field/force (FBF). This TMU was motivated and created from the author's strong conviction that SM cannot evolve and become a " mature " TOE without fully explaining the existence of life forms (LFs).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[228] viXra:1610.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 18:17:51

Some Evidencethat the Goldbach Conjecture Could be Proved or Proved False

Authors: Filippos Nikolaidis
Comments: 10 Pages. fil_nikolaidis@yahoo.com

The present study is an effort for giving some evidence that the goldbach conjecture is not true, by showing that not all even natural numbers greater than two can be expressed as a sum of two primes. This conclusion can be drawn by showing that prime numbers are not enough –in population- so that, when added in couples, to give all the even numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[227] viXra:1610.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 21:01:16

Super Conformal Group in D=10 Space-time

Authors: Bhupendra C. S. Chauhan, O. P. S. Negi
Comments: 15 Pages. Super Poincaré group and Conformal algebra

Abstract In this present discussion we discussed the super Poincaré group in D=10 dimensions in terms of the highest division algebra of octonions. We have construct the Poincaré group in D=8 dimension then it's extension to conformal algebra of D=10 has been discussed in terms of octonion algebra. Finally extension of the conformal algebras of D=10 dimensional space to super conformal algebra of Poincaré group have been done in a consistent manner.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[226] viXra:1610.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 22:07:20

Graded Lie Algebra of Quaternions and Superalgebra of SO(3,1)

Authors: Bhupendra C. S. Chauhan and O. P. S. Negi
Comments: 12 Pages. Quaternionic super Poincaré group and Conformal algebrain D=4 space-time

Abstract In the present discussion we study the grading of Quaternion algebra(\mathbb{H}) and Lorentz algebra of O(3,1) group. Then we have made an attempt to make the whole Poincaré algebra of SO(3,1)in terms of Quaternions. After this the supersymmetrization of this group has been done in a consistent manner. Finally the dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 has been studied.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[225] viXra:1610.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-22 06:43:23

Planets and Suns and Their Corresponding Sphere Packed Average Particles

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

When one talks about the density of a planet or star, one normally talks about the average density, despite the fact that the core is much more dense and the surface much less dense than the average density. Here we will link the notion of an average density to a new concept of a hypothetical planetary average subatomic particle. We will define this hypothetical particle as a particle if, when sphere-packed according to the Kepler conjuncture, it matches both the volume and the mass of the planet or sun in question. Even if this type of average particle may not actually exist, we still feel it gives us some new insight into how the average density could be linked to a hypothetical average particle. Take the question of how such a particle would be compared to an electron, for example. The answer is in the analytical solution presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[224] viXra:1610.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 11:35:59

New Data Algorithms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Last year, MIT researchers presented a system that automated a crucial step in big-data analysis: the selection of a "feature set," or aspects of the data that are useful for making predictions. The researchers entered the system in several data science contests, where it outperformed most of the human competitors and took only hours instead of months to perform its analyses. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[223] viXra:1610.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 12:11:45

Majorana Particles in Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[222] viXra:1610.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 12:26:43

The Wave Function and the Temperature Vacuum

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we study the connection between the wave function of a quantum particle and thermodynamic vacuum state. There is an analogy of the black hole thermodynamics in quantum world.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[221] viXra:1610.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 08:04:44

Mechanical Properties of Biomolecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Physicists at LMU have developed a novel nanotool that provides a facile means of characterizing the mechanical properties of biomolecules. [15] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[220] viXra:1610.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 09:32:59

Dynamics of Satellite Rotation (Revisiting the Results of J.wisdom, et Al. (1984)).

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 15 Pages. AMS Subject Classification: 70F15, 70F07 (Celestial mechanics); Keywords: Beletskii’s equation, satellite rotation, Abel ODE, gradient catastrophe.

The main motivation of the current research is the analytical exploring of the dynamics of satellite rotation during the motion on the elliptic orbit around the planet. We should discuss the revisited results of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984). By elegant change of variables (considering the true anomaly f as the independent variable), the governing equation of satellite rotation is presented in a form of the Abel ODE of the 2-nd type, a kind of generalization of Riccati ODE. We should also note that for the reason of a special character of the solutions of Riccati-type ODE, there exists a possibility for sudden jumping of the magnitude of a solution at some moment of time-parameter. In physical sense, such the jumping of the Riccati-type solutions of the governing ODE could be associated with the effect of sudden acceleration/deceleration of the satellite rotation around the chosen principle axis at definite moment of parametric time. It means that there exists not only a chaotic regime of rotation of satellite (according to the results of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984)), but a kind of gradient catastrophe Arnold 1992 could occur during the process of satellite rotation. We should especially note that if gradient catastrophe could occur, it does not mean that it must occur: such a possibility depends on the initial conditions. Besides, the asymptotical solutions have been obtained, manifesting a quasi-periodic character of the solution even at a strong simplifying assumptions e → 0, p = 1, which reduces the governing equation of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984) to a kind of the Beletskii’s equation.
Category: Astrophysics

[219] viXra:1610.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 04:28:14

Operator Exponentials for the Clifford Fourier Transform on Multivector Fields in Detail

Authors: David Eelbode, Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 16 Pages. published in Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras, 26(3), pp. 953-968 (2016), Online First: 22 Oct. 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s00006-015-0600-7.

In this paper we study Clifford Fourier transforms (CFT) of multivector functions taking values in Clifford’s geometric algebra, hereby using techniques coming from Clifford analysis (the multivariate function theory for the Dirac operator). In these CFTs on multivector signals, the complex unit i∈C is replaced by a multivector square root of −1, which may be a pseudoscalar in the simplest case. For these integral transforms we derive an operator representation expressed as the Hamilton operator of a harmonic oscillator.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[218] viXra:1610.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 18:50:38

The Container Principle of Life Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A forth principle is added to explain where life begins and why.
Category: Physics of Biology

[217] viXra:1610.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 21:52:05

The Influence of the Demagnetizing Energy on Conventional Amorphous WIRES’ Magnetic Anisotropy

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we initiate a study concerning the influence of demagnetizing energy on conventional amorphous wires’ (CAW) magnetic anisotropy. Normally, if we want to calculate the magnetic anisotropy of CAW we must take into account the magnetoelastic energy as the most influent energy in the expression of magnetic anisotropy. The importance of this energy is determinant in domain walls creation and, consequently, in amorphous material magnetic behavior. There is a critical value of radius/length ratio for which the effects of demagnetizing field, the field depending on wire form, can’t be no more neglected. We have established this ratio. It exhibits a great importance, especially when we wish to avoid these demagnetizing effects and to have a better control of final magnetization. What it counts, undoubtedly, in all applications involving CAW.
Category: Condensed Matter

[216] viXra:1610.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 14:00:26

Neutron Holograms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

For the first time, a team including scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have used neutron beams to create holograms of large solid objects, revealing details about their interiors in ways that ordinary laser light-based visual holograms cannot. [24] Schematic of the design of 360-degree tabletop electronic holographic display, the design concept of which allows several persons to enjoy the hologram contents simultaneously. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[215] viXra:1610.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 09:35:57

The Gravitational Potential of a Multidimensional Shell

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper is an attempt to generalize the well-known expression of the gravitational potential for more than three dimensions. We used the Sneddon-Thornhill approach of the Newton’s theorem and then the results are passed through the filter of Poisson’s equation. The comparison with other theories implies some restrictions, but the overall results are valid until the experiment will disprove them.
Category: Classical Physics

[214] viXra:1610.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 11:31:06

Frequency Limits of Electric Currents

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of researchers with the Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik has found a way to link previously demonstrated laser light-induced high-speed switching of an insulator between conducting states and high-frequency light emissions from insulators blasted with laser pulses. [11] The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[213] viXra:1610.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 12:47:59

Quantum Maxwell's Demon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[212] viXra:1610.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 12:50:37

Fizica ZMV. Bazele Fizicii Noi \\ Physics ZMV. the Basics of New Physics

Authors: Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi
Comments: 33 Pages. In Romanian. © Physics ZMV. The basics of new physics. Congress – 2016, Proceedings. Fundamental Problems in Natural Sciences and Engineering. Series: “Problems of Research of the Universe” Saint-Petersburg 2016, volume 37, issue 1, p. 232-260. ISSN 2304-

The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed from gravitons in chaotic motion. The graviton is an elementary quantum of energy, when it is in the state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass, when it is in the state of rest. The mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, of gravitons that gave up to the mass their kinetic energy. “Physics ZMV” is based on the idea of existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and the mass, created by the gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field. The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field distorted by masses compresses the masses to their common center of mass. The compression of masses by gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named “Universal compression of masses”. Mass grows quantitatively due to gravitons, which gave to mass their kinetic energy (therefore have remained in the mass) and is heated by this energy. These phenomena are named „Growth of mass” and “Heating of mass” by the gravitational field. The motion of mass under the action of the inertia energy of the gravitational field is named "Motion of mass by inertia energy of the gravitational field". In gravitational field mass cannot move by inertia at a higher speed than the maximum speed, which corresponds to the given mass. Mass is not a function of its speed. The inertia energy of the gravitational field depends on the speed of mass. Mass, which has received rectilinear and rotational movement (axis of rotation is perpendicular to the vector rectilinear velocity), changes the volume of its parts, in synchronism with the rotational speed. This phenomenon is named “Flux and reflux of mass”. The gravitational field is propagation medium of the electromagnetic field. The speed at which the mass is moving under the action of a force in the space without gravitational field is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass: F = zmV, where z – is a coefficient of proportionality. That’s why this Physics is named “Physics ZMV”.
Category: Classical Physics

[211] viXra:1610.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 07:00:18

Atomic-Scale Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[210] viXra:1610.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 07:53:04

Triaxial Atomic Nucleus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

The nuclei of atoms of heavy elements are not necessarily spherical; they may be variously extended or flattened along one, two or even three axes. An international team of physicists, led by scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow (IFJ PAN) and the Heavy Ion Laboratory at the University of Warsaw (HIL), has recently presented the results of experiments showing that complex superdeformed nuclei occur in much lighter elements, as well. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[209] viXra:1610.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 13:50:50

Biomedical Gold Nanowires

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Grown like a snowflake and sharpened with a sewing machine, a novel device by Kansas State University researchers may benefit biomedical professionals and the patients they serve during electrode and organ transplant procedures. [12] Scientists from the National Research Nuclear University and collaborators have used a highly sensitive laser device to register infrasonic vibrations in human body. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[208] viXra:1610.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 14:25:24

Quantum Electronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[207] viXra:1610.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 15:07:45

Topological Investigations in Physics

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 83 Pages.

This manuscript encompasses our published and unpublished topological results in physics. Topology, the mathematical branch that assesses objects and their properties preserved through deformations, stretching and twisting, allows the investigation of the most general physical systems features. In particular, the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT) states that, if a single point projects to a higher spatial dimension, it gives rise to two antipodal points with matching description. Physical counterparts of BUT and its variants allow an inquiry of physical problems. The opportunity to treat systems as topological structures makes BUT a universal principle underlying natural phenomena.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[206] viXra:1610.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 11:22:02

On the Eötvös Effect

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 5 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to propose a new theory about the Eötvös effect. We develop a mathematical model which aloud us a better understanding of this effect. From the equation of motion the Eötvös term could arise naturally without supplementary assumptions. The Eötvös force and the Coriolis force are the vertical and horizontal projections of a force generated by the circular motion. Under these circumstances we can conceive the Eötvös effect like a vertical Coriolis effect. In addition we have deduced the Eötvös term from centrifugal force, classic hypothesis. The cosine function appears only due to spherical coordinates and express the variation of centrifugal force with altitude.
Category: Classical Physics

[205] viXra:1610.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 11:22:28

Doppler Biphotons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Entangled photon pairs, termed as biphotons, have been the benchmark tool for experimental quantum optics. The quantum-network protocols based on photon-atom interfaces have stimulated a great demand for single photons with bandwidth comparable to or narrower than the atomic natural linewidth. [15] Measurement of the twisting force, or torque, generated by light on a silicon chip holds promise for applications such as miniaturized gyroscopes and sensors to measure magnetic field, which can have significant industrial and consumer impact. [14] A new technique detects spatial coherence in light at smaller scales than had been possible. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[204] viXra:1610.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 11:27:04

Convert Phonons into Magnons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Professor Park Je-Geun of the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) and colleagues have created a new theoretical model of the coupling of two forms of collective atomic excitation, known as magnons and phonons in crystals of the antiferromagnet manganite (Y,Lu)MnO3, a mineral made of manganese oxide and the rare-earth elements yttrium (Y) and lutetium (Lu). [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[203] viXra:1610.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 11:29:21

Consciousness Entropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22] New research published in the New Journal of Physics tries to decompose the structural layers of the cortical network to different hierarchies enabling to identify the network's nucleus, from which our consciousness could emerge. [21] Where in your brain do you exist? Is your awareness of the world around you and of yourself as an individual the result of specific, focused changes in your brain, or does that awareness come from a broad network of neural activity? How does your brain produce awareness? [20] In the future, level-tuned neurons may help enable neuromorphic computing systems to perform tasks that traditional computers cannot, such as learning from their environment, pattern recognition, and knowledge extraction from big data sources. [19] IBM scientists have created randomly spiking neurons using phase-change materials to store and process data. This demonstration marks a significant step forward in the development of energy-efficient, ultra-dense integrated neuromorphic technologies for applications in cognitive computing. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Physics of Biology

[202] viXra:1610.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 09:37:53

Retrocausal Communication Email Process That Violates Causality

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the theory of special relativity, a particle that has rest mass with subluminal velocity needs infinite energy to accelerate to the speed of light. Special relativity does not prohibit the existence of particles that travel faster than light. In arXiv:1303.0614 quantum entanglement was measured at 10,000 times the speed of light or 4 orders of magnitude the speed of light or 2.99 E 12 m/s 2. At the quantum level some believe that retrocausality is forbidden. The purpose of this paper is to show how an email message can go proportionally faster than light to report on an event from the present into the past. The event reported from the present is sent into the past in the Inbox history instantaneously and a copy of the email that is (-) 2.7 hours in the past will also be sent to the Inbox history. Whether or not the event reported from the present that is sent into the past can be changed is not the purpose of this paper. The purpose of this paper is to show how a message from now can report on an event from now and sent into the past.(retrocausal communication)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[201] viXra:1610.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 09:46:13

Multifractal Geometry and Stochastic Quantization: A Brief Comparison

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

We suggest that the multifractal geometry of the Standard Model near the electroweak scale may be placed on equal footing with the stochastic quantization method. This analogy gives support to earlier attempts by Beck to derive the Standard Model parameters using the dynamics of coupled map lattices.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[200] viXra:1610.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-27 06:49:26

A Newtonian Equivalent for the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 6 Pages.

Following some older ideas, an equivalent for the cosmological constant in classical mechanics it was found. In our development, this Newtonian equivalent for the cosmological constant appears in a natural way into Friedmann first equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[199] viXra:1610.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 03:29:22

A Theorem from Topology Unveils the Mystery of Fractals and Power Laws

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 8 Pages.

The (spatial) fractals and (temporal) power laws are ubiquitously displayed by large classes of biological systems. Nevertheless, they are controversial phenomena with still unexplained genesis. From the far-flung branch of topology, a helpful concept comes into play, namely the Borsuk-Ulam theorem, shedding new light on the scale-free origin’s long-standing enigma. The theorem states that a single point, if embedded in just one spatial dimension higher, gives rise to two antipodal points that have matching descriptions and similar features. Here we demonstrate that, when we introduce into a system the proper fractal extra-dimension instead of a spatial one, we are able to achieve two antipodal self-similar shapes, corresponding to the distinctive scale-free’s higher and lower magnifications. By showing that the elusive phenomena of fractals and power laws can be explained and analyzed in a topological framework, we make clear why the Borsuk-Ulam theorem is the most general principle underlying their pervasive occurrence in nature.
Category: Topology

[198] viXra:1610.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 03:34:00

The Borsuk-Ulam Theorem Elucidates Chaotic Systems

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 8 Pages.

Nonlinear chaotic dynamics are widespread, both in physical and biological systems. This form of dynamics is frequently studied through logistic maps equipped with bifurcations, where intervals are dictated by the Feigenbaum constants. In such a multifaceted framework, a concept from the far-flung branch of topology, namely the Borsuk-Ulam theorem, comes into play. The theorem tells us that a continuous mapping from antipodal points with matching feature values on an n-sphere to the same real value can always be found. Here we demonstrate that embracing nonlinearity in the framework of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem means that bifurcation transformations (the antipodal points) can be described as paths or trajectories on abstract spheres equipped with a Feigenbaum dimension. Such an approach allows the evaluation of nonlinear systems through linear techniques. In conclusion, we provide a general topological mechanism which explains the elusive chaotic phenomena, cast in a physical/biological fashion which has the potential of being operationalized.
Category: Topology

[197] viXra:1610.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 03:43:29

The Borsuk-Ulam Theorem: an Universal Principle for Physical Systems

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT) states that a single point, if embedded in one spatial dimension higher, gives rise to two antipodal points with matching descriptions and similar features. Novel BUT variants allow the assessment of countless physical systems, from entropies to quantum entanglement. We argue that BUT, cast in a quantitative fashion which has the potential of being operationalized, is a universal principle underlying a number of natural phenomena.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[196] viXra:1610.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 21:41:44

The Spatial Elliptical Movement in a Non-Inertial Frame of Reference

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper the spatial two-body problem in a Newtonian non-inertial frame of reference is analyzed. The Lagrange’s equations of elliptical movement are established and applied to estimate the advance of perihelion in this case. Finally the theoretical results are compared with the observational results.
Category: Classical Physics

[195] viXra:1610.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 23:34:17

Smart Home Realization Through Wireless Communication System

Authors: Krishn Kumar Gupt, Rabindranath Bera, Debasish Bhaskar, Preman Chettri, Debduhita Bose
Comments: 14 Pages.

Over the few decades, the Communication Technology has evolved surprisingly. The data rate, the reliability and multiple access supported by wireless digital communication are very interesting. Accessibility of worldwide information from a remote area via digital signals is not less than any boon for human beings. Receiving information from a far satellite at home at TV screen via STB gave a new dimension to the entertainment world. This success story is further leading to the next generation (G) Internet of Thing (IoT) services for Global communication and M2M (Machine to Machine) communication. With the recent innovation in satellite communication, our Homes are getting SMART. Homes will be blessed by satellite based IoT at very low cost. IoT services will be provided by Satellite, 5G mobile and other competitive technologies. These technologies will enable us to get live interaction via smart devices of our smart home, to control and access our home appliances from anywhere throughout the world with its ubiquitous features. Transmission and Reception of signals from Home to Satellite via DVB-S2 and Indoor distribution of signals via Wi-Fi n within rooms of the Smart Homes is the basic concept behind this idea. Uplink from home will be introduced soon with help of smart LNB using Millimeter wave RF carrier of 30 GHz. This paper presents a cloud centric vision for implementation of IOT services in Smart Homes. DVB-S2 Transmitter, DVB-S2 Receiver and Wi-Fi n with input signal is analyzed on Agilent SystemVue and then synchronized with Agilent Vector Signal Analyzer (VSA) to check and verify the Output Response of the designed Smart Home system.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[194] viXra:1610.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 13:44:35

Superconducting Quantum Bits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer. [22] Australian engineers have created a new quantum bit which remains in a stable superposition for 10 times longer than previously achieved, dramatically expanding the time during which calculations could be performed in a future silicon quantum computer. [21] Harnessing solid-state quantum bits, or qubits, is a key step toward the mass production of electronic devices based on quantum information science and technology. However, realizing a robust qubit with a long lifetime is challenging, particularly in semiconductors comprising multiple types of atoms. [20] Researchers from Delft, the University of Wisconsin and Ames Laboratory, led by Prof. Lieven Vandersypen of TU Delft's QuTech discovered that the stability of qubits could be maintained 100 times more effectively in silicon than in gallium arsenide. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[193] viXra:1610.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 09:40:48

On the Magnetic Anisotropy Distribution in the Surface Region of the Conventional Amorphous Wires

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 11 Pages.

In-water quenching technique, which is the preparation procedure of conventional amorphous wires (CAW), induces internal stresses in the material. These stresses, coupled with magnetostriction, give rise to large magnetoelastic anisotropies. Using the calculated distribution of internal stresses, the aim of this work is to evaluate the theoretical distribution of magnetoelastic anisotropies of CAW with positive, negative and nearly zero magnetostriction. The anisotropy constants were calculated as functions of wire dimensions, taking into account that the influence of wire length is neglected. Consequently, we elaborate two simple calculation programs which enable us to calculate the magnetoelastic distribution in every point of wire radius, for any magnetostriction, positive, negative or nearly zero, and any values of parameters and physical quantities involved.
Category: Condensed Matter

[192] viXra:1610.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 10:06:20

Topology of the Brain Function

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 153 Pages.

This manuscript encompasses our published and unpublished topological results in neuroscience. Topology, the mathematical branch that assesses objects and their properties preserved through deformations, stretching and twisting, allows the investigation of the most general brain features. In particular, the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT) states that, if a single point projects to a higher spatial dimension, it gives rise to two antipodal points with matching description. Physical and biological counterparts of BUT and its variants allow an inquiry of the brain activity. The opportunity to treat the nervous system as a topological structure makes BUT a universal principle underlying neural phenomena and brain function.
Category: Mind Science

[191] viXra:1610.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 13:02:55

Computer-Generated Holograms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Schematic of the design of 360-degree tabletop electronic holographic display, the design concept of which allows several persons to enjoy the hologram contents simultaneously. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[190] viXra:1610.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 06:34:22

Mathematical Theory of Black Holes – Its Infinite Equivalence Class

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 1 Page. This article was submitted on 2nd May 2016 to the 2016 International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (COSPA), hosted at the University of Sydney, 28 Nov - 02 Dec 2016.

There exists an infinite equivalence class of solutions for the equations Rμν = 0, thereby constituting all admissible 'transformations of coordinates'. If any element of this infinite equivalence class cannot be extended to produce a black hole then none can be extended to a black hole, owing to equivalence. No such element can be extended to produce a black hole. Consequently, the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[189] viXra:1610.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 06:56:46

Spin Singlet Exciton

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[188] viXra:1610.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 08:02:05

Model of the Universe based on the Repulsive Dark Matter

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 25 Pages. none

This article describes the new model of the Universe that is an alternative for the well-known Big Bang (BB) model. The recently published paper [1], where the authors have presented data on the oldest star in the Milky Way galaxy halo, challenges the validity of the BB model claim about the age of the Universe. It is thus apparent that there is a need to develop an alternative model for the Universe that would not have this problem and provide a better agreement with observations. The model presented in this paper offers such a new alternative by assuming that the Universe is not expanding and is filled with a static gravitating "dark matter" (DM) that is transparent and therefore does not absorb light. This matter provides a framework in which the visible matter moves similarly as defects or vacancies move in a crystal floating from the bulk to the surface. It is further assumed that the visible matter may have been created from this dark transparent matter by an unspecified process sometime in the past, or is being constantly created with a smaller rate. After aggregation to stars and galaxies the visible matter is driven out to the edge of the Universe where it disintegrates and generates the immense Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). This radiation then may contribute to the generation of new matter throughout the Universe similarly as the assumption that the matter is being constantly created in the Fred Hoyle's model of the Universe [2]. The DM model provides equations for the observed recession velocities of distant galaxies, and for many remaining parameters that follow directly from the Hubble constant such as: the size and the mass of the Universe, the maximum observable luminosity modulus, the maximum observable Z shift, the maximum galaxy recession velocity, the size of the average galaxy, etc.. An important relation, also derived from the model, is the relation between the Hubble constant and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This relation allows a precise calculation of Hubble constant from this temperature. The developed theory is compared with the available data of the GRBs, the Supernova Cosmology project, and the BATSE catalog, and a very good agreement is obtained.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[187] viXra:1610.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 04:03:42

Dressed Qubit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Australian engineers have created a new quantum bit which remains in a stable superposition for 10 times longer than previously achieved, dramatically expanding the time during which calculations could be performed in a future silicon quantum computer. [21] Harnessing solid-state quantum bits, or qubits, is a key step toward the mass production of electronic devices based on quantum information science and technology. However, realizing a robust qubit with a long lifetime is challenging, particularly in semiconductors comprising multiple types of atoms. [20] Researchers from Delft, the University of Wisconsin and Ames Laboratory, led by Prof. Lieven Vandersypen of TU Delft's QuTech discovered that the stability of qubits could be maintained 100 times more effectively in silicon than in gallium arsenide. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[186] viXra:1610.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 04:23:17

Comment on On the Equality of Relative Velocities by Buenker in APEIRON 20 2 2015

Authors: Miroslav Josipović
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the cited paper author (Robert J. Buenker) “proves” invalidity of the special relativity length contraction prediction, relaying on muon experiments and using incorrect calculation of the relative velocity. This phenomenon is common in anti-relativistic texts: arguments against the special theory of relativity authors base on misunderstandings (misconceptions) of the theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[185] viXra:1610.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 17:18:20

Decreasing Plasma Instabilities in Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle is provided to explain that plasma instabilities decrease as stars age and cool.
Category: Astrophysics

[184] viXra:1610.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 18:00:52

Electric Cumulative Thermonuclear Reactors

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 22 Pages.

During past sixty years, scientists spent tens of billion US dollars attempting to develop useful thermonuclear energy. However, they cannot yet reach a sustained stable thermonuclear reaction. They still are promising publically, after another 15 – 20 years, and more tens of billions of US dollars to finally design the expensive workable industrial installation, which possibly will produce electric energy more expensive than current heat, wind and hydro-electric power generation stations can in 2016. The author offers the new, small and cheap electric cumulative thermonuclear reactors, which increases the temperature and pressure of its nuclear fuel by millions of times, reaches the required ignition stage and, ultimately, a constant well-contained thermonuclear reaction. Electric Cumulative AB Reactors contain several innovations to achieve its power output product. Chief among them in electric thermonuclear reactors are using moving cumulative explosives and an electric discharge, which allows to accelerate the fuel and special nucleus to very high speed which (as shown by integral computations) compresses the fuel thousands times and heats the fuel by electric impulse to hundreds of millions degrees of temperature. In electric cumulative version of AB thermonuclear reactors, the fuel nucleus are accelerated by high electric voltage (15 ÷ 60 kV) up the hundreds millions degree and cumulative compressed into center of the spherical fuel cartridge. The additional compressing and combustion time the fuel nucleus may have from heavy nucleus of the fuel cartridge. The main advantages of the offered method are very small fuel cartridge (11-18 mm) of the full reactor installation (reactor having spherical diameter (0.3 - 3 m), using the thermonuclear fuel at room-temperature and achieves the possibility of using the offered thermonuclear reactor for transportation (ships, trains, aircrafts, rockets, etc.). Author gives theory and estimations of the suggested reactors. Author also is discussing the problems of converting the received thermonuclear energy into mechanical (electrical) energy and into rocket thrust. Offered small micro-reactors may be used as heaves (propellant after ignition, fusee) for small artillery nuclear projectiles and bombs.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[183] viXra:1610.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 18:07:07

Interpreting Disks Alongside Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle is used to explain that disks cannot be used to determine the ages of stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[182] viXra:1610.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 20:46:35

Time Dilation in the Global Positioning System Has Implications for the Theory of Gravity

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 43 Pages.

The observation of two occurrences of time dilation underlie new conclusions about the essence of gravity that cascade logically from these observations, but are at odds with the descriptions of gravity offered by conventional physics. 1) An examination of the time dilation of a process reveals that it is a function of the velocity of the process relative to space itself, not relative to an arbitrary frame of reference. A fundamental frame of reference for motion in the Universe must permeate all space at both the greatest and smallest scales. A field of particles that I call the Temporal-Inertial (TI) field that supports the propagation of nature’s force particles meets the requirements of such a fundamental frame of reference for motion. 2) The Global Positioning System (GPS) compensates precisely for the time dilation introduced by the GPS satellite’s orbital speed and the gravitational field of Earth. I argue that this precise compensation is achievable only if Earth is at rest relative to the TI field. Accordingly, Earth and particles of the TI field must orbit the Sun in concert. Hence, particles of the TI field must be subject to gravity. Several other behaviors ensue from these two observations of time dilation: 3) the TI field mediates gravity, 4) massive particles and objects comprising massive particles are not directly subject to gravity, 5) in the ‘near’ vicinity of a gravitational body the velocity of the TI field is directed toward the center of mass of the body, 6) gravitational time dilation is caused by the infall velocity of the TI field toward a gravitational body, not directly by gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[181] viXra:1610.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 21:51:08

A General Form for the Electric Field Lines Equation Concerning an Axially Symmetric Continuous Charge Distribution

Authors: MUGUR B. Răuţ
Comments: 5 Pages.

By using an unexpected approach it results a general form for the electric field lines equation. It is a general formula, a derivative-integral equation structured as a multi-pole expansion series. By solving this equation we can find the electric field lines expressions for any type of an axially symmetric multi-pole continuous electric charge distributions we interested in, without the need to take again the calculus from the beginning for each case particularly, for instance as in discrete charge distribution case.
Category: Classical Physics

[180] viXra:1610.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 13:24:05

Most Efficient Quantum Cascade Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of UCF researchers has produced the most efficient quantum cascade laser ever designed-and done it in a way that makes the lasers easier to manufacture. [15] A team of researchers from across the country, led by Alexander Spott, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA, have built the first quantum cascade laser on silicon. The advance may have applications that span from chemical bond spectroscopy and gas sensing, to astronomy and free-space communications. [14] A bright laser beam was used to draw energy out of waves on the surface of the superfluid. Dr Christopher Baker and Professor Warwick Bowen Australian researchers from the University of Queensland have, for the first time, used laser light to cool a special form of quantum liquid, called a superfluid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[179] viXra:1610.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 10:53:32

One-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Finite Element Flow Model

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 46 Pages.

This technical report documents the theoretical, computational, and practical aspects of the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes finite element flow model. The document is particularly useful to those who are interested in implementing, validating and utilizing this relatively-simple and widely-used model.
Category: Physics of Biology

[178] viXra:1610.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 10:56:02

Solving the Flow Fields in Conduits and Networks Using Energy Minimization Principle with Simulated Annealing

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, we propose and test an intuitive assumption that the pressure field in single conduits and networks of interconnected conduits adjusts itself to minimize the total energy consumption required for transporting a specific quantity of fluid. We test this assumption by using linear flow models of Newtonian fluids transported through rigid tubes and networks in conjunction with a simulated annealing (SA) protocol to minimize the total energy cost. All the results confirm our hypothesis as the SA algorithm produces very close results to those obtained from the traditional deterministic methods of identifying the flow fields by solving a set of simultaneous equations based on the conservation principles. The same results apply to electric ohmic conductors and networks of interconnected ohmic conductors. Computational experiments conducted in this regard confirm this extension. Further studies are required to test the energy minimization hypothesis for the non-linear flow systems.
Category: Classical Physics

[177] viXra:1610.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 10:59:00

Energy Minimization for the Flow in Ducts and Networks

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 14 Pages.

The present paper is an attempt to demonstrate how the energy minimization principle may be considered as a governing rule for the physical equilibrium that determines the flow fields in tubes and networks. We previously investigated this issue using a numerical stochastic method, specifically simulated annealing, where we demonstrated the problem by some illuminating examples and concluded that energy minimization principle can be a valid hypothesis. The investigation in this paper is more general as it is based to a certain extent on an analytical approach.
Category: Classical Physics

[176] viXra:1610.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 11:01:37

Deterministic and Stochastic Algorithms for Resolving the Flow Fields in Ducts and Networks Using Energy Minimization

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 18 Pages.

Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton, and Global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
Category: Classical Physics

[175] viXra:1610.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 11:28:21

Variational Approach for the Flow of Ree-Eyring and Casson Fluids in Pipes

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 18 Pages.

The flow of Ree-Eyring and Casson non-Newtonian fluids is investigated using a variational principle to optimize the total stress. The variationally-obtained solutions are compared to the analytical solutions derived from the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney equation and the results are found to be identical within acceptable numerical errors and modeling approximations.
Category: Classical Physics

[174] viXra:1610.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 11:30:45

Using the Stress Function in the Flow of Generalized Newtonian Fluids Through Pipes and Slits

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 15 Pages.

We use a generic and general numerical method to obtain solutions for the flow of generalized Newtonian fluids through circular pipes and plane slits. The method, which is simple and robust can produce highly accurate solutions which virtually match any analytical solutions. The method is based on employing the stress, as a function of the pipe radius or slit thickness dimension, combined with the rate of strain function as represented by the fluid rheological constitutive relation that correlates the rate of strain to stress. Nine types of generalized Newtonian fluids are tested in this investigation and the solutions obtained from the generic method are compared to the analytical solutions which are obtained from the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney-Schofield method. Very good agreement was obtained in all the investigated cases. All the required quantities of the flow which include local viscosity, rate of strain, flow velocity profile and volumetric flow rate, as well as shear stress, can be obtained from the generic method. This is an advantage as compared to some traditional methods which only produce some of these quantities. The method is also superior to the numerical meshing techniques which may be used for resolving the flow in these systems. The method is particularly useful when analytical solutions are not available or when the available analytical solutions do not yield all the flow parameters.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[173] viXra:1610.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 11:34:04

Quantum Machine Learning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[172] viXra:1610.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 11:34:00

Using the Stress Function in the Flow of Generalized Newtonian Fluids Through Conduits with Non-Circular or Multiply Connected Cross Sections

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 16 Pages.

We investigate the possibility that the spatial dependency of stress in generalized Newtonian flow systems is a function of the applied pressure field and the conduit geometry but not of the fluid rheology. This possibility is well established for the case of a one-dimensional flow through simply connected regions, specifically tubes of circular uniform cross sections and plane thin slits. If it can also be established for the more general case of generalized Newtonian flow through non-circular or multiply connected geometries, such as the two-dimensional flow through conduits of rectangular or elliptical cross sections or the flow through annular circular pipes, then analytical or semi-analytical or highly accurate numerical solutions; regarding stress, rate of strain, velocity profile and volumetric flow rate; for these geometries can be obtained from the stress function, which can be easily obtained from the Newtonian case, in combination with the constitutive rheological relation for the particular non-Newtonian fluid, as done previously for the case of the one-dimensional flow through simply connected regions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[171] viXra:1610.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 11:36:50

Reply to "Comment on Sochi's Variational Method for Generalised Newtonian Flow" by Pritchard and Corson

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article we challenge the claim that the previously proposed variational method to obtain flow solutions for generalized Newtonian fluids in circular tubes and plane slits is exact only for power law fluids. We also defend the theoretical foundation and formalism of the method which is based on minimizing the total stress through the application of the Euler-Lagrange principle.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[170] viXra:1610.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 11:51:12

Modeling the Flow of a Bautista-Manero Fluid in Porous Media

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 43 Pages.

In this article, the extensional flow and viscosity and the converging-diverging geometry were examined as the basis of the peculiar viscoelastic behavior in porous media. The modified Bautista-Manero model, which successfully describes shearthinning, elasticity and thixotropic time-dependency, was used for modeling the flow of viscoelastic materials which also show thixotropic attributes. An algorithm, originally proposed by Philippe Tardy, that employs this model to simulate steadystate time-dependent flow was implemented in a non-Newtonian flow simulation code using pore-scale modeling and the initial results were analyzed. The findings are encouraging for further future development.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[169] viXra:1610.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 11:53:33

Modeling the Flow of Yield-Stress Fluids in Porous Media

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 27 Pages.

Yield-stress is a problematic and controversial non-Newtonian flow phenomenon. In this article, we investigate the flow of yield-stress substances through porous media within the framework of pore-scale network modeling. We also investigate the validity of the Minimum Threshold Path (MTP) algorithms to predict the pressure yield point of a network depicting random or regular porous media. Percolation theory as a basis for predicting the yield point of a network is briefly presented and assessed. In the course of this study, a yield-stress flow simulation model alongside several numerical algorithms related to yield-stress in porous media were developed, implemented and assessed. The general conclusion is that modeling the flow of yield-stress fluids in porous media is too difficult and problematic. More fundamental modeling strategies are required to tackle this problem in the future.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[168] viXra:1610.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 12:07:57

Emissivity: A Program for Atomic Emissivity Calculations

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this article we report the release of a new program for calculating the emissivity of atomic transitions. The program, which can be obtained with its documentation from our website www.scienceware.net, passed various rigorous tests and was used by the author to generate theoretical data and analyze observational data. It is particularly useful for investigating atomic transition lines in astronomical context as the program is capable of generating a huge amount of theoretical data and comparing it to observational list of lines. A number of atomic transition algorithms and analytical techniques are implemented within the program and can be very useful in various situations. The program can be described as fast and efficient. Moreover, it requires modest computational resources.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[167] viXra:1610.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 07:15:18

Computational Genetic Chemistry

Authors: James Bonnar
Comments: 76 Pages.

In this book we discuss the technical and non-technical reasons science has been unable to find cures for heritable diseases, despite the exponential increase in knowledge of disease mechanisms we currently witness. New directions in scientific research and protocols are suggested that may help bring about actual cures for genetic diseases through pharmacological gene therapy. A computational paradigm, called the omega algorithm, is developed, implemented and applied to find compounds that could potentially correct the delta F508 mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis. Links to downloadable files, including an extensive chemical reaction database, are given in an appendix to assist the reader with further studies.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[166] viXra:1610.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 08:27:06

Understanding Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[165] viXra:1610.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 08:57:38

The Origin of the Coupling Constant (E) and Some Other Important Dimensionless Physical Constants Within General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper will answer the mystery of the coupling constant (e), a puzzle of its origin that was made popular by Richard Feynman, by using what will be defined as “temporal kinematics”. Temporal kinematics studies the motion of time, we will name this “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion should not be confused with cosmic inflation, it can only act as an initiator of it. Temporal kinematics functions as a bridge between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[164] viXra:1610.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 09:13:40

Light Move Electrons and Protons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[163] viXra:1610.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 05:37:47

Proof of Beal's Conjecture

Authors: Edward Szaraniec
Comments: 5 Pages.

Equation constituting the Beal conjecture is rearranged and squared, then rearranged again and raised to power 4. The result, standing as an equivalent having the same property, is emerging as a singular primitive Pythagorean equation with no solution. So, the conjecture is proved. General line of proving the Pythagorean equation is observed as a moving spirit.
Category: Number Theory

[162] viXra:1610.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 07:00:34

Atomic Clocks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

JILA physicists have demonstrated a novel laser design based on synchronized emissions of light from the same type of atoms used in advanced atomic clocks. The laser could be stable enough to improve atomic clock performance a hundredfold and even serve as a clock itself, while also advancing other scientific quests such as making accurate "rulers" for measuring astronomical distances.[22] A newly developed laser pulse synthesizer that generates femtosecond pulses at mid-infrared (IR) wavelengths promises to provide scientists with a better view of the inner workings of atoms, molecules and solids. [22] An optically-driven mechanical oscillator fabricated using a plasmomechanical metamaterial. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[161] viXra:1610.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 03:47:33

Further Thoughts on Thermodynamics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 8 Pages.

Recently, attention has been drawn to a number of pieces written concerning classical thermodynamics in a biological setting. Several ideas have been put forward which are unusual for orthodox classical thermodynamics but, as they are supported by experiment, seem to offer suggestions for expanding the scope of that subject and even possibly helping make some aspects more amenable to students. The idea of introducing time into considerations is one such major notion which appears to lead to a new meaning of 'slow' processes in a classical thermodynamic setting and should be examined further because of the possible ramifications for the subject as a whole.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[160] viXra:1610.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 18:44:10

About The Geometry of Cosmos(revised)

Authors: Dimitris Mastoridis
Comments: 31 Pages.

The current paper presents a new idea that it might lead us to the Grand Unified Theory. A concrete mathematical framework has been provided that could be appro- priate for one to work with. Possible answers were given concerning the problems of dark matter and dark energy as well as the “penetration” to vacuum dominant epoch, combining Quantum Physics with Cosmology through the existence of Higg’s boson. A value for Higg’s mass around 125.179345 Gev/c2 and a value for vacuum density around 4.41348x10−5Gev/cm3 were derived . Via Cartan’s theorem a proof regarding the number of bosons existing in nature (28) has been presented. Additionally, the full Lagrangian of our Cosmos (including Quantum Gravity) was accomplished.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[159] viXra:1610.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 21:49:10

Bernoulli’s Law for an Adiabatic Ideal Gas Flow

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 5 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to establish a synthetic form for Bernoulli’s law concerning an adiabatic ideal gas flow and to apply it to the expanding universe. Unfortunately, the obtained law is not applicable to the expansion of the universe, but it is applicable only to ordinary cases of fluid mechanics.
Category: Classical Physics

[158] viXra:1610.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 13:16:55

MOD Natural Neutrosophic Semirings

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandach
Comments: 262 Pages.

In this book for the first time authors describe and develop the new notion of MOD natural neutrosophic semirings using Z^I_n, C_I(Zn), _I, _I, _I and _I. Several interesting properties about this structure is derived. Using these MOD natural neutrosophic semirings MOD natural neutrosophic matrix semirings and MOD natural neutrosophic polynomial semirings and defined and described. Special elements of these structures are analysed. When MOD intervals [0, n) and MOD natural neutrosophic intervals [0, n) are used we see the MOD semirings do not in general satisfy the associative laws and the distributive laws leading to the definition of pseudo semirings of infinite order. These are also introduced in this book. We also define and develop MOD subset pseudo semiring and MOD subset natural neutrosophic pseudo semirings. This study is innovative and interesting by providing a large class of MOD pseudo semirings. Special elements in them are analysed. Using these MOD subset matrix pseudo semirings and MOD subset polynomial pseudo semirings and developed. They enjoy very many special features. Several problems are suggested and these notions will certainly attract semiring theorists.
Category: Algebra

[157] viXra:1610.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-26 23:27:01

Defining and Delimiting of the Elementary Particle

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a new definition and boundary of the elementary particle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[156] viXra:1610.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 12:02:26

Dark Matter and the Dynamics of Galaxies: a Newtonian Approach

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper I propose a correction to the well-known Newtonian gravitational potential, a correction which explains the form of the radial velocities as a function of the discoid galaxies radii. The main scope of this work is to find a correction to the Newtonian gravitational potential which has to fulfil two major conditions: a) to take into account the entire amount of the experimental data; b) the resulting potential to be a consequence of condition a) from a physical perspective. As a result, the corrected form of the Newtonian gravitational potential was found to belong to a physical cause and this cause can be the existence of the dark matter, evenly distributed within galaxies. This distribution makes dark matter to act as a binder for ordinary matter, so that the discoid galaxies not rotate as a fluid (as standard Newtonian theory states), but as some rigid frames (as the observational data state).
Category: Astrophysics

[155] viXra:1610.0175 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-22 05:28:15

Comment on Special Relativity Refutation Through the Relativistic Doppler Effect Formula by Kassir

Authors: Miroslav Josipović
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the cited paper author (R.K.) “proves” invalidity of the special relativity using invalid transformation formula(s) for the electromagnetic wave period (and the wavelength). This phenomenon is common in anti-relativistic texts: arguments against the special theory of relativity authors base on misunderstandings (misconceptions) of the theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[154] viXra:1610.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 07:58:07

Acoustic Holograms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[153] viXra:1610.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 09:26:53

Superconducting Fusion Reactor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

In fusion reactor designs, superconductors (which suffer no resistive power loss) are used to generate the magnetic fields that confine the 100 million degree C plasma. [30] Hundreds of tiny samples of unconventional superconductors called heavy fermions had to be aligned and glued onto aluminum plates for imaging in inelastic neutron scattering experiments. [29] In a recent breakthrough, scientists at the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory got one step closer to understanding how to make that possible. The research, led by physicist Ivan Bozovic, involves a class of compounds called cuprates, which contain layers of copper and oxygen atoms. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[152] viXra:1610.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 05:13:25

Another Proof for FERMAT’s Last Theorem

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we propose another proof for Fermat’s Last Theorem (FLT). We found a simpler approach through Pythagorean Theorem, so our demonstration would be close to the times FLT was formulated. On the other hand it seems the Pythagoras’ Theorem was the inspiration for FLT. It resulted one of the most difficult mathematical problem of all times, as it was considered. Pythagorean triples existence seems to support the claims of the previous phrase.
Category: Number Theory

[151] viXra:1610.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 06:58:48

Torsional Vibration in Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have levitated a tiny nanodiamond particle with a laser in a vacuum chamber, using the technique for the first time to detect and measure its "torsional vibration," an advance that could bring new types of sensors and studies in quantum mechanics. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[150] viXra:1610.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 03:08:22

Mass Shift Due to the Nonlinear Lorentz Group.

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 10 Pages. The original ideas

We determine nonlinear Lorentz transformations between coordinate systems which are mutually in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal acceleration as an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity follows from the nonlinear Lorentz group of transformtion. The mass formula was derived by the same method as the Thomas precession formula by author. It can play crucial role in particle physics and cosmology
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[149] viXra:1610.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-15 16:49:11

Band Gap Estimation Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Anantha Natarajan S, R Varadhan, Ezhilvel ME
Comments: 3 Pages.

The purpose of this study is to build machine learning models to predict the band gap of binary compounds, using its known properties like molecular weight, electronegativity, atomic fraction and the group of the constituent elements in the periodic table. Regression techniques like Linear, Ridge regression and Random Forest were used to build the model. This model can be used by students and researchers in experiments involving unknown band gaps or new compounds.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[148] viXra:1610.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-15 17:42:58

Calculating delta G(t,t) at Boundary of Start of Planckian Physics Due to 1 Million Relic Black Holes

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages.

We use the ideas of a million black holes, at the boundary of delta g(t,t) contribution to the shift from Pre Planckian to Planckian physics, as a summed up contribution from one million primoridial black holes. I.e. this is assuming a quantum bounce This is an extension of work done by the author as to explain the nature of a transition from delta g(t,t) being tiny to when delta g(t,t) becomes 1 in value.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[147] viXra:1610.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-15 10:21:36

Mass, Force, & Energy: A New Formulation

Authors: Stanley James Speck
Comments: 24 Pages.

What is energy? This question, as Richard Feynman has pointed out, has never been given a satisfactory explanation. What energy “is” - in some ultimate sense – is, strangely enough, still an open question. In this speculative venture which is both a physical and philosophical quest, we propose a definite and perhaps startling answer: Energy is not something which causes motion; it is motion itself, or rather, it is a “quantity of motion” calculated as the sum of the speeds of all the particles in the system. Mass is a quantity of motion confined or bound to a certain region of space. Force is the rate of change of a quantity of motion when an object accelerates. Any “quantity of motion” can thus be calculated as Kinetic Energy or as Mass (or as Work), depending upon the needs and circumstances of the inquiry. We give a lucid, step by step explanation of this idea, and suggest that motion is not an accidental quality, but ontologically fundamental. We call the ultimate object which is moving a ‘particle point,’ which, unlike the geometric point, is in any region of space finite in number. The energy in any finite region of space is consequently the number particle-points multiplied by their speed, or more precisely, by their speed squared. The speed of all such particles is constant and uniform: the speed of light. We lead the skeptical reader through these formulations, accounting for momentum, inertia, and entropy along the way. In the end, as many questions are raised as are answered, but it is an open road, as it should be. massforceenergy@gmail.com
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[146] viXra:1610.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-15 03:08:28

Spin Information in Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[145] viXra:1610.0165 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-10 07:10:22

Generally Covariant Quantum Theory.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 217 Pages. typo's corrected

A book on a background independent quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[144] viXra:1610.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-15 03:52:47

Quantum Computer Bridge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Distributing quantum information on a bridge, or network, could also enable novel forms of quantum sensing, since quantum correlations allow all the atoms in the network to behave as though they were one single atom. [21] Harnessing solid-state quantum bits, or qubits, is a key step toward the mass production of electronic devices based on quantum information science and technology. However, realizing a robust qubit with a long lifetime is challenging, particularly in semiconductors comprising multiple types of atoms. [20] Researchers from Delft, the University of Wisconsin and Ames Laboratory, led by Prof. Lieven Vandersypen of TU Delft's QuTech discovered that the stability of qubits could be maintained 100 times more effectively in silicon than in gallium arsenide. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[143] viXra:1610.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-15 05:45:29

A Novel Cryogenic Liquid Level Sensing Technique: Harnessing the Optical Properties of a Cryogenic Liquid.

Authors: Pragyaditya Das, Prateek Agrawal.
Comments: 7 Pages. Your constructive input is very much welcome.

This paper explores the use of a light based measurement technique for the level measurement of cryogenic liquids. Differential pressure transmitters are commonly used to measure the levels of cryogenic liquids such as liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen in cryogenic tanks. They require the liquid inside the temperature controlled tank to be drawn out into impulse lines. This causes a number of problems, one of the most common one is Chocking of the impulse lines, which ultimately results in a significant loss of material.
Category: Classical Physics

[142] viXra:1610.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 17:24:52

Estimating Remaining Lifetime of Humanity

Authors: Yigal Gurevich
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we estimate the remaining time for human existence, applying the Doomsday argument and the Strong Self-Sampling Assumption to the reference class consisting of all members of the Homo sapiens, formulating calculations in traditional demographic terms of population and time, using the theory of parameter estimation and available paleodemographic data. The remaining lifetime estimate is found to be 170 years, and the probability of extinction in the coming year is estimated as 0.43%.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[141] viXra:1610.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 18:36:54

Wolpert, Chaitin and Wittgenstein on Impossibility, Incompleteness, the Limits of Computation, Theism and the Universe as Computer-the Ultimate Turing Theorem

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 5 Pages.

I have read many recent discussions of the limits of computation and the universe as computer, hoping to find some comments on the amazing work of polymath physicist and decision theorist David Wolpert but have not found a single citation and so I present this very brief summary. Wolpert proved some stunning impossibility or incompleteness theorems (1992 to 2008-see arxiv.org) on the limits to inference (computation) that are so general they are independent of the device doing the computation, and even independent of the laws of physics, so they apply across computers, physics, and human behavior. They make use of Cantor's diagonalization, the liar paradox and worldlines to provide what may be the ultimate theorem in Turing Machine Theory, and seemingly provide insights into impossibility, incompleteness, the limits of computation,and the universe as computer, in all possible universes and all beings or mechanisms, generating, among other things,a non- quantum mechanical uncertainty principle and a proof of monotheism. There are obvious connections to the classic work of Chaitin, Solomonoff, Komolgarov and Wittgenstein and to the notion that no program (and thus no device) can generate a sequence (or device) with greater complexity than it possesses. One might say this body of work implies atheism since there cannot be any entity more complex than the physical universe and from the Wittgensteinian viewpoint, ‘more complex’ is meaningless (has no conditions of satisfaction, i.e., truth-maker or test). Even a ‘God’ (i.e., a ‘device’ with limitless time/space and energy) cannot determine whether a given ‘number’ is ‘random’ nor can find a certain way to show that a given ‘formula’, ‘theorem’ or ‘sentence’ or ‘device’ (all these being complex language games) is part of a particular ‘system’.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[140] viXra:1610.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 13:31:10

Robust Solid-State Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Harnessing solid-state quantum bits, or qubits, is a key step toward the mass production of electronic devices based on quantum information science and technology. However, realizing a robust qubit with a long lifetime is challenging, particularly in semiconductors comprising multiple types of atoms. [20] Researchers from Delft, the University of Wisconsin and Ames Laboratory, led by Prof. Lieven Vandersypen of TU Delft's QuTech discovered that the stability of qubits could be maintained 100 times more effectively in silicon than in gallium arsenide. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[139] viXra:1610.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 14:17:50

Weighting Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Scientists in Germany have flipped the switch on a €60 million (US $66 million) device designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [8] Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[138] viXra:1610.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 11:04:08

Comparative Studies on the Use of Palm Kernel and Coconut Oil as Biodiesel Fuel Sources

Authors: I.H Ifijen, E.U. Ikhuoria, S.O Omorogbe, O.G Agbonlahor
Comments: 8 Pages.

This research work focuses on the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil and coconut oil. The biodiesel was prepared by trans-esterification of the oils (unsaturated fatty acid) with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to give mono alkyl ester. The biodiesel produced was characterized and analyzed, the properties and the results obtained for biodiesel made from palm kernel oil and coco nut oil include API gravity (21.92 0 C, 25.580C) , Specific gravity (0.9223, 0.9030), Flash point (640 C, 620 C) Carbon residue (0.04%, 0.03%), Sediment and Water content (<0.1), sulphur content (0.17%, 0.16%), and iodine value (13.5mg, 12.6mg). Biodiesel made from palm kernel oil was compared with biodiesel made from coconut oil using these properties. The result shows that biodiesel is a good alternative fuel to the conventional fossil diesel since it is more environmentally friendly.
Category: Chemistry

[137] viXra:1610.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 11:44:59

Quantum Coherence Demonstration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Physicists have implemented the first experimental demonstration of everlasting quantum coherence—the phenomenon that occurs when a quantum system exists in a superposition of two or more states at once. Typically, quantum coherence lasts for only a fraction of a second before decoherence destroys the effect due to interactions between the quantum system and its surrounding environment. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[136] viXra:1610.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 05:26:47

Pore-Scale Modeling of Non-Newtonian Flow in Porous Media

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 190 Pages.

The thesis investigates the flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media using pore-scale network modeling. Non-Newtonian fluids show very complex time and strain dependent behavior and may have initial yield stress. Their common feature is that they do not obey the simple Newtonian relation of proportionality between stress and rate of deformation. They are generally classified into three main categories: time-independent, time-dependent and viscoelastic. Two three-dimensional networks representing a sand pack and Berea sandstone were used. An iterative numerical technique is used to solve the pressure field and obtain the flow rate and apparent viscosity. The time-independent category is investigated using two fluid models: Ellis and Herschel-Bulkley. The analysis confirmed the reliability of the non-Newtonian network model used in this study. Good results are obtained, especially for the Ellis model, when comparing the network model results to experimental data sets found in the literature. The yield-stress phenomenon is also investigated and several numerical algorithms were developed and implemented to predict threshold yield pressure of the network. An extensive literature survey and investigation were carried out to understand the phenomenon of viscoelasticity with special attention to the flow in porous media. The extensional flow and viscosity and converging-diverging geometry were thoroughly examined as the basis of the peculiar viscoelastic behavior in porous media. The modified Bautista-Manero model was identified as a promising candidate for modeling the flow of viscoelastic materials which also show thixotropic attributes. An algorithm that employs this model was implemented in the non-Newtonian code and the initial results were analyzed. The time-dependent category was examined and several problems in modeling and simulating the flow of these fluids were identified.
Category: Geophysics

[135] viXra:1610.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 05:30:47

High Throughput Software for Powder Diffraction and its Application to Heterogeneous Catalysis

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 205 Pages.

In this thesis we investigate high throughput computational methods for processing large quantities of data collected from synchrotrons and their application to spectral analysis of powder diffraction data. We also present the main product of this PhD programme, specifically a software called 'EasyDD' developed by the author. This software was created to meet the increasing demand on data processing and analysis capabilities as required by modern detectors which produce huge quantities of data. Modern detectors coupled with the high intensity X-ray sources available at synchrotrons have led to the situation where datasets can be collected in ever shorter time scales and in ever larger numbers. Such large volumes of datasets pose a data processing bottleneck which augments with current and future instrument development. EasyDD has achieved its objectives and made significant contributions to scientific research. It can also be used as a model for more mature attempts in the future. EasyDD is currently in use by a number of researchers in a number of academic and research institutions to process high-energy diffraction data. These include data collected by different techniques such as Energy Dispersive Diffraction, Angle Dispersive Diffraction and Computer Aided Tomography. EasyDD has already been used in a number of published studies, and is currently in use by the High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology project. The software was also used by the author to process and analyse datasets collected from synchrotron radiation facilities. In this regard, the thesis presents novel scientific research involving the use of EasyDD to handle large diffraction datasets in the study of alumina-supported metal oxide catalyst bodies. These data were collected using Tomographic Energy Dispersive Diffraction Imaging and Computer Aided Tomography techniques.
Category: Chemistry

[134] viXra:1610.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 05:34:03

Atomic and Molecular Aspects of Astronomical Spectra

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 238 Pages.

In the first section we present the atomic part where a C2+ atomic target was prepared and used to generate theoretical data to investigate recombination lines arising from electron-ion collisions in thin plasma. R-matrix method was used to describe the C2+ plus electron system. Theoretical data concerning bound and autoionizing states were generated in the intermediate-coupling approximation. The data were used to generate dielectronic recombination data for C+ which include transition lines, oscillator strengths, radiative transition probabilities, emissivities and dielectronic recombination coefficients. The data were cast in a line list containing 6187 optically-allowed transitions which include many C II lines observed in astronomical spectra. This line list was used to analyze the spectra from a number of astronomical objects, mainly planetary nebulae, and identify their electron temperature. The electron temperature investigation was also extended to include free electron energy analysis to investigate the long-standing problem of discrepancy between the results of recombination and forbidden lines analysis and its possible connection to the electron distribution. In the second section we present the results of our molecular investigation; the generation of a comprehensive, calculated line list of frequencies and transition probabilities for H2D+. The line list contains over 22 million rotational-vibrational transitions occurring between more than 33 thousand energy levels and covers frequencies up to 18500 cm-1. About 15% of these levels are fully assigned with approximate rotational and vibrational quantum numbers. A temperature-dependent partition function and cooling function are presented. Temperature-dependent synthetic spectra for the temperatures T=100, 500, 1000 and 2000 K in the frequency range 0-10000 cm-1 were also generated and presented graphically.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[133] viXra:1610.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 07:28:27

Bell's Theorem Refuted: EPR Rule ok

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 12 Pages.

EPR (1935) famously argue that additional variables will bring locality and causality to QM's completion; we show that they are right. More famously, Bell (1964) cried 'impossible' against such variables; we give the shortest possible refutation of his theorem. With EPR-based variables -- and no QM -- a thought-experiment delivers common-sense locally-causal accounts of EPRB and GHZ in 3-space. We then find the flaw in Bell's theorem: Bell's 1964:(14a) does not equal Bell's 1964:(14b). Thus, at odds with EPR (and us), Bell's unrealistic theorem and its many variants (eg, Mermin, Peres) miss their mark. In short, mixing common-sense with undergrad math and physics in the classical way so favored by Einstein, we interpret QM locally and realistically. Long may EPR rule OK we say.
Category: Quantum Physics

[132] viXra:1610.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 03:24:24

Introduction to Tensor Calculus

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 84 Pages.

These are general notes on tensor calculus which can be used as a reference for an introductory course on tensor algebra and calculus. A basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra with some commonly used mathematical terminology is presumed.
Category: General Mathematics

[131] viXra:1610.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 03:30:28

Tensor Calculus

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 91 Pages.

These notes are the second part of the tensor calculus documents which started with the previous set of introductory notes. In the present text, we continue the discussion of selected topics of the subject at a higher level expanding, when necessary, some topics and developing further concepts and techniques. Unlike the previous notes which are largely based on a Cartesian approach, the present notes are essentially based on assuming an underlying general curvilinear coordinate system.
Category: General Mathematics

[130] viXra:1610.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 03:36:32

Principles of Differential Geometry

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 161 Pages.

The present text is a collection of notes about differential geometry prepared to some extent as part of tutorials about topics and applications related to tensor calculus. They can be regarded as continuation to the previous notes on tensor calculus as they are based on the materials and conventions given in those documents. They can be used as a reference for a first course on the subject or as part of a course on tensor calculus.
Category: General Mathematics

[129] viXra:1610.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 03:40:21

Special Relativity: Scientific or Philosophical Theory?

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this article, we argue that the theory of special relativity, as formulated by Einstein, is a philosophical rather than a scientific theory. What is scientific and experimentally supported is the formalism of the relativistic mechanics embedded in the Lorentz transformations and their direct mathematical, experimental and observational consequences. This is in parallel with the quantum mechanics where the scientific content and experimental support of this branch of physics is embedded in the formalism of quantum mechanics and not in its philosophical interpretations such as the Copenhagen school or the parallel worlds explanations. Einstein theory of special relativity gets unduly credit from the success of the relativistic mechanics of Lorentz transformations. Hence, all the postulates and consequences of Einstein interpretation which have no direct experimental or observational support should be reexamined and the relativistic mechanics of Lorentz transformations should be treated in education, academia and research in a similar fashion to that of quantum mechanics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[128] viXra:1610.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 18:20:17

Simplicity of Cyclic Universe E8 Symmetry Theory: H, Z, and T Particles Supplied All the Dark Matter and Dark Energy Mass Needed to Rebuild the Cyclic Universe Immediately After the Big Bang

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: The 8 Ht, Zt, Htt, and Ztt Fermibosonic entities and anti-entities seen at the LHC played a crucial role role in bringing fermibosonic matter from the previous universe into our present universe, where it could form new fermonic matter at no energy cost or loss of universe flatness. The used H particles are later swallowed in the large black holes at the centers of spiral galaxies (these black holes had survived the big bang). The Z components are used again, as food for growing stars in the spiral arms of the same galaxies.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[127] viXra:1610.0143 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-21 18:24:24

The Eternal Universe Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A simple principle is provided so that future scientists can understand that all stages of stellar evolution (which is planet formation) and galaxy birth, growth and decay can be observed.
Category: Astrophysics

[126] viXra:1610.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 14:04:33

Google DeepMind Neural Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[125] viXra:1610.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 14:32:36

Quanta Transfer is Conserved

Authors: S.E. Grimm
Comments: 4 Pages.

Physical phenomena emerge from the quantum fields everywhere in space. However, not only the phenomena emerge from the quantum fields, the law of the conservation of energy must have its origin from the same spatial structure. This paper describes the relations between the main law of physics and the aggregated structure of the quantum fields.
Category: Quantum Physics

[124] viXra:1610.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 11:13:59

The Origin of the Coupling Constant (E) and Some Other Important Dimensionless Physical Constants Within General Relativity

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper will answer the mystery of the coupling constant (e), a puzzle of its origin that was made popular by Richard Feynman, by using what will be defined as “temporal kinematics”. Temporal kinematics study the motion of time, we will name this “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion should not be confused with cosmic inflation, it can only act as an initiator of it most probably caused by quantum vacuum fluctuations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[123] viXra:1610.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 11:31:21

Photoreceptors Regeneration of AMD

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

An elusive biological cycle in the eye - the daily disposal and regeneration of the end tips of photoreceptor cells - has been captured in images for the first time in a living human eye. Photoreceptors are light-sensitive cells responsible for initiating vision. This glimpse into the inner workings of the eye will help scientists better understand, prevent and manage major eye diseases that affect photoreceptors like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. [18] A protein found within the powerhouse of a cell could be the key to holding back the march of time, research by scientists at The University of Nottingham has shown. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[122] viXra:1610.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 07:48:35

The Blue Shift Paradox

Authors: Eran Sinbar, Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s equation E=mc^2, matter and anti-matter annihilate into photonic radiation energy. Photons have unique characteristics since they are massless and they travel at the speed of light in all the inertial reference frames. No other particle shares these unique characteristics. We claim that this unique behavior is due to the fact that photons do not apply gravitational effects on space-time, meaning, although photons will be forced to move in a curved line if space-time is curved they will not curve space time by themselves or apply gravity forces and time dilation . In order to prove our claims we suggest a thought experiment that leads to a blue shift paradox which happens after annihilating 2 symmetrical in size and mass, matter and anti- matter (A&B) in the center of a hollow particles spherical shell . The only way to explain this paradox is to conclude that anti-matter imposes anti–gravity and therefore matter and anti-matter together impose zero gravity. Furthermore, this proves that the photonic energy from the annihilation phase has also zero gravity effect on space-time.
Category: Astrophysics

[121] viXra:1610.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 04:13:18

Coupling Between Light and Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) recorded an interaction between light and matter 10 times larger than previously seen. The strength of the interaction between photons and a qubit was so large that it opens the door to a realm of physics and applications unattainable until now. [19] A method created at Rice University closes the gap between light and matter and may help advance technologies like quantum computers and communications. [18] Constructing quantum computers and other quantum devices requires the ability to leverage quantum properties such as superposition and entanglement – but these effects are fragile and therefore hard to maintain. Recently, scientists at Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris demonstrated a novel method for controlling the quantum properties of light by probing a superconducting circuit in a cavity with microwave photons to control the energy levels that photon quanta can occupy. [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[120] viXra:1610.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 05:25:24

Quantum Entanglement Satellite

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

China recently launched a satellite into orbit with a unique feature: it has the ability to send information securely, not with mathematical encryption but by using the fundamental laws of physics. China will be the first country to achieve this feat, and it marks a milestone in the development of quantum technologies. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[119] viXra:1610.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 06:45:16

Improve Thermoelectric Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[118] viXra:1610.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 20:17:39

The Harmonic Principle

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages. in French

The Harmonic Principle explains the Universe existence by making concrete mathematical beauty. This means Art and Science strong interconnections, in particular a steady-state Cosmology (no Big Bang), implying matter to be a 10^104 Hz matter-antimatter oscillation leading to an interpretation of Black Matter,and visible Universe to be only a tiny fraction (10^-120) of an underlying tachyonic world. This favors an egyptian origin for Science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[117] viXra:1610.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 23:05:47

Magnetic Monopole Theory

Authors: S Hussainsha
Comments: 11 Pages. AN ELCETRON IS ASSUMED AS A MAGNETIC MONOPOLE

The principal objective of this paper is, finding a way to discover magnetic monopole or an isolated magnetic charge in a theoretical manner. This paper discusses only theory with the support of Special Theory of Relativity. In future, if we found magnetic monopole, this theory is unaltered. In this theory I state Gauss law for magnetic charge. So, I modify Maxwell’s equation by using Gauss law and mathematical procedure called Gauss divergence theorem. The result of this paper gives Equivalence of coulombs and webers.
Category: Classical Physics

[116] viXra:1610.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 23:59:46

Evaluation of Biochemical Marker Glutathione and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Oryza Sativa

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Food production needs to increase to satisfy the demand due to increasing human population worldwide. To minimize this food crisis, an increase in the rice production is necessary in many countries. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on rice (Oryza sativa) for its growth-germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) content in seedling and mature plants, indole acetic acid (IAA) content in shoots and roots and DNA polymorphism by random amplified polymorphic-DNA (RAPD). The sample of O. sativa cv, 644 was divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi for biofield energy treatment and denoted as treated sample. The growth-germination of O. sativa seedling data exhibited that the biofield treated seeds was germinated faster on day 3 as compared to control (on day 5). The shoot and root length of seedling was slightly increased in the treated seeds of 10 days old with respect to untreated seeds. Moreover, the plant antioxidant i.e. GSH content in seedling and in mature plants was significantly increased by 639.26% and 56.24%, respectively as compared to untreated sample. Additionally, the plant growth regulatory constituent i.e. IAA level in root and shoot was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 106.90% and 20.35%, respectively with respect to control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD, revealed that the treated sample showed an average range of 5 to 46% of DNA polymorphism as compared to control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on rice seeds showed a significant improvement in germination, growth of roots and shoots, GSH and IAA content in the treated sample. In conclusion, the treatment of biofield energy on rice seeds could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of rice.
Category: Biochemistry

[115] viXra:1610.0130 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-19 12:41:50

The Geometrization of the Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 40 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany.Published by: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2016, 4, 2135-2171. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.412211.

Einstein used the term ‘unified field theory’ in a title of a publication for the first time in 1925. Somewhat paradoxically, an adequate historical, physical and philosophical understanding of the dimension of Einstein’s unification program cannot be understood without fully acknowledging one of Einstein’s philosophical principles. Despite many disappointments, without finding a solution besides of the many different approaches along the unified field theory program and in ever increasing scientific isolation, Einstein insisted on the unity of objective reality as the foundation of the unity of science. Einstein’s engagement along his unification program was burdened with a number of difficulties and lastly in vain. Nevertheless, a successful geometrization of the gravita-tional and the electromagnetic fields within the framework of the general theory of relativity is possible. Thus far, it is a purpose of the present contribution to geometrize the electromagnetic field within the framework of the general theory of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[114] viXra:1610.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 07:55:37

Infrasonic Vibrations in Humans

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Scientists from the National Research Nuclear University and collaborators have used a highly sensitive laser device to register infrasonic vibrations in human body. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[113] viXra:1610.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 08:21:04

Modified Pauli Exclusion Principle

Authors: S Hussainsha
Comments: 11 Pages.

The principal objective of this paper is to describe the force of gravity according to the rules of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored. The result of this concept modifies Pauli Exclusion Principle so that it is possible to explain Quantum Entanglement in terms of relativity. The result shows Dark Matter is due to Entanglement, and Expansion of Universe is due to generalized Pauli Exclusion Principle (GPEP).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[112] viXra:1610.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 09:14:02

Theory of Spacetime

Authors: Enrico Belmonte
Comments: 10 Pages.

Three hypotheses on spacetime expansion are presented. First, velocity is independent of spacetime expansion. Second, spacetime expansion does not change energy. Third, spacetime expansion is a change in size of spacetime and energy conversion is a change in shape of spacetime, or equivalent to change in velocity. These are mathematical arguments hence mathematical proofs are presented in each hypothesis. The difference in the calculation of velocity between Hubble’s law and Belmonte theory is discussed. The so-called dark energy emerges as a consequence of velocity calculation in Hubble’s law but it does not appear in Belmonte theory. It is shown that the cosmological constant in the general theory of relativity arises from a violation of the conservation of energy. The cosmological constant does not appear in Belmonte theory as energy is automatically conserved in the theory. Following the Second Hypothesis, the Belmonte Mass is predicted. This is the total mass of dark matter and baryonic matter in the observable universe. It is derived theoretically from the Planck vacuum energy density.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[111] viXra:1610.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 06:31:01

Electron Spins Talk

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The unparalleled possibilities of quantum computers are currently still limited because information exchange between the bits in such computers is difficult, especially over larger distances. FOM workgroup leader Lieven Vandersypen and his colleagues within the QuTech research centre and the Kavli Institute for Nanosciences (Delft University of Technology) have succeeded for the first time in enabling two non-neighbouring quantum bits in the form of electron spins in semiconductors to communicate with each other. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[110] viXra:1610.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 06:41:57

Atomic-Scale MRI

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[109] viXra:1610.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 06:55:40

Peering Inside Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

A newly developed laser pulse synthesizer that generates femtosecond pulses at mid-infrared (IR) wavelengths promises to provide scientists with a better view of the inner workings of atoms, molecules and solids. [22] An optically-driven mechanical oscillator fabricated using a plasmomechanical metamaterial. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[108] viXra:1610.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 07:06:49

Producing Magnetic Monopoles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

The new materials system consists of regular arrays of superconducting YBaCuO-dots covered with an extremely thin permalloy film. A shortly applied external magnetic field leads to the creation of supercurrents within the superconducting dots. These currents produce a complex magnetic field pattern, which is inscribed into the permalloy film above. The results are published in Advanced Science. [17] If you chop a magnet in half, you end up with two smaller magnets. Both the original and the new magnets have "north" and "south" poles. But what if single north and south poles exist, just like positive and negative electric charges? These hypothetical beasts, known as "magnetic monopoles," are an important prediction in several theories. [16] A new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory determined that magnetic skyrmions – small electrically uncharged circular structures with a spiraling magnetic pattern – do get deflected by an applied current, much like a curveball getting deflected by air. [15] Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14] The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[107] viXra:1610.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-12 16:24:34

Discovery of an Unintended Mathematical Error in Equation (7a) on Page 81 in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926 Perhaps After 88 Years

Authors: Khoshnevisan, M
Comments: 2 Pages. Please contact Associate Professor Khoshnevisan,M at mkhoshnevisan@mailaps.org if further elucidation is warranted.

Professor Albert Einstein in 1926 published his book entitled “INVESTIGATIONS ON THE THEORY OF THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT”, during the time that he was teaching at the University of Berlin. This book was edited by Professor Reinhold Heinrich (Henry) Furth in 1926.He was co-author with Professor Albert Einstein of the Theory of Brownian Movement. Acknowledgements: I would like to thank Professor. Dr. Simon Lilly, Head of Department of Physics at ETH- Swiss Federal Institute of Technology for responding to my e-mail and phone call on September 19 2016 and putting me in contact with Professor Norbert Straumann. I further would like to express my appreciation to Professor Straumann for reviewing and confirming my findings on September 19 2016 via e-mail in relation to the unintended mathematical error in equation (7a) on page 81 in this book.I shall note that Professor Straumann is a retired Professor of Physics from the University of Zurich, and former student of Professor Wolfgang Pauli at ETH, the Austrian-American Physics Nobel Prize Winner in 1945 and one of the pioneers of Quantum Physics. He has also served on the advisory board of the Albert Einstein Institute of the Max Planck Society.It appears that this book has been cited more than 3800 times over the years and I hope equation (7a) will be corrected in the new edition of this book.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[106] viXra:1610.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 04:00:31

On Complex Interval Linear System

Authors: Kayalvizhi Lakshmanan, Sarangam Majumdar
Comments: 7 Pages.

Linear system of equations with crisp values are crucial filed of research. Several different technique are available to solve this type of equations. The parameter values are actually uncertain in nature because data are collected from experiment. Another aspect is error in calculation. To avoid errors and uncertain nature of the parameter values, we use interval analysis. In this work, we are addressed solution methods for complex interval linear system. We propose a new method for finding solution of complex linear system of equations (CLSE). Moreover we study the numerical experiments using the proposed different methods.
Category: General Mathematics

[105] viXra:1610.0120 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-20 23:29:55

Inverse Polynomials for Nonzero Constant Jacobian

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 22 Pages

The so called Jacobian problem [1] or Jacobian conjecture [2], [3] demands the existence of inverse functions of polynomial nature when the Jacobian is a nonzero constant (=1). Bass, Connell, Wright in there paper [3] have shown that it is enough to construct (or show the existence of) such inverse polynomials for special type of cubic polynomials whose Jacobian is a nonzero constant (=1).To settle Jacobian conjecture one needs to show the existence of inverse polynomials for special type of cubic polynomials whose Jacobian is a nonzero constant (=1) for all dimensions [3]. In this paper we explicitly give these inverse polynomials for two and three dimensions, i.e. for two and three variables cases. Any higher dimensional cases are no different than these special cases and it is possible to obtain such inverse polynomials in any higher dimensional cases also.
Category: General Mathematics

[104] viXra:1610.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-13 09:47:11

Are Dark Matter and Dark Energy Opposite Effects of the Quantum Vacuum?

Authors: Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez
Comments: 13 Pages. Remplace

In the standard model of cosmology, λCDM, were introduced to explain the anomalies of the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters highest according estimated by General Relativity the dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe the dark energy. The model λCDM is based in the equations of the General Relativity that of the total mass-energy of the universe assigns 4.9% to matter (including only baryonic matter), 26.8%, to dark matter and 68.3% to dark energy adjusted according observed in Planck mission, therefore, excluding bosonic matter (quantum vacuum). However, the composition of dark matter and dark energy are unknown. Due to that it lacks of a correct physical theory of gravity since General Relativity is only their powerful equations, which in their applications, their results are interpreted arbitrarily. Properties as curvature, viscous fluid, dragging frame and gravity action are attributed mistakenly to the spacetime by the materialist substantivalism, the most credible philosophical interpretation that complements the General Relativity, caused by its absence of physical definition of spacetime and static gravitational field as immaterial, but which violates, the conception of gravity as an effect of coordinates of the generalization of the inertial motion to the accelerated motion and, in particular, the description of the metric tensor of gravity as a geometric field. These properties are really of the quantum vacuum, the main existence form of the matter. In this paper we propose that the quantum vacuum is the source of dark matter and dark energy, therefore, the components of the quantum vacuum are of them. Both are opposite effects of the quantum vacuum that when gravitationally interacts with the cosmic structures, the vacuum it curves and when such interaction tends to cease by declination of the formation of these structures, occurring since near five milliard of years ago, vacuum it maintains quasi plane, since it interacts gravitationally very weakly with itself, accelerating expansion of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[103] viXra:1610.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-02 16:15:55

Symmetric Normal Matrices and the Marcus-de Oliveira Determinantal Conjecture

Authors: Ameet Sharma
Comments: 15 Pages.

We present notes on the Marcus-de Oliveira conjecture. The conjecture concerns the region in the complex plane covered by the determinants of the sums of two normal matrices with prescribed eigenvalues. Call this region ∆. Let ∆S be the restriction of ∆ to determinants of sums of symmetric normal matrices. This paper focuses on boundary matrices of ∆. We derive some properties of boundary matrices and boundary points. We conjecture that ∂∆ ⊆ ∂∆S. Speculations on how to prove this conjecture are given. We also present a second conjecture with regards to the form of normal matrices with magnitude symmetry. This paper builds on work in [1].
Category: Algebra

[102] viXra:1610.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-11 08:11:23

Comment on the Off-Nuclear Ultrasoft X-Ray Source J141711+52

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 2 Pages. This article was submitted to the editors of the Astrophysical Journal on 11 October 2016 for the purpose of publication.

It has recently been reported that the candidate HLX ultrasoft x-ray source J141711+52 in SO galaxy GJ1417+52 is explained best by the presence of a massive black hole, of ~105 solar masses. Although the size of the black hole has been reported, the type of black hole has not. In any event, no black hole is associated with J141711+52 because the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[101] viXra:1610.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-11 08:27:10

Diffusion of Individual Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

In a combination of experiments and theory the diffusion of individual atoms in periodic systems was understood for the first time. The interaction of individual atoms with light at ultralow temperatures close to the absolute zero temperature point provides new insights into ergodicity, the basic assumption of thermodynamics. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[100] viXra:1610.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-11 09:23:20

Laser Light to Study Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[99] viXra:1610.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-17 22:45:58

Measurement Quantization Unites Classical and Quantum Physics

Authors: Jody A. Geiger
Comments: 23 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the notion of counts of the fundamental measures—length, time, and mass—a unifying description is resolved. A theoretical framework is presented in a set of postulates by which a conversion between expressions from quantum and classical physics can be made. Conversions of well-known expressions from different areas of physics (quantum physics, gravitation, and optics) exemplify the approach and mathematical procedures. The postulated integer counts of fundamental measures changes our understanding of length, suggesting that our current understanding of reality is distorted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[98] viXra:1610.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-10 15:21:51

Micro and Macro-Levels of Neural Observation Describe the Same Brain Activity

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Pedro C. Marijuán
Comments: 7 Pages.

Brain activity can be assessed either at anatomical/functional micro-, meso- and macro- spatiotemporal scales of observation, or at different intertwined levels with mutual interactions. Here we show, based on topological findings, that nervous activities occurring in micro-levels project to single activities at the macro-levels. This means that brain functions assessed at the higher scale of the whole brain necessarily display a counterpart in the lower ones, and vice versa. Furthermore, we point out how it is possible for different functional and anatomical levels to be stitched (sewn) together to become condensed brain activities, giving rise, for example, to ideas and concepts. Also, a topological approach makes it possible to assess brain functions in the general terms of particle trajectories taking place on donut-like manifolds. Indeed, every macro-scale activity, independent of the subtending theoretical model, can be described in terms of a multi-dimensional torus mapping to activities at lower levels. In physics, the term duality refers to a case where two seemingly different systems turn out to be equivalent, because they are mathematically distinguishable descriptions of the same phenomenon. Our framework permits a topological duality among different neuro-techniques, because it holds for all the types of spatio-temporal brain activities, independent of their inter- and intra-level relationships, strength, magnitude and boundaries.
Category: Mind Science

[97] viXra:1610.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-10 11:27:18

Qubit-Oscillator Circuit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[96] viXra:1610.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-10 12:21:47

Neuro-Inspired Analog Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have developed a neuro-inspired analog computer that has the ability to train itself to become better at whatever tasks it performs. [13] A small, Santa Fe, New Mexico-based company called Knowm claims it will soon begin commercializing a state-of-the-art technique for building computing chips that learn. Other companies, including HP HPQ-3.45% and IBM IBM-2.10% , have already invested in developing these so-called brain-based chips, but Knowm says it has just achieved a major technological breakthrough that it should be able to push into production hopefully within a few years. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[95] viXra:1610.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-10 12:52:56

Optically-Driven Mechanical Oscillator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

An optically-driven mechanical oscillator fabricated using a plasmomechanical metamaterial. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[94] viXra:1610.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-10 07:37:58

Exotic States of Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The 2016 Nobel Prize in physics has been awarded to David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz, three theoretical physicists whose research used the unexpected mathematical lens of topology to investigate phases of matter and the transitions between them. [14] A team of researchers with members from several institutions in China has developed a new means for studying topological matter in cold-atom systems that involves using a single laser source. [13] In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[93] viXra:1610.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-10 06:01:06

Fighting the Effects of Aging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

A protein found within the powerhouse of a cell could be the key to holding back the march of time, research by scientists at The University of Nottingham has shown. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[92] viXra:1610.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-10 03:35:21

A New 3n-1 Conjecture Akin to Collatz Conjecture

Authors: W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Collatz conjecture is an open conjecture in mathematics named so after Lothar Collatz who proposed it in 1937. It is also known as 3n + 1 conjecture, the Ulam conjecture (after Stanislaw Ulam), Kakutani's problem (after Shizuo Kakutani) and so on. In this paper a new conjecture called as the 3n-1 conjecture which is akin to the Collatz conjecture is proposed. It functions on 3n -1, for any starting number n, its sequence eventually reaches either 1, 5 or 17. The 3n-1 conjecture is compared with the Collatz conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[91] viXra:1610.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-10 17:58:58

Explanation of Special Relativity Theory using Photon Clocks

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 6 Pages. none

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions, which are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions, are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using simple photon clocks. This approach avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[90] viXra:1610.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-09 09:58:10

The Mysterious Star Kic 8462852

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 3 Pages.

If Observed Flux Values from KIC 8462852 are calculated like a Cicada Puzzle or the WOW Signal, the signals are distances from a planet or star to the sun.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[89] viXra:1610.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-09 04:50:50

Planck Constant

Authors: Sokolnikov Mikhail Leonidovich, Akhmetov Alexey Lerunovich
Comments: 14 Pages. Wien's displacement constant, the Boltzmann constant, Kepler's third law

The connection to the Planck constant with Wien's displacement law and Kepler's third law. The exact value of Planck's constant for the liquid or solid state of aggregation of matter equal to h = 4*10E-34 J*s. The formula that combines four physical constants - the speed of light - c, Wien's displacement constant - в, Planck constant - h and the Boltzmann constant - k 3kв = hс
Category: Quantum Physics

[88] viXra:1610.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-09 06:29:13

Tabernacle

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 177 Pages.

I Study the detailed geometrical structure of the Tabernacle
Category: Archaeology

[87] viXra:1610.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-09 03:03:05

Sterile Neutrino Mystery Deepens

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[86] viXra:1610.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-09 03:42:34

Comparative Studies of Laws of Conservation of Energy, Momentum and Angular Momentum —No.2 of Comparative Physics Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 6 Pages.

As No.2 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the same and different points of law of conservation of energy, law of conservation of momentum, and law of conservation of angular momentum in the traditional viewpoints. The same points: they belong to the three fundamental conservation laws in modern physics; and they are all widely used in physics. The different points: the law of conservation of energy is derived by the time translation-invariant, the law of conservation of momentum is derived by the space translation-invariant, and the law of conservation of angular momentum is derived by the space rotation-invariant; and in the fields of natural sciences, the law of conservation of energy is the most important and the most widely used law, while the other two laws are not so important and far-reaching. With the comparative method, the above traditional viewpoints are re-discussed. According to the principle of uniqueness of truth, the law of conservation of energy should be considered as the unique truth, and establish the science of conservation of energy; accordingly, within the whole physics range, the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum are not forever right, namely these two laws are correct only in some conditions (for instance, we can give the examples that these two laws are not correct as considering the actions of the friction and the like), therefore these two laws cannot be taken as the fundamental conservation laws in the field of physics; furthermore, in the case of no external force, the law of conservation of momentum may not be correct, and in the case of no external moment, the law of conservation of angular momentum may be not correct too. Finally, the improvements of the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are discussed.
Category: Classical Physics

[85] viXra:1610.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-08 17:28:15

Proof of Sophie Germain Conjecture

Authors: Idriss Olivier Bado
Comments: Dans ce présent document nous donnons la preuve de la conjecture de Sophie Germain en utilisant le theoreme de densité de Chebotarev ,le principe d' inclusion d'exclusion de Moivre ,la formule de Mertens . en 13 pages nous donnons une preuve convaincante

In this paper We give Sophie Germain 's conjecture proof by using Chebotarev density theorem, principle inclusion -exclusion of Moivre, Mertens formula
Category: Number Theory

[84] viXra:1610.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-08 22:46:57

Kinematics of Time Within General Relativity v2

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 13 Pages. Updated conclusion

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space ever since.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[83] viXra:1610.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-08 23:56:31

The Sociopathic Norm: A Pattern of Organized Criminal Activity in the Scientific Age

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

A brief summary.
Category: Social Science

[82] viXra:1610.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-08 07:26:20

Stanford Physicist Proposed ER=EPR

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

A Stanford physicist has proposed this radical idea in the form of a new equation, ER=EPR – and he says it could build a space-time bridge between the long-competing theories of general relativity and quantum mechanics. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[81] viXra:1610.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-10 11:24:52

The Structure and Composition of Cosmic Background

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: shows a viewpoint about the structure and composition of cosmic ontology.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[80] viXra:1610.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-08 09:24:48

Oscillations Measuring Forces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at ETH Zurich have discovered a peculiar feature in oscillations similar to that of a child's swing. As a result, they have succeeded in outlining a novel principle for small, high-resolution sensors, and have submitted a patent application for it. [20] A collaboration including researchers at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has developed a tuneable, high-efficiency, single-photon microwave source. The technology has great potential for applications in quantum computing and quantum information technology, as well as in studying the fundamental reactions between light and matter in quantum circuits. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[79] viXra:1610.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-08 04:26:01

Topological Matter in Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from several institutions in China has developed a new means for studying topological matter in cold-atom systems that involves using a single laser source. [13] In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[78] viXra:1610.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-08 04:33:04

Relation Between Co2, Global Temperature and Energy Consumption

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 10 Pages.

The reason for the present study is the surprising observation of measurements showing that the increase in global temperature is, over a period of already 150 years, equal to 0,135 °C together with an increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere of 20 ppm, at each increase of the world population with 1 billion. So regardless of the explosively increasing industrialization in the past 50 years. The study indicates where, in the substance of the case, the cause for this apparent contradiction can be found, but does not explain the remarkably precise constant ratio over those 150 years. It brings a different, striking precisely, relation upwards: the one between the increase in worldwide energy consumption by mankind and the increase in global temperature. The article closes with the conclusion that the climate problem is a symptom of the world population problem.
Category: Climate Research

[77] viXra:1610.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 20:01:26

If Quantum Entanglement is True, a Method of Superluminal Communication is Realized

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 1 Page.

Consider, for example, that the BBO emits a pair of entangled beams, a beam of horizontally polarized light to Alice, and another beam of vertically polarized light to Bob. Now, if a polarizer is placed in front of Alice's detector and driven by a 16Hz motor so that the "state" of the beam changes continuously, it is now questionable whether Bob's detector is more or less "Induced" 32 Hz light intensity changes or other changes?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[76] viXra:1610.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 22:07:09

A Crack Method, on the BB84 Protocol

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article is a combination of the following BB84 protocol communication schematic diagram , brief description of the protocol for the crack method.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[75] viXra:1610.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 12:31:29

Reading Biological Signals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Scientists have created a material that could make reading biological signals, from heartbeats to brainwaves, much more sensitive. [8] The human body is controlled by electrical impulses in, for example, the brain, the heart and nervous system. These electrical signals create tiny magnetic fields, which doctors could use to diagnose various diseases, for example diseases of the brain or heart problems in young foetuses. Researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute have now succeeded in developing a method for extremely precise measurements of such ultra-small magnetic fields with an optical magnetic field sensor. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[74] viXra:1610.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 12:47:28

The Aqueous Geochemistry Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 screenshot, 1 illustrative graph

A central tenant to stellar metamorphosis theory is the fact that the stages of the evolution of a star include aqueous material, and this aqueous material facilitates the chemical reactions that occur as the star evolves, cools and dies becoming the remnant or “planet/exoplanet” used in popular circles. This paper outlines a simple fact of geochemistry.
Category: Geophysics

[73] viXra:1610.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 07:39:12

Magnetar for Axion Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[72] viXra:1610.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 07:39:37

Niels Bohr's Philosophy: The Epistemological Lesson of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 44 Pages.

Niels Bohr thought that what quantum mechanics has taught us is not only to understand something new, but also a new meaning of the term “to understand”. Bohr wanted to free himself from ontology by putting emphasis on epistemology; i.e. on certain conditions for observation and description. He believed that the epistemological lesson of quantum mechanics was a crucial one. Basically it has two important aspects. 1. Bohr's philosophy leads to a break with the so-called correspondence theory for truth and meaning. It states that true propositions are descriptions of a world that is independent of our observations; i.e. that on a regular basis one can compare language with reality, that is, in language compare the two areas against each other. Bohr believed that this did not make sense, since in many situations we cannot add meaning to a world that has a "an sich" structure (the thing-in-itself), which in turn can be depicted when observed. 2. All knowledge is attained under certain conditions for description. Bohr thought that the long-lasting criterion for valid knowledge is that we can communicate it unambiguously to each other. When Bohr emphasised that "we are suspended in language" in the sense that all knowledge determines what we can say about the world in an understandable way, and not what the world actually is, this must be understood in the sense that we only know the world as recognised; i.e., structured on the basis of the conditions for description, to which we are, as part of the world, necessarily are subjected to. Bohr's emphasis on conditions for descriptions invalidates the well-known distinction between analytic and synthetic propositions. An important feature of the descriptive use of ordinary language, as well as in classical physics, is that description is based on a dividing line between subject and object. This results in idealism and materialism not being tenable positions. Furthermore, it is such that we cannot use the designation of things independently of the designation of time and space. Logical principles are only meaningfully applied in situations relating to our conditions for observation. So based on inspiration from Bohr, Favrholdt developed a more adequate and comprehensive philosophy, where he, among other things, states that all humans possess a fundamental language, underlying all languages. This constitutes a number of concepts – the core – where the correct use is dictated by the structure of the world, which humans learn through sensory perception and action.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[71] viXra:1610.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 08:39:05

Observations of Quantum Bits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A team of scientists led by Tim Taminiau of QuTech, the quantum institute of TU Delft and TNO, has now experimentally demonstrated that errors in quantum computations can be suppressed by repeated observations of quantum bits. [20] Researchers from Delft, the University of Wisconsin and Ames Laboratory, led by Prof. Lieven Vandersypen of TU Delft's QuTech discovered that the stability of qubits could be maintained 100 times more effectively in silicon than in gallium arsenide. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[70] viXra:1610.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 06:34:33

Riemann Zeta Function and Relationship to Prime Numbers

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 2 Pages.

ζ(s)=1/(((1/(2))/log(2)))+ 1/(((1/(3))/log(3)))+ 1/(((1/(4))/log(4)))+1/(((1/(5))/log(5))) is a form of Riemann Zeta Function and it shows an approximate relationship between the Riemann Zeta Function and Prime Numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[69] viXra:1610.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 06:37:51

Nth Prime Equation

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 1 Page.

The classical Distribution of Primes Equation can be modified to make an Nth Prime Equation which generates the Nth Prime.
Category: Number Theory

[68] viXra:1610.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 02:10:44

Where Has All the Surplus Gone?

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 1 Page.

The dissapearance of gained surplus value into economic rent is analyzed.
Category: Economics and Finance

[67] viXra:1610.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 02:40:50

Quantum Gravity and Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

Physicists in Australia have made a high-precision sensor that can measure gravitational and magnetic fields at the same time. The device uses an atom interferometer to track the motion of a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) in free fall and the researchers say it could improve the search for iron ore, hydrocarbons, diamonds and other minerals. [5] The curved space-time around current loops and solenoids carrying arbitrarily large steady electric currents is obtained from the numerical resolution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell equations in cylindrical symmetry. The artificial gravitational field associated to the generation of a magnetic field produces gravitational redshift of photons and deviation of light. Null geodesics in the curved space-time of current loops and solenoids are also presented. We finally propose an experimental setup, achievable with current technology of superconducting coils, that produces a phase shift of light of the same order of magnitude than astrophysical signals in ground-based gravitational wave observatories. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[66] viXra:1610.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-06 18:16:19

Derivation of the Rydberg Constant, Utilizing Dimensionless Ratios

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the spirit of the Pythagorean school of thought, that everything in the universe can be reduced to pure numbers; utilizing the Rydberg constant, arguably the most precise value in physics, an attempt is made to bring to fruition the aforementioned tenet. The relationships of seven well known constants are utilized within the context of four equations.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[65] viXra:1610.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-11 04:56:13

The Misuse of the no-Communication Theorem by Ghirardi

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 4 Pages. A few typos which looked like misconceptions have been corrected.

This paper is in response to a critique of the author’s earlier papers on the matter of a non-local communication system by Ghirardi. The setup has merit for not apparently falling for the usual pitfalls of putative communication schemes, as espoused by the No-communication theorem (NCT) - that of non-factorisability. The enquiry occurred from the investigation of two interferometer based communication systems: one two-photon entanglement, the other single-photon path entanglement. Both systems have two parties: a sender (“Alice”) who transmits or absorbs her particle and a receiver (“Bob”) who has an interferometer, which can discern a pure or mixed state, ahead of his detector. Ghirardi used the density matrix and found that the system wasn’t factorisable; this was seen as a fulfilment of the NCT. We revisit the analysis and say quite simply that Ghirardi is mistaken. The system is rendered factorisable by a Schmidt decomposition and entanglement swapping to “which path information” of the interferometer; also one must consider the joint evolution before taking the partial trace. Ghirardi’s misuse, by the inapplicability of the NCT in this situation, renders this general prohibitive bar incomplete or entirely wrong.
Category: Quantum Physics

[64] viXra:1610.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-06 19:47:24

A Solution to the Problem of Apollonius Using Vector Dot Products

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 5 Pages.

To the collections of problems solved via Geometric Algebra (GA) in References 1-13, this document adds a solution, using only dot products, to the Problem of Apollonius. The solution is provided for completeness and for contrast with the GA solutions presented in Reference 3.
Category: Geometry

[63] viXra:1610.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 00:22:44

Belief Reliability Analysis and Its Application

Authors: Haoyang Zheng, Likang Yin, Tian Bian, Yong Deng
Comments: 24 Pages.

In reliability analysis, Fault Tree Analysis based on evidential networks is an important research topic. However, the existing EN approaches still remain two issues: one is the final results are expressed with interval numbers, which has a relatively high uncertainty to make a final decision. The other is the combination rule is not used to fuse uncertain information. These issues will greatly decrease the efficiency of EN to handle uncertain information. To address these open issues, a new methodology, called Belief Reliability Analysis, is presented in this paper. The combination methods to deal with series system, parallel system, series-parallel system as well as parallel-series system are proposed for reliability evaluation. Numerical examples and the real application in servo-actuation system are used to show the efficiency of the proposed Belief Reliability Analysis methodology.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[62] viXra:1610.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 00:36:11

Kinematics of Time Within General Relativity

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation and kinematics to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space ever since.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[61] viXra:1610.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-06 14:20:33

Quasiparticles in Real Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

The formation of quasiparticles, such as polarons, in a condensed-matter system usually proceeds in an extremely fast way and is very difficult to observe. In Innsbruck, Rudolf Grimm's physics research group, in collaboration with an international team of theoretical physicists, has simulated the formation of polarons in an ultracold quantum gas in real time. The researchers have published their findings in the journal Science. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[60] viXra:1610.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-06 10:07:20

Computational Geometry Provides Indirect Evidence of Dark Matter Location in Cosmic Structures

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Shela Ramanna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The elusive dark matter is the best candidate in order to explain gravitational effects such as, for example, the motion of stars in galaxies. We introduce a novel method for the measurement of information in cosmic images called maximal nucleus clustering (MNC) i.e., nucleus clustering’s Rényi entropy derived from strong proximities in feature-based Voronoï tessellations. MNC is a novel, fast and inexpensive image-analysis technique, independent from other detectable signals. It permits the assessment of changes in gradient orientation into zones of two-dimensional cosmic images that generally are not taken into account by other techniques. In order to evaluate the potential applications of MNC, we looked for the presence of MNC’s distinctive hallmarks in the plane surface of astronomic images. We found that Rényi entropy is higher in MNC areas of cosmic images than in the surrounding regions, and that these patterns are correlated with cosmic zones containing a lesser amount of dark energy. Therefore, computational geometry provides a bridge made of affine connexions and proximities between features of a two-dimensional pictures and physical features of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[59] viXra:1610.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-06 12:51:57

Cryptic Puzzle from a Hologram

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A recent discovery published in Nature Physics provides an innovative technique for calculating the shapes of electrons. This finding will help scientists gain a better and faster understanding of the properties of complex materials. Dr. Emanuele Dalla Torre, from Bar-Ilan University, together with Dr. Yang He and Prof. Eugene Demler, from Harvard University, used holographic logic to compile an algorithm for visualizing the shape of an electron in a superconducting material. This successful collaboration clarified the puzzling results of a series of experiments performed in the past 15 years, resolving a mysterious scientific enigma. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[58] viXra:1610.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-06 08:58:03

Position of Atoms in a Molecule

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[57] viXra:1610.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-06 04:57:02

A Symmetric Approach Elucidates Multisensory Information Integration

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 10 Pages.

Recent advances in neuronal multisensory integration suggest that the five senses do not exist in isolation of each other. Perception, cognition and action are integrated at very early levels of central processing, in a densely coupled system equipped with multisensory interactions occurring at all temporal and spatial stages. In such a novel framework, a concept from the far-flung branch of topology, namely the Borsuk-Ulam theorem, comes into play. The theorem states that when two opposite points on a sphere are projected onto a circumference, they give rise to a single point containing their matching description. Here we show that the theorem applies also to multisensory integration: two environmental stimuli from different sensory modalities display similar features when mapped into cortical neurons. Topological tools not only shed new light on questions concerning the functional architecture of mind and the nature of mental states, but also provide a general methodology which as the advantage to be assessed empirically. We argue that the Borsuk-Ulam theorem is a general principle underlying nervous multisensory integration, resulting in a framework that has the potential to be operationalized.
Category: Mind Science

[56] viXra:1610.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 21:33:05

Four Dimensional Quantum Hall Effect for Dyons

Authors: Pawan Kumar Joshi, O.P.S.Negi
Comments: 18 Pages.

Starting with division algebra based on quaternion, we have constructed the generalization of quantum Hall effect from two dimension to four dimension. We have constructed the required Hamiltonian operator and thus obtained its eigen values and eigen functions for four dimensional quantum Hall effect for dyons. The degeneracy of the four dimensional quantum Hall system has been discussed in terms of two integers (P\,and\,Q ) related together where as the integer Q plays the role of Landau level index and accordingly the lowest Landau level has been obtained for four dimensional quantum Hall effect associated with magnetic monopole(or dyons). It is shown that there exists the integer as well the fractional quantum Hall effect and so, the four dimensional quantum Hall system provides a macroscopic number of degenerate states and at appropriate integer or fractional filling factions this system forms an incompressible quantum liquid. Key Words: Quaternion, dyons, Hamiltonian operator, Landau level etc
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[55] viXra:1610.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 08:03:56

Fine Structure Constant .an Arithmetical Dissection

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 1 Page.

We analyze arithmetically the value of the fine structure constant .As we show , it’s appropiate to write such constant using natural numbers only .On condition that such natural numbers are properly sorted . Namely , we make several simple series of natural numbers .Each series is a sum of different numbers . The second condition is to apply physical units .We use LT^(-1),i.e. speed units .Since fine structure constant is a dimensionless number , we must to search the ratio between two speed values : speed of light in vacuum with respect to the sum of velocities expressed as a series of natural numbers added correctly .
Category: Classical Physics

[54] viXra:1610.0065 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-10 23:28:04

Lauricella Hypergeometric Series Over Finite Fields

Authors: Bing He
Comments: 22 Pages.

In this paper we give a finite field analogue of the Lauricella hypergeometric series and obtain some transformation and reduction formulae and several generating functions for the Lauricella hypergeometric series over finite fields. Some of these generalize some known results of Li \emph{et al} as well as several other well-known results.
Category: Number Theory

[53] viXra:1610.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 04:14:48

Derivation of Photon Mass and Avogadro Constant from Planck units

Authors: B. Ravi Sankar
Comments: 5 Pages. The mass of the ultimate partcile in the zoo of particles is derived

Originally proposed in 1899 by German physicist Max Planck, Planck units are alsoknown as natural units because the origin of their definition comes only from properties of the fundamental physical theories and not from interchangeable experimental param- eters. It is widely accepted that Planck units are the most fundamental units. In this paper, few more fundamental constants are derived from Planck units. These constants are permutations and combinations of Planck units and hence by construct, they are also constants. The mass and radius of photon are derived. The Avogadro constant, Boltzmann constant and unified mass unit are also derived. The structure of the photon is explained. The meaning of Avogadro constant in terms of photon structure is also explained. The meaning of Planck mass is explained. As proof for the meaning of the Planck mass, the solar constant is derived. The solar constant is derived applying string theory as well. Finally revised Planck current, Planck voltage and Planck impedance are also derived. It is also proven that Planck mass is the energy emitted by any star per second per ray of proper length c. Apart from this, the energy emitted per second per ray of proper length c by a planet or communication antenna is not equal to Planck mass.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[52] viXra:1610.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-28 04:22:02

Heat Engines of Extraordinary Efficiency and the General Principle of Their Operation

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 20 Pages. Provisional form to MDPI Entropy. Improvements in wording and presentation. Power calculation included instead of referenced. Appendix expanded.

The intention of this paper is to elucidate new types of heat engines with extraordinary efficiency, more specifically to eventually focus on the author’s research into a temporary magnetic remanence device. First we extend the definition of heat engines through a diagrammatic classification scheme and note a paradoxical non-coincidence between the Carnot, Kelvin-Planck and other forms of the 2nd Law, between sectors of the diagram. It is then seen, between the diagram sectors, how super-efficient heat engines are able to reduce the degrees of freedom resulting from change in chemical potential, over mere generation of heat; until in the right sector of the diagram, the conventional wisdom for the need of two reservoirs is refuted. A brief survey of the Maxwell Demon problem finds no problem with information theoretic constructs. Our ongoing experimental enquiry into a temporary magnetic remanence cycle using standard kinetic theory, thermodynamics and electrodynamics is presented – yet a contradiction results with the 2nd law placing it in the right sector of the classification diagram.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[51] viXra:1610.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 01:09:56

High-Precision Optical Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[50] viXra:1610.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 01:29:33

Polarization Control of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

So-called spatial light modulators that serve as a base for all LCDs, among other things, can be arranged so that each pixel can switch the light quickly, making it brighter or weaker by rotating the polarization of light. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[49] viXra:1610.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 01:38:20

A Relation Between N-Square and M-Square Matrix Vector Bases of the Same Dimension - Relating Spin Matrices and Components

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 9 Pages.

Elementary Linear Algebra theory handles transformations between sets of n-square matrix vector bases of M-dimensions well. Considering n-square & m-square matrices of M-dimensions, further theory and techniques, shown here, may be applied to yield results; including relationships between spin matrices and components.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[48] viXra:1610.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 02:11:48

Particles in Our Bloodstream

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[47] viXra:1610.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 16:15:40

Using External Galactic Forces as an Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: Scott S Neal
Comments: 13 Pages. 13 pgs.

It has been over 30 years since the first Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model was proposed as a way of describing Dark Matter, but as yet, there have been no experimental results that support CDM. CDM depends on the discovery of new non-baryonic particles not defined in the Standard Model as the source of the needed mass. Recently, final results from the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, have failed to find any traces of these non-baryonic particles, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has not detected any strong evidence of supersymmetry particles. With the lack of supporting experimental results for CDM or supersymmetry, it is time to examine other solutions that might explain Dark Matter without requiring any new particles to be detected. The current concept of Dark Matter assumes the undiscovered particles add an additional gravitational mass to the galaxy. Another solution to the galaxy rotation problem would be to assume there is some external force pressing in on the galaxies holding them together. This research shows how external gravitational forces on the galaxies can duplicate the galaxy rotation curves that have been observed, without any Dark Matter. It also offers an explanation for the acceleration constant a_0, that results from the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) theory of galaxy dynamics. The results show that a model using an external galactic force is a valid approach to explain the effect known as Dark Matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[46] viXra:1610.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 16:52:30

The Physics of Mathematical Philosophy

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 13 Pages.

The subjects of classical and quantum physics are examined in relation to Goedel's Incompletness Theorems where classical physics is assumed to be a mathematically consistent system while quantum mechanics is assumed to be a mathematically complete system.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[45] viXra:1610.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 18:46:06

Some Solution Strategies for Equations that Arise in Geometric (Clifford) Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 15 Pages.

Drawing mainly upon exercises from Hestenes's New Foundations for Classical Mechanics, this document presents, explains, and discusses common solution strategies. Included are a list of formulas and a guide to nomenclature.
Category: Geometry

[44] viXra:1610.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 21:54:55

Spectra of New Join of Two Graphs

Authors: Renny P Varghese, K Rejikumar
Comments: 8 Pages.

Let G1 and G2 be two graph with vertex sets V (G1); V (G2) and edge sets E(G1);E(G2) respectively. The subdivision graph S(G) of a graph G is the graph obtained by inserting a new vertex into every edges of G. The SGvertexjoin of G1 and G2 is denoted by G1}G2 and is the graph obtained from S(G1) [ G1 and G2 by joining every vertex of V (G1) to every vertex of V (G2). In this paper we determine the adjacency spectra ( respectively Laplacian spectra and signless Laplacian spectra) of G1}G2 for a regular graph G1 and an arbitrary graph G2
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[43] viXra:1610.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 22:15:42

Spectra of a New Join in Duplication Graph

Authors: K. Reji Kumar, Renny P. Varghese
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Duplication graph DG of a graph G, is obtained by inserting new vertices corresponding to each vertex of G and making the vertex adja- cent to the neighbourhood of the corresponding vertex of G and deleting the edges of G. Let G1 and G2 be two graph with vertex sets V (G1) and V (G2) respectively. The DG - vertex join of G1 and G2 is denoted by G1 t G2 and it is the graph obtained from DG1 and G2 by joining every vertex of V (G1) to every vertex of V (G2). The DG - add vertex join of G1 and G2 is denoted by G1 ./ G2 and is the graph obtained from DG1 and G2 by joining every additional vertex of DG1 to every vertex of V (G2). In this paper we determine the A - spectra and L - spectra of the two new joins of graphs for a regular graph G1 and an arbitrary graph G2 . As an application we give the number of spanning tree, the Kirchhoff index and Laplace energy like invariant of the new join. Also we obtain some infinite family of new class of integral graphs
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[42] viXra:1610.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 14:20:40

Stable Silicon Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers from Delft, the University of Wisconsin and Ames Laboratory, led by Prof. Lieven Vandersypen of TU Delft's QuTech discovered that the stability of qubits could be maintained 100 times more effectively in silicon than in gallium arsenide. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[41] viXra:1610.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 14:23:50

Theoretical Physics

Authors: Trevor Borocz Johnson
Comments: 2 Pages.

The following paper proposes some answers to some common physics questions like the mechanism behind gravity, energy, and magnetism.
Category: Classical Physics

[40] viXra:1610.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 15:21:33

A Methodology for the Analysis of Thin Clients

Authors: Laura Amelf
Comments: 6 Pages. It's very well-written

Looking at thin clients.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[39] viXra:1610.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 10:52:52

Proof for HST WFC3 Uvis and ir Channel Njy Measurements Are Wrong

Authors: B. Ravi Sankar
Comments: 7 Pages. This is related Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 camera.

The context of the paper is related to the flux density of the order of nJy reported in recent papers. The aim is to prove that the reported flux density of the order of nJy is wrong. A new table for both IR and UVIS channel of the HST/WFC3 is created of the order of flux density mJy. This table should be used as a template for future projects related to HST/WFC3. Any new measurements below mJy (reported in the table) should be rejected for obvious reasons reported in this paper. Due to the advent of algorithms and digital computing technology, these errors are possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[38] viXra:1610.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 11:13:48

Everything About Einstein’s Relativity Theory

Authors: Omar Shabsigh
Comments: 31 Pages.

This research paper discusses the validity of Einstein’s relativity theory. It took four years of intensive work to reach the final conclusions. All assumptions of Einstein and his mathematics (where it exists) will be reviewed. Experiments done to show the validity will be restudied then we shall show their correctness under the constraints and conditions made by Einstein and show their practical and scientific value. We shall also show how much is the truthfulness of general relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[37] viXra:1610.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 11:30:07

Spectrum of (K; r) Regular Hypergraph

Authors: K Reji Kumar, Renny P Varghese
Comments: 8 Pages.

We present a spectral theory of uniform, regular and linear hyper- graph. The main result are the nature of the eigen values of (k; r) - regular linear hypergraph and the relation between its dual and line graph. We also discuss some properties of Laplacian spectrum of a (k; r) - regular hypergraphs.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[36] viXra:1610.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 12:01:31

Sophie Germain Conjecture's Proof

Authors: Idriss Olivier Bado
Comments: Dans ce présent document nous donnons la preuve du théorème de Mertens en utilisant le théorème de densité de Chebotarev ,principle d'inclusion - exclusion de Moivre,formule de Mertens en 15 pages nous donnons une élégante preuve

In this paper we give the proof of Sophie Germain's conjecture by using Chebotarev density theorem, the principle inclusion-exclusion of Moivre, Mertens formula
Category: Number Theory

[35] viXra:1610.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 12:31:48

Method for Organizing Wireless Computer Network in Biological Tissue

Authors: Andrey I. Bodrenko
Comments: 6 Pages.

Method for organizing wireless computer network in biological tissue. This invention relates to computer technology and biophysics, and can be used for the establishment and operation of a wireless computer network in biological tissue. The nodes of this network are computers connected to the vibration meters and vibration generators. The contact surfaces of vibration generators and vibration meters are brought into contact with the biological tissue. The invention is method for organizing wireless computer network in biological tissue, comprising the fact that the transmission of electronic messages from one node to another node of this network is produced through communication channel of this wireless network, created in the biological tissue which is organized by connecting a source computer to the vibration generator, bringing the contact surface of the vibration generator in contact with the biological tissue, creating and transferring the controlled mechanical motions to the biological tissue through the contact surface of the vibration generator by means of the operation of the vibration generator in accordance with the finite sequence of settings modes of vibration generator representing electronic message transmitted from the source computer and which is received from the source computer, and by connecting to the receiving computer a vibration meter by which the parameters of mechanical motions are registered and which are received by the vibration meter from biological tissue through the contact surface of the vibration meter which is brought into contact with the biological tissue, and through which, on the receiving computer, the results of registration of parameters of mechanical motions are received, and the electronic message is restored from the results of registration of mechanical motions parameters. In addition, each node of this wireless computer network confer capabilities to receive electronic messages through the connected vibration meter from another node of this wireless computer network, and transmit electronic messages through the connected vibration generator to another node of this wireless computer network through communication channels of this wireless computer network, through biological tissue. The technical result is that the radio systems are not used in each wireless communication channel of this wireless computer network in the biological tissue.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[34] viXra:1610.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 13:10:38

Soliton Solution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[33] viXra:1610.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 07:54:09

Quick Magnetic Recording

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A terahertz wave excites electronic transitions between quantum orbits thereby driving the elementary magnets to wobble. [13] A research group in Japan successfully developed room temperature multiferroic materials by a layer-by-layer assembly of nanosheet building blocks. Multiferroic materials are expected to play a vital role in the development of next-generation multifunctional electronic devices. [12] Solid state physics offers a rich variety of intriguing phenomena, several of which are not yet fully understood. Experiments with fermionic atoms in optical lattices get very close to imitating the behaviour of electrons in solid state crystals, thus forming a well-controlled quantum simulator for these systems. Now a team of scientists around Professor Immanuel Bloch and Dr. Christian Groß at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have observed the emergence of antiferromagnetic order over a correlation length of several lattice sites in a chain of fermionic atoms. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[32] viXra:1610.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 16:10:12

Notation on the Possible Commonality of Source of Basic Intrinsic Spin Values

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 1 Page.

This paper notes on the possibility of a commonality of source among the basic spin values of the boson, the fermion, and the graviton particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31] viXra:1610.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 19:06:18

Mathematical Theory of Space-Time

Authors: Chunxuan Jiang
Comments: 10 Pages.

using space-time ring we establish mathematical theory of space-time .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30] viXra:1610.0035 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-19 07:45:54

Nuclear Binding Energy Curve

Authors: Ranganath G. Kulkarni
Comments: 4 Pages.

An equation for nuclear binding energy per nucleon is found that agree well with observations. The interpretation indicates that we need to explore physical variables involved in the nuclear force or nuclear binding energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29] viXra:1610.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 19:56:15

In 1991 Fermat Last Theorem Has Been Proved (1)

Authors: Chunxuan Jiang
Comments: 6 Pages.

using complex hyperbolic function we prove Fermat last theorem
Category: Number Theory

[28] viXra:1610.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 20:01:14

In 1991 Fermat Last Theorem Has Been Proved (Ii)

Authors: Chunxuan Jiang
Comments: 5 Pages.

using trogonometric function we prove Fermat last theorem
Category: Number Theory

[27] viXra:1610.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 03:49:52

Informational Entropies for Non-ergodic Brains

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F. Peters, Marzieh Zare, Mehmet Niyazi Çankaya
Comments: 13 Pages.

Informational entropies, although proved to be useful in the evaluation of nervous function, are suitable just if we assume that nervous activity takes place under ergo dic conditions. However, widespread claims suggest that the brain operates in a non-ergodic framework. Here we show that a topological concept, namely the Borsuk-Ulam theorem, is able to wipe away this long-standing limit of both Shannon entropy and its generalizations, such as Rényi’s. We demonstrate that both ergodic and non-ergodic informational entropies can be evaluated and quantified through topological methods, in order to improve our knowledge of central nervous system function.
Category: Mind Science

[26] viXra:1610.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 04:27:17

Entropy, or Entropies, in Physics?

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 13 Pages.

Entropy and its physical meaning have been a problem in physics almost since the concept was introduced. The problem is exacerbated by its use in both statistical thermodynamics and information theory. Here its place in classical thermodynamics, where it was introduced originally, and in these other two areas will be examined and hopefully some light will be cast on the present position.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[25] viXra:1610.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-16 08:51:52

Associative Broadcast Neural Network

Authors: Aleksei Morozov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Associative broadcast neural network (aka Ether Neural Network) is an artificial neural network inspired by a hypothesis of broadcasting of neuron's output pattern in a biological neural network. Neuron has wire connections and ether connections. Ether connections are electrical. Wire connections provide a recognition functionality. Ether connections provide an association functionality.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[24] viXra:1610.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 13:53:10

A New Belief Entropy: Possible Generalization of Deng Entropy, Tsallis Entropy and Shannon Entropy

Authors: Bingyi Kang, Yong Deng
Comments: 15 Pages.

Shannon entropy is the mathematical foundation of information theory, Tsallis entropy is the roots of nonextensive statistical mechanics, Deng entropy was proposed to measure the uncertainty degree of belief function very recently. In this paper, A new entropy H was proposed to generalize Deng entropy, Tsallis entropy and Shannon entropy. The new entropy H can be degenerated to Deng entropy, Tsallis entropy, and Shannon entropy under different conditions, and also can maintains the mathematical properity of Deng entropy, Tsallis entropy and Shannon entropy.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[23] viXra:1610.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 07:39:34

Mass Gap

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 1 Page.

In quantum field theory, the mass gap is the difference in energy between the vacuum and the next lowest energy state. The energy of the vacuum is zero by definition, and assuming that all energy states can be thought of as particles in plane-waves, the mass gap is the mass of the lightest particle. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the lowest state in a system is the entanglement which’s gravity for the Entanglement State is calculated by 2.99E12 x 1G / 9.8 m/s2 = 305102040846 G= 1/30510204086 G = 3.277592E-12 G X 1E-32m= 3.277 E-44 at 1/8.96 E20 Joules /Kg=1.11E-21 Joules/Kg energy state.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[22] viXra:1610.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 07:44:35

Planet Formation Theories in the Age of Statistically Insignificant Data

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Planet formation theories were invented before any statistically significant data was obtained. This is made apparent because before the 1980’s, there was only one solar system, our own. This issue will be addressed in simple terms.
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1610.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 08:16:59

Secret Lives of Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The universe is unbalanced. Gravity is tremendously weak. But the weak force, which allows particles to interact and transform, is enormously strong. The mass of the Higgs boson is suspiciously petite. And the catalog of the makeup of the cosmos? Ninety-six percent incomplete. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20] viXra:1610.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 09:06:13

Proving Riemann with Gamma or Euler–Mascheroni Constant (0.5772156649015328606065120900824024310421593359399)

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 2 Pages.

(1/2 Part)>1.002 (1.002, 2.16, 4.008 & 6.012) Generate Riemann Non Trivial Zero’s Off Of Critical Line. A Riemann Non Trivial Zero off the Critical Line occurs between 1 /2 or .50 and Gamma 0.577215664901532860606512090 08240243104 215 93 359399.When (1/2 Part) = (1.002 , 2.16, 4.008 & 6.012) Riemann Non Trivial Zero’s Are Off .001 To The Rt. Of The Critical Line & When (1/2 Part)= (1 / 2) A Riemann Non Trivial Zero’s Will Be On Critical Line.
Category: Number Theory

[19] viXra:1610.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 09:42:28

On the Analytical Demonstration of Planck-Einstein Relation

Authors: Eddy Luis Molina Morales
Comments: 10 Pages. The content of this article was presented as part of the doctoral thesis of the author.

In this paper a possible analytical demonstration of Planck's Law for the spectral distribution of the electromagnetic energy radiated by hot bodies is presented, but in this case, the solutions of Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic radiation problem of Hertz’s dipole are used. The concepts of quantum energy and of photon are redefined from the classical point of view, relating them to the possible electronic nature of electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic field in general. Both the physical analysis and the concepts proposed respect the law of conservation of energy and allow to finally express the quantic constant, which is obtained here as a perfect combination of other fundamental constants of nature. The classic interpretation of the law obtained could be considered as the meeting point between Classical Physics and Quantum Mechanics, which suggests a new review of the theoretical basis of the latter is needed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1610.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-16 18:27:31

Proof of No Singularity in Schwarzschild Black Hole and Big Bang

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, we propose that the center of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and the Big Bang are in the minimum entropy equal to the Boltzmann constant. Then we prove the uncertainty relation (UR) of SBH and Big Bang UR which suggest no singularity in SBH and Big Bang.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] viXra:1610.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 00:49:32

In Search of Gauge Theories for Living Cells: a Topological Exploration on the Deep Structure of Biological Complexity

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, Jorge Navarro, James F Peters, Pedro C. Marijuán
Comments: 14 Pages.

Gauge theories had a tremendous impact in particle physics and have been recently proposed in order to assess nervous activity too. Here, taking into account novel claims from topology, the mathematical branch which allows the investigation of the most general systems activity, we aim to sketch a gauge theory addressed to the fundamentals of cellular organization. In our framework, the reference system is the living cell, equipped with general symmetries and energetic constraints standing for the intertwined biochemical, biomolecular, and metabolic pathways that allow the homeostasis. Abstractly, these functional movements follow donut-like trajectories. Environmental stimuli stand for forces able to locally break the symmetry of metabolic pathways, while the species-specific DNA is the gauge field that restores the general homeostasis after external perturbations. We show how the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT), which states that a single point on a circumference maps two points on a sphere, allows an inquiry of the evolution from inorganic to organic structures and the comparison between prokaryotic and eukaryotic metabolisms and whole functionalities. Furthermore, using recently developed BUT variants, we operationalize a methodology for the description of cellular activity in terms of topology/gauge fields and discuss about the experimental implications and feasible applications. A new avenue for a deeper exploration of biological complexity looms.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16] viXra:1610.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 03:47:34

The Quantum Field Theory Approximation

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

One states the quantum field theory [QFT] approximation [QFTA] for the Physicalist Program [PHPR]. An approximation that relates current PHPR knowledge to second quantization of relativistic point-particle interactions and QFT.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15] viXra:1610.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-26 05:46:31

A Survey of Rational Diophantine Sextuples of Low Height

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29253.65761

A rational Diophantine m-tuple is a set of m distinct positive rational numbers such that the product of any two is one less than a rational number squared. A computational search has been used to find over 1000 examples of rational Diophantine sextuples of low height which are then analysed in terms of algebraic relationships between entries. Three examples of near-septuples are found where a rational Diophantine quintuple can be extended to sextuples in two different ways so that the combination fails to be a rational Diophantine septuple only in one pair.
Category: Number Theory

[14] viXra:1610.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-02 15:11:22

Towards Plasma-Like Collisionless Trajectories in the Brain

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 10 Pages.

Plasma studies depict collisionless, collective movements of charged particles. In touch with these concepts, originally developed in the far flung branch of high energy physics, here we evaluate the role of collective behaviors and long-range functional couplings in brain dynamics. We develop a novel, empirically testable, brain model which takes into account collisionless movements of charged particles in a system, the brain, equipped with oscillations. The model is cast in a mathematical fashion with the potential of being operationalized, because it can be assessed in terms of McKean-Vlasov equations, derived from the classical Vlasov equations for plasma. We also provide insights into the possible role of the overrated extracellular neuronal space in generating and transporting the charged particles which display such a collective behavior. A plasma-like brain also elucidates cortical phase transitions in the context of a brain at the edge of chaos and describes the required order parameters. In sum, showing how the brain might exhibit plasma-like features we go through the emerging concept of holistic behavior of nervous functions.
Category: Mind Science

[13] viXra:1610.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-02 07:16:46

Hawking Radiation and the Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar
Comments: 5 Pages.

Based on Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle it is concluded that the vacuum is filed with matter and anti-matter virtual pairs (“quantum foam”) that pop out and annihilate back in a very short period of time. When this quantum effects happen just outside the "event horizon" of a black hole, there is a chance that one of these virtual particles will pass through the event horizon and be sucked forever into the black hole while its partner virtual particle remains outside the event horizon free to float in space as a real particle (Hawking Radiation). In our previous work [1], we claim that antimatter particle has anti-gravity characteristic, therefore, we claim that during the Hawking radiation procedure, virtual matter particles have much larger chance to be sucked by gravity into the black hole then its copartner the anti-matter (anti-gravity) virtual particle. This leads us to the conclusion that hawking radiation is a significant source for continuous generation of mostly new anti-matter particles, spread in deep space, contributing to the expansion of space through their anti-gravity characteristic.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1610.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-02 08:35:48

The Boundary Between Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1610.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-02 03:40:56

Charming Asymmetries

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10] viXra:1610.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-01 17:00:34

Multiple Imputation Procedures Using the Gabrieleigen Algorithm

Authors: Marisol García-Peña, Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón, Wojtek Krzanowski, Décio Barbin
Comments: 15 Pages.

GabrielEigen is a simple deterministic imputation system without structural or distributional assumptions, which uses a mixture of regression and lower-rank approximation of a matrix based on its singular value decomposition. We provide multiple imputation alternatives (MI) based on this system, by adding random quantities and generating approximate confidence intervals with different widths to the imputations using cross-validation (CV). These methods are assessed by a simulation study using real data matrices in which values are deleted randomly at different rates, and also in a case where the missing observations have a systematic pattern. The quality of the imputations is evaluated by combining the variance between imputations (Vb) and their mean squared deviations from the deleted values (B) into an overall measure (Tacc). It is shown that the best performance occurs when the interval width matches the imputation error associated with GabrielEigen.
Category: Statistics

[9] viXra:1610.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-01 19:37:45

Intrinsic Relations Between Prime Numbers a Prime Number and the Generation of the Prime Twins

Authors: Liujingru
Comments: 4 Pages.

This work reveals the intrinsic relationship of numbers with the conception of “prime multiple” to prove the “hypothesis of twin primes”. Based on this proof, “Goldbach conjecture” is proved with the “Odd-Gaussian Corresponding”. The nature of “prime number” can be thus obtained.Paper is using the axiom Ⅶ twice. For the first time: high high more than nonsingular group, according to the axiom Ⅶ get there will be a (high + high group). Second: high + high group) will be (prime number + prime)
Category: Number Theory

[8] viXra:1610.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-01 20:19:40

数的内在关系浅论 素数及孪生素数的生成

Authors: 刘静儒
Comments: 4 Pages.

通过“素数的倍数”这一概念,揭示了数的内在关系,论证了“孪生素数猜想”,并在此基础上给出了“奇高组”的定义,并结合“高斯对应”,论文只是两次运用公理Ⅶ。第一次:奇高组多于非奇高组,根据公理Ⅶ得到必有这样的结果:(奇高组+奇高组)。第二次:(奇高组+奇高组)必有这样的结果:(素数+素数),这就证明了“哥德巴赫猜想”。
Category: Number Theory

[7] viXra:1610.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-01 10:26:29

Biometric Authentication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed new kinds of encryption methods for improving the privacy protection of consumers to enable safer, more reliable and easier-to-use user authentication than current systems allow. [16] Randomness is vital for computer security, making possible secure encryption that allows people to communicate secretly even if an adversary sees all coded messages. Surprisingly, it even allows security to be maintained if the adversary also knows the key used to the encode the messages. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1610.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-01 10:54:28

Ultracompact Light-Based Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Researchers from MIPT's Laboratory of 2-D Materials, Optoelectronics, Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, and Tohoku University (Japan) have theoretically demonstrated the possibility of creating compact sources of coherent plasmons, which are the basic building blocks for future optoelectronic circuits. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1610.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-08 19:52:48

Detection of Torsion Field Based on Measuring the Dark Current of Silicon Photodiode

Authors: Gao Peng
Comments: 9 Pages.

This work studies detection of torsion field by way of measuring the dark current of silicon photodiode. For this purpose, a photodiode which works in reverse bias state and a ultra-weak current detector should be used in all the related experiments, because the dark current of selected photodiode is in pA(10-12A) level. According to the results,the right-handed torsion field can make the dark current decrease and the left-handed torsion field can make the dark current increase.
Category: Classical Physics

[4] viXra:1610.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-01 07:36:27

Multiferroic Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A research group in Japan successfully developed room temperature multiferroic materials by a layer-by-layer assembly of nanosheet building blocks. Multiferroic materials are expected to play a vital role in the development of next-generation multifunctional electronic devices. [12] Solid state physics offers a rich variety of intriguing phenomena, several of which are not yet fully understood. Experiments with fermionic atoms in optical lattices get very close to imitating the behaviour of electrons in solid state crystals, thus forming a well-controlled quantum simulator for these systems. Now a team of scientists around Professor Immanuel Bloch and Dr. Christian Groß at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have observed the emergence of antiferromagnetic order over a correlation length of several lattice sites in a chain of fermionic atoms. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[3] viXra:1610.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-01 09:27:55

The Constancy of the Ratio H(z)/(1 + z) as a Sign of Low-Energy Quantum Gravity

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov
Comments: 5 pages; poster contribution to the Xth International Conference on the Interconnection between Particle Physics and Cosmology (PPC 2016), 11-15 July 2016, São Paulo, Brazil

The model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author is based on the conjecture on an existence of the graviton background with the average graviton energy of the order of $10^{-3}$ eV. An interaction of photons and moving bodies with this background leads to small additional effects having essential cosmological consequences. Here, redshifts of remote objects and the additional dimming of them may be interpreted without any expansion of the Universe. The theoretical luminosity distance of the model fits the observational Hubble diagrams with high confidence levels (100\% for the SCP Union 2.1, 43\% for JLA compilations, 99.81\% for long GRBs, and 13.73\% for quasars). In the model, the ratio $H(z)/(1+z)$ should be equal to the Hubble constant. This conclusion is confirmed with 99.9999\% C.L. by fitting the compilation of 40 $H(z)$ observations from the paper by Zhang and Xia [arXiv:1606.04398].
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1610.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-01 05:26:11

Imaging Algorithm

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

MIT researchers have developed a technique for recovering visual information from light that has scattered because of interactions with the environment— such as passing through human tissue. [15] Measurement of the twisting force, or torque, generated by light on a silicon chip holds promise for applications such as miniaturized gyroscopes and sensors to measure magnetic field, which can have significant industrial and consumer impact. [14] A new technique detects spatial coherence in light at smaller scales than had been possible. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:1610.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-01 01:46:45

Proving Grimm’s Conjecture by Stepwise Forming Consecutive Composite Numbers’ Points at the Number Axis

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 13 Pages.

Let us consider positive integers which have a common prime factor as a kind, then the positive half line of the number axis consists of infinite many recurring line segments of same permutations of c kinds of integers’ points, where c≥1. In this article we proved Grimm’s conjecture by stepwise change symbols of each kind of composite numbers’ points at the number axis, so as to form consecutive composite numbers’ points under the qualification of proven Legendre-Zhang conjecture as the true.
Category: Number Theory